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Full text of "Pronouncing dictionary of American English"

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A 

PRONOUNCING 

DICTIONARY 

OF 

AMERICAN ENGLISH 



BY 

JOHN SAMUEL KENYON, Ph.D. 

Professor of the English Language in Hiram College; 

Consulting Editor and Author of the Guide to Pronunciation, 

Webster s New International Dictionary, Second Edition 

AND 

THOMAS ALBERT KNOTT, Ph.D. 

Professor of English in the University of Michigan; 
Editor of the Middle English Dictionary ; General Editor, 
Webster's New International Dictionary, Second Edition 




G. & C. MERRIAM COMPANY, PUBLISHERS 

SPRINGFIELD, MASS., U.S.A. 



W 

Copyright, 1949 

BY 

G. & C. MERRIAM CO. 



PREVIOUS EDITION COPYRIGHT, 1944 
BY G. & C. MERRIAM CO. 



COPYRIGHT UNDER INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT UNION 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED UNDER INTERNATIONAL AMERICAN CONVENTION (1910) BY 

G. & C. MERRIAM CO. 



A II rishls reserved 



MADE IN THE U.S.A. 
GEORGE BANTA PUBLISHING COMPANY, ELECTROTYPERS, PRINTERS, AND BINDERS ® 

THE COLLEGIATE PRESS, MENASHA, WIS., U.S.A. 



To 

Myra Pow Kenyon 

AND 

Myra Powers Knott 



This publication was in large part made possible by funds granted by Carnegie 
Corporation of New York. That Corporation is not, however, the author, owner, 
publisher, or proprietor of this publication, and is not to be understood as approving 
by virtue of its grant any of the statements made or views expressed herein. 



PREFACE 



More than ten years ago several scholars especially interested in Ameri- 
can English suggested to one of the present editors the making of a phonetic 
pronouncing dictionary of the speech of the United States that might serve, 
both in the United States and elsewhere, the purposes served for Southern 
British English by Professor Daniel Jones's English Pronouncing Dictionary. 
About six years ago the editors became associated in this work. 

Although as a pioneer in the field great credit must go to Professor Jones, 
who has placed all later lexicographers under inescapable obligation to him, 
our task is much different from his. He records the pronunciation of a 
limited and nearly homogeneous class of people in England in a type of 
speech identical with that of the editor himself. Our problem has been to 
record without prejudice or preference several different types of speech used 
by large bodies of educated and cultivated Americans in widely separated 
areas and with markedly different backgrounds of tradition and culture. 
Here let it be emphasized once for all that we have no prejudice whatever 
either for or against any of these varieties of American speech. 

As the book is completed, we are keenly aware that only a beginning has 
been made, subject to later supplementation by other students of the field. 
On the whole, Southern speech has in the past received least attention. If 
we have failed to do it the full justice that was our intention, our failure 
must be laid in part to conflicting testimony, but mainly to the fact that 
this field has still largely to be investigated. 

It was originally intended to include Canadian speech as one of the main 
regional divisions. A number of questionnaires were sent to Canada, and 
some correspondents took pains to send us excellent material (see acknowl- 
edgments below). The material was not, however, extensive enough to 
warrant full record of Canadian pronunciation, so that we have had to 
content ourselves with occasional references thereto. See mention of some 
Canadian variants (§118). 

The scope of this work is limited. It is not'intended as a source book for 
the study of American dialects. That work is being done by the Linguistic 
Atlas of the United States and Canada. ItJsjmr-ainxio^record cmljr what is 
rather_va^fily: called slandard speech (see further. Introduction, §§1-2, 
57-58, 76, 90). It is not our purpose even to try to exhaust that field. Almost 
certainly we have omitted many "good" pronunciations. Many of these 
are provided for in the Introduction by the lists of variants not fully re- 
corded in the vocabulary (§§90 ff.). Recent studies and records of American 
speech have made it clear that there exists far greater variety than was 
formerly supposed in the speech of Americans of unquestioned cultivation 

(v) . 



vi Preface 

and importance. Considering the actual facts of contemporary American 
pronunciation, the editors feel that on the whole they have been conserva- 
tive in the variety recorded. 

The vocabulary is intended to include the great body of common words 
in use in America. Besides, it includes a great many somewhat unusual 
words, inserted for a variety of reasons. Especial attention has been given 
to American proper names, though an exhaustive treatment of these is far 
\ beyond the scope of this work. The editors have had in mind the needs of 
college and university students, and have therefore included many names 
of history and literature likely to be encountered by them, as well as a 
large number of notes on various aspects of the English language. While 
foreign names are, strictly, outside the scope of a dictionary of American 
English, it is impossible to avoid including many often heard and used by 
Americans. The field of British place and personal names, tempting to one 
interested in pronunciation, has been little entered. A few of general in- 
terest must be included, and a considerable number of names of places in 
England whose pronunciation was verified locally by one of the editors 
have been inserted. Many of these names are of historical and traditional 
interest to Americans, and a great number have been transferred to Amer- 
ica. 

_A g in_all trustworthy d jctioaagiesj t he - edi t ors h ave-endeavored to base 
the pronunciatiQrLS--an-a€-tual G^iltivated usage. No other standard has, in 
point of fact, ever finally settled pronunciation. This book can be taken as 
a safe guide to pronunciation only insofar as we have succeeded in doing 
this. According to this standard, no words are, as often said, "almost 
universally mispronounced," for that is self-contradictory. For an editor 
the temptation is often strong to prefer what he thinks "ought to be" the 
right pronunciation; but it has to be resisted. For example, on etymological 
grounds the word dahlia "ought to be" 'dalja; by traditional Anglicizing 
habits of English it should be Melja (as it is in England and often in Canada) ; 
as a fact, in America it is prevailingly ^daelja. In this case the variants are 
current enough to allow free choice; but in many cases the theoretically 
"right" pronunciation of a word is not even current. 

In a work of this sort it is unavoidable to adopt certain devices to save 
space. These are explained in the Introduction (§§59 ff.). If the reader is 
now and then annoyed by these, he is asked to reflect that this makes possi- 
ble the inclusion of far more material than would otherwise be possible, and 
on the whole makes this material easier for the reader to find. 

A question naturally arises as to the relation of this work to the other 
dictionaries published by G. & C. Merriam Company. This book is pub- 
lished on a different basis from their other publications. For this book they 
act only as publishers and distributors, without editorial supervision. The 
Merriam Company is in no way responsible for any statements made in this 
book. That responsibility rests solely on the two authors. 

\ 



\ 



Preface vii 

The purpose of this dictionary is quite new in America. F irst, it dea ls ^ 
solely wi th pr onunciation; Even the entries are determined to a consider- 
able extent by that purpose; for example, certain proper names of persons 
or places are selected, not for their intrinsic importance, but for some in- 
terest or problem in their pronunciation. 

But the chief difference between this and the other Merriam dictionaries 
is that this is a dictiomiyLJiLcoliQquiaLEnglish, of the evejyday uncon- 
scious speechjoiLoiltivaied^xeople — of those in every community who carry 
onTthe affairs and set the social and educational standards of those com- 
munities. Webster's New International Dictionary, Second Edition (In- 
troduction, p. xii) thus defines its purpose in regard to pronunciation: 

"In this edition, the style adopted for representation is that of formal 
platform speech— and this must be clearly remembered by consultants 
of the pronunciations here given. The omission of less precise pronuncia- 
tions of familiar words does not, of course, indicate either that those pro- 
nunciations do not exist or that the editors of the dictionary refuse to 
recognize them. They do exist, and very naturally so when the occasion 
suits. . . . The recording of all such colloquial pronunciations of every 
separate word is not, however, possible m such a Dictionary as the New 
International. . . .^ TlTPj^roniinriaiixmA-cxmiainpH in thigJjjrtjrvnaTy are not 
t heore tical. They,repr£sent_a£tual_spe££h — the speech of cultivated users 
of English, speaking formally with a view to being completely understood 
by their hearers." 

On the other hand, the pronunciation which the present editors intend \., 
to represent in this book is what has been called "easy English," "the \ 
speech of well-bred ease" — not slovenly or careless speech, nor, on the 
other hand, formal platform speech. Of course the great majority of English 
words are pronounced alike in colloquial and in formal speech, and much 
the largest part of the vocabulary will be found to have the same pro- 
nunciations in both books, and a large part of the differences will be the 
differences between colloquial and formal pronunciation. (For fuller dis- 
cussion of the term colloquial, see Introduction, §§1-2.) 

The New International does not attempt to represent the pronunciation 
of words as they occur in connected speech. The editors state, "It would be '\ 
impossible, even were it desirable, to attempt to record the pronunciation 
of 'running speech,' that is, of words as elements in connected spoken dis- 
course. ..." The present book does not attempt to do this completely, 
could not, in fact, but in many instances does show modified pronuncia- 
tions brought about by the phonetic effect of words on one another. Still 
more often the pronunciation of words as here indicated has been influ- 
enced, not so much by preceding or following sounds, as by rhythm, tempo, 
intonation, sense stress, etc. This will account for a goodly number of dif- 
ferences between the two books. 

Another difference of aim lies in the scope of the two works. The New 



viii ■ Preface 

International avowedly includes the pronunciation "of all parts of the 
English-speaking world" (p. xii), and puts little emphasis on regional differ- 
ences within America. This book only occasionally and incidentally repre- 
sents British or other non-American pronunciation of English, and repre- 
sen ts as fu lly_as_piacticable the_main regional_differe nces in Americ a . 

In some cases there are differences of accentuation that do not represent 
real inconsistencies. In the Guide to Pronunciation in the New International 
(p. xxxvi, col. 1) it is pointed out that a great many English words have 
no fixed accentuation, and that the accent shown in the vocabulary is 
merely one possible accentuation among others that may be equally cor- 
rect. In this book, in some instances, the accentuation may depend on the 
colloquial character of the pronunciation. In some cases, too, differences 
of accentuation are due merely to a difference of practical policy. For in- 
stance, the New International, like many dictionaries, usually places no 
accent mark on a final third syllable though it may have secondary stress; 
thus the word calabash has only the first syllable marked, whereas in this 
book the mark of secondary accent is regularly placed on such words 
('kielajbaej). This represents no difference of accentuation in the two books. 
^ but merely a difference of practice, both methods being quite defensible. 
N? The editors_ believe that jtMs. b ook is - a nafiira] rnmp lprpfTit fp Wpf)<:fpr\ 

New International Dictionary, Second Edition. The New Internation al f ully 
recogriizes the validity and importance of colloquial English speech. In its 
Guide to Pronunciation, §8, it states: "The most important of these dif- 
ferent styles [of spoken English] is what may be called the cultivated col- 
loquial, which has aptly been termed the style of well-bred ease. This is the 
most used of the standard styles, it is acceptable to every class of society, 
whether used by them or not. ..." The New International provides for 
colloquial pronunciation by means of certain flexible symbols. Thus the 
Webster symbol a ('italic short a') "is used to suggest a variable sound. . . 
tending. . ., especially in familiar speech, to the neutral vowel [9]" (Guide, 
§91). The symbol e ('italic short e') serves a similar purpose: "In the great 
majority of everyday words, unaccented e before n or /, and in many words 
in other unaccented position, as in quiet, propriety, is obscured to the neutral 
vowel [a] in colloquial speech" (Guide, §127). Thus our book gives chief 
emphasis to colloquial speech, while the New International, though fully 
recognizing it, treats it only as one among many features of the English 
language. 

The New International has also given a table of the International Pho- 
netic Alphabet for English with full illustration of its use: see especially 
Guide, pp. xxii-xxv, and thereafter throughout the Guide. The G. & C. 
Merriam Co. would therefore seem to be in a logical position to publish a 
dictionary of colloquial American speech in the symbols of the Inter- 
national Phonetic Alphabet. In the upshot, we believe that the actual dif- 



Preface ix 

ferences in pronunciation between the Merriam-Webster dictionaries and 
this one are comparatively few. 

The eager and extensive co-operation which the editors have received in 
the prosecution of this work has gone far beyond our expectation, and has 
placed us under great obligation to all who have shown interest and given 
help. J^irstof all we wish to express our thanks to the Carnegie Corporation 
for a grant-in-aid through the University of Wisconsin to one of the editors, 
and to that University for inviting him to spend the year 1940-41 in resi- 
dence to prosecute the work; to the Carnegie Corporation, on recommenda- 
tion of the American Council of Learned Societies, for extending the grant- 
in-aid to supply this editor with an instructor at Hiram College in 1941-42 
to enable him to give more time to the dictionary; to Dr. Margaret Water- 
man for competently fulfilling this appointment; and to Hiram College 
for granting him leave of absence in 1940-41. 

We are under very particular obligations to Professor Miles L. Hanley, 
of the University of Wisconsin, for his hearty encouragement of the dic- 
tionary from its beginning, for placing at our disposal his great collection 
of rimes and spellings at the University of Wisconsin, and for many valuable 
suggestions; and to Mrs. Louise Hanley for much help in the utilization of 
the above-mentioned collections, and for many items of expert editorial 
advice. 

We have profited greatly from the material thus far published by the 
Linguistic Atlas of the United States and Canada, and in addition we wish 
to thank the Directors for placing at our disposal a considerable amount of 
unpublished material from the collections covering parts of the Central 
West and of the South. 

We thankfully acknowledge our great indebtedness, in common with all 
students of the English language, to the great Oxford English Dictionary. 

Intimately associated as the editors have been with Webster's New 
International Dictionary, Second Edition, it is inevitable that we should 
be influenced by its standards and indebted to its materials in many ways. 
We gladly acknowledge the deepest obligations to it. 

We are indebted to many individuals who have supplied us with details 
of information in their respective fields; am.ong them. Professors Myles 
Dillon (Celtic), William Ellery Leonard (English), J. Homer Herriott 
(Spanish), Joseph L. Russo (Italian), Alexander A. Vasiliev (Russian), 
R-M. S. Heffner (German and Phonetics), Einar Haugen (Scandinavian), 
Casimir Zdanowicz (French), Dr. Karl G. Bottke (French and Italian), 
Mr. Charles E. Condray (Southern speech), — all at the University of 
Wisconsin; to Mr. Edward Artin, G. & C. Merriam Co., Springfield, Mass. 
(Eastern speech). Professor J. D. M. Ford, Harvard University (Italian), 
Professor Bernard Bloch, Brown University (Eastern speech), Dr. George 
L. Trager, Yale University (Linguistics), Dr. Ruth E. Mulhauser, Hiram 



X Preface 

College (Romance Languages), Professor R. H. Stetson, Oberlin College 
(Syllables). 

To scholars and other competent observers in various parts of the United 
States and Canada we are under special obligation for material which they 
have collected on the speech of their regions, with valuable comment and in 
many instances with phonograph records: to Professors Katherine Wheat- 
ley, University of Texas; William A. Read, Louisiana State University; 
George P. Wilson, Woman's College, University of North Carolina; C. K. 
Thomas, Cornell University; C. M. Wise, Louisiana State University; Lee 
S. Hultzen, University of California at Los Angeles; W. Norwood Brigance, 
Wabash College; Mr. John Kepke, New York City; Mr. L. Sprague de 
Camp, New York City; Dr. Raven I. McDavid, Jr., South Carolina; Dr. 
Martin Joos, University of Toronto, Can. 

We also wish to thank a number of scholars and teachers who responded 
to our request for advice on the editing (published in American Speech, xi, 
Oct. 1936, pp. 227-31), replying either in the columns of that journal or by 
private correspondence. Their suggestions were all carefully considered, 
and many of them were adopted. 

To Mr. Donald A. Bird, Mr. Philip M. Davies, and Mrs. Wayne Caygill 
of the University of Wisconsin we are indebted for valuable assistance in 
preparing the manuscript. 

In addition to those mentioned above, the editors also have to express 
lasting obligations to many more scholars, teachers, and others, who 
made transcriptions of their own and others' speech, and often supplied 
supplementary notes; in several instances also they sent phonograph 
records. To those whose names follow and a few that we had no means of 
identifying we extend our sincere thanks. Titles are omitted; and since it 
could not be significant without detailed explanation, address and locality 
are omitted. Suffice it to say that the informants were well distributed over 
the United States. Those from Canada are so marked. 

Virgil A. Anderson, Phyllis B. Arlt, A. M. Barnes, L. L. Barrett, A. C. 
Baugh, J. F. Bender, C. L. Bennet (Can.), E. B. Birney (Can.), Morton W. 
Bloomtield (Can.), Hilda Brannon, Alexander Brede, Jr., Christine Broome, 
William F. Bryan, Donald C. Bryant, C. H. Carruthers (Can.), Philip H. 
Churchman, Roy B. Clark, T. F. Cummings, Edwin B. Davis, J. de Angulo, 
L. R. Dingus, Sarah Dodson, Julia Duncan, Norman E. Eliason, Bert 
Emsley, E. E. Ericson, Paul H. Flint, Frances A. Foster, Elizabeth F. 
Gardner, James Geddes, Jr., Erma M. Gill, W. Cabell Greet, Louis A. 
Guerriero, Harold F. Harding, Harry W. Hastings, Grace E. Ingledue, 
Annie S. Irvine, Cary F. Jacob, Joseph Jones, W. Powell Jones, Claude E. 
Kantner, Clifford Anne King, C. A. Knudson, C. A. Lloyd, C. M. Lot- 
speich, William F. Luebke, Klonda Lynn, T. O. Mabbott, John C. Mc- 
Closkey, Cassa L. McDonald, James B. McMillan, Kemp Malone, Ed- 
ward W. Mammen, Albert H. Marckwardt, E. K. Maxfield, R. J. Menner, 



Preface xi 

Alice W. Mills, George Neely, T. Earl Pardoe, Gordon E. Peterson, Holland 
Peterson (Can.), Louise Pound, E. G. Proudman, Robert L. Ramsay, 
W. Charles Redding, Loren D. Reid, Stuart Robertson, J. C. Ruppenthal, 
I. Willis Russell, C. Richard Sanders, Edwin F. Shewmake, Loretta Skelly, 
Gordon W. Smith, Paul L. Stayner, J. M. Steadman, Jr., W. J. Stevens 
(Can.), Everett F. Strong, Morris Swadesh, C. H. Thomas, Argus Tresid- 
der, E. H. Tuttle, W. Freeman Twaddell, Charles H. Voelker, Chad Walsh, 
Lois P. Ware, Raymond Weeks, Walter H. Wilke, Rudolph Willard, A. M. 
Withers, Robert Withington. 

The typesetting and electrotyping of this book were done by the George 
Banta Publishing Company, of Menasha, Wisconsin. To all members of its 
staff who were concerned in any way with its making, the editors express 
their grateful appreciation. 

The editors feel that the making of the dictionary has been a co-operative 
enterprise, and if it has value, this is in large measure due to expert help 
from many voluntary contributors; for its defects the editors hold them- 
selves solely responsible. 

Vachel Lindsay Room, Hiram College John S. Kenyon 

September, 1943 Thomas A, Knott 




CONVENTIONALIZED DIAGRAM OF THE SPEECH ORGANS 
(Reprinted by permission from Kenyon's American Pronunciation, 8th ed.) 

LL=Lips. Pt = Tongue Point. Bl = Tongue Blade. Tr = Teethridge. HP = Hard Palate. 
V = Velum (soft palate): black: lowered, or open; dotted: raised, or closed. U = Uvula. 
Ph = Pharynx. VC = Vocal Cords. 



(xU) 




L' 



Lbr 



CHART OF THE TONGUE POSITIONS OF THE VOWELS 

(Reproduced, with slight changes, from Kenyon's American Pronunciation, 
8th edition, by permission.) 



Hf = High-front 
L'hf = Lower high-front 
H''mf= Higher mid-front 
L^'mf = Lower mid -front 
Lf = Low-front 



The left of the figure represents the front of the mouth 
He = High-central 



Mc = Mid-central 



Lea = Low-central advanced 



Hbr = High-back round 
L''hbr= Lower high-back round 
Mbr = Mid-back round 
H''lbr = Higher low-back round 
Lbr = Low-back round 
Lb = Low-back 



(xiii) 



INTRODUCTION 



THE STYLE OF SPEECH REPRESENTED 

§1. It is the purpose of this dictionary to show the pronunciation of cultivated colloquial 
English in the United States. The meaning of the word colloquial is sometimes misunderstood. 
A common misunderstanding is that in dictionaries the label Colloq. attached to a word or 
pronunciation brands it as inferior, and therefore to be avoided. 

Webster^s New International Dictionary, Second Edition, thus defines colloquial: "Pertaining 
to, or used in, conversation, esp. common and familiar conversation; conversational; hence, 
unstudied; informal; as, colloquial phrases or pronunciations; specif., of a word or a sense or use 
of a word or expression, acceptable and appropriate in ordinary conversational context, as in 
intimate speech among cultivated people, in familiar letters, in informal speeches or writings, 
but not in formal written discourse {flabbergast; go slow; harum-scarum). Colloquial speech 
may be as correct as formal speech. 'Every educated person speaks his mother tongue in at least 
two ways, and the difference between the dignified and the colloquial style is considerable.' 
— G. L. Kittredge." It should be noted that the illustrative words do not refer to pronuncia- 
tion but to diction, though the definition includes pronunciation. 

The definition in the Oxford Dictionary is concise and also adequate. Though it does not 
mention pronunciation, "etc." may safel}^ be taken to include it: "Of words, phrases, etc.: 
Belonging to common speech; characteristic of or proper to ordinary conversation, as dis- 
tinguished from formal or elevated language. (The usual sense.)" 

Definitions of colloquial that only concern choice of words and give as examples only oaths 
or slang are perhaps in part responsible for some of the popular misunderstanding of the term. 

A less frequent, but still not uncommon error is the confusion of colloquial with local, the 
assumption that a colloquialism is a localism, and so to be avoided. 

Another not uncommon confusion is to regard colloquial English as the opposite of standard 
English {standard being confused with formal or literary). There is standard colloquial English 
and standard formal or Hterary English, as there is nonstandard colloquial and nonstandard 
formal English. As regards pronunciation, one kind of nonstandard formal Enghsh is the arti- 
ficial type in which vowels that are normally unaccented are pronounced with their accented 
sounds, in which articles {a, an, tlie), prepositions {to, from, of), and other normally unstressed 
particles are pronounced with their emphatic forms instead, in which the tempo and intonation 
are not those of traditional living speech, in which abnormal accentuation and loudness are 
practiced, together with similar distortions that detract from unostentatious sincerity. 

The accepted meaning of colloquial is to be found in the work of such linguistic scholars 
as Professor Henry Cecil Wyld, of Oxford, whose History of Modern Colloquial English deals 
with the unstudied speech and familiar correspondence of the cultivated classes, and reminds 
us of the importance both to literature and to general culture of this central core of the EngHsh 
language. Says Professor Wyld, "This style of Uterary prose is aUve and expressive chiefly 
insofar as it is rooted in that of colloquial utterance. . . . The style of Literature is rooted in 
the life and conversation of the age."^ Similarly, the American scholar and poet William Ellery 

1 History oj Modern Colloquial English, London 1925, pp. 157, 188. 

fxv) 



xvi The Phonetic Alphabet 

Leonard: "In general every good colloquialism is possible in good prose (or verse), for quite 
rightly good prose (or verse) is becoming more and more a skillful adaptation of the vigorous, 
_i;pmpact, racy idiom of the best spoken speech."^ 
' ^y / §2. Colloquial pronunciation is here treated as the conversational and familiar utterance 
\ foi cultivated speakers when speaking in the normal contacts of life and concerned with what 
1 Vthey are saying, not how they are saying it. There are, of course, different styles of colloquial, 
/ fl-om that of the everyday contacts of family life to the somewhat less familiar contacts of 
\ social and business or professional life. The variant pronunciations of the same word fre- 
quently shown will often reflect the different styles of the colloquial. In all cases of words 
that are not formal per se, unstudied everyday speech is the basis. It is of course true that the 
majority of words in general use are the same for colloquial as for formal language, and are 
pronounced alike in both styles. 

The editors are aware that the attempt to represent in fairly accurate symbols the every- 
day speech of the cultivated is likely now and then to cause surprise and to tempt criticism. 
The average observer has not been trained to observe speech on the wing, ana is too apt to 
be influenced by unconscious habitual association with spelling forms. No experience is com- 
moner with trained observers than to hear certain pronunciations in the very statements in 
which the critic is denying them. 

It must also be remembered that not all words are of a colloquial nature. Words not in 
colloquial use have, properly speaking, no colloquial pronunciation. Thus the word exorcise 
does not often occur in conversation. Its pronunciation is therefore what it would be in formal 
context, with the -or- fully sounded. If it should become a popular word, it would sound just 
like exercise. So the word adhibit, not being colloquial, receives the full sound of the first vowel 
as in add, while in the more popular word advise the first vowel is normally obscured. 

THE PHONETIC ALPHABET 

§3. Pronunciation in this dictionary is indicated by the alphabet of the International 
Phonetic Association (IPA). These symbols and the pronunciations represented by them in- 
variably appear in boldface type. More than half of these are the ordinary letters of the English 
alphabet or familiar variations of them. v 

Each symbol stands for or ly one speech sound, and each speech sound has only one symbol 
to represent it. In accord with the practice of many British and American users of this alphabet 
the accented sounds a, 3, s' are considered to be separate speech sounds from the unaccented 
sounds a and ^. Diphthongs are regarded as single sounds and their symbols (ai, au, oi, etc.) 
as single symbols. The same is true of tj, d3. 

In using the phonetic alphabet the reader must be careful to give only the one designated 
sound to those letters which in ordinary spelling represent more than one sound. Thus the 
symbol g has only the sound in get get, never that in gem dsem; s has only tlie sound in gas 
gaes, never that in iiise waiz or that in vision Visan. The dotted i has only the sound in machine 
malfin, never that in shin fin; ordinary e always has the sound in gate get, never that in tnet 
met. Below is the list of symbols with key words. The notes after the table give fuller informa- 
tion and additional symbols. The accent mark (') always precedes the syllable accented. 

' American Speech, viii, 3, Oct. 1933, p. 57. 







The Phonetic Alphabet 


xvii 








VOWELS 






Sym- 








Sym- 






bol 


Spelling 


Spoken Form 




bol 


SpeUing 


Spoken Form 


i 


bee 


bl 




u 


full 


ful 


I 


pity 


'piti 




u 


tooth 


tue 


e 


rate 


ret 




3- 


further 


'fySa^ accented syllable 


e 


yet 


j£t 








only, r'5 sounded 


9 


sang 


S£eg 




3 


further 


'faSa accented syllable 


a 


bath 


baO as heard in the East, 






only, r'^ silent 






between 


ae (sang) 


a^ 


further 


'fytSa' unaccented syllable 






and a (ah) 






only, r's sounded 


a 


ah 
far 


a 
far 




3 


further 


'fsSa unaccented syllable 
only, t's silent 


D 


watch 


WDtJ between o 

3 (jaw) 


1 (ah) and 




custom 
above 


'kAstam unaccented syl- 
a'bAv table 


3 


jaw 


d33 












gorge 


gards 




A 


custom 


'kAstam accented sylla- 


o 


go 


go 






above 


a'bAv ble 








DIPHTHONGS 




ai 


while 


hwail 




ju 


using 


'juzig 


au 


how 


hau 






fuse 


fjuz 


31 


toy 


t3I 




lU 


fuse 


fiuz 








CONSONANTS 




Sym- 








S3rm- 






bol 


Spelling 


Spoken Form 




bol 


Spelling 


Spoken Form 


P 


pity 


'piti 




d3 


jaw 


d33 


b 


bee 


bi 






edge 


Eds 


t 


tooth 


tue 




m 


custom 


%ASt3in 


d 


dish 


di/ 




in 


keep 'em 


'kipm 


k 


custom 


'kAstsm 




n 


y. 
vision 


Vi33n 


g 


go 


go 




9 


Eden 


'id^i 


f 


fuU 


ful 







sang 


saeg 


V 


vision 


'visan 






angry 


'aeg-gri 


e 


tooth 


tue 




1 


full 


ful 


3 


further 


'fytia' 




} 


cradle 


'kredj 


s 


sang 


saeg 




w 


watch 


wotj 


z 


using 


'juzig 




hw 


while 


hwail 


; 


dish 


di/ 




3 


yet 


jet 


5 


vision 


Vi33ii 




I 


rate 


ret 


h 


how 


hau 






very 


Veri 


tS 


watch 


WDtJ 






far 


far 




chest 


(Jest 






gorge 


gsrds 



xviii The Phonetic Alphabet 

ACCENT MARKS 

§4. The mark ' above the line and before a syllable indicates that that syllable has the 
principal accent, as in action 'aek/an. The corresponding mark ^ below the line and before a 
syllable indicates that that syllable has an accentuation somewhat weaker than the main one, 
as in acrobat 'aekrajbaet, Aberdeeti jaeba^'din, shoemaker '/u/meka'. For discussion of accent, 
see §§48-54. 

LENGTH MARK 

§5. The colon (:) after a vowel or a consonant symbol indicates that its sound is prolonged. 
Thus the form sae:nd beside saet means that the ss sound in sand is longer than in sat; and the 
form d33is : means that in one pronunciation of the plural joists (with omitted t) the s is longer 
than it is in rejoice ri'dsois. In the vocabulary the length sign is used only occasionally or in 
certain classes of words. See fuller discussion of length at §55. 

NOTES ON THE SYMBOLS 

§6. I. The symbol i is used for accented or unaccented syllables. Though the accented 
and unaccented vowels in pity 'piti, sitting 'sitig, visit Vizit, etc., are sometimes different in 
quality, the differences are here ignored, since they vary with different speakers and with the 
different sounds that precede or follow. This accords with common practice in transcription. 

When final, the unaccented vowel in pity 'piti and similar words varies with different speak- 
ers in .I'Vmerica from a sound like the i in bit bit, or like the first i in 'piti, to a sound that ap- 
proaches the i in bee bi. See the ending -y in the vocabulary. 

§7. e. The vowel in rate ret and other words with "long a" is very often (but by no means 
always) a diphthong (gliding from one vowel to another in the same syllable) ei, ei, ee, or the 
like. On linguistic principles the one sj'mbol e properly stands for all varieties of the sound 
(whether diphthong or not). The variants never distinguish words otherwise alike. 

§8. E. The symbol e is used not only for words like yet J£t, send send, but also for one type 
of pronunciation of the vowel sound in there 'Ser, swear swtr, air er, as pronounced by Taa.ny. 
When thus followed by r, the e sound is usually a little more like the ae in sang saeg than is 
the E in yet J£t, send send. Many speakers pronounce ae in such words in both America and 
England. Both pronunciations are given in the vocabulary {there tier, tiaer). 

§9. ae. This ligature is a unit symbol (not two letters) standing for a single simple vowel 
sound. It was the letter used in Anglo-Saxon times for the same sound in Old English as in 
present English sat (OE sast). Originally combined from the Latin letters a and e (since its 
sound la}^ between the two Latin sounds), its present value in the IP A alphabet is the same as 
in its oldest use in Enghsh. 

§10. a. This vowel sound, not in general use in America as a whole, is about midway be- 
tween the vowel of sang saeg and the vowel of ah a, father 'fatfa^. It is often heard in New 
England and New York City in such words as ask ask, chaff tjaf, bath ba6 (which are also 
there pronounced aesk, tj'aef, baeO or ask, tJaf, baO). It commonly begins the diphtliongs in 
while and how. The vowel a is an important sound in French, Spanish, and other foreign 
languages, and is common in cultivated Northern British, Scottish, Anglo-Irish, and Canadian. 
The symbol a must always be carefully distinguished from a. For the use of a in Eastern 
American, see §§102 f. 



The Phonetic Alphabet xix 

§11. a. This is the "broad a" sound in ah a, far lax, father 'fatJaf in most of America. It is 
also used by the majority. of Americans in "short o" words such as top tap, got gat, fodder 'fada^. 
in which some speakers pronounce d. 

§12. D. The symbol d represents a vowel not in universal American use. It is the historical 
"short o" now generally used in England in words like top top, got got, fodder 'foda, by many 
Easterners and Southerners, and in certain kinds of words by many speakers in all parts of the 
country. It is a sound about midway between a in ah and 3 in wall. It may be approximated 
by trying to sound a in ah while (without moving the tongue) rounding the lips for o in wall. 
As with a, so with o, there is no key word that will convey to all Americans its exact sound. 
The key word watch, here used, frequently is spoken with d in all parts of America, but it is 
also often pronounced wat/, with a as in ah, and wat/, with a as in wall. 

§13. o. Like e, the symbol o represents either a simple vowel or a diphthong (ou, ou, ov, 
etc.). For the same reason stated at e (§7 above) the symbol o is used for both the simple 
vowel and the diphthong. For b see -ow in the vocabulary. 

§14. u, u. The small capital u {full ful) and the Io^^"er-case u (tooth tu9) are to be carefullj- 
distinguished from each other. 

§15. y. The symbol y represents the accented form of the so-called "r-colored" vowel used 
in the first syllable oi further 'fytia' by those who do not "drop their r's." In current spelling 
it is spelt with a vowel letter followed by the letter r {word, fur, term, firm, earn). But in 
sound this vowel y is not followed by r; it is a vowel made wliile the tongue is at the same 
time holding the position for r. Such vowels are common in many types of English. The con- 
sonantal r sound that formerly followed the vowel (hence the present spelling) long ago merged 
with the preceding vowel and disappeared as a separate sound, though its effect is still heard 
in the r-coloring of the vowel. The simple proof of the nature of the present sound is that the 
vowel cannot be pronounced separately from the r without producing a quite different sound, 
whereas this can easily be done with, say, the a and r of /arm. 

§16. 3. The symbol 3 represents the corresponding vowel in the word furtJwr of those who 
"drop their r's," the tongue for this vowel 3 being in the same general central position in the 
mouth as for 3^, but without the simultaneous adjustment of the tongue for the r-coloring 
(usually the elevation of the tip). For those accustomed to pronounce y a fairly good 3 can 
be made by trying to pronounce 3^ in bird with the point of the tongue placed against the backs 
of the lower teeth, and with the jaw a trifle more closed than for the vowel a in sun. This 3 
is often followed by r, as in furry 'fs-ri, from fur is. While the majority of Ameri- 
cans pronounce fur fy, and furry 'fs^i, most British and many eastern and southern 
Americans pronounce fur is, and ftirry 'f3'ri. But in words Uke hurry, which is not derived 
from a simple form hur z.?, furry is ixovafur, three American pronunciations are common, — 'hy -i, 
'hs-ri, 'hA-ri, the last being least frequent and tending to become 'hs-ri or 'hy-n. 

§17. a'. The symbol 9- is the unaccented r-colored vowel, like 3" inseparable from its r 
quality, as pronounced by those who do not "drop their r's." The two symbols y and a' are 
formed from the IP A symbols 3 and a (as used, e.g., in the word Herbert 'hsbat in Ida C. 
Ward's Phonetics of English, Cambridge, Engd. 1939, p. 108), by attaching the hook of retro- 
flexion (r-coloring) used by the IPA on the consonants s, z, t, d, etc. {Le Maitre Fhonetique, 
Jan.-Mar. 1942, inside front cover). This makes easy the comparison of such words as Herbert 



XX The Phonetic Alphabet 

as pronounced by those who "drop their r's" ('hsbat) and by those who sound them ('hs^ba^t), 
showing at a glance the phonetic relation between such words in the two types of speech 
{further 'fsSa — 'fa^Sa*, perverse paVss — pa'Vss, bird bad — byd, over 'ova — 'ova^), all four sounds 
3, y, a, » being vowels, none of them here followed by r. 

§18. a. The s3Tnbol a represents the "neutral vowel," or "schwa" Jwa, heard in the im- 
accented syllable of custom 'kAStam, or, as just shown above, in that oi further from those who 
"drop their r's" ('f sSa) . With many such speakers the a of 'f atSa is not exactly like the a of 'kAS- 
tam, but is commonly regarded as the same speech sound. 

§19. A. This represents the accented vowel of custom 'kAstam, above a'bAv, undone An'dAn. 
In An'dAnthe first syllable is not quite without accent, but has sufficient accent (though not 
marked) to make it audibly more prominent than the un- of unless (spoken colloquially) 
an'ks. Compare unlace Angles with unless an'ks, or undone An'dAn with and done in the phrase 
over and done with 'ova' an'dAn witJ, or untilled with until in This land was untitled until now 
An'tild an 'til nau. The prefix un- is commonly pronounced An- with more or less subordinate 
accent. See un- in the vocabulary. 

§20. ai, au. For regional varieties of these diphthongs see Variants §§105-108. 

§21. ju. This is a rising diphthong — the Jast part being stressed more than the first. It 
begins with the glide consonant j (as in yet J£t) and ends with the vowel u (as in tooth tu9). 
ju would not be separately Usted as a vowel symbol, being a consonant plus vowel, except for 
comparison with the diphthong lu (see below), with which it often alternates, for ju is of the 
same nature as other combinations of consonantal j plus a vowel (as in ye ji, yea je, yaw ja, yet 
jet, etc.) or of consonantal w plus a vowel {we wi, way we, woe wo, etc.). 

§22. lu. This is either a falling diphthong (first element stressed, as in the diphthongs ai, 
au, 3i), or a level-stress diphthong, both elements being about equall}' prominent. If the last 
element becomes more prominent, then lu becomes ju, as it did historically in such words as 
use juz. The form lu is heard from many speakers in such words as fuse fiuz, where others 
pronounce ju (fjuz). For the occurrence of lu in America, see Variants §109. 

lu is a modified form of lu, occurring chiefly as an alternative to u or ju that has been re- 
duced from u or ju by lack of stress {superb su'pyb, siu'pyb, sju'pyb) or before r {curious 
'kjurias, 'kiurias). The phonetic surroundings lead without effort to the modified lu and ju. 

§23. g. It should be noted that this sound is a simple, single sound, which cannot be di- 
vided. It is made by contact of the tongue back with the velum, as the simple sound n is made 
by contact of the tongue point with the upper teethridge. The usual spelhng with two letters 
{ng) has sometimes led to an impression that o is a combination sound. It is also spelt with n 
only {angry 'aeg-gri, ink igk). When speakers "drop their g's" (as in runnin' for running), 
they drop no sound, but they replace the tongue-back nasal g ('rAmg) with the tongue-point 
nasal n ('rAnin). 

§24. m, n, 1. These are called syllabic consonants because they form syllables without any 
vowel whatever, either alone {stop 'em 'stap-m, button 'bAt-n, saddle 'saed-l) or with other con- 
sonants {opened 'op-md, buttoned 'bAt-nd, saddled 'saed-ld). These and such forms as keep 'em 
'kipm, Eden 'idit^, cradle 'kredl have no vowel in the unaccented syllable because, for ip, 
the lips continue closed throughout pip, and, for ip and |, the tongue point remains in contact 
with the teethridge throughout t^ and dj. Between some other consonants, as sip {lessen 



The Phonetic Alphabet xxi 

'ksn), zn {reason 'rizn), pi {apple 'aepl) the transition to the second consonant is so quick, or 
the opening of the speech organs is so slight, that no vowel intervenes. 

All of the foregoing forms can also be uttered with the schwa vowel a plus a nonsyllabic 
consonant ('kipara, 'idan, 'bAtan, 'kredal, ^ksan, 'rizan, 'aepal), but in some of these and many 
others the pronunciation with a is either not accepted in good use, or is a mark of formal, 
noncolloquial pronunciation. On this point see further. Variants §114. 

The remaining nasal consonant g can also be syllabic, as in the colloquial / can go ^aikg'go. 
Here the tongue back remains in contact with the velum throughout the k and the g. The 
syllabic marker is sometimes placed over the symbol g, but is here not deemed necessary, since 
syllabic g is not frequent, and g is never syllabic in the same position in which it is nonsyllabic. 
It is always syllabic after a consonant (^aikg'go, 'baegg'baegidg, 'mekg) and never syllabic 
after a vowel (sig, 'baegig, 'mekig). 

As 'aspl and 'aepal show the alternation between a syllabic consonant ( 1 ) and schwa plus the 
same consonant (al), so syllabic consonants may alternate with nonsyllabic consonants, but 
here sometimes with a difference of meaning: help 'em eat 'hElpm 'it (3 syllables) — helpmeet 
'helpjinit (2 syls.) ; ordinance 'ardnans (3 syls.) — ordnance 'ardnans (2 syls.) ; double it 'dAb} rt 
(3 syls.) — doublet 'dAblit (2 syls.). Such alternation is often shown in the vocabulary in con- 
nection with the ending -ing; thus blazoning is pronounced either 'blez-n-ig or 'blez-nig; 
handling is either 'haen-dlig or 'haen-dj-ig. The one deemed most usual in colloquial speech 
is given first; but often there is little choice, the form depending on style of speech. 

§25. hw. Linguists are disagreed whether hw should be regarded as a single speech sound 
or as two — h followed by w. When regarded as a single phoneme it is often transcribed with 
inverted w (av) . Here the symbol hw is used for the sound spelt wh in words like while hwail. 
For variation in pronunciation of words spelt with wh see Variants §113. 

§26. r. In this book the S3Tnbol r is used for the consonant, as in rate ret, cradle 'kredj, 
where it is parallel in phonetic structure to w in wait wet, twain twen, and to j in Yale je!, 
cue kju, that is, a glide consonant or semivowel before a vowel in the same syllable. In addition, 
the symbol r is here used for the sound in very 'veri, far far, gorge gardg, which some regard as 
a nonsyllabic vowel forming a diphthong with the preceding vowel. This is sometimes ex- 
pressed by the vowel symbol a- ('ve^i, faa', gaa^ds), which is defensible on laboratory evidence. 
But the ends of simplicity seem better served to confine the use of a^ to representing the syl- 
labic vowel, so that whenever ^ occurs in this book it always represents a syllable, either alone, 
as in better 'bet-a^, or with a consonant, as in perceive pa^'siv. Thus the word floiuer, which is 
pronounced either with two syllables or with one, can be transcribed with two ('flaua^) or with 
one (flaur). In the speech of those who "drop their r's" the two-syllable pronunciation is 
shown by separating the syllables with a centered period ('flau-a) and the one-syllable pro- 
nunciation without it (f laua) . Here the accent mark also implies more than one syllable, but 
would not help to distinguish three-syllable cornflower ES 'kaan^flau-a from two-syllable 
cornflour 'kaan^flaua, or three-syllable flower cup 'flau-a^kAp from two-syWable flour cup 
'flaua^kAp. In current speech (and often in poetry) all such words as flower, flour, higher, hire 
have either two syllables or one. In this dictionary, as a rule, the number of syllables indicated 
follows the conventional spelling form. 

The symbol r is also used between a and a vowel in such a position as in flattery 'flstari. 



xxii The Phonetic Alphabet 

which might (less conveniently) be regarded as flatter 'flaeta^ plus -y -i, or by those who "drop 
their ^'s" as 'flaeta plus -ri. The slight difference in sound between 'flaeta^i and 'flaetaTi de- 
pends on where the last syllable begins, and is here disregarded. 

In a few cases ^ is used to represent the speech of those who "drop their r's," as in overact 
jova^'aekt, where all speakers would normally sound the r before a vowel. 

Besides the usual American sounds of r, the symbol r mdicates certain different sounds in 
some varieties of English and in foreign languages; as (1) the tongue-point trill (vibra- 
tion against the upper teethridge) in Scottish, Anglo-Irish, Italian, Spanish, and some- 
times German and French; (2) the uvular trill (vibration of the uvula against the back of the 
tongue) found in French and German; and (3) the uvular fricative, or "scrape," found in 
French and German. These varieties of r have special IPA symbols not needed in this book, 
where they are all represented by r. 

ADDITIONAL PHONETIC SYMBOLS 

In addition to the symbols given above, a number of symbols are used to express less com- 
mon English sounds and the sounds of foreign languages recorded in the dictionarJ^ The de- 
scriptions of the foreign sounds are only approximate, and are intended for those not familiar 
with the foreign sounds. The symbols not here described, when used to express foreign pro- 
nunciations, have approximately the same sounds as in English words. 

§27. X. This stands for the consonant in German ich ix, ach ax, Scottish loch Idx, Spanish 
junto 'xunto, an "open" k sound made by forcing voiceless breath through a loose contact 
of the back of the tongue with the soft palate (velum) at the same point where a firm contact 
would stop the breath and make the k sound. A separate symbol (5) is sometimes used to ex- 
press the more forward variety of the sound heard in ich. But, as Bloomfield has shown, one 
symbol is suflicient for both varieties. 

§28. g. This is the fricative g sound (we here use the older and better IPA symbol), pro- 
nounced like X except with voiced breath (vocal cords vibrating), and related to the English 
stop g just as X is related to stop k. 

§29. 4. The so-called Welsh fricative /, expressed in current Welsh spelling by //, is a kind 
of I sound made by forcible expulsion of voiceless breath at one side of the tongue near the back 
teeth, the tongue being in contact near the teethridge in front and at the other side. In Angli- 
cized pronunciation of Welsh names 4 is sometimes replaced byEngUshfl (i^/weWew iox Llewelyn, 
Floyd for Lloyd) or by English 6l (elaen'b£ris for Llanheris). 

§30. 1. This is ordinary English 1 except that it is voiceless. Its chief use is in the French pro- 
nunciation of such words as debacle de'ba:kl, where the 1 is final after a voiceless consonant. 
It is almost inaudible to an English ear, and is sometimes actually lost in French conversa- 
tion. (Voiceless m (m) occurs in a word or two; cf twiph.) 

§31. r. Voiceless r is used in some French words when final after a voiceless consonant 
{J of re 3b'fr). Like 1, it is sometimes lost in French speech. 

§32. i. This is the palatal lateral, or palatal / (not the same as palatalized /, occasionalh- 
represented by Ij in the vocabulary). It may be approximated by keeping the tongue pressed 
against the backs of the lower teeth while trying to sound 1. In the vocabularj'- X is used chiefl}- 
in Spanish and Italian words. 



The Phonetic Alphabet xxiii 

^33. ji. This is palatal n (different from palatalized n, expressed in the vocabulary, when 
needed, by nj). Like A., it can be approximated by keeping the tongue pressed against the backs 
of the lower teeth while trying to sound n. In the vocabulary ji is used chiefly in French, 
Spanish, and Italian words. 

§34. JA. Inverted w, see hw. 

§35. ''. The glottal stop. Not a distinctive speech sound in English (it never distinguishes 
words otherwise alike). It often occurs before a vowel in English in clear, emphatic utter- 
ance. It is formed by closing the glottis as in holding the breath with open mouth. The glottal 
stop followed by its explosive release is heard in coughing. 

§36. p. This is the voiced bilabial fricative. It sounds, and is made, somewhat like v, but 
in P the upper lip replaces the upper teeth, the voiced breath passing out with friction between 
the slightly separated lips, instead of (as in v) between the lower lip and the upper teeth. In the 
vocabulary ^ occurs chiefly in Spanish words (Habana a'^ana). 

§37. >!>. This, the "candle-blowing" sound, is the voiceless counterpart of (J, and bears the 
same relation to f that ^ does to v. For an example, see whew in the vocabulary. 

§38. q. This sound is used only in French words. It is nearly equivalent to j pronounced 
with rounded lips, being the glide, or semivowel, corresponding to the front rounded vowel y 
(§42 below). It is made by a quick glide (with rounded lips) from the position for y to a follow- 
ing vowel, just as the glide semivowel j is made by a quick glide (with unrounded lips) from the 
position of i to a following vowel, or as the glide w is made by a quick glide from the position 
for u to a following vowel. An example of q is seen in French finance nqa:s. 

§39. i. This represents a vowel sound about midway between (front) i and (back) u. It is 
common in Welsh {Llandudno 4-an'didno). 

§40. i. This represents a vowel made with the tongue retracted somewhat from the lower 
high-front position for ordinary i {hid) . It is regularly heard as the first element of the common 
American diphthong la, in this book written lu {fuse f luz) . The sound i is also common in the 
endings -ed {stated), -es {glasses) if they are not pronounced either -id, -iz, or -ad, -az. See the 
ending -ed in the vocabulary. This symbol is not often used in the vocabulary. 

§41. tt. This is commonly heard as the final element of the ^American diphthong m {fuse 
fiHz). It represents a vowel resembling u but with the tongue advanced from the position for 
u. Like I, the symbol « is not regularly used in the vocabulary, the diphthong la being regu- 
larly written lu, and the advanced h not being distinguished from u. The advanced sound de- 
noted by » is also heard by itself in the speech of many who do not use ih, but who distin- 
guish, for example, brewed brad from brood brud. See Variants ju, lu, a, §109. 

§42. y. This is the high-front rounded vowel of German hiibsch hyp/, kiihi ky:n, or of 
French lime lyn, dur dy:r. It may be approximated by trying to pronounce i {bid) or i {bee) 
with Ups rounded as for a {too). 

§43. 0. This is the mid-front rounded vowel of German schon /oin or French peu p0. It 
may be approximated by trying to sound e {rate) with Ups rounded as for o {go) . 

§44. oe. This is the low-front or lower mid-front rounded vowel of German kmnen 
^oensn or French heiire ce:r, and may be approximated by trying to pronounce 8 or ae of 
there tJer, tJaer with lips rounded as for d {wall). 

§45. Q This is the symbol for an o sound intermediate between o {go) and a {wall). Cf. §98. 



xxiv Stress, Accent, Sense Stress 

§46. b'. This is a kind of a sound with the tongue pushed farther forward than in -wall. It 
may be approximated by sounding a {sun) with hps rounded as for o {wall). It is nearly the 
sound of French "short o" in cotte kb't, this symbol being regularly used in the vocabulary to 
denote this French vowel. The symbol b' is also used to denote the so-called "New England 
short 0," shown in the vocabulary for certain words that usually have the vowel o {go), but 
which, according to Grandgent, are also pronounced with b by many cultivated speakers in 
New England. 

§47. The French nasalized vowels x., a, o, 6e are, respectively, the vowel sounds ae, a, o, oe 
pronounced with the nasal passage open to the throat, the velum being lowered as when 
breathing through nose and mouth together. In works on French phonetics, for reasons inci- 
dent to practical transcription, « is usually written e, and o written 3, but they are described 
as & and o sounds, and are here so represented. 

STRESS, ACCENT, SENSE STRESS 

§48. Stress is the general term for prominence of a sound or syllable, whether that promi- 
nence is produced by force of utterance, by pitch, by duration of sound, or (as usuall}') b}' 
some combination of these elements. Accent is the specific term for the prominence of one 
syllable over others in a plurisyllable (word of more than one syllable), as practice 'praektis, 
remain ri'men, element 'ebniant. Monosyllables therefore have no accent in this sense. 

§49. Sense stress, or sentence stress, is the prominence of certain words among others in a 
group that makes sense — phrase, clause, or sentence; as The farmer dis^ posed of Ms ^holdings. 
Here the marked words have more sense stress than the urmiarked the, of, his. The same marks 
can show sense stress of monosyllables {TJie htian has ^gone to his ^house). The sense stress of 
plurisyllables always falls on their accented syllables. 

In the vocabulary every word of more than one syllable has a primary accent mark in the 
pronunciation {clothing 'kloSig, amiss a'mis, variant Veriant, preceding pri'sidig, inflected 
in'flektid). Some words have two, when two syllables are nearly or quite equal {redheaded 
Ved'hedid). 

§50. Syllables more prominent than one or more others in a word, but less prominent than the 
strongest one in the word, have some degree of subordinate accent, which may or may not be 
indicated by the secondary accent mark (i ), as hesitate 'hez3jtet, hesitation jliEza'tejan. Since 
subordinate accent varies from nearly the weakest to nearly the strongest in words where it 
can occur, and varies moreover with innumerable styles of speech, no dictionary can accurately 
mark all instances. Hence the use of secondary accent marks here is largely conventional. 
Secondary accent is usually marked in words with a clear rhythmical alternation of accents 
{satisfy 'saetiSifai, satisfaction jsaetis'faekjan), or when it is adjacent to the chief accent in 
compound words whose parts are also well known as separate words {horseplay 'harsjple), and 
wherever needed to make the whole accentuation clearer {Winchester ^win^tjEsta^; cf also 
Gambia and Gambier in the vocabulary). Cf §19. 

§51. In the vocabulary certain monosyllables that have var>'ing sense stress are marked 
with primary and secondary accents beside forms without accent, to show how they would be 
stressed in connected speech. Thus his in its stressed forms is marked 'hiz, jhiz, as they might 



Stress, Accent, Sense Stress xxv 

occur in This is his jSis iz 'hiz or His friend was gone jhiz 'frend waz 'g3n, by the side of its un- 
stressed form, as in / met his father ai 'met iz 'fatJa^. 

§52. In words where a syllabic 1 or n is followed by an accented syllable beginning with a 
vowel (ventilation jventl'e/an, ventilate Vent|jet, ordination jordn'efan, ordinary brdrijEri), the 
accent mark is placed after the 1 or n, for if placed before (jvent'le/an, prd'nefan), this would 
imply that 1 or n is accented, which is impossible in English. Stetson's laboratory findings 
indicate that part of the 1 or n may be carried over to the following syllable, but without being so 
markedly doubled or lengthened as it would be in a little late 'litl'let or a sndden need 'sAdn'nid. 
Hence the accentuation must be shown as jventl'ejan, prdn'ejan, but with the understanding 
that the syllable division may be within the 1 or n, which is, nevertheless, not so long as 11 or 
nn. The problem may be evaded in such words by ignoring the 1 or n and transcribing jventi- 
'lefan, jVEnta'lefan, jordi'ne/an, prda'ne/an, but to assume that such pronunciations are more 
usual in cultivated colloquial speech is merely to shut our eyes to the facts. (Syllabic m or g 
seldom if ever occurs in such situations.) 

§53. Shifting accent is often seen in such compound adjectives as high-strung 'hai'strAg, 
thus marked with the normal accentuation of the word when spoken alone or when used predi- 
catively as in He's rather high-strung. When this is immediately followed by a strong stress 
{high-strung nerves), the second accent is reduced {^high- ^strung ^nerves). For fuller discussion, 
see Webster^s New International, pp. xxxv f., §66. The rhythmic factor involved sometimes 
brings about permanent changes of accent. Certain adjectives (as cold-blooded) occurring often 
in the attributive position {^ cold-, blooded ^man) may become generalized with the accent of 
the attributive use, so that some speakers always say ^cold-, blooded Qcold- flooded ^man, He's 
^cold- flooded) , where others would say ^cold- filooded ^man, but He's ^cold-^blooded. For the 
method of showing this in the vocabulary see §54(2). Other words than compound adjectives 
are subject to the same shift when followed by a strong accent, as Shaw^nee but ^Shaw^nee 
Hribes. Many examples of these shifts are given in the vocabulary. 

Another type of shift in accent is brought about by emphasis. When such adverbs as 
^absofutely, ^neces^sarily, hrdi,narily are made emphatic, they are likely to be accented 
,absoHutely, ,neces^sarily, ,ordVnarily. Most adverbs of this type show this tendency in Ameri- 
can English, and in some cases this accentuation has become generalized; i.e., many speakers 
say firdi^narily, ^neces^sarily under all circumstances, even when these are not emphatic. The 
shifted accentuation is usually shown in the vocabulary thus: "esp. if emphatic jueces'sarily," 
which means that this accentuation may occur at any time, and is especially apt to occur 
under emphasis. 

Shifting or variable secondary accent often occurs in such words as afiodehnician, finastig- 
hnatic, ^impecca^bility , ^impenetra^bility, ,incompre^hensible, {incorpo^reity, inJerVority, where in 
longer words the secondary accent precedes the primary. Here, in actual speech, such alterna- 
tive accentuations as afiode^mician or flcade^mician, flmpenetra^bility or im,penetra^bility, 
injerihrity or ,inferihrity are very common, and do not represent more and less desirable 
pronunciations, but chiefly show the effect of varying sense stress, emphasis, speech rhythm 
semantic distinctions, and other constantly varying factors of connected speech, so that in 
many such instances the question which accentuation is preferable is irrelevant. See also §57. 

§54. In the vocabulary, accent marks are sometimes used on words in ordinary spelHng 



xxvi Length of Vowels 

(lightface roman type) when it is desired to show only the accentuation, after a pronuncia- 
tion already given. This occurs chiefly in two ways: — 

(1) As at the entry heartsore, where, after the pronunciation and accent in phonetic sym- 
bols, there is added "ace/ + 'heart 'sore," which means, "Besides the accentuation just given, 
the following different accentuation is also current." 

(2) As at the entry cloven-footed, a form in ordinary spelling with accent marks is added in 
parentheses to show a different accentuation from that already given, especially a shifted 
accentuation (§53). Thus the basic accentuation is shown in the pronunciation 'klovan'futid, 
but in the attributive construction the accent on -'futid is reduced before a following stressed 
syllable, and this is shown by the phrase in parentheses ('cloven-^footed 'ox). Less usually the 
same device is used to illustrate or confirm the accentuation just given. Thus after the entry 
and pronunciation week-end, adj, Vik'End, the first example in parentheses by its speech 
rhythm confirms the accentuation just given ('week-'end /party), and the second example 
illustrates the shift in accent due to a different speech rhythm ('week-^end 'trip). The reader 
can usually confirm the instances of level-stress accentuation by putting the entry word into a 
phrase with predicate construction, as The ox is ^cloven-footed. 

Since it is impossible in the vocabulary to give such examples of variant accentuation at 
every entry where it would be appropriate, it is to be understood from the occasional examples 
given that it can occur in all similar cases. 

In all cases where accent marks are used with lightface roman type, only accentuation, 
and no other feature of pronunciation, is referred to. 

LENGTH OF VOWELS 

§55. As a rule the length of English vowels is not indicated in the vocabulary. In few 
cases in American English as a whole is time length, or duration, of vowels significant — that 
is, used to distinguish from each other words otherwise alike. Instances are found here and 
there, some speakers distinguishing Jtalve hae:v from have haev by a longer ae, or vary V8:n from 
very veri by a longer e. 

In the E and S, however, some speakers distinguish certain classes of words by vowel length; 
e.g., cart ka:t from cot kat by a longer a, and this is therefore a convenient way of marking 
words in which r has been dropped after a or a with a resultant lengthening of the vowel 
sound, as farm farm; ES farm, E + fa:m. The length sign is sometimes omitted in longer words 
of this kind when a or a is noticeably shorter, as in impartiality jimpar'/aebti; ES jimpa'/aebti. 

Since the other vowels before a silent r in ES are followed by a (ia, la, £3, aea, aa, oa, ua, ua), 
there the length mark is not needed; as fear fir; ES fia(r, and the length colon is therefore only 
used with a and a. On the use of aa in such words see Variants §96. 

When the length sign is used, it invariably indicates time length, or duration, not vowel 
quality, or tamber, and therefore has nothing to do with such distinctions as between so- 
called "short z" (i) and "long i" (ai), or between "short ii," (a) and "long «" (ju or lu), or 
between "short a" (ae) and "long a" (e), etc. 

In cases Hke Aachen 'akan, 'axan {Ger 'a:xan), in which the vowel a is marked long in the 



Order of Variant Pronunciations xxvii 

foreign pronunciation (where length is significant) but left unmarked in the English, this does 
not necessarily mean that the English vowel is shorter than the foreign one, but merely that 
its length is of no importance, and hence is not indicated. 

SINGLE AND DOUBLE CONSONANTS 

§56. In reading the pronunciations the consultant should give particular attention to single 
and double consonants. In ordinary spelling, doubled letters in English words commonly repre- 
sent only single sounds {happy 'haepi, manner 'maena', goodness 'gudnis) . Only in compounds 
{coaUail) or when suffixes are added {thinness) are the sounds really doubled ('kot^tel, 'einnis), 
and not always then {laterally 'laetarali). Strict heed must be paid to the rule — one symbol, 
one sound; two symbols, two sounds. See §3, 2d paragraph. 

In some foreign pronunciations added to compare with the English (esp. Italian) this must 
be watched; thus in English, Monticello has but one 1 sound (jmanta'sslo), but in Italian it has 
two (jmonti't/eMo) . In Italian when t/, ds, ts, dz are doubled, tj" becomes ttf {Puccini Eng pu- 
'tjini, but It put't/iini), d^ becomes dds {Maggiore Eng ma'dsori, but It mad'd3o:re), ts be- 
comes Its {Tetrazzini Eng jtetra'zini, but It ^tetrat'tsiini), dz becomes ddz {mezzo Eng 'niEdzo, 
but It 'meddzo). 

THE ORDER OF VARIANT 
PRONUNCIATIONS 

§57. For words that are in general colloquial use it is intended to give first what is believed 
to be the most usual colloquial pronunciation. But it must be emphasized that not too much 
importance should be given to the order. For it is our purpose to give (unless otherwise indi- 
cated) only pronunciations that are in general cultivated use — to give none that need be 
avoided as incorrect or substandard. In a very large number of instances the different pro- 
nunciations of a word are of approximately equal frequency and validity, and 3'et they can be 
printed only in successive order. In numerous cases it is impossible to maintain on any solid 
grounds that one pronunciation given is "better" than another, as, for example, that one pro- 
nunciation of swamp is better than the others given; that ker for care is either better or worse 
than kaer; that 'kagkwest is better or worse than 'kankwest, bg than lag or Ing, Ueva^ than 
'liv3', and so on. Often, too, the variants given represent only differences of colloquial style, 
depending on occasion, speed, degree of informality, etc., and having no bearing on the ques- 
tion of correctness. 

§58. Where statistics indicate relative frequency, this has been recorded; but fuUer collec- 
tions might change the order. Statistics at present available are often based on the assumption 
that all words of a given phonetic or historical class (as the "ask" words) will be pronounced 
consistently. But that is not always true. A proof of this is found in the records of the Lin- 
guistic Atlas of New England, which show that some words that might be expected to have the 
vowel sound a or a (where British prevailingly has a) are seldom heard with a or a (as answer), 
while others of the same group often or prevailingly have a or d"{a.s calf, half, aunt). 



DIRECTIONS FOR USE 

READING THE ENTRIES AND PRONUNCIATIONS 

§59. Each entry, or article, in the vocabulary begins with a head word in lightface roman 
type, followed without punctuation by the pronunciation in boldface.' The simplest form of 
entry is 

bequest bi'kwEst 
with no derivatives and no variant pronunciations. If the word with the same spelling and 
pronunciation is also found as a proper name (whether or not it is the same word), it is usually 
thus indicated : — 

clarion, C- 'klaerian 
which means that clarion and Clarion are pronounced alike. The proper name may be entered 
first:— 

Cologne, c- ka'lon 
which means that Cologne and cologne are pronounced ahke. 

If the entry has a current variant spelling, that is entered in its alphabetical order, unless 
it would be very near, or has a bearing on the pronunciation, in which case it is given at the 
same entry. Words alternatively spelt -tre are, however, always found with those in -ter 
{center). 

In the large group of words like travel{l)ed, the optional second / is disregarded. 

WORDS LISTED UNDER HEAD WORDS 

§60. If a word is not found in alphabetical order, it is to be looked for under some obvi- 
ously related head word. Thus many adverbs will be found with the corresponding adjectives; 
as, 

holy 'holi Iholily 'hobh, -lili 
This method permits the inclusion of far more words than would otherwise be possible. 

§61. If a word has variant pronunciations not dependent on locality, they are separated by 
commas : — 

every 'evri, 'evari 
defect di'ftkt, 'dif£kt 
§62. Commonly, to show such variants only the part that varies is repeated. In repre- 
senting such fragments of spelling or pronunciation the hyphen shows which part of the word 
is intended. Thus de- is the first part, -min- a middle part, and -a7it a final part. For ex- 
ample, 

logwood 'bgjwud, 'lag-, 'log- 
By adding the omitted part (here shown in parentheses) to each fragment we get 'lag(jwud), 
'lDg((Wud) as the 2d and 3d variants. 

midday 'mid^de, -'de 
By adding the omitted part, with its accent, to the fragment, we get ('mid)'de for the 2d 
variant. 

Lofthouse 'bftas, 'loft-, -^haus ' 

3 In the vocabulary all spelling forms (except catchwords) are printed in light roman type, all pronunciations in 
boldface, and explanatory matter in italic (except the regional labels E, S, N, etc.). In the solid print of the Intro- 
duction, italic has to be used for spelling forms (as in general usage); but there also, when spelling forms with 
their pronunciations are set off by themselves, these follow the typography of the vocabulary. 



Directions for Use xxix 

Adding the omitted part to each fragment, we get 'lDft(3s), ('bft)ihaus, ('lDft)^haus as the 

2d, 3d, and 4th variants. 

Naomi 'neajmai, ne'omai, -mi, -ma 

Adding the omitted parts in turn to the two fragments, we get ('ne3)mi, ('ne3)m3, (ne'o)mi, 
(ne'o)m3, six variants in all. 

Nazareth 'naezaraO, -riB, 'naezr- 
Adding the omitted parts, we get, besides the first full pronunciation, ('naez3)ne, 'naezr(36), 
'naezr(i6). 

ONE ENTRY INCLUDING DIFFERENT WORDS 

§63. When more than one spelling appears at the same entry with the same pronunciation, 
these spellings are not necessarily of the same word or part of speech, especially in proper 
names. Likewise a single entry may represent two or more words spelt and sounded alike. Thus 
the word angle includes all the words — nouns, verbs, etc., with their different meanings but all 
with the same pronunciation. When derivative or inflectional endings are added, they are 
to be fitted only to the appropriate meanings or parts of speech, but this does not affect the 
pronunciation, and usually need not concern the reader. Thus under angle the form angled 
can be the adjective formed from the noun {unde-angled) or the past or past participle of the 
verb {it angled off), and the form angling can be the adjective {an angling path), the participle 
{h-e is angling with flies), or the noun {the angling was good). At the &ntiy instance the ending 
-es may be that of the plural of the noun or the 3 sg of the verb. At intelligence the entry may 
be noun or verb, the ending -es the plural or 3 sg, the ending -ed may be that of the past par- 
ticiple or of the "apparent participle," the adjective formed from the noun. The entry slew 
may be a noun, a verb in the present tense, or the past of the verb slay. 

LABELS FOR PARTS OF SPEECH 

§64. Only when it concerns the pronunciation are these labels added, or in a few cases where 
there might be doubt whether the various uses of the word had the same pronunciation. 

DEFINITIONS 

§65. Instead of labels for parts of speech, frequently definitions are appended. These are 
never full, and are used only to identify the word. Definitions are in quotation marks. Ex- 
planatory identification that does not define is without quotation marks. 

GEOGRAPHICAL AND LINGUISTIC LABELS 

§66. Geographical labels are often appended to place names to indicate the location, or to 
personal names to indicate residence or nationality. The Hnguistic abbreviations Fr, Sp, Ger, 
etc., refer to the pronunciation; thus 

Lodi US 'lodai; Italy Uodi (7^ 'b:dl) 
means that the various Lodi's in the US are pronounced 'lodai; that Lodi in Italy is pro- 
nounced in American EngHsh 'lodi; and that the ItaKan pronunciation is 'bidi. 

When the linguistic labels It, Fr, etc., precede the first pronunciation, this means that 
only the foreign pronunciation is given; as, 

voyageur Fr vwaja'soerr 



XXX Directions for Use 

THE VERTICAL BAR AND THE ADDITION OF 
INFLECTIONAL AND DERIVATIVE ENDINGS 

§67. The following examples show the uses of the vertical bar: — 
press pr£S [presses V^esiz [pressed prest 
Here the bar, in its simplest use, is followed in each case by a new spelling form in roman t}-pi 
with corresponding pronunciation in boldface. 

finish 'finij [-es -iz |-ed -t 
Here, after the first bar, follows a spelHng fragment (-es) with its corresponding pronunciatio 
fragment (-iz). The simple rule for combining is. Add the spelling fragment (-es) to the fir; 
spelling form (finish-es) and the pronunciation fragment (-iz) to the first pronunciation fon 
('fmi/-iz); and so after the next bar (finish-ed 'fini/-t). Add to the head forms before the fir; 
bar, and add roman to roman, boldface to boldface. 

It is important to add each fragment (speUing to spelling, and pronunciation to pronuncic 
tion) to the forms before the first bar. The sole exception to this is the adverb ending -hi 
-bli when the first entry does not end in -hie -bl. In that case -hly -bb are fitted to the in 
mediately preceding forms in -hie -bl. See -hly in the vocabulary'. 

Hyphenated words are never thus divided after a bar, but are separately entered as hea 
words, to avoid confusing the compounding hyphen with that which separates the fragments 

§68. When the first word in a vocabulary entry is a monosyllable, no accent mark is use 
(with the exception noted in §51), as set set. But when one or more syllables are added afte 
the bar (|) thus, set set \-back -;baek \-ting -ig, then primary accent must be assumed on th 
plurisyllables, and the entries must be read thus: set set \sethack 'set^baek \setting 'sEtig. 

§69. There is no significance in the fact that sometimes full forms of the derivatives ar 
given, as in the first example, and sometimes fragments, as in the second. The editors hav 
not sought mere mechanical uniformity, owing to considerations of time, of space, and c 
other disturbing factors. They have sought only to make each article clear in itself. The oc 
casional full forms may help to make the abbreviated ones clearer. 

§70. It should be noted that a pronunciation fragment need not correspond letter for lette 
with its spelling fragment : — 

inflate in'flet [-d -id 
Here, adding spelling -d to spelling inflate gives infl.ated, and adding pronunciation -id t 
pronunciation in'flet gives in'fletid. See next example also. 

Often, for greater clearness, more than a minimum fragment of pronunciation is given : — 
flatten 'flaetn |-ed -d |-ing 'flaetnig, -tnig 
This is to show iha.t flattening is pronounced either 'flaet-n-ig (3 syls.) or 'flaet-nig (2 syls.' 
Likewise the frequent adverb ending -ically is thus shown : — 

symmetric si'metrik |-al -1 |-ally -Ii, -ikli 
Here the last two pronunciations are si'metrik-l-i, si'mstrik-li, the last being made a littl 
clearer by -ikli than by -h alone, though -Ii would be strictly correct. 

Some added letters may be silent, as in bar bar \-red -d, where -re- are silent; or letters silen 
in the first entry may represent sounds in the addition, as rogue rog \-ry -an, where the silen 
e of rogue represents a in roguery 'rogari. 



Directions for Use xxxi 

§71. Observe cases like 

abut a'bAt |-ted -id 

where addition of -ted doubles the letter / (abutted) but not the sound t (a'bAtid); or like 

total 'toti |-ed -d |-ly -i 
where addition of -ly doubles the letter / (totally) but not the sound I ('totji). 

Thus when the final letter of the spelling entry is the same as the first letter of the spelhng 
fragment (total [-ly), it is to be doubled (i.e., the fragment is added regularly). So, too, when 
the first pronunciation ends with the same sound that begins the pronunciation fragment, 
this sound also is to be doubled; as, 

foreign 'farm, 'far-, 'for-, -an |-ness -nis 
This is to be expanded into 'farinnis, 'farinnis, 'forinnis, 'farannis, 'farannis, 'foranms, in 
all cases with double n. Whenever space allows, such doubled sounds are shown by doubled 
symbols; as, 

thin 8in [thinned 6ind J-ness 'Oinnis 
The few exceptions to this rule for doubling are such as to give no trouble. The most usual 
one consists of words ending in -th; as, 

truth true [-'s -6s |-ths -?fz, -Os 
in which the expanded forms are obviously not truGOs and truGtJz or truGGs, but truGs and 
trutSz or truGs, since the combinations GGs and G?iz do not occur in English. 

CUTTING BACK 

§72. There are, however, a great many words in which the fragments cannot be added di- 
rectly to the head words: — 

suspicion sa'spijan |-cious -Jas 
Here, in order to make the proper junction of the spelling fragment, we must take in some 
letter near the end of the head word to begin the fragment. This we call "cutting back." Thus 
we cut off the spelling -don and replace it with -cious (suspi-cious) ; and likewise cut off from 
the head pronunciation the corresponding sounds -Jan, and replace them with -/as (sa'spi-Jas). 
Cutting back and direct addition are often used in the same word : — 

prude prud |-dish -if 
Since -isli cannot be added to pnide, we take in the d and add -dish (pru-dish) ; then, since to 
add the pronunciation -dij to prud would wrongly give 'pruddij, we simply add -ij" directly 
toprud('prudij). Similarly, in 

negative 'negativ [-d -d [-vism -jizam 
where -d and -d are added directly, -vism has to be cut back (negati-vism), and -jzam (not 
-jvizam) is directly added to 'negativ ('negativjzam). 

A "cutback" must always take in more than the final letter of the entry form, for other- 
wise it would be taken as a direct addition with doubling of the final letter or sound (see the 
exception above at truth, at the end of §71). 

§73. In adding sufl&xes certain famiHar changes are made, as of -y to -i; as, 
quarry 'kwari [-ied -d, i.e., quarried 'kwarid 
or of/ to v; as in 

housewife 'haus^waif |-ves -vz, i.e., housewives 'haus^waivz 
where -ves and -vz are not directly added, but replace -fe and f . 



xxxii Directions for Use 

LISTING OF VERB FORMS 

§74. When the past tense and the past participle of strong ("irregular") verbs are given, 
the past regularly follows the first bar, and the past participle the second bar, usually without 
labels : — 

drive draiv |drove drov [driven 'drivan 
sing sig |sang saeg or sung saq [sung SAg 
When such verbs end in sibilants, the 3 sg pres precedes the past and pptc: — • 

choose t/uz |-s -iz | chose tjbz | chosen 'tjbzn 
If the past and pptc are alike, they are given but once: — 

shine /am | shone /on 
stand staend [stood stud 
fight fait [fought f3t 
§75. The bar, not followed by a spelling form, is sometimes used at the end of an article to 
separate an added item from the immediately preceding one, and to imply its application to 
the whole article : — 

road rod [-ed -id; [iV£«.gJ+rb"d 

THE MAIN REGIONAL DIVISIONS 

§76. For indicating American regional pronunciations the well-known division into three 
regions is followed, the East (E), the South (S), and, for want of a better term, the North 
(N). Geographically the East includes New York City (NYC) and environs, and New England 
east of the Connecticut River. The South includes Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Tennessee, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, and parts of 
Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Oklahoma. The North includes the rest of the US. 

In the use of the terms E, S, N, certain modifications must be kept in mind. The speech of 
the S differs markedly in the more northerly parts from that in the more southerly ones, and 
(partly coinciding with this) in the more inland regions from that in the coastal ones. Certain 
features labeled S are therefore not equally applicable to all of the S. 

Owing to movements of population, and probably also to the schools, innumerable indi- 
viduals and often considerable groups in the S speak a tj^pe virtuall}^ identical with that of 
the N. The same is true in the E, especially NYC. In NEngd also, and in the southeastern 
coastal regions, are certain "speech islands" having a similar type, perhaps preserved, by 
isolation, from a time when it was more general. Allowance must also be made for mixed types 
of speech in all the border areas between the main regions. The irregular use of the r sound is 
especially noticeable in the border areas. 

It is not the function of this dictionary to deal with these more irregular and exceptional 
features, — to make a dialect map of the country. That work is being done by the L.A. Our 
concern is only with the main types of cultivated American English — sometliing of a fiction, 
if you will, as all "standard" speech is. 

It should be noted that the pronunciations assigned to particular regions are regarded onl}' as 
the ones prevailing there. It is unsafe to denj^ the existence of any pronunciation in any region. 
Thus, when it is indicated that in the S the word glory is pronounced 'glori, while in the E and 
N it is either 'glori or 'gbn, it is not meant that 'gbri does not exist in the S, but that ac- 



Directions for Use xxxiti 

cording to the evidence we have, 'gbn is not sufficiently frequent in the S to be recorded as a 
characteristic S pronunciation. The same may be said of the £ sound in such words as air, 
there, etc. Evidence does not show that the vowel £ in such words is widespread in the S. 
The same principle is to be applied to all regional pronunciations. 

§77. Linguistically the most generally observed characteristic of the three regions is the 
treatment of the /■ sound, the E and the S being in the main alike in this respect in contrast 
with the N. The S is separated from the E by a number of features, such as the character of the 
au and ai diphthongs, the prevalence of "flat a" (ae) in certain groups of words, the "long e" 
sound before r, the tendency to diphthongize many vowels, and many features of intonation 
and tempo — none of them equally distributed over the S — features that enable the ordinary 
observer to distinguish a Southerner from an Easterner, but not all of them conveniently or 
profitably recorded in a work with the scope and purpose of this. 

INDICATION OF REGIONAL PRONUNCIATIONS 

§78. In the vocabulary, the Eastern (E) and Southern (S) pronunciations are separated 
from the Northern (N) by semicolons. The pronunciations in entries that contain no regional 
labels (E, ES, S, N, EN, etc.) are valid for all the US, as delicious di'hjas. When an entry 
contains a regional label, the unlabeled pronunciations are valid everywhere in the US except 
in the regions designated; thus 

glory 'glori, 'gbn; S 'glori 
means that the first two pronunciations are both valid everywhere except in the S; there only 
'glori prevails; or, stated otherwise, 'glori and 'gbn are characteristic of the E and the N; only 
'glori is so of the S. 

perform pa^'fann; ES pa'faam 
This means that in the US except the E and the S the pronunciation is pa^'farm; in the E and 
the S it is pa 'f 33m. 

aircraft 'er^kraeft, 'aer-; E 'ea-, '^ea-, -jkraft, -jkraft; S 'aea^kraeft 
Combining regularly, for the N, besides 'Er^kraeft, we get 'aefjkrasft; for the E, 'sajkrieft, 
'ae3|kraeft, 'eajkraft, 'aeajkraft, 'eajkraft, 'aea^kraft; for the S, 'aeajkraeft. 

Very often two regions (usually E and S) have one or more variants in common. They are 
then usually separated only by commas : — 

scarce skers, skaers; E sk£3s, ES skaess 
This means that in the N scarce is pronounced skers or skaers ; in the E it is pronounced skeas, 
and in both E and S it is pronounced skaeas; or, stated otherwise, in the E it is pronounced 
sktas or skaeas, while in the S only skaeas prevails. See also board, ear, premonitory (§80). 

ACCENT AS A FACTOR IN COMBINING THE FORMS 

§79. Only the forms that agree in accent are to be combined: — 

Carew ka'ru, -'riu, 'keru, 'ke-, -riu, -ri 
For the first accentuation, besides ka'ru we have (ka)'riu; for the second accentuation, 
besides 'keru and 'ke(ru) we have ('k£)riu, ('ke)riu, ('kE)ri, ('ke)n. 

empyreal Em'pinal, jEmpa'rial, -pai- 
Here the first form cannot be combined with -pai- because this is not accented, as is the corre- 



xxxiv Directions for Use 

sponding -'pi-. Hence only the second form can combine with -pai-, thus: (i£in)pai('ri3l), 
the unaccented -pai- replacing the unaccented -pa-. 

bifurcate v 'barfa'jket, bai'fs^ket; ES 'barfa-, -'faket, -'fyket 
Here the Eastern and Southern fragment 'baifa- can combine only with the omitted part 
found in 'barfa^^ket, with the same accent, thus: 'baifaC/ket). The last two fragments must be 
combined with the omitted part of bai'fyket, having the same accent, thus: (bai)'f3ket, 
(bai)'fyket. (For regional pronunciations see §§76-78.) 

discourse n 'diskors, di'skors, -3rs; ES -oas, E + -aas 
Here the fragment -ars, which does not include the accent mark, will fit both of the first two 
forms without disturbing their accents, thus: ('disk)3rs, (di'sk)3rs; and likewise the Eastern 
and Southern fragments: ES ('disk)o9s, (di'sk)o3S, Eastern also ('disk)33s, (di'sk)D3s. 

THE PLUS SIGN (+) 

§80. The sign (+) is invariably to be read "also." It means that in addition to pronuncia- 
tions already given, other designated pronunciations are to be heard from cultivated speakers. 
This sign does not imply that these additional pronunciations have inferior standing, or neces- 
sarily are less frequent, though we have not placed it before pronunciations known to be 
markedly in the majority. The following examples indicate the use of the plus sign: — 

hot hat ; ES + hot 
This means that the word spelt hot is, in all regions of the US, pronounced hat; but that there 
are also many cultivated speakers in the East and the South who usually pronounce it hot. 

fast faest; E+ fast, fast 
This means that the woxAfast in all parts of the US is pronounced faest; but that there are also 
many cultivated speakers in the East who usually pronounce it fast or fast. 

board bord, bard; ES hoad, E + baad 
This means that hoard is pronounced bord or bard in the North, but in the East and the South 
it is pronounced boad, and in the East, in addition to boad, it is also pronounced baad. 

ear ir; ES ia(r, S+ £a(r 
This means that ear is pronounced ir in the North, but in the East and the South it is pro- 
nounced ia(r, and in the South, in addition to ia(r, it is also pronounced £a(r. 
premonitory pri'mana^ton, -jtari; S -itori, ES + -'mnn- 
Where, as here, the pronunciation after + is a fragment, it is to be taken as a pronunciation 
additional to that of the corresponding parts of the preceding forms. In this example. Eastern 
has, besides the pronunciations pri'manajtori and -itari, which it shares with the North, also 
pri'monaitori and -jtari; while Southern has, besides pri'manaitori (but not -itari), also 
pri'mnnajtori. 

It is believed that any other uses of the sign +, if it is merely read "also," will be clear to 
the reader as they occur. It should be noted that a pronunciation with + prefixed is never 
the sole pronunciation of the word. 

JOINING REGIONAL FRAGMENTS TO FIRST FORMS 

§81. In fitting fragments to forms before the first bar, the regional fragments are to be 
fitted to the corresponding regional forms before the first bar; as, 

woodwork Vud,wyk; ES 'wud^wsk, -^wa^k; |-er -■at-; ES -a(r 



Directions for Use xxxv 

Expanding the fragments after the bar, we get 

woodworker Vud^wyka^; ES Vud^wskair, 'wudjW3'k9(r 

in which the unlabeled N fragment -9- is fitted to the first unlabeled (N) pronunciation, and 
the ES fragment -3(r is fitted to the first two ES pronunciations. 
For the meaning of (r see §82. 

LINKING r— THE MEANING OF -3(r, -a:(r, -3(r 

§82. When pronunciations are thus indicated, — fur £3(1, far fa:(r, bitter 'bit3(r, Iiere hi3(r, 
there tJe3(r, tJaeaCr, war W33(r, more mo3(r, poor pu3(r, — this means that (in the E and S) r is not 
sounded and these words are pronounced is, fa:, 'bita, hid, 'Sea, (Jaea, waa, moa, pua unless a 
vowel sound follows, either in the same word (by addition of an ending, as furry 'fsri, bitterest 
'bitanst) or in a word that follows without pause {the fur is wet tJa far iz wet, far away far a Ve, 
bitter end 'bitar end). The effect of pause on linking r is seen in the following utterance of a dis- 
tinguished American: over, and over, and over again 'ova, an 'ova, and 'ovar a 'gen. 

When -a(r follows a vowel in the same syllable, as in here hia(r, there SaeaCr, more moa(r, 
and a vowel sound is added, then r either replaces a {lierein hir'in, here it is hir it iz, therein 
tJaer'in, tJiere it goes Saer it goz, moreover mor'ova, more ice mor ais, poorest 'purist, poor and 
needy pur an 'nidi), or, less usually, the r is added to a (hiar'in, hiar it iz, moar'ova, 'puarist, 
etc.). This alternative is to be understood in all similar cases. 

In such words as adjure a'dsur, a'dsiur; ES -a(r, the -a(r is to be understood as replacing 
the final r of the N pronunciation. 

Some speakers, especially in the S, fail to pronounce linking r before an initial vowel of the 
following word (wore ice moa ais, wlien the war ends hwen Sa waa endz). Omission of r before 
a vowel within a word ('ve-i for 'veri) is regarded as substandard. 

§83. In vocabulary entries, when pronunciation fragments are added, the use of (r must be 
observed. The rule is simple : If the added fragment begins with a vowel sound, the r is sounded 
in the E and S; if it begins with a consonant sound, the r is not heard in the E and S: — 

labor 'leba^; ES 'leba(r; |-ed -d |-ing -brig, -barirj 
Here ES 'leba(r means 'lebar or 'leba according as a vowel sound immediately follows or not. 
When -ed -d is added, being a consonant sound (e silent), we are to understand ES 'lebad 
beside N 'leba^d ; but when -ing -ig is added, with its vowel sound, then the r is sounded and 
the ES and the N pronunciations are alike 'lebrirj or 'lebarig. 

§84. For the pronunciation of the N in words like labor 'leba^, when a vowel sound is added 
{laboring 'lebarig), then -ar replaces -a^, since there is no significant difference between 'leba^-ig 
and 'leba-rig. When, as often, laboring is contracted, then vowel a^ becomes consonant r 
('lebrig). Likewise in the entry /amer 'faeria^; ES 'faeri-a(r; \-y -i, the pronunciation of the 
derivative farriery becomes 'faerian, which is also right for the E and S, because a vowel fol- 
lows -a(r and therefore r is retained. 

INTRUSIVE r 

§85. Though not recorded in the vocabulary, intrusive r is appropriately described here. 
Following the regular habits of his speech a cultivated Easterner or Southerner might normally 
pronounce straighter and straighter 'stretar an 'streta, sounding final r before the vowel and 
dropping it at the end. Following the same habits, he might pronounce strata on strata 'stretar 



xxxvi Directions for Use 

Dn 'streta, likewise sounding r before the vowel and not at the end. Both procedures are un- 
conscious and phonetically natural. 

When the final r is spelt (slraiglder) and pronounced before a vowel it is called Linking r; 
when it is not spelt but is pronounced before a vowel, it is called Intrusive r. The frequency 
of intrusive r among cultivated Easterners, Southerners, and British is no longer a matter of 
doubt except to the uninformed. It is perhaps less frequent in the S than in the E. Words 
ending in the sound -a ( Victoria, sofa, idea) are more apt to show it than are those ending in 
other vowels. Its use is perhaps less consistent than that of linking r. The same educated 
Southerner said tSis 'maeta iz 'difrant who said a 'greta San 'dsonar iz hia. 

WORD ELEMENTS OMITTED FROM THE VOCABULARY 

§86. To save space and relieve the reader from the distraction of needless information, 
words having certain suffixes with regular pronunciation are often omitted from the vocabu- 
lary; as those with -doi7t (heathendom), -Jwod (motherhood), -ish (darkish), -ment (announcement). 
See §89. 

§87. The -(e)s plural of regular nouns, the third person singular present indicative of verbs, 
and the possessive case ending of nouns are regularly omitted from the vocabulary, except for 
words ending in a sibilant sound (s, z,/, 3, t/, ds), where they are regularly given. If the plural 
and the possessive sound alike, only one is given. If they differ, both are given (see house). 
The possessive plural of regular nouns, formed by adding the apostrophe (') but no sound, is 
omitted. 

Certain nouns ending in a s or z sound closely preceded by a s or z sound vary in current 
usage in forming the possessive. Unfortunately some printing shops follow their own rules in 
this, and do not always agree with others or with general usage. Current literary usage in this 
is set forth in Webster's New International Dictionary, Second Edition, at the word possessive, 
and the present work follows this, with a very few exceptions where usage is divided. 

The following rules, fully illustrated, will enable the reader to form the regular plural of 
nouns, the possessive case, and the third singular of verbs, in all cases where these are not 
recorded in the vocabulary. 

§88. Pronunciation of the Plural and Possessive Singular of Nouns 
and the Third Singular Present of Verbs 

Rule I. Add the sound s when the stem of the noun or verb ends in any of the voiceless conso- 
nant sounds p, t, k, f, 6. Examples follow: 

1. Plural of nouns. 

caps kaep-s, gates get-s, oaks ok-s, clijfs klif-s, growths gro6-s. Words like leaf lif — 
leaves livz, oath 06 — oaths oSz will be found in the vocabulary. 

2. Possessives in -'s follow the same rule. 

Philip's 'filap-s, Kate's ket-s, Isaac's 'aizak-s, Joseph's 'dsozaf-s, Edith's 'idi0-s. 

3. Third singular present indicatives follow tlie same rule. 
keeps kip-s, gets get-s, looks luk-s, chafes tfei-s, froths fraO-s. 

Rule II. Add the sound z when the stem of the noun or verb ends in any of the voiced conso- 
nant sounds b, d, g, v, tJ, m, n, 0, 1, or in any vowel sound (all vowel sounds are voiced) : 



Directions for Use xxxvii 

1 . Plural of nouns. 

robes rob-z, beds btd-z, rogues rog-z, stoves stov-z, lathes leS-z, rims rim-z, bones 
bon-z, things Oig-z, balls bal-z; (vowels) seas si-z, citi-es 'siti-z, days de-z, mas ma-z, 
laws b-z, hoes ho-z, values Vaelju-z, s fives Su-z, furs fy-z, fs-z, bars bar-z (§26), ba:-z, 
papers 'pepa'-z, sofas 'sofa-z, ties tai-z, cows kau-z, /oy-5 t3i-z, C2fe-5 kju-z, kiu-z. 

2. Possessives in -'s follow the same rule. 

Rob's rab-z, Adelaide's 'aedljed-z, Meg's meg-z, Olive's ^aliv-z, Blythe's blaitS-z, Tom's 
tam-z, John's dsan-z, Harding's 'hardig-z. Will's wil-z; (vowels) Lee's li-z, Betty's 
^b£ti-z, Ray's re-z, ma's ma-z, Esau's 'isD-z, Joe's d3o-z, Andrew's 'aendru-z. Burr's 
by-z, b3-z, Wilbur's 'wilba'-z, Sarah's 'sera-z, Nye's nai-z, Howe's hau-z, Roy's rai-z, 
Hugh's hju-z, biu-z. 

3. Third singular present indicatives follow the same rule. 

rubs rAb-z, hides haid-z, lags laeg-z, saves sev-z, breathes briS-z, comes kAm-z, runs 
rAn-z, sings siij-z, feels fil-z; (vowels) sees si-z, piti-es 'piti-z, stays ste-z, thaws 63-z, 
go-es go-z, woo-es wu-z, stirs sty-z, sts-z, scatters 'skaeta^-z, subpoenas sa'pina-z, tri-es 
trai-z, allows a'lau-z, employs im'pbi-Zj hews hju-z, hiu-z. 

(Rules I & II also apply to the pronunciation of -'s, the unstressed form of is, has.) 
Rule III. Plurals, possessives in -'s, and third singulars of words ending in the remaining sounds, 
— the sibilants s, /, t/, z, 3, ds, — are regularly given in the vocabulary. These add the 
syllable -iz or -az (for variation in the vowel, see -ed in the vocabulary) : faces 'fes-iz, 
Nash's ^naef-iz, catch-es 'kaet/-iz, noses 'noz-iz, rouges 'rus-iz, George's 'dsards-iz. 

PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES TREATED IN THE VOCABULARY 

§89. Following is a list of word elements, chiefly initial or final, many of which have variant 
pronunciations. These elements are treated in the vocabulary in alphabetical order. 

Where they are not found attached to head words in the vocabulary (as pridefiil, cf pride), 
the reader can add them with their pronunciations. If they are found in the vocabulary with 
their head words, variant pronunciations not listed at the full word can be found by con- 
sulting the separate element in the vocabulary, as, e.g., at goodness (see -ness) or at mate 
(see -ed). 

-able -edly -hood 

-age -edness i-, -i- 

-ally see -ically em- see en- -ia 

-ana en- -ial see -ia 

-ate -er -ian see -ia 

-ative -es -ible see -able 

be- -ese -ically 

-bly -ess -ie see -y 

-d see -ed -est ' -iel see -ia 

de- -et -ien see -ia 

-dom ex- il- see in- 

e- -ey see -y im- see in- 

-ed -ful ' in- 



xxxviii 




Variants 




-ing 


-ment 




-ship 


-io, -ion, -ious see -ia 


-ness 




-sia 


-ish 


-or 




-sion 


-ism . 


-ous 




-some 


-ity 


-ow 




sub- 


-ius see -ia 


pre- 




-tia 


-ive 


pro- 




-tion 


-less 


re- 




un- 


-like 


-ry 




up- 


-ly 


-s see - 


■es 


wh- 


-man 


se- 




-y 



VARIANTS 

§90. Certain classes of variant pronunciations found in cultivated American speech are de- 
scribed here in order to avoid excessive complication of the vocabulary entries. These variants 
are only those in wide use by cultivated speakers, and do not include those confined to local 
dialect or substandard speech. 

MEDIAL UNACCENTED -i- 

§91. Medial unaccented short i i not followed b}^ a vowel may become -a- in nearly all words 
{editor 'edita', 'tdota^). When final i becomes medial by the addition of a suffix, this change 
from I to 3 must often be assumed, as in fragmentary 'fraegm3njteri \-ly -li = 'fraegman^terili 
or -jtErali. See also i-, -i- in the vocabulan,'. 

UNACCENTED i BEFORE ANOTHER VOWEL 

§92. When the vowel sound i (variously spelt) is immediately followed by another vowel 
sound {radiate, oceanic, Ephraim, periodic, radio, medium, immediate), the i sound tends toward 
i, and thus might properly be shown as in VedijCt, jo/i'aenik, 'if riam, jpiri'adik, 'redijO, 'midiam, 
I'midiit. But this w'ould greatly complicate the vocabulary, especially when derivatives vary 
from the head word, as in study 'stAdi \-ing 'stAdiig, and even so would not fully show the 
extent of the variation of the i. This variation is therefore not shown in the vocabulary. In 
reading a transcription like I'midiit the variation w'ill be made automatically. 

THE 3 SOUND {WAR, HORSE, ALL) 

§93. In most of America o appears to be rather unstable. In most positions except before r 
final or r plus a consonant {icar, horse), o varies with many speakers to o or a. A similar varia- 
tion is reported from Canada. In words in which the sound occurs before 1 plus a consonant 
{walnut, Waldo, salt), which in Brit have either o or d, the variants a and d are verj- common 
in America. 

In New England o is an extremely common substitute for a, man}^ speakers having onh" 
one phoneme (usually of d quality) in such words as cot and caught or collar and caller. In spite 
of these widespread variants, our collections appear to justify the somewhat regular recording 
of the standard historical 3 souna in the appropriate words. 



Variants xxxix 

8 FOR se IN CARRY, CHARITY 

§94. In words like carry 'kaeri, marry 'maen, charity 'tjaerati, comparison kam'paerasn, 
having historical "short a" (as) before r plus a vowel, a widespread pronunciation with e 
('ken, 'men, 'tjErati, kam'perasn) is heard in the North and Canada, especially from the 
younger generations. Many of these speakers pronounce marry, merry, and Mary all alike 
— 'men. This variant appears to be rare in the South, and for New England the L.A. shows 
only a very small percentage with £. 

DREARY, WEARY, YEAR 

§95. In words like dreary, weary, formerly having the vowel sound i before the r, while the 
general tendency is to lower the i to i, some speakers use the higher i, and many use an inter- 
mediate vowel somewhat nearer to i than is the i of bit. When the r is final or followed by a 
consonant (year, beard), the i sound is less apt to occur. 

EASTERN AND SOUTHERN 39(r 

§96. In words like form farm; ES faam, both pronunciations faam and f3:m are used in the 
East and the South. In the vocabulary only 33 is given. This is done, however, with the im- 
plication that in such words the vowel varies between 33 and o:, so that for speakers who do 
not usually pronounce 33 in such words the symbol 33 must be taken also to suggest 3:. 
In longer words 33 is more likely to be reduced to 3, especially if unaccented. This reduction 
is shown in such a word as formality far'maelati; ES f3'mael3ti. No sharp line can be drawn. 
The same speaker may say f33m in one breath and f3:m or fsm in the next, according to style 
of speech. 

EASTERN AND SOUTHERN a9(r 

§97. In words like farm fann; ES fa:m, or far far; ES fa:(r, an 3 ghde is less commonly heard 
after the a (fasm, fa3(r) than after 3 in words like form (ham). With some speakers in the East 
and South, however, this is consciously present, so that there is a definite distinction between 
father 'fa'S3(r and farther 'fa3'83(r, even when the words are of equal length. As with 33(r, the 
pronunciation a3(r is commoner in the shorter words than in longer ones. Thus a speaker may 
say lasds for large, but 'la:d33(r for larger. This glide 3 after a being much less frequent than 
after o, it is not shown in the vocabulary. 

WORDS LIKE BOARD 

§98. Besides the two types bord and b3rd, regularly shown in the vocabulary, a pronuncia- 
tion of board is heard from some speakers, especially in the North, with a vowel sound about 
midway between o and 3 (phonetic symbol Q, a lowered o or a raised 3). Such speakers also 
pronounce the same vowel Q in words like horse, forvi (pronounced by others h3rs, f3rni), so 
that in their speech hoarse is Uke horse, boarder is like border, etc. Thus these speakers pro- 
nounce all such words uniformly with q, while other speakers that do not distinguish hoarse 
from horse, etc., pronounce them uniformly with 3.^ 

* See Kenyon, American Pronunciation, 8th ed. §§366-372. 



xl Variants 

EASTERN AND SOUTHERN VOWEL IN BIRD 

§99. In words like bird, further the first pronunciation for Eastern and Southern is bsd, 
'f3'3a(r. In both the E and the S, however, a very large number of speakers pronounce y in- 
stead of 3, saying byd, 'fySaCr (not 'fsSa nor 'fySa-), with r-coloring in the accented vowel. It 
is to be noted that this pronunciation is heard from those who otherwise "drop their r's," 
and it is confined to the stressed vowel. In this type of pronunciation the 9 in JurtJier remains 
3 as with those who say 'f s'Sa. Thus such speakers would pronounce The furtlier part is better 
tia 'fySa pa:t iz 'beta. 

This fact has long been known for Southern speech, but it has also recently been demon- 
strated for New England by the workers on the L.A., and the same combination of 3^ with 
otherwise "r-less" pronunciation is heard in New York City. These facts have been fully veri- 
fied by the present editors. Hence, in the vocabulary such words as fiirtliennore are regularly 
represented for ES as 'f33^Jmo^^r, 'fySajinoaCr. 

31 FOR THE VOWEL IN BIRD 

§100. With many speakers in various parts of the South, and in New York City, a former 
r sound after 3, except when final (fur) or followed only by an inflectional ending (furs), is 
changed into something like i, so that a word like bird is pronounced b3id.^ 

Whether the NYC 3i in bird (popularly but wrongly represented as boid) is historicall}'' 
connected with the Southern sound is unknown. But the NYC sound, commonly regarded 
as local dialect, is used by many educated speakers there, who recognize the sound in their 
own speech; and in the South it is also used by people of unquestioned cultivation. 

EASTERN VARIATION BETWEEN a AND a 

§101. In the East, especially New England, the sound a when spelt with a (father, bar, calm) 
varies with many speakers toward the sound a. A similar sound, but less prevalent, has been 
reported from near WilHamsburg, Va. Since this variant is highly characteristic of New 
England, it is usually recorded, either in the vocabulary or in a page heading over the ap- 
propriate words. But it is not invariably recorded with less common words, and is then to be 
assumed as a possible variant. 

EASTERN VARIATION BETWEEN ae, a, AND a 
IN WORDS LIKE ASK 

§102. In the class of words spelt with a that is followed by a voiceless fricative s, f, or 6 
(ask, chaff, bath) or by a nasal plus a consonant (example, demand), in which British usu- 
ally has a. Eastern pronunciation (less commonly Eastern Virginian, see next section) varies 
between ae, a, and a. The findings of the L.A. and the present editors' collections clearly in- 
dicate that, with a few exceptions (cf lialf, calf, laugh, aunt), the sound ae in these words in 
New England and New York City is at least as frequent as a, and usually more frequent than 
a. In the vocabulary this variation is regularly shown by use of the plus sign, meaning "also," 
as at the word/a^/ faest; E + fast, fast. For other uses of the plus sign see §80. 

5 See Kemp Malone, Studies for William A. Read, University, La., 19-10, p. 137. The same fact has also been ob- 
served by others. 



Variants xli 

WORDS LIKE ASK IN EASTERN VIRGINIA 

§103. The words referred to in the preceding section (ask, last, craft, path, chance, etc.), 
in the vicinity of Richmond and Williamsburg, Va., are often pronounced with a, less fre- 
quently with a. This pronunciation appears to be somewhat less common now than formerly. 
The historical and cultural im.portance of this region precludes regarding this merely as a 
locahsm. Yet to list this pronunciation of those words as a regular variant for Southern pro- 
nunciation as a whole would give a disproportionate impression, as weU as complicate the 
vocabulary entries. It is therefore to be understood at those entries of such words containing 
the item "E + -a-, -a-" that in eastern Virginia such words are also sometimes pronounced 
with a, less often with a. 

» FOR a IN FATHER 

§104. In parts of the South the a sound as in father 'fatJaCr is retracted or raised in the di- 
rection of 3 (all) without wholly reaching o, but resembling the intermediate d (§12). The 
same variant is becoming common in New York City. As a result, we sometimes find the roles 
of a and o apparently reversed, a being pronounced d and o being pronounced a. Thus a native 
of NYC pronounced margm 'mD:d3in and Arthur 'd:63, while in the same breath he pronounced 
Conning Tower 'kanig^taua. 

VARIANTS OF THE DIPHTHONG au 

§105. For the vowel sound in out, ground, one symbol au is used in the vocabulary. This is 
an inclusive symbol, here serving for all varieties of this diphthong in cultivated American 
speech. Outside of the South the principal varieties are au and au. In au the first element often 
varies slightly toward 3. au and au are so nearly alike that most hearers do not notice the 
difference. These two show no important geographical distribution, and often vary from 
speaker to speaker. A common variant, very general, is a for au before r {our aur, ar). 

§106. In the South are several varieties. These never distinguish words otherwise alike, 
but there are geographical and sometimes social distinctions. The most striking of these are 
found in Virginia and bordering North CaroHna. In Virginia, mainly east of the Blue Ridge, 
a diphthong approximately su (often written au but with stressed first element) is used before 
voiceless consonants {out sut, house hsus), whUe aeu is used before voiced sounds and finally 
{ground graeund, houses 'haeuziz, cow kaeu). 3U varies somewhat, especially to au or ou. 
aeu varies to au or au. Besides, the influence of analogy often breaks down the distinction 
before voiceless and voiced sounds, giving, e.g., house hsus — houses 'hauziz, or haeus — 'haeuziz. 

In the western and southwestern parts of Virginia the tendency is to use aeu in all positions, 
with variation to au or au.® 

Perhaps owing in part to the influence of eastern Virginia, similar varieties are occasionally 
found in other parts of the South, but appear not to prevail there. The commonest varieties 
for the South as a whole are aeu and au, with intermediate shades. The form aeu often be- 
comes aea {down daeun, daean). 

» E. F. Shewraake, "Laws of Pronunciation in Eastern Virginia," Mod. Lang. Notes, xi, 8 (Dec. 1925), pp. 
489-492. See also American Speech, xvni, 1 (Feb. 1943), pp. 33-38. 

Guy S. Lowmaa, "The Treatment of au in Virginia," Proc. oj the Second International Congress of Phonetic Sci- 
ences, Cambridge, 1936, pp, 122-12S. 

Argus Tresldder, "Notes on Virginia Speech," American Speech, xvi, 2 (April 1941), pp, Ua^lie, 

Unpublished laaterialin the i.^. was also consulted. 



xiii Variants 

In parts of Canada (Ontario, Nova Scotia, and probably elsewhere) a distinction is found 
similar to that of eastern Virginia, the singular of house being haus or hous and the plural 
^hauziz or 'hauziz. 

VARIANTS OF THE DIPHTHONG ai 

§107. As with au, so only one symbol ai is used in the vocabulary for the "long i" soimd 
{white hwait, rise raiz). Outside of the South the principal varieties are ai (with a often varying 
sHghtly toward 3) and ai. The comments on the relation of au to au apply to that of ai to ai. 

§108. In the South the varieties partly behave like those of au. In Virginia east of the Blue 
Ridge many speakers use a sound approximately ai (varying toward 31) before voiceless con- 
sonants {white hwAit, wife wAif) but ai before voiced consonants and finally {rise raiz, wives 
waivz, high hai). In some other parts of the South (as in the Carohnas) a similar distinction 
is found. 

Another distinction, found, e.g., in Virginia and the Carolinas and probably elsewhere, 
is the use of ai or ai before voiceless consonants {wife waif, WAif), but simple a or a: before 
voiced and finally {wives wavz, wa:vz, why hwa, hwa:, mighty tired 'mAiti ta:d). The simple a, 
less frequently a, for ai is fairly common in many parts of the South (Virginia, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Texas, etc.). As with au, analogy (as wife — wives) tends to break down the 
distinction WAif — waivz or waif — wavz, yielding such pairs as waif — waivz or waf — wavzJ 
For the South as a whole ai may safely be taken as the prevailing sound. 

As with au, so with ai a distinction similar to that in Virginia between wife WAif and wives 
waivz is also found in Ontario and eastern Canada, probably reflecting a situation foimd 
in several Scottish dialects. 

VARIATION BETWEEN ju, lu, AND u 

§109. In words containing "long i^" there is variation between the sounds ju, lu, and u too 
complicated to be fully described here.* Some misunderstanding has existed as to the prev- 
alence of the diphthong lu in cultivated American English. Apparently many suppose that 
words like duty, 7iew have but two pronunciations — either djuti or duti, nju or nu; or that 
words like accuse have but one — a'kjiiz. Grandgent, however, long ago demonstrated the 
frequency of lu in America' in collections that showed lu in 35 to 60 per cent of the speakers 
tested, according to the class of words used. Other American observers have confirmed his 
findings. Grandgent also accurately described the diphthong as i with tongue drawn back 
somewhat (symbol i) followed by u with tongue pushed forward (symbol a), and either having 
more stress on i than on a or having about equal stress on both elements, and with the a 
usually longer than the i. 

The same speaker often varies between lu and ju, for lu easily shades into ju as the i re- 
ceives less stress and thus becomes more like consonantal j. It was thus that modern ju de- 
veloped from Early Modern lu in all words that now have ju, and many .Ajnericans have re- 
tained the older lu (except initially) along with other features of Early Modern English. 

^ See Shewmake and Tresidder, as cited above, footnote 6. 

8 See Kenyon, American Pronunciation, 8th ed., §§341-350. 

9 Mod. Lana. Notes, vi, 8 (1891), pp. 466-467, 



Variants xliii 

In one variant of this diphthong the first element has the tongue drawn back as far as to the 
position for an advanced u (h), so that the diphthong merges into a monophthongal a. Both 
lu and this u are used by many Americans to distinguish words from similar words that have 
u; as brewed bnud, br«d, distinct from brood brud, or lute hut, l«t, distinct from loot lut. 

Present knowledge of the distribution and prevalence of ju, lu, and u in the words con- 
cerned does not always permit of an accurate order of frequency in the vocabulary. Such 
order as has been verified is there shown. For example, it appears certain that words like 
assume are prevailingly pronounced with u. But in the main all that is attempted is to give 
the three (or two) current sounds (duty 'djuti, 'diuti, 'duti; blue blu, bliu; accuse a'kjuz, a'kiuz) 
without insistence on order of frequency, all the pronunciations being in cultivated Ameri- 
can use. 

In the vocabulary the symbol lu is always to be taken to mean m. See §§40, 41. 

UNACCENTED U IN WORDS LIKE CALCULATE, 

CONGRATULATE, EDUCATE, 

NATURE, VERDURE 

§110. In familiar speech unaccented ti as in calctdate is most commonly -ja- ('kaelkjajet) 
unless another vowel follows {evacuate iVaekjujet). It often varies between -ja- and -ju- ac- 
cording to style of speech. 

In colloquial pronunciation of words like congratulate, educate, unaccented -tu- and -du- 
most commonly are -t/a- (kan'graetjajet, -'graet/u-) and -dsa- ('edsajket, 'edsu-), unless a 
vowel follows {eventuate I'vEntJu^et, graduate 'graedsu^et). In dissyllables the unaccented 
ending -ture is usually -tj*, ES -tj3(r, in common words {nature 'netja'; ES 'netJaCr), and -dure 
is usually -A'^^, ES -d33(r {verdure 'vydsa^, -d5ur; ES -dsaCr, -d3U3(r). See Webster^ s New 
International Dictionary, Second Edition, Guide to Pronunciation, §249, seventh paragraph. 
In words of three or more syllables not accented on the penult the unaccented ending -ture is 
commonly -tJV or -t/ur according to style or to familiarity of the word {miniature 'minitja^, 
'nuniatja^, 'miniajt/ur). If -ture has a light accent then it is -jt/ur {literature 'litara^t/ur). 
Initial unaccented "long w" is ju- or ju- according to style {unite ju'nait, ju'nait). 

SOUTHERN I FOR £ BEFORE NASAL SOUNDS 

§111. In parts of the South the sound of e before m, n, or g {stem, men, length) is replaced by, 
or tends in the direction of, i (stim, mm, bokO). This pronunciation is not equally distributed 
over the South and apparently is not equally acceptable in all types of Southern speech. Its 
omission from the vocabulary is not intended to imply disapproval of it. 

VARIATION BETWEEN n AND g BEFORE k OR g 

§112. When the letter n ends the syllable before a k or a g sound, it usually represents the 
sound g if the next syllable is final and wholly unaccented, as in congress 'kaggras. Concord 
'kagka^d (compare the pronunciation 'kankard, where the final syllable has an unmarked 
subordinate accent). In other situations there is much wavering between n and g that has no 
bearing on acceptability and is therefore often not shown in the vocabulary. 

For the substitution of n for g in -ing words, see -ing in the vocabulary. 



xliv Variants 

THE SOUNDS OF WH 

§113. In words spelt with wh (whale hwel, when hw£n, wheel hwil, etc.) many speakers omit 
the h element and pronounce plain w, thus making homophones of whale, wail wel; when, wen 
wen; wheel, weal wil; etc. This is clearly not the prevaihng pronunciation for America as a 
whole, but it appears to be somewhat on the increase, perhaps owing to the influence of South- 
ern British speech. In the vocabulary only hw is given for such words. See also wh- in the 
vocabulary. 

SYLLABIC 1, n, m, VARYING WITH al, an, am 

§114. In a great many words there is frequent variation between a syllabic consonant and 
3 plus a nonsyllabic consonant. In the vocabulary, as a rule, only the one deemed to be col- 
loquially most usual is given. Examples of such variation are: apple 'aepl, 'aepal; happen 
'haepan, 'haepn, 'haepm (when -pm results from assimilation of -pn, -pam never occurs) ; trouble 
'trAbl, 'trAbal; buckle 'bAkl, 'bAkal; struggle 'strAgl, 'strAgal; castle \sesl,^kses3\; drizzle Mnzl, 
'drizal; prism 'prizam, 'prizm (see -ism in the vocabulary) ; wa.?ow 'mesn, 'mesan; prison 'pnzn, 
'prizan ; bacon 'bekan, 'bekn, 'bekg (see §24, 3d par.) ; wagon 'waegan, 'waegn, 'waegg ; monopoly 
ma'nap!i,ma'napab;o6e/w^ 'abl^isk, 'aba^hsk (for the accent see §52); assassinate a'sjesn^etf 
a'saesajnet. 

But in many words, while it is phonetically possible to pronounce either form, one of the 
forms is decidedly prevalent and the other either rare or un-Enghsh. Thus cotton 'katn, hidden 
'bidn, little 'litl, cradle 'kredl, and such words as didn't 'didnt, oughtn't btnt, couldn't 'kudnt, 
wouldn't 'wudnt in standard speech are not pronounced 'katan, 'hidan, 'lital, 'kredal, 'didant, 
btant, 'kudant, 'wudant. An alternative pronunciation with -al, -an, -am is much less usual 
when the syllabic consonant is final and follows a consonant made with the same position of 
the tongue point or of the lips (-tn, -dn, -tl, -dj, -nl). Syllabic m is less frequent and is heard 
chiefly after the homorganic p (open 'opm, keep 'evi 'kipm) or b (album 'aelbm, rob 'em 'rabm). 

m is not syllabic after t (bottom 'batam) or d (Adam 'aedam), though the a may be verj- quick. 
Nasals are not syllabic after nasals (common 'kaman, venom Venam, cannon 'kaenan, minimum 
'minamam) or after 1 (stolen 'stolan or stoln with nonsyllabic n, column 'kalam). n is not usually 
syllabic after nd (London 'Undan), but is often so after nt (mountahi 'mauntn). Consonants 
are not syllabic after vowels. 

In medial position alternation is frequent even after homorganic consonants (fatally 'fetli, 
'fetali; Adelaide 'aedljcd, 'aedaled; scrutiny 'skrutni, 'skrutani; ordinal 'ardnal, brdanal). 

In some cases the difference distinguishes words otherwise aUke. Thus in Eastern and 
Southern, 'saetn means "satin," while 'saetan means "Saturn"; 'bitn means "bitten," while 
'bitan means "bittern"; 'paetn means "paten" or "patten," while 'p^etan means "pattern"; 
'faamli means "formally," while 'faamali means "formerly." 

ADDITION OR OMISSION OF CONSONANTS 

§115. Certain consonant sounds are inserted or omitted very generally in American EngUsh 
which are not regularly shown as variants in the vocabulary. Thus a t sound is often inserted 
between n and the s sound (sense sens, sents, like cents sents), between n and J (mansion 
Waenjan, 'maent-Jan, intention in'tenjan, in 'tent -/an, cf luncheon 'Untjan), between n and d 



Spelling Pronunciation ' xlv 

{ninth nainO, naintO, tenth tend, tentG), between 1 and 6 {health helG, heltO), between 1 and s 
{false fals, folts, Vikt faults), between I and/ {Welsh weIJ, welt/, cf Welch); and a p sound be- 
tween m and f {comfort 'kAmfa^t, 'kAmpfa^t, camphor 'kaemfa', 'kaempfa^, cf campfire). 

Omissions : d is often omitted between n and z {lends lendz, lenz, like lens) or between 1 and z 
{fields flldz, filz, hke feels). The first element of tj is often omitted after n {bench bent J, benj, 
luncheon 'lAntJan, 'Un/an) or after 1 {filch filtj, filj, cf Walsh, Welsh), and the first element of ds 
is often omitted after n {revenge riVends, nVens), less frequently after 1 {bulge bAlds, bAls). 

LENGTHENED s REPLACING sts 

§116. When the ending s is added to words in -st {nests, beasts, rests) the t sound is very 
often omitted, and the two s sounds combine into one long s (symbol s:). Thus nests, beasts, 
rests are often pronounced nes:, bis:, res:. 

PROPER NAMES 

§117. For personal and place names the variant pronunciations given in the vocabulary 
often refer to different persons or places. Whenever the information was available, the vari- 
ants have been referred to particular persons or places, but to do so in all cases is beyond the 
scope of this work. 

CANADIAN VARIANTS 

§118. In its most noticeable feature — the treatment of the r sound — most Canadian speech 
resembles the speech of the North in the US. The Midwesterner who visits Ontario or southern 
Quebec feels at home in the matter of speech. Direct British influence is, however, noticeable 
in details of both pronunciation and vocabulary. The pronunciations 'aitSa^ and 'nai'Sa' are 
\ rather more frequent than in the East in the US. For rather and can't 'ratJa^ and kant are often 
heard. For dictionary (and similar words) 'dikjanri is heard beside 'dikjaiijeri. For laboratory 
la'baratri is heard beside 'laebrajtori. For terrible 'teribl is heard beside 'terabl. sa'dsest for 
suggest, and 'friedsail for fragile, are frequent. Scottish influence is apparent in Canada, es- 
pecially in the use of the intermediate a for ae in "flat a" words {hat, man, etc.), in Nova Scotia 
and Alberta, and probably elsewhere. For the au diphthong, ou (§106) and u are heard, prob- 
ably also reflecting Scottish influence. 

JUNCTIONAL, OR SANDHI, FORMS 

§119. Pronunciations resulting from the effect of an initial sound of a following word {did 
you 'didsu, goes shopping gos Ifapirj, sand pile 'saen^pail), or of a final sound of a preceding 
word {bag and baggage 'baegtj'baegids, good enough jgudn'Af), are only occasionally recorded in 
the vocabulary. 

SPELLING PRONUNCIATION 

§120. The term SpeUing Pronunciation is used to designate a pronunciation which replaces 
that handed on by word of mouth in the spoken language and conforms in some respect more 
closely to the spelKng, which is in some degree unphonetic — fails to correspond with the estab- 
Ushed pronunciation. Such pronunciations originate, as the Oxford Dictioftary puts it, by taking 
a "shot" at the word from the spelling. Every such pronunciation is at first an error (departs 



xlvi Dissimilation — Anglicizing 

from established usage); but innumerable pronunciations of this origin have come to be so 
general that they are now in unquestioned good standing. For examples see Bentham, Wal- 
tham, Horsham; and for fuller treatment see Kenyon, Ajnerican Fronunciatiott, 8th ed., 
§§142-150. 

DISSIMILATION 

§121. A phonetic tendency known as Dissimilation is seen in English words in which an r 
sound in one syllable is lost if there is another r sound in the word. Thus in those regions where 
r is usually sounded in all positions the commonest colloquial pronunciation of surprise is 
sa'praiz. Here the presence of the second r has led to the loss of the first (that is, in this case, 
the change of a' to a by loss of its r-coloring) . This tendency was pointed out for American 
English by Hempl {Dialect Notes, I, vi, 1893). Sometimes instead of being lost the r is changed 
to 1, as it was in Salisbury (formerly Sarisherie, cf Saritm), or in Salop Shropshire,' from SIop- 
pesberie, earher Shrobbesberie 'Shrewsbury.' 

Another example of r loss is 'gAvana*, the prevaiHng pronunciation of governor in the North. 
That this is due to the other ;- sound and not to slovenly pronunciation is sho\Mi by the fact 
that the same speakers who say 'gAvana^ do not omit the r sound in governess, goverti, governing, 
governance, government, which have no second r. 

i?-dissimilation does not often occur in regions where r is pronounced only before a vowel, 
though it might occur there in such a word as preparatory if pronounced pa'pferajtori, and it 
may have operated in some words before a second r was dropped by the regular loss of r in the 
'r-less' regions. The loss of the first r in ES governor 'gAvanaCr is not due to r-dissimilation, for 
similar loss is regular in ES governess 'gAvanis, govern 'gAvan, which have no other r; and sur- 
prise in ES is sa'praiz for the same reason that survive in ES is sa'vaiv. 
. Other examples of dissimilation are: Bourchier (cf Bouclwr), Canterbury, cafercornered, 
caterpillar, elderberry, February, Marylebone, northerner, southerner, Northrup, Otterburn, 
paraphernalia, particular (the schoolmastered pronunciation par'tikjala^ is perhaps a reaction 
against this), Fendergast, reservoir, reverbatory, St. Bernard, thermometer, Watcrbury. 

The pronunciations sa'praiz and 'gAvana' are "correct" forms, not because they are phoneti- 
cally normal, but solely because they are in wide use b}' cultivated speakers. The same dis- 
similation is also seen in some pronunciations not so prevalent as to be generally acceptable; 
as Arthur, corner, interpret, perform, performance, proportion, secretary, Shrc-wsbury, Sicarth- 
more. 

ANGLICIZING 

§122. A pronouncing dictionary of English must deal with the pronunciation of foreign 
words that have become more or less a part of the English language. With wlioU}' foreign 
words it has, strictl)^ speaking, nothing to do. However, a few foreign words or phrases and 
some foreign names have been entered which are somewhat in use in America but which have 
as yet no settled English pronunciation. These are given with their foreign pronunciation 
only, and are so labeled. 

For the much larger body of foreign words that have become more or less Anglicized in use, 
meaning, and pronunciation, the editors follow the same guide as for fully English words — 



Anglicizing xlvii 

they try to ascertain and report cultivated usage. But it is just this area of the language in 
which usage is most unsettled and uncertain, and where dictionary editors must bring to bear 
certain linguistic principles to supplement the uncertain evidence of usage. Some of these 
principles and considerations are : — ■ 

(1) The EngUsh language has shown great vigor and stabiUty in assimilation of foreign 
material — in making it native. Until comparatively recent times foreign words fully adopted 
into EngUsh use have been adjusted to EngUsh laws of sound and accent. In Great Britain 
especially this is still usual. By radio one often hears foreign words pronounced in the English 
way by the best-educated leaders of that country; as, for example, the pronunciation 'n£ezi for 
Nazi. Whether or not this ever becomes a settled pronunciation, it shows the tendency; and 
many similar cases could be cited, which are in keeping with English tradition, and are by no 
means blunders." 

(2) The question often arises, Why not pronounce foreign words, especially names, with 
their foreign sounds? The answer, too Uttle understood, is simple: except for the fractional 
percentage who speak the foreign language like a native, it is impossible, as the history of 
sound changes in past borrowings clearly shows. Very few English sounds are exactly like the 
foreign ones or those spelt with corresponding letters. This is deceptive to those not expert 
in foreign language. Examples abound. Many apparently suppose, for example, that they are 
pronouncing Monticello as Italian when they call it jmanti'tjelo. In fact, they are giving ap- 
proximately the Italian sound to three out of the ten sounds (m, tj, e), and omitting one. An 
attempt, sometimes heard, to pronounce envelope in the French way by saying 'anvajop re- 
sults in giving approximately the French sound to the v and the p. The 1 and all the vowels 
are quite different, and the n is not in the French word. The pronunciation of the fully Ameri- 
canized name Valparaiso as jvalpa'raizo is not a very successful attempt at the Spanish 
jbalpara'iso. The American ga'ras has two consonants of the French gaVa:5 (g, 3, the r's 
being different) and one of its vowels — in the wrong syllable. The underlying fact is, that the 
speaker not fully conversant with a foreign language in attempting to imitate the foreign 
pronunciation substitutes his own nearest sounds for the foreign sounds, with a result unac- 
ceptable to the native speaker of the foreign language. 

Often, too, the attempt to use foreign pronunciations misses the mark. Thus the word valet 
is not from Modern French but from Old French, and has been English (with a t sound) for 
some 400 years. Neither of the hybrid pronunciations vae'le or Vaele comes very near to the 
French vaUe. The case of Calais is similar. For several centuries an EngUsh name (for 200 
years an EngUsh town), it was, and is, pronounced 'kaelis in the EngUsh way (like palace 
'paelis from OF palais), as in Shakespeare (spelt Callis, Callice) and later EngUsh poets (riming 
with malice, Alice). The present frequently heard kae'le, %aeli are as far from Modern French 
ka'lE or ka'le as vte'le or Vaeli is from French va'le. 

The attempt to show knowledge of a foreign language by similar rough or even ludicrous 
attempts at the foreign pronunciation often shows ignorance instead. Such inaccurate hybrid 
pronunciations are, however, often taken up by many otherwise well-informed speakers, and 
so get established in good use, in the same way that hundreds of other linguistic errors and 
blunders have attained to good standing (witness Dr. Johnson's recommendation of ache for 

10 See Brander Matthews's defense of this tradition in Society Jor Pure English Tract No. V. 



xlviii Miscellaneous Suggestions 

ake); and a dictionary based on usage must recognize them. Consequently many hybrid pro- 
nunciations of foreign derivatives are here given, for, however inaccurate, usage has estab- 
lished them. 

(3) Wherever there is room for doubt as to actual usage, however, our policy has been to 
lean toward the long-established English tradition of full Anglicizing. Certain foreign sounds 
will, if the words become general, inevitably shift to native English sounds — as French a is 
sure to become either English ae or a. In most cases the actual foreign pronunciation is added 
in parentheses, so that the user of the dictionary can adopt the foreign pronunciation if he 
chooses. And for those who prefer to follow the English tradition the appended foreign pro- 
nunciation may serve to show the inaccuracy of some of the attempted imitations. 

PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN WORDS 

§123. Latin words not usually being American colloquial EngUsh, as a rule only the orthodox 
English Latin pronunciation is given. The so-called Roman pronunciation is very inconsistent 
in actual practice. Some form of it is sometimes added if it has become widely current in actual 
use (cf cum laiide). 

MISCELLANEOUS SUGGESTIONS 

§124. L The Key to pronunciation found at the bottom of every pair of open pages in 
the vocabulary contains the common English sounds. Each illustrative word in 
boldface type shows the sound of both vowel and consonant symbols. For fuller 
information about the phonetic alphabet and its use in this book, see Introduc- 
tion, §§3-47. 

2. The basis of pronunciation in this dictionary is Cultivated Colloquial English — 
conversational style, not formal public address or public reading. For discussion 
of colloquial EngUsh, see Introduction, §§1-2. 

3. A Colloquialism is not a Localism or Slang. See Introduction, §§1-2, with the 
definition of Colloquial there quoted from Webster s New International Diction- 
ary, Second Edition. 

4. For acceptable pronunciations not regularly Usted in the vocabulary', see Intro- 
duction, Variants, §§90-119. 

5. Certain classes of words have Shifting or Variable Accent. For information on 
this and on accent and stress in general, see Introduction, §§48-54. 

6. For treatment of Regional Variations, see Introduction, §§76-85. 

7. For the pronunciation of Foreign Words, see §122 on .Anglicizing. 

8. Too much importance should not be attached to the Order in which the variant 
pronunciations are given in the vocabulary. Several factors govern this order. 
See Introduction, §§57-58. 

9. It is idle to insist on the "correct" pronunciation of words not )-et established in 
general oral use. The correct pronunciation will be whatever usage filially settles 
on, regardless of whether it agrees with etymolog}', spelling, or analog}'. 

10. "The pronunciation is the actual living form or forms of a word, that is, the word 



Miscellaneous Suggestions xlix 

itself, of which the current spelling is only a symbolization — generally, indeed, 
only the traditionally-preserved symbolization of an earlier form." — Oxford 
English Dictionary. 

11. "While we are entitled to display a certain fastidious precision in our saying of 
words that only the educated use, we deserve not praise but censure if we decline 
to accept the popular pronunciation of popular words." — H. W. Fowler, Dic- 
tionary of Modern English Usage. 

12. "I do not believe in the feasibility of imposing one particular form of pronuncia- 
tion on the English-speaking world." — Daniel Jones, An English Pronouncing 
Dictionary, 4th ed. 



ABBREVIATIONS 





Abbreviated names of English counties are listed 


in the vocabulary 


+ 


also 


Can 


Canada, -dian 


ahbr. 


abbreviation, -ated 


cf 


compare 


acct 


accent, -nation 


ch. 


church 


ace. to 


according to 


Chatic. 


Chaucer 


adj 


adjective 


cheni. 


chemistry 


adv 


adverb 


Chin 


China, -nese 


Afr 


Africa, -can 


CO. 


county 


Ala 


Alabama 


Col 


Colorado 


Alas 


Alaska 


colloq. 


colloquial, -ly 


Am 


American 


conj 


conjunction 


Amer 


America 


Conn 


Connecticut 


Am Sp 


American Spanish (with PI) 


cotis., conss. 


consonant, -nants 


anal. 


anatomy 


Cornw 


Cornwall 


Anglic. 


Anglicize, -d 


Climb 


Cumberland 


apos. 


apostle 


Czech 


Czechish 


Arab 


Arabic, Arabian 


Dan 


Danish 


arch. 


archaic 


dat 


dative 


Arg 


Argentine, -na 


Del 


Delaware 


Ark 


Arkansas 


Dev 


Devonshire 


art. 


article 


dial. 


dialect, -al, -ally 


attrih. 


attributive 


Du 


Dutch 


Austral 


Australia 


E 


Eastern, East 


aiix 


auxiliary 


Egyp 


Egypt, -ptian 


BBC 


British Broadcasting 


emph. 


emphatic, -phasis 




Corporation 


EN 


Eastern and Northern 


bef. 


before 


Eng 


English 


Belg 


Belgium, Belgian 


Engd 


England 


Bib. 


Bible 


erron. 


erroneous, -ly 


Bol 


Bolivia 


ES 


Eastern and Southern 


bar. 


borough 


esp. 


especially 


bot. 


botany, botanist 


etym. 


etymology 


Braz 


Brazil 


fern. 


feminine, female 


Brit 


British 


Fitd 


Finland 


C 


Canada, -dian 


Fla 


Florida 


c (before 




Flem 


Flemish 


numerals) 


circa, about 


Fr 


French 


c, cc (after 




freq. 


frequent, -ly 


numerals) 


century, -ries 


Ga 


Georgia 


CA 


Central America, -can 


gen 


genitive 


Col 


California 


geog. 


geograph}', -phic, -ically 


Camb 


Cambridge 


geol. 


geology 


(1) 













Abbreviations 


li 


geom. 


geometry, -trical 


Mod E 


Modern English 


Ger 


German 


M. of Ven. 


Merchant of Venice 


Gk 


Greek 


mt., mts. 


mountain, -s 


gram. 


grammar, -matical 


mus. 


music 


Heb 


Hebrew 


myth. 


mythology, -logical 


Hind 


Hindi 


N 


Northern, North 


hist. 


historical, -ly 


n 


noun 


Hung 


Hungarian 


naut. 


nautical 


la 


Iowa 


NB 


New Brunswick, Can. 


Ice 


Iceland, -ic 


NC 


North Carohna 


Id 


Idaho 


NEngd 


New England 


III 


Illinois 


Neth 


Netherlands 


Ind 


Indiana 


NH 


New Hampshire 


inf 


infinitive 


Nicar 


Nicaragua 


infreq. 


infrequent, -ly 


NJ 


New Jersey 


intj 


interjection 


NMex 


New Mexico 


Ir 


Irish 


Norw 


Norwegian 


Irel 


Ireland 


NY 


New York 


isl. 


island 


NYC 


New York City 


It 


ItaHan 


NZ 


New Zealand 


IW 


Isle of Wight 





Ohio 


Jap 


Japanese 


occas. 


occasional, -ly 


Kan 


Kansas 


OE 


Old English 


Ky 


Kentucky 


OED 


Oxford English Dictionary 


L 


Latin 




= Oxford Dictionary 


L.A. 


Linguistic Atlas of 


the US OF 


Old French 




and Canada 


o.f. 


old-fashioned 


La 


Louisiana 


Okla 


Oklahoma 


LI 


Long Island 


Oreg 


Oregon 


loc. 


local, -ly 


Oxf 


Oxford, -shire 


Land 


London 


Pa 


Pennsylvania 


Mass 


Massachusetts 


Pal 


Palestine 


math. 


mathematics 


perk. 


perhaps 


Md 


Maryland 


Pers 


Persia, -n 


ME 


Middle English 


pars 


person (grammar) 


Me 


Maine 


pers. 


personal 


meas. 


measure 


Pg 


Portuguese 


Mich 


Michigan 


Phil 


Philippine 


mil. 


military 


phil. 


philosopher 


Minn 


Minnesota 


PI 


Philippine Islands 


Miss 


Mississippi 


pi 


plural 


Mo 


Missouri 


poet. 


poetic, -al, poetry 


mod. 


modern 


Pol 


Polish 



Hi 


Abbreviations 




Port 


Portugal 


surg. 


surgery 


poss 


possessive 


Sus 


Sussex 


pptc 


past participle 


Sw 


Swedish 


prep 


preposition 


Swtz 


Switzerland 


pres 


present 


syl. 


syllable 


pro 


pronoun 


Tasm 


Tasmania 


prob. 


probably 


Tenn 


Tennessee 


pron. 


pronunciation, pronounce, 


Tex 


Texas 




pronounced 


trans 


transitive 


pic 


participle, -cipial 


unstr. 


unstressed 


rel 


relative pronoun 


Uru 


Uruguay 


relig. 


religion, -ious 


US 


United States 


RI 


Rhode Island 


V 


verb 


riv. 


river 


Va 


Virginia 


Rom 


Roman 


var. 


variant 


Rus 


Russian 


ml. 


village 


S 


Southern, South 


vocab. 


vocabulary 


SArner, SA 


South America, -can 


vole. 


volcano 


SC 


South CaroHna 


VOli). 


vowel, -s 


Sc 


Scottish, Scotch 


Vt 


Vermont 


Scand 


Scandinavian 


w 


Western, West 


schol. 


scholar 


w. 


with 


Scotl 


Scotland 


w- 


Webster^ s New Internatio7ial 


sculp. 


sculptor 




Dictionary, Second Edi- 


SD 


South Dakota 




tion 


sg 


singular 


Wash 


Washington (state) 


Shak. 


Shakespeare 


WI 


West Indies 


Som 


Somersetshire 


Wis 


Wisconsin 


Sp 


Spanish 


WPacif 


West Pacific 


sp. 


spelling, spelt 


WVa 


West Virginia 


sp. pr., sp. pron. 


spelling pronunciation 


Yks 


Yorkshire 



In the vocabulary, entries and other spelhng forms (except catchwords) are in light roman 
type, pronunciations and all sounds are in boldface, and explanatory matter is in italic (except 
the regional labels E, S, N, W). 

Occasionally, earher spellings of an entry word, with dates of their occurrence in records, 
are shown as evidence of pronunciation or of other significant facts in the history of the word. 
Cf. the entries Bicester, kiln. 



ADDENDA 



A PRONOUNCING DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN ENGLISH 



An asterisk (*) marks words already recorded in the main vocabulary. 
The plus sign (+) is to be read "also." 



adieux 2d pi of adieu* s^djuz, s^diuz, a'duz 

{Fr a'djo) 
Aguilar Col 'aegwijar; ES -ila:(r, E+-ila:(r 
Ahsahka Id a'saka 

Alamosa Col jaela'mosa, Zoc. +-'mus3, -si 
Algonquian*, -quin*+-nk- 
Amish 'anu/, 'smif 

Athol* NY 'eeal \A- Springs 'eGal, 'aeGal' 
Attu Alas isl. 'aetu 

bateaux pi of bateau* bae'toz (Fr ba'to) 
Baugh hs—frotn Bach, cf Reidenbach, Utah* 
Benld III loc. ba'nel, older b^n'£Id^ from Ben 

L. Dorsey — cf Gnadenhutten*, Ypres*, 

Yreka*, Yvonne*, in which also the name of 

a letter replaces its usual sound. 
Biloxi Miss ba'laksi, -'kk-; ES+-'lDk- 
Blackstone* cf variant spelling Blaxton 
Blanchester 'blaerijt/ESta', -t/is-; ES -t3(r 
Bogalusa La jboga'Iusa 
Bogoslof Isl. Alas 'boggSjlaf, -Jof, -jbf 
Bois Blanc Isl. Mich 'babjo'ailand; ES+ 

'bDb-;(i^>-bwa'bla) 
Boise* /i+'baizi 

Bollinger Mo 'babndsa^; ES -d33(r, 'bol- 
Bonar*, Horatius 'bana^; ES 'ban3(r, 'bon- 
Bon Homme SD ban'ham; ES+bDn'hDm 
Borger Tex 'barga^; ES 'baagaCr 
Boscawen* NH loc. 'baskwain, 'bos- 
Boston* +'b3St3n, 'bostan {§114) 
Botolph* loc.+h^hxA ^strit 
Bouckville NY 'baukvil 
Bouquet NY bo'ket, ba'ket 
Broadalbin NY brodblbin, -'aelbin 
Broome* N Y co. now more often brum 
Bruneau Id 'bruno 

Buchman 'bukman, 'bAk- {Ger 'buixmon) 
Buchraanism*, -ite* + 'bukman- 
Burleigh ND 'ba-h; ES 'bsh, 'byh 



BustiiVF'bAstai 

Cache Utah kae/ |-'s -iz 

Cadiz* spell Sp city Cadiz; pron.+lis^Aiz 

Cahaba Ala riv. ka'haba, ka'hoba 

Cahoon surname ka'hun — see Calhoon below 

Calhoon = Calhoun* — cf Colquhoun* 

Canaseraga NY jkaenasaVoga 

Canastota NY ^kaena'stota 

Caneadea NY ^kaena'dia ('Canea^dea 'Road) 

Canisteo NY jkaeno'stio 

Canyon de Chelly Ariz 'kaenjanda'/e 

Cape Girardeau Mo 'kepdsa'rardo, -da; ES 

-'ra:do, E+-'ra:do 
Capulin NMex mt. ka'pjuhn, ka'piuhn 
Celoron* iVF+'sda^ron, 'selaran 
Cerf surname syf ; ES ssf, sa^f 
charm var. sp. of chirm* 'din of birds' 
Chateaugay NY '/«t3,ge, '/aetagi 
Chehalis Wash tji'hehs |-'s -iz 
Cheney Am vils., surname 'tfini 
Cheningo iVF /a 'nrggo 
Chesuncook Me t/i'sAnkuk 
Chichester* NY 't/aiit/tsta-; ES -ta(r 
chile con carne, Ai 't/ilikan'karni, -kan'k-; 

ES -'ka:ni, -kon'k-, E + -'ka:ni 
Chittenango NY ytjitn'teogo, t/it'nsogo 
Churchill* +-jhil — c/ Northampton* 
Cleburne Ala, Ark, Tex 'kliba^n; ES 'kliban 
climatic klai'maetik [al -j |-ally -ji, -ikh 
Cochise Ariz ko'tjis |-'s -iz 
Coconino Ariz /koka'nino 
Coeur D'Alene Id jkardl'en; ES jkaad- 
cognizable*+kag'naiz3bl, kog- 
Columbiana ka^lAmbi'sena 
Combahee^C jkamba'hi; ES+jkom-; ('Com- 

ba^hee 'River) 
Conewango NY jkana'waggo, -wog-; ES + 

jkon- 



Key: See in fidl §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret jyet jet |sang saeg langry 'aeg-gri 
|bath bae8; E ba0 (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gardj |go go 
Ifull ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fstia |custom 'kAstam jwhile hwail jhow hau |toy tai 
I using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dij | vision 'visan |Eden 'idii [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipip 



Copyright, 1949, by G. & C. Merriam Co. 



(Hii) 



liv 



Addenda 



Corinth* NY, Vt, ^oc.+kaVmO, krinO 
Costilla Col kas'tia, kos-, -'tija (Am Sp 

kas'tija) 
coxcombic* at ES read: +hiy\is^knmik 
Coxsackie NY kuk'saki, kak-, -'saeki; ES + 

kttk- 
cross bun 'kras'bAn, 'kros- ('hot ^cross 'bun) 
Crummel, -mmles 'krAml(z) — from Cromwell 
Cunard* accent +as in 'Gurnard 'Line 
Cuprum Id 'kjupram, 'kiu-, 'ku-. 
Dahlia* NY vil. 'delia, 'delja; see p. vi 
Darien* Ga 'denan 
Depauville NY di'povil, di'povil 
De Ruyter NY di'iaita^; ES di'rait3(r 
Desha Ark da'/e 

dilettantes pi ^dila't^entiz ]-ti -'taanti 
diphosgene* + - 'f azd3in ; ES + - 'f dz- 
Domremy-la-Pucelle* + Domrem}'- dore'mi- 
Dorcheat La riv. 'dart/it; ES 'daat/it 
Dravosburg Pa dra'vosbyg; ES -bsg, -byg 
Dumas* Ark 'dumss, 'dju-, 'diu- 
Dunsanj'* Brit + dAn^sxni 
Duplin NC 'djuphn, 'diu-, 'du- 
Duryea Pa dur'je, 'durje; ES dua'je, 'duaje 
Ecorse Mich 'ikors; ES 'ikoas |-'s -iz 
Edgecombe NC, -comb Me, Wash 'edskam 
Edina Minn I'daina, i'dains 
Elberta el'bs^ta; ES el'bsta, el'byta 
elegiast I'lidjijaest, a'lidsijaest 
Eoanthropus* put }o^ssn6r9p3s first 
Ephrata Pa 'sfrata, Wasli I'freta 
Ephratah Bible 'efrata, NY I'freta 
Esarey, Logan 'ezari 
Etowah Ala, Tenn '£t3jwa, -iWn, -wa 
Eulalie Poe's poem jub'Ii (Fr ola'li) 
existentialism jEgzis'tEn/aljizam, ^eksis- 
Falconer* iV F + 'f aelkana^ ; ES 'faelkanaCr 
Faust* N Y village fast 
Fayette fe'et, fe'J£t ('Fay^ette 'City) 
Fernandina Fla ^fa^nan'dina; ES lisn-, ^fyn- 
Finisterre* add: (Sp jfinis'terre) 
Folsom Cal, NMex 'folsam, surname -o-, -a- 
Forsyth* NY loc. 'farsaiO; ES 'faasaiG 
Franconia NH fraeg'konia 
Fremont* NY loc. 'fremant, -mont 
frow 'free' fro |frow 'woman' frau 
Galway* N Y loc. 'gaelwe 
Gansevoort* NY 'gaenzva^t, -vurt; ES -vat, 

-vuat 



Ghent* NY, Minn g-, Ky ds-, WVa ds-, g- 
Godeffroy NY 'gadfri, 'gnd-, cf Godfrey* 
Gogebic Mich go'gibik 
Gouverneur* AT+zgAva'nur, ;guva-, §121, 

Zoc.+-'n3'; ES -'nua(r, -'n3(r, -'ny- 
Gouverneur Morris /gAvar'nir, ;gAva-, §121; 

ES /gAva'nia(r; ('Gouver,neur '^Morris) 
Gravenstein apple 'graevan/Stain, -jStin 
greengage 'grin'geds ('green^gage 'plum) 
Grosvenor 'grovna', NY bay loc. 'gravna-; ES 

-na(r, 'grDvna(r 
haberdasher* sometimes 'haeba^dae/a^ (§121) 
Hahn surname han, ban — cf Baugh, Utah* 
Hallowell 'hieb^wel, -wal. Me loc. 'hnl- 
Hampstead* + 'ha;msted, 'hamstid 
Hapsburg* see also Habsburg* 
Haralson Ga 'haeralsn 

Healdsburg Cal 'hildzbyg, -Iz-; ES -3-, -3^- 
Healdton Okla 'hildtan, 'hiltan 
Hempstead NY 'hempsted, 'htmst-, -stid 
Henlopen Del cape hen'lopan 
Henrico Va hen'raiko 

Hermosa Cal ha^'mosa, by-; ES ha-, hs-, by- 
Hialeah Fla ^baia'lia 
Hindman Ky 'bainman, 'baindman 
Holbrook Ariz, Mass 'bolbruk 
Honeoj'e NY 'bAiupi 
Hoosic* + 'buzik 
Houma La 'buma 
Huerfano Col 'werfajno, 'wy-; ES 'wea-, 

'w3-, 'wy-; /oc. + 'arfajno 
Hyndman Id mt. 'hainman, 'baindman 
Indianola la. Miss iindia'nola 
Ingraham* + 'iggram, 'ingrain 
Ischua NY 'i/ua, /oc + 'i/a^we — c/ Nashua* 
Ishpeming Mich 'i/pijinig 
Itawamba Miss ,ita'wainba, -'womba 
luka Miss ai'juka 

Jacquard* acct+as in 'Jac^quard 'loom 
Java* NY 'dseva 
Junana* + d3ul'jaena, dsiul- 
Kalevala* + 'kabjvala 
Kalispcll Mont ^kaela'spsl, 'kaela^spel 
Kegonsa Wis lake ki'gansa; ES+-'gDnsa 
Kinderhook NY 'kinda^^buk; ES 'kinda^huk 
Kineo Me mt. 'kini,o 
Kissimmee Fla ki'simi 
Koshkonong Wis 'kaJTiajnag; ES + 'koJka- 

iHog 
Kossuth* la ka'suG, ka-, ku- 



Key: See in fidl §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret Ij'et jet Isang sasg |angry '«g'gri 
jbath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wntj (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge garcJs |go go 



Addenda 



Iv 



Kotzebue Alas 'katsajbju, -jbiu; ES + 'knt- 

La Crosse Wis la'kros, -'krns |-'s -iz 

La Garita Cal Jaga'rita 

La Habra Cal b'habra 

Lampasas Tex laem'paesas 1-sas' -sas 

Lassellsville NY 'laaslzjVil — c/ Lascelles* 

Latah Id 'let3, le'ta— c/ Utah* 

Lavaca Tex b'vaeka 

Ledyard* + 'lEd33'd; ES 'kdsad 

Leelanau Mich 'lila^na 

Lenox var. sp. of Lennox* 'lenaks |-'s -iz 

leukemia, -kae- lu'kimia, Iiu- |-mic -mik 

Ligonier* acct+, esp. attrib., 'Ligo^nier 

literatus sg of literati* JitaVetas 

Livengood Alas vil., surname 'laivan^gud 

Lonaconing Md Jona'koniij 

Loogootee Ind la'goti 

Loup Nebr lup 

Lj'coming* Pa co. loc.+-^kova-, -'kAm-; NY 

vil. lai'komig 
McDermott mak'dymst; ES -'dsmat, -'ds'- 
McDiarmid mak'dynud; ES -'dsmid, -'dy- 
Mahopac NY 'meo^pjEk, 'meajpaek 
Mannering surname 'niaenarig = Man waring*, 

Mainwaring*, Maynwaring* 
Matteawan* NY+, esp. attrib., ^Mattea^wan 
Mazomanie Wis jmeza'meni, ^mezo- 
Mebane NC 'mtebin 
Montgomery* +m3nt'gAmri, -'gAman 
Montour* accent + as in 'Mon^tour 'Falls 
Morenci Mich moVensi 
Morris, Gouverneur, see Gouverneur Morris 
Munising Mich 'mjunasig, 'miunasig 
Muscatatuck Ind riv. mAs'kaet3;tAk 
Mycenae* NY loc. ma'sins — cf ma'zura 
Nauvoo* accent + as in 'Nau^voo 'streets 
Navarino NY jnaeva'raino 
Neligh Nebr 'nih 
Neodesha Kan ^niada'/e 
Nescopeck Pa 'neska^pEk 
Neshoba Miss ni'/oba 
Nevada* O loc. naVeda, ni- 
Newbem* Tenn + -h3^n; ES -bsn, -byn 
Newfane NY, Vt 'nju^fen, 'mu-, 'nu-; Vt loc. 

+ jNew'fane, also spelt New Fane 
Nisei 'nise, ni'se 

Nootka*+'nutka, 'nutka, 'nutka — c/ Utah* 
Nueces Tex nju'esis, niu-, nu- 
Nunda III, NY, loc. nAn'de 



Obion Tenn o'baian 

Oceana* WVa josi'aena 

Ocheltree Kan 'okl,tri, 'okjtri 

Ochiltree Tex 'akl.tri, 'akjtri; ES + 'ok-; Scotl 

'okjjtri, -tn (Sc 'oxd-, 'oxj-) 
Okanagan Can joka'nagan 
Okanogan Wash joka'nagan, -'nngan 
Okemah Okla o'kima, o'kima 
Oktibbeha Miss ak'tibijha; ES+nk- 
Olathe Kan o'leOi, a'leGi, -Ga 
Olean NY 'olijaen, joli'aen 
Olneyville RI 'oni,vil — cf OIney* 
Olustee Ala, Fla, Okla o'lAsti, a'Usti 
Onawa la 'anawa; ES + 'nnawa 
Onaway Mich 'anajwe; ES + 'nnajwe 
Onondaga* NY /oc. + jana'd3ga 
Onoville NY 'anajViI; ES + 'nnajViI 
Opelika Ala jOpaUaika, jopi'laika 
Oregonian pra'gonian, jor-, ,m- 
Oriskany NY a'nskani, o'riskam 
Orleans* US, accent +as in 'Orleans 'Co. 
Osakis Minn o'sekis j-'s -iz 
Oskaloosa la ^aska'lusa; ES + iDska'lusa 
Ossining* iVF +'asnig; ES+'osnig 
Otsego NY at'sigo; ES+ot'sigo 
Ottumwa la a'tAmwa, a'tAmwa; ES + 

n'tAmwa 
Outagamie Wis jauta'gaemi 
Ovid* Mich, NY, occas. pers. name 'ovid 
Owj'hee Id a'waihi, o'waihl 
Palestine* Tex loc. 'paelasjtin 
Palomar Cal jpaela'mar; ES -'ma:(r, E + 
-'ina:(r; accent+as in 'Palo^mar 'Mountain 
Passaconaway NH ^pfesa'kanaiWe; ES + 

-'kon- 
Pehlevi 'Pahlavi' 'pela^vi |Pehlvi 'pelvi 
Pend Oreille Id, Wash jpanda're, ipen- 
phosgene* + 'f azdsin ; ES + 'f ozdsin 
Picabo Id loc. 'pika^bu, elsewher e+^pikaihu 
pileated 'paik^etid, 'pili^etid 
Piqua* O+'pikwe — cf Pickaway* 
Pithecanthropus* ptit second pron. first 
Poestenkill NY 'pusn^kil, 'postn^kil 
princess* 5n7+prin'ses, but 'prinsis when at- 
trib., as in 'Princess 'Mary 
Pulaski* Z/^+pa'laeski, pju-, pm- 
Pushmataha Okla jpufma'taha, -'taha 
Puyallup Wash pju'aelap, piu'aelap 
Rahway NJ 'rawe 
Ramapo NY vil., NY, NJ riv. 'raemajpo 



|full ful Itooth tuG Ifurther 'fytJa*; ES 'fstSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Ivi 



Addenda 



Rangeley Me Vendsli 
Rantoul /// raen'tul ('Ran^toul 'schools) 
Raton* Col ra'tun, rae-; NMex ra'ton, ra- 
Reidenbach surname 'raidri/bD — cf Baugh 
Rensselaer* NY + ^tznsViT; ES -'i3(r; accent 

■\-as in 'Rensscjlaer 'boy 
Robson* surname + 'robsn 
Sabinal Tex jsaeba'nael ('Sabijnal 'bank) 
Sacandaga NY jsaekan'daga 
Sagadahoc* Me, put acct ,Sagada'hoc first 
Salida Col sa'laida {Sp sa'liSa) 
Salina Kan sa'Iaina 
Salinas Cal sa'linas |-'s -iz 
Saluda NC, SC, Va, Ind sa'luda 
San Bernardino* CaZ + -jbyn3'dino, §121 
Santanoni N Y jsaenta'noni ('Santajnoni 'Mt.) 
Sapulpa Okla sa'pAlpa 
sarsaparilla* + jsaespa'rila, jsaesapa- 
Saugerties NY 'sDga^tiz, -^tiz; ES 'saga- 
Sauquoit NY sa'kwait 
Schaefer, -ffer 'Jefa^; ES '/ef3(r 
Schaghticoke NY 'skaeti^kuk, 'Jati-, -jkok 
Schenevus NY ska'nivas |-'s -iz 
Schrader 'Jreda^; ES 'JredaCr 
Schroeder '/reda^, 'Jroda^; ES -d9(r; (Ger 

'Jroidar) 
Schuylkill* SE Pa /oc. + 'skukl 
sermonic sy'manik; ES S3-, sy-, -'monik 
Shafer 'Jefa^; ES 'Jef3(r 
Shaffer 'Jefa^, '/afa-; ES -f3(r 
shafts 'tinlls' fsevz, Jaefts; E+/a-, fa-; see 

§124.11 
Shelbina Mo Jel'baina 
shindig* occen/ + '/injdig 
slaver ^ slave dealer' 'sleva'; ES 'slev3(r 
slaver 'drool' 'sl«v3^; ES 'sla^v^(r; |-ed -d j-ing 

'slaevario, 'slaevrig 
soot* cf boot but, foot f ut, flood fUd 
submersible sab'mysabl; ES -'mss-, -'mys- 
Suckow surname 'suko 
Suffolk* + 'sAf3k 
Sylacauga Ala jSila'koga 
Tahoe Cal 'taho, 'teho 
Talcott, Tallcott 'talkat, 'taelkat 
Talladega Ala jtaela'diga 
Tallulah La ta'lub 

Taughannock Falls NY ta'gaenak, ta'gaenak 
Tazewell III, Va 'taezwel, 'tezwel, -wal 
Tehuacana Tex ti'wakana, -'wnk- 
Tidioute Pa 'tidijut, jtidi'ut 
Tionesta Pa jtaia'nesta 
Totowa NJ 'totawa 



Tucumcari NMex 'tukam/keri, -;kaeri; S -ae- 

Tuolumne Cal 'twalamni, 'twDlamni 

Tuscola Mich, III tAs'kola 

Tyrone* Pa, acct + as in 'tai^ron 'strits 

Uhrichsville 'junks, vil 

Umatilla Or eg juma'tila 

Unadilla iVF Juna'dila, ^oc. + iAn3'dil3; acct-^ 

as in 'Una/dilla 'Forks 
Upshire Engd 'Ap/ir, -JV; ES -J'i3(r, -Jafr 
Upshur surname, WVa co. 'Apja^; ES 'Ap/3(r 
Uvalde Tex ju'vaeldi 

Valois 'vaelwa, -wd {Fr va'lwa), NY va'bis 
Vandalia Am places vaen'delja 
Venango Pa, Nehr va'naeggo 
Venezuela* + jV8nzu'il3, jvenazu'Ila 
Vergennes Vt, III va^'dsEnz; ES va-; |-'s -iz 
vernacular* +va'naekjal3' {§121) 
Vevay Swtz Co. Ind 'vivi, older vi've {§6) 
Vevey Switzerland va've {Fr va've) 
Vienna* sojne Am places +\ai^en3 
Vigo Ind 'vaigo, 'vigo 
Vinita Okla va'nita 
Waban Mass 'waban 
Wabasha Minn 'wabaj/a, 'woba-, 'waba- 
Wadena Minn wa'dina, wo'dina 
Waha Id 'waha — cf Omaha*, Utah*, Baugh 
Walthall Miss 'walt.hal— c/ Waltham* 
Wamego Kan wa'migo, wn-, wa- 
Wappingers iV I" 'wapindsa^z, 'wop-; ES -dsaz 
Wasatch 'wasaetj", wa'saetj ('Wa^satch '!Mts.) 
Washingtonian jwa/ig 'toman, jwa/-, iWo/- 
Washtenaw Mich '\vaXta,na, 'wdJ-, 'waj- 
Watauga NC, Tenn wa'taga, wo'taga, \va- 
Watervliet NY 'wata^jvlit, 'wa-, 'wd-, -vl,It; 

ES -ta-; acci+jWater'vliet 
Watseka III wat'sika, wot'sika 
Waubesa Wis lake wa'bisa 
Waunakee Wis ,wana'ki ('Wauna,kee 'mail) 
Waupaca Wis wa'paska 
Waupun Wis wa'pAn ('Wau^pun 'schools) 
Wauseon 'wasiyon, -/Dn, jwasi'an, -'on 
Weehawken NJ wi'hakan 
Weiser Id 'wiza^; ES 'wiza(r 
Wetumka Okla wi'tAmka |-mpka Ala wi- 

'tAmpka 
WigtowTishire* put 'wigtaniJir//-^/ 
Winder Ga 'wainda^; ES 'wainda(r 
Winnetka III wi'netka 
Wolcott* iVF/oc. 'walkat 
woollen variant spelling of woolen* 
Zeigler /// 'zigla^; ES 'zigla^r 
Ziebach SD 'zi'bak, -'ba, -'ba — cf Baugh 



A 
PRONOUNCING DICTIONARY 

OF 

AMERICAN ENGLISH 



abidance 



A, a letter e \pl A's, As, poss A's ez 


abbreviation ajbrivi'e/an 


a indef. art. a, emph. or hesitating e — The use 


ABC 'e'bi'si lABC's, ABCs 'e'bi'siz ('A.B'C 


of e, the stressed form of a, in places where 


jbook) 


the tmstressed a belongs, often gives an arti- 


abdicate 'aebda^ket |-cated -^ketid 


ficial effect to public address. 


abdication jaebda'ke/an 


a, a- unstressed form of on a (a begging, a-foot. 


Abdiel 'aebdial, -diel, -dj- 


afire) 


abdomen 'asbdaman, aeb'doman, ab- 


Aachen 'akan, 'oxan (Ger 'arxan) 


abdominal aeb'daman], ab-; ES+-'dDm-; 


Aaron 'eran, 'aeran, 'eran; S 'aeran, 'eran 


l-ly-i 


abaca ,aba'ka 


abduce aeb'djus, -'dius, -'dus |-s -iz \-d -t 


aback a'baek 


abduct aeb'dAkt, ab- \-ed -id |-ction -k/an 


abacus 'aebakas |-es -iz |-ci -jsai 


abeam a'bim 


abaft a 'baef t ; E + a 'baft, a 'baft 


abecedarian jebisi'derian, -'der- 


abalone, A- (aeba'loni 


A Becket, -ett a'bekit 


Abana 'aebana 


abed a 'bed 


abandon n a'baendan (Fr aba'do) 


Abednego a'bednijgo 


abandon v a'baendan |-ed -d 


Abel 'ebl 


abase a'bes |-s -iz |-d -t j-dly -idli 


Abelard 'sebl^ord; ES 'aebl,a:d; (Fr abe'larr) 


abash a'baef |-es -iz j-ed -t |-edly -idli 


Aberdeen jaeba^'din; ES jaeba'din; ('Aber^deen 


abatable a'betabl 


'Angus) |-shire -fir, -JV; ES -/ia(r, -J"a(r 


abate a 'bet | abated a 'betid 


Abergavenny Eng town jaeba^ga'veni, family 


abatis 'aebatis, a'baetis |-es -iz |-ed -t 


jaeba^'geni, Shak. Aburgany jaeba^'geni; ES 


abattoir jaeba'twar, -'twar; ES -'twa:(r. 


iseha- 


-'twaa(r; (Fr aba'twa:r) 


aberrance aeb'erans |-ancy -ansi |-ant -ant 


abbacy 'aebasi 


aberration /aeba're/an 


Abbana 'aebana 


Aberystwyth ,aeb3^'istwi6 


abbe 'aebe, ae'be (Fr a^be) 


abet a'bet |-ted -id |-ter, -tor -a^; ES -a(r 


abbess 'aebis, 'aebes |abbesses 'aebisiz 


abeyance a'beans j-ant -ant 


Abbeville US 'aebi^vil; S+-vl; France ab'vil 


abhor ab'har, aeb-; ES -'haa(r; |-red -d 


abbey 'aebi | Abbey ville, Abby- 'aebi^vil 


abhorrence ab'harans, aeb-, -'hot-, -'hor- 


abbot 'aebat 


|-ent -ant 


Abbotsford 'aebatsfa^d; ES 'aebatsfad 


Abhorson ab'harsn; ES -'haasn 


abbreviate a'brivi,et l-ated -,etid 


abidance a'baidns 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angry 'aeg-gri 
Ibath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa Igorge gards |go go 
|full ful I tooth tu6 [further 'fytla^; ES 'fstJa |custom 'kAstam | while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dif [vision 'visan |Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



abide 



abstain 



abide a'baid \past abode a'bod or abided 


Abou ben Adhem 'aebubEn'aedam, 'abuben- 


a'baidid \pptc abode a'bod or abided 


'ad£m 


d'baidid, rarely abidden a'bidn 


abound a'baund |-ed -id 


Abigail 'aebajgel, 'aebagl 


about a'baut 


Abijah a'baidsa 


about-face n a'baut^fes |-s -iz 


Abilene US 'aebajin, Syria jaeba'lini 


about-face v a,bact'fes |-s -iz |-d -t 


ability a'bilati 


about-ship v a^baut'/ip |-ped -t 


Abimelech a'bimSjkk 


above a'bAV 


Abinadab a^bina^daeb 


aboveboard a'bAv^bord, -^bard; ES -;boad. 


Abingdon 'aebigdan |-gton -tan 


E+-jbaad 


ab initio 'asbi'niJijO 


aboveground a'bAv^graund 


abject aeb'dsekt, 'aebdsekt ('abj'ect 'look) 


abrade a 'bred, aeb'red |-d -id 


abjection aeb'dsekjan 


Abraham 'ebrajham, 'ebri-, -ham 


abjuration jaebdsu'rc/an 


Abram 'ehram 


abjure ab'dgur, aeb-, -'dsiur; ES -'dsuaCr, 


abrasion a'bresan, aeb'r- |-sive -siv, -ziv 


-'d3iu3(r; |-d -d 


abreaction ,aebri'aBk/an 


ablation aeb'le/an 


abreast a'brtst 


ablative 'aeblativ, 'aebhtiv 


abridge a'brids |-s -iz |-d -d |-dly -idh 


ablaut 'ablaut, 'aeblaut {Ger 'aplaut) 


abroad a 'brad 


ablaze a'blez 


abrogable 'aebragabl 


able 'ebl [-ler 'ebla^; ES -l3(r; 1-lest 'eblist 


abrogate 'aebrajget, -ro- | -gated -igetid 


-able unstressed ending -abl — often omitted 


abrogation jjebra'ge/an, -ro- 


from the vocab. when the pron. can be found 


abrupt a'brApt, aeb'r Apt 


by adding -abl to the head pron. The corre- 


Absalom 'aebsalam 


sponding adverb ending /s -ably -abh. For 


abscess 'aeb^ses, -sis |-es -iz |-ed -t 


the addition of -bly -bh when the head word 


abscissa aeb'sisa |-s -z j-sae -si 


does not end in -able, see the suffix -bly. 


abscission asb'sisan, aeb'si/an 


able-bodied 'ebl'badid; ES+-'bDd-; ('able- 


abscond aeb'skand, ah-; ES-H-'skond; |-ed 


-bodied 'man) 


-id 


ablution aeb'lujan, ab-, -'liu/an 


absence 'aebsns [absences 'aebsnsiz [-sent 


ably 'ebb 


-snt 


abnegate 'aebnijget |-gated -igetid 


absent v asb'sent, ab- |-ed -id 


abnegation jaebni'ge/on 


absentee jaebsn'ti ('absen^tee 'land^lord) 


Abner 'aebna^; ES 'aebnaCr 


absent-minded 'aebsnt'maindid 


abnormal aeb'narml, ab-; ES -'naaml; |-ly -i 


absinthe, -th 'aebsinO, aeb'smO 


abnormality jaebnar'tnaelati; ES -na'maelati 


absolute 'aebsajut, -,hut, -sljut |-ly -h, 


abnormity seb'narmati; ES -'naamati 


empli. + ^abso'lutely, 'abso'lutely 


aboard a 'bord, a'b3rd;ES a'boad, E+a'baad 


absolution jaebsa'luj"an, -'hu/an, -sl'jujan 


abode a'bod 


absolutism 'aebsalutjizam, -hut-, -sjjut- 


abolish a 'bob/; ES+a'bol-; |-es -iz |-ed -t 


absolutist 'aBbsa;lutist, -^hut-, -sjj'utist 


abolition jaeba'b/an |-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 


absolve aeb'salv, ab-, -'sdIv, -'z- |-d -d 


abominable a'bamnabl, -man-; ES+a'bom-; 


absorb ab'sarb, aeb-, -'z-; ES -aab; |-ed -d 


1-bly -bh 


|-edly -idh 


abominate a'bamajnet; ES+a'bom-; |-d -id 


absorbefacient abiSarba'fe/ant, aeb-, -jZ-; ES 


aboriginal jaeba'ridsanl |-ly -i ]-ne -^ni 


-aab- 


abort a'bart; ES a'baat; |-ed -id 


absorbent ab'sarbant, aeb-, -'z-; ES -aab- 


aborticide a'barta^said; ES a'baata- 


absorption ab'sarpjan, aeb-; ES -'saap-; 


abortifacient ajbarta'te/ant; ES a^baata- 


|-tive -tiv 


abortion a'barjan; ES a'baa/an 


abstain ab'sten, aeb- |-ed -d 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee hi |pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg langr^^ 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeO; E ba6 (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wot/, wntj (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



abstemious 



accordion 



abstemious aeb'stimias, ab-, -mjas 

abstention aeb'stenjan, ab- 

absterge aeb'styds, ab-; ES -'stsds, -'styds; 

|-s -iz |-d -d I -gent -ant 
abstersion aeb'sty/an; ES -'sts/-, -'st3\f- 
abstinence 'aebstanans |-s -iz 
abstract adj aeb'straekt ('abiStract 'thought) 
abstract n 'aebstraekt 
abstract v aeb'straekt, ab-; 'abridge,' 'trace 

title' 'aebstraekt |-ed -id 
abstractedly aeb'straektidh 
abstraction aeb'straekjan, ab- |-tive -tiv 
abstriction aeb'strik/an 
abstruse aeb'strus, ab-, -'strius 
absurd ab'syd, aeb-, -'z-; ES -sd, -s'd; |-ity 

-ati 
Abukir jfebu'kir, ^a-, a'buka^; ES -'kia(r, 

-ka(r 
abulia a'bjuha, a'biul-, ^aebju'lia 
abundance a'bAndans [abundant a'bAndant 
Abury 'ebari = Avebury 
abuse ft a'bjus, a'bius |-s -iz 
abuse v a'bjuz, a'biuz |-s -iz |-d -d 
abusive a'bjusiv, a'biusiv 
abut a'bAt j-ted -id ]-ment -mant |-tal -1 
Abydos a'baidas, -das; ES+-dDs; [-'s -iz 
abysm a'bizam [abysmal a'bizml |-ally 

-zmji 
abyss a'bis |-es -iz [-al -1 
Abyssinia jseba'sinia, -'sinja |-n -n 
acacia a'ke/a 
academe jseka'dim 

academic ^aeka'demik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 
academician ajkaeda'mi/an, /jekada- 
academicism jaeka'demajSizam 
academy a'kaedami 

Acadia a'kedia, -dja |-n -n — see also Cajun 
acanthus a'kaenOas |-es -iz |-thi -6ai 
a cappella 'a ka'pela (// jakkap'pella) 
acariasis ^aeka'raiasis 
acarid 'aekarid 
acatalectic ejkaetl'ektik, a-, ae-, jckaetl-, 

/aekaetl- 
acaudal e'kadl, a-, ae- 
Accad 'aekaed = Akkad 
Accadia a'kedia, a'ka-, -dja |-dian -dian, 

-djan 
accede aek'sid, ak- [-ceded -'sidid 
accelerable aek'selarabl, ak- 



accelerando aekjsela'raendo, ak- (It at^t/ele- 

'rando) 
accelerant aek'selarant, ak- 
accelerate aek'selajret, ak- [-rated -^retid 
acceleration aekjsela're/an, ak-, ^aeksela- 
accelerative aek'selajretiv, ak- [-tor -ta^; ES 

-ta(r 
accent n 'aeksent, less freq. 'aeksnt 
accent v 'aeksent, aek'sent, ak- [-ed -id 
accentual aek's£nt/ual, ak- [-ly -i 
accentuate aek'sentju/ct, ak- |-ated -^etid 
accentuation aek^SEnt/u'e/an, ak-, ^aeksent/u- 
accept ak'sept, ik-, aek- |-ed -id [-able -abj 

[-bly -bli 
acceptability akjsepta'bilati, ik-, ak-, 

^aeksepta- 
acceptance ak'stptans, ik-, aek- |-s -iz 
acceptation ^aeksEp'teJan 
access 'aekses [-es -iz 
accessary aek'sesari, ak- |-ries -riz 
accessibility aekjsesa'bilati, ak-, ^aeksesa- 
accessible aek'sEsabl, ak- j-bly -bli 
accession aek'se/an, ak- |-ed -d 
accessorial ^aeksa'sorial, -'sar-; S -'sor- 
accessory aek'sesari, ak- 
accidence 'aeksadans [-dent -dant 
accidental ^aeksa'dentl [-ly -i 
acclaim a'klem [acclaimed a'klemd 
acclamation ^aekla 'me/an 
acclimate a'klaimit, 'aekla^met [-d -id 
acclimation ^aekla 'me/an 
acclimatization ajklaimata'ze/an, -ai'z- 
acclimatize a'klaimajtaiz |-s -iz [-d -d 
acclivity a'klivati 
accolade ,aeka'led, -'lad j-d -id 
Accomac 'aeka^maek 
accommodate a'kamajdet; ES-h-'kom-; [-d 

-id 
accommodation ajkama'dejan; ES-i--,kDm- 
accompaniment a'kAmpanimant, a'kAmpni- 
accompanist a'kAmpanist, a'kAmpnist 
accompany a'kAmpani [-nyist -mist 
accomplice a'kamplis; ES-i--'kDin-; j-s -iz 
accompHsh a'kamph/; ES^-'kom-; |-es -iz 

[-ed -t 
accord a'kard; ES a'kaad; |-ed -id 
accordance a'kardns; ES a'kaad-; |-dant 

-dnt 
accordion a'kardian; ES a'kaadian 



[full ful jtooth tu6 [further 'fy'Sa'; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail jhow hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fmz jdish dif [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



accost 



acrimony 



accost a'kost, a'kost |-ed -id 


ache ek | ached ekt — Before 1700 the verb was 


accouchement a'ku/ma, -mant {Fr akuj'ma) 


spelt ake, and the noun was pronounced etj. 


accoucheur jaekulfs^; ES ;aeku'/3(r, -'Jy; (Fr 


pi 'etjiz. 


akulfoerr) 


Achean a'kian 


accoucheuse ^aeku'/sz |-s -iz {Fr akujoiz) 


Acheron 'aekajtan, -ran; ES+-jrt)n 


account a'kaunt |accounted o'kauntid 


achieve a'tjiv |-d -d |-ment -mant 


accountabiUty ajkaunta'bilati 


Achilles a'kiliz |-es' -iz 


accountable a'kauntabl |-bly -bli 


Achitophel a'kita^fel 


accountancy a'kauntansi |-tant -tant 


achromatic ,aekra'maetik, -ro- ('achro,matic 


accouter, -tre a'kuta^; ES 3'kut3(r; l-(e)d -d 


'lens) 


accredit a'kredit [-ed -id 


achromic e'kromik, a-, ae- 


accrete a'krit, ae'krit j-d -id 


acid 'aesid [acidic a'sidik, ae'sidik 


accretion a'kri/an, ae'kri/an 


acidify a'sida^fai, ae- |-fied -,faid 


accrual a'krual, a'kriual, ae- 


acidimeter jaesi'dimata^j ES -ta(r 


accrue a'kru, a'kriu, ae- |-d -d 


acidity a'sidati, ae- 


accumbency a'kAmbansi |-bent -bant 


acidosis ,aesi'dosis 


accumulate 3'kjumJ3,let, a'kium- |-d -id 


acidulate a'sidsa^let, ae- [-d -id |-lous -las 


|-tive -IV |-tor -a^; ES -3(r 


aciform 'aesi,farm; ES -;faam 


accumulation ajkjumja'le/an, 3jkium- 


acknowledge ak'nalids, aek-, ik-, -ad5; ES+ 


accuracy 'aekjarasi 


-'nol-; l-d -d 


accurate 'aekjarit 


aclinic e'klinik, a-, ae- 


accursed a'kysid, -st; ES a'kss-, a'kys-; 


acme 'aekm^, 'aekmi 


|-sedly -sidli 


acne 'aekni, 'aekni 


accurst afest; ES a'ksst, a'kyst 


acolyte 'akajlait 


accusal a'kjuzl, s^kiuzl 


Acoma 'aka;ma, -ma 


accusation jaekja'ze/an, ^aekju- 


acorn 'eka-n, 'ekam; ES 'ekan, 'ekaan ; — The 


accusative a'kjuzativ, a'kiuz- 


second pron. arises from false etymology. 


accusatorial ajkjuza'torial, a^kiuz-, -'tar-; 


acotyledon ,ekatl'idn, a,kat-, ae^kat-; ES+ 


S -'tor- 


-Dt-; j-ous -'idnas, -'ednas 


accusatory a'kjuzajtori, a'kiuz-, -jtari; S 


acoustic a'kustik, a'kaustik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 


-jtori 


-ikli 


accuse a'kjuz, a'kiuz |-s -iz |-d -d 


acoustician ^aekus'ti/an, -kaus-, a^kus-. 


accustom a'kAStam |-ed -d 


a^kaus- 


ace es ]aces 'esiz 


acquaint a'kwent |-ed -id 


acentric e'sentrik, a-, ae- 


acquaintance a'kwentans |-s -iz 


acephalous e'sefalas, a-, ae- 


acquiesce ,aekwi'es |-s -iz |-d -t |-nce -ns |-nt 


acerbate v 'aesa^^bet; ES 'aesa-; |-d -id 


-nt 


acerbate adj a'sybit; ES a'ssb-, a'syb- 


acquire a'kwair; ES a'kwaia(r; |-d -d |-rable 


acerbity a'sybati; ES a'ssb-, a'syb- 


-abl 


acetamide jaesa'taemaid, a'setajinaid, -mid 


acquisition ^aekwa'zi/an 


|-mid -mid 


acquit a'kwit ]-ted -id |-tal -1 |-tance -ns 


acetanilide jaesa'taenl^aid, -lid |-lid -hd 


acre 'eka^; ES 'eka(r 


acetate 'aesa^tet |-tated -^tetid 


acreage 'ekarids, 'ekrids |-s -iz 


acetic a'sitik, a'setik 


acre-foot 'eka^'fut; ES 'eka-; |-feet -'fit 


acetify a'seta^fai |-fied -ifa,id 


acre-inch 'eka^'mt/ |-es -iz 


acetone 'aesa, ton 


acrid 'aekrid |-ine -jln, -in |-in -in 


acetyl 'aesa^til |-ene a's£tl;in 


acridity ae'kridati, a- 


Achaea a'kki |Achaia a'kea, a'kaia |-n -n 


acrimonious ,aekra'monias, -njas 


Achates a'ketiz |-tes' -tiz 


acrimony 'aekra,moni 



Key: See in fidl §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang sjeg [angrj^ 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E ba6 (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watf, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards |go go 



acrobat 



ad interim 



acrobat 'aekra^baet 


add aed [added 'aedid 


acrobatic jaekra'baetik [-al -1 [-ally -li, -ikli 


Addams 'aedamz |Addams's ^aedamziz 


acrogen 'aekradsan, -dsin 


addend 'aedend, a'dend 


acromegalic ;aekroini'gaelik |-megaly -'niEgah 


addendum a'dendam, ae- |-da -da 


acrophobia jsekra'fobia 


adder 'aeda^; ES Wa(r 


acropolis a'krapahs; ES+-'krDp-; |-lises 


addible 'aedabl 


-lisiz \Gk pi -leis -jles 


addict n 'aedikt 


across a'krDS, a'kros 


addict TJ a'dikt |-ed -id |-ction -k/an 


acrostic a'krastik, a'kros- 


Addis Ababa 'aedis'ababa, 'adis- 


act aekt | acted 'ijektid 


Addison 'aedasn 


Actaeon aek'tian 


additament a'ditamant 


actinic aek'tinik |-ally -Ii, -ikh 


addition a'di/an, ae- |-al -1 |-ally -li 


actinism 'aektmjizam 


additive 'aedativ 


actinium ^ek'tiniam 


addle 'aedl |-d -d |-ling 'aedhg, 'aedho 


action 'aek/an |-able -abl, -/nabl |-bly -bli 


addlebrain 'aedj^bren 


Actium 'sektiam, 'aekjiam 


addlebrained 'aedl'brend ('addle-brained 'boy) 


activate 'aekt3,vet |-vated -^vetid 


addleheaded 'aedl'hgdid 


activation jaekta've/an 


addlepated 'aedl'petid 


active 'aektiv |-vism -jizam |-vist -ist 


address n a'dres, 'fedres |-es -iz 


activity aek'tivati 


address v a'dres |-es -iz |-ed -t 


actor 'aekta-; ES 'aekta^r 


addressee adres'i, ^aedres'i 


actress 'aektris |-es -iz 


adduce a'djus, a'dius, a'dus [-s -iz |-d -t 


actual 'aekt/ual, -t/ul 


adducible, -ceable a'djusabl, a'dius-, a'dus- 


actuality jaekt/u'aelati 


adduct a'dAkt |-ed -id 


actually 'aektjuali, -tjuh, -t/ah 


adduction a'dAkJan |-tive -tiv |-tor -ta^; ES 


actuarial jaskt/u'enal, -'er- 


-ta(r 


actuary 'aekt/u^eri 


Adel e'del 


actuate 'aekt/ujCt ]-ated -jCtid 


Adela 'aedla 


acuity a'kjuati, a'kmati 


Adelaide 'aedj^ed 


acumen a'kjumm, a 'km-, -man 


Adelbert 'aedlba't, a'dflbat, college a'delba^t; 


acute a'kjut, a'kiut 


ES -bat 


acyclic e'saikkk, e'sik- 


Adelina jaedl'aina, -'Ina 


A.D. 'e'di, 'aeno'damajnai; ES+-'dDm- 


Adeline 'jedljain, -jin 


ad aed 


Adelphi a'delfi, -fai 


Ada(h) leda 


Aden 'edn, 'adn 


adage 'aedidj |-s -iz 


adenoid 'aednpid |-ism -jizam 


adagio a'dadso, a'dadsijO {It a^daidso) 


adenoidal ^aedn'aidl 


Adair a'der, a'daer; E s'deaCr, ES a'daeaCr 


adept n 'aedept, a'd£pt 


Adaline 'aedl^ain, -jin 


adept adj a'dept 


Adam 'aedam |Adams 'aedamz |Adams's 


adequacy 'aedakwasi |-quate -kwit 


'aedamziz 


adhere ad'hir, aed-; ES -'hia(r, S+-'h£a(r; 


adamant 'aedajinaent 


|-nce -ans |-nt -ant 


adamantine jaeda'maentin, -tin, -tain 


adhesion ad'hisan, aed- |-sive -siv 


x\damic, Louis 'lui'aedamik, 'luis-, 'liui(s)- 


adhibit aed'hibit |-ed -id 


adapt a'daept |-ed -id 


ad hoc 'aed'hak; ES+-'hDk 


adaptability a^dsepta'bilati 


ad hominem 'aed'hamainem; ES+-'hDm- 


adaptable a'daeptabl 


adieu a'dju, a'diu, a'du 


adaptation ^aedap'te/an, ^aedaep- 


ad infinitum 'aedjinfa'naitam 


adaptive a'daeptiv 


ad interim 'aed'intarim 



|full ful jtooth tu6 [further 'fytia^; ES 'fsSa [custom [kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



adipose 



advance 



adipose 'aedajpos 




ad nauseam 'ad'na/i^aem, often -'naz-. 


adiposity jseda'pasati; ES+-'pras- 




-'nas- 


Adirondack jfledaVondaek; ES+-'rDn- 




ado a'du 


adit 'aedit 




adobe a'dobi 


adjacency a'dsesnsi |-cent -snt 




adolescence /aedl'esns |-cy -i [-cent -snt 


adjectival jaedsik'taivl, 'aedsiktivj |-ly - 


i 


Adolf, -Iph '«dalf, 'sednlf, 'ed- 


adjective 'aedsiktiv |-ly -li 




Adolphus a'dalfas, a'dnl- |-'s -iz 


adjoin a'dsain |-ed -d |-edly -idli, a'dsamdli 


Adonais ^aeda'ne-is |-'s -iz 


adjourn a'ds^n; ES a'dssn, 3'd3yn; |- 


ed -d 


Adonijah ^aeda'tiaidsa 


adjudge a'dgAds |-s -iz |-d -d 




Adonis a'donis |-'s -iz 


adjudicate 3'd3udijket, a'dsm- |-d -id 




adopt a'dapt; ES+a'dnpt; |-ed -id 


adjudication ajdsudi'ke/an, Sidsiu- 




adoptability a,dapta'bilati; ES+ajdnp- 


adjunct 'aedsAgkt 




adoptable a'daptabl; ES+a'dop- 


adjuration jaedsu'rejan 




adoption a'dapjan; ES+a'dop-; |-tive -tiv 


adjure a'dsur, a'dsiur; ES -3(r; |-d -d 




adorable a'dorab}, a'dar-; S a'dor-; |-bly 


adjust a'dsAst |-ed -id |-able -abj 


l-bly 


-bh 


-bh 




adoration ^aedaVe/an 


adjutancy 'aedjatansi |-tant -tant 




adore a'dor, a'dar; ES a'doa(r, E+aMaa(r; 


Adler 'adla^, '«d-; ES -la(r 




l-d-d 


ad-lib V aed'lib |-bed -d 




adorn a'dam; ES a'daan; |-ed -d 


ad libitum 'aed'hbitam 




adown a'daun 


administer ad'minast*, aed-; ES -ta(r 


l-ed 


adrenal aed'rinl |-in aedVenlin 


-d |-ing -tang, -trio 




Adrian 'edrian [Adriana jcdri'aena, -'ana 


administrable ad'minastrabl, aed- 




Adrianople ycdrian'opl 


administrate ad'mina^stret, aed- |-d -id 


!-tive 


Adriatic jedri'aetik 


-IV 




adrift a 'drift 


administration adjinina'strej'an, aed-, 


jaed- 


adroit a'drait 


raina- 




adsorb aed'sarb; ES -'saab; |-ed -d 


administrator ad'minajstreta', aed-; ES 


-ta(r 


adsorption aed'sarp/an; ES -'saap/an 


administratress adjinina'stretris, ^aedmina- 


adulate 'aedsa^let |-d -id |-tion jaedsa'le/an 


|-es -iz 




adulatory 'aadsala^tori, -jtari; S -^tori 


administratrix adjimna'stretriks, ^aedmina- 


Adullam a'dAlam |-ite -jait 


|-es -IZ 1-trices -tri^siz 




adult a'dAlt, 'aedAlt ('a,dult 'school) 


admirable 'aedmarabl |-bly -bli 




adulterant a'dAltarant, -trant 


admiral 'aedmaral |-ty -ti 




adulterate adj a'dAltarit, -^ret 


admiration jaedmaVeJan 




adulterate v a'dAlta,ret -d -id 


admire ad'mair; ES -'maia(r; |-d -d 


l-dly 


adulteration a^dAlta're/an 


-idh, -dh 




adulterer a'dAltara^; ES -tara(r; j-tery -tan, 


admissibility adjinisa'bilati, aed- 




-tri 


admissible ad'misabl, aed- |-bly -bli 




adulteress a'dAltans, -tris |-es -iz 


admission adW/an, aed- 




adulterine a'dAltarin, -jtain 


admit ad'mit, aed- |-ted -id |-tance -ns 




adulterous a'dAltaras, -tras 


admix aed'miks, ad- |-es -iz |-ed -t 




adumbrate aed'Ambret, 'aedam^bret |-d -id 


admixture aed'mikst/a', ad-; ES -t/a(r 




adumbration j£edam'bre/an, jaedAm- 


admonish ad'manij, aed-; ES+-'mDn- 


; |-es 


adust a'dAst 


-iz |-ed -t 




ad valorem jaedva'loram, -'bram, -Em; S 


admonition jaedma'ni/an 




-'lor- 


admonitory ad'manajtori, aed-, -/tan; S 


advance ad'vaens; E+-'vans, -'vans; |-s -iz 


-jtori, ES+-'niDn- 




l-d-t 



Key: See in full §§3-A7. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg [angry 'teg'gri 
|bath baeG; E bad (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dja |gorge gards |go go 



advantage 



aes triplex 



advantage adVantidj; E+-Van-, -' 


van-; 


Aegisthus i'dsisGas |-'s -iz 




|-s -iz |-d -d 




Aegospotami, -mos jigas'patajinai, -mas; ES 


advantageous jaedvan'tedsas, -vaen- 




+ -'pot- 




advent, A- 'aedvent |-ism -jzam |-ist -ist 


Alfred '«lfrid, 'ielfrad, 'jelfa-d; ES 


-frid. 


adventitious jaedven'tijas, jaedvan- 




-frad, -fad 




adventive aed'ventiv 




yElfric 'jElfrik 




adventure adVEntJa'; ES -tXa(r; |-d -d 


-ring 


Aemilia i'miba |-lius -has |-lius's -hasiz 




-VEnt/ani), -Vent/rig |-rous -t/aras, - 


t/ras 


Aeneas I'nias, i- |-'s -iz 




adventurer adVEnt/ara'; ES -t/araCr 




Aeneid I'niid, i-, -ad 




adventuresome adVent/a^sam; ES - 


'vEn- 


Aeolia i'oba |-n -n 




t/asam 




Aeolis 'ialis |-'s -iz |-t -t |-m -Jizam 




adventuress adVentJans, -tjris |-es -iz 




Aeolus 'ialas, Vt mt. loc. i'olas |-'s -iz 




adverb 'aedvyb; ES 'aedvsb, -vyb 




aeon 'ian, 'ian; ES+'ion 




adverbial adVybial, aed-, -bjal; ES - 


vsb-. 


aerate 'ea^ret |-d -id |-tion jca're/an 




-Vyb-; |-ly -i 




aerial 'airy' e'irial, 'erial, 'aerial; S 


e'lr-. 


adversary 'aedva^jSeri; ES 'aedva- 




'aer-; radio 'erial, 'erial |-ly -i 




adversative ad'vysativ, aed-; ES - 


'V3S-, 


aerie 'en, 'aeri, 'in; S 'aeri, 'in 




-'yys- 




aeriform e'irajfarm, 'era-, 'aera-; ES 


e'lra- 


ad verse adVys, aed-, 'aedvys; ES -3S, 


-ys; 


jfaam, 'aera-, E + 'tra- 




('winds adVerse, 'ad/verse 'winds) 




aerify e'lra^fai, 'era-, 'aera-; S e'ira-, 


'aera-; 


adversity adVysati; ES -'v3S-, -Vs's- 




|-fied -jfaid 




advert adVs^t, aed-; ES -'v3t, -Va^t; |-ed 


-id 


aerobic jca'robik, e'robik |-ally -li 




advertence ad'vytns, asd-; ES -Vat-, - 


vyt-; 


aerodrome 'Erajdrom, 'aera-; S 'aera- 




|-cy -I |-tent -tnt 




aerodynamics ^erodai'naemiks, jaero-, , 


earo-; 


advertise, -ize 'aedva^jtaiz, jaedva^'taiz 


; ES 


S jaero-, ^earo- 




-va-; |-s -iz |-d -d 




aerology ^ea'raladsi; ES+-'rDl- 




advertisement, -tize- ^aedva^'taizmant 


ad- 


aeromechanic jEromi'kaenik, ^aero-, jcaro-; S 


'yytiz-, -tis-; ES jaedva-, -'vst-, -'vyt- 




jaero-, jcaro- 




advertising, -tiz- n 'aedva^^taizig; ES 'aedva- 


aerometer jea'ramata'; ES -'ramata(r. 


-'rom- 


advice adVais |-s -iz 




aeronaut 'trajnat, 'aera-; S 'aera- 




advisability adjvaiza'bilati 




aeronautic ^era'natik, ^aera-; S ^aera- 




advisable adVaizabl j-bly -bh 




aeroplane 'eraiplen, 'aera-; S 'aera- 




advise adVaiz |-s -iz |-d -d |-dly -idh 




aerostat 'era^staet, 'aera-; S 'aera- 




advisement ad'vaizmant 




aerostatic jcra'staetik, ^aera-; S ^aera- 




adviser, -sor adVaiza^; ES -Vaiza(r; 


-sory 


aerostation jero'ste/an, ^aero-; S ^aero- 




-zari 




aery 'airy' 'en, 'aeri; S 'aeri 




advocacy 'aedvakasi 




aery 'nest' 'tri, 'aeri, 'in; S 'aeri, 'in 




advocate n 'aedvakit -jket 




Aeschines 'eskajniz |-'s -iz 




advocate v 'aedvajket |-d -id 




Aeschylus 'eskalas |-'s -iz 




advowson adVauzn 




Aesculapius ^Eskja'lepias |-'s -iz 


|-pian 


adz, adze aedz |-(e)s -iz |-(e)d -d 




-plan 




adzuki aed'zuki 




Aesop 'isap, 'isap; ES + 'isnp 




Aeacus 'iakas |-'s -rz 




aesthesia es'Oisa, -31a [-thesis -'Gisis 




Aedes e'idiz |-des' -diz 




aesthete 'esOiI 




aedile 'idail 




aesthetic Es'GEtik |-al -I |-ally -li, -ikh 




Aegean i'dsian |-geon -Msian 




aestheticism Es'GEta^sizam |-thetics -'Getiks 


Aegeus myth, 'idsjus, -dsus |-'s -iz 




aestival 'estavj, Es'taivl 




Aegina iMsaina 




aestivate 'estajvet |-d -id |-tion jEsta'vt 


/an 


aegis 'idsis |-es -iz 




aes triplex, A- T- 'iz'traipkks 





|full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fs'tJa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while bwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



aestuary 



Agag 



aestuary '^st/uJEn 


affy a'fai |affied a'faid 


aetheling 'aeGalir), 'aetfaliQ {OE 'aeS-) 


afghan, A- '«fgan, -gaen 


/Ethelstan 'aeGal^staen, 'aeSal-, -stan (OE 


Afghanistan aef 'gaena,staen, ;aefgaena'staen 


'««-) 


afield a'fild 


Aethiop 'iOijap; ES+-jDp 


afire a 'fair; ES a'faia(r 


Aethiopia jiOi'opia [-n -n 


aflame a 'flam 


Aethiopic jiOi'apik, -'opik; ES+-'Dpik 


afloat a'flot 


aetiology jiti'abdsi; ES+-'d1- 


aflutter a'flAta-; ES a'fUtaCr 


Aetna 'etna 


afoot a'fut 


afar a'far; ES 3'fa:(r, E+3'fa:(r 


afore a'for, a'far; ES a'foafr, E+a'faafr 


affability jaefa'bibti 


afore-mentioned a'for'menjand, a'far-; ES 


affable 'aefabl |-bly -bh 


see afore; (a'fore-jmentioned 'act) 


affair a'fer, a'faer; E 3'f£3(r, ES 3'faB3(r 


aforesaid a'for^sed, a'far-; ES see afore 


affect a'fekt |-ed -id 


aforethought a'tor^Oat, a'far-; ES see afore 


affectation jaefik'te/an, yaefEk- 


aforetime a'forjtaim, a'far-; ES see afore 


affection a'fek/an |-ed -d |-ate -it 


a fortiori 'cjfor/i'orai, -jfar/i'ar-; ES 


affective a'ftktiv, ae'f- 


-jfoa/i'orai, E+-jf3a/i'arai 


afferent 'aefarant 


afoul a'faul 


alliance a'faians |-s -iz ]-d -t |-ant -ant 


afraid a'fred; S+a'fred 


affidavit ^aefa'devit 


afreet 'aefrit 


afi&liate n, adj a'filiit, -,et 


afresh a'frej" 


afi&liate v a'fihjet |-d -id 


Afric 'aefrik |-a -a |-an -an 


affiliation ajfili'e/an 


Afrikaans ^aefri'kanz, -'kans 


affinity a'finati 


Afrikander jsefri'kaenda^; ES -da(r 


affirm a'fym; ES a'fsm, a'fym; |-ed -d 


Afro- American 'a;froa'm£rakan 


affirmable a'fymabl; ES a'fsm-, afem-; |-b]y 


aft aeft; E-^aft, aft 


-bli 


after 'aefta^; ES 'aefta(r, E -h'af-, 'af- 


affirmation jsefa^'mejan; ES ^aefa- 


afterbirth 'aefta-^bye; ES 'aefta^bsO, 'aefta^bye, 


affirmative a'fymotiv; ES a'fsm-, a'fsrn- 


E + 'af-, 'af- 


affirmatory a'fymajtori, -jIdfi; ES a'fsma- 


afterbrain 'jefta^jbren; ES see after 


/tori, a'fym-, E+-jt3ri 


afterdamp 'aefta-jdaemp; ES see after 


affix n 'aefiks |-es -iz 


afterdeck 'aefta^jdek; ES see after 


affix V a'fiks [-es -iz |-ed -t 


after-dinner adj 'asfta^'dina^; ES 'aefta'dina(r, 


afflatus o'fletas 


E+'af-, 'af-; ('after-^dinner 'mints) 


afflict a'fhkt |-ed -id . 


aftereffect 'aeftarajfekt; E -i- 'af-, 'af- 


affliction a'flikjan |-tive -tiv 


afterglow 'aefta^jglo; ES sec after 


affluence 'aefluans, -fliu- |-ent -ant 


afterimage 'aBft3^;imid3; E + 'af-, 'af-; |-s -iz 


afflux 'aefUks |-es -iz 


afterlife 'aefta^^laif ; ES sec after 


afford a'ford, a'fard; ES a'foad, E+a'faad; 


aftermath 'aefta^imaeG; ES see after; |-ths 


|-ed -id 


-Gs 


afforest a'farist, a'far-, a'for- |-ed -id 


aftermost 'aefta^jinost, -mast; ES see after 


affranchise a'fraent/aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


afternoon ^aefta^'nun; ES see after; ('after^noon 


affranchisement a^fraentjizmant 


'tea) 


affray a'fre |-ed -d 


aftertaste 'aefta^^test; ES see after 


affricate n 'aefrikit 


afterthought 'aefta^^eat; ES see after 


affricate v 'aefrijket |-d -id 


afterward 'aefta^w^d; ES 'aeftawad, E + 'af-, 


affricative a'frikativ 


'af-; |-s -z — A dissimilated pron. 'aeftawa-d 


affright a 'f rait |-ed -id 


is often heard {§121). 


affront a'frAnt |-ed -id 


Agag 'egasg 



Key: See in fidl §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang sa;r| langr}?^ 'aeij-gri 
|bath baeO; E ba6 (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wntj (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



again 



ahem 



again a 'gen, less freq. or poet, a 'gen 




Agincourt 'aedsm,kort, -^kart; ES -jkoat, E-i- 


against a'genst, less freq. or poet, a'genst 




-jkaat 


Agamemnon jaega'memnan, -nan; ES+- 


nnn 


agio 'aedso, 'aedsiiO {It 'a:dso) 


agape a'gep, a'gaep 




agiotage 'aedsatids, 'aedsia- 


agar 'egar, 'ega', 'agar; ES -ga:(r, -g3(r 




agitate 'aedsa,tet |-d -id |-tor -a'; ES -a(r 


agar-agar 'egar'egar; ES 'egar'ega:(r 




agitation jsedsa'te/an 


agaric 'aegarik, a'gaerik 




Aglaia a'glea 


Agassiz 'aegasi |Agassiz's 'aegasiz 




aglet 'aeglit 


agate w 'aegit, 'aagat 




agley a'glai = agly 'asquint^ 


agate adv a 'get 




aglow a'glo 


Agatha 'aegaOa 




agly a'glai = agley — in Burns rimed with 


agave, A- a'gevi 




joy, then pronounced dsai 


Agawam 'aeg3,w3m, -jwam, -jwnm 




agnat 'aegnaet | agnate 'aegnet 


agaze a'gez 




Agnes 'aegnis, -nas |-'s -iz 


age eds iages 'edsiz \past &° pptc aged e 


dsd 


Agnew 'aegnju, -niu, -nu 


-age unstressed ending -ids, -ads. I 


I the 


agnostic aeg'nastik; ES + -'nDS-; |-ism 


vocab. when only -ids is given, it is 


to he 


-ta^sizam 


understood that many speakers pronounce 


Agnus Dei 'aegnas'diai 


-ads. 




ago a'go 


aged 'old' 'edsid, 'of the age of edsd 




agog a 'gag, a'gog 


agelong 'eds'bg, -'Ing; S+-'lao; ('age 


Jong 


agonize 'aega^naiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


'drift) 




agony 'aegani |-ied -d 


agency 'edsansi [agent 'edsant 




agora 'aegara |-s -z |-rae -^ri 


agenda pi a'dsenda \sg agendum a'dsendam 


agoraphobia jaegara'fobia 


ageratum ^aedsa 'retain 




agouti a'guti 


Ageratum a'dseratam, jaedsa'retam 




agrarian a'grerian, a'grer- |-ism -^izam 


agglomerate adj, n a'glamarit, -iret; 


ES+ 


agree a'gri |-d -d |-able -abl |-bly -bh 


-'glnm- 




agreeability ajgria'bilati 


agglomerate v a'glama/ret; ES+-'glDm- 


; l-d 


Agricola a'grikala 


-id 




agricultural jaegri'kAltJaral [-ly -i |-ist -ist 


agglomeration ajglama'rejan; ES-i--;glDm- 


agriculture 'aegrijkAltJa'; ES -t/aCr 


agglutinate adj a'ghitnit, -'gliu-, -^et 




agriculturist /aegri'kAltJarist 


agglutinate v a'glutrijct, -'gliu- j-d -id 


-tive 


agrimony 'aegrajinoni 


-tiv 




Agrippa a'gripa 


agglutination ajglutn'ejan, -;glm- 




agrology a'graladsi; ES+-'grDl- 


aggrandize 'aegran^daiz, a'graen- |-s -iz 


-d-d 


agronomic jaegra'namik; ES + -'nDm-; |-al -I 


aggrandizement a'graendizmant 




agronomy a'granami; ES-h-'grnn-; [-mist 


aggravate 'aegrajvet |-d -id |-tion jaegra'vejan 


-mist 


aggregate «, adj 'aegrigit, -^get 




aground a'graund 


aggregate v 'aegri^get |-d -id |-tive -iv 




ague 'egju |-d -d |aguing 'egjuig 


aggregation i^gri'gejan 




Aguecheek 'egju^t/ik 


aggregatory 'aegrigaitori, -,tari; S -^tori 




aguinaldo, A- iUgi'naldo {Sp ^agi'naldo) 


aggress a'gres |-es -iz |-ed -t 




ah a 


aggression a'gre/an |-sive -siv 




aha a'ha, a'ha, 'a'ha 


aggressor a'gresa^; ES a'grEsa(r 




Ahab 'ehseb 


aggrieve a'griv j-d -d |-dly -idli 




Ahasuerus ajhaezju'iras, a^haesu- |-'s -iz 


aghast a'gaest; E+a'gast, a'gast 




Ahaz 'ehaez -'s -iz 


agile 'aedsal, 'aedsil |-ly -dsilli, -dsili 




ahead a 'bed 


agility a'dsilati 




ahem a 'hem, 'in^m''m^m £rc. 



Ifull ful [tooth tuG [further 'fs^'Sa^; ES 'fstJa 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 



[custom 'kAstani [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Aherne 



10 



albatross 



Aherne a'hyn; ES a'hsn, a'hyn 


aisle ail [aisled aild j-less 'aillis 


Ahithophel, Ahito- a'hita^fel 


Aisne en {Fr £:n) 


Ahmed 'amid, 'amed 


aitch et/ [aitches 'et/iz [-bone -jbon 


ahorse a'hars; ES a'haas 


Aix eks [-'s -iz {Fr Eks) 


ahorseback a'harsjbaek; ES a'hoas- 


Aix-la-Chapelle 'ekslaJae'pEl {Fr Eksla/a'pEl) 


Ahoskie a'haski; ES+a'hos- 


ajar a'dsar; ES a'dsaifr, E-t-a'd3a:(r 


ahoy a'hoi 


Ajax 'edsaeks |-'s -iz 


ahungered a'hAijga'd; ES -gad 


Akbar 'aekbar; ES -ba:(r, E+-ba:(r 


Ai 'eai 


ake Ho ache^ ek [-d -t 


aid ed | aided 'edid 


A Kempis a'ksmpis [-'s -iz 


Aida a 'Ida 


Akenside 'ekin^said, 'ekan- 


aide ed 


akimbo a'kimbo 


aide-de-camp 'edda'kaemp, 'edda'ka {Fr 


akin a 'kin 


edda'ka) 


Akkad 'aekaed 


aides-de-camp 'edzda'kaemp, 'edzda'ka {Fr 


Akkadian a'kedian, a'kad- 


Edda'ka) 


Akron 'aekran [-ite -^ait 


aiglet 'egbt 


a la 'ala, 'ala {Fr ala) 


aigrette 'egret, e'gret 


Alabama ;aela'baema j-n -n j-mian -mian 


Aiken 'ekin, -an 


alabamine jaela'baemui, -in 


ail el 1 ailed eld |-ment -mant 


alabaster 'aela^baesta^; ES -ta(r, E-i--,bas-, 


ailanthus, A- e'laenOas -es -iz 


-jbas- 


Aileen 'elin, 'ai-, e'lin, ai- 


a la carte ^ala'kart; ES -'ka:t, E-f--'ka:t; 


aileron 'elajtan; ES-h-irDii 


{Fr ala'kart) 


Ailsa 'elsa, Sc 'elsa 


alack a'laek 


aim em [aimed emd 


alacrity a'laekrati 


ain't ent 


Aladdin a'laedin, a'laedn 


Ainu 'ainu 


Alamannic jiela'maemk 


air Er, aer; E E3(r, ES aBa(r 


alameda ^aela'meda 


air-cool 'er^kul, 'aer-; ES see air; |-ed -d 


Alanieda ^aela'mida, -'meda {Sp jala'meSa) 


air-cooled adj 'sr'kuld, 'aer-; ES see air; 


alamo '^la^mo, 'al- {Sp 'alajmo) 


('air-jcooled 'motor) 


Alamo 'aela^mo 


aircraft 'etjkraeft, 'aer-; E 'ea-, 'aea-, -^kraft. 


alamode jola'mod, ^aela- {Fr ala'mad) 


-jkraft; S 'aea^kraeft 


Aland 'aland, 'a- 


airdrome 'Er^drom, 'ar-; ES see air 


Alarbus a'larbas; ES a'la:b-; [-'s -iz 


air-dry 'Er^drai, 'aer-; ES see air; |-ied -d 


Alaric 'aelarik 


Airedale 'er^del, 'aer-; ES see air 


alarm a'larm; ES a'larm, E+a'la:m 


airfield 'er/fild, 'aer-; ES see air 


alarum a'laeram, a'kram; S a'laeram 


airfoil 'Er^fail, 'aer-; ES see air 


alary 'elan, 'ael- 


airily 'erali, 'aer-, -ili; S 'aer- 


alas a'laes; E-f-a'las, a 'las 


airplane 'Er^plen, 'aer-; ES see air 


Alaska a'laeska -n -n 


airport 'Ef/port, 'aer-, -jpart; E 'Eajpoat, 


Alastor a'laesta^, -tar; ES -ta(r, -t3a(r 


'aea-, -^paat; S 'aeajpoat 


alate 'elet [alated 'eletid 


airproof 'sr'pruf, 'aer-; ES see air 


alb aelb 


airship 'Er^Jip, 'aer-; ES see air 


Alban 'alban 


airsick 'er^sik, 'aer-; ES see air 


alban chem. 'aelban 


airt Ert, ajrt, ert; E Eat, ES aeat, eat 


Albania ael'benia, -nja [-n -n 


airtight 'sr'tait, 'aer-; ES see air 


Albans 'albanz [-'s -iz 


airway 'Er^we, 'aer-; ES see air 


Albany 'albani 


airy 'Eri, 'aeri; S 'aen 


albatross 'aelba^tras, -jtros [-es -iz 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet JEt jsang saeg |angr\' 'aeg'gn 
[bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a [far far [watch watj", wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



albeit 



11 



Algiers 



albeit orbiit 

Albemarle ^aelbajmarl; ES -jma:!, E+ 

-jina:l 
Albert 'aelba^t; ES 'aelbat 
Alberta ael'byta; ES -'bsta, -'byta 
Albigenses jaelbi'dsensiz 
albinism Wlbajnizam 
albino ael'baino |-binoism -jizam 
Albion 'aelbtan, -bjan 
Albright blbrait 
Albro blbro, cf Aldborough 
album 'aelbam, -bm 
albumen jel'bjuman, -'bium- 
albumin aerbjumin, -'bium- |-ate -it, -^et 
albuminoid ael'bjumijnDid, -'bium- |-nose 

-jnos I -nous -nas 
Albuquerque 'aelba^kyki, jaelba'kyki, -bju-; 

ES -3-, -y- 
alburnum ael'bynain; ES -'ban-, -'byn- 
Alcaeus aersias |-'s -iz 
Alcaic ael'ke-ik 
alcaide ael'ked {Sp al'kaiSe) 
alcalde ael'kaeldi {Sp al'kalde) 
Alcatraz 'aelkajtraez, jselks'traez {Am Sp 

^alka'tras) 
alcazar, A- aerkaeza^; ES -z3(r; {Sp al'kaOar) 
Alcestis ael'sEstis |-'s -iz 
alchemist 'felkamist |-my -nu 
Alcibiades jaelsa'baiajdiz |-'s -iz 
Alcides ael'saidiz |-des' -diz 
Alcinoiis ael'sinuas |-'s -iz 
Alcmene aelkWini 
Alcoa ael'koa 

alcohol 'aelkajhol, -yhol, -jhal |-ism -jizam 
alcohohc jaelks^hahk, -'hnl-, -'hal- |-ally 

-li, -ikh 
alcoholicity jaelkdbarisati, -hoi-, -hal- 
Alcoran jaelko'ran, -'ran 
Alcott bikat 
alcove 'aelkov 
Alcuin 'alkwin 
Alcyone aersaiajiii 
Alda 'alda 

Aldan Pa bldan, Russia al'dan 
Aldborough bld^byo, 'al^b-, -a; ES -jbsr-, 

-jbAr-, -jby-; Brit bldbara, bib-, -bra 
Aldebaran sel'dEbaran 
aldehyde 'aeldajhaid 
Alden bldin, -dan 



alder blda^; ES blda(r 

alderman blda^man; ES blda-; [-men -man 

aldermanic plda^'maenik; ES plda- 

Alderney blda^m; ES bldani 

Aldershot blda^ Jat; ES blda Jat, -Jot 

Aldine bldain, bldin 

Aldington bldigtan 

Aldrich bldrit/ |-'s -iz 

ale el 

aleatory 'eliajtori, -jtari; S -/ton 

alee a'li 

alehouse 'el^haus |-ses -ziz 

Alemannic jaela'maenik 

alembic a'lembik 

Alenfon a'lensan, -san, -son {Fr ala'so) 

Aleppo a'lepo 

alert a'l^t; ES a'bt, a'lyt; [ed -id 

Alethea ^aela'Gia, aUiOia 

Aleut 'aeh/Ut 

Aleutian a'lu/an, a'liu- 

alewife 'el^waif |-wives -jWaivz 

Aleyn 'aelin, -an 

Alexander jaebg'zaenda^, jtlig-; ES -'zaenda(r; 

|-dra -dra |-dria -dria |-drian -drian |-drine 

-drin 
Alexas a'leksas |-xas' -ksas 
alexin aUeksin 
Alexis a'kksis |-xis' -ksis 
alfalfa, A- ael'faelfa 
Alfonso ael'fanzo, -so; ES+-'fDn- 
Alford blfa^d; ES blfad 
Alfred 'aeUrid, -frad, -fa^d; ES -frid, -frad, 

-fad 
Alfreda ael'frida ('Al^freda 'Burroughs) 
Alfredian ael'fridian 
alfresco ael'fresko 
Alfric 'aeUrik 
alga 'aelga | algae 'aeldsi 
algebra 'aeldsabra 

algebraic jaeldsa'bre-ik j-al -1 |-ally -ji, -ikli 
algebraist 'aeldsajbre-ist 
Algeciras ^aeldsi'siras |-'s -iz {Sp jalxe'Giras) 
Alger 'aeld33'; ES 'aeldgaCr 
Algeria ael'dsiria j-n -n 
Algerine iaeldja'tin 
Algernon 'aeldsa^nan; ES 'aeldsa- 
algid 'aeldsid 
Algiers ael'dsirz; ES -'dsiaz, S+-'d3Eaz; 



|full ful Itooth tue [further 'fytSa-; ES 'fstJa [custom jkAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredj [keep 'em 'kipm 



Algoi 



12 



allomorphic 



Algol 'aelgal, -gol 


all- American bb'tnerakan 


Algoma ael'goma 


Allan 'aebn 


Algona ael'gona 


Allardice 'aela^jdais; ES 'asb-; |-'s -iz 


Algonkian seVgagkion, -'gng- 


all-around 'ab'raund ('all-a, round 'skill) 


Algonquian ael'gagkian, -kwian, -'gog- 


allay a'le |-ed -d 


Algonquin ael'gagkin, -kwin, -'goo- 


Allegan 'aebgan 


algorism '^elgajrizam |algorithm 'aelgajriiJam 


Allegany Md, NY 'aeb^geni 


Alhambra ael'haembra 


allegation jaeb'ge/an 


alias 'elias |-es -iz 


allege a'kds |-s -iz |-d -d |-dly -idli 


Ali Baba 'aeh'baba, 'ali'baba 


Alleghany NC, Va 'aeb^geni 


alibi 'aebjbai |-ed -d 


Allegheny Pa city, riv., college 'aeb^geni 


Alice 'aelis |-'s -iz 


allegiance a'lidsans |-s -iz 


Alicia a'lijia 


allegoric ,xWgorik, -'gar-, -'gor- j-al -I 


alien 'eljan, 'eban 


|-ally -li, -ikli 


Aliena Shak. ^eli'ina 


allegorist 'aebjgorist, -igor-, 'aebgarist; S 


alienability jcljana'bibti, jclian- 


-;gor-, -gar- 


alienable 'eljanabl, 'elian- 


allegoristic ^aebga'ristik 


alienate 'eljanyct, 'elian- |-d -id 


allegorize 'aebga^raiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


alienation jcljan'ejan, /chon- 


allegory 'aeb/gon, -jgari; S -;gori 


alienism 'eljaiijizam, 'ehan- |-ist -ist 


allegretto ,a2la'greto {It jalle'gretto) 


alight adv a'lait 


allegro a'legro, a'kgro (// al'le:gro) 


alight V a'lait |-ed -id or alit a 'lit 


Alleine 'aelin, -an 


align 3 'lam |-ed -d 


allelomorph a'lib;marf, -'kl-; ES -,maaf 


alike a'laik 


alleluia ,aela'luja, -'liuja 


aliment n 'aebmant 


allemande jaeb'maend (Fr al'maid) 


aliment v 'ael3jm2nt |-ed -id 


Allen 'aelin, -an 


alimental ^aela'niEntl |-ly -i 


Allenby 'felinbi, -an- 


alimentary jaeb'mEntari, -'mEntri 


Allentown 'aelin^taun, -an- 


ahmentation jaebniEn'te/an 


allergic a'lydjik; ES -'bds-, -'lyds- 


alimony 'aebjinoni 


allergy 'aela^dsi; ES 'aebdsi 


ahne a 'lam |-d -d 


Allerton 'aela^tan; ES 'aelatan 


Aline a'lin 


alleviate a'livijCt |-d -id |-tion ajlivi'ej"an 


aliquant 'aebkwant Iquot -kwat 


alley 'aeli |-ed -d 


Aliquippa ^seb'kwipa 


Alleyn 'aelm, -an 


Alison 'aebsn 


Allhallows pl'hasloz, -laz 


alit past b' pptc of alight a 'lit 


alliance, A- a'laians |-s -iz |-d -t 


alive a'laiv 


aUied a'laid ('aljlied 'armies) 


alizarin a'lizarm j-rine -rin -jfin 


Allies 'aelaiz, a'laiz 


alkahest 'aelka^hEst 


alligator 'aebjgeta'; ES -jgeta(r 


alkalescence jaelks'lEsns |-cy -i |-nt -nt 


Allingham 'aeligam 


alkali 'aelkajai 


Allison 'aebsn 


alkalify 'aelkab^fai, ael'kaeb- |-fied -^faid 


alliterate a'lita,ret |-d -id |-tive -iv 


alkaline 'aelka^lain, -lin 


alliteration ajbta'rejan, ^aebta- 


alkalinity jaelka'linati 


allocable 'aebkabl 


alkalize 'ajlkajaiz -s -iz |-d -d 


allocate 'aeb^ket, 'aelo- |-d -id 


alkaloid 'aelkajaid |-al ^aelka'bidj 


allocation ,aela'keXan, ,aelo- 


Alkoran ^a^lkc'ran, -'rasn 


allocution jaeb'kju/an, jaelo-, -'kiu- 


allDl 


allomorph 'aeb/inarf; ES -^maaf 


Allah 'aeb, 'ab 


allomorphic jaeb'marfik; ES -'maaf- 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angr>' 'ieg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |vvatch wat/, wot/ (§12) |jaw d5a |gorge gards |go go 



allopath 



13 



alter 



allopath 'aebjpjEG |-tlis -Os 


Alne an 


allopathic ^aeb'paeOik 


Alnmouth 'aelnjmauG, -maO, /oc. + 'elmaG, 


allopathist a'lapaGist; ES+-Udp-; j-thy -Gi 


'JElmaG 


allot a'lat; ES+a'lot; 1-ted -id 


Alnwick 'aenik, loc. 'anik 


alio trope 'ael3;trop 


aloe 'aelo |-s -z 


allotropic jsela'trapik; ES+-'trDp-; |-al -1 


aloft a'bft, a 'loft 


l-ally -h, -ikh 


aloha a'loa, a'loha 


allotropy a'latrapi; ES+a'lot- 


alone a 'Ion 


allover n bliOva^; ES -jOV3(r 


along a'bg, a'lng; S+a'lag 


allover adj bl'ova^; ES -'ov3(r; (an bl'ova^ 


alongshore a'bgy/or, a'lng-, -j/ar; E -jXoa(r, 


wan) 


-;X3a(r; S -/Xoa(r, a'lag- 


allow a'lau |-ed -d 1-edly -idli 


alongside a'bg'said, a'log-; S+a'lag-; 


allowable a'lauabl |-bly -bli 


(a'long'side it, a'longjside a 'barge) 


allowance a'lauans |-s -iz 


Alonso, -zo a'lanzo; ES+a'lon- 


Alio way 'aela^we 


aloof a'luf 


alloy n 'aebi, a'bi 


aloud a'laud 


alloy V a'bi |-ed -d 


alow a'lo 


all-round bl'raund ('all-around 'help) 


Aloysius jselo'isias, -'i/as |-'s -iz 


allspice 'al/Spais j-s -iz 


alp aelp 


Allston 'alstan 


alpaca ael'paeka 


allude a'lud, a'liud |-d -id 


Alpena ael'pina 


allure a'lur, a'liur; ES a'luafr, 3'liu3(r; 


alpenhorn 'aelpin^harn, -pan-; ES -^haan 


l-d-d 


alpenstock 'aelpin^stak, -pan-; ES+-jStDk 


allusion a'lusan, a'liusan, ae- 


alpha, A- 'aelfa 


allusive a'lusiv, a'liusiv 


alphabet 'aelfa jbet 


alluvial a'luvial, a'liuv-, -vjal 


alphabetic ^aelfa'betik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 


alluvion a'luvian, a'liuv- |-vium -viam ]-via 


alphabetize 'aelfaba^taiz -s -iz |-d -d 


-via 


Alphaeus, -phe- Bib. ael'fias, 'aelf- |-'s -iz 


ally n 'aelai, a'lai 


Alpheus mod. name 'aelfias, viyth. ael'fias 


ally V a'lai [allied a 'laid 


Alphonse ael'fanz, -'fonz, -'fanz |-'s -iz {Fr 


almagest 'aelmajdjest 


al'fo:s) 


Alma US 'aelxna, Russia 'alma 


Alphonso ael'fanzo, -so; ES+-'fDn- 


Alma Mater 'aelma'meta', 'alma'mata^; ES 


Alpine 'aelpain, -pin 


-ta(r; — The hybrid 'aelma'mata^ is fre- 


Alps aelps 


quently heard. 


already al'redi 


almanac 'almajiiaek, 'almanik 


alright al'rait 


Alma-Tadema 'aelma'taedima 


Alsace ael'ses, 'aelsaes |-'s -iz {Fr al'zas) 


almighty, A- al'maiti ('al^mighty 'truth) 


Alsace-Lorraine 'ael^seslc'ren, -Id-, 'aeljsaes- 


Almon 'aelman 


Alsatia ael'se/ia, -/a |-tian -/an 


almond 'amand, 'aemand — 'aemand, now less 


alsike 'aelsaik, 'al- 


freq., is preserved by some old families. In 


also 'also 


NEngd 'aelmand is freq. 


Altai ael'tai, ael'te-ai [Altaic ael'te-ik 


almoner 'aelmana"^, 'amana'; ES -na(r 


Altair ael'ta-ir; ES -ia(r 


almonry 'aelmanri, 'amanri 


Altamaha pltama'ha 


almost al'most, 'aljinost ('done, al'most; 


altar 'alta^; ES 'alta(r; |-ed -d 


'aljmost 'done) 


altarpiece 'alta^^pis; ES 'alta-; [-s -iz 


alms amz | -giving -jgivig [-house -^haus 


altazimuth aelt'aezamaG 


almuce 'aelmjus, -mius |-s -iz 


alter 'alta^; ES 'alta(r; |-ed -d [-ing 'altarig. 


Aln aeln, loc.+eX, 'alan, ]^\ 


'altrig 



[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fa'Sa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



alterant 



14 



ambidexterity 



alterant bltarant 


Amabel 'aema^bEl 


alteration plta're/an |-rative bltajretiv 


Amadis 'aemadis |-'s -iz 


altercate blta^^ket, 'ael-; ES -ta- 


Amador 'aema^dor, -jdar; ES -^doaCr, E+ 


altercation plta^'ke/an, ^ael-; ES -ta- 


-jdaaCr; {Sp iama'tSar) 


alter ego 'aelta^'igo, -'£go 


amain a 'men 


alternant al'tynant, ael-; ES -'t3n-, -'tyn- 


Amalek 'aemajek |-ite 'aemala^kait 


alternate n, adj blta^nit, 'ael-; ES -ta-; |-ly-Ii, 


amalgam a'maelgam 


flcc/+ al 'ternate (ly ) 


amalgamate adj a'malgamit, -^met 


alternate v blta^^net, 'ael- ; ES -ta- ; |-d -id 


amalgamate v a'maelga^met l-d -id 


alternation plta^'nejan, ^ael-; ES -ta- 


amalgamation a^maelga'me/an 


alternative al'tynativ, ael-; ES -'tsn-, -'tyn- 


Amanda a'maenda 


alternator blta'jneta^, 'ael-; ES -ta^netaCr 


amanita, A- ,aema'naita, -'nita 


Altgeld 'altgeld {Ger 'altgelt) 


amanuensis a^maenju'ensis |-sis' -sis \pl -nses 


Althaea ael'Oia 


-'£nslz 


althea, A- ael'eia 


amaranth 'aemajraenO [-ths -6s 


althorn 'aelt^harn; ES -jhaan 


amaranthine jaema'raenOin 


although, altho ar'So 


Amarillo ;aema'rilo 


altimeter ael'timata^, 'aeltajinita^; ES -ta(r 


amaryllis, A- jaema'rilis |-lises -lisiz 


altissimo ael'tisa^mo {It al'tissi^mo) 


Amasa 'aemasa 


altitude 'aelta^tjud, -jtiud, -jtud 


amass a'maes |-es -iz [-ed -t 


altitudinal jaelta'tjudnl, -'tiud-, -'tud- 


amateur n 'aema^t/ur, -jtiur, -jtur, -t/a^, 


Altman 'altman 


-ta', jaema'ty; ES 'aemayt/uaCr, -jtiua(r. 


alto 'aelto 


-jtua(r, -tXa(r, -ta(r, ^aema'taCr, -'ty; {Fr 


alto-cumulus jaelto'kjumjalas, -'kium- j-es 


ama'toe:r) — see note below 


-iz |-li -Jai 


amateur adj 'aema^tjur, -jtiur, -jtor, -tja'. 


altogether plta'getJa^; ES -'gEtfoir 


-ta^; ES 'aemajtXua(r, -jtiua(r, -jtua(r. 


Alton 'altn 


-tjacr, -ta(r; {Fr ama'toe:r) — Otiier prons. 


Altoona ael'tuna 


were reported. The 1st, most freq., accords 


alto-relievo 'aeltOTi'livo {It -rilievo 'alto-ri- 


best with tite habits of English. TJte 2d, 3d, 


'IJEIVO) 


4th, 6° 5th are normal variations of the 1st. 


alto-stratus 'aelto'stretas |-es -iz |-ti -tai 


amateurish jaema'tyij", -'tjuri/, -'tiur-, -'tur-; 


altruism 'aeltru,izani |-ist -ist 


ES+-'t3riX 


altruistic jjcltru'istik |-ally -li, -ikli 


amative 'aemativ 


Altus 'aeltas |-'s -iz 


amatory 'aemajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 


aludel 'aeljujdel 


amaze a'mez |-s -iz |-d -d |-dly -idk 


alum 'aelam |-ed -d 


Amaziah jaema'zaia 


alumina a'lumina, a'liu- 


Amazon, a- 'aema^zan, -zn; ES+-jZDn 


aluminium jaelja'miniam 


Amazonian, a- jaema'zonian 


aluminum a'lummam, a'liu- |-nous -nas 


ambage 'aembids |-s -iz or as L ambages 


alumna a'lAmna |alumnae a'Umni 


aem'bedsiz 


alumnus a'Umnas [-'s -iz |-ni -nai 


ambassador aem'baesada^, am-; ES -da(r 


Alva 'aelva 


ambassadorial aem^baesa'dorial, am-, -'dar-; 


alveolar ael'viala^; ES -'vlala(r 


S -'dor- 


alveolus ael'vialas |-li -Jai 


ambassadress aem'baesadris, am- |-es -iz 


alway 'alwe 


amber 'aemba^; ES 'aemba(r; |-ed -d 


always 'alwiz, 'alwez, 'alwaz; S 'alwez, -wiz 


ambergris 'aemba^jgris, -gris; ES 'aemba- 


alyssum, A- a'lisam 


ambidexter jaemba'deksta-; ES -'deksta(r; 


am stressed 'aem, ^aem; tmstr. am, m 


|-trous -tras 


A.M., a.m. 'e'em 


ambidexterity jSembadeks'tErati 



Key: See in full §§3-^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet [sang saeg langn*' 'aeo'gri 
|bath bae6; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dja [gorge gards |go go 



ambient 



15 



amort 



ambient 'aembiant 


Amesbury 'emzjberi, -ban 


ambiguity jsembi'gjuati, -'giuati 


amethyst 'aemaOist 


ambiguous aem'bigjuas 


Amfortas Ger am'fartas 


ambition aem'bi/an |-tious -/as 


Amherst 'aema^st; ES '^emast 


ambivalence aem^bivalans |-cy -i |-ent -ant 


amiability ^emia'bilati 


amble 'aembi |-d -d |-ling ^^embhg, 'jemblig 


amiable 'emiabl |-bly -bli 


ambler, A- 'aembla^; ES 'aembl3(r 


amic 'aemik 


Ambleside ^aembl^said 


amicability jaemika'bilati 


Ambridge 'aembrids |-'s -iz 


amicable 'aemikab} |-bly -bh 


Ambrose 'aembroz j-'s -iz 


amice 'aemis |-s -iz 


ambrosia aem'brosia, -33 |-1 -1 |-Uy -li |-n -n 


amid prep a 'mid 


Ambrosian aem'brozian, -san 


amide chem. 'aemaid, 'aemid |-mid -mid 


ambrotype 'aembra^taip, -bro- 


amidine 'aemi^din, -dm |-din -dm 


ambry 'aembri 


amido a'mido, 'aemijdo 


ambsace ^emzjes, ^aemz- |-s -iz 


amidships a'midjips 


ambulance 'aembjabns |-s -iz |-d -t |-nt -nt 


amidst a 'midst 


ambulate 'aembjajet |-d -id 


Amiens Shak. 'aemianz, Dublin street 'emjanz. 


ambulation jaembja'le/an 


Fr city 'aemianz |-'s -iz {Fr a'mja) 


ambulatory ^aembjabjton, -/tori; S -jtori 


amine a'min |amin 'aemin 


ambuscade jaembas'ked |-d -id 


amino a'mino 


ambush 'aembu/ 1-es -iz |-ed -t 


amir a'mir; ES a'mia(r 


ameba a'miba |-s -z |-bae -bi |-n -n 


amiss a 'mis 


amebean jaemi^bian 


Amite a'mit 


amebic a'mibik [ameboid a'mibaid 


amitosis ^iema'tosis 


ameer a'mir; ES a'miaCr 


amity 'aemati [Amityville 'femati^vil 


Amelia a'miija 


ammeter 'aem/mita', 'ae^mita^; ES -jmita(r 


ameliorate a'miljajret |-d -id 


ammine 'aemin 


amelioration a/iniljaVe/an 


ammino 'aemi^no 


amen 'e'men; worship 'e'raen, 'a-; singing 


Ammon 'aeman 


'a 'men 


ammonia a'monja, -nia [-niac a'moni/aek 


Amen Egyp god 'aman 


ammoniacal ^aema'naiakl 


amenable a'minabl, a 'men- |-bly -bk 


ammoniate a'moni/Ct |-d -id 


Amen Comer 'e^men'Rarna'; ES -'kaana(r 


ammonite 'aemajnait 


amend a 'mend |-ed -id |-s a'mendz, a'menz 


Ammonite 'aeman^ait 


amenity a'menati 


ammonium a'moniam 


ament 'catkin' 'aemant, 'emant 


ammunition /aemja'ni/an 


ament 'moron' 'emant 


amnesia aem'nisia, -3a 


amentia e'men/ia, a'menjia 


amnesty 'aem^nesti, 'aemnasti 


amerce a'mys; ES a'mss, a'mys; j-s -iz 1-d -t 


amoeba a'mlba |-s -z |-bae -bl |-n -n 


America a'meraka, a'menka |-n -n |-nism 


amoebaean ^aemi'bian 


-n^izam 


amoebic a'mibik [amoeboid a'mibaid 


Americana a/mera'kena, -'kaena, -'kana 


amok a'mAk, a'mak, a'mnk 


Americanize a'merakan^aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


among a'mAg |-st -st, -kst 


Americus a'menkas |-'s -iz 


amoral e'maral, e'maral, e'mnral 


Americus Vespucius a'menkas ves'pju/as. 


Amorite 'aemajtait 


-'piu- 


amorous 'aemaras 


Amerigo Vespucci a'merijgo ves'put/i {It 


amorphism a'marfizam; ES a'maaf- 


, jame'ri:go ves'puttji) 


amorphous a'marfas; ES a'maafas 


Amerind 'aema^rind |-ian jaema'rindian 


amort a 'mart; ES a'maat 



Ifull ful [tooth tue [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



amortization 



16 



anal 



amortization jaema-ta'ze/an, ajinart-, -ai'z-; 


amylolysis jaemi'labsis; ES-i--UdI- 




ES iflema-, a^maat- 


amylose 'aemi^bs |amylum 'aemibm 




amortize 'aema^^taiz, a'mortaiz; ES 'aema-. 


Amyot 'emiat (Fr a'mjo) 




a'moa-; |-s -iz |-d -d 


Amzi 'aemzai 




Amory 'emari 


an unstressed an, n ; rarely stressed 'aen, 


^aen 


Amos 'emas |-'s -iz 


ana 'ena, 'ana 




Amoskeag jaemas'kEg 


-ana -'ena, -'aena, -'ana 




amount o'maunt |-ed -id 


Anabaptist /asna'baeptist 




amour a'mur, ae-; ES -'mu3(r 


anabasis, A- a'naebasis |-bases -bajsiz 




amour-propre Fr amur'prbpr 


anabolism a'naebljizam 




Amoy a'mai 


anachronism a'naekrajnizam 




amperage aem'pirids, 'aenijpirids |-s -iz 


anachronistic a^naekra'nistik |-al -1 


l-ally 


Ampere aem'pir, 'asmpcr; ES -Vi3(r. -pE3(r; 


-b, -ikb 




(/^r a'p£:r) 


anachronous a'naekranas 




ampere 'aempir, sem^pir; ES -pi3(r, -V^Cr 


anaclinal jsena'klainl 




ampersand ^semp^s,xnd, jaempa's'aBnd; ES 


anacUtic j^ena'kbtik 




-pas- 


anacoluthia /aenaka'lu6ia, -'bu6- 




amphetamine aem^fetajinin, -mm 


anacoluthic jaenaka'luOik, -'bu9- |-ally -b. 


amphibian aem'fibian |-bious -bias 


-ikb 




amphibrach 'aemfijbraek 


anacoluthon jSenaka'luOan, -'bu6-, -on, 


-an 


amphictyon ajm'fiktian |-y -i 


anaconda, A- ^aena'kanda; ES+-'kDn- 




amphictyonic aem^fikti'anik; ES+-'Dn- 


Anacortes ^aena'kartiz, -tez, -tas; ES - 


'kaa-; 


Amphion asm'faian 


I-'S -IZ 




amphitheater, -tre ^semiafiht^, -fii3-; ES 


Anacostia ^aena'kastia, -'kos-, -'kas- 




-t3(r 


Anacreon a'n«krian, -^an; ES+-jDn 




amphora 'aemfara |-s -z |-rae -^ri 


Anacreontic a^naekn'ontik; ES + -'Dntik 


ample 'aempl |-r -pla^; ES -pl3(r; |-st -plist 


anacrusis ^aena'krusis, -'kriu- j -cruses 


-siz 


amplification jacmpbfa'keXan 


Anadarko jaena'dorko; ES -'da:ko 


E+ 


amplifier 'asmpbjfaia^; ES -,fai'3(r 


-'da:ko 




amplify 'sempla^fai |-fied -;faid 


anadem 'ajnajdem 




amphtude 'aempbjtjud, -jtiud, -^tud 


anadromous a'naedramas 




amply 'iempli 


anaemia a'nimia |-mic -nuk 




ampulla aem'pAla, -'pub |-s -z |-lae -li 


anaerobe aett'ea^rob 




amputate 'aempjajtet, 'aempju- |-d -id 


anaerobic aenjea'robik, jaenE'robik 




amputation jaempja'tejan, -pju- 


anaesthesia jaenas'Oisa, -31a 




Amritsar Ain'ritsa^; ES -'ritsa(r 


anaesthetic jaenas'Oetik |-ally -b, -ikb 




Amsterdam US 'aemsta^jdaem, Nelh+ ,xmst2^- 


anaesthetist a'nesOatist 




Maem; ES -sta-; {Dii jamstar'dam) 


anaesthetize a'nesGa^taiz |-s -iz |-d -d 




Amstutz 'aemstAts [-es -iz {Ger 'am/tuts) 


anaglyph 'aena^gbf 




amuck a'mAk 


anagoge jaena'godsi j-gogy 'aenajgodgi 




amulet 'aemjalit 


anagogic ^aena'gadsik; ES-i--'gDd3-; 


1-al -! 


Amundsen 'amansn, 'amundsn 


l-ally -b, -ikb 




Amur a'mur; ES a'mua(r 


anagram 'aenajgraem 




amuse a'mjuz, a'miuz |-s -iz |-d -d |-dly 


anagrammatic jaenagra'maetik |-al -j 


I-ally 


-idli 


-h. -ikb 




amusive a'mjuziv, a'miuziv 


Anaheim 'asnajbaim 




Amy 'emi 


Anak 'enaek |-s -s |-im 'ana^kim 


1-ims 


amygdalin a'migdakn |-line -bn, -^lain 


'aenajkimz 




amyl 'aemil [-ase -i^les |-ene -ijin 


anal 'enl |-ly -i 





Key: See in full §§3~17. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saerj |angr}' 'aeg-gri 
Ibath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far [watch wat/, wotj (§12) |jaw d^o [gorge gards |go go 



analects 



17 



androgen 



analects 'aenajkkts [analecta ^aens'lekta 
analgesia jaen^erdsizia, -sia |-sic -zik, -sik 
analogic (Senl'adsik; ES+-'Dd3-; |-al -1 

|-ally -li, -ikli 
analogist d'naelsdsist 
analogize a'naebjdsaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
analogous a'naelagas 
analogue 'aenlpg, -^ag, -jOg 
analogy a'naebdsi 
analphabetic jaenaelfa'betik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 

-ikli 
analysable 'aenl^aizabl 
analyse 'aenljaiz |-s -iz [-d -d 
analysis a'naelasis |-yses -a^siz 
analyst 'aenlist 

analytic ^aenl'itik |-al -j |-ally -ji, -ikli 
analytics ^aenl'itiks 
analyzable 'aenl^aizabl 
analyze 'aenl^aiz j-s -iz |-d -d 
Anam d'naem 
Ananias jaena'naias |-'s -iz 
anapaest, -pest 'aena^pEst 
anapaestic, -pes- jaen3'p£stik |-al -1 |-ally -ji, 

-ikli 
anaphora a'naefara |-1 -1 
anaphoric ^aena'farik, -'far-, -'for- |-al -1 
anaphylaxis ^aenafa'laeksis 
anaplasty ^xn3,plsesti |-tic ^aena'pl^stik 
anarch 'aenark; ES 'aena:k, E+-a:k 
anarchic aen'arkik; ES -'a:k-, E+-'a:k-; |-al 

-1 l-ally -h, -ikb 
anarchism 'aena^jkizam; ES 'aena- 
anarchist 'aena'kist; ES 'aenakist; |-chy -ki 
anarchistic ^aena^'kistik; ES ^aena- 
anastigmatic ^aenastig'maetik, ^aenaestig-, 

aen^aes- 
anastomosis jaenasta'mosis, ajnaesta- |-moses 

-'mosiz 
anastrophe a'naestrafi 
anathema s'naeOsma 
anathematize a'naeOsmSjtaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
Anatolia jaena'toha |-n -n 
anatomic jaena'tamik; ES+-'tDm-; |-al -1 

l-ally -h, -ikh 
anatomist a'naetamist [-my -mi 
anatomize a^naetSjinaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
Anaxagoras jaenaeks'aegaras |-'s -iz 
ancestor 'aensEsta^; ES -S£st3(r 
ancestral aen'sEstral [-ly -i [-try 'ansEstri 



ancestress 'aensEstns |-es -iz 

Anchises aen'kaisiz, aerj- |-ses' -siz 

anchor 'aegka'; ES 'aegkacr; |-ed -d |-ing 
'aegkarig, 'aegkrig 

anchorage 'aegkaridg, -krid3 |-s -iz 

anchoress 'aegkans, -kris j-es -iz 

anchoret 'aegkarit, -£t 

anchorite 'aegka^rait 

anchovy 'aenjt/ovi, 'aentjavi, aen'tjovi 

anchusa aen't/uza, -'t/iuza (L aeg'kjuza, 
-'km-) 

ancien regime Fr fisjse-re'sim 

ancient 'en/ant 

ancillary 'aensajEn, Brit aen'silari 

ancress 'aegkris |-es -iz= anchoress 

and usually unstressed: before vowels and. End, 
nd ('sno and 'ais, 'bed nd 'arm); before 
consonants and often before voioels an ('maen 
an 'bist), En, n ('rad n 'gAn, 'fes n 'aiz), 
n ('bAta^ n 'egz) ; after p or b often m ('kAp m 
'sasa^, 'rAb m 'pahj); after k or g often g 
('djaek g 'dsil, 'baeg g 'baegids); stressed 
or in pause: before vowels 'aend, ^asnd, or 
before consonants 'aen, ^aen. The forms with 
-d occ2ir in ordinary speech before vowels 
('frl and 'izi) or 1, r, w, bw, j ('yh and 'let), 
but those without -d are also common there 
('stap an 'it), and are regtdar before other 
consonants ('go an 'si, 'trai an 'du it). 

Andalusia ^aenda'lusa, -'hu-, -/a |-n -n 

Andaman 'aendaman 

andante aen'daenti, an'danti {It an'dante) 

Andean aen'dian, 'aendian 

Andersen 'aenda^sn; ES 'aendasn; j-son -sn 

Andes 'aendiz |-des' -diz 

andiron 'aend^aia^n, -^airn; ES -yai-an, -^aian 

Andorra aen'dara, -'dara, -'dnra 

Andover 'aendova^; ES -dova(r; Mass loc.+ 
'aendava(r 

Andrade aen'dradi 

Andre 'aendri, 'andre 

Andrea del Sarto 'andriadEl'sarto; ES 
-'sa:to; (It an'dr£:adel'sarto) 

Andreas 'aendrias |-'s -iz 

Andrew 'aendru, 'aendriu |-s -z |-s's -ziz 

Androcles 'aendrajkliz |-'s -iz 

Androclus 'aendraklas |-'s -iz 

androgen 'aendradjan, -dsin |-ic ^aendra- 
'dsEnik 



|full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fy'Sa'; ES 'fstJa |custom 'kAStam |while hwail |how hau |toj^ tai 
|using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish d^f |vision 'visan |Eden 'idn |cradle 'kred} |keep 'em 'kipm 



androgynous 



18 



aniline 



androgynous aen'dradsanas ; ES+-'drDd3- 


angiosperm 'aendsiOjSpym; ES -^spam. 


Andromache aen'dramski; ES+-'drDm- 


-iSpym 


Andromeda aen'dramida; ES+-'drDm- 


angle 'aeggl |-d -d |-ling 'aegglig, 'aegg}ig 


Andronicus ^aendra'naikas, S/mk. aen'drani- 


angler 'aeggla^; ES 'aeggla(r 


kas; ES+-'drDn-; |-'s -iz 


Angles 'aegglz 


Andros 'aendras, -dras; ES+-drDs; |-'s -iz 


Anglesey, -sea 'aegglsi 


Androscoggin jjendrs'skagin, -'skog- 


angleworm 'aeggljwym; ES -^wam, -^wym 


anear a'mr; ES a'niaCr, S+3'nje3(r, a'njiaCr, 


Anglia 'aegglia 


3'ne3(r 


Anglican 'aeggkkan 


anecdotal jiemk'dotl ('aneCydotal 'speech) 


Anglicism 'aeggbiSizam |-cist -sist 


anecdote 'aemk^dot |-d -id [-tage -ids 


Anglicize 'aeggla^saiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


anecdotic jsenik'datik; ES+-'dDt-; |-al -1 


Anglify 'aeggla^fai |-fied -^faid 


|-ally -li, -ikh 


Anglin 'aegglin 


anele a 'nil |-d -d 


Anglist 'aegglist j-ics aeg'glistiks 


anelectric jaeni'lektrik 


Anglo-American 'aeggloa'merakan 


anemia a'nimia |-mic -mik 


Anglo-Catholic 'aegglo'kaeealik, -'kaeOlik 


anemometer jaena'mamata'; ES -'mam3t3(r. 


Anglo-CathoLicism 'aeggloka'OalajSizam; ES 


-'niDm- 


+ -'GdI- 


anemometric jaenama'metrik |-al -| |-ally -|i, 


Anglo-Egyptian 'aegglo'i'dsip/an 


-ikh 


Anglo-French 'aegglo'frent/ 


anemone, A- d'nemajni 


Anglo-Indian 'aegglo'indian, -djan 


anent a'nEnt 


Anglo-Irish 'aegglo'airij 


aneroid 'aenajfoid 


Anglo-Japanese 'aegglojdsaepa'niz 


anesthesia jaenas'Oisa, -31a 


Anglomania jaeggla'menia, -glo- |-niac -ni^aek 


anesthetic jsenas'Oetik |-ally -li, -ikh 


Anglo-Norman 'aegglo'narman; ES -'naaman 


anesthetist a'nesOatist 


AnglophUe 'aeggla^fail, -glo- 


anesthetize a'nesGajtaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


Anglophobe 'aeggla,fob, -glo- 


aneurysm, -rism 'aenjajrizam 


Anglophobia jaeggla'fobia, -glo- 


anew a'nju, a'niu, a'nu 


Anglo-Saxon 'aegglo'saeksn j-dom -dam |-ism 


anfractuous aen'fraektjuas 


-jizam 


angary 'aeggari 


Angola aeg'gola, aen- 


angel, A- 'endsal 


Angora aeg'gora, aen-, -'gara, 'aeggara; S 


Angela 'aendsala 


-'gora, -gara 


angelic aen'dsElik |-al -1 j-ally -|i, -ikli 


angostura jaeggas'tjcra, -'tiura, -'tura 


Angelica aen'dselika 


angry 'aeggri |-grily -grak, -gnh 


Angelina jaendsa'lina, -'lama 


angstrom 'aegstram 


Angell 'endsal 


anguish 'feggwi/ |-es -iz |-ed -t 


Angelo 'aendsajo 


angular 'aeggjala^; ES 'aeggjala(r 


Angelus 'aendsalas [-es -iz 


angularity iaeggja'laerati 


anger 'aegga'; ES 'aegga(r; |-ed -d ]-ing 


angulate adj 'aeggjaht, -Jet 


'aeggarig, 'aeggrig 


angulate v 'aeggjajet \-d -id 


angerly 'aegga^li; ES 'aeggali 


Angus 'aggas |-'s -iz 


Angers 'aendsa^z, 'aegga'z; ES -az; |-'s -iz 


angustura ^aeggas'tjura, -'tiura, -'tura 


(Fr a'se) 


anhungered an'hAgga^d; ES -'hAggad 


Angevin 'aendjavin 


anhydride aen'haidraid, -drid |-drid -drid 


Anglers Shak. 'aendsirz; ES 'aendsiaz; ]-'s 


anhydrous aen'haidras 


-IZ 


anil 'aenil 


angina aen'dsaina, in medicine often 'aendsina 


anile 'aenail, 'enail 


angina pectoris aen'dsaina'pEktaris 


aniline 'aen{,m, -in |-in -m 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) jrate ret |yet jet |sang saeg | angry 'aeg-gri 
Ibath baeO; E baG (§10) |ah a [far far |watch watj", wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gardj [go go 



anility 



19 



Anson ia 



anility a'nibti 




Anne Arundel 'aen-a'rAndl 


animadversion jaen3maedV3<^33n, -VyJ- 


; ES 


annelid 'aenhd 


-'V3-, -Vy- 




annex n 'aen£ks|-es -iz |-ation jaentks'ejan 


animadvert ^aenamaed'vs't; ES -Vst, - 


Vyt; 


annex v a 'neks |-es -iz |-ed -t 


|-ed -id 




Annie 'aeni 


animal 'aenami |-ly -i 




annihilate a'naiajet |-d -id |-lable -labl 


animalcula pi jaena'maelkjala 




annihilation ajiiaia'le/an 


animalculae pi jaena'maelkjajli 




anniversary jaenaVysari, -sri; ES -'v3S-, 


animalcule jaena'maelkjul, -kiul 




-Vys- 


animalculism jaena'maelkjajlizam 




anno Domini 'aeno'damajnai; ES+-'dDni- 


animalculum jaena'maelkjabm |-la -la 


l-lae 


annotate 'aenojtet |-d -id |-tion jaeno'te/an 


-,li 




annotator 'aeno^teta^; ES -/teta(r 


animalism 'aenaml/izam 




announce a'nauns |-s -iz \-d -t 


animality jaens'maelsti 




annoy a'nai j-ed -d |-ance -ans |-ances 


animate ajy 'aenamit 




-ansiz 


animate v 'aena^met |-d -id [-tion jaena'me/an 


annual 'aenjual, 'aenjul |-ly -i 


animism 'aena/inizam | animistic jaena'mistik 


annuitant a'nuatant, a'niu-, a'nju- |-ity -ati 


animosity jaena'masati; ES+-'mDS- 




annul a'nAl j-led -d 


animus 'aenamas 




annular 'aenjala^; ES -la(r 


anion ^aen^aian 




annulet 'aenjalit 


anise 'aenis 




annulus 'aenjalas |-es -iz |-li -^lai 


aniseed, anisseed 'aenijsid, ^aeniSjsid 




annum 'aenam 


anisometric jaenaisa'mgtrik, aen^aisa- 




annunciate a'nAn/ijet, -si- |-d -id 


anisotropic ^aenaisa'trapik, aeiijaisa-; 


ES+ 


annunciation, A- ajiiAnsi'eJan, -Ji- 


-'trnp-; |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 




annunciator a^nAnJiiCtSi', -si-; ES -jeta(r 


Anita a'nita 




Annunzio, d' da'nunzijO {It dan'nuntsjo) 


Anjou 'aendsu (Fr a'su) 




anociassociation ajnosiajsosi'e/an, -;SoJi- 


Ankara 'aegkara, ^agkara 




anociation ajnosi'e/an, a^noXi- 


ankh aegk 




anode 'aenod |-dic aen'adik; ES+-'cdik 


ankle 'aegkl |ankled 'aegkld 




anodize 'aenojdaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


anklebone 'iegkl^bon, -'bon 




anodyne 'aenajdain, 'aeno- 


anklet 'asgkbt 




anoint a'namt |-ed -id 


ankus 'aegkas, Vgka/ 1-es -iz 




Anoka a'noka 


ankylose 'aegkajos |-s -iz |-d -t 




anolyte 'aena^lait 


ankylosis ^aegka^losis 




anomalism a'namljizam; ES+-'nDm- 


anlace 'aenlis, -las |-s -iz 




anomalistic ajnaml'istik; ES+-jnDm-; |-al -J 


Ann aen 




l-ally -h, -ikh 


anna, A- 'aena 




anomaly a'namali; ES+-'nDm-; |-lous -las 


Annabel, -Ue 'aenajbel 




anort a 'nan, a'nnn 


Annabella ^aena^bela 




anonym, -e 'aenajnim |-nymity jaena'nimati 


annals 'aenlz | annalist 'aenlist 




anonymous a'nanamas; ES+a'nnn- 


Annam a^naem 




anopheles. A- a'nafajliz; ES+-'nDf- 


Annamese jaena'miz 




another a'nAtJa-; ES a'nAtSa(r 


Annapolis a'naeplis, -plis, -as j-'s -iz 




Anschluss Ger 'an/lus 


Ann Arbor aen'orba^; ES -'a:ba(r. 


E+ 


Anselm 'aensglm 


-'a:ba(r 




anserine 'gooselike' 'aensajrain, -rin 


annates 'aenits, 'aenets jannat 'aenaet 




anserine chem. 'aensajtin, -rin 


Anne aen 




Anson 'aensn 


anneal a 'nil j-ed -d 




Ansonia aen'sonia 



[full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fstSa |custom 'kAstam [while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kred} [keep 'em 'kipm 



Anstruther 



20 



anticyclone 



Anstruther 'aenstrA'Sa'; ES -tJ3(r 

answer 'aensa^; ES 'aens3(r, E+'an-, 'an-; 

|-ed -d |-ing -sarii), -sno 
answerable 'aensarobj, -sra- |-bly -bli; E see 

answer 
ant aent 

antacid aent'aesid 
Antaeus aen'tias |-'s -iz 
antagonism aen'taegajnizam |-nist -nist 
antagonistic aenjtaega'nistik, jaentaega- \-al -1 

1-ally -h, -ikh 
antagonize aen'taega^naiz |-s -iz \-d -d 
antalkali aent'aelkajlai 
antarctic aent'arktik, noto rare -'artik; ES 

-'a:-, E+-'a:-; ('antjarctic 'circle) 
Antarctica aentWktika; ES -'a:k-, E+-'a:k- 
Antares aen'teriz, -'taer-; S.-'taer-; |-es' -iz 
ante 'aenti 

anteater 'aent^ita^; ES -jit3(r 
ante bellum 'aenti'belam 
antecede ^aenta'sid |-d -id 
antecedence jaenta'sidns |-cy -i |-dent -dnt 
antecessor jaenta'sesa^; ES -'sES3(r 
antechamber 'aentijtjemba'; ES -jtjembacr 
antedate 'aenti^det, jaenti'det [-d -id 
antediluvian ^aentidi'luvian, -'huv- 
antelope 'aentljop 

ante meridiem 'aentimaVidijEm, -'ndiam 
antenna apn'tsna |-s -z |-nae -ni 
Antenor aen'tina^, -nor; ES -n3(r, -n33(r 
antepenult jaenti'pinAlt, -pi'nAlt 
antepenultimate jaentipi'nAltamit 
anterior aen'tiria'; ES -'tiri-3(r 
anteriority jSentiri'Drati, -'ar-, -'nr- 
anteroom 'aenti^rum, -jvm 
anthelion aent'hiksn, aen'Oihan |-s -z j-lia 

-li3 — The 2d is not a spelling pron. Gk 

has 6. 
anthelmintic jaenGEl'mmtik 
anthem 'aenOam — a sp. pron. (OE antefn, ME 

antem, 16c anthem with Latinized sp. 

oft) 
anther 'aenOa^; ES 'aen63(r 
anthill 'aent,hil 
anthologize aen'Oala^dsaiz; ES+-'eDl-; |-s 

-IZ l-d -d 
anthology aen'Oaladgi; ES+-'0d1- 
Anthony 'aenOani, 'aentani, 'aentni 
anthozoan jaenOa'zoan 



anthracene 'aenOra^sin 

anthracite 'aen6r3,sait 

anthracnose aen'Oraeknos 

anthrax 'aenGraeks |-es -iz 

anthropocentric ^aenBrapo'sentnk 

anthropogenesis jaenGrapo 'dssnasis 

anthropogenetic jaenGrajpodsa'iiEtik 

anthropography jaenGra'pagrafij -'p^g- 

anthropoid 'aenGra^paid 

anthropological ^aenGrapaUadsikl; ES+ 

-Uods-; |-ly -i, -ikli 
anthropology ^aenGra'paladsi; ES+-'pd1-; 

1-gist -dsist 
anthropometric ^aenGrapo'mEtnk j-al -1 j-ally 

-h, -ikh 
anthropometry jaenGra'pamatri; ES+ -'pom- 
anthropomorphic jaenGrapo'marfik; ES 

-'maaf-; |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli |-phism 

-fizam 
anthropomorphosis jaenOrapo'marfasis; ES 

-'maaf- 
anthropomorphous ^aenGrapo'inarfas; ES 

-'maafas 
anthroponomy ^aenGra'panami; ES + -'pDn- 
anthropophagi yaenGra'pafa^dsai; ES+-'pDf-; 

1-gite -jdsait |-gous -gas 
anti 71 'aentai, 'aenti \-s -z 
antiadministration jaentiadjinina'stre/an 
antiaircraft jaenti'erjkraft, -'aer-; E -'ea-, 

-'aea-, -jkraft, -jkraft; S -'aeajkraeft 
antibiosis ^aentibai'osis |-otic -'atik; ES+ 

-'otik 
antibody 'aentiybadi; ES+-jbDdi 
antic 'aentik |-ked -t 
anticatalyst jaenti'kastlist 
anticathode ^aenti'kaeGod 
antichlor 'aenti^klor, -^kbr; ES -jkloa(r, E+ 

-jkba(r 
antichrist 'aenti^kraist 
anticipant aen'tisapant 
anticipate aen'tisa,pet |-d -id j-tive -rv 
anticipation aen^tisa'pejan, ^aentisa- 
anticipatory aen'tisapajtori, -/tan; S -jtori 
anticlastic jaenti'klaestik 
anticlerical jaenti'klerikl 
anticlimax jienti 'klaimaeks |-es -iz j-ed -t 
anticline 'aentijklam |-clinal jaenti'klainl 
Anticosti jaenta'kasti, -'kas-, -'kos- 
anticj'clone ^aenti'saiklon 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet [sang saeg jangrv^ 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa Igorge gardj [go go 



anticyclonic 



21 



anybody 



anticyclonic jaentisai'klanik; ES+-'klDn-; 


antirust ^aenti'rAst 


|-ally -li, -ikli 


antisaloon jaentisa'lun 


antidotal 'aenti^dotl, jaenti'dotl j-ly -'dotk 


antiscorbutic jaentiskar'bjutik, -'biu-; ES 


antidote 'tenti^dot |-d -id 


-skaa- 


Antietana aen'titam 


anti-Semitic jaentisa'mitik |-ally -k, -ikli 


antifat jaenti'faet ('anti^fat 'treatment) 


anti-Semitism jaenti'sEmajtizam 


Antifederalist ^aenti'fsdaralist, -'fsdral- 


antisepsis ^aenta 'sepsis 


antifreeze ^aenti'friz |-s -iz 


antiseptic ^aenta'septik |-ally -ji, -ikh 


antigen 'aentadsan -d3in 


antisepticize jaenta'septa^saiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


Antigone sen'tig3jni 


antiserum jaenti'siram 


Antigonus aen'tiganas |-'s -iz 


antislavery jaenta'slevri, -'slevari 


Antigua aen'tiga, aen'tigwa 


antisocial jaenti'so/al 


anti-imperialism jaenti-im'pirialjizam |-ist- ist 


antistrophe aen'tistrafi, -f\ 


anti-imperialistic ;aenti-im;piri3l'istik 


antistrophic ^aenti'strafik, -'strof-; ES-i- 


antiknock jsenti'nak; ES+-'nDk 


-'strof-; |-ally -Ii, -ikli 


antilabor jaenti'leba^; ES -'leb3(r 


antitank ^aenti'taegk ('antijtank 'gun) 


Antilles sen'tiliz 


antithesis aen'tiOasis |-theses -ea^siz 


antilogarithm ^aenti'bgajri'Sam, -'lag-, -'lag- 


antithetic jaenti'Oetik |-al -1 |-ally -ji, -ikli 


an tilynching ^aenti'IintXii] 


antitoxic ^ienti'taksik; ES-h-'tok-; |-xin 


antimacassar jaentima'kaesa^; ES -'kaES3(r 


-ksin 


antimask, -sque 'ienti^maesk; E+-jmask, 


antitrades 'aenti^tredz 


-jmask 


antitrust ^aenti'trAst 


antimonsoon ysentiman'sun; ES+-mDn- 


antitype 'aenta/taip 


antimony 'aenta^moni 


antitypic ^aenti'tipik |-al -1 |-ally -Ii, -ikli 


antimonyl 'aentimajnil 


Antium 'aentiam, -Jiam 


antinomian, A- jaenti'nomian 


antivivisection jaenti,viva'sEkXan j-ist -ist 


antinomy aen'tmami 


antiwar jaenti'war; ES -'waa(r 


Antioch 'aenti^ak; ES+-jDk 


antler 'aentla^; ES 'aentla(r; |-ed -d 


Antiochus aen'taiakas |-'s -iz 


Antoinette jaentwa'net {Fr atwa'nEt) 


antipathetic aenjtipa'Oetik ^a^ntipa- |-al -1 


Antonia aen'tonia 


1-ally -li, -ikli 


Antoninus jaenta'nainas |-'s -iz 


antipathy agn'tipaOi 


Antonio aen'tonijO, -njo 


antiperiodic j^entijpiri'adik; ES-h-'od- 


Antonius aen'tonias |-'s -iz 


antiphlogistic ^aentiflo'dsistik 


antonomasia ^aentano'inesa, -51a 


Antipholus aen'tifalas j-'s -iz 


Antony 'aentam, 'aentni 


antiphon 'aenta^fan, -fan; ES+-jfDn 


antonym 'aentajnim 


antiphonal aen'tifanl |-ly -i | -phony -fani 


antonymous aen'tanamas; ES-i--'t»n- 


antiphonary aen'tifajnen 


antre 'aenta^; ES 'aenta(r 


antipodal aen'tipadl 


Antrim 'aentrim 


antipode 'aenti^pod \pl antipodes aen'tipa^diz 


antrum 'aentram 


antipodean aen^tipa'dian, ^aentipa- 


Antwerp 'aentwyp; ES -wsp, -wyp 


antipope 'aenti^pop 


anus 'enas |-es -iz j-ni -nai 


antiputrid jaenti'pjutrid, -'piu- 


anvil 'lenvil |-ed -d 


antiquarian jaenti'kwerian, -'kwer- 


anxiety aeg'zaiati, aeog'z- 


antiquary 'aenti^kweri 


anxious 'aegk/as, 'aeg/as 


antiquate 'aenta^kwet |-d -id 


any 'ehi, unstressed occas. am, ni ('gatni 


antique aen'tik ('an^tique 'table) 


'bet?) 


antiquity aen'tikwati 


anybody 'EiUjbadi, -^bAdi, -badi; ES+ 


antirrhinum, A- iaenti'rainam 


-jbadi 



[full ful Itooth tuO [further 'fySa^; ES 'fa'Sa |custom 'kAstam [while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
|using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dij [vision 'visan |Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



anyhow 



22 



apophthegm 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 



anyhow 'enijhau 

anyone '£nijWAn, -wan (jeniwan'els) 

anything 'enijOiij 

anyway 'eni^we |-s -z 

anyTvhere 'EiUjhwer, -jhwter; E -jhwe3(r, ES 

-jhwae3(r 
anywhere else 'enijhwer'Els, -^hwaer-, 

anywise 'eni^waiz 

Anzac 'aenzaek 

A one, A 1 'e'wAn 

Aonian e'onian 

aorist 'earist 

aoristic ^eaVistik l-ally -ji, -ikli 

aorta ebrta; ES ebata 

apace a'pes 

apache 'gangster'' aVf>X> a'paej I-s -iz {Fr 

a'paJ") 
Apache Indian a'paetji 
Apalachee, -chi jaepa'lietji, -tji 
Apalachicola jaepajaetji'kola 
apanage 'aepanidj |-s -iz j-d -d 
apart a'part; ES a'pait, E+a'pa^t 
apartment a'partmant; ES a'pait-, E+ 

a'part- 
apartmental apart 'mentl; ES 3pa:t-, E+ 

3pa:t- 
apathetic jaepa'Oetik |-al -1 j-ally -|i, -ikli 
apathy 'aepaOi 
ape ep |aped ept 
apeak a'pik 

Apemantus ^aepi'maentas |-'s -iz 
Apennines 'aepa^nainz 
aperient a'pirisnt 
aperiodic ^epiri'adik; ES+-'Dd-; |-ally -li, 

-ikli 
aperitif Fr aperi'tif 
aperitive a'psrativ 

aperture 'aepa'tja^; ES 'aepatJaCr; |-d -d 
apery 'epari 
apetalous e'pstlas 

apex 'epeks |-es -iz |apices 'aepi^siz, 'e- j-ed -t 
aphaeresis a'ferasis, ae- 
aphasia a'fesa, -313 
aphelion ae'fihan, a- |-s -z |-lia -ha 
apheresis a'ferasis, ae- 
aphesis 'aefasis 
aphid 'efid, 'aefid 



aphis, A- 'efis, 'aefis |-es -iz [aphides 'asfi^diz 

aphorism 'aefajnzam |-ist -rist 

aphoristic ^aefaVistik |-al -I |-ally -li, -ikh 

aphorize 'aefajtaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

aphrodisiac jaefra'dizi^aek 

Aphrodite ^aefra'daiti 

API 'e;pi'ai, asbsja'sjo fane'tik setemasja- 

'nal, c/ 1 P A 
apian 'epian 
apiarian ,epi'Erian, -W- 
apiarist 'epiarist 
apiary 'epi;8ri 
apical 'aepikl, 'e- 1-ly -i 
apices 'aepi^siz, 'e- 
apicultural jepi'kAltJaral 
apiculture 'epi^kAltJa^; ES -tj"a(r 
apiece a 'pis 
Apis 'epis 
apish 'epi/ 
aplenty aVlenti 

aplomb a'plctni, a'pbm {Fr a'plo) 
apocalypse, A- a'pakajips |-s -iz 
apocalyptic ajpaka'liptik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 

-ikli 
apocopate adj a'pakapit, -;pet 
apocopate v a'paka^pet |-d -id 
apocopation ajpaka'pe/an 
apocope a'pakapi, -^pi 
apocrypha, A- a'pakrafa ]-l -1 |-lly -li 
apodeictic, -deik- ^aepa'daiktik |-al -1 1-allv 

-li, -ikli 
apodictic ,aepaMiktik |-al -1 j-ally -li, -ikh 
apodosis a'padasis |-doses -da,siz 
apogee 'aspa^dsi 

ApoUinaris a/pala'n£ris, -'naeris, -'nens 
Apollo a'palo 
ApoUodorus a/pala'doras, -'dor-; S -'dor-; 

I-'S -IZ 

Apollonius jaepaUonias |-'s -iz 

Apollos a'pcilas |-'s -iz 

Apollyon a'paljsn 

apologetic a^pala'dsstik 1-al -1 j-alh' -Ii, 

-ikli 
apologia jsepalodsia 
apologist a'paladsist \-gy -dsi 
apologize a'pala^dsaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
apologue 'aepajag, -}ag, -ilng 
apophthegm 'aepa^Oem 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'pi** (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angry 'aeo'^" 
|bath baeO; E ba6 (§10) jah a |far far |watch watj, wntj (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards |go go 



apophthegmatic 



23 



apprehend 



Those words below in which the a sound is spell o are often pronounced with r> in E and S 


apophthegmatic ^aepaOEg'maetik |-al -1 


1-ally 


appendectomy jfepan'dektami 


-li, -ikh 




appendices a'penda^siz 


apoplectic jaepa'plsktik |-al -1 |-aUy -li, 


-ikh 


appendicitis a^penda'saitis 


apoplexed 'aepajplekst | apoplexy 'aepa^pleksi 


appendix a'pendiks |-es -iz [-dices -da^siz 


aport 3 'port, a 'part; ES a'poat, E+a'poat 




apperceive ^aepa^'siv; ES jaepa-; |-d -d 


aposiopesis jaepa^saia'pisis 




apperception jaepa^'sEp/an; ES jaepa-; j-tive 


apostasy a'pastasi 




-tiv 


apostate a'pastet, -tit 




appertain ^aepa^'ten; ES jflepa-; |-ed -d 


apostatize a'pasta^taiz |-s -iz |-d -d 




appetence 'aepatans |-cy -i |-tent -tant 


a posteriori 'epas^tin'orai, -br-; S -W- 




appetite 'aepajtait -titive -jtaitiv 


apostle a'pasl 




appetize 'aepa^taiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


apostolate a'pastlit, -^et 




appetizer 'aepajtaiza'; ES -;taiza(r 


apostolic jsepas'talik |-al -\ |-ally -h, -ik 


li 


Appian 'aepian 


apostrophe a'pastrafi 




applaud a'pbd j-ed -id |-able -abl |-bly -bli 


apostrophize a'pastra^faiz |-s -iz |-d -d 




applause a'pbz |-s -iz 


apothecary a'paGajkeri 




apple 'aepl |-d -d |-ling 'aeplig, 'aephg 


apothegm 'aepajOem 




applejack 'aepl,d3aek 


apothegmatic ^aepaeEg'maetik |-al -1 


l-ally 


apple pie 'aepl'pai ('apple-^pie 'order) 


-li, -ikh 




applesauce 'aepjjsas 


apotheosis 3jpa6i'osis, ^aepa'Gbsis 




Appleton 'aepltan 


Appalachia jspa'laet/ia 




appUable a'plaiabl |-bly -bli 


Appalachian jaepa'laet/ian, -'let/-, -tjan 




appliance a'plaians |-s -iz |-ant -ant 


Appalachians jaepa'laetjanz, -'let/-, -lanz 




applicabihty ^aepbka'bilati 


appall, -al a 'pal |-ed, -led -d 




applicable 'aeplikabl, a'phk- |-bly -bb 


appanage 'aepanids |-s -iz |-d -d 




applicant 'aeplakant 


Appanoose ^aepa'nus |-'s -iz 




application ^aepla'ke/an 


apparatus ^tepaVetas, -Vaetas \pl -tuses 


-tasiz 


applicative 'aepla^ketiv |-tor -ta^; ES -ta(r 


\L pi -ratus -'retas 




applicatory 'aeplakajtori, -/tan; S -jtori 


apparel a'paeral |-ed -d 




applied a'plaid |appliedly a'plai-idb 


apparent a'paerant, a'per-; S a'paer- 




applique jaepli'ke (Fr apli'ke) 


apparition jaepaVi/an 




apply a'plai [applied a'plaid 


apparitor a'paerata^; ES -ta(r 




appoint a 'paint |-ed -id |-ive -iv 


appeal a'pil |-ed -d |-able -abl 




appointee apain'ti, jspain'ti, a'painti 


appealability ajpila'bilati 




appointor a'pamta^, apain'tar; ES -ta(r. 


appear a'pir; ES a'pia(r, S+a'psaCr. a'pj£a(r; 


-'t3a(r 


l-ed -d 




Appomattox ^aepa'maetaks |-'s -iz |-toc -tak 


appearance a'pirans; S+a'per-, a' 


pJEr-; 


apportion a'por/an, a'par-; ES a'poajan, E+ 


|-S -IZ 




a'paa-; |-ed -d |-ing -Janig, -/nig 


appeasable a'pizabl |-bly -bh 




appose a'poz, ae- |-s -iz |-d -d |-sable -abl 


appease a'piz |-s -iz |-d -d 




apposite 'aepazit 


appellant a'pelant 




apposition ^aepa'zi/an 


appellate a'p£ht |-tive -iv, -lativ 




appositive a'pazativ 


appellation jaepa'lejan 




appraise a'prez |-s -iz |-d -d |-sal -1 


appellee jaepa'li 




appreciable a'priXiabl, -/abl j-bly -bh 


appellor a'pelar, jaepa'br; ES -aa(r 




appreciate a'priji^et |-d -id 


append a'pend |-ed -id |-age -ids 


-ages 


appreciation ajpriji'ejan |-tive a'prijijctiv 


-idsiz 




appreciatory a'prijiajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 


appendant a 'pendant 




apprehend jaepri'hend |-ed -id 



[fuU ful |tooth tue [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



apprehensible 



24 



Arblay 



Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are ojten pronounced, in E with a (farm) 



apprehensible jajpri'hEnsabl |-bly -bit 


Aquarius a'kwErias, a'kwer- |-'s -iz 


apprehension ja^pri'hEnJan |-sive -siv 


aquatic a'kwaetik, a'kwat-, a'kwot- 


apprentice a'prentis -s -iz |-d -t |-ship -jjip 


aquatint 'askwajtint 


appressed a'pr^st, ae- 


aqua vitae 'aekwa 'vaiti 


apprise, -ze Wme' a'praiz j-s -iz j-d -d 


aqueduct 'aekwi^dAkt 


apprize, -se 'appraise' a'praiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


aqueous 'ekwias, 'aek- 


approach a'protj |-es -iz |-ed -t 


Aquidneck a'kwidnek 


approachability ajprotja'bilati 


Aquila 'aekwila |-lae -}\--Bible+3^k-wi]9, pcrh. 


approachable a'prot/abj 


by association with Priscilla {Rom. 16:3). 


approbate 'aepra^bet |-d -id |-tion jaspra'bejan 


aquiline 'aekwa Jam, -lin 


approbatory a'probajtori, -jtori; S -jton 


Aquinas a'kwainas |-'s -iz 


appropriable a'propriabl 


Aquitaine jsekwi'ten [-tania -la 


appropriate adj a'propriit 


ar ar; ES a:(r 


appropriate v a'propn^et [-d -id |-tive -iv 


Arab 'aerab, now lessfrcq. 'eraeb 


appropriation ajpropri'ejan 


Arabella jaera'bela 


approve a'pruv |-d -d |-dly -idli |-val -1 


arabesque ,aera'bEsk 


approximate adj a'praksamit; ES+a'proks- 


Arabia a'rebia, -bja |-n -n 


approximate v oVraksajinet; ES+a'prnks-; 


Arabic, a- 'aerabik 


1-d -id 


arabis, A- 'aerabis |-es -iz 


approximation ajpraksa'me/an; ES+ 


arable 'aerabl 


a^proks- 


Araby 'srabi 


appurtenance a'ps'tnans; ES a 'pat-, a'pyt-; 


Arachne a'raekni 


|-s -IZ |-ant -ant 


arachnid a'raeknid j-noid -naid 


apricot 'eprijkat, 'aep-; ES+-jkDt 


Aragon 'aera^gan, -gan; ES+-jgDn; {Sp 


April 'epral, 'epril 


jara'gan) 


a priori 'eprai'orai, -br-; S -'orai 


Aral 'eral, 'aeral, 'eral; S 'aeral, 'eral 


apriority ^eprai'srati, -'ar-, -'nr- 


Aram 'eram, 'Etam, '«ram; S 'eram, 'aeram 


apron ^epran, 'epa^n; ES 'epran, 'epan; |-ed 


Aramaean, -mean iaera'mian ]-maic -'me-ik 


-d — The older pron. 'epa^n, 'epan is by no 


Aransas a'raensas |-sas' -sas 


means rare, and appears from the L.A. to be 


Arapaho, -hoe a'raepajho 


very common in NEngd. 


Ararat 'aera^raet 


apropos ^aepra'po 


arbalest, -list 'arbalist; ES 'a:b- 


apse aeps lapses 'aepsiz 


arbiter 'arbita^; ES 'a:bita(r 


apsis 'ajpsis |apsides 'aepsi^diz 


arbitrable 'arbatrabl; ES 'a:b- 


apt apt 


arbitrage 'arbitration' 'orbatrids; ES 'a:b-; 


apterous 'aeptaras 


1-S -IZ 


apteryx 'aepta^nks |-es -iz 


arbitrage commerce 'arbatrids, jorba'tras: 


aptitude 'aipta,tjud, -^tiud, -jtud 


ES 'a:b-, ,a:b-; |-s -iz j-d -d 


Apuleius ^aepju'lias |-'s -iz 


arbitral 'arbatral; ES 'a:b- 


Apulia a'pjulia, a'piuha 


arbitrament ar'bitramant; ES a'bit- 


aqua 'aekwa, 'e- |-s -z |aquae -wi 


arbitrarily 'arba;trerali; ES 'a:b-; csp. if 


aqua fortis 'aekwa 'fartis, 'e-; ES -'faatis 


emph. jarbi'trarily 


aqualon 'aekwajan; ES+-jlDn 


arbitrary 'arbajttEri; ES 'a:b- 


aquamarine jaekwamaVin 


arbitrate 'arbajtret; ES 'a:b-; |-d -id 


aquaplane 'aekwa ^plen 


arbitration jarba'tre/an; ES lO-.h- 


aqua regia 'aekwa 'ridsia, 'e- 


arbitrator 'arba,trety; ES 'a:bajtreta(r 


aquarium a'kwsnam, a'kwer- |-s -z |-ria 


arbitress 'arbatris; ES 'a:b-; j-es -iz 


-ria 


Arblay, d' 'darble; ES 'darble 



Key: See in full §§3—i7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet JEt |sang saeg iangry 'feg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baB (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wot/ (§12) |jaw d^y [gorge gards |go go 



arbor 



25 



arctic 



Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 
arbor, A- 'arba^; ES 'a:b3(r; |-ed -d 
arboraceous jOrbaVeJos; ES ^arba- 
arboreal ar'borial, -'bar-; ES a'borial, E+ 

-'banal 
arborescent ^arba'tEsnt; ES ja:ba-; |-nce 

-sns 
arboretum jarba'ritam; ES ja:ba- 
arboriculture 'arbari^kAltJa'; ES 'a:bari- 

jkAltJ'a(r 
arborvitae, arbor vitae 'arba^'vaiti; ES 

'a:ba- 
Arbuckle 'arbAkl; ES 'a:b- 
Arbuthnot ar'bAOnat, 'arbaGjnat; ES a:-, 

'a:-, -jHDt 



arbutus ar'bjutas, -'biu-; ES a:-; [es -iz 
arc ark; ES a:k; |arced, arcked arkt; ES a:kt 
Arc, Jeanne d' Fr 3a:n'dark 
arcade ar'ked; ES a:'ked; |-d -id 
Arcadia ar'kedia; ES a'ked-; |-n -n 
Arcady 'arkadi; ES 'ark- 
arcanum ar'kenam; ES a: 'ken-; |-na -na 
arced arkt; ES a:kt 
arch art/; ES a:t/; |-es -iz |-ed -t 
Archaean ar'kian; ES a:'kian 
archaeological jarkia'lad3ikl;ES ^aikia'lads-, 

-'lods-; |-ly -i, -ikli 
archaeology ^arki'aladsi; ES ^aiki'al-, -'d1-; 

I -gist -dsist 
archaeopteryx, A- ^arki'aptariks; ES 

,a:ki'ap-, -'op-; |-es -iz 
Archaeornis ^arki'arnis; ES ^aiki'aanis 
archaic ar'ke-ik; ES a:-; |-al -1 |-alty -ji, 

-ikh 
archaism 'arki,izam, 'arke-; ES 'a:k- 
archaistic ^arki'istik, jarke-; ES ^aik- 
archaize 'arki^aiz, 'arke-; ES 'a:k-; j-s -iz 

1-d-d 
archangel, A- 'ark'endsal, -jcndsal; ES 'a:k- 
archangelic jarkaen'dgElik; ES ;a:k-; |-al -1 
archbishop 'artj'bijap; ES 'a:tj-; ('Arch- 

jbishop 'Laud) 
archbishopric jartj'bi/aprik ; ES ^art/- 
Archbald 'artjbald; ES 'aitj"-; |-bold -bold 
archdeacon 'art/'dikan, -^dikan; ES 'aitj- 
archdiocese 'artj'daia^sis, -sis; ES 'art/-; 

|-S -IZ 

archducal jartj'djukl, -'diu-, -'du-; ES 
ia:t/- 



archduchess 'art/'dAtJis, -jdAtJis; ES 'a:t/-; 

|-es -iz 
archduchy 'art/'dAtJi; ES 'artj- 
archduke 'artj'djuk, -'diuk, -'duk, -^d-; ES 

'a:t/- 
Archean ar'kian; ES a:'kian 
arched art/t; ES aitjt 
archenemy 'artj'enami, -jEnami; ES 'a:t/- 
archeological jorkia'ladsikl; ES jaikia'lads-, 

-'lods-; |-ly -i, -ikli 
archeology ^arki'aladsi; ES ^aiki'al-, -'nl-; 

I -gist -dgist 
Archeozoic jorkia'zo-ik; ES ^aikia- 
archer, A- 'art/a' ; ES 'a:tXa(r; |-y -i 
archetype 'arka^taip; ES 'a:ka- 
archfiend 'art/'find, -jfind; ES 'aitj- 
Archibald 'art/a >ald; ES 'aitj- 
Archidamus ^arki'demas; ES ^aiki-; |-'s -iz 
archidiaconal ,arkidai'aekanl; ES ^arki- 
archiepiscopacy ^arkia'piskapasi; ES ^aiki-; 

I -pal -pi 
Archimedean ^arki'midian, -mi'dian; ES 

ja:ki- 
Archimedes jarka'midiz; ES ja:k-; |-des' 

-diz 
archipelagic jarkipa'laedjik; ES ^aiki- 
archipelago jarka'pela^go; ES ^aika- 
architect 'arka^tEkt; ES 'a:ka- 
architectonic jarkitek'tanik;ES ^aikitEk'tan-, 

-'tDn-;|-al-ll-ally-li,-ikIi 
architectural jarka'tekt/aral; ES ^arka-; 

l-ly -I 
architecture 'arkajtektJV; ES 'a:kajt£kt/a(r 
architrave 'arka^trev; ES 'a:ka-; |-d -d 
archival ar'kaivl; ES a:'kaivl 
archive 'arkaiv; ES 'a:k-; |-s -z |-d -d 
archivist 'arkavist; ES 'a:k- 
archivolt 'arkajvolt; ES 'a:ka- 
archon 'arkan, -kan; ES 'a:kan, -kon, -kan 
archpriest 'artj'prist; ES 'art/-; j-hood -hud 

i-ship -Sip 
archway 'artj^we; ES 'a:t/- 
arcing 'arkig; ES 'arkig 
Arcite 'arsait, ar'sait; ES 'a:s-, a:'s- 
arcked arkt; ES a:kt; |-cking -kig 
Areola ar'kola; ES a:'k- 
arctic 'arktik, now rare 'artik; ES 'a:-; 



|full ful |tooth tue [further 'fytj*; ES 'faSa |custom 'kAStam |while hwail |how hau [toy tai 
)using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fmz |dish dij |vision 'visan |Eden 'idn |cradle 'kredj |keep 'em ^kipm 



Arcturus 



26 



Arlington 



Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 



Arcturus ark'tjuras, -%ur-, -'tur-; ES a:k-; 

|-'s -iz 
arcuate 'arkjuit, -jCt; ES 'a:k-; |-d -^etid 
Arden 'ardn; ES 'a:dn 
ardent 'ardnt; ES 'a:d-; |-ncy -nsi 
Ardmore Wdmor, -mar; ES 'a:dmo3(r, 

E+-m33(r 
ardor Wda^; ES 'a:d3(r 
arduous 'ardsuas; ES 'aids- 
are measure £r, aer, ar; E £3(r, ES ae3(r, a:(r 
are v stressed 'ar, ;ar; ES 'a:(r, /a:(r; unstr. 

a'; ES 3(r; |'re -r; ES -3(r; see we're, 

you're, they're 
area 'eria, 'eria [-way -jwe 
arena a'rina 
aren't arnt; ES a:nt 

Areopagite jaeri'apajdsait, -jgait; ES+-'dp- 
Areopagitic jaerijDpa'dsitik; ES+-;Dp-; 

|-a -3 
Areopagus ^aeri'apagas; ES+-'dp-; |-'s -iz 
Ares 'eriz, 'eHz, 'aeriz; S 'eriz, 'ariz; |-res' 

-riz 
Arethusa jaeri'Ojuza, -'Oiu-, -'Ou- 
argal 'argol' 'argl; ES 'a:g} 
argal 'ergo' 'argl; ES 'a:gj — In Shak.'s day 

argal wa^ pron. 'aergj aw<^ ergo 'aerga. 
argali 'argali; ES 'aigali 
argent Wdsant; ES 'ardsant 
argental ar'dsEntl; ES ai'dsentl; |-teous 

-tias I -tic -tik 
argentiferous ^ardsan'tifaras; ES jOidsan- 
Argentina ^ardsan'tina; ES ^aidsan- 
Argentine 'ardsaiiytm, -jtam; ES 'aids- 
argentine 'ardgantin, -jtain; ES 'aids- 
Argentinian jardsan'timan; ES jaids- 
argentite 'ardsan;tait; ES 'a:ds- 
argentous ar'dsentas; ES ai'dsen- 
argil 'ardsil; ES 'aidsil 
Argive 'ardsaiv; ES 'aidsaiv 
Argo 'argo; ES 'a:go 
argol 'argl; ES 'atgj 
argon 'argan; ES 'a:gan, -gon 
Argonaut 'argajnat; ES 'a:ga- 
Argonautic jarga'natik; ES ^aiga- 
Argonne 'argan; ES 'a:gan, -gnn (Fr ar'gbn) 
Argos 'argas, -gas; ES 'a:gas, -gns, -gas; 

|-'s -IZ 

argosy 'argasi; ES 'a:gasi 



argot 'argo, 'argat; ES 'a:g- 
argue 'argju; ES 'a:g-; \-d -d 
argument 'argjamant; ES 'a:g- 
argumental jargja'aientl; ES ]a:g- 
argumentation jargjamEn'te/an; ES ,a:g- 
argumentative ,argja'm8ntativ; ES ;a:g- 
Argus 'argas; ES 'a:g-; |-'s -iz 
Argus-eyed 'argas^aid; ES 'a:g- 
Argyll, -gyle ar'gail; ES a:'g-; |-shire -Jir, 

-JV; ES -Si3(r, -J'a(r 
Argyrol 'ardsa/ral, -/ral; ES 'aids-, -^rol 
aria 'aria, 'eria, 'aeria; S 'aria, 'aena 
Ariadne jaeri'aedni 

Arian 'Erian, 'aerian, 'enan; S 'aerian, 'er- 
arid 'aerid |-ity a'ridati, ae- 
Ariel 'erial, 'erial, 'aerial; S 'erial, 'ar- 
Aries 'eriz, 'eriz, 'aeriz, -ri^iz; S 'er-, 'aer-; 

|-es' -iz \gen Arietis a'raiatis 
aright a 'rait 

Ariosto jaeri'asto, -'ds-, -'os- {It jari'asto) 
arise a'raiz |-s -iz | arose a'roz | arisen a'nzn 
Aristides ^aera'staidiz |-des' -diz 
aristocracy jsera'stakrasi; ES+-'stT)k- 
aristocrat a'rista^kraet, 'aerista- 
aristocratic ajnsta'kraetik, ^aerista- |-al -j 

l-ally -h, -ikli 
Aristophanes jaera'stafa^niz; ES+-'stDf- 
Aristotelian jaerista'tilian, a^rista-, -Ijan 
Aristotle 'aerajstatl; ES+-;StDtl 
arithmetic n a'ri0majtik 
arithmetic adj ^aeriO'metik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 

-ikk 
arithmetician ajriGma'tiJan, jaeriOma- 
Arius 'srias, 'aer-, 'er-, a'raias; S 'aer-, 'er-, 

a'raias; |-'s -iz 
Arizona jaera'zona |-nan -nan |-nian -man 
ark ark; ES a:k; j-ed -t 
Arkansan ar'kaenzan; ES a:'k«n- 
Arkansas state 'arkan^sa, o.f. ar'kaenzas; riv. 

'arkan;Sa, /oc.-f- ar'kaenzas, -z; city in Ark 

'arkan^sa, /oc. -i-ar'kaenzas, -z; city in Kan 

'arkan;Sa, loc. ar'kaenzas, -z; ES 'aikan^sa, 

a:'kaenzas, S-i-'aikin^sa; \poss 'Arkan^sas's 

-jsaz |Ar'kansas' -zas 
Arkansawyer 'arkanjsaja'; ES 'a:kanjsaja(r 
Arkwright 'ark^rait; ES 'a:k- 
Arlen 'arlin, -an; ES 'ad- 
Arlington 'arligtan; ES 'a:l- 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret [yet jet |sang saeg jangrj' 'aeo'gri 
|bath baeO; E bad (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards |go go 



Arliss 



27 



Artesius 



Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E mith a (fa:m) 



Arliss 'arhs; ES 'a:l-; j-'s -iz 


Arragon 'aerajgan, -gan; ES+-igDn; 


(Sp 


arm arm; ES a:m; |-ed -d 


^ara'gan) 




armada, A- ar'mada, -Weda; ES ar'm- 


arraign a'ren |-ed -d 




armadillo ^arma'dilo; ES ^aima- 


arrange a 'rends |-s -iz |-d -d 




Armageddon jarm3^g£dn; ES ^arma- 


arrant 'aerant 




armament Wmamant; ES 'arma- 


arras, A- 'aeras |-es -iz {Fr a'rars) 




armature 'ormatJV, -jt/ur; ES 'armat/acr. 


array a 're |-ed -d 




-it/uacr 


arrear a'rir; ES a'ria(r, S+a'rea(r; |-s - 


z 


armchair Wmjt/Er, -jt/aer; E ^a:mjt/E3(r, 


arrearage a'ririds |-s -iz 




ES -jt/aBa(r; ace/ + 'arm 'chair 


arrest a'rest |-ed -id 




Armenia ar'minia; ES a'min-; j-n -n 


Arrighi a'rigi, a- {It ar'rirgi) 




armful 'arm^ful; ES 'a:m-; |-s -z 


arris 'aeris |-es -iz 




armhole 'arnijhol; ES 'arm- 


arrive a'raiv |-d -d |-val -1 




Arminian ar'minian; ES a'min- 


arrogance 'aeragans |-cy -i |-gant -gant 




Arminius ar'minias; ES a'min-; |-'s -iz 


arrogate 'aerajget, 'aero- |-d -id 




armipotent ar'mipatant; ES a'mip-; [-ence 


arrow 'aero, 'aera |-ed -d |-ing 'aerawig 




-3ns 


arrowhead 'aerOjliEd, 'aera- 




armistice Wmastis; ES 'arm-; |-s -iz 


arrowroot 'aero^rut, 'aera-, -^rut 




Armitage 'armstids; ES 'a:m-; |-'s -iz 


arrowy 'aerawi 




armlet 'armlit; ES 'arm- 


arroyo a'raio 




armor 'orma'; ES 'a:m3(r; |-ed -d 


arsenal 'arsnal, 'arsnal; ES 'arsnal, 'ari 


mal 


armor-bearer 'arma^jbera', -^baera'; E 'arma- 


arsenate n 'arsn^et, -it; ES 'arsn- 




jber3(r, ES -jbaer3(r 


arsenate v 'arsn^et; ES 'arsn-; |-d -id 




armor-clad 'arma^jklaed; ES 'a: ma- 


arsenic n, v 'arsnik, 'arsmk; ES 


'ars-; 


armorer 'armara^; ES 'a:mara(r 


|-ked -t 




armorial or'morial, -'mar-; ES a'monal, 


arsenic adj ar'senik; ES ar'senik; j-al 


-1 


E+-'mar- 


arsenide 'arsn^aid, -id; ES 'arsn- 




Armoric ar'marik, -^mxir-, -'mor-; ES a:'m-; 


arsenious ar'sinias; ES a'sin- 




|-a -a |-an -an 


arsenite 'arsn^ait; ES 'arsn- 




armory 'armari; ES 'a:mari 


arsine ar'sin; ES a'sin 




armpit 'ofmjpit; ES 'arm- 


arsis 'arsis; ES 'arsis; |arses -siz 




arms armz; ES armz 


arson 'arsn; ES 'arsn 




Armstrong 'armstrag, -strog; ES 'arm- 


arsphenamine jarsftna'min, -'aemin; ES ^ars- 


army 'armi; ES 'armi; |-mied -mid 


art n art; ES art; |-y -i 




arnica 'arnika; ES 'arn- 


art V 2 pers: stressed 'art, ^art; ES 'art 


, iort; 


Arno 'arno; ES 'arno 


unstr. art, a't; ES at, at 




Arnold 'amid; ES 'amid 


Artaxerxes ^arta'zyksiz; ES ^arta'zak-. 


,arta- 


aroint a'raint 


'zyk-; |xes' -ksiz 




aroma a'roma 


artefact 'arti^faekt; ES 'arti- 




Aroostook a'rustuk, /oc.+-tik 


Artemidorus ^artami'doras, -'dar-; 


ES 


arose a'roz 


^artami'dor-, E+-'dar-; |-'s -iz 




around a'raund 


Artemis 'artamis; ES 'art-; |-'s -iz 




arouse a'rauz |-s -iz [-d -d |-sal -1 


Artemus 'artamas; ES 'art-; |-'s -iz 




ARP, A.R.P. 'e.ar'pi; ES 'e^ar'pi 


arterial or'tirial; ES a'tir- 




arpeggio ar'pedsijO, -djo; ES a'p- 


arteriosclerosis ar'tirijoskli'rosis; ES a 


tir- 


arquebus 'arkwibas; ES 'ark-; |-es -iz 


artery 'artari; ES 'artari 




arquebusier jorkwibas'ir; ES ja;kwibas'ia(r 


artesian ar'tisan; ES ar't-; ('ar^tesian 


'well) 


arrack 'aerak 


Artesius ar'tisas; ES ar't-; |-'s -iz 





[full ful |tooth tuG Ifurther 'fytS*; ES 'fstSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipni 



Arteveld 



28 



Asia 



Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (farm) 



Arteveld 'art3jV8lt; ES 'arta- 


asbestos, -us aes'bestas, aez- 




artful 'artfal; ES 'art-; |-ly -i 


Asbury 'aez^beri, -ban 




Arthabaska ^arOa'baeska; ES ^arOa- 


Ascalon sword d° Pal vil. 'aeskajan, - 


Inn, 


arthritic ar'Gritik; ES a:'eritik; |-al -1 


-Ian 




arthritis ar'Oraitis; ES a:'6r-; |-tes -tiz 


Ascanius a'skenias, ae- |-'s -iz 




arthropod 'arGra^pad; ES 'a:6rajpad, -^pod 


ascend a'send |-ed -id 




Arthur 'arOa^; ES 'a:ea(r; — In the occas. pron. 


ascendance, -ence a'sendans |-cy -i |-nt - 


nt 


'aGa^ the first r is lost by dissimilation 


ascension, A- a'sEn/an 




{§121). 


ascent a 'sent 




Arthurian ar'Gjurian, -'Giur-, -'Gur-; ES a'G- 


ascertain ^aesa^'ten; ES ^aesa-; |-ed -d 




artichoke 'artijtjok; ES 'a:ti- 


ascetic a'setik |-al -1 ]-ally -li, -ikh 




article 'artikl; ES 'a:ti-; |-d -d |-ling -khg, 


asceticism a'sEta^sizam 




-khg 


Asch, Sholem yolam'aej" {Yiddish '/okm 


a/) 


articular arHikjala^; ES a'tikjala(r 


Ascham, a- 'aeskam 




articulate adj ar'tikjalit; ES a'tik- 


Asclepias ^s'klipias |-pius -pias |-'s -iz 




articulate v ar'tikja,let; ES a'tik-; |-d -id 


ascot, A- 'aeskat 




articulation ar^tikjaUeJan, ^artikja-; ES 


ascribe a'skraib |-d -d 




a^tik-, jortik- 


Ascue 'aeskju, -kiu 




Artie 'arti; ES 'a:ti 


Ascutney a'skAtni, loc. often 'skAtni 




artifact 'arti.faekt; ES 'a:ti- 


asepsis a'sepsis, e-, ae- 




artifice 'artafis; ES 'a:ta-; |-s -iz 


aseptic a'septik, e-, ae- j-ally -li, -ikli 




artificer ar'tifasa^; ES a'tifasa(r 


asexual e'ssk/ual, a-, ae- |-ly -i 




artificial jarta'fi/al; ES ja:ta-; |-ly -i 


Asgard 'aesgard, 'aez-; ES -ga:d 




artificiahty jartajfiji'aelati, -fi'Jaelati; ES 


ash. A- aej |-es -iz |-ed -t 




,a:ta- 


ashamed a'/emd |-medly -midli 




artillery ar'tilari; ES a'til-; |-rist -rist 


Ashanti a'/aenti 




artisan 'artazn; ES 'a:tazn; |-ship -jjip 


Ashburn 'aefba'n; ES 'aeXban 




artist 'artist; ES 'a:tist; |-ry -ri 


Ashburnham Mass 'aeJTja^njhaem ; ES -b 


an-; 


artiste ar'tist; ES ar'tist; {Fr ar'tist) 


Engd 'ae/jbynam; ES -^bsn-, -;byn- 




artistic ar'tistik; ES a:'tis-; |-al -1 |-ally -li. 


Ashburton 'ae/ba^tn; ES 'ae/batn 




-ikh 


Ashby-de-la-Zouch 'aeJbijdEla'zuJ, -dala 


-l-'s 


artless 'artlis; ES 'aztlis 


-IZ 




Artois ar'twa, -'two; ES a:'t-; {Fr ar'twa) 


Ashdod '«Jdad; ES+-dDd 




arty 'arti; ES 'a:ti 


Ashdown 'aej^daun 




Arundel Engd, Can Wandj, Siis loc. 'arndl 


ashes 'ae/iz | ashen 'ae/an 




(Arndle 1788); Md a'rAndl {see Anne 


Asheville 'ae/vil; S+-vl 




Arundel) 


Ashkelon 'ae/ka^lan, -jlon, -Ian 




Arveragus ar'veragas; ES a'ver-; |-'s -iz 


ashlar, -ler 'aejla^; ES 'ajlair 




Arviragus ar'viragas; ES a'vir-; |-'s -iz 


Ashmole 'ae/mol |-an aej'molian 




Aryan 'erian, 'aer-, 'ar-, -rjan; S 'aer-, 'er-. 


Ashokan a'/okan 




'ar- 


ashore a'/or, a'/ar; ES a'/oa(r, E+a'jDa(r 




arytenoid jaeri'tinaid, a'ritnpid 


Ashtabula iae/ta'bjula, -'biula 




as Rom weight aes | asses 'aesiz 


Ashtoreth 'ae/tariG, -jtsG \pl -taroth - 


/raG, 


as adv, etc: unstressed az, z, s; rarely stressed 


-jrnG 




'aez, ^aez 


Ashuelot 'aejwi;lat; ES+-jDt; /oc. + jaeju'ilat, 


Asa 'esa 


jae/a'wilat, aej'wilat 




asafetida, -foet- jsesa'fetida, aes'fEtida 


Asia 'e5a, 'eja |-n -n — 'e5a prevails in 


US, 


Asaph 'aesaf, 'esaf, 'estef 


'eja in Engd. 





Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jtt |sang saeg |angr>' 'aeg-gri 
Ibath baeO; E baQ (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gardj |go go 



Asiatic 



29 



associable 



Asiatic jcsi'aetik, jcj- [-al -1 |-ally -h. 


-ikh 


assail a'sel |-ed -d |-ant -ant 


aside a 'said 




Assam, ae'saem, 'aesaem 


asinine 'aesnjain |-ninity jaesa'ninati 




assassin a'saesin |-ate -sn^et |-ated -sn^etid 


ask 'neivi' aesk 




assassination a^saesn'e/an 


ask V ask; E ask, aesk, ask; |-ed -skt. 


-st 


assault a'salt |-ed -id 


askance a'skaens | askant a'skaent 




assay n a'se, 'aese 


Askelon sword 'aeskajan, -jlon, -Ian 




assay v a'se |-ed -d 


askew a'skju, a'skiu 




assegai 'aesa^gai 


Askew 'aeskju, -km 




assemblage a'semblids [-s -iz 


aslant a 'slaent ; E + a 'slant, a 'slant 




assemble a'sembl |-d -d l-Hng a'sEoiblii), 


asleep a 'slip 




-bhg 


aslope a 'slop 




assembly a'sembli |-man -man, -^maen l-men 


Asmodeus ^aezmo'dias, jaes- |-'s -iz 




-man, -^men 


asp aesp 




assent a'sent [-ed -id 


asparagus a'spaeragas 




assentation jaesen'te/an 


Aspasia aes'pe3ia, -Jia 




assenter, -or a'senta^; ES a's£nta(r 


aspect 'aespskt — in Shak. ae'sptkt 




Asser 'aesa^; ES '£esa(r 


aspen 'aespin, -pan 




assert a'syt; ES a'sst, a's^t; |-ed -id 


asperges, A- a'spydsiz; ES a'sps-, a'spy- 


assertion a'sy/an; ES a'ssj-, a'ssj"-; |-tive 


aspergillum, A- jaespa^'dsilam; ES ^aespa-; j-s 


-tiv |-tory -tan 


-z |-la -la 




assess a'ses |-es -iz |-ed -t |-or -a^; ES -a(r 


asperity aes'perati, a'sp£r- 




assessorial jaesa'sorial, -'sar-; S -'sor- 


asperse a'spys; ES a'spss, a'spys; 


|-s -IZ 


asset 'aeset |-s -s 


l-d-t 




asseverate a'sEva,ret |-d -id 


aspersion a'sp^san, -J"an; ES a'sps-, a 


spy- 


asseveration a^SEva'te/an 


aspersorium jasspa^'soriam, -'sar-; ES 


^aespa- 


assibilate a'sibl^et |-d -id 


'sor-, E+-'s3r-; |-s -z |-ria -ria 




assibilation ajSibl'e/an 


asphalt 'aesfalt, -faelt |-ed -id 




assiduity jaesa'djuati, -'dm-, -'du- 


asphaltic aes'fDltik, -'faeltik 




assiduous a'sidsuas 


asplialtum aes'fajltam 




assign a 'sain |-ed -d 


asphodel 'aesfajdel 




assignability a^saina'bilati 


asphyxia aes'fiksia [-iate -i^et |-iated -i^etid 


assignable a'sainabl |-bly -bli 


asphyxiation aesjfiksi'ejan jaesfiksi- 




assignat 'aesig^naet {Fr asi'jia) 


aspic 'aespik 




assignation jaesig'nejan 


aspidistra, A- ^aespi'distra 




assignee asai'ni, ^aesa'ni, ^aesai- 


Aspinwall 'aespin^wal 




assigner a'saina^; ES -na(r 


aspirant a'spairant, 'aesparant 




assignor asai'nar, ^aesa'nar; ES -'naa(r 


aspirate n, adj 'aesparit, 'aesprit 




assimilability ajSimla'bilati 


aspirate v 'aespa^ret |-d -id |-tion ^aespa 


re/an 


assimilable a'simlabl 


aspirator 'aespajteta^; ES -jreta(r 




assimilate n a'simht, -^et 


aspiratory a'spaira^tori, -/tan; S -jtori 




assimilate v a'siml^et |-d -id |-tive -iv 


aspire a'spair; ES a'spaia(r; |-d -d 




assimilation ajSiml'eJan 


aspirin 'aesparin, -prin 




assimilatory a'simlajtori, -jtari; S -jton 


asquint a'skwint 




Assiniboia a^sina'baia 


Asquith 'aeskwiG 




Assiniboine a'sina^bain 


ass 'donkey' aes, 'blockhead' aes, as [-es 


-IZ 


Assisi a'sizi {It as'si:zi) 


assafetida, -foet- ^aesa'fetida, aes'fet- 




assist a'sist |-ed -id |-ance -ans |-ant -ant 


assagai 'aesajgai 




assize a'saiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


assai a'sa-i 




associable a'sojiabl, -Jabl 



]full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



associate 



30 



Ate 



associate n, adj a'sojiit, -^et 




astride a'straid 


associate v 3'soJ"i,et |-d -id |-tive -iv 




astringe a'strmds |-s -iz |-d -d 


association ajsosi'efan, 3iSo/i — It is doubt- 


astringency a'strindsansi j-gent -dsant 


fid which of tliese prons. prevails. 




astrolabe 'aestrajleb 


assoil a'soil |-ed -d 




astrologer a'stroladsa^; ES a'strcdad3a(r, 


assonance 'aesanans |-s -iz [-d -t ]-nant 


-'strol-; |-gy -A^i |-gist -dsist 


-nant 




astrologic jaestra'ladsik; ES+-'lDd3-; |-al -j 


assort a'sart; ES a'soat; |-ed -id 




l-ally -li, -ikb 


assuage a 's weds |-s -iz |-d -d 




astronomer a'stranama^^; ES a'stranama(r. 


assuasive a'swesiv 




-'stron-; |-my -mi 


assume a'sum, a'sium, a'sjum |-d -d 




astronomic jaestra'namik; ES+-'nDm-; |-al 


assumpsit a'sAinpsit 




-1 l-aUy -li, -ikh 


assumption, A- a'sAmp/an |-tive -tiv 




Astrophel 'aestra^fel 


assurance a'/urans |-s -iz 




astrophotographic 'aestra ^f ota 'grtef ik 


assure a'/ur; ES a'Jua(r; |-d -d |-dly -idli 




astrophotography jaestrafo'tagrafi, -'tng- 


assurgency a'sydsansi; ES a'ssds-, a's^ds-; 


astrophysical maestro 'fizikl |-icist -isist 


|-ent -ant 




astro phj'sics maestro 'fiziks 


Assyria a'siria |-n -n 




astrosphere 'aestraiSfar;ES-jsfia(r,S+-;sfEa(r 


Assyriology ajSiri'aladsi;- ES+-'d1-; [ 


gist 


astrut a'strAt 


-dsist 




astute a'stjut, -'stmt, -'slut 


Astarte aes'tarti; ES -'ta:ti, E+-'ta:ti 




Astyanax a'staia^naeks |-'s -iz 


astatic e'staetik, a-, ae- |-ally -li, -ikh 




Asuncion Am Sp asun'sjon 


Astell 'aestl 




asunder a'sAnda'; ES a'sAnda(r 


aster, A- 'aesta^; ES 'aesta(r 




asylum a'sailam |-s -z |-la -la 


asterisk 'aesta^risk 




asymmetric ^esi'metrik, ,x- |-al -1 |-ally -h. 


asterism 'aesta^rizain 




-ikh 


astern a'styn; ES a'stsn, a'styn 




asymmetry e'simitri, se- 


asteroid 'aestajraid |-al jaestaVaidl 




asymptote 'aesim^tot, 'aesimp- 


asthenia aes'Oinia, jaesGa'naia 




asymptotic ^aesim'tatik, -simp-; ES+-'tDt-; 


asthma 'aezma, 'aesma 




l-al -I i-ally -h, -ikh 


asthmatic aez'maetik, aes- |-al -1 [-ally 


-li. 


asynchronous e'sigkranas, ae-, -'sm- 


-ikh 




asyndeton a'smdatan, -jtan; ES+-itDn 


astigmatic ^aestig'tnaetik |-al -1 |-ally 


-li. 


at stressed 'fet, ^aet; unstr. at, it 


-ikh 




Atalanta jaetl'aenta 


astigmatism a 'stigma ;tizam 




at all 'to any degree' a'tal, at'al — In at'al the t 


astir a'sts'; ES a'st3(r, a'sty 




is 7iot aspirated and is usually voiced. This 


astonish a'stam/; ES+-'stDn-; |-es 


-iz 


is also tlte pron. wlten at all is an ordinary 


|-ed -t 




prepositional phrase, as in It stops at some 


astony a'stani; ES+-'stDn-; |-nied -nid 




stations, but not at all. Cf It stops at no 


Astor 'aesta^; ES 'aesta(r 




small stations at all (a'tal). 


Astoria aes'toria, -'tana; S -Horia 




atamasco jaeta'maesko 


astound a'staund |-ed -id 




atar 'aeta^; ES 'aeta(r 


astrachan. A- 'aestrakan 




Atascosa ^aeta'skosa 


astraddle a'str.-«dl 




atavic a'taevik |atavism 'aetajVizam 


astragal 'aestragl 




atavistic jaeta'vistik |-ally -h, -ikh 


astrakhan 'aestrakan 




ataxia a'taeksia [ataxy a'taeksi 


Astrakhan ^aestra'kaen 




Atchafalaya a,t/aefa'laia, jtjaefa-, ae^tjaefa- 


astral 'aestral |-ly -i 




Atchison 'aet/isn 


astray a'stre 




Ate, ate myth, 'eti, 'eti 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee hi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret lyet ]zi |sang saeg langrs- 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards |go go 



ate 



31 



attemper 



ate past of eat et — The past tense £t, occas. 


Atkins 'aetkinz |-'s -iz |-kinson 'aetkinsn 


in cultivated S, is spelt ate in Engd, hut 


Atlanta at'laenta, aet- 


properly belongs to the old past spelling 


atlantean, A- ^aetlaen'tian 


form eat (c/ threat, sweat), as does also the 


atlantes pi of atlas at'lasntiz, aet- 


old past pron. it (c/meat, seat). See eat. 


Atlantic at'laentik 


-ate unstressed ending -it, -at — In the vocab. 


Atlantis at'laentis |-'s -iz 


%uhen only the pron. -it is given, it is to be 


atlas, A- 'aetlas |-es -iz | atlantes at'laentiz. 


understood that many speakers pronounce 


aet- 


-at, as in gamut ^gaemat. When more or less 


atman. A- 'otman 


stressed {with or without accent mark), -ate 


Atmore 'aetmor, -mar; ES -moa(r, E+ 


is pronounced -et, as in permeate 'ps'inijet, 


-maa(r 


mandate 'maendet, oblate 'ablet. 


atmosphere 'aetmas^fir; ES -ifia(r, 5+ 


atelier 'aetlje {Fr ata'lje) 


-jfea(r 


Athabasca, -ka jaeOa'baeska |-n -n 


atmospheric jaetmas'ferik |-al -1 |-ally -h. 


athanasia ^aeGa'nesia 


-ikh 


Athanasian jSeea'nesan 


atoll 'aetal, -tnl, a'tal, -'tnl 


Athanasius jaeGa'neJias, -/as |-'s -iz 


atom 'aetam |-ism -^izam |-y -i 


athanasy a'Saenasi 


atomic a'tamik, ae-; ES+-'tDm-; |-al -I |-ally 


Athapascan jaeOa'paeskan 


-h, -ikh 


atheism 'eOijizam [atheist 'eGiist 


atomicity jaeta'misati 


atheistic ^eOi'istik |-al -1 |-ally -ji, -ikli 


atomization jaetama'zejan, -ai'z- 


atheHng 'aeealiij, 'aetSaliij (0£ 'aeS-) 


atomize 'aetanijaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


Athelstan 'aeGal^staen, 'aetJal-, -stan (OE 'aeS-) 


atonal e'tonl, ae- |-ly -i |-ity ^eto'iiaelati 


Athena a'Gina | Athene a'Gini 


atone a 'ton |-d -d 


athenaeum, A-, -neum jaeGa'niam 


atonic a'tanik, e-, ae-; ES+-'tDn- 


Athenian a'Ginian 


atonicity ^aeta'nisati, jC-, -to'n- 


Athens 'aeGinz, -anz |-'s -iz jiVF + 'eG- 


atony '«tani 


Atherton 'aeGa^tan; ES 'aeGatan 


atop a 'tap; ES+a'top 


athirst a'Gyst; ES a'Gast, a'Gyst 


atrabilious jaetra'biljas 


athlete 'aeGlit 


Atreus 'etrus, -trius, 'etri-as |-'s -iz 


athletic aeG'letik |-s -s |-ally -li, -ikh 


atrip a 'trip 


Athlone aeG'lon 


atrium 'etriam |-s -z |-ria -ria 


Athol Mass 'aeGal, -6d1, -Gal 


atrocious a'tro/as 


AthoU, -ole Scotl 'aeGal 


atrocity a'trasati; ES+-'trDS- 


at home, at-home at'hom — The pron. a'tom. 


atrophy 'aetrafi |-phied -fid 


freq. in Engd, is rare in US. 


atropine 'aetra;pin, -pin |-pin -pin 


Athos 'aeGas, 'e-, -Gns 


Atropos 'astra^pas; ES+-iPDs; |-'s -iz 


athwart a'Gwart; ES a'Gwaat; |-ship -/ip 


attach a'taetj |-es -iz |-ed -t 


atilt a'tilt 


attache ^aeta'/e, a'tae/e {Fr ata'/e) 


atingle a'tiggl 


attack a'taek |-ed -t 


-ative ending -]etiv, -ativ, as in cumulative. 


attain a 'ten |-ed -d 


operative, etc. When tJie main accent is on 


attainable a'tenabl |-bility a^tena'bilati ' 


the second syllable before -ative, there is 


attainder a'tenda^; ES a'tenda(r 


usually a secondary accent on the -a- of 


attaint a 'tent |-ed -id 


-ative (in'i-tija-tive I'mJ-ije-tiv); but in 


attainture a'tentja'; ES a'tentJaCr 


familiar words some speakers often pro- 


Attala Miss 'aetla |Attalla Ala a'taela 


nounce -ative without accent (-ativ), as 


attar 'aet*; ES 'aetacr 


I'ni/iativ, WJten only -^etiv is given, -ativ 


attemper a'tempa^; ES -pa(r; |-ed -d |-ing 


is to be understood as a possible variant. 


a'temparig, a'temprig 



|full ful |tooth tuG Ifurther 'fytJa'; ES 'faSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredj [keep 'em 'kipm 



attempt 



32 



au revoir 



attempt a'tempt |-ed -id 

attend a'tend (-ed -id |-ance -ans |-ant 

-ant 
attent 3't2nt 

attention 3't€nX3n |-tive -tiv 
attenuate adj a'tenjuit 
attenuate v a'tenjujct ]-d -id 
attenuation ajtenju'e/an 
Atterbury 'aeta^jberi, -ban; ES 'aeta- 
attest a'test |-ed -id |-ation jaetes'tejan 
attic 'aetik 

Attic 'aetik |-a -a |-ism 'aetijSizam 
Attila 'aetja 

attire a'tair; ES a'taia(r; |-d -d 
attitude 'aeta,tjud, -^tiud, -^tud 
attitudinize jaeta'tjudn^aiz, -'tiud-, -'tud- |-s 

-iz |-d -d 
Atlee 'aeth, 'aetli 
Attleboro 'aetjjbyo, -a; ES -^bsr-, -jbAr-, 

-jby- 
attorn a'tyn; ES a'tsn, a'tyn; |-ed -d 
attorney a'tyni; ES a'tsni, a'ts^ni 
attract a'traskt |-ed -id 
attractability a;traekta'bilati 
attraction a'traekjan |-tive -tiv 
attribute n 'aetra^bjut, -^biut 
attribute v a'tribjut |-d -bjatid |-tive -bjativ 
attribution jaetra'bju/an, -'biu- 
at trite adj a 'trait |-d -id 
attrition a'tri/an, ae- 
attune a'tjun, a'tiun, a'tun |-d -d 
atwain a'twen 

Atwater 'aet^wata^, -jwata', -jwota", ES -ta(r 
atypic e'tipik, ae- |-al -1 |-ally - ji, -ikli 
au Fr o 

Aubrey, -bry 'abri 
auburn, A- 'aba^n; ES 'aban 
Auckland bkland 
auction 'ak/an |-ed -d 
auctioneer pk/an'ir; ES -'ia(r, S+-'Ea(r 
audacious a'dejas |-dacity a'daesati 
audibility pda'bilati 
audible bdabl |-bly -bk 
audience 'adians, -djans |-s -iz |-ent -diant 
audile 'adil 

audio 'adijO |audiogram 'adiajgraem 
audiometer pdi'amata^; ES -'amata(r, -'nm- 
audiphone. A- bda^fon 
audit 'adit |-ed -id |-or -a^; ES -a(r 



audition a'di/an |-ed -d |-ing -Janig, -Jnig 

auditorium pda'toriam, -'tar-; S -'tor- 
auditory 'adajtori, -jtari; S -jton 

Audley 'adh 

Audrey 'adri 

Audubon 'ada^ban; ES+'^bon 

Auer 'au*; ES 'au-aCr 

au fait o'fe {Fr o'fe) 

Aufidius a'fidias |-'s -iz 

auf Wiedersehen Ger auf 'vi:darjze:an 

Augeas a'dsias |-'s -iz |-gean -'dsian 

augend 'ad3End 

auger 'aga^; ES 'aga(r 

aught at 

Auglaize a'glez |-'s -iz 

augment n 'agment 

augment v ag'ment |-ed -id |-ative -ativ 

augmenter ag'tnenta^; ES -'m£nta(r 

au gratin o'gratn, o'graetn, -tin {Fr ogra'ta) 

Augsburg 'agzbyg; ES -bsg, -byg; {Ger 
'auksburk) 

augur 'aga^; ES 'aga(r; |-ed -d |-ing -gang, 
-grig 

augury 'agjari 

august a'gAst ('au^gust 'office) 

August 'agast 

Augusta a'gAsta, a'gAs- |-tan -tan 

Augustine saint 'agas^tin, a'gAstin, a-; isl. 
Alas 'agastin 

Augustinian pgas'timan 

Augustus a'gAstas, a'gAs- |-'s -iz 

au jus Fr o'sy 

auk ak |-let -bt 

auld aid 

Aulis 'abs |-'s -iz 

Ault alt 

Aumerle a'myl; ES a'msl, a'myl 

au naturel Fr onaty'rel 

aunt fent; E ant, ant, aent — Sporadic in- 
stances of ant, ant occur in tlie N and S. 

aura 'ara |-s -z j-rae -ri 

aural 'aral |-ly -i 

Aurangzeb 'atAg'zeb 

aureate adj 'ariit, -^et 

aureate v 'ari^et |-d -id 

Aurelia a 'r ilia, -Ija |-n -n 

Aurelius a'rihas |-'s -iz 

aureole 'ari,ol |-d -d 

au revoir jora'var; ES -'vaa(r; {Fr ora'vwatr) 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret [j^et jet |sang saeg jangry 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a [far far |\vatch watj", wotj (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



auric 



33 



autonomist 



auric brik 

auricle brikl 

auricular o'rikjala^; ES -l3(r 

auriculate adj a'rikjalit |-lated -Jetid 

auriferous o'rifaras 

Auriga a'raiga \gen Aurigae a'raidsi 

Aurignacian prig'ne/an 

aurist 'arist 

aurochs braks; ES+-Dks 

aurora, A- a'rora, 9-, -'rara; S -Vera; |-s -z 

|-rae -ri 
aurora australis o'rora 3s'trelis, a-, -'rora; S 

-Vera 
aurora borealis aVora jbon'aelis, a-, -'rara 

jbari-, -'elis; S -'rora /bori- 
auroral D'roral, a-, -'roral; S -Voral; |-ly -i 
aurorean a'rorian, a-, -'rar-; S -Vor- 
Aurorian o'rorian, -'rar-; S -Vor- 
aurum bram |aurous bras 
Aurungzeb, -ebe brAg'zeb, -'zib 
Ausable, Au Sable o'sebl ('Au^sable 'Chasm) 
auscultate bskal^tet |-d -id 
auscultation pskal'tejan 
Auslander bsjlaenda^, 'aus-; ES -jlaenda(r 
Ausonia a 'soma |-n -n 
auspex bspeks \pl auspices bspi^siz 
auspice bspis |-s -iz 
auspicial a'spijal |-cious -/as 
Austen bstin, -tan 
Auster bsta^; ES bsta(r 
austere a'stir; ES 3's{ia(r, S+a'st8a(r 
austerity a'sterati 
Auster litz bsta^Jits; ES bsta-; |-'s -iz {Gcr 

'austar-) 
Austin bstin, -tan 
austral bstral 

Australasia pstral'esa, -/a |-n -n 
Australia a'strelja |-n -n 
Austrasia a'stresa, -/a |-n -n 
Austria bstria ]-n -n 
Austria-Hungary bstria 'hAggari 
Austro-Hungarian bstrohAg'gerian, -'ger- 
Austronesian pstro'nisan, -/an 
autarch btark; ES -ta:k, E+-ta:k; |-y -i 
autarchic a'tarkik; ES a'ta:k-, E+a'tark-; 

l-al -I 
autarky btarki; ES -ta:ki, E+-ta:ki; |-kist 

-kist 
authentic a'Oentik [-al -1 |-ally -li |-icly -ikh 



authenticate a'6£ntijket |-d -id 
authentication ajOEnti'keXan, pOenti- 
authenticity pOan'tisati, -Gen- 
author bGa^; ES bGa(r; |-ess -is | -esses -isiz 
authoritarian ajOara'terian, ajGar-, ajGor-, 

-'ter- |-ism -^izam 
authoritative a'Gara;tetiv, a 'Gar-, a'Gnr- 
authority a'Garati, a 'Gar-, a'Gor- 
authorization pGara'ze/an, -ai'z- 
authorize 'aGa^raiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
autism 'atizam |-ist -ist |-tistic a'tistik 
auto 'ato 
autobiographic iata^baia'graefik |-al -1 |-ally 

-h, -ikh 
autobiography ptabai'agrafi, -bi-, -'og- 
autochthon a'takGan; ES-h-'tok-; |-s -z 

|-es -iiz 
autochthonous a'takGanas; ES+-'tDk- 
autoclave 'ata^klev |-d -d 
autocracy a'takrasi; ES-h-'tok- 
autocrat 'ata^kraet 

autocratic pta'kraetik |-al -I |-ally -|i, -ikli 
auto-da-fe ptoda'fe \pl autos- ptoz- 
autogenous a'tadsanas; ES-^-'tods- 
autogiro, A- pto'dsairo 
autograph 'atajgraef ; E-i--jgraf, -^graf 
autographic pta'graefik |-al -I |-ally -ji, 

-ikh 
autography a'tagrafi, -'tog- 
autogyro, A- pto'dsairo 
autohypnosis ptohip'nosis 
autoinfection pto'in'fekjan 
autointoxication pto-injtaksa'kejan; ES+ 

-jtnk- 
Autolycus a'talakas; ES-h-'tol-; j-'s -iz 
automat 'ata^maet 
automata a'tamata; ES-i- -'torn- 
automatic pta'maetik |-al -1 j-ally -li, -ikli 
automatism a'tamajtizam; ES-h-'tom- 
automaton a'tama^tan, -tan; ES-f-a'toma- 

jton, -tan; |-s -z |-ta -ta 
automobile adj pta 'mobil 
automobile n 'atamajbil, pta'mobil, ptama- 

'bU 
automotive pta'motiv 
autonomic pta'namik; ES4--'noin-; ]-al -1 

l-ally -h, -ikh 
autonomist a'tanamist; ES+-'ton-; |-mous 

-mas I -my -mi 



|fuU ful Itooth tuG [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fsSa 
|using 'juzirj [fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dif [vision 



[custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



autopsy 



.34 



axle 



autopsy btapsi, 'otapsi; ES+ -top- 


avoid a'vaid [-ed -id [-ance -ns 


autos-da-fe pi ptozda'fe 


avoirdupois jaeva'-da'paiz; ES ^aeva- 


autosuggestion ptasag'dsestjan, -sa'dses- 


Avon 'evan, 'aevan, Warmckshire 'evan, 


autumn btam |-al o'tAmni |-ally o'tAmnji 


ScoU 'evan, an 


Auvergne o'vyn; ES oVsn, o'vyn; {Fr 


Avon Lake, Avon Park 'evan, -on 


o'v£rji, 3-) 


avoset 'aevajSEt 


aux Fr o 


avouch a'vautj |-es -iz |-ed -t 


auxiliary Dg'ziljari, -'zibri, -'zibiCri 


avow a'vau |-ed -d |-al -al |-edly -idli 


avail a'vel |-ed -d 


avuncular a'vAgkjala-; ES -jala(r; |-late -lit 


availability a^veb'bilati 


await a 'wet |-ed -id 


available aVelabl |-bly -bh 


awake a'wek \past awoke a'wok or awaked 


avalanche 'aevljaentj; E+-jantX, -iOntJ; |-s 


a'wekt \pptc awaked a'wekt or awoke 


-iz |-d -t 


a'wok 


Avalon, -Uon 'aBvl,an, -^on {Fr ava'lo) 


awaken a'wekan |-ed -d |-ing -kamg, -knig 


avarice 'aevaris, 'aevris |-cious jaeva'rijas 


award a'ward; ES a'waad; |-ed -id 


avast a'vaest; E+aVast, a Vast 


aware a'wer, a'war; E a'wEa(r, ES a'waea(r 


avatar jaeva'tar; ES -'ta:(r, E+-'ta:(r 


awash a'waj, a'wa/, a 'wo/ 


avaunt a'vant, aVont, a'vant 


away a 'we 


ave, A- 'evi, 'ave 


awe a |-d -d 


Avebury, Abury 'eban, Vv^beri, -ban 


aweary a'wiri, a'win; S+a'weri 


Ave Maria 'avimaVia 


awedness 'adnis 


Ave Maria Lane Land 'evimajraia'len 


aweful 'aful |-ly -i 


Ave Mary 'evi'meri, -'meiri, -'men, -Wan 


aweigh a 'we 


avenge a 'vends |-s -iz j-d -d 


aweless 'alis |awelessness 'alisnis 


avens 'aevinz, -anz |-es -iz 


awesome 'asam 


Aventine 'aevan^tam, -tin 


awful 'impressive' 'aful |-ly -i 


aventurine, -in a'ventjarin 


awful 'great,' 'ugly' hi] \-\y 'af li, 'afli 


avenue 'aevaiHu, -{aiu, -fl\\x 


awheel a'hwil 


aver 'assert' a'vy; ES aV3(r, a'vy; |-red -d 


awhile a 'h wail 


aver 'horse' 'eva^; ES 'eva(r 


awkward 'akwa^d; ES 'akwad 


average 'aevrids, 'aevaridj |-s -iz |-d -d 


awl al 


Avernus a'vynas; ES a'vs-, a'vy-; |-'s -iz 


awless 'alls lawlessness 'alisnis 


averse aVys; ES a'vss, aV^s 


awlless 'allis 


aversion aV^san, -Jan; ES aVs-, a'vy- 


awn an |-ed -d 


avert aVyt; ES a'vst, aVyt; |-ed -id 


awning 'anig 


Avery 'evari, 'evri 


awoke a'wok [awoken arch, a'wokan 


Aves pi of Avis 'eviz 


awork a'wyk; ES a'wsk, a'wyk 


Avesta a 'vesta 


awry a'rai 


avian 'evian 


ax, axe aeks [axes 'aeksiz |axed «kst 


aviary 'evi^eri 


axes pi of axis 'aeksiz 


aviate 'evijet, 'aev- |-d -id |-tor -a^; ES -a(r 


axial 'aeksial |-Iy -i 


aviation jevi'e/an, ^aevi- 


axil 'aeksil jaxile 'aeksil, -ail 


aviculture 'evijkAltJa^; ES -jkAlt/aCr 


axilla aek'sila |-s -z |-lae -li 


avid 'aevid | avidity a'vidati 


axillary 'aeksajleri 


Avignon a'vinja, a'vinjan {Fr avi'jio) 


axiom '^eksiam 


Avoca a'voka 


axiomatic ^aeksia'maetik |-al -1 |-ally -Ji, 


avocado jQva'kado, jaeva- 


-ikli 


avocation jaeva'ke/an, jsevo- 


axis 'aeksis |axes 'aeksiz 


avocet 'aevajset 


axle 'aeksl |-d -d 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret Ij^et jet |sang saeg [angrj^ 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E ba8 (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards |go go 



axletree 



35 



backswept 



axletree 'aeksljtri, -tri 

Axminster 'aeksjininsto; ES -jminst3(r 

axolotl 'aeksajatl; ES+-jlDtl 

ay intj 'alas!' e 

ay, aye 'always' e — ay is the better spelling 

ayah ^aja 

Aydelotte 'edl^at; ES+'^nt 

Ayden 'edn 

aye, ay 'yes' ai — aye is the better spelling 

Ayer er, jer; E £3(r, ES ae3(r 

Aylesbury 'elz,beri, -ban 

Aylmer 'elma^; ES 'elm3(r 

Ayr ET, aer; E e3(r, ES ae3(r 

Ayres erz, aerz; E eaz, ES aeaz; |-'s -iz 

Ayrshire 'erjir, W-, -JV; E 'eaJiaCr, -fait, 

ES 'aea- 
Ayscough, -cue 'aeskju, 'es-, -kiu 
Ayton, Aytoun 'etn 
Azalea a'zeha |azalea a^zelja 



Azazel a^zezal, 'aezsjzel 

Azerbaijan jaza^bai'dsan, ^aeza'-; ES -za- 

azimuth 'aezamaO |-al jaezs'mAOal 

azine 'aezin, -in |-in -in 

Azof 'azaf, -znf 

azoic a'zo'ik 

azole 'aezol, a'zol 

Azores a'zorz, 'ezorz, -orz; ES -oaz, E+ 

-33Z 

azorite 'aeza^rait 

azote 'aezot, a'zot 

azoth 'sEzaG, -d6 

Azov 'azaf, -znf, 'ezav, 'ezov 

Azrael 'aezrial 

Aztec 'aeztek |-an -an 

azure 'aesa^, 'esa^; ES -33(r; |-d -d 

azurine 'ae53rin, -^ain 

azurite 'ae33jrait 

Azusa aWsd 



B 



B, b letter bl \pl B's, Bs, pass B's biz 


Bacheller 'baet/ala^, 'b^tjla-; ES -la(r 


baa bae:, ba:, ba: \3 sg baaes, pi n baas -z 


bachelor 'baetjala^, 'bjetjla ; ES -la(r 


|-ed -d |-ing -ig 


Bachman 'baekman, 'bak- {Ger 'baxman) 


Baal 'beal, bel 


bacillary 'baesljEri, 'baesij- 


babbitt, B- 'baebit |-ed -id 


bacillus ba'silas |-U -lai 


babble 'baebl |-d -d |-ling 'baeblii}, -blig 


back baek |-ed -t |-ache -^ek 


babe beb 


backbite 'baekjbait |-bit -jbit |-bitten -/bitn 


Babel 'bebl, 'baebl 


backbone 'baek'bon, -jbon |-d -d 


Bab el Mandeb 'baebjel'maendeb, 'babjEl- 


backfire n 'baek^fair; ES -jfaia(r 


'man- 


backfire v 'baekjfair, -'fair; ES -aia(r; i-d -d 


baboo, babu 'babu 


backgammon 'baek^gaeman, jbaek'gaeman 


baboon bae 'bun, ba'bun 


background 'baekjgraund 


baby 'bebi |-bied -bid 


backhand 'baek'haend, -^haend l-ed -id 


Babylon 'baeblan 


('backihand(ed) 'stroke) 


Babylonia jbaebl'onia, -nja ]-n -n 


backlash 'baekjlae/ |-es -iz |-ed -t 


baccalaureate jbaeka'briit 


backlog 'biekibg, -ilag, -Jng 


baccarat, -ra ^baeka'ta, 'baeka^ra {Fr baka'ra) 


backset 'baekjS£t 


Bacchae 'baeki 


backslide 'baek^slaid, 'baek'slaid [slid -jslid. 


bacchanal 'baekanl, -^nael 


-'slid l-slidden -jslidn, -'slidn 


Bacchanalia, b- jbaeka'neka, -Ija [-n -n 


backspace 'baek^spes |-s -iz |-d -t 


bacchant 'baekant |-s -s |-es ba'kaentiz, bae- 


backspin 'baekjspin 


bacchante ba'kaenti, -'kaent, bae-, 'baekant 


backstage adv 'baek'steds, adj 'baekjSteds 


Bacchic, b- 'baekik |-al -1 


backstay 'baek^ste |-ed -d 


Bacchus 'baekas j-'s -iz 


backstroke 'baek^strok 


Bach bak, box {Ger bax) 


backswept 'baek^swept 



|fuU ful |tooth tu9 [further 'fs^tJa^; ES 'fstia [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzio [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



backward 



36 



Balearic 



backward 'biekwa^d; ES -wad; |-s -z 




Bagworthy Lorna Doone 'baedsan 


backwash 'baekjwaj, -jwo/, -iWoJ |- 


es -IZ 


bah ba, ba, bae |-ed -d 


l-ed -t 




Bahai ba'ha-i |-haism -'ha-izam 


backwater 'baek^wata', -^wata', -jWDta^; ES 


Bahama ba'hema, loc. and Brit ba'hama 


-t3(r 




|-s -z 


backwoods 'baek'wudz, 'baek^wudz 


-man. 


Bahia ba'hia {Pg ba'ia) 


-men -man 




Baikal bai'kal 


bacon, B- 'bekan, 'beko 




bail bel |-ed -d |-ee 'bel'i 


Baconian be'konian, ba-, -njan 




bailey, B- 'beli |-liff -lif 


bacteria baek'tiria |-1 -1 \sg -ium -m 




bailiwick 'bela^wik 


bactericide baek'tira^said 




Baillie 'beb 


bacterin 'baektarin 




bailsman 'belzman |-men -man 


bacteriological 'baekjtiria'Iadsikl, baekj 


tiria-; 


Bainbridge 'benbnds |-'s -iz 


ES+-'lDd5- 




Baird berd, baerd; E bead, ES baead 


bacteriologist 'baekjtiri'aladsist, baek,tiri-; 


bairn bern, baern, bern; E bean, ES baean. 


ES+-'d1-; |-gy -d5i 




bean 


bacteriolysis 'baekjtiri'alasis, baek^tiri- 


ES+ 


bait bet |baited 'betid 


-'d1- 




baize bez |baizes 'beziz |-d -d 


bacteriophage baek'tiria^fedj |-s -iz 




bake bek | baked bekt 


Bactria 'baektria |-n -n 




bakehouse 'bekjhaus |-houses -jhauziz 


bad baed 




Bakehte, b- 'beka^lait, 'beklait 


bade past of bid baed 




baker, B- 'beka^; ES 'beka(r; j-kerv -kan. 


Baden US 'bedn, Germany 'badn 


{Gcr 


-kri 


'bardan) 




baking-powder 'bekig^paudaf, 'bekg-; ES 


Baden-Powell 'bedn'poal 




-da(r 


badge baeds |-s -iz |-d -d 




baksheesh, -shish 'baekji/ 


badger, B- 'baedsa^; ES 'baedsaCr; ]- 


ed -d 


Baku ba'ku 


|-ing 'baedsarig, 'baedsrig 




Balaam 'belam 


Badgworthy 'baed3ari = Bagwortliy 




Balaclava, -klava jbaela'klava 


badinage 'baednids, jbaedi'naj {Fr badi'nais) 


balalaika jbaela'laika 


badminton, B- 'baedmintan 




balance 'baclans |-s -iz \-A -t 


Badon 'bedn 




Balanga bajagga {Sp ba'lagga) 


Baeda 'bida, cf Bede 




balata 'baelata 


Baedeker 'bedika^, -da-; ES -ka(r; 


(Ger 


Balboa bael'boa 


'b£:dakar) 




balboa coin bal'boa 


baff hxi l-ed -t (Sc baf) 




balbriggan, B- ba;l'brigan 


Baffin 'baefin 




balcony 'baelkani | balconied 'bselkanid 


baffle 'bief j |-d -d 1-Iing -'bicfho, -fbg 




bald bald 


ba£fy 'bafi (Sc 'bafi) 




baldachin 'baeldakin, 'bal- 


bag baeg |-ged -d |-man, -men -man 




Balder, -dr 'balda-; ES 'balda(r 


bagasse ba'gaes (Fr ba'gas) 




balderdash 'balda^jdaej; ES 'balda- 


bagatelle ,baega'tel 




baldhead 'bald.hed 


Bagdad 'baegdsed, bag'dad ('Baghdad 'rail- 


bald-headed 'bald'hedid ('bald -,headed 'man) 


(way) 




baldpate 'baldjpet j-pated -'petid 


Bagehot 'baedjat 




baldric 'baldrik, 'badrik |-ked -t 


bagful 'baeg/ful |-s -z 




Baldwin 'baldwin, -dm 


baggage 'baegids |-s -iz 




bale, B- bel ibaled beld 


Bagot 'baegat 




Bale bal 


bagpipe 'baeg,paip 




Balearic ,baeli'aerik, ba'link 



Key: See in full §§3~47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret Ij^et jet |sang saeg |angr\- 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a [far far [watch watj, wotj (§12) |jaw d^o Igorge gards |go go 



baleen 



37 



bank 



baleen ba'lin 


Balzac 'baelzaek {Fr. bal'zak) 


balefire 'beljair; ES 'bel]fai3(r 


bambino baem'bino, bam- j-ni -ni (// 


baleful 'belfal 1-ly -i 


bam'bi:no) 


baler 'bela^; ES 'bel3(r 


bamboo baem'bu ('bam^boo 'pole) 


Balfour 'baelfur; ES 'baelfuaCr 


bamboozle baem'buzl j-ed -d |-ling -zlig. 


Baliol 'beljal, 'belial 


-zlig 


balk bak |balked bokt |balky 'baki 


ban baen [banned baend 


Balkan 'bDlkan 


banal 'benl, ba'nael, -'nal, 'baenl {Fr ba'nal) 


BaLkanize 'balkanjaiz |-s -iz ]-d -d 


banality ba'naebti, be-, bae- 


ball bol 1 balled bald 


banana ba'naena 


ballad 'baelad | balladry 'baebdn 


Banbury 'basnjben, 'baem-, -ban, -bri 


ballade ba'lad, bse'lad {Fr ba'lad) 


Bancroft 'baenkraft, 'baeg-, -krnft 


ball-and-socket 'babn'sakit; ES+-'sDk- 


band baend [banded 'baendid 


Ballantrae jbaebn'tre, 'baebntri 


bandage 'baendid3 |-s -iz |-d -d 


Ballard 'b^la^d; ES 'b^lad 


bandanna baen'daena 


ballast 'baebst | ballasted 'baebstid 


bandbox 'baend^baks, 'baen-; ES-t--jbDks; 


ballerina jbaeb'rins |-s -z (// ,bal!eVi:na) 


|-es -IZ 


ballet 'baele, 'baeb, bae'le {Fr ba'k) 


bandeau baen'do, 'baendo 


Ballinger 'baehndsa^; ES -d33(r 


Bandelier jbaendl'ir; ES -'ia(r, S-i--'£a(r 


Balliol 'beljal, 'bekal 


Bandello baen'delo {It ban'dello) 


ballistic bae'kstik, bs- ]-s -s 


banderole 'baendajrol 


ballonet jbaeb'net 


bandicoot 'baendi^kut 


balloon ba'lun, bl'un |-ed -d 


bandit 'baendit [-ry -ri [-ditti baen'diti 


ballot 'baebt [balloted 'baebtid 


bandmaster 'baend ^maesta', 'baen-; ES 


Ballou ba'lu, bae'lu 


-jmaesta(r, E-t--/mas-, -^mas- 


ballproof 'bal'pruf ('balliproof 'armor) 


bandog 'baen,dag, -idng 


ballroom 'bal^rum, -jium 


bandoleer ^baenda'lir; ES -'lia(r, S-F-'lea(r 


ballyhoo 'baeh^hu, jbaeh'hu |-ed -d 


bandore baen'dor, 'baendor, -ar; ES -oa(r. 


Ballymena jbaeh'mina 


E-i--aa(r 


balm bam |balmed bamd |balmy 'bami; |E-h 


bandsman 'baendzman, 'baenz- j-men -man 


-a- 


bandstand 'baend^staend, 'baen- 


Balmoral bael'maral, -'mar3l, -'moral 


bandy 'baendi [bandied 'baendid 


balneal 'baelnial 


bandy-legged 'baendi 'kgid, -'kgd, 'baendi- 


balneology jbaelni'abdsi; ES-h-'nl- 


(kgid, -jkgd 


baloney ba'lom, bj'ora 


bane ben [-d -d |-ful -fal [-fully -fall 


balsa 'balsa, 'balsa 


Banff baemf [-shire -Jir, -JV; ES -Xia(r, 


balsam 'balsam |-ed -d 


-/3(r 


balsamic bal'saemik, bael'saemik |-al -1 [-ally 


bang baeg [banged baegd 


-h, -ikh 


bang 'bhang' baeg 


baltered 'balta^d; ES -tad; c/ blood-boltered 


Bangkok 'baegkak, baeg'kak; ES-h-nk 


Balthazar bael'Gaeza'; ES -'Gaeza(r; Shak. 


bangle 'baeggl [-d -d [bangling 'baeggkg. 


jbaelea'zar, -ta'zar; ES -'za:(r 


-gbo 


Baltic 'baltik 


Bangor Me 'baeggar, -ga', Wales, Ircl 'baegga'; 


Baltimore 'balta,mor, -imar; ES -jmoa(r. 


ES -gaa(r, -ga(r 


E+-jmaa(r; loc. 'baltama^, -ma(r 


banish 'baem/ [-es -iz |-ed -t 


Baluchistan bajutji'staen, -'stan, ba'lutji- 


banister 'baenista^; ES -ta(r; [-ed -d 


jStaen, -^stan, -uki- 


banjo 'baendso [-ed -d 


baluster 'baebsta^; ES -ta(r; |-ed -d 


banjorine ^baendsa'rin 


balustrade jbaeb'stred |-straded -'stredid 


bank baegk [banked baegkt 



[full ful [tooth tue [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fa'Sa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



bankrupt 



38 



Barmecide 



Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 



bankrupt 'baegkrApt, -rapt |-ed -id j-ptcy 

-ptsi, -psi 
Bankside 'baegk,said 
banner 'baena^; ES 'baenafr 
banneret knight 'baenarit, -^rzt 
banneret, -ette banner /baenaVet 
bannock 'bsenak 
Bannockburn 'baenakjbs-n, ^baenak'byn ; ES 

-an, -yn 
banns, bans baenz 
banquet 'baegkwit, 'baen- |-ed -id 
banquette baeg'kst 
Banquo 'baegkwo, 'baen-, -ko 
banshee, -shie 'baenji, baen'Ji 
Banta 'baenta, publisher 'banta 
Bantam, b- 'baentam 
banter 'baenta^; ES 'baentacr; |-ed -d |-ing 

-tang, -trig 
Banting 'baentig 

bantingize 'baentig^aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
Bantu 'baen'tu, 'ban- ('Ban^tu 'language) 
banyan 'baenjan, 'bfenjaen 
banzai 'ban'za-i, 'ban'zai 
baobab 'beo,baeb, 'baojbaeb 
baptism 'baeptizam 
baptismal baep'tizml j-ly -i 
Baptist 'baeptist 

Baptista Minola baep'tista'minala 
baptistery 'baeptistri, -tan | baptistry -tri 
baptize bsep'taiz |-s -iz j-d -d 
bar bar; ES ba:(r; [-red -d 
Barabas Marlowe 'baerabas |-'s -iz 
Barabbas Bible ba'raebas, in Shak. 'baerabas 

|-'S -IZ 

Baraboo 'berajbu, 'baer-; S 'baer- 

Baraca ba'raeka 

Barak 'berak, 'baerak, 'beraek 

barb barb; ES ba:b; |-ed -d, -id 

Barbados, -oes bar'bedoz, 'barba,doz; ES 

ba:-, 'barb- 
Barbara 'barbara, -bra; ES 'barb- 
barbarian bar'berian, -'baer-, -'ber-, -jan; 

ES ba- 
barbaric bar'baenk; ES ba:-; |-ally -li, -ikh 
barbarism 'barbajrizam; ES 'barbajrizam 
barbarity bar 'baer ati; ES ba- 
barbarous 'barbaras, -bras; ES 'ba:b- 
Barbary 'barbari; ES 'batbari 



barbecue 'barbi,kju, -/kiu; ES 'ba:-; |-d -d 

barbel 'barbl; ES 'ba:bl 

barber, B- 'barba^; ES 'ba:ba(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

-bang, -brig 
barberry 'bar^beri, -ban; ES 'ba:- 
Barberton 'barba^tan; ES 'ba:batan 
barbette bar'bet; ES ba:'b8t 
barbican, B- 'barbikan; ES 'ba:- 
Barbour 'barba-; ES 'ba:ba(r 
Barca 'barka; ES 'ba:-; \pl Eng-ca.?, -kaz, Sp 

-cas -kas. It -che -ke 
barcarole, -rolle 'barkajrol; ES 'ba:kajrol 
Barcelona jbarsl'ona; ES jba:-; {Sp jbarBe- 

'lona) 
Barclay 'barkli, -le; ES 'ba:k- 
bard bard; ES ba:d; |-ic -ik 
Bardolph 'bardalf, -dolf ; ES 'bar- 
bare ber, baer; E b£a(r, ES baea(r; |-d -d 
bareback 'bsr^baek, 'baer-; E 'bea-, ES 

'baea- 
barefaced 'ber 'f est, 'bier-; E 'bea-, ES 'baea-; 

|-cedly -sidk, -sth ('bare^faced 'lie) 
barefoot 'berjfut, 'baer-; E 'bea-, ES 'baea-; 

|-ed -id 
barehead 'ber^hEd, 'baer-; E 'bea-, ES 'baea- 
bareheaded 'ber'hedid, 'baer-; E 'bea-, ES 

'baea- 
baresark 'ber^sark, 'baer-; E 'b£ajsa:k, ES 

'baea- 
bargain 'bargin; ES 'ba:gin; |-ed -d 
barge bard5; ES ba:d3; |-s -iz |-d -d 
bargeman 'bardsman; ES 'ba:d3-; |-men 

-man 
Barham, Richard 'bseram 
baric 'baerik 

Baring-Gould 'berig'guld, 'baerig-; S 'b£er- 
barite 'berait, 'baerait, 'berait; S 'baer-, 'ber- 
baritone 'baerajton 

barium 'beriam, 'baer-, 'ber-; S 'baer-, 'ber- 
bark bark; ES ba:k; j-ed -t 
barkeeper 'bar^kipa^; ES 'ba:ikipa(r 
barkentine 'barkan,tin; ES 'bark- 
Barker, b- 'barka^; ES 'ba:ka(r 
barley 'barli; ES 'ba:li; |-corn -jkarn; ES 

-jkaan 
barm barm; ES barm 
barmaid 'bar^med; ES 'bar,med 
Barmecide 'barma,said; ES 'barm- 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg langrj^ 'aeg-gri 
|batli baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wntj (§12) |ja\v dsa |gorge gards |go go 



bar mizvah 



39 



basilica 



Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 
Words below that have ae before r (carry 'kaeri) are often pronounced in N with £ ('ken, §94) 



bar mizvah, mitz- 'bar'mitsva; ES 'ba:- 




Barrie 'baeri 


barn barn; ES ba:n; [ed -d 




barrier 'baeria'; ES 'baeri- a(r 


Barnabas 'barnabas; ES 'bama-; j-'s -iz 




Barrington 'baerigtan 


Barnaby 'barnabi; ES 'bainabi 




barrister 'baerista^; ES 'baeristafr 


barnacle 'barnakj, 'barm-; ES 'ba:n-; |- 


d-d 


barroom 'bar^rum, -jtum; ES 'bai^r- 


Barnard 'barna^d; ES 'barnad 




barrow, B- 'baero, -ra 


Barnardine 'barna^jdin; ES 'barna- 




Barry 'baeri 


barn door 'barn'dor, -'dar; ES 'ba:nMo3(r, 


Barrymore 'baerajinor, -iinar; ES -imoa(r, E+ 


E+-'d33(r; ('barn-jdoor 'fowl) 




-jm3a(r 


Barnegat ibariu'gaet; ES jba:m-; ('Barne 


-igat 


Bartas, du djubar'tas, dm-, du-; ES -ba:'tas; 


'Bay) 




{Fr dybar'ta:s) |-'s -iz 


Barnet(t) 'barnit; ES 'barnit; ace/ + Bar 'nett 


bartender 'bar^tend*; ES 'ba:it£nda(r 


Barnstable Mass 'barnstabl; ES 'ba:n- 




barter 'barta^; ES 'ba:ta(r; |-ed -d |-ing 


Barnstaple Dev 'barnstapl; ES 'ba:n-; 


loc. 


-tang, -trig 


-stabl {spelt -pie 1086, -ble 1421) 




Bartholomew bar'8alajmju, -jiniu; ES 


barnstorm 'barn^starin; ES 'barn^stoam; 


ba'eal-, -'GdI- 


l-ed -d 




Bartimeus jbarta'mias; ES jba:ta-; |-'s -iz 


Barnum 'barnam; ES 'bainam 




bartizan 'bartazn, jbarta'zaen; ES 'ba:ta-. 


barnyard 'barnjard; ES 'bam^jard 




jba:ta- 


barogram 'baer3,graem 




Bartlett 'bartht, -lat; ES 'ba:t- 


barograph 'baerajgraef; E+-jgraf, -/graf 




Baruch Bible 'berak, 'baerak, 'berak, -ruk; 


barographic jbaera'graefik 




S 'baer-, 'ber- 


barometer b3'ram3t3^;ES ba'ramataCr, -'rom- 


Baruch Bernard ba'ruk 


barometric jbaera'metrik |-al -1 |-ally -li. 


-ikh 


barytone 'baerajton 


baron, B- 'baeran |-age -ids |-ages -idsiz 




basal 'besl |-ly -i 


baroness 'baeranis |-es -iz 




basalt ba'salt, 'baesalt 


baronet 'baeranit, -^net l-ed -id |-age 


-ids 


basaltic ba'saltik, bae- 


|-ages -idsiz |-cy -si 




bascule 'baeskjul, 'baeskiul 


barong ba'rag, ba'rag, -'rDO 




base bes | bases 'besiz | based best 


barony 'baerani |-nial ba'ronial 




baseball 'bes'bal, 'besjbal 


baroque ba'rok {Fr ba'rb'k) 




baseboard 'besjbord, -jbard; ES -jboad, E+ 


baroscope 'baera^skop 




-jbaad 


barouche ba'ruj, bae- |-s -iz 




baseborn 'bes'barn; ES -'baan; ('base-born 


barque bark; ES ba:k 




'serf) 


barrack 'baerak |-ed -t 




Basel 'bazl — see Basle 


barracuda jbaera'kuda 




basement 'besmant 


barrage 'act of barriitg,' 'bar' 'bands |-s ■ 


IZ 


bases pi of base 'besiz 


barrage mil. ba'ras |-s -iz |-d -d 




bases pi of basis 'besiz 


barrator 'baerata^; ES 'baerata(r; |-try -tri 




bash bae/ jbashes 'baejiz |bashed bae/t 


Barre, Isaac 'baeri, hence next 




Bashan 'be/aen, 'be/an 


Barre Mass, Vt 'baeri 




bashaw ba'/a 


barrel 'baeral, 'baeri, 'baeril |-ed -d 




bashful 'b«Xfal jbashfuUy 'baejfak 


barren 'baeran j-ness 'baerannis 




bashi-bazouk 'baejiba'zuk 


barret, Barrett 'baent 




basic 'besik |-ally -li, -ikli 


barette ba'ret 




basicity be'sisati 


barricade n ,baera'ked, 'baera^ked 




basil, B- 'baezl, -zil 


barricade v jbaera'ked |-d -id 




basilica ba'sihka, ba'zihka 



Ifull ful |tooth tue [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
[using 'jiizig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



basilisk 



40 



be- 



basilisk 'baesajisk 'baza^lisk 


baton bae'tan, 'baetn, bae'ta; ES-i--'tDn; {Fr 


basin 'besn jbasined 'besnd 


ba'to) j 


basinet 'baesanit 


Baton Rouge 'baetn'ru3 |-'s -iz 


Basingstoke 'bezig,stok 


batrachian ba'trekian 


basis 'besis |bases 'besiz 


batsman 'baetsman |-men 'b^etsman 


bask baesk; E+bask, bask; |-ed -t 


batswing 'baets,wig 


basket 'basskit; E+'baskit, 'baskit 


battalion ba'taeljan, bae'taeljan 


basketball 'baeskitjbal; E+'bas-, 'bas- 


batten 'baetn |-ed -d |-ing 'baetnii), 'baetnig 


basketful 'baeskitjful; E+'bas-, 'bas-; |-s -z 


batter 'b^ta^; ES 'baeta(r; -ed -d 


basketry 'baeskitn; E+'bas-, 'bas- 


battery 'baetari, 'baetn 


Basle bal 


battle 'baetl |-d -d |-ling 'baetlig, 'baethg 


Basque baesk 


Battle Creek 'baetl'krik, -'krik 


Basra 'bAsra 


battledore 'baetljdor, -/dar; ES -,doa(r, E-t- 


bas-relief jba-n'lJf, ^baes-, 'ba-ri/Iif, 'baes- 


-jdaa(r 


basa fish baes |basses 'baesiz 


battlement n 'b^tjmant 


bass music bes |basses 'besiz 


battlement v 'baetljmEnt |-mented -jmentid 


Bassanio ba'sanijO, ba'sanjo — trisyllabic in 


battleplane 'baetj,plen 


Shak. 


battleship 'baetjj/ip 


basset, B- 'baesit 


battue bae'tu, bae'tiu, bae'tju {Fr ba'ty) 


Bassianus jbaesi'enas |-'s -iz 


batty 'baeti 


bassinet jbaesa'net, 'baes3jnet 


bauble 'babl 


basso 'baeso 


Baucis 'basis | Baucis' 'basis 


bassoon bae'sun, ba'sun, -'zun 


baudekin 'badakin 


basso-relievo 'baeso- ri'livo {It -rilievo 'basso- 


Bausch and Lomb 'ba/an'lam, -'Inm-, -'lam 


ri'lje:vo) 


bauxite 'baksait, 'bozait 


basswood 'baes^wud 


Bavaria ba'veria, ba'veria |-n -n 


bast baest 


bawcock 'bajkak; ES-i-'ba^kok 


bastard 'baesta^d; ES 'baestad 


bawd bad [bawdry 'badri |bawdy 'badi 


baste best |basted 'bestid basting 'bestig 


bawl bal | bawled bald 


bastille baes'til {Fr bas'ti:j) 


ba}^ be | bayed bed 


bastinado jbaesta'nedo 


bayard, B- 'bea^d. Am statesmen 'baia^d; ES 


bastion 'baestjan, 'baestian 


-ad 


Basutoland ba'sutOjlaend 


Bayeux be'ju {Fr ba'jo) 


bat baet |batted 'baetid 


bayonet 'beanit |bayoneted 'beanitid, -,n£tid 


Bataan ba'tan, ba-, bae- 


Bayonne US be'on, be'jon; France, Fr 


Batavia bo'tevia, -'tevja 


ba'jan 


batch baetj | batches 'baetjiz | batched baetjt 


bayou 'baiu, 'baiju 


bate bet | bated 'betid 


Bayreuth bai'rait, 'bairait {Ger bai'rayt) 


bateau bae'to 


bazaar ba'zar; ES ba'za:(r, E-i--'za:(r 


bath, B- baeO; E-^baO, baG; |-ths -(5z |-th's -Gs 


B.C. 'bi'si 


bathe beS |bathed bctSd | bathing 'beSig 


bdellium 'deliam 


bathetic bo'Oetik 


be V stressed 'bi, jbi; unsir. bi 


bathhouse 'baeO,haus; E-i-'baO-, 'baO- 


be- unstressed prefi.x bi-, ba- • — Usually only 


bathos 'beOas; ES + -Ods 


one pron. is given in the vocab. Where ba- 


bathroom 'baeejrHm, -jrum; E-t-'baO-, 'baO- 


is give?i, usually bi- would represent a some- 


Bathsheba baeO'Jiba, 'baeOjiba 


what more careful style; where bi- is given, 


Bathurst 'baeOa^st; ES 'bseOast 


ba- may often be substituted bef. conss., esp. 


batik 'batik, bae'tik, bo-, 'bajtik 


in a more familiar style. When followed by 


batiste bae'tist, ba- {Fr ba'tist) 


1, bl- is a common variant (believe bl'iv). 



Key: See in full §§3~47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet JEt |sang saeg |angry 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dga |gorge gards |go go 



beach 



41 



bedew 



The bi- type with many speakers has the 


beau geste Fr bo'sest 


usual tendency toward bi-. 


beau ideal 'boai'dial, -'dil, -'dial 


beach bit/ [-es -iz 1-ed -t 


Beauheu Engd 'bjuh, 'biuh 


beachcomber 'bitjjkoma^ ; ES -jkom3(r 


Beaumarchais ^bomar'/e; ES -mar'/e; {Fr 


beacon 'bikan |-ed -d j-ing 'bikanig, -knig 


bomar'/e) 


Beaconsfield in Bucks 'b£k3nz/fild 


beau monde bo'mand, -'mond {Fr bo'mo:d) 


Beaconsfield Lord 'bikanzjfild 


Beaumont 'bomant, -mont 


bead bid | beaded 'bidid 


Beauregard 'bora^gard; ES -/ga:d, E+-jga:d 


beadle 'bidi |-dom -dam |-ry -n 


beauteous 'bjutias, 'biu- 


beadroll 'bid^rol 


beautiful 'bjutafal, 'biu- |-ly -fah, -fh 


beadsman 'bidzman |-men -man 


beautify 'bjutajfai, 'biu- |-fied -jfaid 


beadwork 'bid^wyk; ES -jwsk, -^wyk 


beauty 'bjuti, 'biuti 


beagle, B- 'bigl 


Beauvais bo've {Fr bo've) 


beak bik |-ed -t 


beaux boz 


beaked adj bikt, 'bikid 


beaux-arts Fr bo'za:r 


beaker 'bika-; ES 'bika(r 


Beaven 'bevan 


beam bim |-ed -d 


beaver, B- 'biva^; ES 'biva(r 


beam-ends 'bim'gndz, -^endz, -nz 


becalm bi'kam; E + -'kam; |-ed -d 


bean bin |-ed -d 


became bi'kem 


beano 'bino 


because bi'kaz, ba-, -'koz, -'kAz 


beanstalk 'bin^stak 


bechance bi't/aens; E-h-'t/ans, -'t/ans; |-s 


bear n ber, baer; E be'aCr, ES baea(r 


-IZ |-d -t 


bear v ber, baer; E bea(r, ES baea(r; [bore 


becharm bi't/arm; ES -'tXa:m, E4--'tJa:m; 


bor, bar; ES boa(r, E+baa(r; | borne born. 


I-ed -d 


barn; ES boan, E+baan 


Bechuana jbetju'ana, jbekju- j-land -jlaend 


beard bird; ES brad, S+bead; |-ed -id 


beck bek |-ed -t 


Beard bird, berd, baerd; ES biad, bead. 


becket, B- 'bekit 


baead 


beckon 'bekan |-ed -d |-ing 'bekanig, -knig 


bearer 'bera', 'baera^; E 'b£ra(r, ES 'baerafr 


becloud bi'klaud |-ed -id 


bearskin 'ber^skin, 'baer-; E 'bea-, ES 'baea- 


become bi'kAm |became bi'kem [become 


beast bist |beasted 'bistid |-ly -li 


bi'kAm 


beat bit \past beat bit \pptc beaten 'bitn or 


Becquerel bek'rsl ('Becqueirel 'rays) 


beat bit 


bed bed |bedded 'bedid 


beatific ,bia'tifik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikb 


bedabble bi'daebl |-d -d |-ling -'dasbhg. 


beatification bi,aetafa'ke/an 


-bhg 


beatify bi'aeta^fai -fied -^faid 


bedaub bi'dab |-ed -d 


beatitude biWaitjud, -^tiud, -jtud 


bedazzle bi'daezl |-d -d |-ling -'dajzhg, -zbg 


Beatrice fem. name 'biatris, in Dante 'biatris 


bedbug 'bedjbAg 


{It jbea'tri:tXe) |-'s -iz 


bedchamber 'bed^tXemba'; ES -itjemba(r 


Beatrix 'biatriks |-'s -iz 


bedclothes 'bed^kloz, -jkloSz 


Beattie, -tty 'biti, 'beti 


bedcover 'bed^kAva^; ES -ikAva(r 


beau bo |-s, -x -z i-ed -d 


bedding 'bedig 


Beaucaire bo'ker, -'kaer; E -'kEa(r, ES 


Beddoes 'bedoz |-'s -iz 


-'kaea(r;(Frbo'k8:r) 


Bede bid. Latinized Baeda 'bida 


Beauchamp Eng name 'bit/am (Fr bo '/a) 


bedeck bi'dek |-ed -t 


Beauclerc, -rk 'bo^kkr, -jklaer, -jklark; E 


Bedel, -11 'bidj, ba'del 


-jklea(r, ES -jklaea(r, -^klark 


bedesman 'bidzman j-men -man 


Beaufort 'bofa^t, SC 'bjufa^t, 'biu-, NC 'bo-; 


bedevil bi'devl |-ed -d j-ing -'devbg, -vjig 


ES -fat 


bedew bi'dju, -'diu, -'du |-ed -d 



IfuU ful |tooth tu6 Ifurther 'fySa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'vi3an (Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



bedfellow 



42 



behemoth 



bedfellow 'bEdjfelo, -a 

Bedford 'bedfa^d; ES 'bedfad; [-shire -Jir, 

-S^; ES -Ji3(r, -X3(r 
bedight bi^dait 
bedim bi'dim |-med -d 
Bedivere 'beda^vir; ES -jVi3(r 
bedizen bi'dizn, -'daizn |-ed -d |-ing -znig, 

-znig — bi'daizn is chiefly Brit. 
bedlam, B- 'bedlam [-ite -jHit 
Bedloe 'bedlo 
bedmate 'bed^met 
Bedouin 'beduin 
bedpan 'bed^paen 
bedplate 'bed^plet 
bedraggle bi'draeg} \-d -d j-ling -Mraeglig, 

-gjiO 

bedrid 'bed^rid [bedridden 'bEd^ridn 

bedrock 'bed'rak, -jtak; ES+-Dk 

bedroll 'bedjiol 

bedroom 'bedjrum, -jum, -ram 

bedroom door 'bedjrum'dor, 'bedram-, -'dDt; 
ES -'doa(r, E+-'d3a(r 

Beds short for Bedfordshire btdz 

bedside 'bed^said 

bedsore 'b£djSor, -/sar; ES -;Soa(r, E+ 
-jS3a(r 

bedspread 'bedjSprEd 

bedspring 'bed, sprig 

bedstaff 'bediStaef; E+-,staf, -jStaf; |-staves 
-jStevz 

bedstead 'bed^sted, -stid 

bedstraw 'bed^stra 

bedtime 'bed^taim 

bedward 'bedwa^d; ES 'bedwad 

bee bi 

beech 'bjtj |-es -iz |-en -an 

beechnut 'bitjnat, -,nAt 

beef 71 bif |-'s -s | beeves bivz or beefs bifs 

beef V bif | beefs bifs ] beefed bift 

beefeater 'bif,it3^; ES -iita(r 

beefsteak 'bif,stek 

beehive 'bi^haiv 

beeline 'bi'lain ('bee,line 'flight) 

Beelzebub bi'elzijbAb 

been bin, ben — bin occurs chiefly as a Briti- 
cism, esp. in Canada, ben is most apt to 
occur when unstressed. 

beer, B- bir; ES bia(r, S+bea(r 

Beersheba bir'Jiba, 'birjiba; ES bia-, 'bia- 



beeswax 'biz,w£eks |-es -iz |-ed -t 

beeswing 'biz, wig |-ed -d 

beet bit 

Beethoven 'betovan, 'bet-hovan; Lond square 

'bit'hovan {Ger 'be:t'ho:van) 
beetle 'bitl |-d -d |-ling 'bitlig, 'bitjig 
beetle-browed 'bitl'braud ('beetle-jbrowed 

'face) 
beetlehead 'bit),hed |-ed 'bitl'hedid 
beetroot 'bit,rut, -;rut 
beeves bivz 

befall bi'fal |-fell -'fel |-fallen -'falan, -In 
befit bi'fit l-ted -id 
befog bi'fag, -'fag, -'fog |-ged -d 
befool bi'ful |-ed -d 
before bi'for, ba-, -'far; ES -'foa(r, E+ 

-'faa(r; |-hand -jhaend |-time -,taim 
befoul bi'faul |-ed -d 
befriend bi'frend |-ed -id 
befuddle bi'f Adl 1-d -d j-ling -'fAdbg, -dlig 
beg beg [begged begd 
begad bi'gaed 
began bi'gaen 
begat bi'gaet 
beget bi'get j-got -'gat, arch, -gat -'gaet 

|-gotten -'gatn or -got -'gat; |ES +-'gDt(n) 
beggar 'baga^; ES 'bega(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

-gang, -grig |-ly -li |-y -i 
begin bi'gin 1-gan -'gaen |-gun -'gAn 1-ning 

-10 
begird bi'gyd \past -girt -'gyt or -girded 

-'gydid \pptc -girt -'gyt; | ES -3-, -y- 
begohm 'beg,om 

begone bi'gan, -'gon, miicli less frcq. -'gan 
begonia, B- bi'gonja, -ma 
begot bi'gat; ES+-'gDt; j-ten -n 
begrime bi'graim |-d -d 
begrudge bi'grAds |-s -iz |-d -d 
beguile bi'gail |-d -d 
begum n 'bigam 
begum V bi'gAm |-med -d 
begun bi'gAn 

behalf bi'haf ; E -'haf, -'haf, -'haf 
behave bi'hev |-d -d 

behavior bi'hevja^; ES -'hevja(r; 1-ism -,izam 
behavioristic bi,hevja'ristik j-alh- -li, -ikli 
behead bi'hed |-ed -id 
beheld bi'held 
behemoth bi'himaG, 'biamaO 



Key; See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret lyet jet |sang saeg |angp.' 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeO; E baO (§10) jah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



behest 



43 



bename 



behest bi'hest 




Bellamy 'belami 


behind bi'haind |-hand bi'haind,haend 




bellboy 'bel,b3i 


behold bi'hold |-held -'held \arch. 


pplc 


belle, B- bel 


-holden -'holdan 




Bellefontaine bel'fauntn, -an-, -on-, -tin 


behoof bi'huf |-s -s 




Bellerophon ba'lerafan, -^fan, -,tr>n 


behoove bi'huv |-d -d 




Bellerus ba'liras, -'liras |-'s -iz 


behove bi'hov |-d -d 




belles-lettres bel'letra, -t^; ES -tra, -ta(r; 


Behring 'birig, 'berii), 'berig 




{Fr bel'letr) 


beige bes |-s -iz {Fr b£:3) 




belletrist bel'letrist |-ic ^belle'tristik 


being 'biig 




belUcose 'bebjkos 


Beirut 'berut, be'rut 




bellicosity jbeb'kasati; ES+-'kDS- 


bejewel bi'dsual, -'dsmal |-ed -d 




belligerence ba'lidsarans |-cy -i |-ent -ant 


bel bel 




BelHngham US 'bebgjhaem, Engd 'belindsam 


Bel god bel, ahbr. name bel 




Bellini be'lini (It bel'lirni) 


Bela, Belah 'bib 




bellmouthed 'belimau'Sd, -Ot 


belabor bi'leba'; ES -'leb3(r; |-ed -d 


1-ing 


Bellocbe'lak;ES+-'lDk 


-'lebarig, -'lebrig 




Bellona ba'lona, be- 


Belarius ba'lerias, -'iaer-, -'ler- j-'s -iz 




bellow 'belo, 'beb |-ed -d |-ing 'bebwig 


belate bi'let \-d -id 




bellows 'beloz, -az, -as \double pi bellowses 


belaud bi'bd |-ed -id 




'bebsiz 


belay bi'le |-ed -d 




Bellows Falls 'beloz'blz, 'bebz- |-'s -iz 


belch, B- beltj" j-es -iz |-ed -t 




bellwether 'beljweSa^; ES -jwe?f3(r 


beldam 'beldam |-dame -dam, -dem 




belly 'bell |bellied 'belid 


beleaguer bi'liga^; ES -'lig3(r; |-ed -d 


1-ing 


Belmont 'belmant, -mnnt 


-'ligarig, -'ligrig 




Beloit ba'bit 


Belfast US 'belfaest, Irel 'belfast, bel'faest; 


belong ba'bg, -'log; S+-'Iag; [ed -d 


E+-ast, -ast 




belove bi'bv |-d -d 


belfry 'belfri | -fried -fnd 




beloved adj bi'bvid, -'kvd 


Belgian 'beldsian, -dsan j-gium -ds 


idm, 


below ba'lo 


-d33m 




Belshazzar bel'/aeza'; ES -'Xaez3(r 


Belgic 'beldjik 




belt belt [belted 'beltid 


Belgrade bel'gred, 'belgred 




Beluchistan bajutji'staen, -'stan, ba'lutji- 


Belgravia bel'grevia 




jstaen, -jstan, -uki- 


Belial 'bilial, -Ijal 




belvedere, B- jbelva'dir; ES -'di3(r 


beUe bi'lai |-d -d 




belying ptc of belie bi'laiig 


belief ba'lif.bl'if.bi'lif 




bemaul bi'mal |-ed -d 


believe ba'liv, bl'Iv, bi'liv |-d -d 




bemazed bi'mezd 


belike bi'Iaik 




bemean bi'min 1-ed -d 


Belinda ba'linda 




bemire bi'mair; ES -'mai3(r; |-d -d 


BeHsarius jbeb'serias, -'ser- |-'s -iz 




Bemis 'bimis j-'s -iz 


Behsha beacon ba'li/a'bikan 




bemoan bi'mon |-ed -d 


behttle bi'htl |-d -d j-hng -'litlig, -tlig 




bemock bi'mak, -'mok, -'mak |-ed -t 


belive bi'laiv 




bemuddle bi'mAdl |-d -d |-ling -'mAdlig, 


Behze be'liz 




-dbg 


Belknap 'belnaep, bel'nsep 




bemuse bi'mjuz, -'miuz j-s -iz j-d -d |-dly 


bell, B- bel |belled held 




-idh 


belladonna ^bela'dana; ES+-'dDn3 




Ben ben 


Bellaire ba'ler, be-, -'laer; E -'le3(r, 


ES 


bename bi'nem |-d -d \pptc -d -d or -nempt 


-'lie3(r 




-'nempt or -nempted -'nemptid 



Ifull ful [tooth tu8 [further 'fytSa'; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Benares 



44 



Berkley 



Benares ba'nanz |-'s -iz 




Bentham 'bEnGam, 'bsntam — 'beneam is a 


Ben Avon Pa ben'aevan, Scotl -'evan, ben'an 


sp. pron. 


bench bent/ |-es -iz |-ed -t 




benthos 'benOas; ES+-6ds 


bend bend |bent bent, arch, bended 'bendid 


Benton 'bentan 


beneath bi'niO, -'ni(5 




benumb bi'nAm |-ed -d |-edness -'nAmdnis, 


benedicite, B- jbena'disati, Chaiic. jbendis'te 


-idnis 


Benedick 'bena^dik 




Ben Venue jbenva'nu, -'niu, -'nju 


benedict, B- 'bena^dikt 




Benvolio ben'vokjO, -Ijo 


benedictine liquor jbena'diktin 




Ben Vorlich, Voir- benVarlik; ES -'vaa-; {Sc 


Benedictine monk jbena'diktin, -tin 




-'varhx) 


benediction ibEna'dikJan 




benzaldehyde ben'zaeldajhaid 


Benedictus jbeni'diktas |-es -iz 




benzene, -zine 'benzin, ben'zin 


benefaction /bena'faekj'an 




benzoate ben'zo-it, -et 


benefactor 'benajfaekta^, jbena'faekta^; 


ES 


benzoic ben'zo-ik 


-t3(r 




benzoin 'benzo-in, ben'zo- 


benefactress 'bEna^faektris, jbena'faektris 1-es 


benzol 'benzol, -zal, -zdI ]-zole -zol 


-IZ 




Beowulf 'bea,wulf 


benefic ba'nefik 




bepaint bi'pent |-ed -id 


benefice 'benafis ]-s -iz, -jfisiz |-d -t 




bequeath bi'kwitS |-ed -d [-al -al 


beneficence ba'nefasns |-cent -snt 




bequest bi'kwest 


beneficial jbena'fi/al |-ly -i 




berate bi'ret | -rated -'retid 


beneficiary jbena'fijari, -'fi/ijEri 




Berber 'byba^; ES 'bsbafr, 'byba(r 


benefit 'benafit |-ted -id, -^fitid 




Berbera 'bybara; ES 'bs-, 'by- 


Benes 'bEneJ |-'s -iz 




berceuse Fr b£r's0:z 


Benet 'benit 




Berea ba'ria |-n -n 


Benet bE'ne 




bereave ba'riv |-d -d or -reft -'reft 


benevolence ba'nevabns, -vlans |-s -iz 


-lent 


Berengaria jberio'geria, -'ger- 


-lant 




Berenice jbera'naisi 


Benewah 'benajwa, -^wd 




Beresford 'berizfa^d, -ris-; ES -fad 


Bengal ben 'gal, beg- ('Ben^gal 'tiger) 




beret ba're, 'bent {Fr be 're) 


Bengalese jbengs'liz, ibeo- 




berg byg; ES bsg, byg 


Bengali ben'gah, beij- 




Bergen NJ 'bygan, NY 'bydsin, Nono, 


Bengasi, -ghazi ben'gazi, beij- 




Neth 'bygan, 'bergan; ES 'bs-, 'by-, 'bea- 


Benicia bg'ni/a 




Bergerac 'bydsa^raek; ES 'ba-, 'by-; {Fr 


benighted bi'naitid 




berga'rak) 


benign bi'nain 




Bergson 'bygsn, 'berg-; ES 'bsg-, 'byg-. 


benignancy bi'nignansi |-nant -nant [-gnity 


'beag-; {Fr berg'san, berk-) |-ism -jizam 


-nati 




berhyme, -rime bi'raim \-d -d 


benison 'bsnazn, -sn 




beribboned bi'nband 


Benjamin 'bendsaman 




beriberi 'beri'beri 


Ben Lomond ben'Iomand 




Bering 'bing, 'ber- 'ber- 


Ben More ben'mor, -'mar; ES -'moa(r 


E+ 


beringed bi'rigd 


-'m33(r 




Berkeley US 'bykb, Engd 'barkh; ES 'bsk-, 


Bennett 'bsnit 




'byk-,'ba:k-,E+'ba:k- 


Ben Nevis ben'nevis, -'nivis |-'s -iz 




Berkhamsted, -mpstead 'bykam,sted, loc.+ 


Bennington 'benigtan 




'bark-; ES 'bsk-, 'byk-, ^ha:k-;—The 


Benoni bs'nonai, be- 




Brit pron. is 'bskamstid, Zoc. -t- 'ba:k- ; the 


Benson 'bensn 




corresponding Am is as given above. 


bent bent 




Berkley 'bykb; ES 'bskh, 'byk- 



Key: See in full §§3~t7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg | angry 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E ba6 (§10) ]ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw d3a |gorge gards |go go 



Berks 



45 



beta 



Berks in Engd short for Berkshire 'barks; 

ES 'ba:ks; Pa byks; ES bsks, byks 
Berkshire US 'byk/ir, -Ja*, Engd 'bark/ir, 

-JV; ES 'bsk/iacr, 'byk/i3(r, 'ba:k-, -/3(r 
berUn by'hn, ba^'lin, 'byhn; ES bs'lin, by-, 

ba-, 'bshn, 'bs'- 
BerHn US 'bylin; ES 'bslin, 'by-; Germany 

by'lm, ba^'hn; ES bs'hn, by-, ba-; (Ger 

ber'litn) ('BerjHn 'wool) 
BerHoz 'berkjoz; ES 'b£3lijOz; {Fr ber'ijb'rz, 

-'Ijoiz) 
berm, -e bym; ES bsm, bym 
Bermuda ba^'mjuda, -'miuda; ES ba-; |-dian 

-dian 
Bern, -e US byn, Sivtz byn, bern; ES bsn, 

byn, bean; {Fr, Ger bern) 
Bernard 'byna-d, 'bynard, ba^'nard; ES 

'bsnad, 'bynad, -na:d, ba'na:d, E+-a:d; 

{Fr ber'narr) 
Bernardo ba^'nardo; ES ba'na:do, E+-'na:- 
Berners 'byna^z; ES 'bsnaz, 'bynaz 
Bernhardt 'bynhart; ES 'bsnhart, 'bynha:t; 

{Fr b£r'na:r) 
Bemice 'bynis, ba^'nis; ES 'bsnis, 'by-, 

ba'nis; |-'s -iz 
Bernicia ba^'nijia; ES ba'nif- 
bernicle 'barnikl; ES 'ba:n-; = barnacle 
Berowne bi'run 
berretta ba'reta 
berrigan 'btrigan 
berry 'ben | berried 'bend 
berserk 'bysyk; ES 'bassk, 'bysyk; |-er -a^; 

ES -a(r 
berth by6; ES bsO, byO; |-ths -Gs 
Bertha, b- 'byOa; ES 'bsGa, 'byOa 
Bertillon system. 'bytl/On, -jDh; ES 'bat-, 

'byt-; {Fr berti'jo) 
Bertram 'by tram; ES 'bstram, 'byt- 
Bertrand 'bytrand; ES 'bat-, 'byt-; {Fr 

btr'tra) 
bertrandite 'bytrand^ait; ES 'bst-, 'byt- 
beruffled bi'rAfld 
Berwick US 'bywik; ES 'bswik, 'by-; Scoil 

'berik 
Berwickshire 'berikjjir, -JV; ES -iXia(r, -J'a(r 
Berwyn 'by win; ES 'bawin, 'by- 
beryl 'beral, -il 
beryllium ba'riliam 
Besant, Annie 'beznt. Sir Walter ba'zaent 



besant 'btznt, ba'zaent 

beseech bi'sitj |-es -iz |-sought -'sat 

beseem bi'sim |-ed -d 

beseen bi'sin 

beset bi'set 

beshrew bi'/ru, -'/riu, arch, bi'/ro |-ed-d 

beside bi'said |-s -z 

besiege bi'sids |-s -iz |-d -d 

besmear bi'smir; ES -'smia(r, S+-'smea(r; 

l-ed -d 
besmirch bi'smytj; ES -'smstj, -'smyt/; |-es 

-IZ |-ed -t 
besom 'bizam |-ed -d 
besot bi'sat; ES+-'sDt; [-ted -id 
besought bi'sat 
bespake bi'spek 
bespangle bi'spaeggl |-ed -d |-ling -glig, 

bespatter bi'spaeta^; ES -'spaeta(r; |-ed -d 
bespeak bi'spik |-spoke -'spok j-spoken 

-'spokan 
bespouse bi'spauz |-s -iz |-d -d 
bespread bi'sprEd 
besprent bi'spr£nt 
besprinkle bi'sprigkl j-d -d |-ling -klig, 

-kjig 
Bess bes [Bess's 'besiz j-ie -i 
Bessarabia jbesa'rebia |-n -n 
Bessemer 'besama^; ES 'btsamaCr 
best best |bested 'bestid 
best-dressed 'best'drest ('best-jdressed 'man) 
bestead, -sted adj bi'sted 
bestead v bi'sted \past -steaded -'stedid 

\pptc -stead -'sted 
bestial 'best/al, -tial |-ly -i 
bestiality jbestji'aelati, /besti- 
bestiary 'besti^eri 

bestir bi'sty; ES -'st3(r, -'sty; |-red -d 
best-known 'best'non 
best-liked 'best'laikt ('best-Jiked 'play) 
bestow bi'sto |-ed -d |-al -al 
bestraddle bi'straedl \-d -d |-ling -dhg, -dlig 
bestrew bi'stru, -'striu |-ed -d |-ed -d or 

-n -n 
bestride bi'straid [-strode -'strod [-stridden 

-'stridn 
bestrow bi'stro [-ed -d |-ed -d or n -n 
bet bet \past 6" pptc bet bet or betted 'betid 
beta Gk letter 'beta, 'bita 



[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fstSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Beta 



46 



bichromate 



Beta, b- 'beef 'bita 

betaine 'bitijin 

betake bi'tek |-took -Huk ]-taken -'tekan 

betel 'bitl 

Betelgeuse, -geux ^bitl^dsuz, 'betljdssz |-'s -iz 

bete noire 'bet'nwar; ES -'nwa:(r; {Fr 

b£:t'nwa:r) 
Bethany 'beeani 
bethel, B- 'beOal 
Bethesda ba'Oezda 
bethink bi'Oigk [-thought -'ODt 
Bethlehem 'bEGham, 'bEeh^hEm 
Bethnal 'bEOnal 
bethought bi'Oat 
Bethphage 'beGfadsi, -jdsl 
Bethsaida bEO'seada 
Bethune surnames, US places ba'Ojun, -'Oiun, 

-'Oun, 'bitn 
Bethune ba'Bjun, -'Oiun, -'6un {Fr be'tyn) 
betide bi'taid |-d -id or arch, -tid -'tid 
betimes bi'taimz 
betoken bi'tokan j-ed -d |-ing -'tokanig, 

-knig 
betook bi'tuk 

betray bi'tre |-ed -d |-al -al 
betroth bi'traG, -'trnG, -'trotJ |-ed -Ot, -tJd 

l-al -al 
Betsy 'bEtsi 

better 'beta^; ES 'bEta(r; j-ed -d 
bettor 'bEta'; ES 'bEta(r 
Bettws-y-Coed 'bfitazi'ko-id, -si- 
Betty 'bEti 
between ba'twin 
betwixt ba'twikst 
Beulah 'bjula, ^biula 
Bevan 'bEvan 

bevel 'bEvl |-ed -d |-ing 'bEvlig, 'bEvlig 
Beven 'bEvan 

beverage 'bEvrids, 'bEvarids |-s -iz 
Beveridge 'bEvrids, 'bEvarids j-'s -iz 
Beverley, -ly 'bEva^h; ES 'bEvah 
Bevier bi'vir; ES -'via(r 
Bevis 'blvis, 'bEvis |-'s- iz 
bevy 'bEvi 
bewail bi'wel |-ed -d 
beware bi'wEr, -Vaer; E -VEa(r, ES -'waea(r; 

l-d-d 
beweep bi'wip |-wept -Vept 
Bewick 'bjuik, 'biuik 



bewilder bi'wilda^; ES -Vilda(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

-'wildrig, -'wildarig 
bewitch bi'witj |-es -iz |-ed -t 
bewray biVe |-ed -d 
Bexar Tex, loc. baer, baea(r {Sp 'bExar) 
bey be 

beyond bi'jand, bi'and, -'jnnd, -'nnd 
Beyrouth 'berut, be'rut 
Beza 'biza 

bezant, bezz- 'bEznt, ba'zasnt 
bezel, -il 'bEzl |-ed -d 
bezique ba'zik 
bezonian ba'zonian 
bhang baeg 

Bianca bi'aegka {It 'bjagka) 
biannual bai'aenjual | 1\^ -i 
Biarritz 'bia,rits {Fr bjaVits) 
bias 'baias |-es -iz |-ed -t 
bib bib jbibbed bibd 
bibber 'biba^; ES 'biba(r 
bibcock 'bibjkak; ES+'^kok 
bibelot 'biblo {Fr bi'blo) 
Bible 'baibl 

BibHcal 'bibhkl |-ly -i, -ikli 
Biblicism 'bibh/Sizam |-cist -sist 
bibliographer jbibh'agrafa^, -'og-; ES -fa(r; 

l-phy -fi 
bibliographic jbiblia'graefik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 

-ikb 
bibliolater jbibh'alata^; ES -'alatacr, -'dI-; 

I -try -tri 
bibhomania jbibba^menia, -nja |-iac -i^aek 
bibliophil 'bibha^fil |-phile -^fail 
bibulosity jbibja'lasati; ES+-'1ds- 
bibulous 'bibjalas 
bicameral bai'kiemaral 
bicarbonate bai'karbanit, -inet; ES -'ka:b-, 

E-i-'ka:b- 
bicaudal bai'kadl |-date -det 
bice bais 
bicentenary bai'sEnta^nEri, jbaisen'tenari; 

Brit -'tin-, -Heh- 
bicentennial jbaiSEn'tEiual j-ly -i 
biceps 'baiSEps ]-es -iz 
Bicester 'bista^; ES 'bista(r; (Bister 1634) 
bichlorid bai'klorid, -'klar-; S -'klor-; |-ide 

-aid, -id 
bichromate n bai'kromit, -met 
bichromate v bai'kromet l-d -id 



Key: See in full §§3~t7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet JEt |sang saeg [angr}- 'aeg-gn 
|bath ba;G; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wntj (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge g3rd3 |go go 



bicker 



47 



binaural 



bicker 'bika^; ES 'bik3(r;l-ed -d |-ing 'bikarig, 


bigot, B- 'bigat |-ed -id |-ry -ri 


'bikrig 


bigwig 'bigjwig |-ged -d 1-gery -an, -ri 


Bickerstaff 'bika^^staef; ES 'bika-, E+-jStaf, 


bijou 'bisu, bi'su 


-jstaf 


bike baik 


Bicknell 'biknal 


bilabial bai'lebial 


bicolor ^baijkAla'; ES -jkAl3(r; |-ed -d 


bilabiate bai'lebi^et, -but 


biconcave bai'kankev, -'kag-, jbaikan'kev; 


Bilaspur bi'laespur, -'las-; ES -pua(r 


ES+-D- 


bilateral bai'lsetaral |-ly -i 


biconvex bai'kanveks, jbaikanVeks; ES+ 


Bilbao bil'bao 


-on- 


bilberry 'bil^beri, -ban 


bicron 'baikran, 'bik-; ES+-krDn 


bilbo 'bilbo 


bicuspid bai'kAspid |-ate -,et 


Bildad 'bild«d 


bicycle 'bai^sikl, 'baisikl |-d -d 1-ling -klig. 


bile bail 


-khg 


bilge bilds |-s -iz |-d -d 


bicyclic 'of bicycles' bai'sikhk, 'baisik- 


bihary 'bili,£ri 


bicyclic Hwo-cycled' bai'saikhk, -'sik- 


bihnear bai'lima^; ES -'lini-aCr 


bicyclist 'b. rider' 'bai^siklist, -siklist 


bilingual bai'liggwal |-ism -^izam 1-ly -i 


bid 'ask' bid \past bade, bad baed or bid bid 


biHous 'biljas 


\ppic bidden 'bidn or bid bid 


biliteral bai'htaral |-ism -jizam 


bid 'offer' bid \past b- pptc bid bid 


bilk bilk Ibilked bilkt 


biddable ibidabl |-bly -bh 


biU bil IbiUed bild |-able -abl 


Biddefordlfe 'bidafa^d; ES 'bidafad 


billboard 'biljbord, -^bard; ES -iboad, E+ 


biddy 'bidi 


-jbaad 


bide baid \past bode bod or bided 'baidid 


Billerica Mass 'bibrika 


\pptc bided 'baidid 


Billericay Engd jbila'riki 


Bideford Engd 'bidafa^d; ES 'bidafad 


billet 'bilit i-ed -id 


bidentate bai'dentet 


billet-doux 'bili'du \pl -doux -'duz {Fr 


Biela 'bib 


bije'du) 


biennial bai'Enial |-ly -i 


biUfold 'billfold 


bier bir; ES bi3(r, S+bE3(r 


billhead 'bil^hed 


biff bif Ibiffed bift 


billiard 'bilja^d; ES 'biljad; |-s -z 


bifid 'baifid 


billingsgate, B- 'biligz^get, -git 


biflex 'baifleks 


billion 'biljan |-aire ibiljan'sr, -'aer; E -'£a(r. 


bifocal adj bai'fokl ('bijfocal 'lenses) 


ES -'aea(r; |-th -6 |-ths -Gs 


bifocal n 'baifokl, bai'fokl j-s -z 


billow 'bilo, 'bila [-ed -d |-ing 'bilawig |-y 


bifurcate adj 'baifa^^ket, bai'fykit; ES 'baifa-. 


'bilawi 


-'fskit, -'fykit 


billposter 'bil^posta^; ES -jposta(r 


bifurcate v 'baifa^^ket, bai'fyket; ES 'baifa-. 


billsticker 'bil^stika^; ES -jstika(r 


-'fsket, -'fyket; |-d -id 


bUly, B- 'bih 


bifurcation jbaifa^'ke/an; ES jbaifa- 


bilobate bai'lobet |-d -id 


big big 


bimanual bai'mtenjual 1-ly -i 


bigamist 'bigamist |-mous -mas [-my -mi 


bimensal bai'mEnsl 


Bigelow 'biga jo, 'biglo 


bimester bai'mesta^; ES -'m£sta(r 


bighead 'big^htd |-ed 'big'hedid 


bimetallic jbaima'taebk 


bighorn 'big^harn; ES -jhaan 


bimetallism bai'm£tljizam |-ist -ist 


Big Horn riv. 'big'harn; ES -'haan; (The 


bimonthly bai'mAnOli 


'Big 'Horn, 'Big ^Horn 'River) 


bin bin |binned bind 


bight bait |bighted 'baitid 


binary 'bainari |-nate -net 


Biglow 'biglo 


binaural bin'aral 



[full ful |tooth tu9 [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
lusing 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan jEden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



bind 



48 



bittern 



bind baind |bound baund \arch pptc bounden 


birdbath 'byd^baee; ES 'bsd-, 'byd- 


, E+ 


'baundan 


-jbae, -jbaO; |-ths -3z 




binder 'bamda^; ES 'baind3(r; |-y -dan, 


birdhouse 'byd,haus; ES 'bsd-, 'byd- 


; l-ses 


-dri 


-ziz 




bine bam 


birdlime 'byd^laim; ES 'bsd-, 'byd- 




Binet bi'ne, bi- (Fr bi'nE) 


birdseed 'byd^sid; ES 'bsd-, 'bs'd- 




Bingen 'bigan 


bird's-eye 'bs^dz^ai; ES 'bsdz-, 'bydz- 




Bingham 'bigsm |-ton -ton 


biretta ba'reta 




Bingley 'bigh 


Birkenhead 'bykan^hed; ES 'bsk-, ' 


byk-; 


bingo 'biogo 


loc. (Birken'head 




binnacle, binocle 'binakj 


birl byl; ES bsl, byl; |-ed -d 




binocular bai'nakjala^, bi-; ES -'nakjabir. 


Birmingham US 'bymiOihaem, -gam. 


Engd 


-'nnk- 


'bymigam; ES 'bsm-, 'bym- 




binomial bai'nomial |-ly -i 


Biron 'bairan, in Shak. bi'run spelt Berowne 


Binyon 'binjan 


birr by; ES b3(r, by; |-ed -d 




biochemic jbaio'kEmik |-al -1 |-ally -ji, -ikli 


Birrell 'biral 




biochemistry jbaio'kgmistn 


birth bye; ES bsO, byO; |-ths -Os 1-day -^de 


biogenesis jbaio'dsenasis 


birthmark 'byO^mark; ES 'bsOimark, 


'bye- 


biogenetic jbaiodsa'netik |-al -I |-ally -ji, 


jmark, E4--iniark 




-ikh 


birthplace 'byO^ples; ES 'bsG-, 'byO-; 


|-S -IZ 


biogeography jbaiodgi'agrafi, -'og- 


birthright 'byO^rait; ES 'bsO-, 'byO- 




biographer bai'agrafa', bi-, -'og-; ES -f3(r 


bis bis 




biographic jbaia'graefik |-al -1 |-ally -li. 


Biscay 'biski, -ke 




-ikh 


biscuit 'biskit 




biography bai'agrafi, bi-, -'og- 


bisect n 'baisskt 




biologic jbaia'ladsik; ES+-'lDd3-; |-al -j 


bisect V bai'sekt |-ed -id | ction -kjan 




|-ally -k, -ikli 


bishop, B- 'bijap |-ric -rik 




biology bai'al3d3i; ES+-'d1-; |-gist -dsist 


Bismarck 'bizmark; ES -mark, E-i-- 


mark; 


biometric jbaia'metrik |-al -1 |-ally -h, -ikli 


{Ger 'bis-) 




biometry bai'amatri; ES+-'Din- 


bismuth 'bizmaO |-al -al 




Bion 'baian 


bismuthic biz'mjuGik, -'miu-, -'mA6ik 




Biondello jbian'dElo 


bison baisn, -zn 




biophysics jbaio'fiziks j-cal-kj 


Bispham 'bispam 




biotic bai'atik; ES+-'Dt-; |-al.-I 


bisque bisk 




biotite 'bai3jtait 


bister, -tre 'bista^; ES 'bista(r 




biparous 'biparas 


bisulphate bai'sAlfet 




bipartisan bai'partazn; ES -'part-, E+-'pa:t-; 


bisulphid bai'sAlfid j-ide -aid, -id 




l-ship - Jip 


bisulphite bai'sAlfait 




bipartite bai'partait; ES -'pait-, E+ -'part- 


bisymmetric jbaisi'metrik |-al -1 1-ally -li. 


biped 'baiped |-al -I, 'bipadi 


-ikh 




bipetalous bai'petjas 


bisymmetry bai'simitri 




bipinnate bai'pinet 


bit bit Ibitted 'bitid 




biplane 'bai,plen 


bitch bitj" Ibitches 'bitjiz |-ed -t 




bipolar bai'pola^; ES -'pola(r 


bite bait |bit bit |bitten 'bitn 




bipolarity ^baipo'laerati 


bitstock 'bitjStak, -jStnk 




biquadratic jbaikwad'raetik, -kwnd- 


bitt bit Ibitted 'bitid 




birch bytj; ES bstj, bytj; |-es -iz |ed -t |-en 


bitten 'bitn 




-an 


bitter 'bita-, ES 'bita(r; |-s -z 




bird byd; ES bsd, byd; |-ed -id |-ie -i 


bittern 'bita^n; ES 'bitan 





Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angr>' '«g'gri 
|bath bae9; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



bittern ut 



49 



bleach 



bitternut 'bita^nat, -^nAt; ES 'bita- 


Blackmore 'blaekmor, -mor; ES -ino3(r, E+ 


bitterroot 'bita^^rut, -^rut; ES 'bita- 


-in33(r 


bittersweet 'bita^^swlt, -'swit; ES 'bita- 


blacksmith 'blaeksmiG |-ths -8s |-ing -jsmiGig 


bitumen bi'tjuman, -'tiu-, -'tu-, 'bit/uman 


Blackstone 'blaekjston, -stan 


bituminous bi'tjumanas, bai-, -'tiu-, -'tu- 


black-throated 'blaek'erotid ('black-jthroated 


bivalence baiVebns, 'bivabns j-cy -i |-nt 


'warbler) 


-nt 


Blackwells 'blaek^welz, -walz 


bivalve 'baiiVaelv |-d -d 


bladder 'blaeda^; ES 'blaeda(r; |-ed -d j-ing 


bivouac 'bivu^aek, 'bivwaek j-ked -t 


'blaedarig, -driij 


biweekly bai'wikh 


blade bled |bladed 'bledid 


biyearly bai'jirb; ES -'jiab, S+-'J£3h 


blah bla 


bizarre bi'zar; ES -'za:(r, E+-'za:(r 


blain blen [blained blend 


Bizet bi'ze {Fr bi'ze) 


Blaine blen 


Bjornson 'bjynsn; ES 'bjsn-, 'bjyn-; {Norw 


Blake blek 


'bJ0:rns3n) 


blamable 'blemabl |-bly -bli 


blab bl«b Iblabbed blabd 


blame blem |-ed -d |able -abl ]-bly -bli 


black blaek ,| blacked blaekt 


blameful 'blemfal |-ly -i 


blackamoor 'blaeka^mur; ES -^muaCr 


blameless 'blemlis 


black-and-blue 'blaekan'blu, 'blaekg'blu. 


blameworthy 'blem^ws^Si; ES -jW3?5i, -jWySi 


-'bku 


Blanc, Mont mant'blaegk, mont- {Fr mo'bla) 


blackball 'bl^k^bal |-ed -d 


blanch blaent/; E+blantJ, blantj"; |-es -iz 


black-berried 'bl^k'bsrid ('black-jberried 


l-ed -t 


'elder) 


Blanch(e) blaent/; E+blant/, blantj"; |-'s 


blackberry 'bliEkjb£ri, -ban |-ried -d 


-iz 


blackbird 'blaek.byd; ES -.bad, -.bs-d 


blancmange bb'mans, -mands 


blackboard 'blaek.bord, -jb3rd; ES -jboad. 


Blanco 'blaegko 


E+-jb33d 


bland blaend 


Blackburn 'blaekba-n; ES 'blaekban 


blandish 'blaendij |-es -iz |-ed -t 


blackcap 'blaek.kaep 


blank blaegk | blanked blaegkt 


blackcock 'blaekjkak; ES+-ikDk 


blankbook 'blaegk^buk, -'buk 


blackdamp 'blaek,daemp 


blanket 'blaegkit |-ed -id 


blacken 'blaekan |-ed -d |-ing 'bltekami). 


blare bier, blaer; E bk3(r, ES blae9(r; |-d -d 


-kmo 


blarney, B- 'blarni; ES 'blarni, E+'bla:ni 


black-eyed 'blaek'aid ('black-^eyed 'Susan) 


blase bla'ze, 'blaze {Fr bla'ze) 


Blackfeet 'blaek.fit 


blaspheme blaes'fim |-d -d 


blackfellow 'blak^fElo, -.fela 


blasphemous 'blaesfimas |-my -mi, older 


blackfish 'bl«k,fij 


blaes'fim- 


Blackfoot 'blaekjfut |-feet -.fit 


blast blaest; E+blast, blast; |-ed -id 


Blackfriars 'blaek jfraia'Z, -'fraia^z; ES -jfrai-az. 


blastoderm 'blaesta^dym; ES -jdam, -.dym 


-'frai'3z 


blastula 'blaestjub 


blackguard 'blaega^d, 'blaegard; ES 'blaegad. 


blat blaet |blatted 'blaetid 


-ga:d, E+-ga:d; |-ed -id |-ry -ri 


blatancy 'bletnsi | blatant 'bletnt 


blackhead 'blaek .bed 


blather 'blaetSa^; ES 'blaetJaCr; |-ed -d |-ing 


Blackheath 'blaek^hiO, -'hie 


'blaetJrig, 'blaeSarig 


blackjack 'blaekjdsaek |-ed -t 


blatherskite 'blaeSa^.skait; ES 'bbetSa- 


Black Jack 'blaek'dsaek 


blaze blez |blazes 'bleziz | blazed blezd 


blackleg 'blaek .leg 


blazon 'blezn |-ed -d |-ing 'bleznig, -znig 


blacklist 'blaekjist |-ed -id 


blazonry 'bleznri 


blackmail 'blaekjmel j-ed -d 


bleach blitj Ibleaches 'blitjiz l-ed -t 



|full ful |tooth tue [further 'fa^tJa^; ES 'fstSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy toi 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 'visan [Eden 'idi^ [cradle 'kred} [keep 'em 'kipip 



bleachers 



50 



blubber 



blieachers 'bllt/a^z; ES 'blit/az 


blockhouse 'blak^haus; ES+'blok-; |-ses 


bleachery 'blitjan 


-ZIZ 


bleak blik 


Bloemfontein 'blumfan^ten, -fan-, -fon- 


blear blir; ES bli3(r, S+bk3(r; |-ed -d 


blond, -e bland, blond 


blearedness 'blindms; S+'bkr- 


Blondel trouvere blan'del, blon-; Brit nanu 


bleat blit | bleated 'blitid 


'bUndl 


bleb bkb |-bed -d 


blood bUd [blooded 'bUdid |-ily -Ii, -ib 


bleed blid |bled bkd 


blood-boltered 'blAdjbolta^d, -jbolta^d; ES 


blemish 'blemij |-es -iz |-ed -t 


-tad; c/baltered 


blench blentj |blenches 'bkntjiz |-ed -t 


bloodcurdling 'blAd^kydbg ; ES -jksd-, -^kyd- 


blend bknd |blended 'blendid or blent bknt 


bloodguilty 'blAd^gilti 


blende bknd 


bloodhound 'bUdjhaund |-ed -id 


Blenheim 'bknara (Ger Blindheim 'bhnt- 


bloodletting 'blAd^ktig 


haim) 


blood-red 'bUd'red ( 'blood- /ed 'wine) 


Blennerhassett ^bkna^'haesit; ES jbkna- 


bloodroot 'bUd^rut, -^rut 


blenny 'bkm 


bloodshed 'blAdjX£d 


blent bknt 


bloodshot 'bUdj/at; ES+-jjDt 


bless bks |blesses 'bksiz [blessed, blest 


bloodstain 'bUd^sten j-ed -d 


bkst 


bloodsucker 'bUdjSAka'; ES -jSAk3(r 


blessed adj 'bksid |-ly -k |-ness -nis 


bloodthirsty 'blAdjO^sti; ES -.Gssti, -,eysti 


blessing 'bksig 


bloom blum | bloomed blumd |-age -ids 


blest bkst 


bloomers 'bluma^z; ES 'blumaz 


blether 'bktSa^; ES 'bk<J3(r 


bloomery 'blumari 


blew blu, bhu 


Bloomfield 'blum^fild 


blight bkit Iblighted 'bkitid 


Bloomington 'blumigtsn 


blighty, B- ^blaiti 


Bloomsbury 'blumz^bEri, -bari 


blimp bhmp 


blossom, B- 'blasam; ES+'blosam; j-ed -d 


blind blaind | blinded ^blamdid 


blot blat; ES+blot; |-ted -id 


blindfold 'blaind^fold, 'blain- |-ed -id 


blotch blat/; ES+blotJ; j-es -iz 1-ed -t 


blindman's buff 'blaind^maenz'bAf, 'blain- 


blotter 'blata-; ES 'blat3(r, 'blot- 


blindness 'blaindnis, 'blainnis 


blotto 'blato; ES+'bloto 


blindworm 'bkind^wym; ES -,w3m, -jwym 


Blount blaunt, bUnt 


blink bligk | blinked bliijkt 


blouse blaus, blauz |-s -iz |-d -t, -d 


bliss bhs |bhsses 'bhsiz |-ful -fal |-fully 


blow of wind bio |blew blu, bbu |blown blon 


-fab 


or slang blowed bled 


blister 'bbsta-; ES 'bhst3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 


blow '■blossom'' bio |blew blu, bhu [blown 


'bbstariij, 'bbstrii) 


blon 


blithe blaiS |-some -sam 


blowfly 'blo.flai 


BUthedale 'bkiS^del 


blowgun 'blojgAn 


bhtz bbts |-es -iz |-ed -t 


blowhole 'blojhol 


Blitzkrieg 'bhtSjkrig (Ger -jkrirk) 


blown blon 


blizzard 'bhza^d; ES 'bkzad 


blowoff 'blopf, -jof 


bloat blot Ibloated 'blotid 


blowout 'blo^aut 


blob blab; ES+bkb; |-bed -d 


blowpipe 'blojpaip 


bloc blak; ES+blok 


blowtorch 'blojtartj; ES -itaatj; |-es -iz 


Bloch blak; ES+blok 


blowup 'blojAp 


block blak; ES+blok; |-ed -t 


blowzed blauzd [blowzy 'blauzi 


blockade bla'ked; ES+blo-; |-d -id 


blubber 'bUba^; ES 'bUbair; |-ed -d [-ing 


blockhead 'blak .bed; ES+'blok- 


'bUbrig, 'bUbarig [-y -bri, -ban 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang saeg [angrj^ 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeO; E baG (§10) [ah a [far far [watch watj, wotj (§12) [jaw dsD [gorge gards [go go 



blucher 



51 



bobsled 



blucher 'blut/a^, 'bluka^; ES -3(r 

Blucher 'blutJV, 'bluka^; ES -3(r; {Ger 

'blyxar) 
bludgeon 'blAdjan |-ed -d 
blue blu, bhu |-d -d 
Bluebeard 'bluebird, ^bhu-; ES -^biad, S+ 

-jbead 
bluebell 'blu.bel, 'bhu- 
blueberry 'blu^beri, 'bhu-, -ban 
bluebird 'blu^byd, 'bhu-; ES -^bsd, -^byd 
blue-black 'blu'blaek, 'bhu- ('blue-^black 

'dye) 
blue-blooded 'blu'bUdid, 'bhu- 
bluebonnet 'blu^banit, 'bhu-; ES+-jbDnit 
bluebottle 'blu^batl, 'bhu-; ES+'^botl 
bluecoat 'blu^kot, 'bhu- 
blue-eyed 'blu'aid, 'bhu- ('blue-^eyed 'boy) 
bluefish 'blujfij", 'bhu- |-'s -iz 
bluegill 'blujgil, 'bhu- 

bluegrass 'blujgraes, 'bhu-; E+-jgras, -jgras 
blueing 'bluig, 'bhuig |-ish -i/ 
bluejacket 'blu^dsaekit, 'bhu- 
blue-jay 'blu^dse, 'bhu- 
blue-pencil 'blu'pensl, 'bhu- |-ed -d 
blueprint 'blueprint, 'bhu- |-ed -id 
Blue Ridge 'blu'rids, 'bhu- ('Blue ^Ridge 

'Mts.) 
blues bluz, bhuz 
blue-sky law 'blu'skaija, 'bhu- 
bluestocking 'blu^stakii), 'bhu-; ES+-jStDk- 
bluet 'bluit, 'bhuit 
bluff bkf I bluffed bUft 
bluing 'bluig, 'bhuig |-ish -i/ 
blunder 'bUnda-; ES -d3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

'blAndrig, 'blAndarig 
blunderbuss 'bUnda^jbAs; ES 'bUnda-; |-es 

-IZ 

blunge bUndj [blunges 'bUndsiz ]-d -d 

blunt, B- bknt [blunted 'bUntid 

blur bly; ES bl3(r, bly; |-red -d 

blurb bls-b; ES bbb, blyb; |-ed -d 

blurry 'biyi; ES 'blsri, 'blyi 

blurt bls^t; ES bbt, blyt; |-ed -id 

blush bUJ [blushes 'bU/iz [blushed bU/t 

bluster 'blAsta^; ES 'bUstafr; [-ed -d |-ing 

'blAstarig, 'blustng j-y -tan, -tri 
-bly -bh, ending of advs corresponding to adjs 
in -able -abl. In the vocab. this is regularly 
added to such adjs in -able as have corre- 



sponding advs, to show tlie change from 
syllabic 1 in -abl to nonsyllabic 1 in -abh 
(dependable di'pendabj |-bly (di'penda)- 
bh). 

Wlten I -bly -bh immediately follows 
[-able -abl, if the head word does not end in 
-able (pardon 'pardn |-ed -d j-able -abl 
I bly -bh), in this case exceptionally the 
ending -bh is to be referred, not as usual to 
the head word, bid to the immediately pre- 
ceding form, atid pronounced -abh, thus 
(cf pardon in tlte vocab.): pardon 'pardn 
|-ed -d j-able ('par)dnabl, ('par)dnabl [-bly 
('pardna)bh, ('pardna)bh. In such cases, 
also, the form in -bly -(a)bli includes any 
variant prons. of the form in -able, as in this 
example. The same statements apply to words 
in -ible -abl with added [-bly -bh. 

Blyth blaitJ, blai [Blythe blaiS 

B'nai B'rith ba'ne-ba'rie, -'brie 

boa 'boa 

Boadicea jboadi'sia 

Boanerges jboa'nydsiz; ES -'ns-, -'ny-; 
[-ges' -dsiz 

boar bor, bar; ES boa(r, E+b3a(r 

board bord, bard; ES bead, E-t-baad; [-ed 
-id 

boarder 'borda^, 'bar-; ES 'boada(r, E-i- 
'baa- 

boardinghouse 'bordig^haus, 'bard-; ES 
'boad-, E+'baad-; [-ses -ziz 

boardwalk 'bord^wak, 'bard-; ES 'bead-, E-i- 
'baad- 

boarhound 'bor^haund, 'bar-; ES 'boa-, E+ 
'baa- 

Boas, Franz ^hoas, Frederick S. 'boaez [-'s -iz 

boast host [boasted 'bostid 

boat bot [boated 'botid; \NEngd+h'6t {§46) 

boatful 'botjful [-s -z 

boatman, -men 'botman 

boatswain, bosun 'bosn, occas. 'bot^swen 

Boaz Bible 'boaez [-'s -iz 

bob bab; ES+bob; [-bed -d 

bobbin 'babin; ES+'bobin; [-ed -d 

bobbinet jbaba'net; ES+jbob- 

bobby 'babi; ES+'bnbi 

bobcat 'babjkaet; ES-h 'bob- 
bobolink 'babl/igk; ES+ 'bob- 
bobsled 'babjskd; ES+'bob-; [-ed -id 



[full ful [tooth tu9 [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



bobsleigh 



52 



bombshell 



Those words below in ivhich the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced unth n in E and S 



bobsleigh 'bab^sle |-ed -d 




bold-facedly 'bold'fesidh, -'festh 


bobstay 'bab^ste 




bole bol boled bold 


bobtail 'babjtel 




bolero bo'kro, -'lero 


bobtailed 'bab'teld ('bobjtailed 


'ox) 


Boleyn 'bulin=Bullen (in Shak. Anne 


bobwhite 'bab'hwait 




BuUen) 


Boccaccio bo'katJijO {It bok'kattjo) 


bolide 'bolaid, -lid 


Boche, b- baj, baf, bqf j-s -iz 




Bolingbroke 'babg^bruk, 'bul-, 'bol All 


bock bak 




except 'buliOibruk are spelling profiuncia- 


bode past of bide bod 




tions. The origi^ial was Bul- and the last 


bode V bod boded 'bodid 




part is the word brook. 


bodice 'badis |-s -iz 




bolivar 'balava'; ES 'balavaCr 


bodied 'badid 




Bolivar US 'balava^; ES 'bal3V3(r 


bodiless 'badihs, 'badjis 




Bolivar SAmer bo'livar; ES -va:(r; (Sp 


bodily 'badh, -dik 




bo'liPar) 


bodkin 'badkin 




Bolivia, b- ba'livia |-n -n (Sp bo'IiPja) 


Bodleian bad'lian, ^badlian 




boll bol 1 boiled bold 


Bodley 'badh 




bollard 'bala^d;ES'balad 


Bodmin 'badmin 




bollworm 'boljwym; ES -;W3m, -jwym 


body 'badi [-died -d | -guard 


j-gard; ES 


bolly 'boll 


-,ga:d, E + -jga:d 




bolo 'bolo |-ed -d 


Boeotia bi'o/ia, -Ja |-tian -/an, -/lan 


Bologna city ba'lonja (// bo'lojijia) 


Boer bor, b3r, bur; ES bo3(r 


, buafr, E+ 


Bologna sausage ba'lona, -'lonja, -'loni 


b33(r 




bolometer bo'lamata^; ES -'lamat3(r 


Boethius bo'iOias or jBoetius bo'l/ias ]-'s -iz 


boloney ba'loni, bl'oni 


Boeuf Bayou 'bef'baiu, -^baiju 




Bolshevik, b- 'baljajvik, 'bol- |-vism -^vizani 


bog bag, bag, bog j-ged -d 




-vist -vist 


bogey 'bogi 




bolster 'bolsta^; ES 'bolsta(r; |-ed -d 


boggle 'bagj, 'bogj |-d -d |-ling 


■glig, -gho 


bolt bolt Ibolted 'boltid; \NEngd+h'6\t 


bogie 'bogi 




(§46) 


Bogota US ba'gota, SAnier ^ 


boga'ta, -'ta 


bolthead 'bolt^hed 


(Sp jbogo'ta) 




Bolton 'boltn 


bogtrotter 'bag^trata' ; 'bag-. 


'bog-; ES 


boltrope 'bolt^rop 


-jtrat3(r 




bolus 'bolas |-es -iz 


bogus 'bogss |-es -iz 




bomb bam; less freq. bAm [-ed -d 


bogy 'bogi 




bombard n 'bombard; ES 'bamba:d, E-i- 


bohea bo 'hi 




-ba:d 


Bohemia bo'hinua, -mja \-n -n |- 


nism -n.izam 


bombard v bam'bard; ES bam'ba:d, E-i- 


Bohn bon 




-'ba:d; |-ed -id 


Bohr bor, bar; ES bo3(r, E + ba3( 


r 


bombardier ^bamba^'dir; ES ^bamba'diaCr, 


boil bail boiled baild 




S+-'de3(r 


Boise 'baisi 




bombasine jbamba'zin, 'bambajzin 


boisterous 'baistaras, -tras 




bombast 'bambaest 


Bok bak 




bombastic bam'baestik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 


Bokhara bo'kara 




Bombay bam'be ('Bonijbay 'duck) 


bola 'bola |bolas 'bobs |-ses -siz 




bombazine jbamba'zin, 'bambajzin 


bold bold 




bomber 'bama-; ES 'bama(r 


boldface 'bold^fes 




bomibproof 'bam'pruf ('bomb-proof 'shelter) 


bold-faced 'bold 'f est ('bold- .faced 'lie) 


bombshell 'bam^Xel, 'bAmj/el 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg langn,^ 'asg-gri 
|bath baeG; E bae (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



Bon 



53 



bore 



Those words helmv in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 



Bon bon 




booklore 'buk^lor, -Jar; ES -Joa(r, E-i- 


Bona 'bona 




-Jaa(r 


bona fide 'bona'faidi 




bookmaker 'buk^meka^; ES -jmeka(r 


bonanza bo'naenza 




Bookman 'bukman 


Bonaparte 'bonajpart; ES -,pa:t, E+-, 


pa:t; 


bookman 'bukman, -^maen |-men -man. 


|-tist -ist 




-jmen 


Bonar 'bona'; ES 'bon3(r 




bookmark 'buk^mark; ES -jma:k, E+ 


bonbon 'ban^ban {Fr bo'bo) 




-jma:k 


bond band | bonded 'bandid j-age -ids 




bookplate 'bukjplet 


bondholder 'bandjholda^ ; ES -,hold3(r 




bookrack 'buk^raek 


bondmaid 'band^med |-man -man |- 


men 


bookseller 'bukjsela'; ES -jSEla(r 


-man 




bookstall 'bukjstal 


bondsman, -men 'bandzman, 'banz- 




bookworm 'buk^wym; ES -jwsm, -jwym 


bondwoman 'band^wuman, -jwum- |- 


men 


boom bum | boomed bumd 


-jWimin, -an 




boomerang 'bumajiaeij, 'bumjraei) 


bone bon |-d -d ]-r -3^; ES -a(r; \NEiigd+ 


boon bun |booned bund 


ban (§46) 




boondoggle 'bun^dagl, -idngl |-d -d |-ling 


bone-dry 'bon'drai ('bone-jdry 'wood) 




-glig, -gho 


boneset 'bon^sEt |-ter -a^; ES -a(r 




Boone bun 


bonfire 'ban^fair; ES -ifaia(r; ]-d -d 




Boonesboro 'bunz^byo, -a; ES -ihsr-, -;bAr-, 


Bonheur ba'ns', ba-; ES -'n3(r, -'ny; 


(Fr 


-,b^- 


ba'nce:r) 




boor bur; ES bua(r; |-ish -ij 


bonhomie, -mmie jbana'mi, 'banajmi 


(Fr 


boost bust 1 boosted 'bustid 


bona 'mi) 




boot but 1 booted 'butid | -black -jblaek 


Boniface 'bana^fes |-'s -iz 




bootee bu'ti 


bonito ba'nito 




Bootes bo'otiz \gen -tis -tis 


bon mot Fr bo 'mo \Eng pi bons mots bo'moz. 


booth bu6, buS |-ths -tJz |-'s -Os, -3z 


Fr -'mo 




Booth buO, bu?i |-th's -Os, -3z 


Bonn ban 




Boothbay 'buG^be 


bonne Fr ban 




bootjack 'butjdssek 


bonnet 'bamt |-ed -id 




bootleg 'butjkg |-ged -d |-ger -9-; ES -a(r 


bonny 'bam 




bootstrap 'butjStraep 


bonspiel 'banspil, -spal 




booty 'buti 


bon ton Fr bo 'to 




booze buz |boozes 'buziz |boozed buzd [-zy -i 


bonus 'bonas |-es-iz |-ed -t 




bopeep, B- bo'pip 


bon vivant Fr bovi'va 




Borachio bo'rat/ijo, -ki^o 


bon voyage Fr bovwa'jais 




boracic bo'raesik 


bony 'bom; iV£«g(^-i-'bani (§46) 




borage 'byids, 'bands, 'bands, 'bonds; 


boo bu Ibooed bud 




ES+'bsr-, 'bAr- 


boob bub Iboobery 'bubari |booby 'bubi 




Borah 'bora, 'bara; S 'bora 


boodle 'budl |-d -d |-ling 'budhg, 'budlig 




borate n 'boret, 'bar-, -rit; S 'bor- 


boohoo n 'bu^hu 




borate v 'boret, 'bar-; S 'boret; \-d -id 


boohoo intj, v jbu'hu |-ed -d 




borax 'boraks, 'bar-; S 'boraks 


book buk Ibooked bukt |-ish -ij 




Bordeaux bar 'do; ES baa'do 


bookbinder 'buk^bainda^; ES -ibainda(r 


;I-y 


Borden 'bardn; ES 'baadn; |-town -^taun 


-dan, -dri 




border 'barda^; ES 'baada(r; |-ed -d |-ing 


bookcase 'bukjkes |-s -iz 




-dang, -dng, |-land -Jaend 


bookkeeper 'buk^kipa^; ES -,kipa(r 




bore bor, bar; ES boa(r, E-f-baa(r; |-d -d 



|full ful [tooth tu6 Ifurther 'fs^Sa^; ES 'fsSa |custom 'kAstam [while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
jusing 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dij [vision 'visan |Eden 'idn [cradle 'krcdl [keep 'em 'kipm 



boreal 



54 



bouquet 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with d in E and S 



boreal 'borial, 'bor-; S 'bonal 


botch bat/ |-es -iz |-ed -t |-edly -idb 


borealis ,bori'aelis, jbori-, -'elis; S jbori- 


bote bot 


Boreas 'borias, 'bar-; S 'bor-; |-'s -iz 


Botetourt 'bata^t^t; ES -,t3t, -^tyt 


boredom 'bordom, 'bar-; ES 'boa-, E+ 'baa- 


botfly 'bat;flai 


borer 'bora', 'bara^; ES 'bora(r, E+'bara(r 


both boe; N E7tgd+h'6(A (§46) 


boresome 'borsam, 'bar-; ES 'boasam, E+ 


bother 'baSa^; ES 'baSafr; |-ed -d |-ing 


'baa- 


'batJarig, 'baSrig |-some -sam |-ation 


Borghese bar'gezi; ES baa-; (// bor'ge:se) 


jbaSa'refan 


Borgia 'bardsa, -djia; ES 'baa- 


Bothnia 'baOnia 


Borglum, Gutzon 'gAtsn'barglam; ES -'baag- 


Bothwell 'baOwEl, 'batJ-, -wal 


boric 'bonk, 'bar-; S 'bonk 


Botolph 'batalf, Boston street loc. ba'tolf 


Boris 'boris, 'bar-; S 'bons; |-'s -iz 


bott bat 


born barn; ES baan 


BotticeUi >ati't/eli (Tt ^botti't/Elli) 


borne born, barn; ES boan, E+baan 


bottle 'batl |-d -d |-ling 'batjig. 'batlig 


Borneo 'bornijO, 'bar-; ES 'boan-, 'baan- 


bottom, B- 'batam |-ed -d |-less -bs 


Borodino jbara'dino, ibar-, ^bor- 


Bottome ba'toni= Bottom, bottom 


boron 'boron, 'bar-; S 'boran 


bottomry 'batamri |-ried -d 


borough 'byo, 'bs^a; ES 'bsr-, 'bAr-, 'by- 


botuhsm 'bat/a jlizam 


borrow, B- 'baro, -a, 'bar-, 'bor-; |-ed -d |-ing 


Botulph 'batalf 


-rawig 


Botzaris bo'tsaris |-'s -iz 


bort bart ; ES baat 


Boucher 'bautJV; ES 'bautja(r 


borzoi 'barzai; ES 'baa- 


Boucicault 'busi^kalt (Fr busi'ko) 


boscage 'baskids |-s -iz 


boucle bu'kle 


Boscawen NH 'baskawan, 'baskwin, Brit 


boudoir bu'dwar, -'dwar; ES -'dwa:(r. 


ftame bas'ko-an, -'ka-an 


-'dwaa(r 


Boscobel 'baskajbel 


bough bau |boughed baud 


bosh baX |boshes 'ba/iz | boshed haft 


bought bat |boughten 'batn 


bosk bask |-age -ids |-ages -idsiz |-y -i 


Boughton various persons 'botn, 'batn, 'bautn 


bo's'n 'bosn = boatswain 


bouillabaisse jbulja'bes {Fr buja'bes) 


Bosnia 'baznia |-n -n 


bouillon 'buljan, -jon, bul'jan, -'jon (Fr 


bosom 'buzam, 'buzam j-ed -d 


bu'jo) 


Bosphorus 'bosfaras |-porus -paras |-'s -iz 


boulder, B- 'bolda-; ES 'bolda(r; |-ed -d 


boss ti 'knob', 'chief bas, bos |-es -iz |-ed -t 


boulevard 'bulajvard, 'bul-; ES -jva:d, E+ 


boss V 'emboss', 'order' bas, bos |-es -iz |-ed -t 


-jvard; (Fr bul'va:r) 


boss 'cow' bas, bos 


Boulle, Boule bul 


bossy 'officious' 'basi, 'bnsi 


Boulogne bu'lon, ba-, -'lain {Fr bu'laji) 


bossy 'cow' 'basi, 'bosi 


Boult bolt 


Boston, b- 'bastn, 'bostn — a prevails in 


boun arch, baun, Sc bun |-(e)d -d 


NEngd 


bounce bauns |bounces 'baunsiz |bounced 


Bostonian bas 'toman, bos- 


baunst 


bosun 'bosn = boatswain 


bound past &° pptc of bind baund 


Boswell 'bazwel, 'boz-, -wal |-ian baz'welian 


bound n, adj, v baund |-ed -id |-ary -an, -ri 


Bosworth 'bazwa^O, 'boz-, 'baz-; ES -waO 


bounden 'baundan 


bot 'bott' bat 


bounteous 'bauntias 


bot 'bote' bot 


bountiful 'bauntafal |-ly -i, -fli 


botanic bo'taemk |-al -] [-ally -h, -ikli 


bounty 'baunti |bountied 'bauntid 


botanist 'batnist | botany 'batni 


bouquet _^ci'c'e?'5 bo'ke, bu'ke {Fr bu'ke) 


botanize 'batn^aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


bouquet 'aroma' bu'ke {Fr bu'ke) 



Key: See in fidl §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet jsang saeij |angry 'asg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wotj (§12) Ijaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



Bourbon 



55 



brad 



Bourbon 'burban; ES 'buab-; |-ism -jizam 

\Ky CO. loc. 'byban; ES 'bab-, 'byb- 
bourbon whiskey 'burban, 'byb-; ES 'buab-, 

'bsb-, 'byb- 
Bourchier Eng name 'bautja^ {cf §121); ES 

'bautfaCr; Lord Berners 'burtfia^; ES 

'bu3tXi'3(r 
bourdon 'burdn, 'bordn, 'bardn; ES 'buadn, 

'boadn, E+'boadn 
bourg burg; ES buag; {Fr burr) 
bourgeois 'middle-class^ bur'swa, 'burswa; 

ES bu3-, 'bu3-; {Fr bur'swa) 
bourgeois type ba^'dsais, by-; ES ba-, bs-, ba^- 
bourgeoise, pi -ses bur'swaz; ES bua-; {Fr 

bur'3wa:z) 
bourgeoisie, ibur3wn'zi; ES ^bua-; {Fr 

burswa'zi) 
bourgeon 'byd33n; ES 'bsds-, 'byds-; |-ed -d 
bourn, -e 'limit,* 'brook* born, born, burn; 

ES boan, buan, E+boan 
Bournemouth 'bornmaO, 'barn-, 'burn-; ES 

'bean-, 'buan-, E+'baan- 
bourse burs; ES buas; |-s -iz 
bouse tiaut. baus, bauz |-s -iz [-d -t, -d 
bouse, -ze 'drink' buz, bauz |-s -iz |-d -d |-sy, 

-zy-i 
boustrophedon jbustra'fidn |-ic bu^strafa- 

'danik; ES+-jStrDfa'dDnik 
bout baut 
boutonniere ^butn'jer; ES -'jeaCr; {Fr 

buta'nJEir) 
Bovary jbova'ri {Fr bova'ri) |-rism, -rysm 

'bovajrizam 
bovine 'bovain 

bow n, v'provi' 'nod* bau [bowed baud 
bow n, V 'weapon,* 'curve* 'violin how* bo 

[bowed bod 
Bowdich, Bowditch 'bauditj |-'s -iz 
Bowdler 'baudla^; ES 'baudla(r 
Bowdlerize 'baudla^raiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
Bowdoin 'bodn 

bowel 'baual, baul |-s -z |-ed -d 
bower 'arbor,' cards 'baua', baur; ES 'bau'a(r, 

baua(r; j-ed -d |-ing 'bauarig, 'bauriol -y -i 
bower 'fiddler' 'boa^; ES 'bo'a(r 
bowie 'bo'i, 'bu-i 

bowknot 'bo^nat, 'bo'nat; ES+-/nDt, -'not 
bowl bol |-s -z I bowled bold 
bowlder 'bolda^; ES 'bolda(r 



bowleg 'boikg 

bow-legged 'bo'legid, -'kgd ('bow-Jegged 

'dog) 
Bowles bolz I-'s -iz 
bowline naut. 'bolin, -jlain 
bowling green, B- G- 'bohij'grin 
bowman, B- 'archer' 'boman |-men -man 
bowman 'front oarsman' bauman |-men -man 
Bowmanville 'boman,vil 
bown(e) baun, Sc bun |-(e)d -d 
Bowness bo'nes |-'s -iz 
bowse 'drink' buz, bauz \-s -iz | d -d |-sy -zi 
bowshot 'bo //at; ES+-;jDt 
bowsprit 'baujsprit, 'bo- 
bowstring 'bojStrio |-ed -d or -strung -/StrAg 
bowyer 'boja^; ES 'boja(r 
bowze 'drink' buz, bauz |-s -iz |-d -d |-zy -zi 
box baks; ES+boks; |-es -iz |-ed -t 
boxer, B- 'baksa^; ES 'baksa(r, 'boks- 
boxful 'baksjful; ES+'bnks-; |-s -z 
boxwood 'baksjwud; ES+'boks- 
boy bai |-hood -hud 
boycott 'baijkot, -jkot; |-ed -id 
Boyesen 'baiasn 
Boyet bai'et {Fr bwa'jt) 
Boyle bail 
Boyne bam 

boys-and-girls 'baizn'gylz; ES -'galz, -'gylz 
Boz baz, boz — pron. boz by Dickens for 'Mose'. 
Bozzaris bo'zaeris |-'s -iz 
Brabant bra'baent, 'brabant {Fr bra'ba), 

Shak. 'Brabant 
Brabantio bra'baen/o, -'banjo, -/ijO 
brabble 'braebl |-d -d |-ling 'braeblig, -blig 
brace bres | braces 'bresiz | braced brest 
bracelet 'bresbt |-ed -id 
brach braetj |-es -iz 
brachial 'brekial, 'braek- 
brachiopod 'braekiajpad, 'brek-; ES-f--jpDd 
brachycephalic jbraekisa'faelik |-lism -'sefa- 

ibzam 
bracing 'bresig 
bracken 'braekan |-ed -d 
Brackenbury 'braekan^ben, -ban 
Brackenridge 'braekanrids |-'s -iz 
bracket 'braekit |-ed -id 
brackish 'braekij 
bract braekt |-ed -id |-eal -lal 
brad braed |bradded 'braedid |-awl -,al 



[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan jEden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Braddock 



56 



bread-and-butter 



Braddock 'braedak 
Bradford 'braedfa^d; ES 'brasdfad 
Bradshaw 'braed/o 

Bradwardine 'braedwa^din, -,ain; ES -wad- 
brae bre 

brag braeg | bragged braegd 
Bragg braeg 

braggadocio jbrjega'doJijO 
braggart 'braega^t; ES 'braegat 
Brake bra {Dan 'bra-e) 
Brahma Hindu god 'brama, fowl 'brama, 

'brema 
Brahman 'braman |-s -z |-ism -jizam 
Brahmanic bra'maenik |-al -1 
Brahmaputra jbrama'putra 
Brahmin 'bramin l-ism -jizam 
Brahminic bra'minik |-al -1 
Brahms bramz {Ger bra:ms) |-'s -iz 
braid bred | braided 'bredid 
brail brel |brailed breld 
Braille brel |brailled breld {Fr bra:j) 
brain bren [brained brend 
brainpan 'bren^paen 
brainsick 'bren^sik 

Braintree 'brentri, -^tri, in Engd /oc. + 'bran- 
braise brez I braises 'breziz [braised brezd 
Braithwaite 'breOwet, in Engd loc.+ ^hreOit — 

cf. Breathitt 
brake arch, past of break brek 
brake n, v brek jbraked brekt |-age -ids 
brakeman, -men 'brekman 
brakesman, -men 'breksman 
bramble 'braembl |-d -d l-hng -bho |b]y -bli 
bran, B- braen 

brancard 'braegka'd; ES 'braegkad 
branch braentj; E+branfJ, brant/; |-es -iz 

l-ed -t 
brand braend [branded 'braendid 
Brandeis 'braendais |-'s -iz 
Brandenburg 'braendan^byg; ES -jbsg, -ibyg; 

{Ger 'brandan^burk) 
brand ied 'br«ndid 
brandish 'braendi/ |-es -iz [-ed -t 
brand-new 'braen 'nju, 'braend-, -'niu, -'nu 
Brandon 'braendan 
brandtail 'brienjtel 
brandy 'braendi jbrandied 'braendid 
Brandy wine 'braendi, wain 
Brangwaine 'braegwen 



bran-new 'braen'nju, -'niu, -'nu 

brant brtent 

brantail 'brien,tel 

brash brae/ 

brasier 'bresa^; ES 'bresaCr 

brass braes; E-f-bras, bras; |-es -iz |-ed -t 

brassard 'braesard; ES 'braesa:d, E-i--a:d 

brassart 'braesa't; ES 'briesat 

brassie, -y, -ey 'braesi; E-f-'brasi, 'brasi 

brassiere bra'zir, ^braesi'tr; ES -'zia(r, -'tacr 

brass-smith 'braes,smi6; E+'bras-, 'bras-; 

|-ths -Gs 
brassware 'braes, w£r, -,waer; E -,w£a(r, 

-,waea(r, 'bras-, 'bras-; S 'braes ,waea(r 
brasswork 'braes, wyk; ES -,w3k, -,wyk, E-i- 

'bras-, 'bras- 
brassy 'braesi; E-t-'brasi, 'brasi 
brat braet |-hng -lig |-tish -i/ 
Brathwaite 'breOwet 
Bratislava 'brati,slava, ,brati'slava 
brattice 'braetis |-s -iz |-d -t 
Brattleboro 'braetljbyo, -,bya; ES -,b3r-, 

-,bAr-, -,b3^- 
Brauwer 'braua^; ES 'brau-a(r 
bravado bra'vado, -'vedo |-ed -d 
brave brev | braved brevd |-ry -an, -ri 
bravo ^well done!' 'bravo 
bravo ^villain'' 'bravo, 'brevo 
bravura bra'vjura, -'viura {It bra'vuira) 
braw Sc bra, bra 
brawl bral [brawled braid 
brawn bran |brawned brand |-edness -idnis 
bray bre [brayed bred 
braze brez [brazes 'breziz [brazed brezd 
brazen 'brezn |-ed -d [ing 'breznig, -znig 
brazenfaced 'brezn 'f est [-ly -'fesidh ('brazen- 

,faced 'lie) 
brazenness 'breznnis 
brazier 'brassworker' 'bresa^, 'breziy; ES 

'bre3a(r, -zi-aCr 
brazier /or hot coals 'bresa^; ES 'bresaCr 
Brazil, b- bra'zil, ba^'zil [ian -jan 
brazihn 'braezjin 

Brazos, -zos' 'brazes, 'brezas, -zds 
Brea 'bria 

breach brit/ [breaches 'brit/iz [-ed -t 
bread hvEd j breaded 'bredid 
Breadalbane bred'alban 
bread-and-butter 'brEdn'bAt*; ES -'bAta(r 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret jyet jet jsang saeg [angry 'aeg-gn 
[bath baeG; E baO (§10) [ah a [far far [watch wot/, wot/ (§12) [jaw d^o [gorge gards [go go 



breadfruit 



57 



bridgehead 



breadfruit 'bredjfrut, -^friut 


breed brid |bred bred 


breadstuff 'bred^stAf 


breeks briks 


breadth brede, brete |-ths -Os 


Breese 'briz |-'s -iz 


breadwinner 'brEd^wina^; ES -jWin3(r 


breeze briz [breezes 'briziz | breezed brizd 


break brek [past broke brok or arch, brake 


Bremen US 'briman, Germany 'breman. 


brek \pptc broken 'brokan or arch, or slang 


'breman (Ger 'bre:man) 


broke brok; |A^£wg(^+br3k(3n) 


Bremerton 'brema^tan; ES 'brEmatan 


breakable 'brekabl |-bly -bk 


Brenner 'brEna^; ES 'br£na(r 


breakage 'brekids |-s -iz 


Brereton 'brirtn; ES 'briatn, S-f'brEa- 


breakbone 'brek,bon 


Br'er Rabbit bra^'raebit; ES bra'raebit 


breakdown 'brekjdaun 


Breslau 'brEsb {Ger 'brEslau) 


breakfast 'brekfast |-ed -id 


Brest brESt 


breakneck 'brek,nek 


Brest Litovsk 'brestli'tafsk, -'tofsk 


Breakspeare 'brek^spir; ES -iSpi3(r, S+ 


brethren, B- 'brE?irin, -ran 


-;SpE3(r 


Breton 'brstn (Fr bra'to) 


breakup 'brek^Ap 


breve briv 


breakwater 'brek^wata^, -jwata^, -jWDta^; ES 


brevet bra 'vet, 'brEvit |-ed -id |-cy -'vEtsi 


-t3(r 


breviary 'brivi,£ri, 'brEVi- 


bream brim | breamed brimd 


brevier bra'vir; ES -'via(r, S+-'v£a(r 


breast brEst [breasted 'brestid |-band -jbaend 


brevity 'brevati 


breastbone 'brest'bon, -jbon 


brew bru, briu |-ed -d |-ery -an, -ri 


Breasted 'brestid 


brewer, B- 'brua^, 'briua^; ES -a(r 


breastpin 'brEstjpin, 'bres- 


Brewster 'brusta^, 'briu-; ES -sta(r 


breastplate 'brestjplet, 'brts- 


Brian 'braian 


breastsummer 'brEstjSAma', 'brEsama^; ES 


Briand 'briand (Fr bri'a) 


-jSAm3(r, -S3m3(r 


briar 'braia^; ES 'brai-a(r 


breastwork 'brEst/wyk; ES -jwak, -jwyk 


Briarean brai'Erian, -'er- |-reus -rias [-reus's 


breath brEO |-ths -Os |-less -bs |-y -i 


-riasiz 


breathe briS | breathed briSd 


briarroot 'braia^/rut, -irut; ES 'brai-a- 


breathed adj ^having (such) b.,' 'voiceless' 


bribe braib | bribed braibd |-ry -an, -ri 


brEGt 


bric-a-brac 'brika^braek ]-kery -an, -ri 


Breathitt 'btEOit, cf Braithwaite 


brick brik | bricked brikt 


breccia 'brEtJia, 'brEjia {li 'brettja) 


brickbat 'brik,baet |-ted -id 


Breckenridge, Breckinridge 'brEkanridj |-'s 


brickkiln 'bnkjkil, -jkiln — c/kiln 


-IZ 


bricklayer 'brikjea^; ES -jle-a(r 


Brecknock 'breknak, -nak, -nok | -shire -iJir, 


brickie 'bnkj 


-Ja-; ES -Jia(r, -Ja(r 


brick-red 'brik'rEd ('brick-jred 'paint) 


Brecon 'brskan 


brickwork 'brik^wyk; ES -jwsk, -jws^k 


bred pasl &° pptc of breed brsd 


brickyard 'brikjard; ES -ja:d, E+-ja:d 


brede tt arch, brid 


bridal 'braidl |-ly-i 


breech britj, britj" |-es -iz 1-ed -t 


bride braid |brided 'braidid 


breechblock 'brit/.blak, 'brit/-; ES+-,blDk 


bride-ale, brideale 'braid,el 


breechcloth 'britJikbO, 'britJ"-, -.klDO |-ths 


bridechamber 'braid^t/emba^; ES -jt/emba(r 


-3z, -es 


bridegroom 'braidjgrum, -jgrum 


breeches garment 'brit/iz 


bridesmaid 'braidz^med 


breeching 'brit/ii), 'britjio — Those familiar 


bridesman 'braidzman, -jinaen |-men -man 


■with harness call it 'britjiij. 


bridewell, B- 'braidwEl, -wal 


breechloader 'britj'loda^, 'brit/-; ES -'loda(r 


bridge brids [bridges 'bridsiz |-d -d 


breech-pin 'brit/,pin, 'brit/- 


bridgehead 'brids^hEd 



|full ful |tooth tuO [further 'fytia^; ES 'faSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzio [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredj [keep 'em 'kipip 



Bridgeport 



58 



brock 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with d in E and S 



Bridgeport 'brid3jport, -ipart; ES -]po3t, E+ 


brisk brisk [brisked bnskt [-en -an [-ened 


-'pD3t 


-and 


Bridges 'bridsiz [Bridges' 'bridsiz 


brisket 'briskit 


bridget, B- 'bridsit 


bristle 'brisl |-d -d [-ling 'bnsbg, -slig 


Bridgewater, -dgw- 'brids^wDty, -jwata^. 


bristly 'brisli, 'brisb 


-jWDta^; ES -taii;— formerly -Walter 


Bristol 'bnstj (Bristow in 1142) 


bridgework 'brids^wyk; ES -^wak, -jW^k 


Bristow US 'bristo 


Bridgman 'bndsman 


Britain 'britn, 'britan [-tish -tij 


bridle 'braidl |-d -d |-ling ^braidlig, -dlig 


Britannia bri'tania, -nja |-ic -ik ]-ica -ika 


bridleless 'braidlhs 


Briticism 'bntajSizam 


Brie bri 


Briton 'britn, 'britan , 


brief brif | briefed brift 


Brittain 'britn, 'britan 


brier 'braia^; ES 'brai'3(r; |-ed -d 


Brittany 'bntni 


brierroot 'braia^^rut, -jtut; ES 'brai'3- 


brittle 'britl jbrittlely 'bntlli, 'britli |-r -tjy. 


brieve briv 


-tla-; ES -a(r; |-st -tjist, -tbst 


brig brig 


Britton 'britn, 'britan 


brigade bri'ged [-gaded -'gedid 


Brno 'byno; ES 'bsno, 'bs^no 


brigadier jbriga'dir; ES -'di3(r, S+-'de3(r 


broach brotj [broaches 'brot/iz [-ed -t 


brigand 'brigand |-ed -id |-age -ids 


broad brDd [-ax, -axe -jaeks [-axes -^aeksiz 


brigandine 'brigsn^din, -jdain 


broadbill 'bradjbil 


brigantine 'briganjtin, -jtain 


broadbrim, B- 'brad j brim 


Brigham 'brigam 


broad-brimmed 'brad'brimd ('broad-jbrimmed 


bright, B- brait 


'hat) 


brighten 'braitn [ed -d |-ing 'braitnig, -tnig 


broadcast 'brad^kaest; E+-jkast, -,kast; 


brighteyes, B- 'brait^aiz 


\past b' pptc -cast, radio +-Cdii,\.ed -id 


Brighton 'braitn 


broadcloth 'bradjklaO, -jkloO [-ths -Gs 


Bright's disease 'braitsdi^ziz 


broaden 'bradn |-ed -d |-ing 'bradnig, -dnig 


brill bnl 


broad-gauge 'brad^geds [-s -iz 


brilliance 'briljans |-cy -i |-iant -jant 


broad-gauged 'brad'gedsd ('broad-jgauged 


brilliantine n 'brilJ3n,tin, v jbriljan'tin |-d -d 


'mind) 


brim brim | brimmed brimd 


broadleaf, B- 'bradjif 


brimful, -11 'brim'ful ('hearts 'brim'ful, 


broad-minded 'brad'maindid 


'brimjful 'eye) 


Broad Ripple 'brad^ripl 


brimmer 'brima'; ES 'brim3(r; |-ed -d 


broadside n, v 'brad, said [-d -id 


brimstone 'brinijSton 


broadside adv 'brad'said, -,said 


brinded 'brindid 


broadsword 'brad^sord, -,sard; ES -,soad, E+ 


Brindisi 'brindazi (It 'brindizi) 


-jsaad 


brindle 'brindl | brindled 'brindld 


Broadview 'brad^vju, -,viu, -'v- 


brine brain | brined braind 


Broadway 'brad^we 


bring brig [brought brat 


Brobdignag erron. for next 


bringing-up 'brigigAp 


Brobdingnag 'brabdig,naeg [-ian ,brabdig- 


brink brigk 


'naegian 


briny 'braim 


brocade bro'ked [-caded -'kedid 


brio 'brio 


brocatel, -lie ^braka'tel 


brioche 'brio/, 'briaj, -dJ (Fr bri'af) 


broccoU 'brakah, 'brakh {It 'brakkoli) 


briquette, -quet bri'ket |-(e)d -id 


brochure bro'/jur, -'Jiur, -'/ur; ES -ua(r; {Fr 


Brisbane 'brizben, -ban 


brb'/yrr) 


Briseis brai'siis |-'s -iz 


brock brak 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet jsang saeg [angr}- 'aeg-gri 
(bath baeO; E ba6 (§10) [ah a [far far [watch watj, wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



Brockport 



59 



Brummell 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 



Brockport 'brak^port, -ipart; ES -ipoat, E+ 


broomcorn 'brumikarn, 'brum-; ES -^kaan 


-iPaat 


Broome NY county hrum 


Brockton 'braktan 


broomrape 'brum^rep, 'brum- 


brocoli 'brakab, 'brakb 


broomstick 'brum^stik, 'brum- 


Brodhead 'bradjhEd, 'brad- 


broth brae, broO |-ths -Os 


brogan 'brogan 


brothel 'braOal, 'broeal, -(Sal 


brogue brog |brogued brogd 


brother 'brAtJa^; ES -tJa(r; |-ed -d |-ing 


broider 'braida^; ES -daCr; |-ed -d |-ing 


'brA^ang, 'brA^rig 


'broidarig, 'broidrig 


brotherhood 'brAtJa'jhud; ES 'brAcSa- 


broil brail | broiled braild 


brother-in-law 'brA'SarmJa, 'brAtJ^njla; ES 


brokage 'brokids 


'brASarmJa, 'brAcSanJa 


broke brok; NEngd+hrSk {§46) 


brotherly 'brA^a^h; ES 'brAtSali 


broken 'brokan; iVJS«g(/+ 'brokan {§46); 


brothers-in-law 'brAtJa^zinJa, 'brAcSa'znJa; ES 


|-ness -kaimis 


'brAcSazin^a, 'brAtJazn^Ia 


broken-down 'brokan'daun 


brougham 'bruam, brum, 'bream 


brokenhearted 'brokan'hartid; ES -'ha:tid, 


Brougham brum, 'bruam 


E+-'ha:tid 


brought brat 


broken-winded 'brokan'windid 


Broun, Heywood 'brun 


broker 'broka^; ES 'brokaCr 


brow brau |browed braud 


brokerage 'brokarids, 'brokrids 


Broward 'braua'd; ES 'brau-ad 


bromal 'bromael 


browbeat 'brau^bit \past -beat -jbit \pptc 


bromate ^bromet | -mated -metid 


-beaten -jbitn 


Brom Bones 'bram'bonz |-'s -iz 


Brower braua^; ES 'brau-aCr 


Bromfield 'bram,fild 


brown braun |-ed -d |-ness 'braunms 


bromic 'bromik 


Brown(e) braun 


bromide 'bromaid, -mid [bromid 'bromid 


Brownell 'braunel, brau'ntl 


bromine 'bromin, -mm [bromin 'bromin 


brown-eyed 'braun'aid ('brown-jeyed 'Susan) 


Bromley 'brAmb, 'bram- 


Brownian 'braunian 


Bromwich 'brAmidj, 'bram-, -wit/ |-'s -iz 


brownie 'braum 


bronchi pi 'bragkai 


Browning 'braumg 


bronchia pi 'bragkia 


brownstone 'brauiijSton 


bronchial 'bragkial |-ly -i 


Brownsville 'braunzvil; S+-vl 


bronchitis bran'kaitis, brag- |-chitic -'kitik 


browntail 'braun^tel 


broncho see bronco 


brown-tailed 'braun'teld ( 'brown- j tailed 


bronchoscope 'bragkajskop 


'moth) 


bronchus 'bragkas | bronchi 'bragkai 


browse brauz |browses 'brauziz |-d -d 


bronco 'bragko |-buster -jbAsta'; ES -ta(r 


Bruce brus, brius |-'s -iz 


Bronson 'brAnsn, 'bransn 


bruckle 'brAkl 


Bronte 'branti 


Bruges 'brudsiz, bru3 {Fr hry.^) [Bruges' 


Brontosaurus, b- jbranta'saras j-'s -iz 


'brudsiz iBruges's 'brujiz 


Bronx bragks |-'s -iz |-ville -vil 


Brugmann 'brugman {Ger 'brugman) 


bronze branz bronzes 'branziz [-d -d 


bruin 'brum, 'briuin 


brooch brot/, brut J |-es -iz |-ed -t 


bruise bruz, briuz |-s -iz |-d -d 


brood brud [brooded 'brudid 


bruit brut, briut |-ed -id 


brook bruk | brooked brukt |-let -lit 


brumal 'bruml, 'briumi 


Brooke bruk 


brume brum, brium 


Brookline 'bruklain [-lyn -lin 


brummagem, B- 'brAmadsam 


broom brum, brum |-ed -d 


Brummell 'brAml 



|full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fySa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Brunanburh 



60 



Buenos Aires 



Brunanburh 'brunan^byg; ES -ibsg, -jbyg; 


Bucephalus bju'sefalas, biu- |-'s -iz 


{OE 'brunan^burx) 


Buchan 'bAkan {Sc 'bAxan) 


Brundisium brAn'diziam 


Buchanan bju'kaenan, biu-, ba- 


Brunelleschi jbrunj'Eski {It jbrunel'kski) 


Bucharest jbjuka'rest, ^biu-, ^bu acct -^ 


brunet, -tte bru'net, briu- 


'Bucha^rest 


Brunhild 'brunhild {Ger 'bruinhilt) 


Buchmanism 'bAkman^izam |-ite -jait 


Brunhilde brun'hilda {Ger bruin'hilda) 


Buchtel 'buktl {Ger 'buxtal) 


Bruno 'bruno, 'briuno 


buck, B- bAk bucked bAkt 


Brunswick 'brAnzwik, -zik 


buckaroo 'bAka^ru, jbAka'ru 


brunt brAnt |brunted 'brAntid 


buckayro bAk'ero 


brush, B- brAj |brushes 'brA/iz |-ed -t 


buckboard 'bAk^bord, -jbard; ES -jboad, E+ 


brushbush 'brAj^buf |-es -iz 


-jbaad 


brushland 'brAjJaend 


bucket 'bAkit |-ed -id |-ful -,ful ]-fuls -^fulz 


brushwood 'brAj,wud 


buckeye 'bAk,ai |-d -d 


brusque brAsk, br.usk {Fr brysk) 


Buckhannon bAk'haenan 


Brussells 'brAslz |-ls' -Iz 


Buckingham US 'bAkig,haeni, F^ni^d 'bAkigam 


Brussells sprouts 'brAsl'sprauts, 'brAslz's- 


Buckinghamshire 'bAkioauij/ir, -j^; ES 


Brut brut, briut 


-Jiafr, -/a(r 


brutal 'brutl, 'briutl |-ly -i 


buckle, B- 'bAkl l-d -d |-ling 'bAkliQ, -kho 


brutality bru'taebti, briu- 


buckler /ram buckle 'bAkla^, 'bAkja^; ES -a(r 


brutalization jbrutja'zejan, ,briutl-, -ai'z- 


buckler 'shield' 'bAkla^; ES 'bAkla(r 


brutalize 'brutjiaiz, 'briutl- |-s -iz |-d -d 


Bucknell Pa coll. 'bAknel, bAk'nel; Eng places 


brute brut, briut |-tify -Sjfai |-tified -a^faid 


'bAknal 


brutish 'brutij, 'briutij 


bucko 'bAko 


Brutus 'brutas, 'briutas -'s -iz 


buckra 'bAkra 


Bruyere bru'jer; ES -'je3(r; {Fr bry'je:r) 


buckram 'bAkram |-ed -d 


Bryan 'braian |-ism -jizam 


Bucks Pa 6" short for Buckinghamshire bAks 


Bryant 'braiant 


bucksaw 'bAk^sa 


Bryce brais |-'s -iz 


buckshot 'bAkJat; ES+-jDt 


Brynhild 'brinhild {Scand 'bryn-) 


buckskin 'bAkjskin |-ned -d 


Brynmawr, -maur Wales brin'mar; ES 


buckthorn 'bAk^Barn; ES -jGaan 


-'m33(r; {S. Welsh brin'maur) 


bucktooth 'bAkjtuO | -teeth -jtiO 


Bryn Mawr Pa brin'mar, loc. -'mar; ES 


buckwheat 'bAkjhwit 


-'ni33(r, -'ma:(r 


bucolic, B- bju'kalik, biu-; ES-h-'knl- 


bryology brai'aladsi; ES+-'d1- 


Bucovina jbuka'vina 


bryony 'braiam 


Bucyrus bju'sairas, biu- |-'s -iz 


bryophyte 'braia.fait 


bud bAd budded 'bAdid 


Brython 'briGan |Brythonic bri'Oanik; ES+ 


Budapest jbjuda'pEst, jbiuda-, jbuda- 


-'eon- 


Buddha 'buda |-ddhism -dizam |-ddhist -dist 


bubble 'bAbl l-d -d l-ling 'bAbbrj, 'bAbho 


Buddhistic bud'istik |-al -1 


bubble and squeak 'bAblan'skwik 


buddy 'bAdi 


bubbler 'bAbla-, 'bAbla-; ES -3(r; |-bly -bh. 


budge bAds |budges 'bAdsiz [budged bAd3d 


-bli 


budget 'bAdsit j-ed -id |-ary 'bAdsijteri 


bubo 'bjubo, 'biubo 


Budle 'bjudj, 'biudl 


bubonalgia jbjuban'aeldsia, jbiu- 


Buell 'bjual, 'biual 


bubonic bju'banik, biu-; ES+-'bDnik 


Buena Vista US 'bjuna 'vista, 'biu-; CA 


buccal 'bAkl |-ly -i 


'bwena'vista {Sp 'bwena'(5ista) 


buccaneer jbAka'nir; ES -'ni3(r, S+-'nE3(r; 


Buenos Aires 'bonas'sriz, -'aeriz, -'eriz, 


l-ed -d 


'bwenas'airiz {Sp 'bwenas 'aires) — In the 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet jsang saeg |angry 'asg-gri 
|bath b«6; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wotj" (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



buff 



61 



bunk 



19th c. a common Anglicized form in both 


bulldoze 'buljdoz |-s -iz |-d -d 


Engd b' America was 'bonas'srz, -'aerz; 


Bullen 'bulin = Boleyn 


E -'£3z, ES -'aeaz — see §122. 


bullet 'buht |-ed -id 


buff bAf 1 buffed bAft 


buUethead 'buhtjhed 


buffalo, B- 'bAfjjO |-ed -d 


bulletheaded 'bulit'tedid ('bulletjheaded 


buffer 'bAfa^; ES 'bAf3(r; |-ed -d 


'boy) 


buffet 'stroke,^ 'strike' 'bAfit |-ed -id 


bulletin 'bulatn, -tin 


buffet '■sideboard' bA'fe, ba-, bu-, Brit 'bAfit 


bulletproof v 'bulit^pruf |-ed -t 


buffet 'restaurant' bu'fe, 'bufe {Fr hy^iz) 


bulletproof adj 'bulit'pruf ('bullet-proof 'hat) 


bufflehead 'bAfl^hed 


bullfight 'bul;fait 


buffo 'bufo {It 'buffo) 


bullfinch, B- 'buljfintj |-es -iz 


Buffon 'bAfan (Fr by'fo) 


bullfrog 'buljfrag, -ifrag, -ifrog; S -^frag. 


buffoon bA'fun |-ed -d |-eiy -an, -ri 


-,frag, -jfrog 


Bufo 'bjufo, 'biu- 


bullhead 'bul^hed 


Buford 'bjufa^d, 'biu-; ES -fad 


buUheaded 'bul'hedid ('bulljheaded 'obsti- 


Bug riv. bug, bAg 


nacy) 


bug bAg bugged bAgd 


bullion 'buljan 


bugaboo 'bAgajbu 


BuUitt 'buht 


bugbane 'bAg^ben 


Bulloch 'bulak 


bugbear 'bAg;ber, -jbaer; E -jbEa(r, ES 


bullock, B- 'bulak 


-jbaea(r 


BuUokar 'bula^kar; ES -jka:(r 


buggy 'bAgi |-gies -z 


Bull Run 'bul'rAn 


bugle 'bjugl, 'biu- id -d |-ling -glio. -gbo 


bull's-eye 'bulz^ai 


bugloss 'bjuglas, 'biu-, -gins, -gbs |-es -iz 


bully 'bull Ibullied 'buhd 


Buhl US bjul, biul, bul 


bulrush 'buljrAj |-es -iz 


Buhl Fr cabinetmaker bul 


bulwark 'bulwark; ES -wak; |-ed -t 


buhl bul |-work -^wyk; ES -jwsk, -jwyk 


Bulwer 'bulwa^; ES 'bulwair 


buhrstone 'by^ston; ES 'bs-, 'by- 


Bulwer-Lytton 'bulwa^'litn; ES 'bulwa- 


Buick 'bjuik, 'biuik 


bum bAm i bummed bAind 


build bild 1 built bilt or arch, builded -id 


bumblebee 'bAmbl,bi 


built-in 'bilt'in ('built-jin 'cupboard) 


bumblepuppy 'bAmbl^pApi 


Bukarest, Bukha- jbjukaVest, ^biu-, jbu 


bumboat 'bAm,bot 


OCC/+ 'Buka^rest 


bump bAmp | bumped bAmpt |-er -a-; ES -a(r 


Bukhara bu'kara 


bumpkin 'bAmpkin 


Bukovina jbuka'vina 


bumptious 'bAmpJas 


bulb bAlb i bulbed bAlbd 


bun bAn 


bulbose 'bAlbos [bulbous 'bAlbas 


bunch bAotJ [bunches 'bAnt/iz |-ed -t 


bulbul 'bulbul 


bunco 'bAgko |-ed -d 


Buliinch 'buljfintj |-'s -iz 


buncombe, B- 'bAokam 


Bulgar 'bAlga^, 'bul-, -gar; ES -ga(r, -ga:(r 


bund bAnd | bunded 'bAndid 


Bulgaria bAl'geria, bul-, -'ger- |-n -n 


Bund bund {Ger bunt) 


bulge bAlds; S+bulds; |-s -iz |-d -d 


bundle 'bAndl |-d -d |-ling 'bAndlig, -dlig 


bulk bAlk, esp. S bulk |-ed -t |-y -i 


bung bAg [bunged bAgd 


bulkhead 'bAlk.hed, esp. S 'bulk- 


bungalow 'bAggaJo 


buU,B-buI|bulledbuld 


Bungay 'bAggi 


bulla 'bula, 'bAla |-lae -i 


bunghole 'bAgjhoI 


buUace 'buhs, -as |-s -iz 


bungle 'bAggl |-d -d [-hng 'bAgglig, -glig 


BuUcalf 'bul,k£ef ; E -,kaf, -,kaf, -,k«f 


bunion 'bAujan, -jin 


bulldog 'buljdag, -jdog 


bunk bAgk [bunked bAgkt 



[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fa^Sa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail jhow hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'id;a [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipni 



bunko 



62 



Burroughs 



bunko 'bAgko |-ed -d 

bunkum 'bAgkam 

bunny 'bAni 

Bunsen 'bAnsn (Ger 'bunzan) 

bunt bAnt | bunted 'bAntid | bunting 'bAntig 

buntline 'bAnthn, -lain 

Bunyan 'bAnjan, -jin 

Buonaparte 'bonajport; ES -jpa:t, E+-jpa:t; 

(Fr bqana'part, bwan-) 
buoy bai, 'bu-i |-ed -d 
buoyancy 'baiansi, 'bujan- |-ant -ant 
buprestid bja'prestid, biu- 
bur by; ES bsCr, by; |-red -d 
Burbage 'bybids; ES 'bs-, 'by-; l-'s -iz 
Burbank, b- 'bybaegk; ES 'bs-, 'by-; |-ed -t 
burberry 'by, ben, -ban; ES 'bs-, 'by- 
burble 'bybl; ES 'bsbl. 'bybl; |-d -d |-ling 

-bbo, -bjig 
burbot 'bybat; ES 'bsbat, 'bybat 
burden 'bydn; ES 'bsdn, 'bydn; |-ed -d 

]-ing -dnig, -dnig |-some -sam 
Burdett(e) ba^'det; ES ba- 
Burdett-Couts 'bydet'kuts, ba^'det-; ES 'bs-, 

'by-, ba- |-'s -iz 
burdock 'by^dak; ES 'bs-, 'by-, -^dok 
bureau 'bjuro, -ra, 'biu- 
bureaucracy bju'rakrasi, biu-; ES+-'rDk- 
bureaucrat 'bjura,kraet, 'biu- 
burette, -ret bju'ret, biu- 
burg byg; ES bag, byg; |-age -ids 
burgeon bydsan; ES 'bsds-, 'byds-; |-ed -d 
Burger Ger 'byrgar 
burgess, B- 'bydsis; ES 'bsds-, 'byds-; 

|-es -iz 
Burgettstown 'bydsitSjtaun; ES 'bsds-, 

'byd3- 
burgh byg; ES bsg, byg; {Sc 'bAro, -a) 
Burgh, de di'byg; ES di'bsg, di'byg 
burgher, B- 'byga*; ES 'bsgafr, 'byga(r 
Burghley, -leigh 'byli; ES 'bsh, 'byli 
burglar 'bygla^; ES 'b3gla(r, 'bygla(r; |-y -i 
burglarize 'bygla^raiz; ES 'bsg-, 'byg-; |-s 

-IZ |-d -d 
burgle 'bygj; ES 'bsgl, 'bygl; [-d -d |-ling 

-ghg, -ghg 
burgomaster 'by ga ,maest3^ ; ES 'b3ga,m«sta (r, 

'byga-, E+-jmas-, -,mas- 
burgonet 'byga^ntt; ES 'bsg-, 'byg- 
burgoo, -gout 'bygu, by'gu; ES -s-, -y- 



BurgojTie ba^'gain; ES ba'gain 

burgrave 'bygrev; ES 'bs-, 'by- 

Burgundian ba^'gAndian; ES ba'gAn- 

Burgundy 'bygandi; ES 'bsgan-, 'bygan- 

burial 'berial 

burin 'bjurin, 'biu- 

burke, B- byk; ES bsk, byk; |-d -t 

burl byl; ES bsl, byl; |-ed -d 

burlap 'bylaep; ES 'bs-, 'by-; |-ped -t 

Burleson 'bylisn; ES 'bsl-, 'byl- 

burlesque ba^'ksk, by'ksk; ES ba'ksk, bs- 

by-; |-d -t ('bur,lesque 'play) 
Burley, b- 'byli; ES 'bsh, 'byk 
Burlingame 'bylig,gem, -igam; ES 'bsl-, 

'byl-; The 1st is a sp. pron. Same 'ii'ord as 

Burlingham. 
Burlingham 'bylig,haem, -igam; ES 'bs-, 

'by- 
Burlington 'bybgtan; ES 'bshg-, 'bybg- 
burly 'byli; ES 'bsh, 'byli 
Burma 'byma; ES 'bsma, 'byma; |-n -n 
Burmese by'miz; ES bs'miz, by'miz 
burn byn; ES bsn, byn; [-ed -d or -t -t 
Burne-Jones 'byn'dsonz; ES 'bsn-, 'byn-; 

|-'S -IZ 

Burnell 'bynj; ES 'bsnl, 'bynj 
burner 'byna^; ES 'bsna(r, 'byna(r 
burnet B- 'bynit; ES 'bsnit, 'bynit 
Burnett by 'net, 'bynit; ES bs-, by-, 'bs-, 

'by- 
Burney 'byni; ES 'bsni, 'byni 
Burnham 'bynam; ES 'bsnam, 'bynam 
burnish 'byni/; ES 'bs-, 'by-; |-es -iz |-ed -t 
burnoose, -nous ba^'nus, 'bynus; ES ba-, 

'bs-, 'by-; |-(e)s -iz |-(e)d -t 
Burns bynz; ES bsnz, b^nz; |-'s- iz |-ian -lan 
burnside, B- 'byn^said; ES 'bsn-, 'byn-; 

|-s -z 
burnt bynt; ES bsnt^bynt 
Burntisland 'bynt'ailand ; ES 'bsnt-, 'bynt-; 

Sc+ 'br Ant- 
burr, B- by; ES b3(r, by; |-ed -d 
Burrillville 'byal^vil, 'byl-; ES 'bsr-, 'bAr-, 

'by-, 'bsl-, 'by|- 
Burritt 'byit; ES 'bsnt, 'bAnt, 'byit 
burro 'byo, 'buro, -a; ES 'bsr-, 'bAr-, 'by-, 

'bur- 
Burroughs 'byoz, -az; ES 'bsr-, 'bAt-, 'by-; 



Key: See in full §§3-A7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |aiigry 'feg-gn 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a [far far |watch watj, wotj" (§12) [jaw dsa jgorge gards |go go 



burrow 



63 



buy 



burrow 'byo, -a; ES 'bar-, 'bAr-, 'bs'-; |-ed -d 
burrowing 'bs'awig; ES 'bsrawig, 'bAr-, 'by- 
Burrows 'byoz, -az; ES 'bar-, 'bAr-, 'by-; 

|-'s -iz 
burrstone 'by^ston; ES 'ba-, 'by- 
bursa 'bysa; ES 'basa, 'bysa; \-s -z |-sae -si 
bursar 'bysa^; ES 'b3S3(r, 'bysaCr; |-y -i 
burse bys; ES bas, bys; |-s -iz 
burst byst; ES bsst, byst 
burstone 'by^ston; ES 'bs-, 'by- 
burthen 'bytJan; ES 'bsSan, 'bySan; |-ed -d 
Burton 'bytn; ES 'bstn, 'bytn 
bury 'ben | buried 'bend 
Bury places 'ben, surname 'ben, 'bjuri, 'biu- 
burying ground 'benig^graund 
bus bAS Ibusses, buses 'bAsiz 
busby, B- 'bAzbi 
Busch buf |-'s -IZ 

bush buj" Ibushes 'bufiz [bushed buft 
bushel 'bufal |-ed -d [-ing 'bujalig, 'bujlig 
bushing 'bu/ig 
bushman, B-, -men 'bufman 
Bushnell 'bufnal 

bushranger 'buf^rendsa'; ES -jrend3a(r 
bushwhack 'bujjhwaek |-ed -t [-er -a^; ES -a(r 
bushy, B- 'bufi 
busily 'bizli, -zih 
business '■occupation' 'biznis |-es -iz 
business, busy- ''activity^ 'bizinis 
businesslike 'biznis^aik 
businessman 'biznis,maen |-men -jmen 
Busiris bju'sains, biu- |-'s -iz 
busk bAsk Ibusked bAskt 
buskin 'bAskin |-ed -d 
busman, -men 'bAsman 
Busra, -rah 'bAsra=vBasra 
buss bAS Ibusses 'bAsiz |bussedbAst 
bust M, V bAst I busted 'bAstid 
bustard 'bAsta'd; ES 'bAstad 
busticate 'bAsta^ket |-d -id 
bustle 'bAsl |-d -d |-ling 'bAslig, 'bAslig 
busy 'bizi I busied 'bizid 
busybody 'bizi^badi; ES-t- -jbodi 
busyness 'bizinis 

but unstressed bat, stressed or hesit. 'bAt, }i\t 
but-and-ben 'bAtn'ben 
butane 'bjuten, 'biu-, bju'ten, biu- 
butcher 'but/a^; ES 'but/aCr; |-ed -d |-ing 

'but/ang, 'butjrig |-y -i, -tjri 



butcherbird 'butJV^byd; ES 'but/a jbad, 

'but/a jbyd 
butcher-knife 'but/a' ^naif; ES 'but/a-; j-ives 

-aivz 
Bute bjut, biut 

butler, B- 'bAtla^; ES 'bAtla(r; |-y -i 
butt, B- bAt I butted 'bAtid 
butte, B- bjut, biut 
butter 'bAta^; ES 'bAta(r; |-ed -d 
butter-and-eggs 'bAta^n'egz, 'bAtarand'egz; 

ES 'bAtan-, 'bAtarand- 
buttercup 'bAta^jkAp; ES 'bAta- 
butterfat 'bAta^jfaet; ES 'bAta- 
butterfingers 'bAta^jfigga^z; ES 'bAta^figgaz 
butterfly 'bAta'jflai; ES 'bAta-; i -flies -jflaiz 

l-flied -;flaid 
Butterick 'bAtarik, 'bAtnk 
butterine 'bAtajrin, -rin 
butterman 'bAta'jinaen, -man; ES 'bAta-; 

I -men -jinen, -man 
Buttermere 'bAta^jnur; ES 'bAta^miaCr, S-i- 

-jmea(r 
buttermilk 'bAta^^milk; ES 'bAta- 
butternut 'bAta^nat, -^nAt; ES 'bAta- 
butterscotch 'bAta^'skat/; ES 'bAta'skatJ, 

-'skntj; |-es -iz ('butter-scotch 'flavor) 
Butterwick 'bAtarik, 'bAta^wik; ES 'bAtarik, 

'bAtawik 
Butterworth 'bAta^wa'O, -jWyO; ES 'bAtawaG, 

-iW36, 'bAtajWyO 
buttery Hike butter' 'bAtan 
buttery 'pantry' 'bAtri, 'bAtan 
buttle 'bAtl |-d -d |-ling 'bAtlig, 'bAtlig 
buttock 'bAtak |buttocked 'bAtakt 
button, B- 'bAtn |-ed -d |-ing 'bAtnig, -tnig 
buttonhole 'bAtn^hol |-d -d 
buttonhook 'bAtn^huk 
buttonwood 'bAtn^wud 
buttress 'bAtris j-es -iz |-ed -t 
Butts bAts |-'s -iz 

butts and bounds 'bAtsn'baundz, -nz 
buttstock 'bAtjStak, -^stok 
butyl 'bjutil, 'biu- 
butylene 'bjutjjin, 'biu- 
butyric bju'tink, biu- |-ally -li, -ikli 
butyrin 'bjutann, 'biu- 
buxom 'bAksam 
Buxton 'bAkstan 
buy bai | bought bat 



|full ful |tooth tue [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kred| [keep 'em 'kipm 



buzz 



64 



Cadillac 



buzz bAz [buzzes 'Baziz | buzzed bAzd 

buzzard 'bAza^d; ES 'bAzad 

Buzzard's Bay 'bAza^dz'be; ES 'bAzadz- 

by stressed 'bai, jbai; zm^/r. bai, ba 

by-and-by 'baian'bai, 'baim'bai 

bye bai 

bye-bye n 'baijbai 

bye-bye intj 'bai 'bai, 'baijbai 

byelaw 'baijb 

by-form 'bai^farm; ES -jfaam 

bygone 'bai^gDn, -jgon, viuch lessfreq. -/gan 

bylaw 'baijb 

byname 'bai,nein |-d -d 

Bynner 'bina^; ES 'bin3(r 

by-pass 'bai^paes; E+-jpas, -^pas; |-es -iz 

l-ed -t 
bypast 'bai/paest; E+-jpast, -jpast 
bypath 'bai^paeS; E-H-,pa6, -ipaO; |-ths -Sz 
byplay 'baijple 

by-product 'baijpradakt, -dAkt; ES+-jprDd- 
Byrd b^d; ES bad, b^d 



byre bair; ES bai3(r 

Byrne byn; ES bsn, byn 

bymie 'byni; ES 'bsni, 'byni 

byroad 'bai^rod 

Byrom 'bairam 

Byron 'bairan |-esque jbair3n'8sk 

Byronian bai'ronian 

Byronic bai'ranik; ES+-'rDn-; |-ally -Ii, 

-ikk 
Byronism 'bairanjizam 
byssal 'bisl 
Bysshe bij |-'s -iz 

byssus 'bis3s |byssuses 'bisasiz [-ssi -sai 
bystander 'bai^staenda^; ES -jstaendacr 
bystreet 'bai^strit 
b3rway 'baijwe 

byword 'baijwyd; ES -,w3d, -jwyd 
Byzantian bi'zaenjan, -'zaentian 
Byzantine bi'zaentin, 'bizn^tain, -jtin 
Byzantinism bi'zaentin ^izam 
Byzantium bi'zaenjiam, -'zxntism 



C, c letter si \pl C's, Cs, poss C's siz 


cachination jkfeka'nefan 


cab kaeb 


cachou ka'/u, kae'/u {Fr ka'/u) 


cabal ka'bael [caballed ka'baeld 


cacique ka'sik 


cabala, cabbala 'kaebala 


cackle 'kaekl J-d -d [-ling 'kaekhg, -klig 


cabalistic ^kaeba'kstik 


cacodemon ^kaeka'diman 


cabaret 'kaebajrtt.'ca/e' jkaeba're {Fr kaba'r£) 


cacoethes jkaeko'iOiz, -Gis 


cabbage 'kaebids |-s -iz |-d -d {Shak. cabidge) 


cacogenics jkaeka'dseniks 


Cabell 'kjEbl 


cacophonic jkaeka'fanik; ES-h-'fomk 


cabin 'kaebin [cabined 'kaebind 


cacophonous kae'kafanas, ka-; ES+-'kDf- 


cabinet 'kaebanit -maker -^mek^•, ES -3(r 


cacophony kae'kafani, ka-; ES-h-'kof- 


cabinetwork 'kaebanit^wyk; ES -^wsk, -jwyk 


cactus 'kasktas j-es -iz [cacti 'kaektai 


cable 'kebl |-d -d -ling 'keblig, 'kebhg 


cad kaed 


cablegram 'kebj^graem 


cadaver ka'daeva^, ka'deva^; ES -va(r 


cabman 'kaebman [cabmen 'kaebmon, -^men 


cadaverous ka'daevaras, ka'daevras 


cabob ka'bab; ESn-ka'bnb 


caddie 'kaedi 


caboose ka'bus [cabooses ka'busiz 


caddis, -ice 'kaedis |-(e)s -iz |-(e)d -t 


Cabot 'kaebat 


caddy 'ksdi 


cabriolet jkaebria'le, jkaebria'kt {Fr kabrio'k) 


Cade ked 


cacao ka'keo, ka'kao 


cadence 'kedns |-s -iz |-cy -i [-dent -dnt 


cache ka;J caches 'ksefiz [cached kaeft 


cadenza ka'denza {It ka'dentsa) 


cachet kae'/e, 'kaefe {Fr ka'/e) 


cadet ka'det 


cachexia ka'keksia [cachexy ka'keksi 


cadge kiEd3 [cadges 'kaedsiz [cadged kaedsd 


cachinate 'kaeka^net [-nated -^netid 


Cadillac 'kaedl/aek 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |3^et ]zt [sang saeg [angry 'ag-gri 
[bath baeO; E bad (§10) jah a [far far jwatch watj, wotj (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



Cadiz 



65 



Callahan 



Cadiz Spain 'kediz, PI 'kadis, 'kaediz. 


calcareous kael'kenas, -'kaer-, -'ker- 


'kediz |-'s -iziz, -isiz {Sp 'katJiO) 


Calchas 'kaelkas |Calchas's 'kaelkasiz 


Cadman 'kaedman 


calcify 'kaelsa^fai |calcified 'kaelsa;faid 


cadmium 'kfedmism 


calcimine 'kaelsajmain, -nun |-d -d 


Cadmus 'kaedmas |Cadmus's 'kaedmasiz 


calcine 'kaelsain, -sm |-d -d 


Cadnam 'kaednam — cj Puttenham 


calcite 'kaelsait |calcitic kael'sitik 


Cadogan ka'dAgan 


calcium 'kaelsiam 


cadre 'kada^; ES 'kadaCr; mz7.+'kaedn 


calculable 'k^elkjalab) |-bly -bh 


caduceus ka'djusias, -'diu-, -'du- |-cei -si^ai 


calculate 'kaelkjajet |-lated -Jetid 


Cadwal 'kaedwal, -wdI, -wdI 


calculation jkaelkja'le/an 


Cadwallader kaed'wabda', -Vol-, -Vol-; ES 


calculator 'kaelkjajleta'; ES -Jeta(r 


-d3(r 


calculus 'kfelkjalas j-es -iz |-li -Jai 


caecum 'sikam Jcaeca 'sika 


Calcutta kael'kAtd 


Caedmon 'kaedman |-ian kaed'monian |-ic 


Calderon 'kaldaran {Sp ^kaldeVan) , 


kaed'manik; ES+-'mDnik 


caldron 'kaldran |-ed -d 


Caen 'kean, 'kan {Fr ka) 


Caldwell 'kaldwtl, 'kaldwal, Yks loc. 'kadwel 


Caesar 'siza^; ES 'siz3(r 


Caleb 'kelab, 'kehb 


Caesarea jsesa'ria, jsez- |-rean -Vbn 


Caledonia jkaela'donia, -'donja |-n -n 


Caesarean, -ian siirg. si'zerian, -'zaer-, -'zer- 


calendar 'kaelanda-, 'kaelin-; ES -da(r; [-ed -d 


caesium 'siziam 


calender 'kaelanda^, 'kaelin-; ES -da(r; ]-ed -d 


caesura si'sura, si'zjura, -'ziura |-1 -1 


calends 'kaelandz, 'kaelindz, -nz 


cafe ka'fe, kae'fe 


calendula ka'kndsala, -dsula 


cafe-au-lait ka'fe-o'Ie, jkaefio'le (/^/- kafeo'k) 


calenture 'kaelan^t/u*, -tja^; ES -jtJuaCr, 


cafeteria ^kaefa'tiria, -ta'ria 


-t/a(r 


caffeine, -in 'kafiin, -jin, 'kaefin 


Calexico ka'kksijko 


cage keds | cages 'kedsiz | caged kedsd 


calf kaef ; E kaf, kaf, kaef ; |-'s -s, -vz |-lves -vz 


cahoot ka 'hut |-s -s 


calf's-foot 'kaevzjfut; E 'kavz-, 'kavz-, 'kaevz-; 


Caiaphas 'keaf as, 'kai- [ Caiaphas's -f asiz 


— 'kaevz- is not the plural, but the older 


Cain ken 


possessive singular. 


cairn kern, kaern; E kean, ES kaean 


calfskin 'kaef^skin; E 'kaf-, 'kaf-, 'kaef- 


Cairo Egypt 'kairo, US 'kero, 'kero 


Calgary 'kaelgari 


caisson 'kesn 


Calhoun ka'hun, kiel'bun 


Caithness 'keOnes, keG'nes |-'s -iz 


Caliban 'kaelajbaen 


caitiff 'ketif | caitiffs 'ketifs 


caliber, -bre 'kaelaba'; ES 'kaelabaCr; |-(e)d -d 


Caius 'keas, Cambridge college kiz 


cahbrate 'kaelajbret |-brated -jbretid 


cajole ka'dsol | cajoled ka'dsold |-ry -an 


calibration jkaela'brefan 


Cajun, -jan, -jen 'kedsan — see Acadian 


calico 'kaela^ko 


cake kek leaked kekt |caky 'keki 


Cahcut 'kiela^kAt, 'kaelakat 


calabash 'kasla^bas/ 1 calabashes 'kaelajbaefiz 


California jkaela'farnja, esp. NEngd -nia; ES 


calaboose 'kaebjbus, ^kaela'bus |-s -iz 


-'faan- 


Calabria ka'lebria |-brian -brian 


Caligula ka'ligjula 


Calais US 'kaelis ; France 'kaelis, 'kaele {mod. 


cahper 'kaelapa^; ES 'kalapa(r; |-ed -d 


Fr ka'k)-^-^ Shaks. 'Callis, 'Callice. "^ 


caliph 'kehf, 'kaelif |-ate 'kaela^'fet, -fit 


town which once sent members to the English 


caUsthenics jkaelas'Oeniks 


Parliament has a right to an English name." 


caUx 'keliks |calices 'kaehjsiz 


— John Sargeaunt. See §122. 


calk kak | calked kakt 


calamitous ka'laematas |calamity ka'laemati 


call kal Icalled kald j-er -a'; ES -a(r 


calash ka'laej |calashes ka'laefiz |-ed -t 


calla 'kaela 


Calaveras jkaelaVtras, -'veras |-'s -iz 


Callahan 'kaelajhaen 



|full ful |tooth tue Ifurther 'fytSa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
|using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dij [vision 'visan |Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Callao 



66 



canal 



Callao Peru ka'jao, VS 'kaelijO {Am Sp 

ka'jao) 
Callaway 'kaela^we 
Calles 'kajes {Am Sp 'kajes) 
calligrapher ka'Iigrafa^; ES -faCr; |-pliy -h 
calligraphic ^kaela'graefik 
calling 'kalig 

Calliope ka'IaiSjpi, -pi |Kallyope 'kaeli/op 
calliper 'kaebpa^; ES 'kaelapafr; |-ed -d 
callisthenics jkaelas'GEniks 
CalUsto ka'listo 

callosity ka'lasati, kae-; ES+-'Ids- 
callous 'kaelas |-es -iz |-ed -t 
callow 'kaelo, 'kaela |-er 'kaebwa^; ES -W3(r; 

|-est 'kaelawist 
callus 'kaelas |-es -iz |-li -lai |-ed -t 
calm kam; E kam, kam; |-ed -d 
calomel 'kaelamj, 'kaelajiiiEl 
caloric ka'brik, ka'Iarik, -'lor- 
calorie, -y 'kaelari |-rific ^kaelaVifik 
calorimeter jkaeb'rimata'; ES -t3(r 
Calphurnia kael'fynia, -nja; ES -'fsn-, -'fyn- 
Calpumia kael'pynia, -nja; ES -'psn-, -'pyn- 
calumet, C- 'kaelju^mEt, -mit, -mat, ^kaelju- 

'met 
calumniate ka'lAmnijet |-d -id 
calumniation ka/lAmm'e/an 
calumniatory ka'lAmniSjtori, -jtori; S -itori 
calumny 'kaebmni 
Calvary 'kaelvari 

calve kiev; E kav, kav, kaev; |-d -d 
calves-foot 'kaevz^fut; E 'kavz-, 'kavz-, 

'kaevz- 
Calvin 'kaelvin |-ism -^izam |-ist -ist 
Calvinistic jkaelva'nistik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 
calx kaelks |calxes 'kaelksiz | calces 'kaelsiz 
Calydon 'kaela^dan; ES+-jdDn 
Calydonian jkaela'donian, -'donjan 
Calypso ka'lipso 

calyx 'keliks, 'kael- |-es -iz [calyces 'kaelajsiz 
cam kaem | cammed kaemd 
camaraderie jkama'radari, -^ri {Fr kamara- 

'dri) 
camarilla jkaema'rila {Sp kama'riXa) 
camber 'kaemba^; ES 'kaembaCr; |-ed -d 
cambium 'kaembiam, 'kaembjam 
Cambodia kaem'bodia, kaem'bodja 
Cambria 'kaembria [Cambrian 'kaembrian 
cambric 'kembrik 



Cambridge 'kembrids |-'s -iz [-shire -jjir, -/a^; 

ES -Ji3(r, -/3(r 
Cambs short for Cambridgeshire kaemz, 

ksembz 
Cambyses k«m'baisiz [-ses' -siz 
Camden 'kaemdan 
came past of come kem 
camel 'kaeml 

camellia ka'meba, -'milia, -Ija 
camelopard ka'mela/pard; ES -jpa:d, E+ 

-;pa:d 
Camelot 'kaemajat; ES+-jDt 
Camembert 'ktemam^ber, -ybaer; E -jbeafr, 

ES -jbaeaCr; {Fr kama'bEir) 
cameo 'kaemijO, 'kasmjo |-ed -d 
camera 'kaemara |-s -z |-rae -^ri 
Cameron 'kaemaran, 'k«mr3n 
Cameroon jkaema'run [-roons -'runz 
Camilla ka'mila 
Camille ka'mil {Fr ka'iiii:j) 
Camillo ka'milo 
camisole 'kaemajSol 

Camoens 'kaemo,£nz [Camoens's 'kaemo^enziz 
camomile 'kaem3;mail 
camouflage 'kaema^flas, 'kaemu- [-s -iz [-d -d 

{Fr kamu'flars) 
camp kaemp [camped kaempt 
Campagna kam'panja, kaem- {It kam'pajijia) 
campaign kaem'pen [campaigned ksm'pend 
Campania ka;m'peni3 
campanile jkaempa'nili |-s -z [-li -II 
Campaspe kaem'paespi 
Campbell 'kaeml, 'kaembl |-ite -^ait 
Campeius kaem'pias [-'s -iz 
campfire 'kaemp^fair; ES -;faia(r 
camphene 'kajmfin, kaem 'fin 
camphor 'kaemfa^, 'kaempfa^; ES -f3(r 
campstool 'kaemp^stul 
Campton 'k^emptan 
campus 'kaempas [campuses 'kaempasiz 
can n, v kaen [canned kaend 
can aux. v stressed 'kten, ^kaen; unsfr. kan, kn, 

kg (jaikg'go) 
Cana 'kena 

Canaan 'kenan [Canaanite 'ken3n,ait 
Canada 'kaenada [-dian ka'nedian 
canaille ks'nel {Fr ka'na:j) 
Canajoharie jkaenadso'haeri 
canal ka'nael [-nailed, -naled -'naeld 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang saeg [angry 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeO; E bad (§10) |ah a [far far [watch watj, wotj (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



canalization 



67 



cantor 



canalization kajnaela'zefan, ^kasnla-, -ai'z- 


cannoneer ^kaenan'ir; ES ^kaenan'iaCr, S+ 


canalize ka'naelaiz, 'kaenl^aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


-'£3(r 


Canal Zone ka'naelizon 


cannot formal colloq. ^kasnat, kae'nat, ka'nat 


Canandaigua ^kaenan'degwa 


'kaenat. The usual familiar form is can't. 


canape 'kaenapi {Fr kana'pe) 


Emph. ka'nat, kse^nat, 'kaen^nat; ES+-Dt 


canard ka'nard; ES ka'nard; {Fr kaW:r) 


canny 'kaem 


canary, C- ka'neri, ka'nen 


canoe ka'nu 


Canberra 'kasnbara 


canon 'kaenan j-ed -d 


cancel 'kaensl |-ed -d |-ing -slig, -sbg 


caiion 'kaenjan |-ed -d 


cancellation jkaensl'e/an 


Canon City 'kaenjan'siti 


cancellous 'kaensalas 


canoness 'kaenanis |-es -iz 


cancer, C- 'kaensa^; ES ^kaens3(r; |Cancri 


canonic ka'namk; ES+-'nDn-; |-al -1 [-ally -}i. 


'kaeokrai 


-ikb 


cancerous 'kaensaras, ^kaensras 


canonicity jkaenan'isati 


candelabrum jkaendl'ebram |-s -z |-bra -bra 


canonization jkaenana'ze/an, -ai'z- 


candent 'kaendant 


canonize 'kaenan^aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


candescent kaen'desnt |-scence -sns 


Canonsburg 'kaenanz^byg ; ES -^bag, -jbyg 


candid 'kaendid, ^kaendad 


Canopic ka'nopik 


Candida 'kaendida 


Canopus ka'nopas |-'s -iz |Canopi ka'nopai 


candidate 'kaenda^det, -dit |-dacy -dasi 


canopy 'kaenapi [canopied 'kaenapid 


Candide kan'did, kaen- {Fr ka'did) 


Canossa ka'nasa, ka'nosa, ka'nasa {It 


Candish 'kaendij |-'s -iz = Cavendish 


ka'nassa) 


candle kaendl |-d -d |-ling 'kaendlig, -dlig 


canst stressed ^kaenst, jkaenst; unstr. kanst 


candlelight 'kaendljait, 'kaendl^art 


cant kaent [canted 'kaentid 


Candlemas 'kaendlmas |-es -iz 


can't kaent; E kant, kant, kaent 


candlestick 'kaendl^stik 


Cantabrigian jkaenta'bridsian 


candor 'kaenda^; ES 'kasndaCr 


cantaloupe, -lope 'kaentI,op, mainly Brit -^up 


candy 'kaendi [candied 'kaendid 


cantankerous kaen'taegkaras, -kras 


candytuft 'kaendi^tAft 


cantata kaen'tata, kan-, -'taeta 


cane ken leaned kend 


canteen kaen'tin 


canescent ka'nesnt |canescence ka'nesns 


canter 'kaenta^; ES 'kaenta(r; |-ed -d [-ing 


Canidius ka'nidias |-'s -iz 


'kaentarig, 'kaentrig 


canine 'kenain, ka^nam 


Canterbury 'kaenta^^beri, 'kaenta-r ES 


canister 'kaenista^; ES 'kaenist3(r 


'kaenta-; — In the second pron. ^ is lost by 


canker 'kaegka^; ES 'kaegka(r; |-ed -d |-ing 


dissimilation {§121). 


'kaegkarig, -krig 


canticle 'kaentikl 


cankerous 'kaegkaras, 'kaegkras 


cantilever 'kaentljeva^, 'kaentljiva' ; ES -va(r 


cankerworm 'kaegka'jwym; ES 'kaegka^wsm. 


cantle 'kaenti |-d -d 


-kajwym 


canto 'kaento 


canna 'kaina 


canton n 'kaentan, -tan, kaen'tan; ES+-Dn 


Cannae 'kaeni {mod. It Canne 'kanne) 


canton v 'divide' 'kaentan, k^en^tan; ES+-Dn; 


cannel 'kasnl 


'quarter troops' kaen'tan, -'ton, -'tun; ES+ 


canner 'kaena^; ES 'kaen3(r; |-y 'kaenari 


-'tnn; [-ed -d 


Cannes kaen, kaenz {Fr kan) |-'s kaenz, 'kaenziz 


Canton China kaen'tan; ES+-'tDn; US 'ksen- 


cannibal 'kaenabi |cannibalism 'kaenabljzam 


tan, 'kaentn 


cannikin 'kaenskin 


Cantonese jkaentan'iz 


canning, C- 'kaemg 


cantonment kaen'tanmant, -'tun-, -'ton-; 


cannon, C- 'kaenan |-ed -d [-ry -n 


ES+ -'ton- 


cannonade ^kaenan'ed |-d -id 


cantor 'kaentar, -ta^; ES 'kaentaaCr, -ta(r 



|full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fySa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipip 



Canuck 



68 



carbineer 



Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 
Words below that have ae before r (carry 'kaeri) are often pronounced in N with e ('kEri, §94) 



Canuck ka'nAk 

Canute ka'nut, ka'niut, ks'njut 

canvas 'kaenvas | canvases 'kaenvasiz |-ed -t 

canvasback 'kaenvas^baek 

canva,ss 'kaenvas |-es -iz |-ed -t 

canyon, C- 'kaenjan |canyoned 'kaenjand 

caoutchouc 'kut/uk, kau'tjuk 

cap kasp | capped kaept 

capability jkepa'bilati 

capable 'kepabj | capably 'kepabli 

capacious ka'pe/as 

capacitance ka'paesatans 

capacitate ka'paesa^tet |-tated -^tetid [-ity -ati 

cap and gown 'kaepan'gaun, 'kaepm'gaun 

cap-a-pie ^kaepa'pi 

caparison ka'paerasn |-ed -d 

cape kep 

cape icrit 'kepi 

Cape Breton 'kep'britn, -'bretn, loc. ka'britn 

Capel. -11 'kaepl, 'kepi 

Capella ka'pela 

Capen 'kepan 

Cape of Good Hope 'kepav'gudjhop 

caper 'kepa^; ES 'kep3(r; |-ed -d 

capercaillie jkaepa^'kelji; ES jkaepa-; |-cailzie 

-'kelji, -'kelzi 
Capernaum ka'pyniam; ES -'psn-, -'pyn- 
Capet 'kepit, 'kaepit {Fr ka'pe) 
Capetian ka'pijan 

Cape Town, Capetown 'kep'taun, -^taun 
Caphis 'kef IS |-'s -iz 
capias 'kepias |-es -iz 
capillary 'kaepljEn; Brit ka'pilari; [-aritj^ 

jkaepj'aerati 
capital 'kajpatj |-ly -i |-ism -^izam |-ist -ist 
capitalization jksepatla'zejan, -ai'z- 
capitalize 'ka^patj^aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
capitate 'kaepajtet |-d -id |-tion jkaepa'te/an 
Capitol, c- 'kaepatl |-ine -jam 
capitular ka'pit/al*; ES -l3(r; |-lary -jlcri 
capitulate ka'pit/ajet |-lated -jletid 
capitulation kajpitja'le/an 
capon 'kepan, 'kepan; ES+-pDn 
capote ka'pot 

Cappadocia jk^epa'dofia, -/a |-n -n 
capper, C- 'kaepa^; ES 'kajpad 
Capri 'kapri 



capriccio ka'prit/ijO {It ka'pritt/o) 

capriccioso kajprit/i'Dso {It kaprit'tJo:so) 

caprice ka'pris |caprjces ka'prisiz 

capricious ka'pri/as, ofteji -'pri/-, c/ caprice 

Capricorn 'kaeprijkarn; ES 'kaiprijkaan 

Capron 'kepa^n; ES 'kepan; c/ apron 

capsize kaep'saiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

capstan 'kaepstan 

capsular 'kaepsala^, -sjula^; ES -la(r 

capsule 'kaepsj, 'k«psjul |-d -d 

captain 'kaeptin, 'kaeptan, 'k«ptn |-cy -si 

caption 'kaep/an |-ed -d |-tious -/as 

captivate 'kaepta^vet [captivated 'kaeptajvetid 

captive 'kaeptiv |-d -d |-vity kaep'tivati 

captor 'kaepta^; ES 'kaepta(r 

capture 'kaept Jb^; ES 'kaept/a(r; |-d -d 

Capua 'kaepjua {It 'kapwa) 

Capuchin 'kaepjujt/in, -j/in 

Capucius ka'pju/as, -'piu- |-'s -iz 

Capulet 'kaepja,kt, 'kaepjaht 

capybara ^kaepi'bara 

car kar; ES ka:(r; [-red -d 

carabao jkara'bao 

carabineer, -nier jkaeraba'nir; ES -'nia(r, S-t- 

-'nea(r 
Caracas ka'rakas ]-'s -iz {Sp ka'rakas) 
carack 'kaerak 

caracole 'kaerajkol |-col -jkal, -jkol 
Caractacus ka'r«ktakas |-'s -iz 
Caradoc 'kaera^dak, ka'radak; ES+-jdDk; = 

Cradock; geol. ka'raedak 
carafe ka'raef ; E+-'raf, -'raf 
caramel 'kseraml |-ed -d — hi many places 

'karml is often heard. 
caramelize 'kaeramljaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
carapace 'kaerajpes |-s -iz |-d -t 
carat 'kaerat 

caravan 'kaerajvaen |-ed -d 
caravanserai jkaera'vaensajrai, -jte |-sary -ri 
caravel, -elle 'kaerajvel 
caraway 'kaerajwe 
carbazole 'korbajzol; ES 'ka:-; [-zol -jzal, 

-jZdI 
carbide 'karbaid, -bid; ES 'ka:b- 
carbine 'karbain; ES 'ka-.bain 
carbineer jkarba'nir; ES jka:ba'nia(r, S-i- 

-'n£a(r 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret Ij^et jet |sang saeo jangrA^ 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a jfar far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw d33 |gorge gards |go go 



carbinol 



69 



carl in 



Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (farm) 
Words below that have ae before r (carry 'kaen) are often pronounced in N with e ('ken, §94) 



carbinol 'karb3,nol; ES 'kaiba- 
carbohydrate jkarbo'haidret; ES jka:bo- 
carbolated 'karbajetid; ES 'kaiba- 
carbolic kar'balik; ES kaz'bahk, -'bnbk 
carbolize 'karba^laiz; ES 'kaiba-; |-s -iz 

l-d-d 
carbon, C- 'karban, -ban; ES 'ka:ban, -bon, 

-ban 
carbonaceous jkarba'nej'as; ES ^kaiba- 
carbonate n 'karbamt, -^net; ES 'kaiba- 
carbonate v 'karba^net; ES 'kaiba-; |-d -id 
Carbondale 'karban^del; ES 'kaiban- 
carbonic kar'banik; ES kar'banik, -'bonik 
carboniferous jkarba'nifaras; ES ^karba- 
carbonize 'karban^aiz; ES 'ka:ban-; |-s -iz 

l-d-d 
carbonyl 'karba^nil; ES 'ka:ba- 
carborundum, C- jkarba'rAndam; ES jka:ba- 
carboxyl kar'baksil; ES ka:'baksil, -'boksil 
carboy 'karbai; ES 'ka:bai; |-ed -d 
carbuncle 'karbAijkl; ES 'kaibAgkj; |-d -d 
carburate 'korbajret, -bja-; ES 'ka:b-; |-d -id 
carburation ykarba'refan, -bja-; ES jka:b- 
carburator 'karba^ret*, -bja-; ES 'ka:b-, -ta(r 
carburet 'karba^ret, -bja-; ES 'ka:b-; j-ed -id 
carburetion jkarbaVe/an, -bja-; ES jkarb- 
carburetor, -ttor 'karbajteta^, -bja^reta'; ES 

'ka:b-, -ta(r 
carburize 'karba^raiz, -bja-; ES 'ka:b-; 

|-s -IZ |-d -d 
carcajou 'karka^dsu, -;3u; ES 'ka:ka- 
carcass, -case 'karkas; ES 'karkas; |-es -iz 

l-ed -t 
Carchemish 'karkajnu/; ES 'ka:k- 
carcinogen kar'sinadsan, -djin, 'karsana-; 

ES ka-, 'ka:s- 
carcinoma jkarsa'noma; ES ^karsa-; |-s -z 

|-ta -ta 
card kard; ES ka:d; |-ed -id 
cardamom, -mum 'kardamam; ES 'ka:da-; 

1-mon -man 
cardboard 'kard^bord, -jbard; ES 'kard^boad, 

E+-jb3ad 
cardcase 'kard^kes; ES 'ka:d-; |-s -iz 
Cardenas 'kardi^nas; ES 'ka:d-; {Sp 'kartSe- 

jnas) 
cardiac 'kardi^aek; ES 'ka:di- 



cardiacal kar'daiakl; ES ka'daiakl 
Cardiff 'kardif ; ES 'ka:dif 
Cardigan, c- 'kardigan; ES 'ka:di-; 

-Jir, S^; ES -jXia(r, -/a(r 
cardinal, C- 'kardnal, -dnal; ES 'ka:d- 



-shire 

l-ly-i 
cardiograph 'kardiaigraef; ES 'ka:dia-, E+ 

-jgraf, -igraf 
carditis kar'daitis; ES kar'daitis 
Cardozo kar'dozo; ES kar'dozo 
care ker, kaer; E kea(r, ES kaea(r; |-d -d 
careen ka'rin [careened ka'rind 
career ka'rir; ES kaVia(r, S+-'rea(r; [-ed -d 
carefree 'kEt/fri, 'kaer-; E 'kea-, ES 'kaea- 
careful 'kerfal, 'kaer-; E 'kea-, ES 'kaea-; 

l-ly -I 
careless 'kerbs, 'kaer-; E 'kea-, ES 'kaea- 
caress ka'res [caresses ka'resiz |-ed -t 
caret 'kaerat, 'kerat 
caretaker 'ker^teka^, 'kaer-; E 'keajteka(r, ES 

'kaea- 
Carew ka'ru, -'riu, 'keru, 'ke-, -riu, -ri 
careworn 'ker^worn, 'kaer-, -^warn; E 

'keajwoan, 'kaea-, -^waan; S 'kaea^woan 
Carey 'ken, 'ke:ri, 'ken, 'kaeri; S 'ken, 

'kaeri; — Some speakers distinguish Carey 

from Kerry by a lofiger e. 
carf karf ; ES ka:f 

carfare 'kar^fer, -jfaer; E 'ka:jfEa(r, ES -^faeaCr 
cargo 'kargo; ES 'kargo 
Carhart 'kar^hart; ES 'kai^ha:! 
Carib 'kaerib |-al -1 |-an -an 
Caribbean ^kaera'bian, ka'nbian 
Caribbee, -ibee 'kaerajbi |-s -z 
Caribian 'Cariba?i' ka'nbian — see Carib 
caribou, C- 'kaera^bu 
caricature 'kaerikatja', -it/ur; ES -t/afr, 

-jt/ua(r; |-d -d |-rist -ist 
caries 'keriz, 'ke-, -n^iz 
carillon 'kaerajlan, -Jnn, -Ian, ka'riljan |-ed -d 

{Fr kari'jo) 
Carinthia ka'rinGia |-n -n 
cariole 'kaen^ol, -pi 
cark kark; ES ka:k; |-ed -t 
carl, -e, C- karl; ES ka:l 
Carleton 'karltan; ES 'ka:l- 
Carlile kar'lail, ka^-; ES kai'lail, ka- 
carlin, -e 'karbn; ES 'ka:bn 



|full ful |tooth tuG [further 'fytSa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz jdish dif [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



car-line 



70 



Carteret 



Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 
Words below that have ae before r (carrj' 'kaeri) are often pronounced in N with £ ('keri, §94) 



car-line 'karjlain; ES 'ka:- 


carouse ka'rauz |-s -iz |-d -d |-sal -] 


ca.rlmg naut. 'karlig; ES 'ka:ho 


carousel jkaera^zel, /kaeru- 


Carlisle kar'lail, ka^-; ES kai'lail, ka- 


carp karp; ES ka:p; |-ed -t 


Carlotta kar'lata; ES kai'lata, -'lota 


carpal 'karpl; ES 'ka:pl 


Carlovingian jkarb'vindsian; ES jkaib- 


Carpathian kor'peOian, -6jan; ES ka'peO- 


Carlsbad 'karlzbaed; ES 'ka:lzbaed 


carpe diem 'karpi'daiem; ES 'ka:pi- 


Carlsruhe 'karlzrua; ES 'ka:lzrua 


carpel 'karpl; ES 'ka:pl; |-lary -,en 


Carlton 'karltan; ES 'kailtan 


Carpentaria ^karpan'tEria, -'ter-; ES jkarp- 


Carlyle kar'lail, ka^-; ES ka:Uail, ka- 


carpenter, C- 'karpanta^, 'karpmta^; ES 'ka:p-, 


carmagnole jkarman'jol; ES ,ka:-;{Fr karma- 


-ta(r; |-ed -d j-ing -tarig, -trig |-try -tn 


Vbl) 


carpet 'karpit; ES 'ka:pit; |-ed -id 


Carman 'karman; ES 'kaiman 


carpetbag 'karpit^baeg ; ES 'ka:pit-; 1-ged -d 


Carmarthen ka^'marSan; ES ka^maitJan; 


|-ger -3^; ES -a(r 


|-shire -;Xir» S^' ES -JiaCr, -f^it 


carpus 'karpas; ES 'kazpas; |-es -iz ]-pi -pai 


Carmel 'karml; ES 'ka:mj; Cat Car'mel 


Carr kar; ES ka:(r 


Carmen 'karman; ES 'kaiman 


carrack 'kaerak 


Carmi 'karmai; ES 'karmai 


Carrara ka'rara (It kar'raira) 


Carmichael 'karmaikl; ES 'karmaikl 


carraway 'kaera^we 


carminative kar'minativ; ES ka'mmativ 


Carrel ka'rel 


carmine 'karmin, -mam; ES 'ka:m-; |-d -d 


carrettina jkara'tina (It jkarret'ti:na) 


carnage 'karnids; ES 'ka:n-; |-s -iz |-d -d 


carriage 'vehicle' 'kaerids |-s -iz; freight 


carnal 'karnj; ES 'ka:nl; |-ly -i 


charge' 'kaeriids 


Carnarvon ka-'narvan; ES ka'naivan; |-shire 


carrier 'kaeria^; ES 'kaeri«a(r 


-Jir, -JV; ES -Jia(r, -/a(r 


Carrington 'kaerigtan 


Carnatic kar'naetik; ES ka:'naetik 


carriole 'kaeri^ol, -pi 


carnation kar'nejan; ES ka:'ne/an; |-ed -d 


carrion 'kaerian 


Carnegie karWgi, ka^-; ES kar'negi, ka-; 


Carrizo kaVizo (Atn Sp ka'rriso) 


('Car.negie 'Hall) 


Carroll 'kaeral |-ton -tan 


carnelian kar'niljan; ES kar'niljan 


carronade ^kaera'ned 


Carniola jkarni'ola; ES 'jka:ni-; |-n -n (It 


carrot 'kaerat |-ed -id 


kar'nja:la) 


carrousel jkaera'zd, ,kaeru- 


carnival 'karnavl; ES 'karnavl 


Carruthers ka'rA'Sa'z; ES -'rAtiaz; |-'s -iz 


Carnivora kar'nivara; ES ka'nivara 


carry 'kaeri [carried 'kaerid 


carnivore 'karnajvor, -iVar; ES 'ka:najVoa(r, 


carryall 'kaeri,3l = cariole, carriole 


E+-jvaa(r 


Carshalton ka^'/altn; ES ka- 


carnivorous kar'nivaras; ES ka'nivaras 


Carson 'karsn; ES 'ka:sn 


Carnot Am name 'karnat, -not; ES 'ka:nat. 


Carstairs, -stares 'karsterz, -staerz; E 


-not, -not, Fr name kar'no; ES ka:'no 


'ka:st£az, ES -staeaz 


carob 'kaerab 


cart kart; ES ka:t; j-ed -id |-age -ids |-ful 


caroche ka'rotj, -'roj \-s -iz |-d -t 


-,ful 


carol, C- 'kaeral, kaerl |-ed -d 


Cartagena jkartaMsina; ES jka:ta- 


Carolina jkaera'laina — see N. 6° S. Carolina 


carte kart; ES ka:t 


Caroline 'kaerajain, -lin 


carte blanche 'kart'blanj; ES 'ka:t-; \pl 


Carolingian jkaera'hndsian 


cartes 'karts-; ES 'ka:ts-; (Fr kart'bla:]") 


Carolinian jkaera'hnian 


cartel 'kartl, kar'ttl; ES 'ka:-, ka:- 


carom 'kaeram jcaromed 'kaeramd 


carter, C- 'karta^; ES 'ka:ta(r 


carotid ka'ratid; ES+-'rDtid 


Carteret 'kartarit; ES 'ka:ta- 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) jrate ret [yet jet |sang saeg [angry 'ag-gn 
jbath baeO; E baO (§10) jah a |far far [watch wat/, wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



Cartesian 



71 



cassowary 



Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 



Cartesian kar'tisan; ES kar'tisan 




casein 'kesiin 


Carthage 'karGids; ES \a-MAy, |-'s -iz 




case-knife 'kes^naif, -'naif |-ives -aivz 


Carthaginian jkarGa'dsmian; ES jkaiGa- 




casemate 'kes^met [-mated -jinetid 


Carthusian kar'ejusan, -'Oiu-; ES ka:- 




casement, C- 'kesmant |-ed -id 


Cartier jkarti'e, kar'tje; ES ika:-, ka:-; 


caseose 'kesi^os [caseous 'kesias 


{Fr kar'tje) 




casern, -e ka'zyn; ES -'zan, -'zyn 


cartilage 'kortlids; ES 'ka:t-; [-s -iz 




Casey 'kesi. III 'kezi 


cartilaginous jkartl'aedsanas; ES jka:t- 




caseworm 'kes^wym; ES -^wsm, -^wym 


cartle 'kartl; ES 'ka:tl 




cash kaef [cashes 'kae/iz [cashed kaejt 


cartogram 'kartajgraem; ES ^ka:t3- 




casha 'kaeja 


cartograph 'kartajgraef; ES 'ka:t3-. 


E+ 


cash-and-carry 'kae/an'kaen 


-jgraf, -,graf 




cashaw ka'Ja 


cartographer kar'tagrafa^, -Hog-; ES 


ka-, 


cashbook 'kaef^buk 


-f3(r; |-phy -fi 




cashboy 'kaefjbai 


cartographic jkorta'graefik; ES jka:t3-; 


1-al 


cashew ka'/u, -'/lu, 'kaef- 


-1 l-ally -h, -ikh 




cashier n, v kae'/ir; ES -'/laCr, S-i--'J*£a(r; 


carton, C- 'kartn, -tan; ES 'ka:t-, -ton 




[-ed -d ('cashjier 'Jones) 


cartoon kar'tun; ES ka:'tun; |-ed -d j-ist 


-ISt 


cashmere cloth 'kaefmir; ES -mia(r 


cartouche, -ch kar'tuj; ES kar'tuj"; |-s - 


IZ 


Cashmere India kae/'mir; ES -'mia(r 


cartridge 'kortrids; ES 'kaitrids; |-s -iz 




cashoo ka'Xu = catechu 


cart-track 'kart^traek; ES 'ka:t- 




casimere, -mire 'kaesajinir, 'kaeza-; ES -jmia(r 


cartulary 'kart/ujlen ; ES 'kait/ujkn 




Casimir 'kaesajinir; ES -jmia(r 


cartwright, C- 'kart^rait; ES 'ka:t- 




casing 'kesig 


Caruso ka'ruso (7/ ka'ru:zo) 




casino, C- ka'sino [-s -z |-ni -ni 


Caruthers ka'tASa^z; ES kaVAcJaz; |-'s - 


IZ 


cask kaesk; E-t-kask, kask; |-ed -t 


carve karv; ES ka:v; |-d -d \arch. pptc -n 


-an 


casket 'kaeskit; E 'kaes-, much less freq. 


carvel 'karvl 




'kas-, 'kas-; [-ed -id 


carven 'karvan; ES 'kaivan 




Caslon 'kaezlan 


Cary 'ken, 'k£:ri, 'ken, 'kaeri; S 'ken, 'kaeri; 


Caspar, -per 'kaespa^; ES 'kaespa(r 


see note at Carey 




Caspian 'kaespian 


caryatid jkaen'aetid \-s -z J-es -jiz 




casque 'kaesk [casqued 'kaeskt |-quet 'kaeskit 


casaba ka'saba 




Cass kaes [Cass's 'kaesiz 


Casabianca jkaesabi'aegka (// jkasa'bjagka) 


cassaba ka'saba 


Casablanca jkasa'blagka, jkaesa'blaeoka 




Cassandra ka'saendra 


Casanova jkaeza'nova {It ,kasa'nD:va) 




cassation kae'se/an 


Casaubon ka'saban (Fr kazo'bo) 




cassava ka'sava 


Casca 'kaeskd 




Cassel, -11 'kaesl 


cascade, C- kaes'ked |-caded -'kedid 




casserole 'kaesajrol [-d -d 


cascara kaes'kera, -'kera {Sp 'kaskara) 




Cassia 'kaejia [cassia 'kae/a 


cascarilla jkaeska'nla 




Cassiepeia jkaesia'pia 


cascaron jkaeska'ron (Am Sp jkaska'ron) 




Cassil 'kaesl 


Casco 'kaesko 




cassimere 'kaesajinir; ES-jmia(r 


case, C- kes leases 'kesiz [cased kest 




cassino ka'sino 


casease 'kesi,es 




Cassio 'kaejijo, 'kaejjo 


caseate 'kesi^et |-d -id 




Cassiopeia, -pea jkaesia'pia [-n -n 


casefy 'kesa^fai |-fied -jfaid 




Cassius 'kae/as, 'kaejias [-'s -iz 


caseharden 'kes^hardn, -'hardn; ES -jha:dn. 


cassock 'ksesak |-ed -t 


-'ha:dn; |-ed -d |-ing -dnig, -dnig 




cassowary 'kaesa^wen 



[full ful [tooth tu9 [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fs'Sa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz Idish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



cast 



72 



caterpillar 



cast kaest; ES+kast, kast 


catalysis ka'taebsis |-yses -a^siz 


Castalia kaes'telia |-n -n 


catalyst 'kaetlist j-lytic ^kaetl'itik 


Castanet ,ksest3^mt 


catalyze 'kaetl^aiz |-s -iz \-d -d 


castaway 'kaesta^we; E+'kast-, 'kast- 


catamaran /kfetama'raen 


caste kaest; E+kast, kast 


catamount 'kaet3,maunt 


castellan 'kaestabn 


Catania ka'tenia, -nja (It ka'tamja) 


castellate 'kaesta Jet |-d -id 


catapult 'kaet3,pAlt j-ed -id 


caster 'kaesta-; ES 'kaest3(r, E+'kas-, %as- 


cataract 'kseta^riekt |-ed -id 


Casterbridge 'kaest^^brids; ES %aesta-; |-'s 


catarrh ka 'tar; ES ka'taUr, E+-'ta:(r; ]-ed -d 


-IZ 


|-al -a! 1-ally -ak 


castigate 'kaestajget |-d -id 


Catasauqua jkaeta'sakwa 


castigation jkaesta'gejaii 


catastasis ka't^estasis |-tases -ta^siz 


Castile kaes'til ('Cas^tile 'soap), NY kaes'tail 


catastrophe ka'taestrafi 


Castilian kaes'tiljan, -lian 


catastrophic ^kaeta'strafik; ES+-'strDf-; J-al 


cast-iron adj 'kaest'aia^n; ES 'kaest'ai-an, E+ 


-1 l-ally -li, -ikh 


'kast-, 'kast-; ('cast-jiron 'pipe) 


Catawba, c- ka'taba 


castle, C- 'kaesl; E+'kasl, 'kasl; |-d -d 


Catawissa jkaeta'wisa 


|-ling 'kaeslig, 'kaeshg 


catbird 'kastjbs^d; ES -jbsd, -jbyd 


Castlereagh 'kaesljre; E+'kasl-, 'kasl-; 


catboat 'kaet^bot 


acci + J Castle 'r eagh 


catcall 'k^tjkol |-ed -d 


castoff n 'kaest pf, -jof; E+'kast-, 'kast- 


catch kaetj, not infreq. ket/ |-es -iz | caught kat 


castor, C- 'kaesta^; ES 'kaest3(r, E+'kas-, 'kas- 


catchall 'k^tjpl 


castrate 'kaestret |-d -id 


catcher 'kaetla-, 'kst/a^; ES -tJaCr 


casual 'kaesual, 'kaejul |-ly -i j-ty -ti 


catchpenny 'kaet/,p£ni 


casuist 'kaesuist 1-ry -ri 


catchpole, -poll 'kietjjpol |-d, -ed -d 


casuistic jkaesu'istik |-al -1 |-ally -Ii, -ikli 


catchup 'kiet/ap, 'kEtJap 


casus belli 'kesas'belai 


catchword 'kaet/jwyd; ES -jwsd, -jwyd 


Caswell 'kaezwal, -wtl 


cate ket |cates kets 


cat kaet |catted 'kaetid 


catechesis ^kaeta'kisis |-cheses -'kisiz 


catabolism ka'taebjjizam 


catechetical jkaeta'ketikl |-ly -i 


catachresis ^kaeta'krisis |-chreses -'krisiz 


catechism 'kaetajkizam |-chist -kist 


catachrestic jkaeta'krestik |-al -I |-ally -li. 


catechistic jkaeta'kistik |-al -1 |-alh' -li, -ikli 


-ikh 


catechize 'kaeta^kaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


cataclinal jkaeta'klainl 


catechu 'kaetajtju 


cataclysm 'kaetayklizam |-al jkaeta'kliznij 


catechumen jkaeta'kjuman, -'kiu- |-al -1 |-ate 


cataclysmic jkaets'klizmik |-ally -li, -ikli 


-jCt |-ism -jizam 


catacomb 'kaeta^kom 


categorical jkaeta'garikl, -'gar-, -'gor- |-ly -i 


catacumbal jkaeta'kAmbl 


category 'kaetajgori, -/gari; S -;gori 


catafalque 'kaeta^faelk 


catena ka'tina |-s -z j-nae -ni j-r}- -ri 


Catahoula jkaeta'hub 


catenate 'kaetrijet j-d -id 


Catalan 'kaetjan, 'kaetljaen 


cater 'keta^; ES 'ket3(r; 1-ed -d j-ing 'ketarig. 


catalase 'kaetl/es 


'ketrig 


catalectic jkaetl'ektik 


catercornered 'kaetajkarna^d, 'kjcty-; ES 


catalepsis jkaetl'Epsis |-leptic -'eptik 


'kaetajkaanad — In 'kastajkariud the first ^ 


catalepsy 'kaetljcpsi 


was lost by dissimilation (§121). 


Catalina, c- jkaetl'ina 


cater-cousin 'keta^jkAzn; ES 'keta- 


catalogue, -log 'kaetlpg, -^ag, -^ng [-d, -ged -d 


caterer 'ketara^; ES 'ketaraCr 


Catalonia jkaetl'onia \-n -n 


Caterina /kaeta'rina (// jkate'ri:na) 


catalpa, C- ka'taelpa, occas. ka'tolpa 


caterpillar 'kaetajpila^, 'kaeta^-; ES 'kaeta- 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angr>- 'aeg-gri 
|bath basG; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa jgorge gards |go go 



caterwaul 



73 



Cavell 



iPil3(r; 1-ed -d — In \xi^ ipiisf- the first 2f- was 


cat's-paw 'kaetS/pD 


lost hy dissimilation {§121). 


catsup 'kaetsap, 'kstjap 


caterwaul 'kaeta^jwal; ES 'kaeta-; j-ed -d 


cattail 'kaetjtel 


Catesby 'ketsbi 


Cattaraugus jkaetaVogas |-'s -iz 


catfall 'kaet,f3l 


Cattegat 'kaeti^gaet, jkaeti'gaet 


catfish 'ksetjfij |-'s -iz 


Cattellka'tel, kae- 


catgut 'kaetjgAt ('kaetgat 'strig) 


cattish 'kaetij |catty 'kaeti 


Catharine 'kaeGrin, 'kaeGsrin 


cattle 'kaetl |-less 'kaetjlis 


catharsis ka'Oarsis; ES -'Oais-, E+-'Oa:s- 


Catullus ka'tAlas |-'s -iz 


cathartic ka'Gartik; ES -'ea:t-, E+-'ea:t-; 


Catulus 'kaet/abs |-'s -iz 


l-al -1 l-ally -li, -ikli 


catwalk 'kaetjwak 


Cathay ka'Oe, kae'Oe 


Caucasia kD'kesa, -^keja 


Cathcart 'kaeOka^t, -kart; ES -kat, -ka:t, E+ 


Caucasian ko'kejan, -'kejon, -^kaesan 


-ka:t 


-'kaejan 


cathead 'kaet^hed |-ed -id 


Caucasus 'kokasas |-sus' -sas 


cathedra ka'Oidra, 'kaeGidra 


caucus 'kakas [-es -iz 1-ed -t 


cathedral ka'Oidral 


caudal 'kadi |-ly -i 


Cather 'kaeSa-; ES 'kjae'SaCr 


caudate 'kadet \-A -id 


Catherine 'kaeOnn, 'kaeOarin 


caudicle 'kadikl 


Catherwood 'kaeOa^jWud; ES 'kaeOa- 


Caudine 'kadain 


catheter 'kaeeata^; ES 'kaeOataCr 


caudle 'kadi |-d -d |-ling 'kadlig, -dlig 


Cathleen 'kaeelin 


Caudle 'kadi, cf Caldwell 


cathode 'kaeGod 


caught kat 


cathodic ka'Oadik; ES+-'eDd-; |-al -1 |-ally 


caul kal 


-h. -ikh 


cauldron 'kaldran |-ed -d 


cat -hole 'kaet^hol 


cauUfiower 'kala^flaua^; ES -jflau-a(r 


cathoHc, C- 'kaeeahk, 'kaeGlik 


caulk kak | caulked kakt 


Catholicism, C- ka'OabjSizam; ES+-'6nl- 


causal 'kazl j-ly -i |-ity ka'zaelati 


catholicity jkaeGa'lisati 


causation ka'ze/an ] causative 'kazativ 


catholicize ka'GabjSaiz; ES+-'Gd1-; |-s -iz 


cause kaz | causes 'kaziz ] caused kazd 


l-d-d 


causerie jkoza'ri {Fr koz'ri) 


catholicon ka'Gabkan; ES+-'GdI- 


causeway 'kaz^we |-wayed -jwed 


Catihne 'kaetljain 


causey 'kazi |-ed -d 


cation 'kaetjaian 


caustic 'kastik |-ly -li |-al -1 |-ally -li 


catkin 'kaetkin 


cautel 'katl 


Catlettsburg 'kaetlits^s'g; ES -^bsg, -jbyg 


cauterization jkatara'ze/an, -ai'z- 


catmint 'kaetjmmt 


cauterize 'kata^raiz |-s -iz |-d -d j-tery -ri 


catnip 'kaetnip, -nap 


caution 'ka/an j-ed -d |-ing 'kajanig, -Jnig 


Cato 'keto 


cautionary 'kajanjcri 


cat-o'-nine-tails jkaeta^nainjtelz, jkaetn'ain- 


cautious 'ka/as 


Catoosa ka'tusa 


cavalcade jkaevl'ked |-caded -'kedid 


catoptric ka'taptrik; ES+-^tDp-; |-s -s J-al -1 


cavaher, C- jkasva'lir; ES -'lia(r, S4--'Iea(r 


l-ally -h, -ikli 


cavalry 'kaevlri -man, -men -man 


cat-rigged 'kaet^rigd 


cavatina jkaeva'tina {It ,kava'ti:na) 


Catron ka'tran; ES + -'trDn 


cave, C- kev |caved kevd 


cat's-cradle 'kaets^kredl 


caveat 'kevi^aet 


cat's-ear 'kaetsjir; ES -ji3(r, S+-j83(r 


caveat emptor 'kevijaet'smptar; ES -taa(r 


cat's-eye 'kaets^ai 


cave-in 'kevjin 


Catskill 'kaets.kil 


Cavell, Edith 'kaevl 



|full ful Itooth tuG [further 'fy'Sa'; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Cavendish 



74 



centenarian 



Cavendish, c-, Candish 'kaevandi/, loc.+ 

'kiendij |-'s -iz 
cavern 'kaeva^n; ES 'kaevan; |-ed -d |-ous -as 
caviar, -are jkaevi'ar, 'kaevijor; ES -'a:(r, 

-ja:(r; — ift Hamlet caviary, probably pron. 

jkaevi'jen 
cavie 'kevi 

cavil 'kaevl, -vil |-ed -d j-ing 'kaevlig, -vhg 
Cavite kaVite, ka- 
cavity 'kaevati |cavitied 'kaevatid 
cavort kaVart; ES -Vaat; |-ed -id 
Cavour kaVur; ES -Vu3(r; {It kaVu:r) 
cavy 'kevi 
caw ka ] cawed kad 
Cawdor 'kada^; ES 'kadaCr 
Cawnpore, -pur kan'por, -'par. -'pur; ES 

-'po3(r, -^pu3(r, E+-'p33(r 
Caxton 'kaekstan 

cay ke, ki, in West Itidies usually ki 
cayenne, C- kai'en, ke'en ('cay^enne 'pepper) 
cayman 'keman | caymans 'kemanz 
Cayman isls. kai'man 
Cayuga ke'uga, -'juga, ki'uga, 'kjuga 
Cayuse, c- kai'jus, -'jius 
Cazenovia jkaeza'novia 
cease sis [ceases 'sisiz ] ceased sist 
Cebu se'bu 
Cecil Md co. 'sisl, -sil, pers. name 'sisl/sEsl, 

-sil 
Cecilia si'silja, -'silia, -'silja 
Cecily 'sesli, 'sisji 
Cecropia si'kropia 
cedar 'sida^; ES 'sida(r; j-ed -d 
cede sid | ceded 'sidid 
cedilla si'dila 
Cedric 'ssdrik, 'sidrik 
cee si 

ceil sil |ceiled sild |ceiling 'silig 
celandine 'selan^dain 
Celebes 'sela^biz, sa'libiz 
celebrant 'selabrant 
celebrate 'sela,bret j-brated -jbretid 
celebration js^la^brefan 
celebrity sa'kbrati 
celerity sa'krati 
celery 'selari 
celesta sa'lesta 
celeste, C- sa'lest 
celestial, C- sa'lestfal ]-ly -i 



Celia 'silja, in Shak. 'silia 
celiac 'silijaek 

celibate 'selabit, -jbet 1-bacy -basi 
Celina saUaina 
cell sel Icelled seld 
cellar 'sela^; ES 's£la(r; j-ed -d ■ 
cellarage 'selarids \-s -ii 
cellarer 'selara^; ES 's£lara(r 
Cellini t/e'lini {It tjel'litni) 
cellist, 'cellist 'tjElist 
cello, 'cello 'tjelo |-s -z |-li -i 
cellophane, C- 'selajfen |-d -d 
cellular 'seljala^; ES 'seljala(r 
cellulate 'selja^let |-d -id 
cellule 'sel Jul 

celluloid, C- 'seljajlaid, 'sela- 
cellulose 'seljajlos j-s -iz |-d -t |-lous -las 
Celoron 'selajran, -jjnm 
Celotex, c- 'sela^teks 
Celsius 'selsias j-'s -iz 
celt selt 

Celt selt |-ist -ist 
Celtic 'seltik |-ally -h, -ikli 
Celticism 'seltajSizam |-cist -sist 
cement sa'mEnt |-ed -id 
cementation jsiman'tejan, jseman- 
cemetery 'semajteri, 'semitn 
Cenci 'tj£ntji {It 'tjEiitJi) 
Cenis sa'ni 

cenobite 'sena.bait, 'sin- 
cenotaph 'sena,taef 
Cenozoic ^sina'zoak, jsena- 
cense sens [censes 'sensiz [censed senst 
censer 'sensa^; ES 'sensaCr 
censor 'sensa^; ES 'sensa(r; |-ed -d 
censorial stn'sorial, -'sar-; S -'sor- 
censorious sen'sorias, -'sar-; S -'sor- 
censorship 'sensa'yj'ip; ES 'sensa- 
censurability jSEn/ara'bilati 
censurable 'senjarabl |-bly -bli 
censure 'senja^; ES 'senja(r; j-d -d [-ring 

'sEn/arig, 'sen/rig 
census 'sensas |-es -iz |-ed -t [-sus' -sas 
cent s£nt [cental 'sentl 
centaur 'sentar; ES 's£ntaa(r 
Centaurus, c- sen'taras \ge7i b" pi -ri -rai 

l-'s -iz 
centavo sen'tavo 
centenarian jS£nta'n£rian, -Wr- 1-ism -jizam 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi jpity ^piti (§6) [rate ret jyet J£t [sang saeg [angry 'aeg-gri 
Ibath baeO; E ba6 (§10) [ah a [far far [watch watj, wnt/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



centenary 



75 



certitude 



centenary ^SEnta^nEn, SEnUenari, mainly Brit 

sen'tinsri 
centennial sen^tenisl, -njal [-ly -i 
center, -tre 'senta'; ES 'sentaCr; |-(e)d -d 

|-(r)ing 'sentarig, 'sentrig 
centerboard, -tre- 'senta^jbord, -^bord; ES 

'senta^boad, E+-jb33d 
center-fire, -tre- 'senta^'fair; ES 'senta'faiaCr; 

('center-jfire 'shell) 
centerpiece, -tre- 'sEnta^^pis; ES 'senta-; 

|-s -iz 
centesimal sen'tesaml |-ly -i 
centesimo sen'tEsajmo 
centiar 'sEntijor; ES -ja:(r 
centiare 'sEntijEt, -jaer; E -i£3(r, ES -^aeaCr 
centigrade 'sEnta^gred 
centigram, -mme 'sEntajgraem 
centiliter, -tre 'sEntljita^; ES -t3(r 
centillion SEn'tiljan 
centime 'santlm, san'tim {Fr sa'tim) 
centimeter, -tre 'sEntajinita'; ES -jmit3(r; 

{Fr sati'mEtr) 
centimeter-gram-second, -tre- 'sEnta^mita^- 

'graem'sEkand ; ES -jinita- 
centimo 'sEntajino 
centipede 'sEntajpid 
centistere 'sEntajStir; ES -jsti3(r 
Centlivre SEnt'liv*, -Hiva^; ES 

-'hv3(r, -'liv- 
centner 'sEntna^; ES 'sEntn3(r; {Ger 'tsEntnar) 
cento 'sEnto 

central 'sEntral |-ly -i |-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 
Centralia SEn'trelia, -Ija 
centrality SEn'traelati 
centralization jSEntrala'zeJan, -ai'z- 
centralize 'sEntral^aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
centric 'sEntrik j-al -j |ally -li, -ikh 
centrifugal SEn'trifjugl |-ly -i 
centrifuge 'sEntra^fjuds, -jfiuds j-s -iz 
centripetal SEn'tripatl j-ly -i 
centrist, C- 'sEntrist 
centrosphere 'sEntra^sfir; ES -jsfia(r, S+ 

-jsfEa(r 
centuple 'sEntupj, -tju-, SEn'tupl, -'tiu-, 

-'tju- |-d -d 1-ling -plig, -plig 
centurial SEn'tjurial, -'tiunal, -'tor- 
centurion SEn'tjurian, -'tiurian, -'tur- 
een tury 'sEntJari |-ried -d 
cephalic sa'faelik, se- 



Cephalonia jSEfa'lonia, -nja |-n -n 
cephalopod 'sEfala^pad; ES+-jpDd 
Cephalopoda ^SEfa'lapada; ES+-'1dp- 
cephalothorax jSEfala'Oorseks, -'6ar-; S -'6or-; 

|-es -IZ 
cephalous 'sEfalas 
Cephalus 'sEfalas |-'s -iz 
Cephas 'sifas |-'s -iz 
Cepheus 'sifjus, 'sifias j-'s -iz 
ceramic sa'raeinik |-s -s 
cerate 'siret 

Cerberus 's^baras; ES 'ssb-, 'syb-; [-'s -iz 
cere sir; ES sia(r, S+SEa(r; |-d -d 
cereal 'sirial 

cerebellar jSEra'bEla^; ES -'belaCr 
cerebellum ^sEra'bElam |-s -z j-la -la 
cerebral 'sErabral |-ly -i 
cerebrate 'sEra^bret j-brated -^bretid 
cerebration iSEra'breJan 
cerebrospinal jSErabro'spainl 
cerebrum 'sErabram 1-s -z |-bra -bra 
cerecloth 'sir^kbO, -jkloO; ES 'sia-; j-ths -tJz, 

-es 

cerement 'sirmant; ES 'siamant 

ceremonial jSEra'monial, -njal |-ly -i 

ceremonious jSEra'monias, -njas 

ceremony 'sEra^moni 

Ceres 'siriz, 'siriz |-res' -riz 

Cereus, c- 'sirias, 'si- j-es -iz 

cerif, -iph 's£rif = serif 

Cerigo 'tjEri/go {It 'tjE:rijgo) 

Cerimon 'sEri,man, -^mon 

cerise sa'riz, -'ris j-s -iz 

cerium 'siriam 

Cerro Gordo 'sEro'gardo; ES -'gaado 

certain 'sytn, -in, -an; ES 'sst-, 'ss^t-; j-ty -ti 

certes 'sytiz; ES 's3t-, 'syt- 

certifiable 'syta/faiabl; ES 'ssta-, 'ssta-; 

l-bly -bh 
certificate n sa^'tifakit; ES sa'tif- 
certificate v sa^'tifajket; ES sa-; |-d -id 
certification 'certifying^ jsytafa'ke/an; ES 

jssta-, jsyta- 
certification 'certificating^ sa^^tifa'ke/an; ES 

sa- 
certify 'syta^fai; ES 'sata-, 'syta-; |-fied -^faid 
certiorari ,s3j"ia'rEri, -'reri; ES ^ss/i-, jsy/i- 
certitude 'syta^tjud, -^tiud; -^tud; ES 'sst-, 

'syt- 



IfuU ful [tooth tu6 [further 'fy'Sa'; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'vi5an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



cerulean 



76 



Champlin 



cerulean saVulisn, -'riulian, -Ijan 




chainwork 't/en^wyk; ES -jwak, -^wyk 


cerumen sa'ruman, -'riuman 




chair tjer, tjaer; E tjeacr, ES tXaa(r; |-ed -d 


ceruse 'sirus, sa'rus 




chairman 'tjErman, 'tJaer-; E 't/ea-, ES 


Cervantes sa^'vaentiz; ES sa-; |-tes' -tiz 


{Sp 


't/aea-; |-men -man j-ship -^/ip 


Ger'JJantes) 




chaise /ez |chaises '/eziz Ichaisedjezd 


cervical 'syvikl; ES 'ssv-, 'ss^v- 




chaise longue '/ez'lagg, -'Ingg (/^r/eiz'log) 


cervix 's^viks; ES 'ssv-, 'syv-; |-es 


-iz 


Chalcedon 'kaelsidan, -jdan, -^don 


|cervices sa^'vaisiz; ES sa- 




chalcedony kael'sedni, 'kselsajdoiu 


Cesar 'sezar; ES 'seza:(r, E+-za:(r; 


[Fr 


chalcid 'kaelsid 


se'za:r) 




chalcography kael'kagrafi, -'kog- 


Cesarea ^SEsaVb, jsez- l-rean -Vbn 




chalcographic jkaelka'graefik |-al -1 


Cesarean, c-, -ian surg. si'zerian, -'zaer-, - 


zer- 


chalcopyrite jkaelka'pairait, -'pir- 


cesium 'siziam 




Chaldaic kael'de-ik ]-al -1 


cessation se'sejan 




Chaldea kael'dia |-n -n |-dee kael'di, 'kaeldi 


cession 'sE^an 




chaldron 't/aldran 


cesspit 'sesjpit 




chalet /iene, '/ah (Fr /a'k) 


cesspool 'sesjpul 




Chalfont Bucks 'tjaelfant, loc. 'tjafant 


cestode 'sestod 




chalice 't/aelis |-s -iz |-d -t 


cestus, C- 'sEstas [-es -iz 




chalk tjak | chalked tjakt 


cesura si'jura, si'zjura, -'ziura |-1 -1 




challenge 't/aehnds, -ands |-s -iz |-d -d 


Cetacea si'te/a |cetacean si'te/an 




chaUis, -Hie Ifaeh 


Cetus 'sitas \gen Ceti 'sitai 




Chalmers 't/aelma^z, 't/am-, 't/om-; ES -az; 


cevitamic jsivai'taemik 




l-'s -IZ 


Ceylon si'Ian; ES+-'lDn; |-ese ^sila'niz 




cham dial. '/ am' t/aem 


Ceyx 'silks |-'s -iz 




cham 'khan'' kaem 


Cezanne si'zaMi {Fr se'zan) 




chamade /a 'mad 


cf. ^compare' 'si'ef, kan'fy; ES -'f3(r, -'fy 


chamber 'tJemW; ES -ba(r; |-ed -d |-ing 


chabouk, -buk 'tjabuk 




'tjembarig, 'tjembrig 


Chaco 't/ako 




chamberer 'tjembara^; ES 'tJembaraCr 


Chad tjied, t/ad 




chamberlain 'tjemb^lin; ES 't/emba- 


Chadds Ford 'tjiedz'ford, -'fard; ES -'foad. 


Chamberlain, -lin 'tjemba^bn; ES 'tjemba- 


E+-'faad 




chambermaid 'tjemba^jmed; ES 't/emba- 


Chadron '/aedran 




chambray 'Jaembre 


Chaeronea jktra'nia 




chameleon ka'mUian, -Ijan 


chafe tjef | chafed tjeft 




chamfer 't/aemfa^; ES 'tJaemfaCr; |-ed -d |-ing 


Chafee 'tjefi, 'tja^fi 




'tjaemfarig, 'tjaemfrig 


chafer 'tjefa-; ES 'tXefa(r; |-y -i 




chamois, -mmy 'Jaemi 


chaff t/aef ; E+t/af, t^af ; j-ed -t 




chamomile 'kaema^mail 


Chaffee 'tjiefi, 't/efi 




Chamonix, -mouny '/aemani (Fr Jamu'; " 


chaffer 'tjaefa^; ES 'tJaefaCr; |-ed -d 


-ing 


champ tfaemp | champed tjaempt 


'tjaefarig, 'tjaefrig 




champac, -pak 'tjaempak, 'tjAmpAk 


Chaffey 'tjjefi, 'tjefi 




champagne Jaem'pen j-d -d 


chaffinch 'tJae^fintX, 'tjaef jfintj" |-es -iz 




Champagne Jaem'pen {Fr Ja'paji) 


Chagres 'tjagres 




champaign Jaem'pen, 'tjaempen 


chagrin Ja 'grin |-ed -d 




Champaign III Jaem'pen 


Chagrin Falls /a'grin'falz, /oc. + 'Jug 


rin-. 


champerty 'tjaempa'ti; ES 'tjampati 


Ifaegrin- 




champion, C- 'tjaempian |-ed -d |-ship -Ji;) 


chain tjen | chained tjend 




Champlain Jaem'plen 


chain-stitch 'tjen^stitj |-es -iz ]-ed -t 




Champlin 'tjaemphn 



Key: See in full §§3—47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret [yet jet Isang saeg jangrj' 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj, wotj (§12) ]j'avv dsa |gorge gards |go go 



Champs Elysees 



77 



charkha 



Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 



Champs Elysees Fr /azeli'ze 
chance tjaens; E+tJans, tjans; j-s -iz |-d -t 
chancel 'tjaensl; E+'tJan-, 't/an- 
chancellery 't/aensalari, -slari; E+'t/an-, 

't|an- 
chancellor, C- 't/aensala^, -sla'; ES -laCr, E+ 

'tjan-, 't/an-; [-ship -Jip 
Chancellorsville 'tJaensala^ZiVil, -sl»z-; ES 

-bz-, E+'tJan-, 't/an- 
chancery 'tjaensari; E+'t/an-, HJan- 
chancre 'Jaegka^; ES IfaegkaCr 
chancy, -cey 'tJaensi; E+'tJan-, 'tj"an- 
chandelier j/sendl'ir; ES -'i3(r, S+-'E3(r 
chandler, C- 'tjaendla-; ES -dl3(r, E+'t/an-, 

'tjan- 
Chandos 'tjfendas, 'Jaen-; ES+-dDs; j-'s -iz 
Chandragupta jtjAndra'gupta 
Changchun 'tjag'tjun 
change t/ends [changes 't/endsiz |-d -d 
changeabiHty jt/endsa'bibti 
changeable 'tjendsabl j-bly -bh 
changeling 'tjendskg 
Chang Kai-shek 't/ag'kai'/ek, 't/aeg- 
channel 't/aenl [channeled 'tjaenld 
Channing 'tjaenig 

chanson '/aensan, -san, -son (Fr Ja'so) 
chant tjaent; E+tJant, tjant; |-ed -id 
chantey, -ty 'Jsenti, 'tjaen-; E+-an-, -an- 
chanticleer 't/aentijkhr; ES -jkli3(r, S+ 

-jkl£3(r 
Chantilly Va, France jxnhiXi (Fr/ati'ji) 
chantress 't/aentris; E+'t/ant-, 't/ant-; |-es 

-IZ 

chantry, C- 't/aentri; E+'tJant-, 'tjant- 

Chanute tja'nut, jD'nut 

chaos 'keas; ES+'kens; |-es -iz 

chaotic ke'atik; ES+-'Dtik; ]-al -1 |-ally -]i, 

-ikh 
chap 'fellow', 'crack' t/aep |chapped tj"aept 
chap 'jaiv' t/aep — cf chop 'jaw' 
chaparajos jt/apa'rahos |-rejos -'rehos 
chaparral jt/aepa'rael 
chaparreras, -pareras jtjapa'reras 
chapbook 't/aepjbuk 
chape tjep 

chapeau /ae'po |-x, -s -z (Fr /a'po) 
chapel, C- 't/aepl |-ed -d |-ing 't/aeplig, -plig 
chaperajos jtjapa'rohos 



chaperon, -one '/aepajron |-ed -d |-age -ids 

chapf alien 'tJaep^Dlan, -jfaln — cf chopf alien 

chaplain 'tjaepbn |-cy -si |-ship -^/ip 

chaplet 'tjaeplit |-ed -id 

Chaplin 'tjaeplin 

Chapman, c- 'tjaepman |-men -man 

Chappell, -pple 't/aepl 

chappie, -ppy 'tjaepi 

chaptalize 'Jaeptl/aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

chapter 'tjaepta^; ES -t3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

'tjaeptarig, -trig 
Chapultepec tJa'pAltajpek (Sp t/ajpuIte'pEk) 
char tjor; ES tXa:(r; |-red -d 
charabanc 'Jaerajbaegk, -jbaeg (Fr /ara'ba) 
character 'kaerikta^, -ok-; ES -t3(r; |-ed -d 

|-ing -tang, -trig 
characteristic jkaerikta'ristik, jkaerak- |-al -1 

I -ally -li, -ikli 
characterization jkaeriktra'zeXsn, -ak-, -tara-, 

-ai'z- 
characterize 'kaeriktajraiz, 'kaerak- |-s -iz 

l-d-d 
charactery 'kaeriktari, -ak-, -tri 
charade /a 'red 

charcoal 'tjor^kol; ES 'tjai^kol; j-ed -d 
chard tjard; ES t/ard 
Chardon '/ardn; ES 'Ja:dn 
chare t/er, t/aer; E tXEa(r, ES t/aeaCr; |-d -d 
charge t/ards; ES tjards; |-s -iz \-d -d |-able 

-abl l-bly -bh 
charge d'affaires Jar'sedae'fer, -'faer; E 

Ja:'3edae'f£a(r, ES -'faea(r; \pl charges 

-'sez- (Fr Jarseda'fEir) 
charily 'tjerah, 'tjaer-, 'tjer-, -ih; S 't/aer-, 

't/er- 
chariness 't/Erinis, 'tJaer-, 'tJer-; S 't/aer-, 

'tjer- 
Charing Cross 'tjaerig'kras, 'tJer-, -'kros; S 

't/aerig-; ('Charing jCross 'Road) 
chariot 'tjaeriat |-ed -id 
charioteer ^t/aeriat'ir; ES -'ia(r, S+-'£a(r 
charitable 't/aeratabl |-bly -bk 
Chariton 'Jeratn, '/aer-; S 'Jaer- 
charity 't/aerati 
charivari /ajriva'ri, jXiva'ri, jXari'vari — In 

j/iva'ri tite first r is lost by dissimilation 

(§121). Cf shivaree 
charkha, -ka 'tjArka; ES 't/Aika 



|full fu! [tooth tuG [further 'fytJa'; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail jhow hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



charlatan 



check 



Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 



charlatan 'Jarlatn; ES 'Jatla-; |-ism -^izam 

|-ry -n 
charlatanic yjarla'taenik; ES ^Jaib-; |-al -j 

I -ally -li, -ikb 
Charlecote 't/arlkat, -kot; ES 'tja:!- 
Charlemagne Ifarbjmen; ES lfa:b-; (F/- 

Jarla'maji) 
Charleroi Pa j/arbVai, 'Xarb^rai; ES iJa:!-, 

Ifa:!-; \Belg -roi, -roy /^r Jarb'rwa 
Charles tjarlz; ES tj"a:lz; |-'s -iz |-ton -tan 

[-town -/taun 
Charley, -ie 'tjarh; ES 'tjaili 
charlock 't/orbk; ES 't/aibk 
Charlotte/ew. name 'Jarlat, US places '/arbt, 

Ja-'lat; ES '/a:l-, /a-, -'lot 
Charlottenburg Jar 'latn jbs'g ; ES /a 'latn jbsg, 

-'lot-, -jbyg (Gc;- Jar 'btaiijburk) 
charlotte russe '/arbtVus, -'ruf; ES lfa:bt- 
Charlottesville IfarbtSjVil; ES Ifa:!-, S+-vl 
Charlton 'tjarltan; ES 'tja:l- 
charm tjarm; ES t/a:m; j-ed -d |-edly -idb 
charmeuse/arWsz; ES Ja:-; (Fr Jar'moiz) 
Charmian 't/armian, 'karm-; ES 't/a:m-, 

'karm- 
chamel 'tjarnj; ES 't/ainl 
Charon 'keran, 'kaeran, 'keran; S 'kaeran, 

'keran 
charpoy, -pai 'tjar'paij -'p^"^; ES 'tja:- 
chart tjart; ES tjart; j-ed -id 
charter 't/arta^; ES 't/aitaCr; |-ed -d |-ing 

-tang, -trig 
Charteihouse, c- 'tjarta'jhaus; ES 'tjaita- 
chartograph 'kartajgraef; ES 'ka:ta-, E+ 

-jgraf, -jgraf 
chartographer kar'tagrafa', -'tog-; ES ka-, 

-fa(r; |-phy -fi 
chartographic jkarta'graefik; ES ;ka:t3- 
Chartres Ifartra, Jort; ES 'Ja:t-, Ja:t; {Fr 

/artr) 
chartreuse, C-Xar'trsz; ESja:-; (Fr/ar'treiz) 
chartulary 'kartjujeri; ES 'kaitju^leri 
charwoman 'tjar^wuman, -jwu-; ES 'tja:-; 

I -men -jWimin, -an 
chary 'tX£ri, 't/erri, 'tjaeri, 'tjen; S 't/aeri, 

't/eri — Some speakers distinguish char\' 

from cherry by a longer e. 
Charybdis ka'ribdis |-'s -iz |-dian -dian 
chase, C- tjes |chases 't/esiz jchased tjest 



chasm 'kaezam, tnuch less freq. 'kaezm 1-ed -d 

chasmal 'kaezml |chasmic ^ksezmik 

chasse /ae'se |-d -d — cf sashay 

chasseur Jae'sy, ES -'s3(r, -'sy; (Fr/a'soeir) 

chassis 'Jaesi, 'Jaesis \pl chassis 'Jaesiz 

chaste tJest 

chasten 't/esn ]-ed -d j-ing 't/esnii), -snig 

chastise tjaes'taiz [-s -iz |-d -d 

chastisement 'tjaestizmant, tjaes'taizmant 

chastity 'tjaestati 

chasuble 'tjaezjubl, 't/aes- 

chat tjaet 1 chatted 'tjaetid 

chateau /ae'to \pl -teaux -'toz {Fr Ja'to) 

Chateaubriand Jae'tobriand, -^and {Fr 

/atobri'a) 
Chateau-Thierry /a'totb'ri {Fr /atotJE'rl) 
chatelain 'Jaetljcn (Fr /a'tlS) 
chatelaine '/^etljen (Fr Ja'tkn) 
Chatham 'tjaetam, US ^/ace^ + 'tjaet-haem, 

-am 
Chatillon Shak. Jae'tiljan {Fr /ati'jo) 
Chattahoochee jtXaeta'hut/i 
Chattanooga jt/aetn'uga, jtjaeta'nuga 
chattel 't/aetl |-ed -d 
chatterbox 't/aeta^jbaks; ES 't/aetajbaks, 

-jbnks; |-es -iz 
Chatterton 'tjaeta^tan; ES 't/aetatan 
Chattooga tja'tuga 

Chaucer 't/asa^; ES 'tXasa(r; |-ism -jizam 
Chaucerian tja'sirian 
chauffer ^ stove' 'tfafa^; ES 'tj"afa(r 
chauffeur 'Jbfa^jjo'fy; ES 'Xofa(r, Jo'f3(r, -'fy; 

l-ed -d 
chaulmoogra, -mugra t/al'mugra 
Chauncey 't/ansi, 'tjonsi, 'tjansi, 'tjaensi 
chaunt tfant, tjont, tjant |-ed -id 
Chautauqua, c-Ja'takwa |-n -n 
chauvinism '/ovinjizam |-ist -ist 
chauvinistic j/ovi'mstik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikh 
chaw t/a [chawed tjad 
Chazy '/ezi, /e'zi ('Chazy's 'Landing) 
cheap tj"ip |-ed -t 

cheapen 'tjipan |-ed -d |-ing 'tjipanig, -pnig 
Cheapside 't/ip^said, -'said 
cheat, C- tjit | cheated 'tjitid 
Cheatham 'tjitam — cf Cheetham, Chetham 
Cheboygan /I'baigan 
check t/ek | checked t/skt |-book -jbuk 



Key: See in full §§3—47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret [yet jet |sang saeg |angry 'aeg*gri 
jbath baeO; E ba6 (§10) |ah a [far far |watch watj", wotj (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



checker 

checker 'tfek*; ES 't/tkaCr; |-ed -d |-ing 

'tjEkarig, 'tfekrig 
checkerboard 'tjeka^jbord, -^bord; ES 'tftka- 

jboad, E+-jb33d; |-ed -id 
checkmate 't/ek^met |-mated -^metid 
checkoff UJekpf, -jii 
checkrein 'tjek^ren 
checkroom 'tjek^rum, -jrum 
checkrow 't/ek^ro |-ed -d 
checkstrap 't/skjStraep 
Cheddar 't/eda-; ES 'tJedaCr 
cheek tjik | cheeked tjikt 
cheekbone 'tXikjbon, -'bon 
Cheeke tfik 
cheekily 'tfikli, -ih 
cheep tjip [cheeped tjipt 
cheer tjir; ES tji3(r, S+tJ"E3(r; |-ed -d 
cheerful 'tjirfal; ES 'tjia-, S+'tJea-; j-ly -i 
cheerily 'tjirali, -ili 
cheerio 't/irijO 

cheerly 'tjirh; ES 'tjiali, S+'t/Eali 
cheese tfiz |cheeses 'tjiziz jcheesed tfizd 
cheesecake 'tjiz^kek 

cheesecloth HJizjkbe, -jkloG |-ths -t$z, -Gs 
cheesemonger HJ'izjmAijga' ; ES -jmAggaCr 
cheeseparing 'tjiz^perig, -jpaerig; S -jpaerig 
cheetah 'tjita 

Cheetham 'tjitam — cf Cheatham 
chef /£f 

chef-d'oeuvre Je'dcevra (Fr J"e'doe:vr) 
Chefoo 'tji'fu 
Cheke tjik 
Chekov 't/ekof, -kof 
chela 'claw' 'kila ] chelae ^kili 
chela 'disciple' 'tjela 
chela measure 'kela 
Chelan /a 'laen 
Chelmsford Mass Hfcmzi^d, 'tjElmz-, Engd 

'tjelms-, 't/ems-; ES -fad 
Chelonia ka'loma |chelonian kaUonian 
Chelsea 'tjelsi 

Cheltenham 'tjeltnam, 'tjeltnam 
chemic 'kenuk j-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikb 
chemise /a 'miz |-s -iz |-sette jJemi'zEt 
chemist 'kenust j-ry -ri 
Chemnitz 'kemnits \-'s -iz 
Chemosh 'kimaj, -mnj |-'s -iz 
chemotherapy jkemo'Oerapi 
Chemung /I'mAg 



79 cheval-de-frise 

chemurgic kem'a^dsik; ES -hd^-, -^yds-; 

l-al -1 
chemurgy 'ktms^dsi; ES -sdsi, -ydsi 
Chenango Ji'naeggo 
chenille /a 'nil 

Cheops 'kiaps; ES+'kiops |-'s -iz 
Chepstow 'tjepsto 
cheque tjek |-r -■y-; ES -a(r; j-red -a^d; ES -ad; 

I -ring 't/ekarig, 'tjekrig 
chequerboard 'tXtka^jbord, -^bard; ES 't/eka- 

(boad, E+-jbaad; |-ed -id 
Cheraw 'tjira, tji'ra 
Cherbourg Iferburg; ES Ifeabuag; {Fr 

Jer'burr) 
cherish 'tJenX |-es -iz |-ed -t 
Cherith 'kiriO, 'tJiriO 
Cherokee 'tjerajki, jtfera'ki 
cheroot /a 'rut 

cherry 't/eri |cherried 'tj"end 
Chersonese, c- 'k3"sa,niz; ES 'kssa-, 'ks'sa- 
chert tjs^t; ES tjst, tjyt 
cherub 'tjerab \-s, -z |-im -im, 'tferjubim 

I -in -in, -jubin 
cherubic tja'rubik, -'nubik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 

-ikh 
chervonets tjtr'vanits \pl chervontsi tjer- 

'vantsi 
Cherwell 'tjarwal, -wel; ES 'tja:- 
Chesaning 'tjEsnig 
Chesapeake tjes'pik, jt/esa'pik ('Chesajpeake 

'Bay) 
Chesham 'tjEjam, less frcq. 't/Esam — 'tjE/am 

is a sp. pron. Cf Bentham 
Cheshire 'tjEjir, 'tMa^; ES 'tXeXia(r, -/a(r 
chess tjES I chesses 'iJesiz 
chessboard 'tjESjbord, -^bard; ES -jboad, E-t- 

-jbaad 
chessman 'tjESjmaen, -man |-men -jiUEn, -man 
chest tjESt I chested 'tjEstid 
Chester, c- 'tjesta^; ES 'tX£sta(r 
Chesterfield 'tjEsta^^fild; ES 'tJ"Esta- 
Chesterton 't/Esta'tan; ES 'tjEstatan, -tn 
Chester White 'tjEsta^'hwait; ES 't/ESta- 
chestnut 'tjEsnat, -^nAt 
chestnut-roan 'tjesnat'ron ('chestnut^roan 

'mare) 
chetah 'tjita 

Chetham 't/Etam — cf Cheatham 
cheval-de-frise /a 'vaelda 'friz \pl -vaux- -'vo- 



|full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'vi5an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipip 



cheval-glass 



80 



China 



cheval-glass /aVaeljglaes; E+-jglas, 


-iglas; 


chide tjaid \past chid tjid or chided 'tjaidid 


|-es -iz 




\pptc chid t/id or chidden 't/idn or chided 


chevalier jjeva'hr; ES -'li3(r, S+-'lE3(t 




'tjaidid 


Cheviot Hills, sheep 'tjeviat, 'tfiv-; 


vil. 


Chidley 'tj-idli 


If mat. Ifev-; jCh-, ch- cloth 


jEviat, 


chief t/if |-tain -tin |-taincy -tinsi 


't/Eviat 




chield tjild Ichiel tJU 


Chevrolet jjEvra'le 




chiffon /i 'fan, -'fon, 'Jifan 


chevron 'Jevran |-ed -d 




chiffonier jjifa'nir; ES -'ni3(r, S-t--'nE3(r, 


chevy, C- 't/Evi | chevied 'tjevid 




-'nJEaCr 


chew, C- tju, t/iu |-ed -d 




chigger 'tjiga^; ES 'tJigaCr 


chewink t/i'wigk 




chignon 'Jinjan, -jon (/^r Ji'jio) 


Cheyenne /ai'en 




chigoe 'tjigo 


Cheyne 't/eni, 't/en 




Chihuahua tji'wawa, -'wdwd 


chi G^ letter kai 




chilblain 't/iljblen |-ed -d J-s -z 


Chian 'kaisn 




child, C-(e) tjaild |-ed -id \pl see children 


Chiang Kai-shek tji'ag'kaiyek, 'tjjag 


- 


childbearing 't/aild^bEng, -jbaerig; S -jbaer- 


Chianti, c- ki'aenti {It 'kjanti) 




childbirth 't/aild^yO; ES -^bsB, ->yO j-ths 


chiaroscuro ki^ara'skjuro, -'skiuro {It 


ikja:- 


-es 


ro'sku:ro) 




Childermas 't/ilda^mas; ES 't/ilda- 


chibouk, -que tji'buk, -T)uk 




childhood 'tjaild^hud 


chic Jik, /ik 




childlike 't/aild,laik 


Chicago Ja'kago, -'kngo, -'kago, /i-, -a 


l-ed -d 


children 't/ildran, -drin, -da^n; ES -dran. 


|-goan -gawan 




-drin, -dan 


chicane Ji'ken | -caned -'kend |- 


canery 


Childress 't/aildris j-'s -iz 


-'kenari 




Chile 'tjih l-an -an j-lian -ban {Sp 'tJUe) 


Chichen Itza tJi'tjEiiit'sa 




Chili US\Sih, iVF 'tjailai 


Chichester 't/itjista^; ES HJitJistaCr 




chih, -le 'tjib 


chick tjik 




Chilkat 'tjilkat 


chickadee 'tjikajdi, jtJikaMi 




Chilkoot 't/ilkut 


Chickahominy jtjika'hamam; ES-i--'hi 


9m- 


chill tjil 1 chilled tjild 


Chickamauga jtJika'mDga ('Chicka^ 


mauga 


chilli 'tjik 


'Creek) 




Chillicothe .t/ila'kaOi; ES+-'knOi; ('ChiUi- 


chickaree 't/ikajri 




jcothe 'Road) 


Chickasaw 't/ikajso 




Chillingworth 'tXibgwa-O, -jWyO; ES -wa6. 


Chickasawhay jtJika'sDwe |-wha -wa 




-jwso, -jw^e 


Chickasha 't/ikayjc 




Chillon/a'lan, -'Ion, '/ilan {FrfV jo) 


chicken 't/ikin, -an 




chilly 'tJib 


chickenhearted 'tXikin'hartid, -an- 


; ES 


Chiltern 't/ilta^n; ES 't/iltan 


-'ha:tid, E+-'ha:tid; ('chickenjhearted 


chimaera ka'nura, kai- 


'hero) 




chimb t/aim 


chicken-pox 'tjikiii^paks, -an-; ES-t--iPoks 


Chimborazo jtjimba'rezo, -'razo {Am Sp 


Chickering 'tjikang, 't/ikrig 




jt/imbo'raso) |+ J- 


chickweed 'tjikjwid 




chime t/aim |chimed t/aimd 


chicle 'tjikl, 'tjikl {Sp 'tjikle) 




chimera ka'mira, kai'mira 


Chico 'tjiko 




cliimerical ka'mirikl, kai- |-ly -i, -ikli 


Chicopee 'tjika^pi, -pi 




chimney 'tj"imni | chimneyed 't/imnid 


chicory 'tjikari, H/ikri 




chimpanzee jtXimpaen'zi, tjim'paenzi, ,/-, /- 


Chicot 'tJiko(Fr/i'ko) 




chin t/in jchinned tfind 


Chicot Ifiko 




China, c- 't/aina [-man, -men -man 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |3^et JEt |sang sasg | angry 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeB; E baS (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wntj" (§12) |jaw 650 |gorge gards |go go 



chlnaware 



81 



choke-full 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 



chinaware 't/amajwer, -jwaer; E 


-iWEa(r, ES 


Chisholm 't/izam [Chisolm 't/izam 


-jwaea(r 




Chiswick 't/izik 


chincapin 'f/igkapin 




chit t/it [chitted 't/itid 


chinch 't/mtj |-es -iz 




chitchat 't/it^t/aet |-ty -i 


chinchilla, C- t/m't/ila 




chiton 'kaitii, -tan, -ton 


chincough 'tjiiijkaf, -^kof 




Chittenden 'tjitiidan 


chine t/ain | chined t/aind 




chitter 'tjita^; ES 't/itaCr; j-ed -d 


Chinee t/ai'ni 




chitterling 't/ita^lig; ES 'tjita- 


Chinese tjai'niz |-'s -iz ('Chi^nese 


cabbage) 


chivalric '/ivlrik, Ji Vaelrik [-rous 'Jivlras 


chink tjigk [chinked t/igkt 




chivalry Ifivlri — The historical pron. 'tjivlri is 


chinkapin 'tjigkapin 




now rare. 


Chino- Japanese 'tjamojdsaepa'niz 




chive t/aiv 


Chinook, c- tji'nuk, -'nuk 




Chivers 't/iva^z; ES 't/ivaz 


chinquapin 'tjigkapin 




chlamys 'klemis, 'klaem- |-es -iz j-mydes 


chinse, chintze naut. tfints |-d -t 




'klaemijdiz 


chintz t/ints [chintzes 't/mtsiz 




Chloe 'klo'i 


Chios 'kaias, -ds 




chloral 'kloral, 'kbr-; S 'kloral 


chip tjip [chipped tjipt 




chlorate 'klorit, 'kbr-, -ret; S 'klor- 


Chipewayan ^tJipaVean 




chloric 'klorik, 'kbr-; S 'klonk 


Chipewyan jt/ipaVaian 




chlorid 'klorid, 'kbr-; S 'klorid; [-ride -raid. 


chipmunk 'tJipmAgk 




-rid 


Chippawa 'tjipajwa, -jWd, -jwe. 


-wa 


chlorin 'klorin, 'klar-; S 'klorin; [-rine -rin, 


Chippendale 't/ipan^del 




-rin 


Chippenham 'tjipanam 




chlorinate 'klori^net, 'kbr-; S 'klor-; |-d -id 


chipper 't/ipa^; ES 'tJipaCr; [-ed -d |-ing 


chlorite 'klorait, 'kbr-; S 'klorait 


'tfiparig, 'tjiprig 




chloroform 'klor a jf arm, 'kbra-; ES 'klor a - 


Chippewa 't/ipajWa, -jWd, -^we. 


-wa [-way 


yfaam, E+'klara- 


-iwe 




chlorophyll, -yl 'kloraifil, 'kbra-; S 'klor a - 


chippy 't/ipi 




chloroplast 'klorajplaest, 'kbra-; S 'klora- 


chirk tjyk; ES tjsk, t/yk; [ed -t 




chlorous 'kloras, 'kbr-; S 'kloras 


chirm, charm tfym, tjarm; ES t/sm, tfym. 


Choate t/ot 


tjaim 




choate adj 'koet 


chirograph ^aira^graef; E+-igraf, 


-igraf 


chock tjak [chocked tjakt 


chirographer kai'ragrafa^, -'rug-; 


ES -fa(r; 


chockablock 'tjaka'blak 


[-phy -fi 




chock-full 'tj"ak'ful 


chirographic jkaira'graefik |-al -1 




chocolate 'tjakht, -kalit, 't/ak-, 't/ok-; S 


Chiron 'kairan, -ron, -ran 




'tJak-, 'tjuk-, 't/ak- 


chiropody kaiVapadi |-dist -dist 




Chocorua tja'karawa./a-, -'kar, -'knr- 


chiropracter 'kaira^praekta'; ES -jpraekt3(r 


Choctaw 'tjakta 


chiropractic jkaira'praektik 




choice t/ais [choices 't/aisiz 


chirp t/yp; ES tjsp, tjyp; |-ed -t 




choir kwair; ES kwaia(r; [-ed -d 


chirr tfy; ES t/3(r, tjy; |-ed -d 




choirboy 'kwairjbai; ES 'kwaia- 


chirrup 't/irap, 'tjyap; ES+'tJsr-, 


'tjAr- 


choke tjok [choked tjokt; iNEngd+tpik (§46) 


chirurgeon kaiVydsan; ES -Vsds 


-, -'rydj- 


chokebore 'tjokjbor, -ibar; ES -^boaCr, E+ 


chirurgery kai'rydsari; ES -'rads 


-, -Vyds- 


-jbaaCr; |-d -d 


chirurgic kai'rydsik; ES -'rsds-, - 


Vyds- 


chokecherry ^tJok^tXeri 


Chisago jtfisa'go 




chokedamp 't/ok^daemp 


chisel 't/iz} [-ed -d [-ing 'tfizbg, - 


zJiO 


choke-full 't/ok'ful 



[full ful [tooth tue [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish d^f [vision 'visan [Eden 'idi^ [cradle 'kred| [keep 'era 'kipip 



chold 



82 



chronometric 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 



chold dial. '/ would' t/ud 


crisscross 'kris^kras, -jkrns |-es -iz 


choler 'kala^; ES 'kab(r 


Christ Jesus kraist, given name krist, kris 


cholera 'kabra 


Christabel 'kristajbel 


choleric 'kalsrik 


Christchurch 'kraist ^t/ytj"; ES -.t/stj, -.tjytj 


cholesterol ka'kstajtol 


christcross 'kris^kros, -jkros |-es -iz 


Cholmley, -meley, -mondeley, Chomley 


christen 'krisn |-ed -d j-ing 'knsnig, -snig 


'tjAmli 


Christendom 'krisndam 


choose tfuz |-s -iz | chose tjoz ] chosen 'tjozn 


Christian 'kristjan 


chop 'j'aw' tjap j-s -s = chap 


Christiana jkristi'aena 


chop V tfap [chopped tjapt 


Christiania jkristi'ania, kns'tjama 


chopf alien 't/apjfDbn, -^foln 


Christianity jkristji'aenati, kris't/aenati 


Chopin Ifopaen./o'paen (Fr/o'p*) 


Christianize 'kristjan^aiz \-s -iz |-d -d 


chopin, -e measure 'tjapin 


Christie 'kristi 


chopine, -in ^patten' 'tJapin, tjo'pin 


Christina kns'tina |-tine -'tin ('Chrisjtina 


choppy 't/api 


'Day) 


chopstick 'tjapjstik 


Christlike 'kraist Jaik [Christly 'kraistli 


chop suey, sooy 't/ap'sui, -'siui 


Christmas 'krismas |-es -iz 1-ed -t 


choral adj 'koral, 'karal; S 'koral |-ly -i 


Christmastide 'krismas,taid 


choral, -e n ko'ral, ka-, 'koral, 'kor-; S koVal, 


Christopher 'kristafa^; ES 'kristafa(r 


'koral 


Christy 'kristi 


Chorazin koVezin 


chroma 'kroma 


chord kord; ES kaad; |-ed -id 


chromate 'kromet |-d -id 


chore tjor, tjar; ES tJoaCr, E+tX33(r; |-d -d 


chromatic kro'maetik |-al -1 1-ally -li, -ikli 


chorea ko'ria, k3-; S ko'ria; j-l -1 j-reic -Viik 


chromatin 'kromatin 


choreography jkon'agrafi, jka-, -'og-; S ^ko- 


chrome krom | chromed kromd [chromic 


choric 'korik, 'kor-, 'kar-, 'kor- 


'kromik 


chorister 'korista', 'kar-, ^kor-; ES -t3(r 


chromium 'kromiam 


chorography ko'ragrafi, ka-, -Vog-; S ko- 


chromo 'kromo 


choroid 'koroid, 'kor-; S 'kor- 


chromolithograph ^kromo'liea^graef; E+ 


chortle 'tjDrtl; ES 't/aatl; j-d -d j-ling -tlig, 


-jgraf, -,graf 


-thrj 


chromosome 'kroma ^som 


chorus 'koras, 'karas; S 'koras; |-es -iz j-ed -t 


chromosphere 'kroma^sfir; ES -jsfia(r, S+ 


chose past of choose tJoz 


-isfea(r 


chose 'property' Joz choses 'Joziz 


chronic 'kranik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 


chosen pptc of choose 'tjozri 


chronicle 'kranikl j-d -d [ling -klig, -klig 


Chosen 'Korea' H/o'sen 


chronicler 'kranikla^; ES -kla(r 


chough t/Af 


Chronicles 'kraniklz 


chouse t/aus |-s -iz 


chronograph 'kranajgraef; E+-jgraf, -igraf 


chow tjau 


chronographic ^krana'graefik j-al -1 [-ally -li, 


chowchow 'tjauitjau 


-ikh 


chowder 't/auda^; ES H/audaCr; j-ed -d |-ing 


chronologer kra'naladsa^; ES -dsaCr; |-gy 


'tjaudarig, -dng 


-dsi l-gist -dsist 


chow mein 'tjau'inen 


chronologic ^krana'ladsik |-al -1 |-ally -li. 


Chrestien, -et-, de Troyes Fr kretjada'trwa 


-ikli 


chrestomathy kres'tamaOi 


chronometer kra'namata'; ES -'namata(r; 


chrism 'krizam |-ed -d 


|-try -tri 


chrismal 'krizml |chrismale knz'meli 


chronometric ^krana'mEtrik j-al -1 |-ally -li, 


chrisom 'knzam 


-ikh 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angry 'aeg-gn 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj", wot/ (§12) |ja\v dsa |gorge gards |go go 



chronoscope 



83 



CIO 



chronoscope 'kranajskop; ES + 'kron- 


cicatrize 'sika^traiz j-s -iz |-d -d 


chronoscopic jkrona^skapik |-ally -h, -ikh 


cicely 'sisli |-hes -liz 


chronoscopy kro^naskspi; ES+-'nDS- 


Cicely 'sisli 


chrysaUd 'krislid 


Cicero 'sisa^ro |-nian jSisa 'reman 


chrysalis 'krislis |-es -iz [-Hdes kn^saelsidiz 


cicerone jSisa'roni, jtjitja'roni {It itjit/e- 


chrysanthemum kris'aenOsmam 


Vo:ne) 


Chryseis krai'siis |-'s -iz 


Cid sid {Sp eit$) 


Chrysler 'kraisla^; ES 'kraisl3(r 


cider 'saida^; ES 'saidaCr 


chrysoberyl 'krisajberal, -il 


cider-mill 'saida^jinil; ES 'saida- 


chrysolite 'krisl^ait 


cider-press 'saida^jprss; ES 'saida-; |-es -iz 


chrysoprase 'krisa^prez 


cigar SI 'gar; ES si'ga:(r, E+-'ga:(r 


Chrysostom ^knsastam, kris'astam, -'ds- 


cigarette, -ret ^siga'ret, 'sigajtet 


chthonian 'Oonian |-onic 'Oanik; ES+'Gon- 


cilia pi 'silia \sg cihum 'siliam 


chub t/Ab Ichubbed 'tJ"Abid 


cihary 'sili^eri 


chubby 'tjAbi Ichubbily 'tjAbli, -di 


ciliate 'sihit, 'sih^et |-ated -iCtid 


chuck t/Ak 1 chucked tjAkt 


Cihcia sa'lija, -Jia |-n -n 


chuck-full 't/Ak'ful 


cilium 'siliam 


chuckle 'tjAkl |-d -d |-ling 'tjAkhg, -kjig 


Cimabue jt/ima'bui (7/ jtjima'bure) 


chucklehead 'tjAkl^hed 


Cimarron 'simajron, jSima'ron {Am Sp 


chud dial. 'I would' tfud 


jsima'rran) 


chuff t/Af 1 chuffed t/Aft 


Cimber 'simba^; ES 'simba(r 


chug tfAg Ichugged t/Agd 


cimex 'saimsks |cimices 'simajsiz 


chukker, -kar 't/Aka^; ES 'tjAkaCr 


Cimmerian sa'nurian 


Chulmleigh 'tjAinh 


cinch sint/ |cinches 'sintjiz [cinched sintjt 


chum tfAm | chummed tjAmd j-my -i 


cinchona, C- sin'kona 


chump t/Amp |chumped tjAmpt 


Cincinnati jSinsa'naeti, -'naeta; E-|--'nat-; — 


Chungking 't/ug'kig 


-ti b' -ta seem about equally frequent loc. 


chunk t/Aijk [chunked t/Agkt 


and generally. 


church, C- tjs^tj; ES t/stj, tjytj"; |-es -iz |-ed-t 


Cincinnatus jSinsa'netas [-'s -iz 


Churchill 'tj3^tXri, -3l; ES 't/st/-, 'tjytj- 


cincture 'sigkija^; ES 'sigktJaCr; |-d -d 


churchman, C-, -men 'tjs^tjman; ES see 


cinder 'sinda^; ES 'sinda(r; |-ed -d |-ing 


church 


'sindrig, 'sindarig 


churchwarden 'tJytJVordn, -jwardn; ES 


Cinderella jSinda'rela 


't/st/'waadn, 't/yt/'waadn, -jwoadn 


cinema 'smama 


churchyard 'tjytjjard; ES 'tjstjjaid, 'tfa-tf- 


cinematograph iSma'maetajgraef; E+-jgraf, 


Ja:d, E+-ja:d 


-,graf 


churl tjyl; ES tjsl, t/yl; |-ed -d 1-ish -ij 


cinematography jSinama'tagrafi, -'tog- 


churn tfa^n; ES tjsn, t/yn; |-ed -d 


cineraria, C- jSina'tEfia, -'rer- 


churr tjy; ES tjalr, tjy; |-ed -d 


cinerarium jSina'tEriam, -'rer- \pl -ria -ria 


chute Jut Ichuted Ifutid 


cinerary 'sinajteri 


chutney, -nee 't/Atni 


Cingalese jsigga'liz 


Chuzzlewit 'tjAzl^wit 


Cinna 'sina 


chyle kail [chylous ^kailss 


cinnabar 'smajbor; ES -jba:(r, E+-jba:(r 


chyme kaim |chymous 'kaimas . 


cinnamon 'sinaman [-ed -d 


Cibber 'siba-; ES 'sibaCr 


cinque sigk 


ciborium si'boriam, -^bar-; S -'bor-; |-s -z 


cinquefoil 'sigk^fail 


|-ia -13 


Cinque Ports 'sigk'ports, -'parts; ES -'poats, 


cicada si^keda, -^kada 


E+-'paats 


cicatrix 'sikatriks |-es -iz | -trices jSikaHraisiz 


CIO 'si^ai'o 



[full ful [tooth tue [further 'fs^Sa^; ES 'faSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



cion 



84 



cithara 



cion 'scton 'saian 
Cipango si'paeggo 
cipher 'saifa^; ES ^saif3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

%aifng, ^aifsrig 
cipolin 'sipslin 
circa 'syka; ES 'saka, 'ss'ka 
Circassia sa^'ksejia, -Ja; ES sa-; |-n -n 
Circe 'sysi, -si; ES 'sss-, 'sys- 
circinate 'sysn^et; ES 'sss-, 'sys- 
circle 'sykl; ES 'sskl, 'sykl; [-d -d 1-ling 

-kho, -khg 
circlet 'ss'klit; ES 'ssk-, 'syk- 
circuit 'sykit; ES 'sskit, 'sa^kit; |-ed -id 
circuitous sa^'kjuitas, -'kiu-; ES sa-; |-ty -ti 
circular 'sykjala^; ES 's3kJ3l3(r, 'sykjalaCr 
circularity jsykja'laerati; ES jssk-, jss^k- 
circularize 'sykjala^raiz; ES 'ssk-, 'syk-; 

|-s -iz |-d -d 
circulate 'sykjajet; ES 'ssk-, 'syk-; |-d -id 
circulation jsykja'leXan; ES ^ssk-, jsyk- 
circulatory 'sykjalajtori, -jtori; ES 'sskjala- 

jtori, 'syk-, E+-jt3ri 
circumambient jsykam'aembiant ; ES jssk-, 

jsyk- 
circumambulate jsykam'aembjajlet; ES jssk-, 

iSyk-; |-d -id 
circumaviate jsykam'evijct; ES ^ssk-, ^ss^k-; 

l-d -id 
circumcise 'sykam^saiz; ES 's3k-, 'syk-; 

|-s -IZ |-d -d 
circumcision jSykam'sisan; ES ^ssk-, ^syk- 
circumference sa^'kAmfarans, sa'kAm-; ES 

sa-; |-s -IZ — In the 2d pron. ^ has become a 

by r -dissimilation {§121) . 
circumferential sa^jkAmfa'renJal; ES sa-; 

J-ly-i 
circumflex 'sykam^fleks; ES 's3k-, 'syk-; 

|-es -IZ 1-ed -t 
circumfluent sa^'kAmfluant; ES sa- 
circumfuse ^sykam'fjuz, -'fiuz; ES jssk-, 

jsyk-; |-s -iz j-d -d 
circumjacence jsykam'dsesns; ES jssk-, 

iSyk-; |-cy -i |-cent -snt 
circumlocution ^ss^kamlo'kjujan, -'kiu-; ES 

jssk-, jsyk- 
circumlocutory jsykam'lakjajtori, -jtari; ES 

iSsk-, jsyk-, -'Ink-, E+-jt3ri 
circumnavigable jss^kam'naevagabl; ES jSsk-, 

jsyk- 



cireumnavigate jSa'kamWvajget; ES jsak-, 

jsyk-; |-d -id |-tor -9^; ES -a(r 
circumnavigation jsykanijnaeva'ge/an; ES 

jsak-, jsyk- 
circumpolar jsykam'pola^; ES jS3kam'pola(r, 

iSykam'pol3(r 
circumscribe ,s3^kam'skraib; ES ^ssk-, ^ss^k-; 

|-d -d ('circum^scribed 'halo) 
circumscription jsykam'sknpjan; ES jSsk-, 

iSyk- 
circumspect 'ss^kam^spEkt; ES 'ssk-, 's^k- 
circumspection jsykam'spEkJan; ES ^ssk-, 

;syk-; |-tive -tiv 
circumstance 'sykam^staens; ES 'ssk-, 'syk-; 

|-s -IZ |-d -t 
circumstantial jsykam'staen/al; ES jSsk-, 

jsyk-; |-ly -i 
circumstantiality jsykamjstaenji'jebti; ES 

jSsk-, ,syk- 
circumstantiate jsykam'staen/ijct; ES jSsk-, 

jsyk-; |-d -id 
circumvallation jS3'kamvae'leJ'3n; ES jSsk-, 

jss^k- 
circumvent jsyksmHxnt; ES ^ssk-, jsyk-; 

|-ed -id |-vention -Ven/an 
circus, C- 'sykas; ES 'ssk-, 'syk-; |-es -iz 
Cirencester 'sairan^sEsta^, 'sisita^, 'sizita^; ES 

-ta(r — All tliese prons. {including the -■») are 

used in Cirencester and vicinity. The BBC {in 

1936) recommended 'sisitar, 'saiaran^sEstar. 
cirque syk; ES ssk, sa^k 
cirrhosis siVosis 
cirro-cumulus jSiro'kjumjabs, -'kium- |-li 

-jlai 
cirrose 'siros 

cirro-stratus jSiro'stretas |-ti -tai 
cirrus 'siras ] cirri 'sirai | cirrous 'siras 
cisalpine, C- sis'aelpain, -pin 
cisco, C- ^sisko 

cismontane, C- sis'manten; ES+-'niDn- 
cispadane 'sispa^den, sis'peden 
cist sist, kist = kist 
Cistercian sis'ty/an; ES -'tsj-, -'tyj- 
cistern 'sista^n; ES 'sistan 
citable 'saitabl 
citadel, C- 'sitadl, -jdel 
citation sai'te/3n 

cite salt ]cited 'saitid |citeable 'saitabl 
cithara 'siOara 



Key; See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'p'ti (§6) [rate ret |yet jst |sang saeij |angrj' 'aeg^gri 
|bath baee; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wDiJ" (§12) Ijaw dja |gorge gards |go go 



cither 



85 



classification 



cither 'siOa^; ES 'si63(r; |-n -n 

citied 'sitid 

citify ^sitijfai |-fied -^faid 

citizen 'sitszn, -sn |-ry -ri j-ship -j/ip 

citrate 'sitret, -rit |-d -id |-ric -rik 

citriculture 'sitrijkAltXa^; ES -jkAltJaCr 

citrine 'sitnn 

Citroen 'sitrojcn 

citron 'sitran |-ade jSitran'ed 

citronella jSitr3n'£l3 

citrus, C- 'sitras | citrous 'sitras 

Citta del Vaticano It tjit'ta-deljvati'kamo 

cittern 'sita^n; ES 'sitan 

city 'siti [citied 'sitid 

city-state 'siti'stet 

Ciudad Trujillo Am Sp sju'tiatitru'hijo 

civet 'sivit j-ed -id 

civic 'sivik |-s -s |-ally -li, -ikli 

civil 'sivl, less freq. 'sivil |-ly -i 

civilian saViljan jcivility sa'vilati 

civilizable 'sivl,aiz3bl 

civilization iSivla'ze/an, -ai'z- 

civilize 'sivl,aiz j-s -iz [-d -d 

clabber 'klaeba^; ES -baCr; |-ed -d |-ing 

'klaebarig, 'klaebrig 
clack klaek | clacked klaekt 
Clackamas 'klaekamas |-'s -iz 
Clackmannan klaek'maenan |-shire -;Xir, -Ja^; 

ES -;Xi3(r, -/3(r 
clad klaed 

Claiborne 'kleba^n; ES 'kleban 
Claibornian kle'bornian, -'bam-; ES -'boan-, 

E+-'baan- 
claim klem [claimed klemd |-ant -ant 
Clair(e) kkr, klar; E kka(r, ES klaea(r 
clairvoyance kkr'vaians, klaer-; E kka-, ES 

kliea-; |-ant -ant 
Clallam 'klaelam 
clam klaem [clammed klsemd 
clamant 'klemant 
clambake 'klaem^bek 
clamber 'klaemba^; ES -ba(r; ]-ed -d |-ing 

'klaembarig, 'klaembrig 
clammy 'klaemi |-mily -mli, -mih 
clamor 'klaema-; ES 'klaema(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

'klfemrig, 'klaemarig 
clamorous 'klaemaras, 'kl^emras 
clamp klaemp [clamped klaempt 
clamshell 'klaemj/tl 



clan klaen [clanned klaend [-nish -ij 

clandestine klaen'dEStin 

clang klag [clanged klaegd 

clangor 'klaegga^, 'klaega^; ES -a(r; |-ed -d 

|-ous -as 
clank klsegk [clanked klaegkt 
clansman 'klaenzman [-men -man 
clap klaep [clapped klaept 
clapboard 'klaeba^d, 'klaebord, 'klaep^bord, 

-3rd; ES 'klajbad, 'klaeboad, 'klaepjboad, 

E+-aad; |-ed -id 
clapper 'klaepa^; ES 'klaepa(r; |-ed -d [-ing 

'klaeparig, 'klaeprig 
clapperclaw 'klaepa^jkla; ES 'klaepa-; j-ed -d 
claptrap 'klaep jtraep 
claque klaek 

Clara 'klera, 'klaera; S 'klaera 
clarabella, C- jklaera'bela 
Clare kkr, klaer; E kka(r, ES klaBa(r 
Claremont 'kkrmant, 'klaer-; E 'kka-, ES 

'klaea-, -mont 
Claremore 'kkrmor, 'klaer-, -mar; E 

'kkamoa(r, 'klaa-, -maa(r; S 'klaeamoa(r 
Clarence 'klaerans [-'s -iz 
Clarendon, c- 'klaerandan 
claret 'klaerat, -it 
Claribel 'klaera jbel 
Clarice 'klaeris |-'s -iz 
clarification ^klaerafa'kejan 
clarify 'klaera jfai |-fied -jfaid 
Clarinda kla'rinda 
clarinet jklaera'net ('clarionet 'solo) . 
clarion, C- 'klaerian 
clarionet ^klaeria'net 
Clarissa kla'risa 
clarity 'klaerati 

Clark, -e klark; ES kla:k, E-hkla:k 
Clarksburg 'klarksbyg; ES 'kla-.ksbsg, 

'kla:ksbyg, E-i-'kla:ks- 
clary 'kkri, 'klaen; S 'klaeri 
clash klaej [clashes 'klaejiz [clashed klae/t 
clasp klaesp; E+klasp, klasp; [ed -t 
class klaes; E-i-klas, klas; |-es -iz [-ed -t 
classic 'klaesik [-al -I [-ally -li, -ikli 
classicalism 'klaesikl,izam |-ist -ist 
classicaUty jklaesa'kaelati 
classicism 'klaesa jSizam [-cist -sist 
classifiable 'klaesajfaiabl 
classification jklaesafa'kejan 



[full ful [tooth tu8 [further 'fy'Sa'; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, huz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



classify 



86 



clientele 



classify 'klaes3,fai |-fied -jfaid 

classman 'klaesman; E+'klas-, 'klas-; |-men 

-man 
classmate 'klaes^met; E+'klas-, 'klas- 
classroom 'klaes^rum, -,Tvm; E+'klas-, 'klas- 
clatter 'klaeta^; ES 'klaet3(r; [-ed -d 
Claude Lorrain 'kbdlo'ren, -b-, -Id- (Fr 

klodlD^rje) 
Claudia 'kbdia |-n -n ]-ius -s 1-ius's -siz 
Claudio 'kbdijO, 'kbdjo 
clause kbz |clauses ^kbziz ]-d -d |-sal -1 
claustral 'kbstral 
claustrophobia ^kbstra'fobia 
clavate 'klevet |-d -id 
clave arch, past of cleave klev 
Claverhouse 'klaevaras, 'klaeva^z, 'klaev»- 

jhaus; ES 'klaevaras, 'klaevaz, 'klaeva^haus; 

|-'s -iz, Bri4+^k\e\- 
clavichord 'klaevajkard; ES -^kaad 
clavicle 'klaevakl 

clavier 'keyboard' 'klaevia^, kbVir, 'instru- 
ment' kbVir; ES 'klaevi'3(r, kla'viaCr 
claw kb I clawed kbd 
clay, C- kle | clayed kled 
Clayhanger 'kle^haeria^; ES -jhaeoaCr 
claymore 'klemor, -mar; ES -mo3(r, E + 

-m33(r 
Clayton 'kletn 

clean klin | cleaned klind |-ness 'klmnis 
clean-cut 'klin'kAt ('clean-^cut 'edges) 
cleanly adj 'kknli 
cleanly adv 'klinli 

cleanse kknz [cleanses 'kkiiziz |-d -d 
cleanup n 'klin^Ap 

clear kbr; ES kli3(r, S+kl£3(r; |-ed -d 
clearance 'klirans; S + 'kkr-; |-s -iz 
clear-cut 'klir'kAt; ES 'kha'kAt, S+'kka- 
clear-eyed 'khr'aid; S-h'kkr-; ('clear-^eyed 

'ox) 
Clearfield 'kbr.fdd; ES 'kha-, S+'klea- 
clearheaded 'klir'hedid; ES 'kba-, S-h'kka- 
clearing 'kbrig; S+'kkrig; |-house -,haus 
clear-sighted 'kbr'saitid; ES 'kba-, S-i-'kka- 
clearstarch 'kbr^startj; E 'kbajstaitj, -^sta:!/; 

S 'kbajstaitj, 'kka-; |-es -iz |-ed -t 
clearstory 'kbr,ston, -jston; E 'kba-; S 

'kbajSton, 'kka- 
Clearwater 'kbr^wota', -jwata^, -jwnta^; ES 

'kb3jW3t3(r, -jwat-, -jwnt-, S+'kka- 



cleat klit (cleated 'klitid 

cleavable 'kUvabl 

cleavage 'kUvids \-s -iz 

cleave 'clitig' kliv \past b" pptc cleaved klivd 

\arch. past clave klev or clove klov 
cleave 'split' kUv \past cleft kleft or cleaved 

klivd or clove klov; arch, clave klev \pptc 

cleft kkft or cleaved klivd or cloven 

'klovan; arch, clove klov 
Cleaveland, Moses 'kbvbnd 
cleek klik |-ed -t 
clef kkf 
cleft kkft 

cleistogamus klais'tagsmss, -'tog- 
clematis, C- 'kkmatis |-es -iz 
Clemenceau jkkman'so (Frklema'so) 
Clemens 'kkmanz |-'s -iz 
clement, C- 'kkmant | clemency 'kkmsnsi 
Clementina jkkman'tina 
Clementine /e??7. name 'kkman^tin, -jtain 
Clementine 'of Clement' 'kkmantin, -jtain 
clench kkntj [clenches 'klentjiz [-ed -t 
Cleomenes kU'amSjiiiz; ES-h-'om-; [-'s -iz 
Cleon 'klian, -on 

Cleopatra jklia'petra, -'patra, -'paetra 
clepsydra 'kkpsidra \-s -z j-drae -jdri 
cleptomania ^kkpta'mema |-iac -i,aek 
clerestory 'kbr;Stori, -jstori; E 'klia-; S 

'kbajstori, 'kka- 
clergy 'kls^dsi; ES 'kbdsi, 'klydsi; |-man 

-man |-men -man 
cleric 'kkrik |-al -1 |-ally -b, -ikb 
clerk klyk; ES kbk, klyk; Brit. kla:k, klark; 

|-ed -t |-ly -b 
Clerkenwell 'klykan^wel; ES 'kbk-, 'kls-k-; 

loc. 'kla:kanwal 
Clermont 'kkrmant; ES 'kkamant, -mnnt 
Clevedon 'kUvdan 
Cleveland 'kbvland 
clever 'kkva^; ES 'kkva(r; [-er 'kkvara^, 

'kkvra^; ES -ra(r; |-est -ist, -vrist 
Cleves klivz |-'s -iz 
clevis 'kkvis |-es -iz 
clew klu, kliu j-ed -d 
chche kli'/e 
click kbk |chcked kbkt 
clickety -clack 'kbkati'klaek | -click -'kbk 
client 'klaiant |-ed -id |-age -ids 
cHentele ^klaian'tel 



Key: See in full §§3-^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |yet ]zt |sang saeg |angr>^ 'aeo'gri 
Ibath baeO; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watf, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa Igorge gards |go go 



cliff 



87 



cloths 



cliff klif Icliffed klift 


clootie ^kluti, Sc 'klyti 


Clifford 'khfa^d; ES Mifad 


Cloquet klo'ke 


Clifton 'khftan |-ia khf'tonia 


close adj klos; NEngd+hY6s {§46) 


climacteric klai'maektsrik, jklaimsek'terik 


close n 'end' kloz |-s -iz 


climacterical jklaimaek^terikl |-ly -i 


close n 'enclosed place' klos |-s -iz 


climactic klai'maektik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 


close V kloz 1 closes 'kloziz [closed klozd 


climate 'klaimit |-d -id |-tal -itl, -all 


closefisted 'klos'fistid ('close-fisted 'miser] 


climatology jklaima'tabdsi; ES+-'tDl- 


close-fitting 'klos'fitig 


climature 'klaimajt/ur; ES -^tJuaCr 


close-grained 'klos 'gr end 


climax ^klaimaeks |-es -iz |-ed -t 


close-hauled 'klos 'hold 


climb klaim jclimbed klaimd j-er -a^; ES -3(r 


close-lipped 'klos'hpt ('close-clipped 'smile) 


clime klaim 


close-mouthed 'klos'mau'Sd, -'mauGt 


clinch, C- klintj" |-es -iz j-ed -t 


closet 'klazit, 'klnzit |-ed -id 


Clinedinst 'klaindmst 


close-up 'klosjAp 


cling khg | clung kUg | -stone -jston 


closure 'klosa^; ES 'klo33(r; |-d -d 


clinic 'klinik |-al -1 -ally -li, -ikli 


clot klat; ES-i-klnt; |-ted -id 


clinician kli'ni/an 


Cloten 'klotn 


clink kligk |clinked kliijkt |-er -»; ES -3(r 


cloth kbe, kloG |-ths 'pieces of cloth' -Sz, 


clinker-built 'khgka-jbilt; ES 'kligka- 


'kinds of cloth' -9s |-'s -0s 


clinkety-clink ^kligkati'kligk 


clothe V kloiJ |clothes kloSz |clothed kloSd — 


clinometer klai'namata^, kli-; ES -'namataCr, 


Note that the 3 sg pres is not kloz, the usual 


-'nom- 


pron. of the noun clothes, which occurs far 


cHnometric ^klaina'metrik |-al -1 


oftener. 


Clinton 'klintan 


clothes n kloz, klotSz — kloz has been the culti- 


Clio 'klaio 


vated colloq. pron. for 200 yrs. Dr. Johnson 


clip klip 1 clipped khpt |-per -a^; ES -3(r 


says "always clo's," Sheridan {1780) &r 


clique klik, klik 


Walker {1791) give only kloz. Oxf. Diet. 


Clitheroe 'klitJa^ro 


calls it "vulgar or careless." Fowler {Mod. 


clitoris 'klaitaris, 'klitaris |-es -iz 


Eng. Usage) denies this and says kloz is the 


Clitus 'klaitas |-'s -iz 


usual pron. [in Engd]. Webster Jias cor- 


Clive klaiv 


rectly labeled kloz 'Colloq.' for some 70 yrs. 


Cliveden 'klivdan 


Tfie L. A. shoivs an overwhelming majority 


cloaca klo'eka |-s -z |-acae -'esi 


for kloz. Tlie verb clothes klotiz keeps its ?i 


cloak klok |cloaked klokt; [NEngd+kVSk 


from clothe klot$ b' clothed klotid. The 


cloakroom 'klok^rum, -/rum 


noun has no sg klotS. 


cloche klo/ jcloches 'klojiz (Fr klbj") 


clothesbasket 'kloz^baeskit, 'klotJz-; E+ 


clock klak; ES-i-klok; |-ed -t 


-jbas-, -jbas- 


clockwise Makjwaiz; ES-t-'klok- 


clothesbrush 'kloz^biAj, 'kloSz- |-es -iz 


clockwork 'kiak^wyk; ES 'klakjwsk, -jwyk, 


clotheshorse 'kloz^hars, 'klotiz-; ES -^haas; 


'klok- 


|-S -IZ 


clod klad; ES+klod; |-ded -id 


clothesline 'klozjlam, 'klotJz- 


clodhopper 'klad^hapa'; ES 'kladjhap3(r. 


clothespin 'klozjpin, 'kloSz- 


'klnd^hopaCr 


clothespress 'klozjpres, 'kloSz- \-es -iz 


clodpate %lad^pet; ES-^'klnd-; |-d -id 


clothes-wringer 'kloz^riga', 'kloSz-; ES -jrig3(r 


clodpoll, -pole Madjpol; ES+ Mod- 


clothier 'klotSja-, -tJia^; ES 'kloSjaCr, -i-3(r 


clog klag, king, kbg [ged -d 


clothing 'klo^ig 


cloisonne ^kbiza'ne {Fr klwaza'ne) 


Clotho 'kloeo 


cloister 'kbista^; ES -st3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 


cloths 'pieces of cloth' klacJz, klntiz; 'kinds of 


Maistarig, ^kbistrig |-tral -tral 


cloth' kbes, kloes 



|full ful |tooth tue Ifurther 'fySa'; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fauz [dish dif [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



cloture 



cobra 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced uith n in E and S 



cloture 'klotja^, -tjur; ES 'klot/aCr, -tJuaCr; 


Cnossus 'nasas |-sus' -sas 


l-d-d 


Cnut ka'nut, -'niut, -'njut= Canute 


cloud klaud |clouded ^klaudid 


coach kotj |coaches 'kotjiz [coached kotjt 


cloudburst 'klaud^byst; ES -^bsst, -jbyst 


coach-and-four 'kotjan'for, -'far; ES -'foa(r, 


cloud-capped 'klaud^kaept 


E-^-'f3a(r 


cloudland 'klaud jlsend 


Coachella jkoa't/ela 


cloudlet 'klaudbt 


coachman 'kotjman |-men -man 


clough kUf, klau 


coact ko'aekt |-ed -id |-ction -kj"an j-ive -iv 


Clough kUf , Irel klox 


coadjutor ko'aedsata^, ^koa'dsuta^; ES -ta(r 


clout klaut Iclouted 'klautid 


coagulate ko'aegja Jet j-d -id |-lant -lant 


clove 'spice' klov jcloved klovd 


coagulation kojaegja'leXan, jkoaegja- 


clove past of cleave klov 


Coahoma jkoa'homa 


Clovelly klo'vEli 


Coahuila jkoa'wila 


cloven 'klovan 


coal kol 1 coaled kold 


cloven-footed Movan'futid ('cloven-jfooted 


coalesce jkoa'les 1-s -iz 1-d -t 


'ox) 


coalescence jkoa'lEsns 1-cy -i j-cent -snt 


cloven-hoofed 'klovan'huft, -'huft 


Coalinga jkoa'hrjga 


clover 'klova^; ES 'klov3(r; |-ed -d 


coalition ikoa'lijan ('coajUtion 'party) 


clover-leaf adj 'klova^jlif ; ES 'klova- 


coalless 'kollis 


Clovis 'klovis |-'s -iz 


coaming 'konug 


clown klaun 1-ed -d |-age -ids 1-ery -an 


coarse kors, kars; ES koas, E+kaas 


cloy kbi 1-ed -d |-edness -idnis 


coarse-grained 'kors'grend, 'kars-; ES 'koas-. 


club kUb 1 clubbed kUbd 


E-f-'kaas- 


clubbable, clubable 'kUbabl 


coarsen 'korsn, 'karsn; ES 'koasn, E+'kaasn; 


clubfoot 'kUb'fut, -,fut 


1-ed -d 1-ing -snirj, -snig 


clubfooted 'kUb'futid ('clubifooted 'sophisms) 


coast kost Icoasted 'kostid j-al -1 [-ally -li 


clubland 'kUbjlaend 


coastward 'kostwa^d; ES 'kostwad 


clubman 'kUbman, -jmaen |-men -man, 


coastways 'kost^wez 1-wise -jwaiz 


-jm£n 


coat kot Icoated 'kotid; \NEngd+\:6i (§46) 


clubwoman 'kUb^wuman, -,wum- |-men 


coati ko'ati 


-jwinun, -an 


coattail 'kot,tel |-ed -d 


cluck kUk 1 clucked kUkt 


coauthor ko'aOa^; ES -'a0a(r; [-ship -//ip 


clue klu, kliu j-d -d 


coax koks | coaxes 'koksiz | coaxed kokst; 


clumber 'kUmba-; ES 'kUmbaCr 


INEngd+k'Sks (§46) 


clump kUmp | clumped kUmpt 


coaxal ko'aeksl 1-xial -ksial 1-xially -ksiali 


clumsy 'kUmzi |-sily -zali, -zili 


cob kab |-bed -d 


clung klAo 


cobalt, C- 'kobalt 


Cluniac 'klunijaek, 'khuni- 


Cobbett 'kabit 


Cluny 'kluni, 'kliuni {Fr kly'ni) 


cobble 'kabl j-d -d |-ling 'kablig, -blig 


cluster 'kksta-; ES -ta(r; j-ed -d |-ing 


cobbler 'kabla^; ES 'kabla(r; |-y -i 


'klAstriQ, 'kUstang 


cobblestone 'kabljston 


clutch kUtJ 1 clutches 'kUtJiz j-ed -t 


Cobden 'kabdan 


clutter 'klAta^; ES 'klAta(r; j-ed -d 


Cobh kov 


Clutton-Brock 'kktn'brak 


Cobham 'kabam, 'kabm 


Clyde klaid |-bank -^baegk |-sdale -Zjdel 


Coblenz 'koblents l-'s -iz 


Clymer 'klaima^; ES 'klaima(r 


Cobleskill 'kobjz,kil, 'kobl.skil 


Clytemnestra, -taem- jklaitam'nestra 


Cobourg Can 'kobyg; ES 'kobsg, -byg 


Cnidus 'naidas |-'s -iz 


cobra 'kobra 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi jpity 'piti (§6) Irate ret lyet J£t jsang saeg |angr\- 'seg-gri 
Ibath baeO; E baO (§10) lah a Ifar far |watch watj", wntj (§12) jjaw dsa |gorge gards jgo go 



Coburg 



89 



coexecutQr 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with d in E and S 



Coburg Germany 'kobyg; ES -bag, -byg; {Ger 


cocksure 'kak'Jur; ES -lfua(r; ('cock-sure 


K- 'ko:burk) 


'plan) 


Coburn 'kobs'n; ES 'koban; c/Cockbum 


cockswain 'kaks^i, 'kak jS wen 


cobweb 'kabjweb |-webbery -iWebari, -bri 


cocktail 'kak^tel j-ed -d 


coca 'koka 


coco 'koko 


cocaine, -ain ko^ken, 'koken |-ism -'kenizam 


cocoa 'koko, 'koka 


coccus 'kakas ] cocci 'koksai 


coconut, cocoa- 'kokanat, 'koka^nAt 


coccygeal kak^sidsial 


cocoon ka'kun, ku'kun 


coccyx 'kaksiks |-es -iz |coccyges kak'saidsiz 


Cocos 'kokas 


Cochin, c- 'kot/m, 'kat/in 


cocotte ko'kat, ka- {Fr ka'kat) 


Cochin China 'kotjin't/aina, 'katj- 


cocytus, C- ko'saitas j-'s -iz 


cochineal jkatja'nil ('cochijneal 'dye) 


cod, C- kad [codded 'kadid 


cochlea 'kaklia | cochleae 'kakhji 


C.O.D. 'si.o'di 


cochlear 'kaklia-; ES 'kakli'3(r 


coda 'koda 


Cochran, -e 'kakran 


Coddington 'kadigtan 


cock kak | cocked kakt 


coddle 'kadi |-d -d |-ling 'kadbg, 'kadlig 


cockade kak'ed |-aded -'edid 


code kod [coded 'kodid 


cock-a-doodle jkaka'dudl |-d -d 


codefendant jkodi'fendant 


cock-a-doodle-doo 'kakajdudl'du 


codeine 'kodijin, 'kodin |-dein -dun 


cock-a-hoop jkaka'hup, -'hup 


codex 'kodsks |-es -iz |codices 'koda^siz. 


Cockaigne ka'ken 


'kad Tlw o in codices is by analogy with 


cockalorum jkaka'loram, -'bram; S -'loram 


the singidar. The lo7ig o of Latin becomes 


cock-and-bull story 'kakan'buljStori, 'kakg-, 


short in English, as in orator, prominent. 


-jStari; S -jStori 


solitude, nominal, etc. 


cockatoo jkaka'tu ('cockaitoo 'orchis) 


codfish 'kadjfij j-'s -iz 


cockatrice 'kakatris |-s -iz 


codger 'kadsa^; ES 'kadsaCr 


cockboat 'kak^bot 


codices 'koda,siz, 'kad- • — see codex 


Cockburn 'koba^n; ES 'koban; cf Coburn 


codicil 'kadasi, -jsil 


cockchafer 'kak^tjefa^; ES -jt/efaCr 


codify 'kadajfai, 'kod- |-fied -jfaid 


cockcrow 'kakjkro 


codling 'kadkg 


cocker 'kaka^; ES 'kaka(r; j-ed -d |-ing 


codpiece 'kad^pis [-pieces -jpisiz 


'kakarig, 'kakrig 


Cody 'kodi 


cockerel 'kakaral, 'kakral 


coed, co-ed 'ko'ed, 'koitd ('co^ed 'college) 


Cockermouth 'kaka^maG, -jinauG; ES 'kaka- 


coeducation jkoedsa'ke/an |-al -1 [-ally -k 


cockeye 'kak^ai |-d -d 


coefiicient jkoa'fijant, ^kci- 


cockfight 'kakjfait 


coeliac 'sikjtek 


cockhorse 'kak 'bars; ES -'baas; |-s -iz (a 


coempt ko'Empt |-ed -id j-ption -p/an 


'cockjhorse 'air) 


coenobite 'sEnajbait, 'sin- 


cockle 'kakl |-d -d |-ling 'kakkg, 'kaklig 


coequal ko'ikwal j-ed -d |-ly -i 


cocklebur 'kakl^by; ES -ib3(r, -jbs^ 


coequality jko-i'kwalati, 'kwnl- 


cockleshell 'kaklj/tl 


coerce ko'ys; ES -'as, -'ys; |-s -iz |-d -t 


cockloft 'kak^bft, -\nii 


coercion ko'3j"an; ES -'a/an, -'sj'an |-cive 


cockney, C- 'kakni |-ism -jizam 


-SIV 


cockpit 'kakjpit 


coetemal jkci'ts^nl; ES -'tanl, -'tynl; j-ly -i 


cockroach 'kak^rotj" j-es -iz 


Coeur de Lion jkyda'lian, -'Uan; ES jks-, 


cockscomb 'kaksjkom |-ed -d |-ry -n 


ik3^-;(Frkoerda'ljo) 


cockshot 'kakjat 


coeval ko'ivl |-ly -i |-ity jko«i'vaebti 


cockshut 'kakjAt 


coexecutor ^ko-ig'zekjata'; ES -'z£kjata(r 



Ifull ful Itooth tue [further 'fytS*; ES 'fstSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwari [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish AiS [vision 'vigan [Eden 'id^ [cradle 'kred) [keep 'em 'kipip 



coexist 



90 



collateral 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 



coexist jko-ig^zist |-ed -id j-ence -ans |-ent 


coinsure ^kcin'/ur; ES -Jfuacr; |-d -d 


-ant 


coir kair; ES kaia(r 


coextend ^ko'ik'stend |-ed -id |-tensive -nsiv 


coistrel, -il ^kaistral 


coffee, C- 'kafi, 'kofi, rmich less Jreq. 'kafi 


coition ko'i/an 


1 -house -jhaus |-pot -ipat — In coffee 3 


coitus 'ko-itas 


clearly prevails in all regions of US. 


coke kok | coked kokt 


coffer 'kafa^, 'kofa^; ES -f3(r; |-dam -jdaem 


Coke kuk, kok 


Coffey ville %3fi,vd, 'kofi-; S+-vl 


colander 'kAlanda^, 'kal-; ES -da(r 


cofi&n, C- 'kafin, 'kofm |-ed -d 


Colbert A7n name 'kolba^t, 'kal-, 'kol-; ES 


Coffman 'kafman, 'kof-, 'kaf- 


-bat; Fr name kal'berr 


cog kag, kog, lessfreq. kog |-ged -d 


Colby 'kolbi 


cogence 'kodsans l-cy -i j-gent -dsant 


Colchester 'koljtjESta^ ; 'koltXista-; ES -ta(r 


cogitable 'kadsitabl 


colchicum, C- 'kalt/ikam 


cogitate 'kadsa^tet |-d -id |-tive -iv 


Colchis 'kalkis |-'s -iz 


cogitation jkadsa'te/an 


cold kold Icolded %oldid 


cognac 'konjaek, 'kan- {Fr ka'jiak) 


cold-blooded 'kold'hUdid, -jbkdid ('cold- 


cognate 'kagnet 


-blooded 'mahce) 


cognition kag'mXan | cognitive 'kagnativ 


cold-hearted 'kold'hartid; ES -'ha:tid, E+ 


cognizable 'kagnazabl |-bly -bli 


-'ha:tid 


cognizance 'kagnazans, 'kan- \-s -iz |-nt -nt 


cold-shoulder v 'kold'/olda'; ES -'/olda(r; 


cognomen kag'noman j-s -z |-nomina 


|-ed -d 1-ing -Ifoldario. -Ifoldrig 


-'namana 


coldslaw 'kol/sla, 'kold- 


cogwheel 'kagjhwil, 'kng-, lessfreq. 'kag- 


Coldstream 'kold^strim 


cohabit ko'haebit |-ed -id 


cole kol 


cohabitation jkohaeba'tejan 


Coleman 'kolman 


Cohasset ko'haesit 


coleopterous jkoli'aptaras, jkak- 


coheir ko'er, -'aer; E -'£a(r, ES -'aea(r; |-ess -is 


Coleridge 'kolridg, not infreq. 'kolarids |-'s -iz 


1 -esses -isiz 


coleslaw 'kolisla 


cohere ko'hir; ES ko'hia(r, S+-'hea(r 


Colet 'kaht 


coherence ko'hirans; S + -'h£r-; |-ent -ant 


coleus, C- 'kohas |-es -iz 


coherer ko'hira^; ES -'hira(r, S+-'hera(r 


Coleville 'kolvil 


cohesion ko'hisan |-hesive -'hisiv 


colewort 'koljwyt; ES -^wst, -^wyt 


Cohoes ko'hoz |-'s -iz 


Colfax 'kolfieks |-'s -iz 


cohort 'kohart; ES 'kohaat 


colic 'kahk [cohcky 'kaliki 


cohortative ko'hartativ; ES -%aat- 


Colin 'kalin 


coif kaif 1 coifed kaift 


Coliseum jkala'siam 


coiffeur kwafer; ES -'f3(r, -'fy; {Fr kwa- 


colitis koHaitis 


ifoe:r) 


collaborate ka'laebaifet j-d -id [-tor -»; ES 


coiffure kwa'fjur, -'fiur; ES -'£jua(r, -'fiua(r; 


-a(r; j-tive -iv 


(Fr kwa'fy:r) 


collaboration ka^laeba 're/an 


coign, -e kam 


collage ka'las, ko- 1-gist -ist. {Fr ka'lars) 


coil kail 1 coiled kaild 


collapse ka'laeps |-s -iz j-d -t |-sible -abl 


coin kam |-ed -d |-age -ids |-ages -idsiz 


collapsibility kajlaepsa'bilati 


coincide jko-in'said |-cided -'saidid 


collar 'kala^; ES 'kala(r; |-ed -d 


coincidence ko'msadans \-s -iz |-cy -i |-nt -nt 


collarbone 'kala^'bon, -jbon; ES 'kala- 


coincidental kojinsa'dcntl, jkcm- |-ly -i 


collaret, -tte jkala'ret 


coincidently ko'msadantli 


collate ka'let, ka-, 'kalet |-d -id 


coinsurance jko-in'/urans |-s -iz 


collateral ka'laetaral |-ly -i 



Key: See in full §§3-A7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jst |sang saeg [angry 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



collation 



91 



comb 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with d in E and S 



collation ka'lejan, ka- 


colonnade ^kab'ned |-naded -'nedid 


colleague n 'kalig 


colony 'kabni 


colleague v ka'lig, ka- |-leagued -'ligd 


colophon 'kabjfan, -fan 


collect n 'kalekt 


color 'kAla^; ES 'kAb(r; j-ed -d 


collect V ka'kkt |-ed -id 


colorable 'kAbrabl |-bly -bh 


collectanea jkalek 'tenia 


Colorado ^kab'raedo, -'rado |-dan -dan — Ob- 


collectibility, -ability kajektd'bilstl 


servers disagree as to whether jkab'raedo or 


collectible, -able ka'lektabl 


-'rado prevails in the state. Tliere is little 


collection ka'kkjan 


doubt that in the US as a whole jkab'raedo 


collective ka'Iektiv |-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 


prevails. 


collectivistic kaJektaVistik j-ally -li, -ikh 


coloration jkAb 're/an 


collector ka'lekta^; ES -'Isktacr; |-ship -Jip 


coloratura jkAbra'tjura, ikal-, -'tiura, -'tura 


colleen 'kalin, ka'lin 


colorature 'kAbraitJur, 'kal-; ES -jtfua(r 


college 'kalids j-s -iz 


color-bearer 'kAla^jbera', -^baera^; E 'kAb- 


college-bred 'kalids'bred ( 'college- jbred 'man) 


ibera(r, ES -jbaera(r 


collegian ka'lidsan, -dsian |-giate -dsiit, -dsit 


color-blind 'kAb^bbind; ES 'kAb- 


collet 'kaht |-ed -id 


colorful 'kAWal; ES 'kAb-; |-ly -i 


Colleton 'kabtn 


colorimeter jkAb'rimata^; ES -'rimata{r 


collide ka'laid |-lided -'laidid 


colossal ka'lasl |-ly -i 


collie 'kah 


Colosseum jkab'sbm 


collied 'kalid 


Colossian ka 'la/an |-s -z 


collier 'kalja^; ES 'kalJ3(r; j-y -i 


colossus ka'lasas |-es -iz |-ssi -sai j-sus' -sas 


collimiate 'kalajmet j-d -id j-tion jkab'mejsn 


colporteur, -ter 'kal^porta', -iparta^; ES 


CoUingwood 'kalig^wud 


-ipoata(r, E+-jpaata(r; {Fr kalpar'toe:r) 


Collins 'kalinz |-'s -iz 


Colquhoun ka'hun 


Collin wood 'kalin^wud 


colt, C- kolt Icolted 'koltid; \NEngd+\:i\t 


collision ka'hsan j-al -1 


{§46) 


collocate 'kalojket |-d -id |-tion ^kalo'ke/an 


colter 'kolta^; ES 'kolta(r; |-ed -d 


collodion ka'lodisn 


Colton 'koltn 


colloid 'kabid |-al ka'bidl 


Colum 'kabm 


collop 'kabp IcoUoped 'kabpt 


Columb 'kabm 


colloquial ka'lokwial |-ly -i j-ism -^izam 


Columba ka'lAmba 


colloquiality kajlokwi'aebti 


Columbia ka'Umbia, -bja |-n -n 


colloquy 'kabkwi 


columbine, C- 'kabm^bain 


coUude ks'lud, -'liud |-d -id 


columbium ka'lAmbiam 


collusion ka'lusan, -'liusan |-sive -siv 


Columbus ka'bmbas |-'s -iz 


Colman 'kolman 


column 'kabm, humorous 'kaljam |-ed -d 


Cologne, c- ka'lon {Ger Koln, C- koeln) 


columnar ka'lAinna^; ES -'lAnma(r 


Colombia ka'bmbia {Sp ko'bmbja) j-n -n 


columniation 'columning' kajAmni'eJan 


Colombo ka'lAmbo, ks'lambo 


columnist 'kabmist, 'kabmnist 


Colon ko'lan, -'Ion {Am Sp ko'lon) 


Colusa ka'lusa, ka'husa 


colon 'kobn 


Colvin 'kolvin, 'kal- 


colon coin ko'lon |-s -z |-es -es 


coma 'stupor' 'koma 1-s -z 


colonel 'kynl; ES 'ksnl, 'kynl; 1-ed -d j-cy -si 


coma 'comet's head' 'koma [-ae -i 


colonial ka'lonial |-ism -^izam 


Comanche kc'raaent/i |-chean -tjian 


colonist 'kabnist 


comatose 'kamajtos, 'koma- 


colonization jkabna'zeXan, -ai'z- j-ist -ist 


comb kom | combed komd; \NEngd+ii6v\ 


colonize 'kab^naiz |-s -iz j-d -d 


(§46) 



|full ful Itooth tu6 Ifurther 'fytJa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
|using 'juzig jfuse fjuz, fiuz ]dish dif [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kred} [keep 'em 'kipm 



comb 



92 



commit 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 



comb 'valley' kum 




commandment ka'msendmant, -'maenmant; 


combat n 'kambaet, 'kAm- 




E+-an-, -an- 


combat v 'kambaet, 'kAm-, kam'beet |-tec 


-id 


commemorate ka'memajret |-rated -jretid 


combatant 'kambatant, 'kAm- 




commemoration kajmema'rejan 


combative kam'baetiv, 'kambativ, 'kAm- 




commence ka'mens |-s -iz |-d -t |-ment -mant 


combe kum 




commend ka'mend |-ed -id 


comber 'koma^; ES 'komaCr 




commendable ka'mendabl |-bly -bli 


combination jkaraba'nejan 




commendation jkaman'de/an, jkamen- 


combinative 'kamba^netiv, kam'bamativ 




commendatory ka'mendajton, -jtari; S -jtori 


combine n 'kambain, kam'bam 




commensurability kajmEnJara'bdati, -^men- 


combine v kam'bain |-bined -'baind [-dly ■ 


idh 


sara- 


combings 'komigz 




commensurable ka'men/arabl, -'mensara- 


combust kam'bAst |-ed -id 




I-bly ^bh 


combustibility kamjbAsta'bibti 




commensurate adj ka'mtnjarit, -'mensa- 


combustible kam'bAstabl j-bly -bh 




commensurate v ka'mEnJajret, -'mensa- j-d 


combustion kam'bAstJan 




-id 


come n malting kom, kum 




commensuration kajmEnJa'reJan, -^mensa- 


come V kAm |came kem jcome kAm — i?t 


nn- 


comment n 'kament 


stressed position often kam (kam'in!) 




comment v 'kament, lessfreq. ka'ment j-ed -id 


come-and-go 'kAman'go 




commentary 'kaman^tEri 


comedian ka'midian 




commentator 'kaman^teta^; ES -,teta(r 


comedienne ka^midi'sn {Fr kame'dJEn) 




commerce n 'kama^s, -mys; ES 'kamas, 


comedy 'kamadi 




-mss, -mys 


comely 'kAmli 




commerce v ka'mys; ES -'mss, -'mys; |-s -iz 


comestible ka'mestabl 




l-d-t 


comet 'kamit 




commercial ka'my/al; ES -'ms/-, -'msj"-; 


comfit 'kAmfit, 'kam- 




|-ly -I |-ism -jizam 


comfort 'kAmfa^t; ES -fat; |-ed -id 




commercialization kajmy/ala'zejan, -ai'z-; 


comfortable 'kAmfa^tabl; ES 'kAmfatabI 




ES -jms/-, -jmsj- 


comforter 'kAmfa^ta^, 'kAmfata^; ES -fata( 


r; — 


commercialize ka'myfal,aiz; ES -'ms/-, 


'kAmfata' shows r-dissimilation {§121). 




-'my/-; 1-s -iz |-d -d 


comfry 'kAmfri 




comminate 'kamajuet [-nated -^netid 


comic 'kamik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 




commination ,kama'nejan 


Cominius ka'mmias, -njas j-'s -iz 




commingle ka'miggl |-d -d 


Comintern jkamm'tyn, 'kamin^tyn; ES 


-3n, 


comminute 'kama^njut, -^niut, -^nut |-d -id 


-yn 




comminution jkama'njujan, -'niu-, -'nu- 


comitatus jkami'tetas 




commiserable ka'mizarabl 


comity 'kamati 




commiserate ka'mizajtet ] -rated -jetid 


comma 'kama |-ed -d 




commiseration ka^miza 're/an 


command ka'maend; ES-i--'mand, -'mand; 


commiserative ka'miza^retiv 


l-ed -id 




commissar jkama'sar; ES -'sa:(r, E-i--'sa:(r 


conomandant jkaman'daent, -'dant 




commissariat /kama'sEriat, -'saer-, -'ser- 


commandeer jkaman'dir; ES -'dia(r. 


s+ 


commissarj^ 'kama, sen 


-'deaCr; |-ed -d 




commission ka'mijan |-ed -d 


commander jka'maenda^; ES -da(r. 


E + 


commissionaire kajmijan'sr, -'aer; E -'sad. 


-'mand-, -'mand- 




ES -'aea(r 


commander in chief ka'maendarin'tjif; 


E+ 


commissioner ka'mi/ana', -'mi/na^; ES -na(r 


-'mand-, -'mand- 




commit ka'mit |-ted -id |-tal -\ 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet I sang saeg |angr}' 'asg-gn 
Ibath baed; E baO (§10) [ah a |far far |watch wat/, wo^f (§12) |jaw dsa Igorge gards |go go 



committee 



93 



complexion 



Those ivords below in whicli the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 



committee ka'miti |-d -d [-man -man, -^maen 

|-men -man, -^men 
commix ka'miks, ka- j-es -iz |-ed -t 
commixture ka'nukstJV, ka-; ES -'nukstJaCr 
commode ka'mod 
commodious kaWodiss 
commodity kaWadati 
commodore 'kamajdor, -jdar; ES -jdoa(r, E+ 

-jdaa(r 
common 'kaman |-ed -d |-ness 'kamannis 
commonage 'kamanids j-s -iz 
commonality ,kaman^aelati 
commonalty 'kamanalti 
commonplace 'kaman^ples j-s -iz 
common-sense adj 'kaman 'ssns ('common- 

'sense jway) 
commonweal 'kaman^wil 
commonwealth 'kaman^welO, 'kaman'wslO 
commotion ka 'mo/an 
communal 'kamjunj, kaWjunl, -'mm- j-ism 

-jizam |-ist -ist |-ly -i 
commune n 'kamjun, -miun 
commune v ka'mjun, -'miun |-d -d 
communicability kajmjunika'bilati, -^miun- 
communicable ka'mjunikabi, -'nuun- |-bly 

-bh 
communicant ka'mjunikant, -'miun- 
communicate ka'mjuna^ket, -'miun- j-d -id 
communication kajmjuna'ke/an, -^miun- 
communicative ka'mjunajketiv, -'miun- 
communion ka'mjunjan, -'miun- 
communique kajmjuna'ke, -jmmn- 
communism 'kamju^nizam |-ist -nist 
communistic jkamju'nistik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 

-ikh 
community ka'mjunati, -'miun- 
communize 'kamju^naiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
commutable ka'mjutabi, -'miut- 
commutate 'kamju^tet j-d -id |-ter -3^; ES -a(r 
commutation jkamju'te/an 
commute ka'mjut, -'miut |-d -id |-r -a^; ES 

-3(r 
Como 'komo 

compact adj kam'paekt ('com^pact 'mass) 
compact n 'kampaekt 
compact V kam'paekt |-ed -id 
companion kam'paenjan |-ed -d |-ship -i/ip 
companionable kam'paenjanabl |bly -bli 



companionate adj kam'paenjanit 

companionway kam'paenjanjwe 

company 'kAmpani, 'kAmpni |-nied -nid 

comparability ^kampara'bilati 

comparable 'kamparabl, -prabl |-bly -bh 

comparative kam'paerativ 

compare kam'per, -'paer; E -'pEa(r, ES 

-'paea(r 
Coniparetti ^kampa'reti {It jkompa'retti) 
comparison kam'paerasn 
compartment kam'partmant; ES -'pa:t-, E+ 

-'pa:t- 
compass 'kAmpas |-es -iz |-ed -t 
compassion kam'p«J"an j-ed -d |-ate -it 
compatibility kam,paeta'bilati 
compatible kam'paetabl |-bly -bli 
compatriot kam'petnat, less freq. -'paet- 
compeer kam'pir, 'kampir; ES -ia(r, S4--ea(r 
compel kam'pel [-led -d 
compellable kam'pelabl |-bly -bli 
compend 'kampend |-ious kam'pendias 
compendium kam'pendiam \-s -z |-dia -dia 
compensable kam'pensabj 
compensate 'kampan^set, -pen-, kam'penset 

l-d -id 
compensation jkampan'sejan, -pen- 
compensative 'kampanjsetiv, kam'pensativ 
compensatory kam'pensajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 
compete kam'pit |-peted -'pitid 
competence 'kampatans |-s -iz j-cy -i j-nt -nt 
competition jkampa'tijan 
competitive kam'petativ |-tor -ta^; ES -ta(r 
compilation jkampl'e/an, -pi'le/an 
compile kam'pail | -piled -'paild 
complacence kam'plesns j-cy -i |-cent -snt 
complain kam'plen |-ed -d |-ant -ant |-t -t 
complaisance kam'plezns, 'kamplijzaens |-sant 

-znt, -jzaent 
complement n 'kamplamant 
complement v 'kampla^ment |-ed -id 
complemental jkampla'mentl |-ly -i 
complementary jkampla'mEntari, -'mentri 
complete kam'plit |-d -id |-tion -'pli/an 
complex n 'kampleks \-es -iz 
complex adj kam'pkks, 'kampleks ('comiplex 

'act) 
complex V kam'pleks |-es -iz j-ed -t 
complexion, -plection kara'plek/an 1-ed -d 



|full ful |tooth tuG Ifurther 'fySa^; ES 'fstia [custom 'kAstam [while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



complexity 



concessionaire 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with d in E and S 



complexity kara'pleksati 

compliance kam'plaians |-cy -i 1-ant -ant 

complicate adj 'kamplakit 

complicate v 'kampla^ket j-cated -^ketid 

complication jkampb'kejan 

compKce 'kamplis j-s -iz 

complicity ksm'plissti 

compliment n 'kamplamant 

compliment 'kamplajment |-ed -id 

complimentary jkamplaWentari, -'mentn 

complin 'kampbn j-pline -plin, -plain 

comply kam'plai |-plied -'plaid 

component kam'ponant j-ed -id 

comport kam'port, -'part; ES -'poat, E+ 

-'p33t; |-ed -id 
compose kam'poz |-s -iz |-d -d j-dly -idli 
composite kam'pazit |-d -id |-tor -a^; ES -3(r 
compos mentis 'kampas'mentis 
compost 'kampost |-ed -id, -psstid 
composure kam'posa^; ES -'po33(r 
compote 'kampot [-poted -potid 
compound n 'kampaund 
compound adj kam'paund ('comjpound 

'word) 
compound v kam'paund, kam- |-ed -id 
comprehend ,kampri'hend |-ed -id |-ible -abl 
comprehensibility jkampri ^hensa 'bilati 
comprehensible jkampri'hEnsabl j-bly -bli 
comprehension jkampri'henj'an j-sive -siv 
compress n 'kampres |-es -iz 
compress v kam'pr£s |-es -iz j-ed -t |-edly 

-idb, -'presth 
compressibility kanijpresa'bilati 
compressible kam'presabl |-bly -bli 
compression kara'prejan |-sive -'presiv j-sor 

-'presa^; ES -a(r 
comprise, -ze kam'praiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
compromise 'kampra,niaiz j-s -iz |-d -d 
comptometer, C-kamp'tamata*^; ES -'tamata(r 
Compton 'kamptan, 'kAmptan 
comptroller kan'trola^; ES -la(r; j-ship -yjip 
compulsion kam'pAlJan |-sive -siv |-sory -sari 
compunction kain'pAokJ"an |-tious -/as 
compurgation ^kampy'ge/an, -pa^-; ES -p3-, 

-py-, -pa- 
computablHty kam;pjuta'bilati, -jpiut- 
computable kam'pjutabl, -'piut-, 'kampjuta- 

l-bly -bli 



computation jkampja'te/an, -pjc- 

compute kam'pjut, -'piut |-d -id 

comrade 'kamraed, 'kAm-, -nd 

Comstock 'kAmstak, -stok, -stak 

Comte kant {Fr kot) 

Comus 'komas |-'s -iz 

con 'against^ kan 

con 'study kan | conned kand 

con amore jkana'mon, -'man; S -'mon; {It 

jkona'mo:re) 
Conan 'kanan, 'konan 
Conant 'konant 

conation ko'ttejan |-al -1 [-tive 'kanativ 
concatenate kan'k£etn,et, kan- |-d -id 
concatenation jkankaetn'e/an, kan^kaetn- 
concave n 'kankev, 'kag- 
concave adj kan'kev, kan- ('coujcave 'surface) 
concave v kan'kev, kan- |-d -d | -cavity 

-'kaevati 
concavo-concave kan'kevokan'kev 
concavo-convex kan'kevokan'vEks 
conceal kan'sil |-ed -d |-edly -idb 
concede kan'sid |-ceded -'sidid 
conceit kan'sit |-ed -id 
conceivability kanjsiva'bilati 
conceivable kan'sivabl |-bly -bli 
conceive kan'siv |-ceived -'sivd 
concentrate 'kansrijtret, -sen- |-d -id 
concentration jkansn'trejan, -ssn- 
concentric kan'sentrik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 
Concepcion kanjsepsi'on {Am Sp kon- 

sep'sjon) 
concept 'kansept |-ption, C- kan'sepjan 
conceptual kan'sept/ual, -tjul |-ly -i 
concern kan'ss'n; ES -'san, -'syn; |-ed -d 

|-edly -idb 
concert n 'kansyt, -sa't; ES -sst, -ss't, -sat 
concert v kan'syt; ES -'sst, -'syt; |-ed -id 
concertina jkansa^'tina; ES ^konsa- 
concertmaster 'kansa^t^maesta^; ES 'kansat- 

]maesta(r, E + -jmas-, -^mas- 
concertmeister 'kansa^t^maista^; ES 'kansat- 

^maista(r; {Ger Konzert- kan'tsertiinaistar) 
concerto kan't/Erto; ES -'t/eato; {It kon- 

'tjerto) 
concession kan'sejan 
concessionaire kanjse/an'er, -'aer; E -'£a(r, 

ES -'aea(r 



Key: See in full §§3~47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |yet jet Isang saeg langrj^ 'aeg-gri 
ibath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wotj" (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



concessionary 



95 



confederation 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with d in E and S 



concessionary kan'ss/aiijEn 

concessive kan'sesiv 

conch kagk, kngk |-ed -t 

Concho 'kantjo |Conchos 'kant/os |-s's -siz 

conchology kag'kabdsi, kng- |-gist -dsist 

concierge jkansi'ers; ES -'e35; {Fr ko'sjers) 

concihable kan'siliabl 

conciliate kan'silijct j-ated -^etid 

concihation kanjsili'ejan 

conciliatory ksn'siliSjtori, -jtDri; S -jtori 

concise kan'sais |-cision kan'sissn 

conclave 'kanklev, 'kag- 

conclude kan'klud, -'khud |-d -id 

conclusion kan'klusan, -'kliusan |-sive -siv 

concoct kan'kakt, kan- |-ed -id |-ction -k/an 

concomitance kan'kamatans, kan- j-cy -i 

I -ant -ant 
concord 'kankard, -'kag-; ES -kaad 
Concord Mass, NH ^kagka^d; ES 'kagkad; 

elsewftere in US, towns &" grape 'kankord; 

ES 'kankaad 
concordance kan'kardns, kan-; ES -'kaad-; 

|-s -iz |-d -t |-dant -dnt 
concordat kan'kardaet; ES -'kaadtet 
Concordia kan'kardia; ES -'kaadia 
concourse 'kankors, 'kag-, -kars; ES -koas, 

E+-kDas; |-s -iz 
concrete adj kan'krit, 'kankrit, much lessfreq. 

kag-, 'kag- ('conjcrete 'act) 
concrete n 'kankrit, kan'krit, much less freq. 

'kag-, kag- 
concrete v 'congeal' kan'krit; 'cement' 'kankrit, 

kan'krit |-d -id — see n 
concretion kan'krijan — see n 
concubinage kan'kjubanids, -'kiub- 
concubine 'kagkjujbain, 'kan- 
concupiscence kan'kjupasns, -'kiu- |-cent 

-snt 
concur kan'ks^; ES -'k3(r, -'ky; j-red -d 
concurrence kan'kyans; ES -'ksr-, -'kAr-, 

-'ky-; |-cy -i |-ent -ant 
concussion kan'kA/an |-sive -siv 
condemn kan'dem |-ed -d |-ing -ig 
condemnable 'subject to condemnation' kan- 

'demabl, 'fit to be condemned' kan'demnabj 

l-bly -bii 
condemnation jkandEm'ne/an, -dam- 
condemnatory kan'dEinnajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 



condensability kanjdensa'bilati 

condensable kan'densabl 

condensate kan'denset 

condensation ^kanden'se/an 

condense kan'dens |-s -iz |-d -t |-dly -idli 

condescend jkandi'send |-ed -id 

condescendence jkandi'sendans |-dent -dant 

condescension jkandi'sen/an 

condign kan'dain ('con^dign 'censure) 

condiment 'kandamant 

condition kan'dijan |-ed -d |-ing -J"anig, -J"nig 

conditional kan'difanl, -/nal |-ly -i 

condole kan'dol |-d -d 

condolence kan'dolans, 'kandalans |-s -iz 

condominium ^kanda'miniam 

condone kan'don [-d -d |-nation jkando'ne/an 

condor 'kanda^; ES 'kanda(r 

condottiere It jkondot'tje:re 

conduce kan'djus, -'dius |-s -iz \-d -t |-cive -iv 

conduct n 'kandAkt 

conduct V kan'dAkt |-ed -id 

conductance kan'dAktans \-s -iz 

conductibility kan^dAkta'bilati 

conductible kan'dAktabl 

conduction kan'dAk/an j-tive -tiv 

conductivity jkandAk'tivati 

conductor kan'dAkta^; ES -'dAkta(r 

conduit 'kandit, 'kanduit 

cone kon | coned kond 

Conejos ka'neas, -'nehas, -'nehos \-'s -iz 

(Am Sp ko'nehos) 
Conemaugh 'kana^ma 
conenose 'kon^noz |-s -iz 
Conestoga jkana'stoga 
coney 'koni, 'kAiu — see cony 
Coney 'koni 
confab 'kanfaeb 

confabulate kan'faebjajet |-lated -^letid 
confabulation kanjfaebja'le/an 
confect n 'kanfekt 

confect V kan'fekt j-ed -id |-ction -k/an 
confectionary kan'fek/anjen 
confectioner kan'fek/ana^, -k/na^; ES -n3(r 
confectionery kan'fEkJanjEri 
confederacy, C- kan'fedarasi, -'fedrasi 
confederate, C- n, adj kan'fedarit, -'fedrit 
confederate v kan'fEda^ret |-d -id j-tive -iv 
confederation kanjfEda'reJ"an 



[full ful |tooth tue Ifurther 'fytSa'; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



confer 



96 



conjugal 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with d in E atid S 



confer kan'fy; ES -'f3(r, -'fy; j-red -d 

conferee jkanfaVi 

conference 'kanfarans |-s -iz 

confess kan'fes |-es -iz |-ed -t |-edly -idli 

Confessio Amantis kan^feXijO a'maentis 

confession kan'fE/an |-al -1 |-ary -jcri 

confessor kan'fesa^; ES -'fesaCr 

confetti kan'feti (7/ kon'fetti) 

confidant, -nte ;kanf a 'daent, ^kanfa^daent 

confide kan'f aid |-fided -'faidid 

confidence 'kanfadans |-s -iz |-dent -dant 

confidential jkanfa'den/al |-ly -i 

configuration kan/figja're/an |-al -j |-ally -h 

confine n 'kanfain 

confine v kan^fain |-d -d j-dly -idli 

confirm kan'fa^m; ES -'fsm, -'fym; |-ed -d 

|-edly -idli |-atory -ajtori, -a^tari; S -a,tori 
confirmation jkanfa^'me/an; ES jkanfa- 
confirmative kan'fymativ; ES -'fsm-, -'fym- 
confiscate 'kanfis^ket, kan'fisket |-d -id 
confiscation jkanfis'ke/an 
confiscatory kan'fiska,tori, -jtari; S -jtori 
confiture 'kanfijt/ur; ES -/tXua(r 
conflagrate 'kanfla^gret | -grated -jgretid 
conflagration ,kanf la 'gre/an 
conflate kan'flet |-d -id |-tion -'fle/an 
conflict n 'kanflikt 

conflict V kan'flikt |-ed -id |-ction -kjan 
confluence 'kanfluans, -fliu- |-s -iz |-ent -ant 
conflux 'kanfUks |-es -iz 
conform kan'farm; ES -'faam; |-ed -d 
conformable kan'farmabl; ES -'faam-; |-bl}' 

-bli 
conformance kan'farmans; ES -'faam-; |-s -iz 
conformation jkanfar'mejan; ES -faa- 
conformist kan'farmist; ES -'faam- 
conformity kan'farmati; ES -'faam- 
confound kan'faund, kan-; 'damn' 'kan'faund 

|-ed -id 
confrere 'kanfrer; ES -fr£a(r 
confront kan'frAnt |-ed -id 
Confucian kan'fjujan, -'fiu- |-ism -jizam 
Confucius kan'fju/as, -'fiu- |-'s -iz 
confuse kan'fjuz, -'fiuz |-s -iz |-d -d [-dly 

-idh. -dh 
confusion kan'fjusan, -^fiujan 
confutation jkanfju'te/an, -fiu- 
confutative kan'fjutativ, -'fiu- 



confute kan'fjut, -'fiut |-d -id 

Congaree jkagga'ri 

conge 'kanse {Fr ko'se) 

congeal kan'dsil |-ed -d 

congee 'kand3i 

congener 'kandsina^; ES -na(r 

congenial kan'dsinjal |-ly -i 

congeniality kan^dsini'selati, -jdsinji'aelati; 

-idsin'jailati 
congenital kan'dsEnatl |-ly -i 
conger, C- 'kagga^; ES 'kagga(r 
congeries kan'dsiriz, -'dsiri^iz 
congest kan'dsest |-ed -id |-ive -iv [-stion 

-st/an 
conglobate kan'globet, 'kagglojbet 
conglomerate n, adj kan'glamarit; -'glamnt 
conglomerate v kan'glamajtet | -rated -^retid 
conglomeration kan jglama 're/an 
Congo 'kaggo 

congratulate kan'graet/ajet |-lated -jletid 
congratulation kanjgraetJa'IeXan 
congratulatory kan'graetjalajton, -jtari; S 

-jtori 
congregate 'kaggri^get [-gated -igetid 
congregation jkaggri'gefan |-al -1, -/nal |-ally 

-li, -/nail 
Congregational jkaggri'ge/anl, -/nal [-ism 

-jizam |-ist -ist 
congress 'kaggras, -is |-es iz |-ed -t 
congressional kan'gre/anl, -Jnal |-ly -i 
congressman 'kaggrasman |-men -man 
congresswoman 'kaggras^wuman, -jwu- |-men 

-jwimin, -an 
Congreve 'kangriv, ^kag- 
congruence 'kaggruans, 'kan^gruans, -jgriu- 

|-s -IZ |-cy -I |-ent -ant 
congruity kan'gruati, -'griu- 
congruous 'kaggruas 
conic 'kanik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikh 
conifer 'konafa^, 'kan-; ES -fa(r 
coniferous ko'nifaras 
Coningsby 'kAnigzbi 
Coniston 'kanistan 
conjectural kan'dsekt/aral [-ly -i 
conjecture kan'dsekt/a'; ES -tja(r; |-d -d 

|-ring -'dsekt/arig, -'dsskt/rig 
conjoin kan'dsain [-ed -d |-edly -idli |-t -t 
conjugal 'kandgugl |-ty -i 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angry 'aeg-gn 
|bath baeO; E bae (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



conjugality 



97 



consociate 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with d in E and S 



conjugality ^kandsu'gaebti 

conjugate n, adj 'hands ugit, -iget 

conjugate v 'kandsa^get | -gated -igetid 

conjugation jkand33'geXan 

conjunct ksn'dsAgkt ('con^junct Verb) 

conjunction kan'dsAgkJan |-tive -tiv 

conjunctiva jkandsAgk'taiva 

conjunctivitis kanjdsAgktaVaitis 

conjuncture kan'dsAgkt/a^ ; ES -tJaCr; |-ral -al 

conjuration jkandsu'rejan 

conjure 'jtiggle' 'kAndsa^, 'kan-; ES -d33(r; 

l-d-d 
conjure 'implore' kan'dsur, -'dsiur; ES -3(r; 

l-d-d 
conjurer, -or 'juggler' 'kAndsara*, 'kan-; ES 

-r3(r 
conjurer, -or 'petitioner' kan'dsura^, -'dsiu-; 

ES -r3(r 
conjuror 'coswearer' kan'dsura', -'dsiu-; ES 

-r3(r 
Conkling 'kagklig 
Connacht 'kanaxt, -nat 
Connaught 'kanot 
Conneaut 'kani pt 

connect ka'nekt |-ed -id [-ible, -able -abl 
Connecticut ka'netikat — Tlie Brit pron. 

ka'nEktikat, based on the current erroneous 

spelling, has fio Am currency. 
connection, -nexion ka'nEk/an |-ctive -ktiv 
Connelly 'kanli 
conning 'kanig 
conniption ka'nipXan 

connivance ka'naivans |-s -iz [-cy -i |-ant -ant 
connive ka'naiv |-nived -'naivd |-vent -ant 
connoisseur ^kana'sy; ES -'s3(r, -'sy; (Fr 

connaisseur kane'soeir) 
connotation jkana'te/an 
connotative 'kanajtetiv, ka'notativ 
connote ka'not | -noted -'notid 
connubial ka'nubial, -'niub-, -'njub- |-ly -i 
conoid 'konaid 
conquer 'kagka^, 'kogka^, 'kagka^; ES -ka(r; 

|-ed -d |-ing -karig, -krig |-or -a^; ES -a(r 
conquest 'kankwEst, 'kag- 
conquistador kan'kwistajdar; ES -^daaCr 
Conrad, -e 'kanrsed 
Conroe 'kanro 
consanguine kan'saeggwin 



consanguineous (kansaeg'gwinias |-nity -nati 

conscience 'kan/ans |-s -iz 

conscientious ikan/i 'En/as, /kansi- 

conscionable 'kan/anabl |-bly -bh 

conscious 'kan/as 

conscribe kan'skraib |-scribed -'skraibd 

conscript n, adj 'kanskript 

conscript v kan'skript |-ed -id |-ption -p/an 

consecrate 'kansijkret [-crated -jkretid 

consecration jkansi^kre/an 

consecutive kan'sEkjativ 

consensus kan'sEnsas |-suses -sasiz 

consent kan'sEnt |-ed -id ]-ient -'sEn/ant 

consequence 'kansa^kwEns |-s -iz |-quent 

-jkwEnt 
consequential jkansa'kwEnJal |-ly -i 
consequentiality ^kansa ^kwEn/i 'aelati 
conservable kan'syvabl; ES -'s3v-, -'ss^v- 
conservancy kan'syvansi; ES -'s3v-, -'syv- 
conservation jkansa^Vefan; ES ^kansa- 
conservatism kan'ss^va/tizam; ES -'ssv-, 

-'ss'v- 
conservative kan's^vativ; ES -'ssv-, -'syv- 
conservatoire kan^syva'twar; ES -jssva- 

'twa:(r, -jS3^va'twa:(r; (Fr kos£rva'twa:r) 
conservator 'preserver' 'kansa^jveta^, kan- 

'syvata^, bank officer kan'ss^vata^; ES 

'kansajveta(r, kan's3vata(r, kan'syvata(r 
conservatory kan'ss^va^tori, -jtan; ES kan- 

's3vajtori, -'ss'v-, E+-jtari 
conserve n 'kans3"v, kan's^v; ES -3V, -yv 
conserve v kan'syv; ES -'s3v, -'syv; |-d -d 
Conshohocken jkanja'hakan 
consider kan'sida^; ES -'sida(r; [-ed -d |-ing 

-'sidarig, -'sidrig 
considerable kan'sidarabl, -'sidrabi |-bly -bii 
considerate kan'sidarit, -'sidrit 
consideration kan^sidaVe/an 
consign kan'sain |-ed -d 
consignee jkansai'ni, -si'ni 
consigner kan'saina^; ES -'saina(r 
consignment kan'sainmant 
consignor kan'saina^; ES -'saina(r; (^con- 

sign'ee & jconsign'or) 
consist kan'sist |-ed -id 
consistence kan'sistans |-cy -i |-ent -ant 
consistory kan'sistari, -'sistri 
consociate n, adj kan'so/iit, -JiiCt 



|full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'f3'Sa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision Visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



consociate 



98 



contemporaneous 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 



consociate v kan'so/i^et |-ated -jctid 

consociation kanjsosi'efan, -jSo/i- 

consol 'kansal, kan'sal |-s -z 

consolable kan'sobbl |-bly -bh 

consolation jkansa'le/an 

consolatory kan'salajton, -jtari; S -jton 

console n 'kansol 

console v kan'sol |-soled -'sold 

consolidate kan'sala^det |-dated -,detid 

consolidation kan^sala'de/an 

consomme jkansa'me 

consonance 'kansanans |-cy -i |-ant -ant 

consonantal jkansa'naentl |-ly -i 

consonantly 'kansananth 

consort n 'kansart; ES -saat 

consort v kan'sart; ES -'saat; |-ed -id 

consortium kan'sar/iam; ES -'saa/-; |-ia -la 

conspectus kan'spektas |-es -iz 

conspicuous kan'spikjuas 

conspirator kan'spirata^ ; ES -ta(r; |-acy -asi 

conspiratorial kan^spira 'tonal, -'tar-; S -'tor-; 

|-ly_-i 
conspire kan'spanr; ES -'spaia(r; |-d -d 
conspirer kan'spaira^; ES -'spaira(r 
constable 'kanstabi, 'kAn T}ie sp. pron. is 

now more freq. than the traditional one; see 

next. 
Constable 'kAnstabl 
constabulary kan'staebja Jen 
Constance 'kanstans |-'s -iz 
constancy 'kanstansi |-tant -tant 
Constantine 'kanstan^tain, -jtin 
Constantinople jkanstaenta'nopl, -staentn'opj 
constellation jkansta'lejan 
consternate 'kansta^^net; ES 'kansta-; |-d -id 
consternation jkansta^'ne/an; ES jkonsta- 
constipate 'kansta^pet |-pated -jpetid 
constipation /kansta 'pejan 
constituency kan'stit/uansi |-ent -ant 
constitute 'kansta,tjut, -jtiut, -jtut |-d -id 
constitution jkansta'tju/an, -'tin-, -'tu- |-al -j 

l-aUy -h 
constitutionality jkanstajtjujan'aelati, -jtiu-, 

-,tu- 
constitutive 'kansta^tjutiv, -jtiu-, -fu- 
constrain kan'stren |-ed -d |-edly -idb |-t -t 
constrict kan'strikt |-ed -id |-or -a^; ES -a(r 
constriction kan'strik/an |-tive -tiv 



construable kan'stniabl, -'stnu- 
construct adj kan'strAkt ('con^struct 'state) 
construct n 'kanstrAkt 
construct v kan'strAkt |-ed -id 
construction kan'stTAktJan [-al -1 |-ally -li 

|-tive -tiv 
construe kan'stni, -'stnu |-d -d — in Shak. 

conster 'kansta^ 
consubstantial (konsab'staenjal |-ly -i 
consubstantiality jktmsabjstaenji'aelati 
consubstantiate jkansab'staenjijet |-ed -id 
consubstantiation jkansabjstaenji'ejan 
consuetude 'kcmswi^tjud, -^tiud, -jtud 
consuetudinary ^ktmswi'tjudnjen, -'tiud-, 

-'tud- 
consul 'kansl ]-ship -^/ip 
consular 'konsla^, 'kansjala^; ES -a(r 
consulate 'kanslit, 'kansjalit 
consult n 'kansAlt, kan'sAlt 
consult V kan'sAlt |-ed -id |-ant -nt 
consultation jkansl'te/an 
consultative kan'sAltativ 
consultatory kan'sAlta^tori, -jtari; S -jtori 
consultory kan'sAltan 
consumable kan'sumabl, -'sium-, -'sjum- 
consume kan'sum, -'sium, '-sjum |-d -d 

l-dly-idli 
consumer kan'suma^, -'siuma', -'sjuma'; ES 

-a(r 
consummate adj kan'sAmit 
consummate v 'kansajinet |-mated -^metid 
consummation jkansa 'me/an 
consumption kan'sAmpJan |-tive -tiv 
contact 'kantaekt |-ed -id 
contagion kan'tedsan j-gious -dsas 
contain kan'ten |-ed -d 
contaminate kan'tasma^net |-nated -^netid 
contamination kanjtaema'ne/an 
contemn kan'tem |-ed -d |-edly -nidli 
contemnible kan'temnabl |-bly -bli 
contemner kan'tema^; ES -'temaCr 
contemnor kan'temna^; ES -'temnaCr 
contemplable kan'templabl 
contemplate 'kantam^plet, kan'templet 1-d -id 
contemplation jkantam'ple/an 
contemplative 'kantanijpletiv, kan'templativ 
contemporaneity kan jtempara 'niati 
contemporaneous kan^tEmpa'tenias 



Key: See in full §§3~47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeo |angr>^ 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far | watch watj", wotj" (§12) |jaw dsa ] gorge gards |go go 



contemporary 



99 



contuse 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with D in E and S 



contemporary kan'tempajreri 

contempt kan'tempt 

contemptible ksn^temptdbl |-bly -bli 

contemptuous kan'temptjuas 

contend kan'tsnd |-ed -id 

content n 'satisfaction^ kan'tent, 'what is con- 
tained' 'kontent, kan'tent 

content adj, v kan'tEnt |-ed -id 

contention kan'tEn/an |-al -1 ]-tious -Jas 

conterminous kan'tymanas; ES -'tam-, 
-'tym- 

contest n 'kantEst 

contest V kan'test |-ed -id [-ant -ant 

context 'kantEkst 

contextual kan'tEkstJual, kan- |-ly -i 

contexture kan'tEkst/a^, kan-; ES -'tEkstXa(r 

contiguity jkanti'gjuati, -'giu- 

contiguous kan'tigjuas 

continence 'kantanans |-cy -i |-nent -nant 

continental jkanta'nEntl j-ly -i 

contingence kan'tindsans |-cy -i |-gent -dsant 

continual kan'tinjual |-ly -i 

continuance kan'tinjuans |-s -iz |-ant -ant 

continuation kan^tinju'eXan 

continue kan 'tin ju |-d -d |-dly -judh 

continuity ^kanta'nuati, -'niu-, -'nju- 

continuous kan'tinjuas |-nuum -njuam [-nua 
-njua 

contort kan 'tart; ES -'taat; |-ed -id 

contortion kan'tar/an; ES -'taa/an 

contour 'kantur; ES -tua(r; |-ed -d 

contra 'kantra 

contraband 'kantra jbaend |-age -ids |-ist -ist 

contrabandism 'kantrabaendjizam 

contrabass 'kantra^bes |-es -iz 

contraception jkantra'sEpJan |-tive -tiv 

contraclockwise /kantra 'klakjwaiz 

contract n 'kantraekt 

contract v 'shrink' kan'traekt, 'make a con- 
tract' +\antTxiit |-ed -id 

contractible kan'traektabl |-bly -bb 

contractile kan'traektl, -til 

contractility jkantraek'tilati 

contraction kan'traekjan |-tive -tiv 

contractor 'kantraekta^, kan'traekta^ ; ES -ta(r 

contractual kan'traektjual |-ly -i 

contradict jkantra'dikt |-ed -id 

contradiction jkantra'dik/an |-tory -tan, -tri 



contradistinction ^kantradi'stigk/an |-tive 
-tiv 

contraindication ^kantra jinda 'ke/an 

contralto kan'traelto 

contraposition jkantrapa'zifan 

contraption kan'traepjan 

contrapuntal /kantra'pAntI ]-ly -i 

contrariety jkantra'raiati 

contrarily 'kantiErah, esp. if emph. kan- 
'trerali, -'trer- 

contrarious kan'ttErias, -'trer- 

contrariwise 'kantrErijwaiz 

contrary 'opposite' 'kantreri; 'perverse' 
'kantren, kan'trEri, -'treri 

contrast n 'kontraest 

contrast v kan'traest [-ed -id 

contravene jkantra'vin |-vened -'vind 

contravention ^kantra'vEn/an 

contredanse Fr kotra'dars 

contretemps Fr kotra'ta 

contribute kan'tribjut [-d -bjatid 

contribution jkantra'bjujan, -'biu/an 

contributor kan'tnbjata^; ES -ta(r 

contributory kan'tribjajtori, -]tori; S -^tori 

contrite 'kontrait, kan'trait ('con^trite 'heart, 
'hearts con'trite) 

contrition kan'trijan 

contrivance kan'traivans |-s -iz [-cy -i 

contrive kan'traiv |-d -d 

control kan'trol | -trolled -'trold 

controllable kan'trolabl |-bly -bh 

controller kan'trola^; ES -'trola(r; |-ship -Jip 

controversial ;kantra'v3j"al, -sial; ES -'v3-, 
-'va^-; |-ly -i 

controversy 'kantra jvs^si; ES -jvasi, -^vysi 

controvert 'kantra^vyt, jkontra'vyt; ES -st, 
-s't; |-ed -id 

controvertible /kantra'vs'tabl; ES -'v3t-, 
-'yyt-; acc/+'controjvertible |-bly -bh 

contumacious jkantju'inejas, ^kantu- 

contumacy 'kantjumasi, 'kantu- 

contumehous /kantju'milias, jkantu- 

contumely 'kantjumah, 'kantu-, -jinih, 
kan'tjumab, -'tiu-, -'tu- ■ — Only a book- 
word. Formerly 'kantjujinili, as in Chap- 
man and probably Shak. Hood has kan- 
'tjumili {rime gloomily). 

contuse kan'tjuz, -'tiuz, -'tuz j-s -iz \-d -d 



|full ful |tooth tu9 [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
lusing 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



contusion 



100 



copal 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with D in E and S 



contusion kan'tjujan, -'tius-, -'tu3- 

conundrum ka'nAndram 

convalesce jkanvs'les |-s -iz |-d -t 

convalescence jkanva'ksns j-cy -i |-scent -snt 

convection kanVekJan |-al -1 

convenance 'kanva^nans |-s -iz {Fr kov'na:s) 

convene kanVin |-vened -Vind 

convenience kanVinjans |-s -iz |-ient -jant 

convent 'kanvent 

conventical kanVentikl |-ly -i 

conventicle kanVentikl |-d -d 

convention kanVenJan |-al -1, -/nal |-ally -li, 

-/nail 
conventionalism kanVen/anljizam, -/nal- 

|-ist -ist 
conventionality kanjVEn/an'aslati 
conventionalize kanVenJanljaiz, -Jnal- j-s -iz 

l-d -d 
conventual kanVentJual j-ly -i 
converge kanVyds; ES -Vads, -Vs^ds; |-s -iz 

l-d-d 
convergence kanVydsans; ES -Vsds-, 

-Vyds-; |-cy -i |-gent -dsant 
conversance 'kanva^sns, kanVs^sns; ES -vas-, 

-'v3s-, -Vys-; |-cy -i |-sant -snt 
conversation jkanva^'sejan; ES ^kanva-; |-al 

-1 I -ally -h 
conversationalist jkanva^'sejanlist, -/nal-; 

ES jkanva- 
converse n 'kanvys; ES -V3S, -vys; |-s -iz 
converse adj kanVys; ES -Vss, -Vys; 

('con^verse Hvind) 
converse v kan'v^s; ES -Vss, -Vys; j-s -iz 

l-d-t 
conversion kan'v3/an, -3an; ES -Vs-, -Vy- 
convert n 'kanvyt; ES -vst, -v^t 
convert v kan'vyt; ES -Vst, -Vyt; |-ed -id 
convertibility kanjvyta'bilati; ES -iVst-, 

-jvyt- 
convertible kanV^tabl; ES -Vst-, -Vyt-; 

l-bly -bk 
convex adj kanVsks, kan- ('con/vex 'surface) 
convex n, v 'kanveks |-es -iz |-ed -t, v+ 

kanVeks 
convexity kanVeksati 
convey kanVe |-ed -d |-ance -ans |-ances 

-ansiz 
convict n 'kanvikt 



convict V kan'vikt |-ed -id |-ction -k/an 

convince kanVins |-s -iz |-d -t j-dly -idli 

convivial kanVivial |-ly -i 

conviviality kan^vivi'selati 

convocation jkanva'ke/an ]-al -I |-ally -li 

convoke kanVok |-voked -Vokt 

convolute 'kanva Jut, -^liut |-d -id 

convolution jkanva'lujan, -'hujan, -vl'jujan 

convolvulus, C- kanValvjalas |-es -iz [-li -jlai 

convoy n 'kanvai 

convoy v kanVai |-ed -d 

convulse kanVAls |-s -iz j-d -t |-dly -idli 

convulsion kanVAl/an j-sive -siv 

Conway 'ktinwe 

Conwell 'kanwel 

cony 'koni, 'kAiu — When the word was popu- 
lar, it was pron. 'kAiu; since it became a 
book-word, sp. pron. has prevailed. 

conycatcher 'koni^kaetJV, 'kAni-; ES -jkaet/aCr 

coo ku I cooed kud 

cook kuk Icooked kukt |-ery -an, -n |-y, -ie -i 

cool kul I cooled kuld 

Cooley 'kuli 

cool-headed 'kul'hEdid ('cool-jheaded 'move) 

Coolidge 'kulids [-'s -iz 

coolie, -ly 'kuli 

coolly 'kuli, 'kulli 

coomb; coombe, coom 'valley' kum 

coon kun ]cooned kund 

co-op ko'ap, 'kojop 

coop kup, kup; S kup, kup; |-ed -t 

cooper, C- 'kupa^, 'kupa^; E -pa(r; S 'kupa(r, 
'kup-; |-ed -d |-ing -pang, -prig 

co-operate adj ko'aparit, -'aprit 

co-operate v ko'apajret |-rated -^retid 

co-operation ko,apa'reJan, jkoapa- 

co-operative ko'apajtetiv, -'aprativ 

Cooperstown 'kupa^z^taun, 'kup-; E -paz-; S 
'kupaz-, 'kup- 

co-opt ko'apt |-opted -'aptid 

co-ordinate, n, adj ko'ardnit, -^et; ES -'aad- 

co-ordinate v ko'ardnjet; ES -'aad-; |-d -id 

co-ordination koprdn'e/an; ES -jDadn'e/an 

co-ordinative ko'ardn,etiv; ES -'aadnjctiv 

Coos NH ko'as, 'koas; Oreg kus 

coot kut Icooted 'kutid 

cop kap I copped kapt 

copal 'kopl, 'kopael 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret lyet jet jsang saeg [angr}- 'jeg-gn 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) jah a |far far |watch watj, wntj (§12) Ijaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



coparcenary 



101 



cormorant 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with o in E and S 



coparcenary ko'parsnj£n; ES -'pa:s-, E+ 

-Va:s- 
coparcener ko'pcrsna'; ES -Va:sn3(r, E + 

-'pa:s- 
copartner ko'partna'; ES -'pa:tn3(r, E+ 

-Va:t- 
cope kop [coped kept 
copeck, -pec 'kopek 
Copeland 'koplsnd 

Copenhagen jkopan'hegan {Dan jkopn'haun) 
Copernicus ko'ps^nikas; ES -'pan-, -'pyn-; 

|-'s -iz |-can -kan 
copestone 'kopjSton 
Cophetua ko'letjua 
Copiah ks'pais, ko- 
copier 'kapia'; ES %api'3(r 
coping 'kopio 
copious 'kopias 
Coplay 'kapli [Copley 'kapli 
copper 'kapa^; ES 'kap3(r; [-ed -d (-ing 

'kaparig, 'kaprig 
copperas 'kaparas, 'kapras 
Copperfield 'kapa^jfild; ES 'kapa- 
copperhead, C- 'kapa'jhed; ES 'kapa- 
copperplate 'engraving' 'kapa^jplet; ES 'kapa- 
copperplate 'engrave' 'kapa'jplet; ES 'kapa-; 

l-d -id 
copper-plate 'plate with copper' 'kapa^'plet; ES 

'kapa-; [-d -id ('copper- jplated 'medal) 
coppersmith 'kapa^jsmiO; ES 'kapa-; [-ths -6s 
coppice 'kapis |-s -iz [-d -t 
copra 'kapra 

copse kaps [copses 'kapsiz jcopsed kapst 
Copt kapt I Coptic 'kaptik 
copula 'kapjala 
copulate adj 'kapjalit 
copulate V 'kapjajlet [-lated - jetid 
copulation jkapja'lejan |-tive 'kapjajletiv 
copy 'kapi [copied 'kapid [-pyist -ist 
copybook 'kapi^buk 
copyhold 'kapijhold 
copyright 'kapi^rait [-ed -id 
coquet ko'ket [-quetted -'ketid 
coquetry 'kokitri, ko'kEtri 
coquette ko'ket [-quetted -'kstid 
Coquille ko'kil 
Cora 'kora, 'kara; S 'kora 
coracle 'karakl, 'kar-, 'kor- 



coral 'karal, 'kar-, 'kor-, 'kor- [-ed -d 

Coran ko'ran, -'raen 

CoraopoHs jkori'aplis, -plis, jkora'-'ap-, 

jkar-; S ^kor- 
corbel 'karbl; ES 'kaabl; |-ed -d 
corbie 'karbi; ES 'kaabi 
Corcoran 'karkaran; ES 'kaakaran 
cord kard; ES kaad; [-ed -id [-age -ids 
Cordelia kar'dilja; ES kaa'dilja 
Cordell kar 'del; ES kaa'del ('Cor, dell 'Hull) 
cordial 'kardsal; ES 'kaads-; Brit -dial |-ly -i 
cordiality kar'dsaelati ; ES ka-; Brit -di'ael- 
cordillera, C- kar'dilara, jkardil'jera; ES ka-, 

jkaa-; (Am Sp ^karSi'jera) 
cordite 'kardait 

Cordoba 'kardova; ES 'kaa-; {Sp 'kartJo^a) 
cordoba 'kardaba; ES 'kaa- 
cordon 'kardn; ES 'kaadn; [-ed -d 
Cordova 'kardava; ES 'kaa-; [-n -n — some 

US places Cor'dova 
corduroy ^karda'rai; ES jkaada-; ('cordu^roy 

'road) 
cordwain 'kardwen; ES 'kaad-; [-er -»; ES 

-a(r 
cordwood 'kard^wud; ES 'kaad- 
core kor, kar; ES koa(r, E+kaa(r; |-d -d 
Corea ko'ria |-n -n 
corelation ^koTi'le/an 
coreligionist ^koTi'lidsanist 
corella ka'rela 
Corelli ka'reli 

coreopsis jkori'apsis, jkari-; S ^kon- 
corespondent jkcn'spandant 
Corfu 'karf ju, -fiu, kar'fu; ES 'kaa-, kaa- 
Corgi 'kargi; ES 'kaagi 
coriander jkori'aenda^, ,kari-; ES ,kori'aenda(r, 

E+jkari- 
Corin 'karin, 'kar-, 'kor- 
Corinna ka'rina 

Corinth 'karinG, 'kar-, 'kor- [-ian ka'rinGian 
Coriolanus jkaria'lenas, ,kar-, jknr- |-'s -iz 
Corioles ka'raiajliz, -liz [-'s -iz [-li -,lai 
cork, C- kark; ES kaak; [-ed -t 
corival ko'raivl, ka- 

corkscrew 'kark,skru, -jskriu; ES 'kaak- 
Corliss 'karlis; ES 'kaahs; |-'s -iz 
corm karm; ES kaam 
cormorant 'karmarant; ES 'kaam- 



[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fytSa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



102 



corrugate 



corn korn; ES koan; |-ed -d |-cake -^kek |-cob 

-jkab; ES+'ikob 
cornea 'karma; ES 'kaania 
Corneille kar'ne; ES koa'ne {Fr kb'r'ne:j) 
cornel 'karnl, -nel; ES 'kaan- 
Cornelia kar'nilja, ka^-; ES kaa'nllja, ka- 
cornelian ^carnelian' kar'niljan, ka^-; ES kaa-, 

ka- 
Cornelius kar'niljas, ks'-; ES kaa-, ka-; [-'s -iz 
Cornell kar'nel; ES kaa'nel; ('Cor^nell 'cap) 
corneous 'kariuas; ES 'kaanias 
corner 'karna^; ES 'kaana(r; ]-ed -d — A dis- 

similated pron. 'kana^ is sometimes heard 

(§121). 
cornerstone 'karna^^ston; ES 'kaana- 
cornerways 'karna^^wez; ES 'kaana-; |-\vise 

-jwaiz 
cornet 'karmt, kar'nst, musical instr. kar'ntt; 

ES 'kaa-, kaa- 
cornettist, -netist kar'n£tist; ES kaa- 
corn-flour 'karn^flaur; ES 'kaanjflaua(r 
cornflower 'karn^flaua^; ES 'kaanjflau-a(r 
cornice 'karnis; ES 'kaanis; |-s -iz |-d -t 
Cornish 'karnij; ES 'kaanij; |-man, -men 

-man 
cornstarch 'karn^startX, -'start/; ES 'kaan- 

,sta:t/, -'start/, E+-a:t/ 
cornucopia jkarna'kopia; ES jkaana-; |-n -n 
Cornwall 'karnwal, -wal; ES 'kaan- 
Cornwallis karn'wahs, -'wnl-, -'wal-; ES 

kaan-; |-'s -iz 
corody 'karadi, 'kar-, 'kor- 
corolla ka'rala; ES+-'rDla 
corollary 'kara,kri, 'kar-, 'kor-, Brit ka- 

'rolari 
corona, C- ka'rona |-s -z |-nae -ni 
coronach 'karanax, 'kar-, 'kor- 
coronal n 'karanl, 'kar-, 'kor- 
coronal adj ka'ronl, 'karanl, 'kar-, 'kor- 

l-ly-i 
coronary 'karajneri, 'kar-, 'kor- 
coronation ^kara'ne/an, jkar-, jkor- 
coroner 'karana^, 'kar-, 'kor-; ES -na(r 
coronet 'karamt, 'kar-, 'kor- |-ed -id, -^netid 
Corot ka'ro 

corporal 'karparal, 'karpral; ES 'kaap-; |-ly-i 
corporality jkarpa'raelati; ES jkaap- 
corporate adj 'karpant, 'karprit; ES 'kaap- 
corporate v 'karpa^ret; ES 'kaap-; |-d -id 



corporation jkarpa 're/an; ES jkaap- 
corporeal kar'porial, -'par-; ES ka'ponal, E+ 

-'panal; |-ly -i 
corporeity jkarpa'riati; ES ,kaap- 
corposant 'karpa^zaent; ES 'kaap- 
corps kor, kar; ES koa(r, E+kaa(r; \pl -ps -z 
corpse karps; ES kaaps; |-s -iz 
corpulence 'karpjalans; ES 'kaap-; |-cy -i 

|-nt -nt 
corpus 'karpas; ES 'kaap-; j-es -iz |-pora -para 
Corpus Christi 'karpas'knsti; ES 'kaap-; 

Church +-tai 
corpuscular kar'pAskjala^; ES ka'pAskjalaCr 
corpuscle 'karpasl, 'karpxvsl; ES 'kaap- 
corpus delicti 'karpasdi'hktai; ES 'kaap- 
corral ka'rael [-led -d 
correct ka'rekt j-ed -id 
correction ka'rek/an |-tive -tiv 
correctitude ka'rekta^tjud, -jtiud, -^tud 
corrector ka'rekta^; ES -'rektaCr 
Corregidor ka'r£gajdar; ES -^daaCr; {Am Sp 

ka^rrEhi'Sar) 
correlate 'kara,let, 'kar-, 'kor- |-d -id 
correlation jkara'le/an, jkar-, jknr- 
correlative ka'iElativ j-vity kajrsla'tivati 
correspond ^kara'spand, jkar-, jknr-; ES+ 

-'spond; |-ed -id |-ence -ans |-ent -ant 
corridor 'karada^, 'kar-, 'kor-, geog. + -jdar; 

ES -da(r, -jdaa(r; |-ed -d 
corrie 'kari, 'kari, 'kori 
Corrigan 'karagan, 'kar-, 'kor- 
corrigendum ^kari'dsendam, ^kar-, ^kor- |-da 

-da 
corrigibility jkarad3a'bilati, ^kar-, jknr- 
corrigible 'karadsabl, 'kar-, 'kor- |-bly -bli 
corrival ka'raivl 

corrobboree, -ri n ka'rabari; ES-h-'rob- 
corroborant ka'rabarant; ES+-'rDb- 
corroborate adj ka'rabarit; ES+-'rDb- 
corroborate v ka'raba^ret; ES+-'rDb-; |-d -id 

|-tive -tiv 
corroboration ka,raba're/an; ES+-jrDb- 
corroboratory ka'rabarajtori, -jtari; S -itori 
corroboree, -ri n ka'rabari; ES+-'rDb- 
corroboree v ka'rabajri |-d -d 
corrode ka'rod |-roded -'rodid 
corrosion ka'ro3an |-sive -siv 
corrugate adj 'karagit, 'karja-, 'kar-, 'kor-, 

-iget 



Key; See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet J£t |sang saeg langrj- 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) [ah a |far far |watch wat/, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



corrugate 



103 



cotemporary 



Those words below in which the a sound is spe, 
corrugate v 'karajget, 'korja-, 'kar-, 'kor- 

l-d -id 
corrugation jkara'ge/an, jk3rJ3-, ikar-, jkor- 
corrupt ka'rApt j-ed -id 1-ption -pjan 
corruptibility kajtApta'bilati 
corruptible ka'rAptabl |-bly -bh 
Corry 'kori, 'kari, 'kori 
corsage kor'sas; ES kaa'sas; [-s -iz 
corsair 'karser, -saer; E 'kD3se3(r, ES -sae3(r 
corse kars; ES koas; |-s -iz 
corselet ^ armor' 'k3rslit; ES 'kaos-; 'under- 
garment' jkarsl'et; ES jkaas- 
corset 'korsit; ES 'kaasit; |-ed -id 
Corsica 'korsika; ES 'koasika; |-n -n 
Corsicana jkorsi'kaena; ES jkaas- 
corslet 'karslit; ES 'kaaslit 
Corson 'korsn; ES 'koasn 
cortege kar'tes, -hzy, ES kaa-; {Fr karHsrs) 
Cortes Sp b' Pg legist, 'kortiz; ES 'koat-; 

{Sp 'kartes, Pg 'kartej) 
Cortes, -ez Sp soldier 'kartEz; ES 'koatez; 

{Sp kar'tes) |-'s -iz 
cortex 'karteks; ES 'kaa-; |-es -iz |-tices 

-tijsiz 
cortez kar'tes; ES kaa; |-es -iz 
cortical 'kortikl; ES 'kaa-; |-ly -i 
corticate adj 'kartikit, -jket; ES 'kaa-; 

|-cated -jketid 
Cortland 'kortland, ^kort-; ES 'koat-, E+ 

'kaat- 
corundum ka'rAndam 
coruscant ka'rAskant 
coruscate 'karasjket, 'kar-, 'kor- [-d -id 
coruscation jkaras'ke/an, jkar-, ^kor- 
Corvallis kar'vaehs; ES kaa-; |-'s -iz 
corvee kar've; ES koa've; {Fr kiir've) 
corvette, -vet kar'vet; ES kaaVet 
Corybant 'karajb^ent, 'kar-, 'kar- |-s -s |-es 

jkara'b^entiz |-ic jkara'baentik 
Corydon 'karadn, 'kar-, 'kor-, -jdan, -jdon 
Coryell jkori'2l, ^kar-; S jkor- 
corymb 'karimb, 'kar-, 'kor-, -im 
coryphaeus ^kara'fias, ^kar-, jkor- |-es -iz 

|-phaei -'fiai 
coryphee jkara'fe, ^kara'fe, jknra'fe |-s -z 

{Fr kari'fe) 
coryza ka'raiza 
cose 'kos' kos 



// o are often pronounced with d in E and S 

cose 'coze' koz | coses 'koziz | cosed kozd 

cosecant ko'sikant, -kaent 

cosey 'cozy' 'kozi 

Cosgrave 'kazgrev, 'knz- 

Coshocton ka'/oktan 

cosie 'cozy' 'kozi 

cosignatory ko'signajtori, -jtari; S -jton 

cosine 'kosam 

Cos lettuce 'kasjktis, 'kos-, -as 

cosmetic kaz'mEtik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

cosmic 'kozmik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

cosmogony kaz'magani, -'mng- 

cosmographic jkazma'graefik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 

-ikli 
cosmography kaz'magrafi, -'mng- 
cosmology kaz'maladgi 
cosm.opolitan jkazma'palatn |-ism -,izam 
cosmopolitanize jkozma'palatrijaiz |-s -iz j-d -d 
cosmopolite kaz'mapa,Iait 
cosmos 'kazmas, -mas |-es -iz 
Cossack 'kasaek, 'kos-, -ak 
cosset 'kasit, 'kosit |-ed -id 
cost kast, kost 

costa 'kasta |-tae -ti |-tal -tl |-tally -tli 
costard, C- 'kasta^d; ES 'kastad 
Costa Rica 'kasta'rika, 'kns-, 'kas-, 'kos- 

|-n -n 
costermonger 'kasta' jmAgga^, 'kos-; ES 

-tajmAog3(r 
costive 'kastiv, 'kos- 
costly 'kastli, 'kost- 
costmary 'kastjineri, 'kost-, -jmaeri; S 

-jmaeri, -jmen 
costrel 'kastral, 'kos- 
costume n 'kastjum, 'kos-, -tium, -turn 
costume v kas'tjum, kos-, -'tium, -'turn ]-d -d 

l-r-a'; ES -a(r 
costumier kas'tjumia'; -'tium-, -'turn-; ES 

-i-a(r; {Fr kasty'mjc) 
cosy 'cozy' 'kozi 
cot kat Icotted 'katid — see cote 
cotangent ko'taendgant 
cotangential jkotaen'dsenjal 
cote kot — cot b' cote are distinct, hut related, 

words in the oldest English, hut Imve become 

confused in spelling. 
cotemporaneous kojtempa'reiuas, 'kotempa- 
cotemporary ko't£mpajreri 



|full ful [tooth tue [further 'fySa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



cote n ant 



104 



countermine 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with o in E and S 



cotenant ko'tenant |-ancy -ansi 


count kaunt [counted 'kauntid 


coterie 'kotari 


countenance 'kauntanans |-s -iz |-d -t 


coterminous ko'tymanas; ES -Hsm-, -Hym- 


counter 'kaunta^; ES 'kaunta(r; |-ed -d 


cothumus ko'Oynas; ES -'Bsn-, -'Os^n-; 


counteraccusation jka unta^ jaekj u 'zejan 


|-ni -nai 


counteract jkaunta^'aekt |-ed -id 


cotidal ko'taidj 


counteraction jkaunta^'aek/an (^action & 


cotillion, -Hon ko'tiljan 


'counter ^action) 


Cotopaxi jkota'paeksi {Am Sp jkoto'pa-hi) 


counterattack n 'kauntarajtaek 


Cotsvvold 'katswold, -wald |-s -z 


counterattack v jkauntara'taek |-ed -t 


cottage 'katid3 1-s -iz 1-d -d 


counterattraction ,kauntara 'traekjan 


cotter, -ar 'kata^; ES 'kat3(r 


counterbalance n 'kaunta^^baelans; ES -ta-; 


Cotterell 'kataral, 'katral 


|-S -IZ 


cottier 'katia^; ES 'kati'3(r 


counterbalance v ^kaunta'baelans; ES -ta-; 


cotton, C- 'katn |-ed -d 


1-s -IZ |-d -t 


Cottonian ka'tonian 


counterblast 'kaunta^^blaest; ES -ta-, E+ 


cottonmouth 'katn^mauO [-ths -tJz 


-jblast, -jblast 


cottonseed 'katn^sid 


counterchange v jkaunta^'tjendg; ES -ta-; |-s 


cottontail 'katrijtel 


-IZ |-d -d 


Cottonwood 'katrijwud 


countercharge n 'kaunta^jt/ords; ES 


Cottrell 'katral 


'kauntajt/a:d3, E+-;tXa:d3; |-s -iz 


cotyledon ^katridn j-ous -'idnas, -^tdnas 


countercharge v ^kaunt^'t/ards; ES 


couch kautj [couches 'kaut/iz |couched 


jkaunta'tjaids, E+-'tXa:d3; |-s -iz |-d -d 


kautjt 


■countercheck n 'kaunta-^tjEk; ES 'kaunta- 


Couch kautJ, kutj" |-'s -iz 


counterclaim n 'kaunta^jklem; ES 'kaunta- 


couchant 'kaut/ant 


counterclaim v jkaunta^'klem; ES jkaunta-; 


Coudersport 'kauda^z^port; ES 'kaudaz^poat. 


l-ed -d 


E+-jpD3t 


counterclockwise jkaunta^'klakjwaiz; ES 


Coue ku'e 


jkaunta'klak- 


Coues kauz |-'s -iz 


counterdemonstiation jkaunta^jdEman'strefan ; 


cougar 'kuga^; ES ^kug3(r 


ES jkaunta- 


cough kaf, kof |-ed -t 


counterespionage jkaunt3''£spianid3, -a'spai- 


Coughlin Raglan, 'kng- 


amd3 


could stressed 'kud, jkud; unstr. kad 


counterfeit 'kaunta^fit; ES 'kaunta-; [-ed 


couldest 'kudist 


-jfitid 


couldn't 'kudnt, before some conss. + \vAn 


counterfoil 'kaunta^jfail; ES 'kaunta- 


('kudn'se)— r/ze pron. 'kudant is substand- 


counterirritant jkaunta^'iratant 


ard. 


counterjumper 'kaunta'jdsAmpa'; ES 'kaunta- 


couldst stressed 'kudst, jkudst; unstr. kadst 


jd3Ampa(r 


coulee 'kuli {Fr coulee kuUe) 


countermand n 'kaunta^^maend; ES 'kaunta-. 


coulomb, C- ku'lam, -'Inm 


E+-jmand, -^mond 


coulter, C- 'kolta^; ES 'kolta(r; j-ed -d 


countermand v ^kaunta-'maend; ES ^kaunta-. 


Coulton 'koltn 


E+-'mand, -'mand; |-ed -id ('counter- 


council 'kaunsl 


jmand 'orders) 


Council Bluffs 'kaunsVbUfs 


countermarch n 'kaunta^^martj; ES 'kaunta- 


councilman 'kaunslman |-men -man 


jma:tX, E-i--jma:tX; |-es -iz 


councilor, -llor 'kaunsja^, -sla^; ES -a(r 


countermarch v jkaunta-'martj; ES jkaunta- 


counsel 'kaunsj |-ed -d |-ing 'kaunshg, -shg 


'mart/, E+-'ma:tX; |-es -iz |-ed -t 


counselor, -llor 'kaunsl*, -sla^; ES -a(r 


coimtermine n 'kaunta^jniam; ES 'kaunta- 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret Ij'et jet |sang saeg |angr}- 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gard3 [go go 



countermine 



105 



court-martial 



countermine v ^kaunta^'main; ES jkaunta-; 

l-d-d 
countermove ^kaunta^^muv; ES 'kaunta- 
counteroffensive (kauntara'fEnsiv (offensive 

& 'counterofifensive) 
counterpane 'kaunta^jpen; ES 'kaunta-; 

l-d-d 
counterpart 'kaunta^^part; ES 'kaunt3ipa:t, 

E+-jpa:t 
counterplot n, v 'kaunta^jplat; ES 'kaunta- 

jplat, -jplot; I -ted -id 
counterpoint 'kaunta^^point; ES 'kaunta- 
counterpoise n, v 'kaunta^^poiz ; ES 'kaunta-; 

|-s -iz |-d -d 
counterproposal 'kaunta'prajpozl; ES 'kaunta- 
counterreformation /kaunt3'jr£f3''mejan; ES 

jkauntajrgfa'meXan 
counterrevolution jkaunta^jreva'lu/an, -'hu/an, 

-jrEvrjufan; ES jkaunta-; j-ary -jsri 
counterscarp 'kaunta^jskarp; ES 'kaunto- 

jska:p, E-t--jska:p 
countershaft 'kaunta'jjaeft; ES 'kaunta-, E-i- 

- Jaft, - Jaft 
countersign n 'kaunta^jsain; ES 'kaunta- 
countersign v 'kaunta^^sain, jkaunta^'sain; ES 

-ta-; |-ed -d 
countersignature ^kaunta^'signatja'; ES 

^kaunta'signatja(r; ('signature & 'counter- 

jsignature) 
countersink n 'kaunta^^sigk; ES 'kaunta- 
countersink v 'kaunta^jsigk, jkaunta^'sigk; ES 

-ta-; |-sunk -jSAgk, -'sAgk 
counterstatement 'kaunta^jstetmant; ES 

'kaunta- 
counterstroke 'kaunta^jStrok; ES 'kaunta- 
countersuggestion 'kaunta'sagjdsestj'an, -sa- 

jdsestjan; ES 'kaunta- 
counterthrust 'kaunta^jGrAst; ES 'kaunta- 
countervail jkaunta^'vel; ES jkaunta-; |-ed -d 
counterweigh jkaunta^'we; ES jkaunta-; |-ed 

-d 
counterweight 'kaunta^jwet; ES 'kaunta- 
counterwork 7t 'kaunta^jwyk; ES 'kaunta- 

jwsk, -jW3^k 
counterwork v jkaunta^V^k; ES ^kaunta- 

Vsk, -Vyk 
countess 'kauntis ]-es -iz 
countinghouse 'kauntig^haus j-ses -ziz 
country 'kAntri |-trified, -tryf- 'kAntrijfaid 



country-bred 'kAntri'bred ('country-jbred 

'man) 
country-dance 'kAntri'daens, -jdaens; E+ 

-ans, -ans; [-s -iz 
countryfolk 'kAntri^fok 
countryman 'kAntnman |-men -man 
countryseat 'kAntrijsit, -'sit 
countryside %AntrijSaid ('whole 'country- 

'side) 
country-style 'kAntri^stail, -'stail 
country-wide 'kAntri'waid 
countrywoman 'kAntri^wuman, ^wu- |-women 

-jwrnun, -an 
county 'kaunti 

coup 'upset', 'drink' kop, kup j-ed -t 
coup 'stroke' ku 
coup de grace Fr kuda'gra:s 
coup de main Fr kuda'ma; 
coup d'etat 'kude'ta {Fr kude'ta) 
coupe 'carriage' ku'pe; 'auto' kup, less frcq. 

ku'pe 
couple 'kApl |-d -d |-hng 'kAplig, 'kAplig 
coupler 'kApla^; ES 'kApla(r 
couplet 'kAplit 
coupling n 'kAphg 
coupon 'kupan, 'kju-, 'kiu-, -pnn 
courage 'kyids; ES 'karids, 'kAr-, 'ky-; |-d -d 
courageous ka'redsas 
courante ku'rant {Fr ku'ra) 
courier 'kuna, 'k3<^ia^; ES 'kuri-a(r, 'ksr-, 

'kAt-, 'ka^- 
course kors, kars, esp. in 'of course' kurs; ES 

koas, kuas, E-i-kaas |-s -iz |-d -t 
courser 'korsa^, 'kar-; ES 'koasa(r, E+'kaa- 
court kort, kart; ES koat, E-i-kaat; |-ed -id 
courteous 'kytias; ES 'kstias, 'kyt- 
courtesan, -zan 'kortazn, 'kart-, 'kyt-; ES 

'koat-, 'kst-, 'kyt-, E+'kaat- 
courtesy 'politeness' 'kytasi; ES 'kstasi, 'kyt- 
courtesy 'curtsy' ks^tsi; ES 'kstsi, 'k^t-; [-ied 

-d 
Courthope 'kortap, 'kart-, -ihop; ES 'koat-, 

E+'kaat- 
courthouse 'kort^haus, 'kart-; ES 'koat-, E-i- 

'kaat-; |-ses -ziz 
courtier 'kortia^, 'kart-, -tja^; ES 'koati'a(r, 

-tjaCr, E+'kaat- 
courtly 'kortli, 'kart-; ES 'koat-, E+'kaat- 
court-martial 'kort'marjal, 'kart-; ES 'koat- 



|full ful I tooth tue [further 'fySa-; ES 'faSa [custom |kAStam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipip 



court- plaster 



106 



cradle 



'mai/al, E+'koat-, -'marjal; |-ed -d 


-ing 


cowherd 'kau^hyd; ES -jhsd, -,hyd 


-/alio, -Jlio 




cowhide 'kau,haid |-d -id 


court-plaster 'kort,plaest3', 'kart-; ES 'koat- 


cowl, C- kaul |-ed -d 


jplaesta(r, E+'koat-, -iplas-, -;plas- 




Cowley 'kauli 


courtroom 'kortjrum, 'kart-, -jrum; 


ES 


cowlick 'kau, Ilk 


'koat-, E+'kaat- 




cowHng, C- 'kaulig 


courtship 'kort/ip, 'kart-; ES ^koat-. 


E+ 


co-worker ko'ws'ka^; ES -VakaCr, -VykaCr 


'kaat- 




cowpea 'kau, pi 


courtyard 'kort/jard, 'kart-; ES 'koatj 


a:d. 


Cowpens SC 'kau,penz, Zoc.+'kApinz 


E+'kaat-, -ja:d 




Cowper 'kupa', 'kaupa^; ES -pa(r; — the same 


cousin 'kAzn |-ed -d |-ing %Aznig, 'kAznig 


■word as Cooper, 'kaupa' being a spelling 


cousin-german 'kAzn'dsyman; ES -^ds 


3m-, 


pronunciation. 


-Msym-; \pl cousins- 'kAznz- 




cowpox 'kau,paks; ES+-,pDks 


Cousins 'kAznz |-'s -iz 




cowpuncher 'kaUjpAnt/a'; ES -jpAnt/aCr 


couth ku8 




cowrie, -ry 'kaun 


couturier Fr kuty Vje \fcm -riere -^rJ£:r 




cowskin 'kau,skm 


Couzens 'kAznz |-'s -iz 




cowslip 'kaujsbp — c/oxlip 


cove kov [coved kovd 




cox kaks; ES+koks; |-es -iz 


covenant, C- 'kAvanant, 'kAvnant J-ed -i 


1 


coxcomb 'kaks,koin; ES+'koks-; |-ry -ri 


covenanter, -or 'kAvananta', 'kAvn-; ES 


-ta(r 


coxcombic kaks'kamik, -'kom-; ES+-'kDm-; 


Covenanter 'kAvajnaenta^, ^kAva'naenta^; 


ES 


l-al -1 l-ally -li, -ikli 


-ta(r 




coxswain 'kaksn, 'kak,swen; ES-i-'kok- 


Covent 'kAvant, 'kav-; ES+'kov- 




coy kai |coyed kaid 


Coventry 'kavantri, 'kAv-; ES+'kov-; 


-ied 


coyote kai'ot, kai'oti, 'kaiot 


-d — Both 0(0) and A appear to he historical. 


COZ kAZ 


cover 'kAva'; ES 'kAva(r; |-ed -d 


-ing 


coze koz ] cozes 'koziz ] cozed kozd 


'kAvarii), 'kAvrig 




cozen 'kAzn |-ed -d |-ing 'kAznig, 'kAznig 


coverage 'kAvarids, 'kAvridj |-s -iz 




cozenage 'kAznidg, 'kAznids 


Coverdale 'kAva'idel; ES 'kAva- 




cozy 'kozi 


covering n 'kAvrig 




Cozzens 'kAznz |-'s -iz 


coverlet 'kAva^lit; ES 'kAva- 




crab kraeb [crabbed kraebd 


Coverley 'kAva^h; ES 'kAva- 




Crabbe kraeb 


coverlid 'kAva^^bd; ES 'kAva- 




crabbed adj 'kraebid |-ly -li 


covert 'kAva^t; ES 'kAvat 




crabby 'kra^bi 


coverture 'kAva^t/a'; ES 'kAvat/aCr 




crack kraek [cracked kraekt 


covet 'kAvit |-ed -id |-ous -as 




crackajack 'kraeka,d3aek 


covey 'kAvi |-ed -d 




crackbrain 'kraek ,br en 


covin 'kAvin 




crackbrained 'kraek'brend ('crack,brained 


Covina koVina 




'wits) 


Covington 'kAvigtan 




cracker 'kraeka^; ES 'kraeka(r 


cow kau |cowed kaud 




crackerjack 'kraeka^jdsaek; ES 'kraeka- 


coward, C- 'kaua^d; ES 'kau-ad; [-ice -is 




crackle 'kraekl |-d -d [ling 'kraekkg, -klig- 


cowbell 'kau, be! 




crackling n 'kraekhg 


cowbird 'kaujbyd; ES -jbad, -jbyd 




cracknel 'kraeknl 


cowboy 'kau^bai 




cracksman 'kraeksman [-men -man 


cowcatcher 'kaujkaetja', -jkttJV; ES -tja(r 


crack-up 'kraek,Ap 


cower 'kaua^; ES 'kau'a(r; |-ed -d 


-ing 


Cracow 'kreko, 'kraekau {see Krakow) 


'kauarig, 'kaurig 




Craddock 'kraedak 


Cowes kauz |-'s -iz 




cradle 'kredl [d -d [-ling 'kredlig, 'kredbg 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi jpity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang saeg [angn,- 'aeg-gri 
[bath bae6; E baO (§10) jah a [far far [watch wat/, wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



Cradock 



107 



creek 



Cradock 'kraBd3k=Caradoc knight 


crate kret | crated 'kretid 


craft kraeft; ES+kraft, kraft; |-y -i 


crater 'kreta^; ES 'kreta(r; |-ed -d 


craftsman 'kraeftsman; E+'krafts-, 'krafts-; 


cravat kra'vaet j-vatted -'vaetid 


|-men -man |-manship -manj/ip 


crave krev [craved krevd 


crag kraeg |cragged 'kraegid |-gy -i 


craven 'krevan |-ed -d |-ing 'krevanig, -vnig 


Craigenputtock jkregan'pAtak 


cravenette, C- jkraeva'net, ,krev- |-d -id 


Craigie 'kregi 


craving 'krevig 


crake krek |craked krekt 


craw kra 


crakow 'kraekau 


crawfish 'kra,fiX |-es -iz [-ed -t 


cram kraem | crammed kraemd 


Crawford 'krafa-d; ES 'krafad; |-sville -z,vil 


crambo 'kraembo 


crawl kral [crawled krald |-y -i 


cramp kraemp | cramped kraempt 


Crawley 'krali 


crampon 'kraempan 


crayfish 'kre,fij |-'s -iz 


cranage 'krenids 


crayon 'krean [crayoned 'kreand 


Cranage 'kraenids |-'s -iz 


craze krez [crazes 'kreziz [crazed krezd 


cranberry 'kraenjberi, -ban 


crazy 'krezi [crazily 'krezli, -zik 


Crandall 'krandl 


creak krik [creaked krikt 


crane, C- kren | craned krend 


cream krim [creamed krirad [-ery -an, 


Cranford 'kraenfa^d; ES 'kraenfad 


'krimri 


cranial 'krenial |-ly -i 


cream-faced 'krim'fest ('cream-, faced 'loon) 


craniological jkrenia'ladsikl; ES+-%d3-; 


crease kris [creases 'krisiz [creased krist 


l-ly-i 


creasy 'krisi 


craniology jkreni'aladsi; ES+-'d1- 


create kri'et [created kri'etid [-tion -'ejan 


craniometer jkreni'amata^; ES -'amata(r. 


creative kri'etiv [-tor -ta^; ES -ta(r 


-'om- 


creature 'krit/a'; ES 'kritXa(r; |-ral -al 


craniometric ^krenia'metnk |-al -1 |-ally -li, 


creche kre/, krej [-s -iz {Fr krerj) 


-ikli 


Crecy 'kresi {Fr kre'si) 


craniometry jkreni'amatn; ES+-'Dm- 


credence 'kridns [-dent -dnt 


cranium 'kreniam j-s -z j-nia -ma 


credential kri'd£nXal |-ed -d 


crank kraegk [cranked kraegkt 


credibility ,kr8da'bilati 


crankcase 'kraegk, kes | -cases -jkesiz 


credible 'kredabl |-bly -bli 


crankle 'kraegkl ]-d -d j-ling 'kraegkhg, -klig 


credit 'kredit [credited 'krtditid 


crankpin 'kraegk, pin 


creditability ,kr£dita'bilati 


crankshaft 'kraegkjjaeft; E+-,J'aft,-,Xaft 


creditable 'krsditabl [-bly -bli 


Cranmer 'kraenma^; ES 'kraenma(r 


creditor 'kredita^; ES 'kreditaCr 


crannog 'kraenag 


credo, C- 'krido, 'kredo 


cranny 'kraem [crannied 'kraemd 


credulity kra'dulati, -'dm-, -'dju- 


Cranston 'kraenstan 


credulous 'kredsalas 


crape krep jcraped krept 


Cree kri 


crappie 'kraepi, 'krapi 


creed krid [creeded 'kridid 


craps kraeps 


creek krik, krik — krik is much less freq. in ilie 


crapulous 'krapjulas 


S, bzit appears to be the native form in the 


crash kraej j-es -iz j-ed -t 


N b' E. krik, origi?ially a North British dia- 


Crashaw 'kraeja 


lect form, is still native in the Appalachians. 


crasis 'kresis ] erases 'kresiz 


According to Horn's, Jordan's, and Luick's 


crass kraes 


Historical English Grammars, krik repre- 


Crassus 'kraesas |-sus' -sas 


se7its the original word (ME crike), later 


cratch, C- kraetj | cratches 'kraet/iz 


altered to krik and then spelt creek. Crike is 


Cratchit 'kraetfit 


vmch the earlier recorded form. At first krik 



[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fySa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fmz [dish di/ [vision Visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredj [keep 'em 'kipm 



Creek 



108 



crochet 



was not a spelling pronunciation, bid the 


crick krik [cricked krikt 


spelling creek doubtless encouraged its spread. 


cricket 'krikit |-ed -id |-er -a^; ES -a(r 


Luick thinks that American krik represents 


cricoid 'kraikaid 


the normal standard English development. 


cried kraid 


Creek krik 


crier 'kraia^; ES 'krai-aCr 


creel kril | creeled krild 


cries kraiz 


creep krip |crept krspt |-er 'kripa^; ES -p3(r 


Crile krail 


creepmouse 'krip^maus |-'s -iz |-mice -^mais 


crime kraim [crimed kraimd 


creese kris | creeses 'krisiz 


Crimea krai'mia, kri- |-n -n 


Creighton 'kretn, 'kraitn 


criminal 'krimanj, 'krinml |-ly -i 


cremate 'krimet |-d -id |-tor -a^; ES -3(r 


criminality jkrima'naelati 


crematory 'krimaytori, 'krEm-, -jtDti; S -itori 


criminate 'krimajnet |-nated -^netid 


creme de menthe Fr kremda'mat 


crimination jkrima'ne/an 


Cremona kri'mona 


criminologic jkrimana'ladsik, ^krimna-; ES+ 


crenate 'krinet |-d -id |-tion kri'ne/an 


-'lDd3-;l-al-l 


crenel 'krenl |creneled 'krenld 


criminologist jkrima'nalad3ist, krim'nal-; 


crenelate, -11- 'kren}jet |-d -id 


ES+-'nDl-; |-gy-d3i 


crenelation, -11- ^krEnl'e/an 


crimp krimp [crimped krimpt 


Creole, c- 'kriol 


crimple 'krimpi |-d -d [-ling -'krimplig, -plig 


Creon 'krian, -nn 


crimson 'krimzn | crimsoned 'krimznd 


creosote 'kria^sot |creosoted 'kria^sotid 


cringe krinds [cringes 'krmdsiz j-d -d 


crepe, crepe krep |-d -t 


cringle 'kriggl 


crepe de Chine jkrepda'/in 


crinkle 'krigkl |-d -d [-ling 'krigkhg, -klig 


crepitant 'krepatant |-itate -jtet |-tated -^tetid 


crinkly 'krigkli 


crept krept 


crinoid 'krainaid, 'krin- 


crepuscle kri'pAsl |-cular -kjala^; ES -l3(r 


crinoline 'krinjin, -jin 


crescendo kra'/endo, -'sEn- {It kre'Jendo) 


cripple 'kripl |-d -d |-ling 'kriplig, -plig 


crescent 'kresnt |-ed -id 


Cripple Creek 'kripl'krik, -'krik 


cresol 'krisol 


Cripplegate 'kripljget, -git 


cress kres |cresses 'kresiz [cressed krest 


Criseyde in Chaucer kri'seda 


cresset 'kresit 


crisis 'kraisis [crises 'kraisiz 


Cressida in Shak. 'kresida — see Criseyde 


crisp krisp [crisped krispt 


Cressy 'kresi {Fr Crecy kre'si) 


crisscross 'kriSjkras, -jkrus [-es -iz [-ed -t 


crest krest | crested 'krestid 


Cristobal kris'tobi {Sp kris'toIJal) 


crestfallen 'krest^falan, -jfaln 


criterion krai'tirian [-teria -'tiria 


Crestline 'krestlain, 'krEslain 


critic 'kritik [al -1 [ally -li, -ikli 


cretaceous kri'tejas 


criticaster 'kritikjaesta^; ES -^aestad 


Crete krit | Cretan 'kritn 


criticism 'kritajSizam 


cretin 'kritin |-ism -jizam, -tn- 


criticize 'krita/Saiz [-s -iz [-d -d 


cretonne kri'tan, -'ton, 'kritan, -tnn 


critique kri'tik 


crevasse kraVaes |-s -iz |-d -t 


Crito 'kraito 


crevice 'krevis ]-s -iz |-d -t 


Crittendon 'kritndan 


crew kru, kriu 


croak krok [croaked krokt 


Crewe kru, kriu 


croaker, C- 'kroka^; ES 'kroka(r 


crewel 'krual, 'kriual 


Croat 'kroaet, -at 


crib krib | cribbed kribd 


Croatia kro'e/a, -Jia [-n -n 


cribbage 'kribids |-s -iz |-d -d 


Croce 'krotji {It 'kroit/e) 


cribwork 'krib^wyk; ES -^wsk, -jwyk 


crochet n 'kratjit; ES+'krot/it 


Crichton 'kraitn 


crochet v kro'/e [-cheted -'/ed -cheting -'/e-ig 



Key: See in full §§3-^7. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang saeg jangr)- 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a [far far [watch wat/, wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



crock 



109 



crowbar 



crock krak; ES+krok; |-ed -t |-ery -an, -ri 

Crockett 'krakit; ES+'krokit 

crocodile 'krakajdail; ES+'krok- 

crocodilian jkraka'dilian; ES+jkrnk- 

crocus, C- 'krokas |-es -iz |-ci -sai 

Croesus 'krisas |-sus' -sas 

croft kroft, kroft 

Croix krai {Fr krwa) 

Croix de guerre Fr krwad 'ge:r 

Croker 'kroka^; ES 'krok3(r 

crokinole, C- 'kroka^nol 

Cro-Magnon kro'maegnan, -non {Fr 

kroma'jio) 
Cromarty 'krama^ti; ES 'kramati, 'krom- 
cromlech 'kramlek; ES+'kinm- 
Crompton 'kramptan; ES+'krnmp- 
Cromwell 'kramwal, -wel, 'krAm-; ES+ 

'krom- 
Cromwellian kram'wElian, -Ijan; ES+krom- 
crone kron 

Cronus 'kronas |-'s -iz 
crony 'kroni |cronied 'kronid 
crook kruk | crooked krukt 
crookback 'kruk^baek [-ed -t 
crooked adj 'krukid 
Crookes kruks |-'s -iz 
crookneck 'kruk^nek |-ed -t 
croon krun [crooned krund 
crop krap; ES+krop; |-ped -t 
crop-eared 'krap'ird; ES 'krap'iad, 'krop-, 

S+-'£ad; ('crop-beared 'cur) 
cropper 'krapa^; ES 'krapa(r, 'krop- 
croppie 'krapi; ES+'kropi 
croquet kro'ke [croqueted kro'ked j-ing 

-'kc'ig 
croquette kro'kEt 

croquignole 'krokainol, -km jol {Fr kraki'jibO 
crore kror, krar; ES kroa(r, E+kraa(r 
Crosby 'krazbi, 'krnz-, 'kraz- 
crosier, C- 'kro33^; ES 'kro3a(r; ]-ed -d 
cross kras, kms |-es -iz |-ed -t 
crossbar 'kras,bar, 'krns-; ES -jba:(r, E+ 

-jba:(r; |-red -d 
crossbeam 'kras^bim, 'kros- 
crossbill 'kras^bil, 'kros- 
crossbones 'krasjbonz, 'krns- 
crossbow 'kraSibo, 'kros- |-man -man |-men 

-man 
crossbred 'kras'bred, 'kros- ('cross-bred 'dog) 



crossbreed n 'krasjbrid, 'kros- 

crossbreed v 'kras'brid, 'kros-, -^brid ]-bred 

-'bred, -jbred 
crosscut 'kraSjkAt, 'krbs- 
crosse kras, kros |-s -iz 

cross-examination 'krasigjzaema'nejan, 'kros- 
cross-examine 'krasig'zaemin, 'kros- |-d -d 
cross-eye 'kras^ai, 'kros- 
cross-eyed 'kras 'aid, 'kros- ( 'cross- ^eyed 

'bear) 
cross-fertilization 'krasjfytla'ze/an, 'kros-, 

-ai'z-; ES -ifatl-, -,fytl- 
cross-fertilize 'kras'fytljaiz, 'kros-; ES -'fstl-, 

-'fytl-; |-s -IZ |-d -d 
cross-gartered 'kras'garta'd, 'krns-; ES 

-'ga:tad, E+-'ga:tad 
cross-grained 'kras'grend, 'kros- 
crosshatch 'krasjhaetj, 'kros- |-es -iz |-ed -t 
cross-legged 'kras'kgid, -'legd, 'kros- ('sit 

jcross-'legged, 'cross- ^legged 'knight) 
crossover n 'krasjova^, 'krns-; ES -jOV9(r 
crosspatch 'krasjpjetj, 'krns- |-es -iz 
crosspiece 'krasjpis, 'krns- |-s -iz 
cross-pollinate 'kras'pala^net, 'kros-; ES-i- 

-'pnl-; |-d -id 
cross-pollination 'kraSjpala'ne/an, 'krns-; 

ES+-iPDl- 
cross-purpose 'kras'pypas, 'kros-; ES -'psp-, 

-'pyp-; 1-s -iz 
cross-question 'kras'kwest/an, 'kros- |-ed -d 
crossruff 'kras^rAf, 'kros- |-ed -t 
cross-section v 'kras'sekjan, 'krns- |-ed -d 
cross-stitch 'kras^stitj, 'kros- |-es -iz j-ed -t 
crosstrees 'kras^triz, 'krns- 
crossways 'krasjwez, 'kros- |-wise -^waiz 
crossword 'kras^wyd, 'kros-; ES -;W3d, -^wyd 
crotch kratf ; ES+krotJ; |-es -iz |-ed -t 
crotched adj 'krat/t, 'kratjid; ES+'krotJ- 
crotchet 'kratjit; ES+'krotJit; |-ed -id 
Crothers 'krA'Sa'z; ES 'krAtJaz; |-'s -iz 
croton, C- krotn 

crouch kraut/ |crouches 'krautjiz |-ed -t 
croup krup |-ed -t 

crouper 'crupper' 'krupa^, 'krupa", ES -pa(r 
croupier 'krupia^; ES 'krupi'a(r 
crouton kru'tan, -'ton {Fr kru'to) 
crow kro \past crew kru, kriu or crowed krod 

\pplc crowed krod 
crowbar 'kro^bar; ES -jba:(r, E-i--jba:(r 



|full ful |tooth tuG Ifurther 'fy'5a'; ES 'fstJa |custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
|using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz jdish di/ |vision 'visan |Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl |keep 'em 'kipm 



crowd 



110 



culinary 



crowd kraud Icrowded 'kraudid 

Crowell 'kroal 

crowfoot 'krojfut \pl -feet -jfit, plant -foots 

-jfuts 
Crowley 'kroli, 'krauli 
crown kraun |crowned kraund 
crown piece 'kraun ^pis | -pieces -^pisiz 
crow's-foot 'krozjfut j-feet -^fit 
crow's-nest 'kroz^nest 
Croydon 'kraidn 

crozier, C- 'krosa^; ES 'krogaCr; |-ed -d 
cruces pi of crux 'krusiz, 'kriusiz 
crucial 'krujal, 'kriu/al |-ly -i 
cruciate adj 'krujiit, 'kriu-, -i^et 
cruciate v 'kru/ijCt, 'kriu- |-ated -^etid 
crucible 'krussbl, 'kriu- |-d -d 
crucifix 'krus3jfiks, 'kriu- |-es -iz 
crucifixion jkrusa'fik/an, jkriu- 
cruciform 'krusS/fDrm, 'kriu-; ES -jfaam 
crucify 'krusa^fai, 'knu- |-fied -jfaid 
crude krud, kriud |-dity -ati 
cruel 'krual, 'kriual |-ly -i |-ty -ti 
cruet 'kruit, 'kriuit 
Cruikshank 'krukj/aegk 
cruise kruz, kriuz |-s -iz |-d -d 
cruiser 'kruza^, 'kriuza^; ES -Z3(r 
cruller 'krAla^; ES 'krAl3(r 
crumb, C- krAm [crumbed krAmd 
crumble 'krAinbl |crumbled 'krAmbld |-bly 

-bli 
crump krAmp | crumped krAmpt 
crumpet 'krAmpit 

crumple 'krAmpl |-d -d 1-ling 'krAmplig, -plig 
crumply 'krAmpli 

crunch krAntJ | crunches 'krAnt/iz |-ed -t 
crupper 'krApa^, 'krupa^; ES -p3(r 
crural 'krural, 'kriural 
crusade, C- kru'sed, knu- ]-d -id 
cruse kruz, kriuz, -s |-s -iz 
crush krAj | crushes 'krA/iz | crushed krAjt 
Crusoe 'kruso, 'kriuso 
crust krAst | crusted 'krAstid 
crustacean krAs'tefan |-ceous -/as 
crutch krAt/ |crutches 'krAtJiz |-ed -t 
crux krAks |-es -iz | cruces 'krusiz, 'kriu- 
cry krai | cried kraid |-baby -jbebi 
cryolite 'kraiajait 
crypt kript |crypted 'kriptid 
cryptic 'kriptik |-al -I |-ally -li, -ikli 



cryptogam 'knptajgaem |-ic /knpta'gjemik 
cryptogamous krip'tagamas, -'tog- |-my -mi 
cryptogram 'kripta/graem 
cryptograph 'kripta,graef ; E+-/graf, -jgraf 
cryptographer krip'tagrafa^, -'tog-; ES -fa(r; 

|-phy -fi 
cryptographic ^kripta'graefik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 

-ikh 
crystal, C- 'knstl |-ed -d 
crystalhne 'knstlin, -jam, ^oei.-i-kns'tael- 
crystallization jkristla'zejan, -ai'z- 
crystaUize 'kristljaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
crystallography ,kristl'agrafi, -'og- 
crystalloid 'kristlpid |-al ikristl'aidl 
Ctesiphon 'tEsajfan, -jfmi 
cub kAb [cubbed kAbd 
Cuba 'kjuba, 'kiuba |-n -n {Sp 'ku^a) 
cubbyhole 'kAbijhol 
cube kjub, kiub |-d -d 
cubeb 'kjubsb, 'kiubeb 
cubic 'kjubik, 'kiu- j-al -1 |-ally -]i |-icly -ikli 
cubicle 'kjubikl, 'kiu- 
cubism 'kjubizam, 'kiub- |-ist -ist 
cubistic kju'bistik, kiu- 
cubit 'kjubit, 'kiubit |-ed -id 
cuboid 'kjubaid, 'kiubaid 
Cuchulainn, -llin ku'kAlin, 'kuxuhn 
cucking-stool 'kAkiOiStul 
cuckold 'kAkjd |-ed -id j-ry -ri 
cuckoo 'kuku, ku'ku j-ed -d 
cuckooflower 'kuku^flaua-; ES -jflau-a(r 
cucumber 'kjukAmba^, 'kiu-; ES -kAmba(r 
cud kAd 

Cudahy 'kAdahi 

cuddle 'kAdl 1-d -d |-ling 'kAdlig, 'kAdlig 
cuddly 'kAdli 
cuddy, C- 'kAdi 

cudgel 'kAdsal [cudgeled 'kAdsald 
cue kju, kiu [cued kjud, kiud 
cuff kAf [cuffed kAft 
Cufic 'kjufik, 'kiu- 
cuirass kwi'raes |-es -iz |-ed -t 
cuirassier ^kwira'sir; ES -'siaCr 
cuisine kwi'zin 
cuisse kwis [cuisses 'kwisiz 
cul-de-sac 'kAlda'saek, 'kul- {Fr kyd'sak, kyt-) 
Culebra ku'lebra 

culex, C- 'kjuleks, 'kiu- [-lices -h^siz 
culinary 'kiula,neri, 'kiula- 



Key: See in full §§3-A7. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang saeg |angr\' 'asg-gri 
[bath bae6; E baO (§10) [ah a [far far [watch wat/, wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



cull 



111 



curlicue 



cuU kAl IcuUed kAld 


cuneiform 'kjumajarm, 'kiun-. 


-mjarm. 


Cullen 'kAlin, -an 


kju'nla-, kiu-; ES -Jaam 




cullender 'kAlanda^, 'kAlin-; ES -dacr 


cuniform 'kjumjarm, 'kium-; ES - 


ifaam 


cullion 'kAljan |-ry -n 


cunner 'kAna^; ES 'kAna(r 




Culloden ka'ladn, -'lodn, -'lodn 


cunning 'kAnig 




culm kAlm |culmed kAlmd 


Cunningham 'kAnig^haem, %Amgam 


culminate 'k Alma, net |-nated -,netid 


cup kAp 1 cupped kApt 




culmination jkAlma'ne/an 


cupalo, -olo 'kjnpajo, 'km- |-ed -d- 


-'kjupajo 


culpability ikAlpa'bibti 


represents a 17c variant of cupola still widely 


culpable 'kAlpabl |-bly -bli 


heard in US. 




Culpeper 'kAlpepa"^; ES 'kAlpEp3(r 


cupbearer 'kAp^ber*, -^baera'; E -,b£ra(r, ES 


culprit 'kAlprit 


-jbaera(r 




cult kAlt 


cupboard 'kAba'd; ES 'kAbad; |-ed 


-id 


cultivability jkAltava'bibti 


cupful 'kApJul |-s -z 




cultivable %Alt3vabl |-bly -bli 


Cupid, c- 'kjupid, 'kiupid 




cultivate 'kAltajVet |-vated -,vetid 


cupidity kju'pidati, kiu- 




cultivation jkAltaVeJan 


cupola 'kjupala, 'km- |-ed -d — see c 


upalo 


cultivator 'kAltajveta^; ES -jvetaCr 


cupreous 'kjuprias, 'kmp- 1-rous -ras j-ric -rik 


cultural 'kAlt/aral |-ly -i 


cur ky; ES k3(r, ks' 




culture 'kAltJa^; ES 'kAltJaCr; |-d -d 


curability jkjura'bilati, jkiura- 




culver, C- 'kAlva^; ES 'kAlv3(r 


curable 'kjurabl, 'kiur- |-bly -bh 




culverin 'kAlvarin 


Curasao, c-, -goa jkjura'so, ^kiura- 




culvert 'kAlva^t; ES 'kAlvat; |-ed -id 


curacy 'kjurasi, 'kiurasi 




cumber 'kAmba^; ES 'kAmb3(r; |-ed -d j-ing 


Curan 'kyan; ES 'ksran, 'kAran, 'ka^an 


'kAmbrig, 'kAmbarii) 


curassow 'kjura^so, 'kiura- 




Cumberland 'kAmba^land; ES 'kAmba- 


curate 'kjurit, 'kiurit 




cumbersome 'kAmba^sam; ES 'kAmba- 


curative 'kjurativ, 'kiu- 




cumbrance 'kAmbrans |-s -iz |-brous -bras 


curator kju'reta^, kiu'reta^, law- 


f 'kjurata-. 


Cumbria 'liAmbria |-n -n 


'kiur-; ES -ta(r 




cumin, cumm- 'kAmin 


curatorial jkjura 'tonal, ,kiura-. 


-'tar-; S 


cum laude 'kAm'bdi, 'kum'laudi 


-'tor- 




Cimunings 'kAnugz |-'s -iz 


curb kyb; ES ksb, k^b; |-ed -d |-stone -,ston 


Cummins 'kAminz |-'s -iz 


curculio ks^'yulijO, -'kmli-; ES ks 


-,ky- 


cumquat 'kAmkwat, -kwot 


curd ks^d; ES ksd, kyd; |-ed -id 




cumshaw 'kAm/a 


curdle 'ka^dl; ES 'kadi, 'kydl; 1-d -d |-ling 


cumulate adj 'kjumjaht, 'kium-, -Jet 


-djig, -dbg 




cumulate v 'kjumjajlet, 'kium- 1-lated -,letid 


cure kjur, kiur; ES -a(r; |-d -d 




cumulation jkjumja'leXan, ,kiumja- 


cure kju're, kiu're {Fr ky're) 




cumulative 'kiumja,letiv, 'kiumja- 


cure-all 'kjur pi, 'kiur pi 




cumulo-cirrus ,kjumjalo'siras, jkium- |-ri -rai 


curette kju'ret, kiu- |-d -id 




cumulo-nimbus jkjumjalo'nimbas, ,kium- 


curfew 'kyfju, -fiu; ES 'ks-, 'ks'- 




|-bi -bai 


curia 'kjuria, 'kiuria |-iae -iji 




cumulo-stratus jkjumjalo'stretas, ^kmm- |-ti 


Curie, c- 'kjuri, 'kiu-, kju'ri, kiu- 


{Fr ky'ri) 


-tax 


curio, C- 'kjurijO, 'kiuri- 




cumulous 'kjumjalas, 'kium- 


curiosity ,kjuri'asati, ,kiuri-; ES-i- 


-'ds- 


cumulus 'kjumjalas, 'kium- |-es -iz |-li -Jai 


curious 'kjurias, 'kiun- 




Cunard kju'nard, kiu-; ES -'na:d, E+-'na:d 


curl ks'l; ES ksl, ks^l; |-ed -d 




cunctator kAgk'teta^; ES -'teta(r; |-ship -Jip 


curlew 'kylu, -Im, 'kylju; ES 'ks-, 


'ky- 


cuneate 'kjuniit, 'kiun-, -i^et 


curlicue 'kyli/kju, -,km; ES 'ksli-. 


'kyli- 



|full ful |tooth tue [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fstSa [custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau [toy tai 
(using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dif [vision 'vi3an |Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



curmudgeon 



112 



Cuvier 



curmudgeon ka^'mAdjan; ES ka- 


cushaw ka'/b 


currant 'kyant; ES 'ksrant, 'kAr-, 'ky- 


Gushing 'ku/ig 


currency 'kyansi; ES 'ksransi, 'kAr-, 'ky- 


Cushman 'kujman 


current 'kyant; ES 'ksrant, 'kAr-, 'ky- 


cushion 'kujan, -in |-ed -d 


curricle 'kyikl; ES 'ksrikl, 'kAr-, 'ka^-; 


cusp kAsp jcusped kAspt |-id -id j-idal -idl 


1-d -d |-ling -kho, -klig 


cuspate 'kAspit, -pet |-d -petid 


curricular ka'rikjala^; ES -l3(r 


cuspidate 'kAspijdet |-dated -^detid 


curriculum ka'rikjabm |-s -z |-la -la 


cuspidor 'kAspajdar; ES -jdaa(r 


currier, C- 'kyia^; ES 'ksri-aCr, 'kAri-, 'kyi- 


cuss kAS 1 cusses 'kAsiz | cussed kAst 


Currier and Ives 'kyia^n'aivz, 'kyiarand'aivz; 


cussed adj 'kAsid |-ly -li 


ES 'ksrian'aivz, 'kArian'aivz, 'kyian'aivz. 


cuss-word 'kASjwyd; ES -jwsd, -jWyd 


'ksriarand'aivz 'kAriarand'aivz, 'kyiarand- 


custard 'kAsta^d; ES 'kAstad 


'aivz 


Custer 'kAsta^; ES 'kAsta(r 


currish 'kyij; ES 'ksrij, 'ky- 


Custis 'kAstis |-'s -IZ 


curry 'kyi; ES 'ksri, 'kAri, 'kyi; [-ied -d 


custodial kAs'todial |-an -an j-anship -an Jip 


|-comb -jkom 


custody 'kAstadi 


curse kys; ES kss, kys; [-s -iz |-d -t 


custom 'kAstam |-ed -d 


cursed adj 'kysid, kyst; ES 'kss-, 'kys-, 


customarily 'kAstanijErali, esp. if emph. 


k3st, kyst; 1-ly -idli 


jkAsta'merali 


cursive 'kysiv; ES 'kss-, 'kys-; j-sory -sari 


customary 'kAstanijen 


cursorial ky'sonal, -'s3r-; ES ks'sonal, ky-. 


customer 'kAstama^; ES 'kAstamaCr 


E+-'s3r- 


customhouse 'kAStam^haus |-ses -ziz 


Cursor Mundi 'kysar'mAndai, 'kysa^-, -di; 


custom-made 'kAstam'med ('custom-jmade 


ES 'k3S33-, -S3-, 'kys33-, 'kys3- 


'hat) 


curst kyst; ES ksst, kyst 


cut kAt 


curt kyt; ES kst, kyt 


cut-and-fill 'kAtn'M 


curtail ky'tel, ka^-; ES ks-, ky-, ka-; |-ed -d 


cutaneous kju'tenias, kiu- 


('curjtail 'spending) 


cutaway 'kAta^we 


curtain 'kytn, -tin, -tan; ES 'kst-, 'kyt-; 


cutback 'kAtjbaek 


|-ed -d |-ing -irj, -tniij 


cute kjut, kiut 


curtal 'kytl; ES 'kstl, 'kytl 


Cuthbert 'kAOba-t; ES 'kAGbat 


curtesy 'kytasi; ES 'kst-, 'kyt- 


cuticle 'kjutikl, 'kiut- 


curtilage 'k^tlids; ES 'kst-, 'kyt-; |-s -iz 


cutlass, -las 'kAtlas j-es -iz 


Curtis, -ss 'kytis; ES 'kst-, 'kyt-; |-'s -iz 


cut-leaf 'kAtjlif | -leaved -jlivd 


curtsy -sey 'ks'tsi; ES 'kst-, 'kyt-; |-ied -d 


cutler 'kAtla^; ES 'kAtla(r; |-ess -is |-y -i 


curule 'kjurul, 'kiur-, -rui 


cutlet 'kAtht 


curvature 'ks'vatja'; -jtjur; ES 'ksvat/aCr, 


cutoff 'kAtpf, -iuf 


'ks'vatJaCr, -/tju3(r 


cutout 'kAt,aut 


curve kyy; ES ksv, kyv; |-d -d |-dly -idli 


cutover 'kAtjOva^; ES -jOva(r 


curvet n 'kyvit; ES 'ksv-, 'kyv- 


cutpurse 'kAt^pys; ES -ipss, -ipys; ]-s -iz 


curvet V 'kyvit, ka-'vet; ES 'ksvit, 'kyy-. 


cut-rate 'kAt'ret ('cut-jrate 'store) 


ka'vEt; |-(t)ed -id 


cutter 'kAta^; ES 'kAta(r 


curvilineal jkyva'lmial; ES jksva-, ^kyva-; 


cutthroat 'kAt^Orot 


|-ear-i3-; ES -i'3(r 


cutting 'kAtig 


Curwood 'ks^jwud; ES 'ks^wud, 'ky- 


cuttle, C- 'kAtl l-bone -jbon j-fish -M 


Curzon 'kyzn; ES 'kszn, 'ks^zn 


cutty 'kAti 


Cusco 'kusko 


Cuttyhunk 'kAtijhAgk 


cusec 'kjusek, 'kiusek 


cutworm 'kAt,wym; ES -jwsm, -^wym 


Cush kAj l-'s -IZ |-ite -ait |-itic kAj'itik 


Cuvier 'kjuvijC, 'kiu- {Fr ky'vje) 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret ij^et jet |sang saeg |angr>- 'aeo-gri 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



Cuyahoga 



113 



Czernowitz 



Cuyahoga kai'hags, ^kaia-, ka-, -'hoga, 

•'haga, old-fash, -'hoga 
Cuyahoga Falls ka^haga^falz. kai-, -^hoga-, 

-'haga-, old-fash, -'hoga- 
Cuzco 'kusko 
cyanamide jSaia^naemaid, sai^senajinaid, -mid 

I -mid -mid 
cyanate ^saia^net 
cyanic sai'aemk 

cyanide 'saidiiiaid, -md |-nid -nid |-d -id 
cyanogen sai'^enadsan, -dsin 
cyanosis jsaiaWsis 
Cybele, c- 'sibl^i 
Cyclades ^sikbjdiz 
cyclamen 'siklaman, -jmen 
cycle 'saikl |-d -d |-ling ^saiklig, %aik]io 
cyclic ^saiklik, 'sik- ]-al -j |-ally -ji, -ikh 
cyclist 'saiklist, ^saikhst 
cycloid ^saikbid |-al sai'kbidl [-ally sai- 

'kbidji 
cyclometer sai'klamata^; ES -^klam3t3(r, 

-'klom- 
cyclone 'saiklon |-d -d 
cyclonic sai'klanik; ES+-'klDn-; |-al -1 |-alty 

-li, -ikh 
Cyclopean, c- ^saikla'pian 
cyclopedia, -paed- jsaikb^idia 
cyclopedic, -paed- jsaikb'pidik |-al -1 [-ally 

-li, -ikh 
Cyclops ^saiklaps; ES+-klDps; |-es -iz 

I -elopes sai'klopiz 
cyclorama jSaikla'raema, -'roma 
cygnet 'signit 

Cygnus ^signas |-'s -iz \gen Cygni ^signal 
cylinder 'silinda^; ES -da(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

'silindrig, -dang 
cylindric si^indnk |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 
cymbal 'simbl |-ed -d |-ing ^simb]ig, -bhg 
C3Tnbalist 'simblist, 'simblist 



Cymbeline ^simb]jin 

cyme saim jcymose 'saimos, saiWos 

cymous 'saimas 

Cymric 'simrik, ^kimrik |-ry -ri 

Cynewulf 'kim^wulf 

cynic 'simk |-al -} |-ally -ji, -ikk 

cynicism 'sinajSizam |-eist -sist 

cynocephalic jSinose'faebk, jsamo- 

cynocephalus ^sino'sefabs, ^sai- |-lous -bs 

cynosure 'sainaj'ur, 'sina-; ES -Svair 

Cynthia ^sinGia |Cynthiana jSinOi'aena 

cypher 'saifa^; ES 'saifa(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

'saifrig, ^saifarig 
cypress 'saipras |-es -iz |-ed -t 
Cyprian 'siprian 
cyprinoid 'sipra^naid 
Cypriot 'sipriat |-ote -^ot 
cypripedium, C- jSipra'pidiam |-dia -dia 
Cyprus, c- 'saipras |-'s -iz 
Cyrano de Bergerac 'sirajnoda'byd3a,raek; 

ES -'bsds-, -'byds-; (Fr siranodbergaVak) 
Cyrenaic jSira'ne-ik, jsaira- |-naica -'neaka 
Cyrene pers. name sai'rin, Gk city sai'rini 
Cyril 'siral, -il 
Cyrus 'sairas |-'s -iz 
cyst sist |-ed -id |-itis sis'taitis 
Cythera si'Oira 
Cytherea /SiOa'na |-n -n 
cytology sai'ta!ad3i; ES+-'tDl-; 1-gist -st 
cytoplasm 'saita^plaezam |-ic jsaita'plaezmik 
czar zar; ES za:(r, E+za:(r 
czarevitch 'zarajVit/; E+'zara-; [-'s -iz 
czarevna za'r£vna; E+za- 
czarina zaVina; E+za- 
Czech t/ek |-ic -ik |-ish -if 
Czechoslovak, Czecho-Sl- jt/eka'slovaek, -vak 
Czechoslovakia, Czecho-Sl- jt/tkasloVaekia, 

-Vak-, -kja |-n -n 
Czernowitz 't/ErnajVits l-'s -iz 



|full ful Itooth tue [further 'fytia^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail jhow hau [toy t3i 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision Visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



114 

D 



damnify 



D, d letter di \pl D's, Ds, poss D's diz 

-d ending see -ed 

'd abbr. spelling of unstressed had, would, as in 
I'd aid, he'd hid, she'd Jid, it'd itad, we'd 
wid, you'd jud, they'd tied, there'd tJerd, 
tiead, etc. 

dab daeb | dabbed daebd 

dabble 'daebl |-d -d l-hng ^daeblig, ^daeblig 

dabster 'daebsta'; ES 'daebst3(r 

da capo It da'ka:po 

dace des | daces 'desiz 

dachshund 'daksjhund, ^daeks^IiAnd {Ger 
'daksjhunt 

Dacia 'de/ia, 'de/a [-n -n 

dacoit da'koit |dacoitage da'koitids \-y -i 

dactyl, D- 'daektil, -tl |Dactyli ^daektijai 

dactylic daek'tilik 

dad daed | daddy 'daedi 

dado 'dedo | dadoed 'dedod 

Daedalus 'dedlas |Daedalus's 'dedlasiz 

daemon 'diman |-s -z |daemones 'diman^iz 

daffodil 'daefa^dil |-dilly -jdili 

daffy 'daefi 

daffydowndilly ^daefijdaun^dili 

Dafoe 'defo 

daft daeft; E+daft, daft 

dag daejl |dagged daegd 

dagger 'daega-; ES 'daegaCr 

daggle 'da^gl |-d -d | daggling Maeghg, -glig 

Dago 'Italian' 'dego; Darjur Negro 'dago 

Dagobert 'daegab^t, 'dfego^bs't; ES 'daega- 
bat, 'daegojbat, -jbs^t 

Dagon 'degan, -gan; ES+'degnn 

Daguerre Fr da'g£:r 

daguerreotype da'gerajtaip, da'gena- 

Dahl dal 

Dahlgren 'daelgrin, -an 

dahha 'daslja, 'dalja, 'delja — The regtdar 
Anglicized form is 'delja, prevalent in Engd 
and formerly in Amer. 'dalja is. formed on 
Sw Dahl, and 'daelja is an Am modification 
of 'dalja. 

Dahomey da'homi, da'home 

Dail Eireann 'dail'eran, 'dail-, -'eran 

daily, D- 'deli 

daimio 'daimjo 

Daimler 'demla^, 'daimla'; ES -la(r 



daimon 'dannan; ES+'daimnn 

Daingerfield 'dendsa-^fild; ES 'dendja- 

Dai Nippon 'dai ni'pan, -'pon, 'nip'pan, -'pon 
{Jap 'njippon) 

dainty 'denti |-tily 'dentli, -till 

dairy 'den, 'de:ri, 'den [-man -man, -jmaen 
|-men -man, -^men — Some speakers distin- 
guish dsiiry from Derry by a longer e. 

dais 'de-is, des |daises 'de-isiz, 'desiz — "The 
dissyllabic pronunciation of dais is a 'shot' at 
the word from the spelling." — OED. 

daisy 'dezi [daisied 'dezid 

dak, dawk dak, dak 

Dakar da'kar, da-; ES -'ka:(r, E+-'ka:(r 

Dakin 'dekin 

Dakota da'kota, di'kota 

Dalai Lama da'lai'lama, 'dalai- 

dale del |-man, -men -man |-sman, -smen 
-zman 

Dalhousie college dael'hauzi, Quebec dael'huzi 

Dallas 'daelas, Texas /oc.+'daelis |-'s -iz 

daUes, D- daelz 

dalliance 'daehans, 'daeljans |-s -iz 

dally 'daeli |dalhed 'daelid 

Dalmatia dael'me/ia, -'me/a ]-n -n 

dalmatic, D- dael'maetik 

Dalrymple 'daelnmpl, dael'nmpl 

Dalton 'daltn 

Daly 'deh 

Dalzel, -11, -ziel Am name dael'zEl; Scotl 
dal'jel, -'zel, di'el, di'el, da'el 

dam daem [dammed daemd 

damage 'daemids |-s -iz |-d -d 

Damariscotta jdaemari'skata; ES+-'skDta; 
loc. jdaema'skoti 

Damascene 'daema^sin, jdaema'sln 

Damascus da'maeskas |-'s -iz 

damask 'daemask 

dame dem 

Damien 'demian, -mjan {Fr da'mj«) 

damn daam |-ed -d [damning 'daemig, 
'daemnig 

damnable 'daemnabl |-bly -bh |-ation daem- 
'ne/an 

damnatory 'daemnajtori, -jtari; S 'daemna- 
jtori 

damnify 'daemna^fai [damnified 'daemnajfaid 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang saeg [angry 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeG; E baO (§10) [ah a [far far [watch wat/, wot/ (§12) [jaw daa [gorge g3rd3 [go go 



Damocles 



115 



dartle 



Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 



Damocles 'daemajkliz |Damocles's 'daema- 


Daphne 'daefra 


jkliziz 


Daphnis 'daefnis |Daphnis's 'daefnisiz 


Damon ^deman 


dapper 'daepa^; ES 'daepa(r 


damosel, -zel 'daema^zEl |-zell jdaema^zEl 


dapple 'daepl |-d -d |-ling 'daeplig, -plig 


damosella jdaema'zela 


dapple-gray 'daepl'gre ('dapple-^gray 'mare) 


damp daemp | damped daempt 


Darbishire 'darbi^/ir, -/a^; ES 'da:bijXia(r, 


dampen 'daempan |-ed -d |-ing -panig, -pnig 


-X3(r 


damper 'dasmpa^; ES 'daemp3(r 


Darby 'darbi; ES 'da:bi 


Dampier 'd«mpir, 'daempi-a^, -pjsr ; ES -pi3(r. 


Dardanelles /dardn'Elz; ES jda:d- 


-pi-3(r, -pJ3(r 


Dardanius dar'denias; ES da-; |-'s -iz 


Damrosch 'daemra/; ES+-rDX; j-'s -iz 


dare der, daer; E deaCr, ES daea(r; |-d -d 


damsel 'daemzl 


or durst da^st; ES dsst, dyst; pptc -d -d 


damson 'daemzn 


daredevil 'der^dEvI, 'daer- ; E 'dea-, ES 'daea- ; 


Dan daen 


|-try -tri 


Dana 'dena 


daren't demt, daemt; E deant, ES d«ant 


Danae 'daenij 


Dares 'deriz, 'daeriz, 'deriz; S 'dteriz, 'deriz; 


Danai 'daenijai 


|-es' -iz 


Danbury 'daen^bEri, 'daenbari 


Darfur dar'fur, 'dorfa^; ES da:'£ua(r, 'da:fa(r 


dance daens; E+dans, dans; |-s -iz |-d -t 


daric 'daerik 


dandelion 'daendl^aian, 'daendi^laian 


Darien Panama jden'en, ^daer-, 'deri^En, 


dander 'daenda^; ES 'diendaCr 


'daer-, -an; S jdaer-, 'daer-; Co7in -'en 


Dandie 'daendi 


daring 'derig, 'daeng; S 'daerig 


dandify 'daendi jfai |-fied -^faid 


Darius da'raias |Darius's da'raiasiz 


dandle 'daendi |-d -d |-ling 'daendhg, 'daendlig 


Darjeeling, -jil- dar'dsihg; ES dar'ds- 


dandier 'daendla^; ES 'daendla(r 


dark dark; ES dark; |darked darkt; ES da:kt 


dandruff 'daendraf 


darken 'darkan; ES 'da:k-; |-ed -d |-ing 


dandy 'daendi 


-kanig, -knig 


Dane den |-geld -igeld |-lagh, -law -Ja 


darkey 'darki; ES 'da:ki 


Danenhower 'daenan^hauof; ES -jhau»a(r 


darkling 'darklig; ES 'darkbg 


danger 'dend33'; ES 'dend3a(r; |-ous -as. 


darkroom 'dark^rum, -^rum; ES 'dark- 


-dsras 


darksome 'darksam; ES 'darksam 


Dangerfield 'dendsa^^fild; ES 'dendsa- 


darky 'darki; ES 'darki 


dangle 'daeggl |-d -d |-ling 'daegglig, -glig 


Darlan 'dorian; ES 'darl-; {Fr dar'la) 


Daniel 'daenjal, old-fash, 'daenj |-s -z 


darUng 'darlig ; ES 'darlig 


Danielson Conn 'daenlsn, 'daenjalsn 


Darmstadt 'darmjstat; ES 'darm-; {Ger 


Danish 'denif 


'darmjtat) 


Danite 'daenait 


darn dam; ES darn; f-ed -d j-edest -dist 


dank daegk 


Darnal, -11 'daml; ES 'darnl 


d'Annunzio da'nunzijO {It dan'nuntsjo) 


Darnay dar'ne; ES dar'ne 


danseuse dan'ssz, daen- |-s -iz {Fr dasorz) 


darnel 'darnl; ES 'darnl 


Dante 'daenti, 'danti {It 'dante) 


Darnel, -11 'darnl, dar'nel; ES 'darnl, dar'nel 


Dantean 'daentian, daen'tian, 'dan-, dan- 


Darnley 'darnli; ES 'darnk 


Dantesque daen'tesk, dan- 


Darrow 'daero, -a 


Danton 'daentan, Fr leader sarj 3a:k da'to 


Darsie 'darsi; ES 'darsi 


Danube 'daenj ub, 'daenjub |-bian daen'jubian 


dart dart; ES dart; |-ed -id 


Dan vers 'daenva^z; ES 'daenvaz; |-'s -iz 


Dartford 'dartfa-d; ES 'dartfad 


Danzig 'daentsig {Ger 'dantsix) 


dartle 'dartl; ES 'darti; |-d -d |-ling -tlig, 


dap daep [dapped daept 


-tlig 



|full ful |tooth tuG [further 'fytja^; ES 'faSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Dartmoor 



116 



debar 



Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 



Dartmoor 'dart^mur, -jmor, -jinar; ES 'da:t- 

jinu3(r, -^moaCr, E+-im33(r 
Dartmouth 'dartmaG; ES 'dattmaO 
Darwin 'darwm; ES 'da:win; |-ism -^izam 
Darwinian dar'wiman; ES da'winian 
Dasent ^desnt 

dash daej | dashes 'daefiz |-ed -t |-edly -idli 
dashboard 'dae/jbord, -Joord; ES 'dae/jboad, 

E+-jb33d 
dastard 'daesta^d; ES ^daestad 
data 'deta, 'daeta, 'data 
datary 'detari |dataria da'teria, de-, -'ter- 
date det [dated 'detid 
dative 'detiv 

datum 'detain [data 'deta, 'daeta, 'data 
daub dab | daubed dabd 
Daubeney 'dabani, 'dabni 
Daubigny do'binji (Fr dobi'jii) 
Daudet do'de, 'dode (Fr do'de) 
daughter 'data^; ES 'dataCr 
daughter-in-law 'datannja, 'data^nja; ES 

'datarinja, 'datanja 
daughters-in-law 'data^zin^la, 'data^znja; ES 

'datazin^la, 'datazrija 
daunt dant, dnnt, dant |-ed -id |-less -lis 
dauphin 'dafm |-ess -is, -j8s (Fr do'f*) 
davenport, D- 'dasvan^port, 'daevm^port, 

-jpart; ES -^poat, E-i--jpaat 
Daventry 'daevantri, loc. 'dentn 
David 'devid |-son -sn 
Davies 'deviz, 'devis, 'deviz |-'s -iz 
Daviess 'devis |-'s -iz 
da Vinci, Leonardo jlia'nardo da'vmt/i; ES 

-'na:do; (It jleo'nardo da'vintji) 
Davis 'devis | Davis's 'devisiz |-on -n 
davit 'daevit 
Davy 'devi 
daw da 

dawdle 'dadl |-d -d 1-hng 'dadhij, 'dadjig 
Dawes daz | Dawes's 'daziz 
dawk dak, dak 
dawn dan [dawned dand 
Dawson 'dasn 

day, D- de |-book -jbuk [-break -jbrek 
Dayak 'daiask 
daydream 'de^drim |-ed -d 
dayflower 'de^flaua^, -jflaur; ES -jflau'a(r, 

-jflaua(r 



daylight 'dcjlait 

daylight-saving 'dejait'sevig ('daylight-iSav- 

ing 'time) 
dayspring 'de^spno 
daystar 'dcjstar; ES 'deiSta:(r 
daytime 'deitaim 
Dayton 'detn |-ian de 'toman 
Daytona de'tona 

daze dez | dazes 'deziz [dazed dezd |-dly -idb 
dazzle 'daezl |-d -d |-hng 'daezbg, daezlig 
de- prefix. Wlien wJwlly unaccented, de- varies 

between di- and da-. Wlien only one of these 

is given in the vocab., it is to be understood 

that the otlier is used by many speakers, or 

often by the same speaker in different styles. 

The di- type with many speakers has the 

usual tendency toward di-. 
deacon 'dikan |-ed -d ]-ate -it |-ess -is |-esses 

-isiz 
dead ded |deaded 'dedid |-ly -b 
deaden 'dgdn |-ed -d |-ing 'dednig, 'dednig 
deadeye, D- 'ded^ai 
deadfall 'dedjfal 

deadhead 'dEd^hed [-headed -jhedid 
deadliness 'dedbnis 
deadlock 'dedjak; ES+'^lok; |-ed -t 
deadwood, .D- 'ded^wud 
deaf def, now miich less frcq. dif 
deaf-and-dumb 'defan'dAin ('deaf-and-'dumb 

^school, 'deaf-and-jdumb 'boy) 
deafen 'defan |-ed -d [ing 'defamg, 'defnig 
deaf-mute 'def mjut, -'miut, -jnijut, -^miut 
deal dil [dealt dslt 

dean din [deaned dind |-ery -an, -ri j-ship -/ip 
Dean(e) din 

dear dir; ES dia(r, S+d£a(r, dJ£a(r 
Dearborn 'dirba^n, -jbam; ES 'diaban, -^baan, 

S-i-'dea-, 'djea- 
dearth d^G; ES dsG, d^G; [-ths -Gs 
deary, -ie 'din; S+'den, 'dJEn 
death dcG [-ths -Gs |-ly -h j-like -Jaik 
deathbed 'deG^bed 
deathblow 'dsG^blo 
death's-head 'dEGs^hed 
deathwatch 'dEG^watJ, -/WotJ, -jwatj" [-es -iz 
Deauville 'dovil {Fr do'vil) 
debacle de'bakl, di-, -'baekl {Fr de'ba:kj) 
debar di'bar; ES -'ba:(r; [-red -d 



Key: See in full §§3~47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet JEt [sang sasg [angry 'aeg-gn 
[bath baeG; E baG (§10) [ah a [far far [watch wat/, wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gardj [go go 



debark 



117 



deckle-edged 



debark di'bark; ES -'ba:k, E+-'ba:k; 1-ed -t 


Decapolis di'kaepahs |-'s -iz 




debarkation ^dibar'kejan; ES -ba:-, E+-ba:- 


decarbonate di'karban^et; ES -'ka:b-. 


E+ 


debase di'bes |-s -iz |-d -t |-dness -idnis 


-'ka:b-; |-ated -^etid 




debatable, -bateable di'betabl 


decarbonize di^karban^aiz; ES -'ka:b-. 


E+ 


debate di'bet |-bated -'betid 


-'ka:b-; |-s -iz |-d -d 




debauch di'bat/ |-es -iz |-ed -t |-edly -idli 


decarburize dl'karbja^raiz, -'karba-; 


ES 


debauchee jdeba'tji, -'/i 


-'ka:b-, E+-'ka:b- 




debauchery di'botjari, -t/n 


decasyllable 'dekajSilabl |-bic ^dekasi'laebik 


debenture di'bentja^; ES -'bent/aCr; |-d -d 


decathlon di'kaeOlan; ES+-lon 




debiUtate di'bibjtet |-tated -^tetid 


Decatur di'ket»; ES -'keta(r 




debUitation di^bila'teXan 


decay di'ke |-cayed -'ked 




debility di'bibti 


Deccan 'dekan 




debit 'debit | debited 'debitid 


decease di'sis |-s -iz |-d -t 




debonair, -aire jdebaWr, -'naer; E -'nE3(r, 


decedent di'sidnt 




ES -'naB3(r 


deceit di'sit |-ful -fal [-fully -fah 




Deborah 'debsra 


deceive di'siv |-ceived -'sivd 




debouch di'buj |-es -iz [-ed -t 


decelerate di'selajret [-rated -^retid 




debris, de- da'bri, 'debri, Brit 'debri 


deceleration di^selaVe/an, jdisela- 




Debs debz |-'s -iz 


December di'semba^; ES -'s£mba(r 




debt del [debtor 'deta^; ES 'detaCr 


decemvir di'semva'; ES -'s£mva(r; [-s 


-z [-i 


debunk di'bAgk |-ed -t 


-^ai 




De Burgh di'bs^g; ES -'bsg, -'byg 


decemvirate di'semvarit, -jtet, -vrit 




Debussy da'bjusi, -'biu- {Fr daby'si) 


decency 'disnsi [decent Misnt 




debut di'bju, de-, -'biu, 'debju, -biu |-ed -d 


decennial di'semal [-ly -i 




{Fr de'by) 


decenter, -tre di'senta^; ES -'s£nta(r; [-(e)d -d 


debutante idebju'tant 'debja^taEnt 


|-(r)ing -'sentarig, -'sentrig 




decade 'deked, dek'ed 


decentralization ^disentrala'zejan, dijsen-. 


decadence di'kedns, 'dekadans |-cy -i |-dent 


-ai'z- 




di'kednt, 'dekadant 


decentralize di'sentral^aiz |-s -iz [-d -d 




decagon 'dekajgan; ES+-jgDn 


deception di'sep/an |-tive -tiv 




decagram, -mme 'deka^graem 


decibel 'desa^bel 




decahedral jdeka'hidral 


decide di'said [-cided -'saidid 




decahedron jdeka'hidran |-s -z [-dra -dra 


deciduous di'sidsuas 




decalcify di'kaelsa^fai |-fied -^faid 


decigram, -mme 'desajgriem 




decalescence jdika'lesns |-scent -snt 


decile, -il 'desil 




decaliter, -tre 'dekajita^; ES -jlita(r 


deciliter, -tre 'desajlita'; ES -jlita(r 




Decalogue, -log 'deka^bg, -\ag, -jlog 


decillion di'siljan j-th -6 [-ths -Os 




Decameron di'kaemaran, de- 


decimal 'desaml [-ly -i 




decameter verse di'kaemata^; ES -'kaemata(r 


decimate 'desajmet [-d -id j-tion jdesa'tne/an 


decameter, -tre meas. 'dekajmita^; ES -ta(r 


decimeter, -tre 'desa^mita^; ES -jmita(r 




decamp di'kaemp | -camped -'kaempt 


decipher di'saifa^; ES -'saifa(r; j-ed -d 


l-ing 


de Camp di'kaemp 


-'saifario, -'saifrig 




decanal 'dekanl, di'keni |-ly -i 


decision di'sigan |-al -1 




decane 'deken 


decisive di'saisiv 




decant di'kaent |-ed -id |-er -3^; ES -a(r 


decistere 'desa;Stir; ES -^stiaCr 




decantation ^dikaen'te/an 


Decius 'di/ias, -/as |-'s -iz 




decapitate di'kaepa^tet |-tated -^tetid 


deck dek [decked dekt j-house -^haus 




decapitation dijkaepa'te/an, jdikaepa- 


deckle, -ckel 'dekl 




decapod 'dekajpad; ES+-jpDd 


deckle-edged'dekl'edsdCdeckle-jcdged'bond) 



[full ful jtooth tuO [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail jhow hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz jdish di/ [vision Visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



declaim 



118 



defensible 



declaim di^klem |-claimed -'klemd 


decurrent di'kyant; ES -'ksr-, -'kAr-, -\3- 


declamation ^dEkb'meJan 


Dedham 'dedam 


declamatory di'klaema^tori, -^tari; S -^tori 


dedicate 'deda^ket |-d -id |-tor -»; ES -a(r 


declaration jdekb 're/an 


dedication /deda^ke/an 


declarative di'klaerativ 


dedicatory 'dEdakajton, -^tan; S -^toin 


declaratory di'kljerajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 


deduce di'djus, -'dius, -'dus |-s -iz |-d -t 


declare di'kler, -'klaer; E -'kle3(r, ES 


deducibility di^djusa'bilati, -jdius-, -^dus- 


-'klaeaCr; |-d -d |-dly -idli |-r -9-; ES -3(r 


deducible di'djusabl, -'dius-, -'dus- |-bly 


declension di'kknjan |-al -1 [-ally -k 


-bU 


declinable di'klainabi 


deduct di'dAkt |-ed -id |-ible -abl 


declination jdekla'ne/an |-al -1 


deduction di'dAkJan j-tive -trv 


decline di'kkm |-clined -'kkind 


Dee di 


declivitous di'klivatas |-ty -ti 


dee 'die' di 


decoct di'kakt; ES+-'kDkt; |-ed -id 


dee 'damn' di |-d -d 


decoction di'kak/an; ES + -'kDk-; |-tive -tiv 


dee letter di 


decode di'kod |-coded -'kodid 


deed did [deeded 'didid 


decollate di'kakt; ES+-'kDl-; \-d -id 


deem dim [deemed dimd 


decollete jdekaFte, -kola'te, -kol- (Fr de- 


Deems dimz |-'s -iz 


kbl'te) 


deemster 'dimsta^; ES 'dimsta(r 


decolorant di'kAkrant 


deep dip 


decolorate di'kAk^ret |-rated -jtetid 


deepen 'dipan [-ed -d |-ing 'dipanig, 'dipniij 


decoloration jdikAlaVeJan 


deep-mouthed 'dip'mautid, -et ('deep- 


decolorize di'kAb^raiz |-s -iz \-d -d 


-mouthed 'bay) 


decompose jdikam'poz |-s -iz |-d -d 


deep-rooted 'dip'rutid, -'rutid 


decomposition jdikampa'zi/an; ES+-kmn- 


deep-sea 'dip'si ('deep-'sea jlife) 


decompound jdiksm'paund |-ed -id 


deep-seated 'dip'sitid ('deep-jseated 'faith) 


decompress jdikam'prES |-es -iz j-ed -t 


deer dir; ES dia(r, S-fdEa(r, dJEa(r; | -hound 


decor de'kar; ES -'kasd; (Fr de\'6:r) 


-jhaund |-skin -jskm |-stalking -jStakig 


Decorah di'kora, -'kara; S -'kora 


Deerfield 'dir.fild; ES 'dia.fild, S+'d£a-, 


decorate 'deka^ret |-d -id |-tion jdeka'rejan 


'dJEa- 


decorative 'dEka^retiv |-tor -ta^; ES -ta(r 


deface di'fes |-s -iz j-d -t |-able -abl 


decorous 'dekaras, di'koras; EN+-'kDr- 


de facto di'faekto 


decorum di'koram, -'kar-; S -%orain 


defalcate di'faelket, -^fal- |-d -id |-tor -a-; ES 


decoy n di'kai, 'dikai 


-3(r 


decoy v di'kai |-ed -d 


defalcation jdifael'kejan, -fal- 


decrease n 'dikris, ^di'kris, di- |-s -iz 


defamation ^dEfa'meJan, jdi- 


decrease v di'kris, jdi- |-s -iz |-d -t ('de- 


defamatory di'faemajton, -jtari; S -jtori 


jcreased 'buying) 


defame di'fem |-famed -'femd 


decree di'kri |-creed -'krid 


default di'falt |-ed -id 


decrement 'dekramant 


defeasibility dijfiza'bdati 


decrepit di'krepit 


defeasible di'fizabl 


decrepitude di'krEpajtjud, -jtiud, -^tud 


defeat di'fit |-ed -id |-ism -izam |-ist -ist 


decrescendo ^dikra'/endo, ^de- (// jdekre- 


defecate 'dsfa^ket |-d -id j-tion jdEfa'keJan 


'/Endo) 


defect di'fEkt, 'difEkt 


decretal di'kritl 


defection di'fekjan |-tive -trv 


decry di'krai |-cried -'kraid |-crial -'kraial 


defend di'fEnd |-ed -id |-ant -ant 


decumbent di'kAmbant 


defense, Brit -ce di'fsns |-s -iz j-sive -iv 


decuple 'dekjupl, dek'jupl |-d -d |-ling -plig. 


defensibility di;fEnsa'bikti 


-pjio 


defensible di'tensabl |-bly -bh 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |}^et jst |sang saeg |angr}- 'ag-gri 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a Jfar far |watch watf, wot/ (§12) |jaw d^o [gorge gards |go go 



defer 



119 



deleterious 



defer di'fs^; ES -'fsCr, -'fy; |-red -d 




dehorn di'harn; ES -'haan; |-ed -d 


deference 'dsfarans 




dehydrate di'haidret |-drated -dretid 


deferential jdefa'ren/al |-ly -i 




deictic 'daiktik |-al -1 |-ally -ji, -ikli 


deferrer di'fya^; ES -'fsraCr, -'fyaCr 




deification jdiafa'ke/an 


defiance, D- di'faians |-s -iz |-ant -ant 




deiform 'diajfarm; ES -jfaam 


deficiency di'fi/ansi |-cient -/ant 




deify 'diajfai |-fied -^faid 


deficit 'defasit, 5n7 + di'fisit 




deign den [deigned dend 


defier di'faia^; ES -'fai'3(r 




Dei gratia 'diai'grejia 


defile 'befouV di'fail |-filed -'faild 




deU dil 


defile 'march o_ff' di'fail, <difail |-d -d 




Deiphobus di'ifabas |-'s -iz 


defile n di'fail, 'difail 




Deira 'deara 


definable di'fainabl |-bly -bli 




Deirdre Mirdri, 'derdri; ES 'dia-, 'dea-; Ir 


define di'fain | -fined -'faind 




'derdre 


definition jdefa'nijan 




deism 'diizam |-ist -ist 


definitive di'finativ 




deistic di'istik |-al -1 |-ally -Ii, -ikli 


deflate di'flet |-d -id |-flation -'fle/an 




deity 'diati 


deflationaiy di'fleXanjeri 




deject di'd3ekt |-ed -id |-ction -k/an 


deflect di'fkkt |-ed -id 




dejeune, -ner n 'desa^ne {Fr desoe'ne) 


deflection, -flexion di'tlekjan 




de jure di'dsuri, -'dsiuri 


deflower di'flaua^; ES -'flau-3(r; |-ed -d 




De Kalb di'k^lb 


Defoe, De Foe di'fo 




Dekker 'deka^; ES 'deka 


deforce di'fors, -'fors; ES -'foas, E+- 


faas; 


dekle 'dekl 


|-s -IZ |-d -t 




De Koven di'kovan 


deforest di'forist, -'far-, -'for- |-ed -id 




Delafield 'dela.fild 


deforestation di^faris'teXan, -^far-, -jfor- 


,dif- 


Delagoa jdEla'goa ('Delajgoa 'Bay) 


deform di'form; ES -'faam; |-ed -d | 


-edly 


delaine, D- da'len 


-idh 




de la Mare, D- 'dela/mEr, -jmaer; E -jm8a(r. 


deformation jdifor'mejan, jdefa^-; ES jdifaa-. 


ES -jmaea(r; acd + jde la 'Mare 


jdefa- 




Delamere 'dElajmir; ES -jmia(r, S+-jm8a(r 


deformity di'formati; ES -'faamati 




De Land di'Iaend 


defraud di'frad |-ed -id 




Deland di'Iaend, Brit tiame 'diland 


defray di'fre |-ed -d |-able -abj |-al -al 




Delano 'dela^no 


defrock di'frak; ES+-'frDk; |-ed -t 




De la Pole ^dela'pol 


defrost di'frast, -'frost |-ed -id 




delate di'let |-lated -'letid 


deft dEft 




Delavan 'delavan 


defunct di'fAgkt 




Delaware 'dela^wEr, -^waer; E -jwea(r, ES 


defy n di'fai, 'difai 




-jW«a(r 


defy V di'fai |-fied -'faid 




Delawarean idela'werian, -Vaer-; S -'waerian 


degenerate adj di'dsenarit, -'dsenrit | 


-racy 


De La Warr 'dtla^wer -jwaer; E -^weaCr, ES 


-rasi, -nrasi 




-jWjea(r 


degenerate v di'd3enajret |-d -id |-tive - 


IV 


delay di'Ie |-layed -'led 


degeneration dijd3ena'rej'an, jdidsena- 




dele 'dill 1 deled 'dilid 


deglutinate di'glutn^et, -'gliut- |-d -id 




delectable di'lektabj |-bly -bli 


deglutition jdiglu'tijan, -gliu- 




delectation jdlkk'te/an, dijlek'te/an 


degrade di'gred |-d -id |-dation ^dEgra'c 


ejan 


delegate ti 'dela^get, 'delagit j-gacy -gasi 


degree di'gri |-d -d 




delegate v 'debjget |-d -id |-tion jdela'ge/an 


De Groot da'grot=Grotius 




de Lesseps da'ksaps {Fr dale'ssps) j-'s -iz 


degum dl'gAm | -gummed -'gAmd 




delete di'lit |-leted -'litid |-letion -'li/an 


dehisce di'his |-s -iz |-d -t |-nce -ns |-nt 


-nt 


deleterious jdela'tirias 



|full ful |tooth tuG [further 'fytfa^; ES 'faSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz jdish dij" [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



delft 



120 



democratic 



delft, D- delft |-ware -iwet, -^waer; E 

-,vf£3{r, ES -jWaB3(r 
Delhi US 'delhai, India 'deh 
Delia 'diJja, -ha |-n -n 
deliberate adj di'libarit, -brrt 
deliberate v di'liba^ret |-d -id |-tion dijiba- 

'refan 
deliberative di'Iiba^retiv |-tor -ta^; ES -t3(r 
delicate 'debkat, -kit |-cacy -kasi 
delicatessen jdelaka'tesn 
delicious di'li/as 

delight di'lait |-ed -id |-ful -fal |-fully -fall 
Delilah di'laila 
delimit diUimit |-ed -id 
delimitation dijima'te/an, jdllima- 
delineate di'linijct |-d -id |-tion dijiiu'e/an 
delineative di'lini^etiv |-tor -ta^; ES -ta(r 
delinquency di'hgkwansi |-quent -kwant 
deliquesce ^dela'kwes |-s -iz |-d -t 
deliquescence jdela'kwesns |-cent -snt 
delirium diUiriam |-s -z |-ria -ria |-rious -rias 
Delisle, De I'lsle US di'lail, Fr name da'lil 
Dehtzsch 'dehtj |-'s -iz 
DeUus 'dihas |-'s -iz 
dehver di'hva^; ES -'liva(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

-'hvario. -'hvriij |-ance -varans, -vrans 
deliverer di'Iivara^, -'Iivra^; ES -ra(r; |-very 

-\9TI, -vri 

dell, D- del | Delia 'dela 

Delia Robbia ^dela'rabia, -'rob- (It jdella- 

'robbja) 
Delmarva dei'marva; ES -'ma:va, E+ 

-'ma:va 
Delmonico dermanijko, -'mon- 
Delos 'dilas, -Ids |-'s -iz 
delouse di'laus, -'lauz |-s -iz |-d -t, -d 
Delphi 'delfai |-phian -fian |-phic -fik 
delphinium, D- derfiniam |-s -z 
Delphos 'delfas, -fas, -fos |-'s -iz 
DelRio del'rio 

Delsarte del'sart; ES -'sa:t, E+-'sa:t 
del Sarto, Andrea 'andriadel'sarto; ES 

-'sa:to, E+-'sa:to; (li an'dreradel'sarto) 
delta, D- 'delta |-ic del'te-ik |-toid 'deltoid 
delude di'lud, -'liud |-d -id 
deluge 'deljuds |-s -iz |-d -d 
delusion di'lusan, -'liusan 
delusive di'lusiv, -'lius- |-sory -sari 
de luxe di'luks, -'Uks (Fr da'lyks) 



delve delv [delved delvd 

demagnetization jdimaegnata'zejan, di^mjeg-, 

-ai'z- 
demagnetize di'maegna^taiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
demagogic jdema'gadsik, -'gDd5-, -'gag-, 

-'gDg- |-al -1 !-ally -li, -ikli 
demagogism 'demaigagizam, -/gag-, -^gog- 
demagogue, -gog 'dema^gag, -jgag, -^gug 

|-guery -an, -n 
demagogy 'demajgodsi, -^gagi, -jgagi, -,gDgi 
demand di'maend; E+-'inaiid, -'mand; |-ed 

-id 
demarcate di'raarket, 'dimar^ket; ES -a:k-, 

E+-a:k-; |-d -id 
demarcation jdimar'kejan; ES -ma:'k-, E+ 

-ma:'k- 
Demas 'dimas |-'s -iz 
dematerialize jdima'tirialjaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
demean di'tnin |-ed -d |-or -a-; ES -a(r 
dement di'ment |-ed -id |-ia -'menjia, -fa 
demerit di'ment |-ed -id 
demesne di'men, -'min |-nial -lal 
Demeter di'mita^; ES -'mita(r 
Demetrius di'mitrias |-'s -iz 
demigod 'demajgad, -igod 
demijohn 'dema^dsan, -td^nn 
demihtarize di'milatajraiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
demimondaine ^demiman'den, -mon- (Fr 

damimo'den) 
demimonde 'demi^mand, -jmond, jdemi'm- 

(Fr dami'mord) 
Deming 'demig 
demirep 'deim^rep 
demise di'maiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
demisemiquaver jdemi'semajkweva^; ES 

-(kweva(r 
demission di'mi/an |-ary -jeri 
demit m di'mit, 'dimit 
demit v di'mit |-ted -id 
demitasse 'dema/tses, -jtas (Fr dami'ta:s) 
demitint 'demi^tint 

demiurge 'demij^ds; ES -isdj, -j^ds; |-s -iz 
demobilization jdimobla'zefan, di^mobla-, 

-ai'z- 
demobilize di'mobljaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
democracy da'makrasi; ES+-'mDk- 
democrat, D- 'demajkraet 
democratic jdema'kraetik [-al -1 |-ally -|i, 

-ikb 



Key: See hi full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angry 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gardj |go go 



demooratize 



121 



denote 



democratize da^makra^taiz; ESH—'mok-s l-s 


demurrer 'objection' di'mya*} ES -'m3r3(r, 


-iz |-d -d 


-Wr-, -'ma^aCr 


Democritus di^makritss; ES+'Wok-; |-'s -iz 


demy di'mai 


Demogorgon jdims^gorgdn, jdems-; ES 


den den | denned dend 


-'gDagsn 


denarius di'nerias, -'ner- [-s -iz |-rii -riiai 


demography diWagrsfi, di-, -'mng- 


denary 'denari, 'dinari 


demoiselle jdemwa'zel {Fr damwa'zel) 


denationalize diW/anj^aiz, -/nal- l-s -iz 


demolish diWali/; ES+-'mDl-; |-es -iz j-ed -t 


l-d-d 


demolition jdema'li/an, jdlma- 


denaturahzation dljnaet/rala'ze/an, -ai'z- 


demon 'dimsn 


denaturalize di'naet/raljaiz, -tjaral- \-s -iz 


demonetization dijinanats^zcjan, -^mAn-, 


l-d-d 


-ai'z-; ES+-jmDn- 


denaturant di'net/arant 


demonetize di'manajtaiz, -'mAn-; ES+ 


denature di'net/a^; ES -tja(r; [-d -d [-ring 


-'mon-; |-s -iz |-d -d 


-'net/anrj, -'net/rig 


demoniac diWoni^sek 


Denbigh 'denbi |-shire -Ju, -/a^; ES -Jia(r, 


demoniacal jdima'naiakl |-ly -i, -akh 


-/3(r 


demonic di'manik; ES+-'mDn-; |-al -1 


dendrite 'dendrait 


demonism 'dimdnjizsm |-ist -ist 


dendroid 'dendroid |-al den'draidj 


demonolater jdiman'abta^ ; ES -'abtaCr, 


dendrology den'draladsi; ES+-'drDl- 


-'d1-; |-try -tri |-logy -ladsi 


Deneb 'deneb 


demonstrability ^demanstra'bilati, di^man- 


dengue 'deggi, 'degge 


stra-; ES+'^mnn- 


Denham 'denam 


demonstrable 'dEmanstrabI, di^manstrs-; 


denial di'naial, -'nail |-able -'naiabl 


ES+-'mDn-; l-bly-bh 


denier 'contradicter' di'naia^; ES -'nai-acr 


demonstrant di'manstrant; ES+-'mDn- 


denier coin da'nir; ES -'nia(r; {Fr da'nje) 


demonstrate 'deman^stret |-strated -^stretid 


denigrate 'dena^gret |-grated -^gretid 


demonstration jdeman'stre/an 


denim 'denam, 'demm 


demonstrative di'manstrativ; ES+-'mDn-; in 


Denis 'denis |-'s -iz {Fr da'ni) 


sense '^/joie'y'+'dEmanjStretiv 


Denise da'niz |-'s -iz 


demonstrator 'demanjStreta' ; ES -jstret3(r 


Denison 'denasn 


demoralization di^marala'ae/an, -^mar-. 


denitrate di'naitret |-trated -tretid 


-iinior-, -ai'z- 


denizen 'denazn |-ed -d 


demorahze di'moraljaiz, -'mar-, -'mor- |-s -iz 


Denmark 'denmark; ES -mark, E+-ma:k 


l-d-d 


Dennis 'denis |-'s -iz 


De Morgan di'margan; ES -'maagan 


Dennison 'denasn 


demos Mimas, -mns |-mi -mai 


Denny 'deni |-s -s |-s's -siz 


Demosthenes di'masOa/niz, -'mos- |-'s -iz 


denominate adj di'namanit, -jnet; ES+ 


demote di'mot |-moted -'motid |-tion -'mo/an 


-'nom- 


demotics di'matiks; ES+-'mDt- 


denomination di^nama'nejan; ES+-jnDm-; 


demount di'maunt |-able -abj 


|-al -I, -Jnal |-ally -li, -/nali j-alism -l^izam, 


dempster 'dempsta^; ES -sta(r 


-/nal- 


demulcent di'mAlsnt 


denominative di'nama^netiv, -nativ; ES+ 


demur di'my; ES -'m3(r, -'my; ]-red -d 


-'nom- 


demure di'mjur, -'miur; ES -'mjuaCr, 


denominator dt'namajnet»; ES-'nama^netaCr, 


-'miua(r 


-'nnm- 


demurrage di'm^ids; ES -'msr-, -'mAr-, 


denotation jdino'te/an 


-'my- 


denotative di'notativ, esp. in contrast with 


demurrer 'objector^ di'ms^; ES -'m3ra(r. 


connotative 'dino^tetiv 


-'myacr 


denote di'not |-noted -'notid 



|full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fy'Ss'; ES 'fatSa |custom 'kAstam |while hwail jhow hau [toy tai 
I using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, imz |dish di/ | vision 'vijan [Eden 'idi^i |cradk 'kredj jkeep 'em 'kipifi 



denouement 



122 



deputation 



denouement de'numa {Fr denu'ma) 


deplorable di'plorab}, -'pbr-; S -'plor-; |-bly 


denounce di'nauns |-s -iz |-d -t 


-bh 


de novo di'novo 


deplore di'plor, -'pbr; ES -'plo3(r, E+ 


dense dens | density 'densati 


-'pb3(r; l-d -d 


dent d£nt | dented 'dentid 


deploy di'pbi |-ed -d 


dental 'denti |-ly -i 


deplume di'plum, -'plium |-d -d 


dentate 'dentet |-tated -tetid |-tion den'tejan 


depolarization jdipobra'zejan, di^pol-, -ai'z- 


denticulate adj den'tikjalit, -^let |-d -id 


depolarize di'pobjraiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


dentifrice 'dentajfris |-s -iz 


depone di'pon |-d -d |-nt -ant 


dentilabial ^denti'lebial 


depopulate di'papjajlet; ES-i--'pDp-; ]-d -id 


dentin 'dentin | dentine 'dentin, -tax 


depopulation jdipapja'le/an, dijpap-; ES+ 


dentist 'dentist |-ry -ri 


-np- 


dentition den'ti/an 


deport di'port, -'part; ES -'peat, E+-'poat; 


Denton 'dentan 


|-ed -id 


denture 'dentja^; ES 'dentJaCr; |-ral -al 


deportation jdipor'te/an, -par-; ES -poa-, 


denudation jdinju'dejan, jden-, -niu-, -nu- 


E+-paa- 


denude di'njud, -'mud, -'nud |-d -id 


deportee jdipor'ti, -par-; ES -poa-, E-^-paa- 


denunciate di'nAnsi^et, -/i- |-d -id j-tive -iv 


deportment di'portmant, -'part-; ES -'poat-. 


denunciation dijnAnsi'efan, -Ji'e/an 


E+-'paat- 


denunciatory di'nAnsia^tori, -Ji-, -itari; S 


depose di'poz |-s -iz |-d -d |-sal -1 


-jtori 


deposit, D- di'pazit; ES+-'pDz-; |-ed -id 


Denver 'denva'; ES 'denv3(r 


depositary di'paza^teri; ES+-'pDZ- 


deny di'nai [denied di'naid 


deposition ^depa'zi/an, jdi- 


Denys 'denis |-'s -iz {Fr da'ni) 


depositor di'pazita^; ES -'pazita(r, -'pnz- 


deodand 'dis^daend 


depository di'pazajtori, -jtari; S -^tori. 


deodar 'disjdar; ES -jda:(r, E+-jda:(r 


ES+-'pDZ- 


deodorant di'odarant 


depot 'dipo, Brit usually 'depo 


deodorize di'odajraiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


depravation jdepra've/an 


Deo gratias 'dio'grefijaes 


deprave di'prev |-d -d |-pravity -^praevati 


Deo volente 'diovo'lenti 


deprecate 'depra^ket |-d -id |-tive -iv 


deoxidize di'aksajdaiz; ES+-'Dks-; |-s -iz 


deprecation jdepra'ke/an 


l-d-d 


deprecatory 'deprakajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 


depart di'part; ES -^pa:t, E+-'pa:t; |-ed -id 


depreciable di'prijiabj 


|-ment -mant 


depreciate di'pri/ijct |-ated -^etid 


departmental dispart 'mentl, jdipart-; ES 


depreciation di^pri/i'ejan 


-a:t-, E+-a:t-; |-ly -i 


depreciative di'pri/ijetiv [-tor -ta^; ES -ta(r 


departure di'part/a^; ES -'pa:tj3(r, E+ -'part- 


depreciatory di'prij'ia^tori, -jtari; S -,toTi 


depend di'pend |-ed -id 


depredate 'depri^det |-d -id |-tor -a^; ES -a(r 


dependability dijpenda'bilati 


depredation ^depri'de/an 


dependable di'pendabl |-bly -bh 


depress di'pres |-es -iz |-ed -t |-ant -nt 


dependence di'pendans [-cy -i 


depression di'prejan |-sive -'presiv 


dependent, -ant di 'pendant 


deprival di'praivl 


Depere di'pir; ES -'pi3(r 


deprivation jdepra've/an 


Depew di'pju, -'piu 


deprive di'praiv |-prived -'praivd 


depict di'pikt j-ed -id 


de profundis ;dipra'fAndis 


depiction di'pik/an |-ture -tja^; ES -tX3(r 


Deptford 'detfyd; ES 'detfad 


depilate 'depa^let |-lated -Jetid 


depth depG |-ths -Os 


depilatory di'pibjtori, -jtari; S -jtori 


Depue di'pju, -'piu 


deplete di'plit |-d -id |-tion -'pli/an 


deputation jdepja'te/an 



Key; See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang ssg [angry 'aeg-gri 
[bath baee; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far [watch wat/, wot/ (§12) jjaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



depute 



123 



despair 



depute di'pjut, -'pnit [-d -id 


Descartes de'kart; ES -'ka:t, E+-'ka:t; (Fr 


deputize 'dEpja^taiz |-s -iz |-d -d |-ty -ti 


de'kart, de-) 


De Quincey, -cy di'kwinsi 


descend di'send |-ed -id |-ible, -able -abl 


derail di'rel | -railed -Veld 


descendant n, adj di'sendant 


derange di 'rends |-s -iz |-d -d 


descendent adj di'sendant 


Derby Engd 'darbi, 'dybi; Am races 'dybi. 


descent di'sent 


less freq. 'darbi; Eng races 'darbi; US 


Deschamps Fr de'/a, de- 


places 'dybi; ES 'da:bi, 'dabi, 'dybi. 


Deschutes de'/ut 


E+'da:bi; |-shire -Jir, -JV; ES -jJiaCr, -Ja(r 


describable di'skraibabl |-bly -bli 


— The Brit pron. of all these is 'da:bi, 'darbi, 


describe di'skraib |-scribed -'skraibd 


less freq. 'dabi, 'dybi. 


description di'skripjan |-tive -tiv 


derby 'dybi; ES 'dabi, 'dybi; Brit 'da:bi, 


descry di'skrai |-scried -'skraid 


'darbi 


Desdemona jdezda'mona 


derelict 'dera^Iikt |-ction idera'hkjan 


desecrate 'desi^kret |-crated -^kretid 


deride di'raid |-rided -'raidid 


desecration jdESi'kreJan 


de rigueur Fr dari'gceir 


desensitization ^disensata'zejan, di^sen-. 


derision di'risan | -risible di'nzabl 


-ai'z- 


derisive di'raisiv |-sory -sari 


desensitize di's£nsajtaiz [-s -iz |-d -d 


derivable di'raivabl |-bly -bli 


desert 'merit' di'za^t; ES -'zat, -'za't 


derivation jdera've/an 


desert 'a waste' 'deza^t; ES 'dezat 


derivative da'rivativ 


desert 'abandon' di'za^t; ES -'zat, -'zyt; j-ed 


derive da'raiv | -rived -'raivd 


-id 


derma 'd^ma; ES 'dsma, 'dyma 


desertion di'zaj'an; ES -'zaj-, -'zaj"- 


dermatitis jdyma'taitis; ES jdama-, jdyma- 


deserve di'zs^v; ES -'zav, -'za^v; |-d -d j-dly 


dermatological jds^mata'ladsikl; ES ^dsma-. 


-idli 


jds^ma-, -'lods- 


deshabille ^deza'bil, c/ i^r deshabille dezabi'je 


dermatology ^dyma'taladsi; ES jdama-. 


&° Eng dishabille 


jdyma-, -'tol-; -gist -dsist 


desiccant 'desakant 


dermis 'dymis; ES 'damis, 'dymis 


desiccate 'dEsa^ket |-d -d |-tive -iv 


Dermott 'da'mat; ES 'damat, 'dymat 


desiderate di'sida^ret |-rated -itetid 


Derna 'dema; ES 'deana 


desideratum di^sida'retam |-rata -'reta 


dernier 'da'^nia^; ES 'dam«a(r, 'dyn-; {Fr 


design di'zam | -signed -'zaind |-edly -idli 


der'nje) 


designate adj 'dezignit, 'd£s-, -^net 


dewier cri Fr dEmje'kri 


designate v 'dezig^net, 'des- |-d -id 


dernier ressort Fr dernjera'sb'ir 


designation jdezig'tie/an, jdes- 


derogate 'dera^get |-gated -igetid 


designative 'dezigjuetiv, 'd£S- 


derogation jdera'ge/an 


designee jdezig'ni, jd£S- 


derogative di'ragativ, -'rng- 


desirabiUty di^zaira'bilati 


derogatory di'taga^tori, -'rng-, -itari; S 


desirable di'zairabl |-bly -bli 


-jtori; |-rily -rah 


desire di'zair; ES di'zaia(r; |-d -d |-dly -idh 


Deronda da'randa; ES-h-'ron- 


|-rous -as 


derrick, D- 'derik |-ed -t 


desist di'zist |-ed -id |-ance -ans |-ive -iv 


derring-do 'derig'du 


desk d£sk |desked deskt 


derringer, D- 'dermdsa^; ES -dsaCr 


Des Moines di'main, -'mainz |-'s -z, -nziz 


Derry 'den 


desolate adj 'deslit 


dervish 'dyvij*; ES 'dav-, 'dyv-; |-es -iz 


desolate v 'desj^et |-d -id |-tor -a^; ES -a(r 


Derwent 'da^want, -went; ES 'da-, 'da'- 


De Soto di'soto, -'sota 


descant n 'deskaent 


despair di'sper, -'spaer; E -'spea(r, ES 


descant v des'kaent, di'skaent [-ed -id 


-'spaea(r; |-ed -d 



|full ful |tooth tu9 [further 'fa's*; ES 'fatSa |custom 'kAStam [while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kred} [keep 'em 'klpm 



(iesnatch 



124 



deviate 



despatch di'spaetj 1-es -iz 1-ed -t= dispatch 


deteriorate di'tiriS/ret |-rated -jretid 




desperado ^despa'tedo 


deterioration di/tiriaVeJan 




desperate ^desprit, -pant |-tion jdesps 're/an 


determinable di'ts'imnab}; ES -'tam-, ■ 


'tsm-; 


despicable Mespikib}, less freq. di'spikab) 


l-bly -bli 




l-bly -bh 


determinant di'ts'manant; ES -'tsm-, 


-'tym- 


despise di'spaiz |-s -iz |-d -d |-dness -idnis 


determinate adj di't^manit; ES 


-'t3m-, 


despite di'spait |-d -id |-ful -fal | -fully -fall 


-'t3^m-; n -nit, -/net 




Des Plaines des'plenz (Fr de'plen) 


determination dijts'ma'nejan; ES 


-/tsm-. 


despoil di'spail |-ed -d 


-/tym- 




despoliation dijSpoli'eXan 


deternune di'tymin; ES -'tam-, -'ts'm- 


; l-d -d 


despond di'spand, -'spend |-ed -id |-€nce 


|-dly -dli, -idli |-nism -/izam |-nist 


-ISt 


-ans |-ency -ansi |-ent -ant 


deterrent di'tsrant, -'ter-; ES -'tsr-, 


-'tAr-, 


despot 'despat, -pat; ES-t--pDt 


-'ty-, -'tEr- 




despotic di'spatik; ES+-'spnt-; |-al -1 |-ally 


detest di'tESt |-ed -id |-able -abl |-bly 


-bh 


-h l-ly -h 


detestation /ditEs'te/an 




despotism 'despatiizam 


dethrone di'Sron, di- |-d -d 




despumate di'spjumet, -'spiu-, 'despjujinet 


de Tocqueville di'takvil, -'tok- (Fr datak'vil) 


l-d -id 


detonate 'dEtan/ct, -ton- |-d -id |-tor 


-3-; ES 


desquamate 'deskwa^met |-mated -^metid 


-a(r 




dessert di'zyt; ES -hst, -Wt; |-spoon -jspun, 


detonation /dEta'ne/an, -to- 




-/Spun 


detour 'ditur, di'tur |-ed -d 




de Stijl da'stil 


detract di'traekt |-ed -id j-or -^; ES - 


a(r 


destination jdestaW/an 


detraction di'traek/an |-tory -tan 




destine 'destin |-d -d |-tiny -tani 


detrain di'tren |-trained -'trend 




destitute 'd£st9/tjut, -jtiut, -^tut |-d -id 


detriment 'dEtramant 




destitution jdesta'tju/an, -'tiu-, -'tu- 


detrimental /dEtra'mEntl |-ly -i 




destroy di'strai |-ed -d |-er -3-; ES -a(r 


detrition di'tn/an 




destructibility di^strAkta'bilati 


detritus di'traitas 




destructible di'strAktabl 


Detroit di'trait |-er -^; ES -a(r 




destruction di'strAk/an |-tive -trv 


de trop Fr da'tro 




destructivity jdistrAk'tivati, di^strAk'trv- 


Deucahon dju'kehan, dm-, du-, -Ijan 




desuetude 'deswi^tjud, -^tiud, -jtud 


deuce djus, dius, dus |-s -iz [d -id. 


-t l-dly 


desulphurize di'sAlfa^raiz, -fja- |-s -iz |-d -d 


-idh 




desultory 'desj/ton, -/tan; S -/ton; |-rily 


Deuel 'djual, 'dmal, 'dual 


• 


-rail, -nil 


deus ex machina 'dias/Eks'maekma 




detach di'taetj" |-es -iz [-ed -t |-edly -idh 


deuterium dju'tinam, diu-, du- 




detachabihty di/taet/a'bibti 


Deuteronomy /djuta'ransmi, jdiu-, 


/du-; 


detachable di'taetjabl |-bly -bli 


ES-^-'ron- 




detail n 'ditel, di'tel 


Deutsches Reich Ger 'daytjas'raix 




detail v di'tel [-ed -d |-edly -idh 


Deutschland Gcr 'doytj/lant 




detain di'ten |-ed -d 


De Valera dava'iera, -'kra, -'lira 




detect di'tekt 1-ed -id |-able -abl |-bly -bli 


devaluate di'vaelju/et |-ated -/Ctid 




detection di'tek/an |-tive -tiv |-tor -ta^; ES 


devaluation /divaelju'efan 




-ta(r 


devastate 'dEvaS/tet |-tated -/tetid 




detent di'tEnt 


devastation /dEvas'tefan 




detention di 'ten/an 


develop di'vslap |-ed -t 




deter di'ty; ES -'t3(r, -'ty; [-red -d 


De Vere di'vir; ES -'via(r 




deterge di'tyds; ES -'tsdj, -'tyds; [-s -iz 


Devereux 'dEva/ru, -/riu 




|-d -d |-nce -ans |-ncy -ansi |-nt -ant 


deviate 'divi/et |-d -id |-tion /dm'e/an 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) Irate ret lyet jet Isang saeg langrj' 'aeg-gn 
|bath bsefl; E baB (§10) lah a Ifar far Iwatch watj, wot/ (§12) Ijaw dga Igorge gardj Igo go 



device 



125 



diaper 



device diVais |-vices -Vaisiz 


dey de 


devil 'devl |-ed -d |-ing 'devlig, 'd£v}io 


Dhaulagiri jdaula'giri 


devilfish 'devl^fij |-'s -iz 


dhole dol 


deviHsh 'devlij", 'devlij" 


dhoti, dhooti 'doti 


devil-may-care 'devlmi'ker, -'kaer; E -'k£3(r, 


dhow dau 


ES -'kae3(r; ('devil-may-jcare 'wit) 


diabase 'daia^bes |-sic ^daia'besik 


devilment 'devlmant 


diabetes jdaia'bitis, -tiz 


devilry 'd£vlri | deviltry 'devltri 


diabetic ^daia'betik, -'bitik |-al -I 


devious 'divias, -vjas 


diablerie di'ablari {Fr djabla'ri) 


devisable diVaizabj 


diabolic jdaia'balik; ES+-'bDl-; |-al -1 |-ally 


devise diVaiz |-s -iz |-d -d |-sal -1 


-li, -ikli 


devisee dijvaiz'i, ^devi'zi (de^vis'ee & de- 


diaboHsm dai'aebajlizam 


ivis'or) 


diachronic jdaia'kranik; ES-|--'krDn- 


devisor di'vaiza^, di^vaizbr; ES -3(r, -'D3(r 


diacid dai'aesid 


devitalization dijvaitla'ze/an, jdivait-, -ai'z- 


diaconate dai'aekanit, -^net |-nal -nl 


devitalize diVaitj^aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


diacritic jdaia'kritik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikh 


Devizes diVaiziz |-zes' -ziz 


diadem 'daia^dem |-demed -jdemd 


devoice di'vais \-s -iz j-d -t 


diaeresis dai'erasis |-eses -ajsiz 


devoid di'void 


diagnose jdaiag'nos, -'noz |-s -iz j-d -t, -d 


devoir daVwar, 'devwar; ES -wa:(r; (Fr 


diagnosis jdaiag'nosis |-noses -'nosiz 


daVwair) 


diagnostic jdaiag'nastik; ES+-'nDS-; |-ally 


devolution ^deva'Iu/an, -'liujan, -vl'ju/an 


-h, -ikh 


devolve diValv, -VdIv |-d -d 


diagnostician ^daiagnas'ti/an; ES-i--nDS- 


Devon 'devan | Devonian daVonian 


diagonal dai'seganl |-ly -i, -'aegnali 


Devonport 'dEvanjport, 'devm-, -jport; ES 


diagram 'daia^graem |-(m)ed -d 


-jpoat, E-t--jp33t 


diagrammatic jdaiagra'maetik |-al -1 |-ally 


Devonshire 'devan^Xir, -Ja^; ES -jj'i3(r, -/3(r 


-h, -ikh 


devote diVot |-d -id 


dial 'daial, dail |-ed -d 


devotee jdeva'ti 


dialect 'daia^kkt 


devotion di'vojan |-al -1 |-ally -li 


dialectal jdaia'kktl |-ly -i 


devour di'vaur; ES -Vau3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 


dialectic jdaia'kktik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikk 


-Vaurio 


dialectician ^daiakk'tijan 


devout di'vaut 


dialectology jdaialek'taladsi; ES+-'tDl- 


De Vries da'vris |-'s -iz 


dialogist dai'aeladsist 


dew dju, dm, du |-ed -d 


dialogue, -log 'daiajag, -Jag, -Jog j-d, -ged -d 


Dewar 'djua', 'diua^, 'dua^; ES -3(r 


dialysis dai'aelasis |-yses -a^siz 


dewberry 'dju/beri, 'diu-, 'du-, -ban 


dialytic jdaia'litik |-ally -li, -ikli 


dewdrop 'djujdrap, 'diu-, 'du-; ES+-jdrDp 


diamagnetic /daiamaeg'netik |-ally -li, -ikli 


Dewey 'djui, 'diur, 'dui 


diamagnetism ydaia'maegnaytizam 


Dewitt, De-Witt v di'wit |-ed -id 


diameter dai'aemata'; ES -'aemata(r 


dewlap 'djujaep, 'diu-, 'du- |-ped -t 


diametric jdaia'mEtrik |-al -1 |-ally -h, -ikli 


dewy 'djui, 'diui, 'dui 


diamond 'daimand, 'daia- |-ed -id — 'daimand 


dexter, D- 'deksta^; ES 'dekstaCr 


is common from the 16c {often spelt dimond), 


dexterity dtks'terati 


being found in Slmk., Milton, Pope, Cowper, 


dexterous 'dekstras, -taras 


Keats, Tennyson. 


dextral 'dekstral |-ly -i 


Dian 'daian |Diana dai'aena 


dextrin 'dekstrin | -trine -trin, -trin 


dianthus, D- dai'aenGas |-es -iz 


dextrose 'dekstros 


diapason jdaia'pezn, -'pesn 


dextrous 'dekstras 


diaper 'daiapa^; ES 'daiapa(r; |-ed -d 



Ifull ful |tooth tu0 Ifurther 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish di/ [vision 'visan |Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



diaphanous 



126 



diffract 



diaphanous dai'aefanas 

diaphone 'daia^fon 

diaphonic jdaia'fanik; ES+-'fDn-; |-al -1 

diaphoresis jdaiafa'risis 

diaphoretic ^daiafa'retik |-al -1 

diaphragm 'daiajfraem |-ed -d 

diaphragmatic ^daiafrag'maetik |-ally -li, 

-ikh 
diarchy ^daiarki; ES -a:ki, E+-a:ki 
diarist ^daiarist 
diarrhea, -rrhoea jdaiaVia 
diary 'daiari 
Diaspora dai'aespsrs 
diastase 'daia^stes 
diastole dai^aestaji 
diastolic jdais^stalik; ES+-'stDl- 
diastrophism dai'^strajfizsm 
diathermic jdaia'eymik; ES -'63m-, -'flym- 
diathermy 'daia^Oa^mi; ES -jGsmi, -fis^mi 
diatom 'daiatam, -jtam; ES+-jtDm 
diatomaceous jdaiata 'me/as 
diatonic jdaia'tanik; ES+-'tDn-; |-al -I |-ally 

-li, -ikk 
diatribe 'daia^traib |-tribed -^traibd 

Diaz 'dias |-'s -iz 

dib dib Idibbed dibd 

dibase 'dai^bes |-sic dai'besik 

dibble 'dibl |-d -d |-ling 'dibbg, 'diblig 

dice dais |diced daist |-'s -iz 

dichlorid dai'klond, -'klar-; S -'klor-; |-ride 
-raid, -nd 

dichotomous dai'katamas; ES+-'kDt-; |-my 
-irn 

dichromatic jdaikroWaetik |-tism dai'kroma- 
jtizam 

Dick dik 

dickcissel dik^sisl, 'dik^s- 

Dickens, d- 'dikinz |-'s -iz |-ian di'kenzian 

dicker 'dika^; ES 'dik3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 'dikar- 
10, 'dikrig 

Dickinson, Dicken- Mikinsn 

dicotyledon jdaikatl'idn, daijkat-; ES+-Dt-; 
|-ous -'idnas, -'ednas 

dictaphone, D- ^dikta^fon 

dictate n 'diktet 

dictate v 'diktat, dik'tet |-d -id 

dictation dik'tejan 

dictator 'diktet*, dik'teta^; ES -t3(r; |-ship 



dictatorial ^dikta^tonal, -'tar-; S -'tor-; 

l-ly -I 
dictic 'diktik |-al -1 |-aUy -li, -ikli 
diction 'dikjan 

dictionary 'dikjan^en, as a Briticism+^Ask- 
Janari, -Janri, -Jnan 

dictograph, D- 'dikta^graef ; E+-igraf, -jgrof 

dictum 'diktam |-s -z |-ta -ta 

did did — for Jonns see do 

didactic dai'daektik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikh 

diddest 'didist — see do 

diddle 'didl |-d -d |-Hng 'didhg, 'didlig 

Diderot 'didajto {Fr di'dro) 

didest 'didist— ^ee do 

didn't 'didnt, before some conss.+^AiAn 
(jdidn'go) — Tlie pron. ^didant is substand- 
ard. 

Dido, d- 'daido 

didst didst — see do 

Didymus 'didamas |-'s -iz 

die 'cube' dai \pl dice dais 

die Hool' dai \pl dies daiz 

die 'expire' dai |died daid 

die-hard 'daijhard; ES -jha:d, E+-iba:d 

dielectric jdaia'kktrik |-al -1 [-ally -li, -ikli 

Dieman, van vaen'diman 

Dieppe di'ep {Fr djep) 

dieresis dai'erasis |-eses -a^slz 

dies 'expires,' 'colors,' 'tools' daiz 

dies 'day' 'daiiz 

Dies, Martin daiz \-& -iz 

Diesel 'dizl, 'disl 

Dies Irae 'daiiz'airi 

diet 'daiat |-ed -id |-ary 'daiajtsn 

dietetic idaia't8tik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

dietician ^daia'tijan |-titian -'ti/an 

differ 'difa^; ES -fa(r; |-ed -d |-ing ^drfng, 
'difarig 

difference 'difrans, 'difa^ns, 'difarans; ES 
-frans, -far-, -fans; |-s -iz |-nt -nt 

differentia jdifa'ren/ia |-tiae -Ji^I 

differential jdifa'ren/al |-ly -i 

differentiate jdifa'rEn/ijCt j-ated -^etid 

differentiation jdifajrEnJi'eJan 

difficile ^AiW^W, formerly di'fisl 

difficult 'difa.kAlt, 'difakalt, -kit 

difficulty 'difa^kAlti, -kalti, -klti 

diffidence 'difadans |-dent -dant 

diffract di'fraekt |-ed -id |-ction -k/an 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet J£t jsang saeg langry 'jeg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj, wntj (§12) |jaw d^o [gorge gards |go go 



diffuse 



127 



Oionysian 



diffuse, adj di'fjus, -'fius 


diluvial di'luvial, -'hu- |-an -an 


diffuse V di'fjuz, -'fiuz |-s -iz [-d -d |-dly -idli 


dim dim | dimmed dimd 


diffusibility di^fjuza'bibti, -^fiuz- 


dime daim 


diffusible di'fjuzabl, -'fiuz- |-bly -bk 


dimension da'menjan |-ed -d ]-al -1 |-ally -h 


diffusion di'fjusan, -'fiu- |-sive -siv 


dimeter 'dimata^; ES 'dimata(r 


dig dig [past 6" pptc dug dAg, or arch, digged 


diminish da'mini/ |-es -iz |-ed -t 


digd 


diminuendo da^minju'Endo 


digamma dai'gasma 


diminution ^dima'njujan, -'luu-, -'nu- 


digest n 'daidjEst 


diminutive da'minjativ 


digest V da'dsest, dai'dsest |-ed -id 


dimissory 'dimajsori, da'misari; EN+-iS3ri 


digestibility dajdsesta'bilati, dai- 


dimity 'dimati 


digestible da'dsestabl, dai- |-bly -bh 


Dimmesdale 'dimzdel 


digestion da'dsest/an, dai- |-gestive -^sestiv 


Dimond 'daimand 


digger 'diga^; ES "dig3(r; |digging 'digiQ 


dimorphism dai'marfizam; ES -'maaf- 


Diggory 'digari 


dimple 'dimpl |-d -d |-ling 'dimphij, -plig 


dight dait \past & pptc dight dait, or dighted 


din dm | dinned dind 


'daitid 


Dinah 'daina 


Dighton 'daitn 


dinar di'nar; ES -'na:(r 


digit 'didsit l-al -I |-ally -h 


dine dam [dined daind 


digitalin jdidsa'telin 


ding dig [dinged digd 


digitalis jdidsa'tehs, -'taelis 


dingdong 'dig^dag, -jdng; S+-jdag; |-ed -d 


digitate adj 'didsa^tet |-d -id 


dinghy, -gey, -gy Miggi 


digitigrade 'didsita^gred |-ism -gred^izam 


dingle 'diggl |-d -d [-Hng 'digghg, -glig 


dignify 'digna^fai |-fied -^faid 


dingo Miggo 


dignitary 'digna^ten 


dingy 'dinghy' 'diggi 


dignity 'dignati 


dingy 'dusky' 'dind3i 


digraph 'daigraef; E+-graf, -graf 


dinkey, -ky 'digki 


digress da'gres, dai- |-es -iz |-ed -t 


Dinmont, d- Minmant, -mant; ES+-mDnt 


digression da'gre/an, dai- |-sive -'gresiv 


dinner 'dma^; ES Mina(r 


dihedral dai'hidral |-dron -dran 


dinnerware 'dma^^wEr, -jwaer; E 'dinajW£a(r, 


Dijk, van vaen'daik 


ES -jwaea(r 


Dijon 'disan, -3Dn, di'3- {Fr di'30) 


dinosaur 'dama^sar; ES -jsaa(r 


dike daik |-d -t 


Dinosauria jdama'saria |d-n jdaina'sarian 


dilantin dai'laentin 


dinosaurus jdama'saras |-rai -rai 


dilapidate da'Iaepajdet |-dated -^detid 


dinothere 'daina/Gir; ES -jGia(r 


dilapidation dajaepa'dejan 


Dinotherium ^dama'Giriam 


dilatation jdila'te/an, jdaila- 


dint dint [dinted 'dintid 


dilate dai'let, di- |-d -id |-Iation -Uejan 


Dinwiddle din'widi, 'dinwidi 


dilatory 'dilajfori, -jtari; S -jtori; |-rily -rah. 


diocesan dai'asasn, 'daia^sisn; ES+-^ds- 


-nil 


diocese Maia^sis |-s -iz 


dilemma da'kma 


Diodes 'daia/kliz |-'s -iz 


dilettante ^dila'taenti |-ism -tiiizam |-tism 


Diocletian jdaia'kUJan 


-'taentizam 


Diodorus jdaia'doras, -'dar-; S -'dor-; |-'s -iz 


diligence 'dilad3ans [-s -iz j-gent -d5ant 


Diogenes dai'ad3ajniz; ES+-'Dd3-; |-'s -iz 


dill dil 


Diomed 'daiajinEd |-mede -^mid 


Dillon Milan 


Diomedes jdaia'midiz |-des' -diz 


dillydally 'dih^daeli [-ied -d 


Dion 'daian 


diluent 'diljuant 


Dionysia jdaia'tujia, -sia |-iac -'nisijaek 


dilute di'lut, -'hut |-d -id |-tion -J*an 


Dionysian jdaia'nijan, -'nisian 



[full ful [tooth tu6 [further 'fySa^; ES 'fatJa jcustom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Dionysius 



128 



disclaim 



Dionysius jdaia'nijias, -'nisias |-'s -iz 
Dionysus ^daia'naisas |-sus' -sas 
Dionyza ^daia'naiza 
diopter dai'apta'; ES -'apt3(r, -^op- 
dioptric dai'aptrik; ES+-'Dp-; |-s -s 
diorama jdaia'rfemd, -'rama 
diorite 'daid^rait 

Dioscuri jdais'skjurai, -'skiu- |-rian -nan 
dioxide dai'aksaid, -id; ES+-'Dks-; |-id -id 
dip dip [dipped dipt 
diphase 'dai,fez [-phasic dai'fezik 
diphosgene dai'fasdsin; ES+-'fDS- 
diphtheria dif'Giria, dip-; S+-'eEr-; |-1 -1 
diphtheretic jdifGa'retik, ^dip- |-ally -ji, -ikli 
diphthong 'difOag, 'dip-, -Gng |-ed -d 
diphthongal dif'flaggl, dip-, -'63gl, -'eog- 

J-ly-i 
diphthongization jdifGDga'zeJan, jdip-, 

-ODgga-, -Gng-, -ai'z- 
diphthongize 'dif63gjaiz, 'dip-, -Oag^gaiz, 

-Gog- |-s -iz |-d -d 
diplococcus idipb'kakas; ES-^-'kok-; |-ci 

-ksai 
diploma di'ploma |-s -z |-ed -d |-cy -si 
diplomat 'dipbjmaet |-ist di'plomatist 
diplomatic jdipb'maetik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 
dipody 'dipadi 

dipolar dai'pola^; ES -'pol3(r; [-pole 'dai^pol 
dipper 'dipa-; ES 'dip3(r 
dipsomania jdipss'menid [-maniac -'menijaek 
dipterous 'diptaras 
dire dair; ES dai3(r 
direct da'rekt, dai- [-ed -id [-ive -iv 
direction da'rek/an, dai- [-al -j [-ally -li 
director da'rekta^, dai-; ES -t3(r; |-ate -it 

[-ship - Jip 
directorial da^rEk'torial, jdairek-, -'tar-; S 

-'tor-; [-ly -i 
directory da'rektari, -'rektri 
directress da'rektris, dai- |-es -iz 
directrix da'rektriks, dai- [-es -iz \for any that 

desire it -trices jdairck'traisiz 
direful 'dairfal; ES 'daiafal; [-ly -i 
dirge dydj; ES dsdj, dyds; [-s -iz [-d -d 
dirigibihty jdiradsa'bilati 
dirigible 'diradsabj, Brit + di'ridgabl 
dirk, D- dyk; ES dsk, ds^k; |-ed -t 
dirt dyt; ES dst, dyt; [-ed -id |-y -i [-ied -id 

l-ily -li, -ih 



Dis dis [-'s -IZ 

disability jdisa'bilati 

disable dis'ebl, diz- [-d -d 

disabuse jdisa'bjuz, -'biuz (-s -iz [-d -d 

disaccord ^disa'kard; ES -'kaad; [-ed -id 

disaccustom ;disa'kAstam [-ed -d 

disadvantage jdisad'vaentids; E-f-'van-, 

-'van-; [-s -iz [-d -d 
disadvantageous dis^aedvan'tedsas, jdisaed- 

van- 
disafifect jdisa'fekt |-ed -id [-ction -k/an 
disagree jdisa'gri [-d -d [-able -abl [-bly -bli 
disallow jdisa'lau [-ed -d [-ance -ans 
disannul jdisa'nAl [-led -d 
disappear ^disa'pir; ES -'pia(r, S-i--'pEa(r, 

-'pi£a(r; [-ed -d |-ance -ans [-ances -ansiz 
disappoint jdisa'paint [-ed -id [-ment -mant 
disapprobation jdisaepra 'be/an, dis,aepra- 
disapprove ;disa'pruv [-d -d [-val -vl 
disarm dis 'arm, diz-; ES -'a:m, E+-'a:m; |-ed 

-d [-ament -amant 
disarrange jdisa'rends [-$ -iz |-d -d 
disarray ^disa're |-ed -d 
disaster diz'aesta^; ES -'aesta(r, E-h-'as-, 

-'as-; j-trous -tras 
disavow jdisa'vau [-ed -d |-edly -idle |-al -al 
disband dis'baend [-ed -id 
disbar dis'bor; ES -'ba:(r, E-f--'ba:(r; [-red -d 
disbark dis'bark; ES -'ba:k, E-i--'ba:k; [-ed -t 
disbeheve jdisba'liv |-d -d |-lief -'lif 
disburden dis'bydn; ES -'bsdn, -'bydn; 

l-ed-d 
disburse dis'bs's; ES -'bss, -'bys; |-s -iz 

J-d-t 
disc disk 

discard n 'diskard; ES -ka:d, E-h-kaid 
discard v dis'kard; ES -'ka:d, E-i--'ka:d; |-ed 

-id 
discern di'zyn, -'s3^n; ES -sn, -yn; |-ed -d 

|-ible -abl [-bly -bli 
discharge dis't/ardj; ES -'tjaids, E-i- 

-'tjaids; [-S -iz [-d -d 
disciple, D- di'saipl [-d -d [-ship -^Jip 
disciplinable 'disajplinabl 
disciplinarian jdisaplin'erian, -'er- 
disciplinar}^ 'disaplinjEri 
discipline n 'disaplin 
discipline v 'disa^plin [-d -d 
disclaim dis'klem j-ed -d 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang saeg [angn,' 'seg-gri 
[bath baeO; E baG (§10) |ah a [far far [watch watj", wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



disclose 



129 



disharmonious 



disclose dis'kloz |-s -iz |-d -d |-sure -53^; ES 

-33(r 
discolor dis'kAla^; ES -'kAl3(r; |-ed -d 
discoloration jdiskAlaVeJan, diSjkAla- 
discombobulate jdiskam'babjiet; ES+-'bDb-; 

l-d -id 
discomfit dis^kAmfit |-ed -id |-ure -fitja'; ES 

-fit/a(r 
discomfort dis'kAmfa't; ES -'kAmfat; |-ed -id 
discommode jdisks'mod |-d -id 
discompose jdiskam'poz |-s -iz |-d -d |-dly 

-idli |-sure -'posa^; ES -'po33(r 
disconcert ^diskan'ss^t; ES -'sat, -'syt; |-ed 

-id 
disconnect jdiska'nekt |-ed -id 
disconnection, -nexion jdiska'nekXan 
disconsolate dis'kanslit; ES+-'kDn- 
disconsolation jdiskansa'le/an, dis^kansa-; 

ES+ -on- 
discontent jdiskan'tent |-ed -id 
discontinuance jdiskan'tmjuans |-s -iz 
discontinuation jdiskaiijtinj u 'e/an 
discontinue jdiskan'tinju |-d -d |-uous -juas 
discontinuity jdiskanta'nudti, -'luu-, -'nju-; 

ES+-kDn- 
discord n 'diskard; ES -kaad 
discord v dis'kard; ES -'kaad; |-ed -id 
discordance dis'kordns; ES -'kaad-; j-s -iz 

|-dant -dnt 
discount n 'diskaunt 
discount v 'diskaunt, dis'kaunt |-ed -id 
discountenance dis'kauntsnsns \-s -ix |-d -t 
discourage dis'ks'ids; ES -'ksr-, -'kAr-, 

-'ky-; |-s -IZ |-d -d 
discourse n 'diskors, di'skors, -3rs; ES -oas, 

E+-33S; |-s -IZ 
discourse v di'skors, -'skars; ES -'skoas, 

E+-'sk33s; |-s -IZ |-d -t 
discourteous dis'kytias; ES -'kst-, -'kyt-; 

|-esy -3SI 
discover di'skAva^; ES -'skAV3(r; |-ed -d 

|-ing -'skAvariij, -'skAvrig |-y -'skAvri, 

-van 
discredit dis'kredit |-ed -id 
discreditable dis'ktEditabl |-bly -bh 
discreet di'skrit 

discrepance di'skrepans |-cy -i |-ant -ant 
discrete di'skrit 
discretion di'skre/an |-al -1 |-ally -ji 



discretionary di'skre/anjEri 
discriminate adj di'skrimanit 
discriminate v di'skrimajnet |-d -id [-tive -iv 
discrimination di/skrima'ne/an 
discriminatory di'skrimanajtori, -^tan; S 

-jtori 
discrown dis'kraun |-ed -d 
discursive di'skysiv; ES -'skss-, -'skys-; 

|-sory -san 
discus 'diskas |-es -iz |disci 'disai 
discuss di'skAS |-es -iz |-ed -t |-ion -'skAjan 
disdain dis'den, diz- |-ed -d 
disdainful dis'denfai, diz- |-ly -i 
disease di'ziz |-s -iz [-d -d |-dly -idli 
disembark idisim'bark; ES -'ba:k, E+-'ba:k; 

l-ed -t 
disembarkation jdisembar'ke/an, diSjem-; 

ES -ba:-, E+ -bar- 
disembarrass jdisim'baeras, -is [-es -iz ]-ed -t 
disembody jdisim'badi; ES+-'bDdi; [-ied -d 
disembowel ^disim'baual, -'baul |-ed -d 
disenchant jdisin'tjaent; E+-'t/ant, -'tjant; 

l-ed -id 
disencumber ^disin'kAmba^; ES -'kAmba(r; 

|-ed -d |-ing -'kAmbarig, -'kAmbrig 
disenfranchise jdism'fraentXaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
disenfranchisement jdisin'traentjizmant 
disengage ^disin'geds |-s -iz |-d -d |-dness 

-idnis, -dnis 
disentangle ^disin'taeggl |-d -d [-ling -'taegglig, 

-'taegglig 
disestablish jdisa'stasbbj |-es -iz |-ed -t 
disesteem jdisa'stim |-ed -d 
disfavor dis'feva^; ES -'feva(r; |-ed -d ]-ing 

-'fevarig, -'fevrig 
disfiguration ^disfigja're/an, diSjfigja- 
disfigure dis'figja^; ES -'figja(r; |-d -d 
disfranchise dis'fraentjaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
disfranchisement dis'lraent/izmant 
disgorge dis'gards; ES -'gaads; |-s -iz |-d -d 
disgrace dis'gres |-s -iz |-d -t 
disgraceful dis'gresfal |-ly -i 
disgruntle dis'grAntl |-d -d 
disguise dis'gaiz |-s -iz |-d -d [-dly -idh 
disgust dis'gAst, diz- |-ed -id 
dish dij [dishes 'di/iz | dished di/t 
dishabille ^disa'bil, cf deshabille 
disharmonious jdis-har'monias; ES -ha-, E 

-ha- 



|full ful |tooth tuG [further 'fytja^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse f juz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



disharmony 



130 



disquietude 



disharmony dis'liarmsni; ES -'ha:m-, E+ 

-'harm- 
dishcloth 'diJjkbO, -jkloG |-ths -tJz, -Gs 
dishearten dis'hartn; ES -'ha:tn, E+-'ha:tn; 

|-ed -d |-ing -tiug, -tnig 
disherison dis'herazn |-ed -d 
dishevel di'/evl |-ed -d |-ing -'/evlig, -vlig 
dishful 'di/jful |-s -z 

dishonest dis'anist, diz-; ES+-'Dn-; |-y -i 
dishonor dis'ana^, diz-; ES -'anad, -'on-; 

|-able -abl |-bly -bli 
disillusion jdisi'lu53n, -'Iiu- |-ed -d 
disinclination jdisinkla'neXan, dis^inkla- 
disincHne jdisin'klain |-cHned -'klaind 
disinfect jdisin'fekt, jdisn- |-ed -id |-ant -ant 

|-ction -kjan 
disingenuous jdisin'djenjuas, jdisn- 
disinherit jdisin'herit, jdisi^- |-ed -id 
disintegrable dis'intagrabl 
disintegrate dis'inta^gret |-grated -^gretid 
disintegration jdisinta'gre/an, diSjinta- 
disinter ^disin'ty; ES -'t3(r, -ks^; |-red -d 
disinterested dis'intarastid, -'intristid, -'inta- 

^restid— ^ee interesting 
disjoin dis'dsam |-ed -d |-t -t |-ted -tid 
disjunct dis'dsAgkt |-ction -k/an |-ive -iv 
disk disk |-ed -t 
dislike dis'Iaik |-liked -'laikt 
dislocate 'dislojket, dis'loket |-d -id 
dislocation jdislo'ke/an 
dislodge dis'lads; ES+-'lDd5; |-s -iz |-d -d 
disloyal dis'bial, -'bjal |-ly -i |-ty -ti 
dismal 'dizml |-]y -i 

dismantle dis'maentl |-d -d [ling -tlig, -tlig 
dismast dis'maest; E+-'mast, -'mast; |-ed -id 
dismay dis'me, diz- |-ed -d |-edness -dms, 

-idnis 
dismember dis'memba^; ES -'msmbaCr; j-ed 

-d |-ing -'membrig, -'mEmbarig 
dismiss dis'mis |-ed -d |-al -1 
dismount dis'maunt |-ed -id 
disobedience jdisa'bidians |-ent -ant 
disobey jdisa'be |-ed -d 
disoblige jdisa'blaid^ |-s -iz |-d -d 
disorder disbrda^, diz-; ES -bada(r; |-ed -d 

|-ing -dang, -drig 
disorganic ^disar'gaemk; ES -aa'gaen- 
disorganization disprgana'zeXan, jdisar-; ES 

-pagana-, -aag-, -ai'z- 



disorganize disWgajnaiz; ES -'aaga-; |-s -iz 

l-d-d 
disown dis'on, diz- |-ed -d 
disparage di'spaends |-es -iz |-d -d 
disparate 'disparit [disparity dis'paerati 
dispart dis'part; ES -'pa:t, E+-'pa:t; led -id 
dispassion dis'paejan |-ed -d |-ate -it 
dispatch di'spaetj |-es -iz |-ed -t 
dispel di'spel |-led -d 
dispensable di'spensabl 
dispensary di'spensari 
dispensation jdispan'sej"an, -pen- 
dispensatory di'spensa^tori, -itan; S -^ton 
dispense di'spens ]-s -iz |-d -t 
disperse di'spys; ES -'spas, -'spa^s; |-s -iz 

|-d -t |-sal -1 
dispersion di'spsj'an, -%p3"3-; ES -'spa-, 

-'spy-; |-sive -siv 
dispirit di'spirit |-ed -id 
displace dis'ples |-s -iz j-d -t 
display di'sple |-ed -d 
displease dis'pliz |-s -iz |-d -d 
displeasure dis'plE33'; ES -'pl£5a(r; |-d -d 
disport di'sport, -'spart; ES -'spoat, E+ 

-'spaat; |-ed -id 
disposable di'spozabi [-sal -zl 
dispose di'spoz |-s -iz |-d -d 
disposition ^dispa'zijan 
dispossess ^dispa'zes |-es -iz |-ed -t 
disposure di'sposa^; ES -'spo3a(r 
dispraise dis'prez |-s -iz ]- d -d 
disprize dis'praiz |-s -iz |- d -d 
disproof dis'pruf ('proof and 'dis^proof) 
disproportion jdispra'por/an, -'par-; ES 

-'poa-, E+-'paa-; |-al -1 |-ally -li |-ate -it 
disprove dis'pruv |-proved -'pruvd |-val -1 
disputable di'spjutabi, -'spiut-, 'dispjutabl 

|-bly -bh — The accentuation of dis'putable 

like dis'pute has inevitably won its icay into 

good use. 
disputant 'dispjutant, di'spjutnt, -'spiut- 
disputation jdispju'tejan |-tious -Jas 
disputative di'spjutativ, -'spiut- 
dispute di'spjut, -'spiut ]-d -id 
disqualification jdiskwalafa'ke/an, diSjkw-, 

-wdI- 
disqualify dis'kwalajfai, -'kwol- ]-fied -jfaid 
disquiet dis'kwaiat |-ed -id 
disquietude dis'kwaiajtjud, -^tnid, -^tud 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |yet jet [sang saeg |angr>' 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far [watch wat/, wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



disquisition 



131 



disulphide 



disquisition jdiskwa'zijan 

Disraeli diz'reli 

disrate dis'ret | -rated -'retid 

disregard ^disri'gard; ES -'ga:d, E+-'ga:d; 

l-ed -id 
disrelish disVehJ ]-es -iz |-ed -t 
disrepair ^disri'psrj -'paer; E -'pe3(r, ES 

-'paeaCr 
disreputability dis^repjata'bibti, ^disrep- 
disreputable dis'repjatabl |-bly -bh 
disrepute jdisri'pjut, -'piut 
disrespect jdisri'sp£kt |-ed -id 
disrespectful jdisri'spektfal |-ly -i 
disrobe dis'rob |-robed -'robd 
disrupt dis'rApt |-ed -id |-ption -pjan |-ive -iv 
dissatisfaction jdissfetis'faekjan, jdisaet- |-tory 

-tan 
dissatisfy dis'saetis^fai, di'saet- |-fied -jfaid 
dissect di'sekt |-ed -id |-ction -kjan 
disseize dis'siz |-s -iz |-d -d 
dissemblance di'ssmblans 
dissemble di'sembl |-d -d |-ling -blio, -bliij 
disseminate di's8m3jnet |-nated -^netid 
dissemination dijsema'nefan 
dissention di'senjan 
dissent di'sent |-ed -id |-er -9-; ES -3(r 
dissentience di'senjans |-cy -i |-ent -ant 
dissert di'syt; ES -'sat, -'syt; |-ed -id 
dissertation jdisa^'te/an; ES ^disa- 
disservice dis'ss'vis; ES -'s3v-, -Wv-; |-s -iz 

l-d-t 
dissever di^eva^; ES -'sev3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

-'sevarig, -'sevrig 
dissidence 'disadans |-dent -dant 
dissimilar di'simala^, dis's-; ES -'simabCr 
dissimilarity dijSima'laerati, dis^s-, jdissim- 
dissimilate di'sima^let, dis's- |-d -id 
dissimilation di^sima'lejan, dis^s-, jdissim- 
dissimilitude jdissi'mibjtjud, -ytiud, -^tud 
dissimulate di'simjajlet |-lated -^letid 
dissimulation di^simja'le/an 
dissipate 'disa^pet |-d -id |-tion jdisa'pejan 
dissociate di'so/ijet |-ated -^etid 
dissociation dijsosi'ejan, -jso/i- 
dissociative di'soJi,etiv 
dissolubility dijsaljs'bilati; ES+-jSd1- 
dissoluble di'saljabl; ES+-'sd1-; — The accen- 
tuation dis'soluble has displaced 'dissoluble 
by analogy of 'soluble and dis'solve. 



dissolute 'disajlut, -\mt, 'disljut 

dissolution jdisa'lujan, -'liu-, -sj'jujan 

dissolve di'zalv, -'zolv |-d -d |-nt -ant 

dissonance 'disanans |-s -iz |-cy -i |-ant -ant 

dissuade di'swed |-d -id 

dissuasion di'swesan |-sive -'swesiv 

dissyllabic jdissi'laebik, jdisi- 

dissyllable di'silabl, 'disjsilabi 

distaff 'distaef ; E+ 'distaf, 'distaf 

distain di'sten |-ed -d 

distal 'distl |-ly -i 

distance 'distans |-s -iz [-d -t |-tant -tant 

distaste dis'test |-tasted -'testid 

distasteful dis'testfal |-ly -i 

distemper dis'tsmpa^; ES -pa(r; |-ed -d 

i-parig, -prig 
distend di'stend |-ed -id 
distensible di'st£nsabl 
distention, -sion di'stenjan 
distich 'distik 
distill, -til di'stil |-(l)ed -d 
distillate 'distlit, -^et 
distillation jdistl'e/an, -stil- 
distiller di'stila-; ES -'stila(r; \-y -i 
distinct di'stigkt |-ction -k/an j-ctive -ktiv 
distingue jdistaeg'ge, di'staegge {Fr distie'ge) 
distinguish di'stiggwij j-es -iz j-ed -t 
distinguishable di'stiggvvijabi |-bly -bh 
distort dis'tart; ES -'taat; |-ed -id 
distortion dis 'tar/an; ES -'taa/an 
distract di'straekt |-ed -id 
distraction di'straekjan |-tive -tiv 
distrain di'stren |-ed -d |-t -t 
distrait di'stre |-e -t {Fr dis'tr£(t)) 
distraught di'strat 

distress di'stres |-es -iz |-ed -t [-edly -idli 
distressful di'stre sfal |-ly -i 
distributable di'stribjatabl 
distribute di'stribjut |-d -bjatid |-tive -bjativ 
distribution jdistra'bjujan, -'biujan 
distributor di'stribjata^; ES -ta(r 
district 'distrikt |-ed -id 
distrust dis'trAst |-ed -id 
distrustful dis'trAstfal |-ly -i 
disturb di'styb; ES -'stsb, -'styb; l-ed -d 

|-ance -ans |-ances -ansiz 
disulphate, -fate dai'sAlfet 
disulphide, -fide dai'sAlfaid, -fid |-phid, -fid 

-fid 



[full ful Itooth tuG [further 'fy'Sa'; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



disunion 



132 



doctoral 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with d in E and S 



disunion dis'junjan 


division da'visan [-al -1 [-ally -li 


disunite jdisju'nait |-nited -'naitid 


divisive da'vaisiv 


disuse n dis'jus |-s -iz 


divisor da'vaiza^; ES -'vaiza(r; |-ry -i 


disuse V dis'juz j-s -iz |-d -d 


divorce da 'vers, -'vars; ES -'voas, E-t--'vaas; 


disyllable di'sibbl [disyllabic jdisi'ltebik 


|-s -IZ |-d -t 


ditch dit/ [ditches 'dit/iz [ditched ditjt 


divorce, -cee da^vor'se, -jvar-; ES -/voa-. 


dither 'ditfa^; ES -3(r; [-ed -d |-ing -^arig. 


E+-jvaa-; |-cee -'si {Fr divar'se) 


-Srig 


divot 'divat 


dithyramb 'diOajraem, -jraemb 


divulge da'vAlds |-s -iz [-d -d |-nce -ans 


dithyrambic jdiGa'raembik [-ally -li, -ikh 


Dixie 'diksi 


ditto 'dito |-ed -d 


Dixon 'diksn 


ditty 'diti [-led -d 


dizen 'dizn, 'daizn [-ed -d [ing -zniij, -znirj 


diuretic jdaiju'retik |-al -1 [-ally -h, -ikli 


dizzy 'dizi [dizzied 'dizid 


diurnal dai'ynl; ES -'snj, -'ynl; [-ly -i 


Dnepropetrovsk ^dnjepropje'trafsk 


diva 'diva 


Dnieper 'nip*; ES 'nipa(r 


divagate 'daiva^get |-d -id |-tion jdaiva'ge/an 


Dniester 'nista^; ES 'nista(r 


divalent daiVebnt, 'divalant 


do music, Jap geography do 


divan 'daivaen, di'vaen 


do V stressed forms: — [do 'du, jdu \2 sg arch. 


divaricate da'vaerajket, dai- |-d -id 


dost 'dAst, jdAst or doest 'duist, ^duist 


divarication dajvaera'kejan, dai- 


\3 sg does 'dAz, jdAz or arch, doth 'dAG, 


dive daiv \past dove dov or dived daivd \pptc 


jdA0 or doeth 'duiG, ^duiG \past 2 sg arch. 


dived daivd 


didst 'didst, jdidst or diddest, didest 


diver 'daiva^; ES 'daiv3(r 


'didist, jdidist \past 1 b^ 3 sg, 1-3 pi did 


diverge da'yyds, dai-; ES -Vsds, -Vyds; 


'did, jdid \pptc done 'dAn, jdAn; unstressed 


|-s -iz |-d -d [-nee -ans j-ncy -ansi [-nt -ant 


forms {auxiliaries): — [do bcf. vowels du 


divers 'swimmers,' 'various' Maiva^z; ES 


(iSo du 'ai); bef. conss. da (^so da 'Se) 


Maivaz 


[dost dast ('hwai dast '3au ypain witJ'in?) 


diverse da'vys, dai-; ES -Vss, -Vys; 


[doth dae (daG '«sk a 'drirjk di'vain) [does 


('di^ verse 'forces) 


daz (jhau daz it 'luk?), dz (^haudzit 'sim?), 


diversification dajvysafa'kejan, dai-; ES 


ts (jhwattsit 'maeta^?) [did did (jhw£n did 


-jV3S-, -(Vys- 


it 'kAm?), dad (jhau dad 'hi iHo?), d 


diversify da'vysa^fai, dai-; ES -'v3s-, -'vys-; 


(ihaudit 'go? >aud tSe 'laik it?) 


|-fied -jfaid 


doable 'duabl 


diversion da'yysan, dai-, -/an; ES -'v3-, 


dob dab, dob [bed -d 


-'vs"- 


Dobbin, d- 'dabin 


diversity da'vysati, dai-; ES -'vss-, -'vys- 


Dobell do'bel 


divert da'vs^t, dai-; ES -'vst, -'vyt; |-ed -id 


Dobruja, -dja 'dobrudsa 


divertisement da'vytizmant; ES -'v3t-, -'v^t- 


Dobson, d- 'dabsn 


divertissement Fr divertis'ma 


docent 'dosnt {Gcr dozent do'tsent) 


Dives 'daiviz [-ves' -viz 


docibility jdasa'bilati 


divest da'vsst, dai- |-ed -id 


docile 'dasj, 'dasil [-ly -i 


divide da'vaid |-vided -'vaidid 


docility do'silati, da'sil- 


dividend 'diva^dend 


dock dak [docked dakt j-age -ids 


divination jdiva'ne/an 


docket 'dakit |-ed -id 


divine da 'vain [-vineness -'vainnis 


dockyard 'dakjard; ES -Jard, E-i--ja:d 


divinity da'vinati 


doctor 'dakta^; ES -ta(r; j-ed -d |-ing 'dak- 


divisibihty da,viza'bilati 


tarig, 'daktrig 


divisible da'vizabi |-bly -bli 


doctoral 'daktaral [ly -i [-rate -tarit, -trit 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet jsang saeg jangn,^ 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeG; E ba6 (§10) jah a [far far [watch watj, y/ntS (§12) jjavv dsa [gorge gards jgo go 



doctrinaire 



133 



domino 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 



doctrinaire ^daktri'ner, -'naer; ES -'ne3(r, ES 


doily 'daili 


-'naE3(r 


doings 'duigz, humorous 'duinz 


doctrine 'daktrin |-al -1 |-ally -li 


doit dait 


document n 'dakjamant |-al jdakja'mEntI 


Dolabella jdala'bela 


document v 'dakjajmEnt |-ed -id 


dolce far niente 'doltXijfor'm'enti; ES -fa:- 


documentary jdakja'mEntari, -tri |-rily -rail 


{It 'dolt/e,far'njente) 


documentation jdakjamen'tejan 


doldrum 'daldram |-s -z 


dodder 'dada^; ES 'dad3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 


dole dol Idoled dold |-ful -fal |-fully -fali 


'dadarig, 'dadrig 


dolerite 'dala^rait 


dodecagon do'dekajgan, -gan 


Dolgelly dal'geeli, -'geh {Welsh dol'ge4i) 


dodecahedron jdodEka'hidran |-s -z |-dra -dra 


Dolgeville 'daldsvil 


Dodecanese jdodeka'nis, do^dek- |-nesus 


dolichocephalic 'dalijkosa'faehk 


-'nisas 


doll dal, dol, dal |-ed -d 


dodge, D- dads [-s -iz |-d -d|-r -a^; ES -a(r 


dollar 'dala^; ES 'dala(r 


Dodgson 'dadgsan 


Dollard 'dala^d; ES 'dalad 


dodo 'dodo 


dolly, D- 'dali, 'doll, 'dah 


Dodona do 'dona 


dolman 'dolman |-s -z 


doe, D- do 


dolmen 'dalmEn J-s -z 


does dAz — -for forms see do 


dolomite 'dala^mait 


doesn't 'dAznt, before some con^^.+'dAzn 


Dolomites 'dalajmaits 


(jdAzn'ker) — 'dAzant is substa7idard 


dolor 'dola^; ES 'dola(r; [-ous 'dalaras, 'dol- 


doest ^Auist— for forms see do 


Dolores da 'Ions, -iz, -'lar-; S -'lor-; |-'s -iz 


doeth ^AaiO— for forms see do 


dolphin 'dalfin 


doff daf, dof, daf |-ed -t 


dolt dolt; NEngd+^6\i (§46) 


dog dag, dog, 7nuch less freq. dag |-ged -d 


-dom unstressed ending -dam — Many words in 


Dogberry, d- 'dag^beri, 'dog-, -ban 


-dom are omitted from the vocab. 


dogcart 'dag^kart, 'dog-; ES -jka:t, E+-jka:t 


domain do 'men |-ial -lal 


doge dod3 )-'s -iz 


Dombey 'dambi 


dog-ear 'dag^ir 'dng-; ES -^laCr, S+-jEa(r; 


dome dom [domed domd |domal 'doml 


|ed-d 


domesday, D- 'dumzjde = doomsday 


dogged adj 'dagid, 'dog- 


domestic da'mestik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikh 


dogger 'daga', 'dnga^; ES -a(r 


domesticate da'mEsta^ket |-cated -^ketid 


doggerel 'dagaral, 'dog-, 'dag-, -gral 


domestication daymesta'ke/an 


dogie 'dogi 


domesticity jdomes'tisati, da,m£s'tisati 


dogma 'dagma, 'dog-, 'dag- |-tism -^tizam 


domicile 'damasl, -sil |-d -d 


|-tist -tist 


domiciliary jdama'silijEri 


dogmatic dag'maetik, dog-, dag- |-al -I |-ally 


dominance 'damanans |-cy -i |-nant -nant 


-li, -ikli 


dominate 'dama^net |-d -id |-tion jdama- 


dogmatize 'dagma jtaiz, 'dog-, 'dag- |-s -iz 


'ne/an 


l-d-d 


domineer ^dama'nir; ES -'nia(r, S+-'n8a(r, 


dog-tired 'dag'taird, 'dog-; ES -'taiad 


-'njea(r; |-ed -d 


dogtooth 'dagjtuG, 'dog- |-teeth -^tie |-ed 


Domingo da'miggo 


-et, -M 


Dominic 'damanik 


dogtrot 'dagjtrat, 'dog- 


Dominica da'minika, jdama'nika [n -n 


dogwatch 'dagjwatj, 'dog-, -iwotj, -jwat/ 


dominical da'minikl 


|-es -IZ 


dominie 'damani, ' pastor' +^dom3ni 


dogwood 'dagjwud, 'dog- 


dominion da'minjan 


dogy 'dogi 


domino 'dama^no 



|full ful |tooth tuG [further 'fytSa^; ES 'facJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Oomitian 



134 



dose 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 



Domitian da'mifan, -Jian |-tius -/as, -Jias 


doodlebug 'dudljbAg 


|-tius's -3SIZ 


doom dum | doomed dumd 


Domremy-la-Pucelle Fr doramilapy'sEl 


doomsday, D- 'dumz^de 


don, D- dan | donned dand 


Doon(e) dun 


Don Adriano de Armado ^dan-adri'anojdear- 


door, D- dor, dar; ES doa(r, E+daa(r; j-ed -d 


'mado; ES -a:'mado 


doorjamb 'dor^dsaem, 'dar-; ES 'doa-. 


Donalbain 'danljben 


E+'daa- 


Donald 'danld |-son 'danjsn, ^danldsan 


doorman 'dor^maen, -man |-men -^msn, -man 


donate 'donet |-nated -netid |-tion do'ne/an 


doornail 'dor^nel, 'dar-, -'nel; ES 'doa-, 


Donatello idana'telo (// jdona'ttUo) 


E-i- 'daa- 


Donati do'nati 


dooryard 'dorjard, 'dar-; ES 'doajard. 


donative 'danativ, 'don- 


E+'daa-, -ja:d 


Donatus do'netas |-'s -iz 


dope dop 1 doped dopt 


Doncaster 'daokaesta^, 'dan-; ES -kiestaCr 


dor, -rr dar; ES daa(r 


done dAn 


Dora 'dora, 'dara; S 'dora 


done for 'dAn^far; ES -jfaaCr 


Dorcas 'darkas; ES 'daakas; ]-'s -iz 


done up 'dAnUp 


Dorchester 'dar^tjesta', 'dartjista^; ES 'daa-. 


done with 'dAn^witJ, -^wiB 


-ta(r 


donee do'ni 


Dordogne dar'danja {Fr dbr'db'ji) 


Donegal 'dani^gal, jdani'gal 


Dordrecht 'dardrskt, -drext 


Donelson 'danjsn 


Dore do're, da-; S do 're; {Fr da're) 


Don Giovanni jdan-dsiaVani, -djo- {It 


Dorian 'dorian, 'dar-; S 'dorian 


jdondsoVanni) 


Doric 'dank, 'dar-, 'dor- 


Dongola 'daggala 


Doricles 'dara^kliz, 'dar-, 'dor- |-'s -iz 


Donizetti jdana'zeti, {It jdoni'dzetti) 


Dorigen 'daragin, -gan, 'dar-, 'dnr- 


donjon 'dAndsan, 'dan- 


Doris 'dans, 'dar-, 'dor- |-'s -iz 


Don Juan dan'dsuan, -'dgiuan {Sp dan- 


Dorking 'darkig; ES 'daakig 


'xwan) 


dormancy 'darmansi; ES 'daam-; ]-mant 


donkey 'dagki, 'dooki, 'dagki, 'dAgki 


-mant 


Donley 'danli 


dormer 'darma^; ES 'daama(r; |-ed -d 


donna, D- 'dana (// 'danna) 


dormitory 'darma^tori, -jtari; ES 'daama^tori. 


Donne dAn 


E+-jtari 


Donnelly 'danli, 'danli 


dormouse 'dar^maus; ES 'daa-; |-'s -iz |-mice 


Donnithorne 'danajOarn; ES -^Oaan 


-jmais l-mice's -^maisiz 


Donnybrook 'dani,bruk 


dormy, -mie 'darmi; ES 'daami 


Donohue 'dana^hju, -jhiu, -^hu, 'dAn- 


Dorothea ^dara'Oia, ^dar-, jdor- 


donor 'dona^; ES 'dona(r; (do'ni an do'nar) 


Dorothy 'daraOi, 'dar-, 'dnr- 


Donora do'nora, -'nara; S -'nora 


Dorrit 'darit, 'dar-, 'dnr- 


do-nothing 'du^nAGig 


dorsal 'darsl; ES 'daasl; |-ly -i 


Don Pedro dan'pidro 


Dorset 'darsit; ES 'daasit; |-shire -Jir, -Ja^; 


Don Quixote jdanki'hoti, dan'kwiksat {Sp 


ES -;Xia(r, -/aCr 


-ki'xote) 


Dortmund 'dartmand; ES 'daat-; {Ger 


don't dont, hef. some conss. often don (don'tek 


'dartmunt) 


it), bef. n often don, do (don'no, do'no), 


dory- D- 'don, 'dan; S 'dori 


bef. p, b, m often domp (domppri'tsnd ^tu. 


dos-a-dos Fr doza'do 


dompba'liv it, domp'maind it), hef. k, g 


dosage 'dosids |-s -iz 


ofteji dog, dogk (dog'kaer, dogk'kaer. 


dose dos |doses 'dosiz [dosed dost; \NEngd-ir 


dog 'go, dogk'go); \NEngd+^6nt {§46) 


das {§46) 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet [sang saeg |angn,- 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |\vatch wat/, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards jgo go 



Dos Passes 



135 



drab 



Dos Passos dasVaesos; ES+dos-; |-sos* -sos 
dossier 'dasijC, 'dasia^; ES 'dasijC, 'dasi'3(r, 

'dos-; {Fr do'sje) 
dost dAst — see do 
Dostoevski ^dasta'jefski, jdos- 
dot 'dowry dat; ES+dot; {Fr dbt) 
dot 'point' dot; ES+dot; |-ted -id 
dotard 'dotard; ES 'dotad 
dote dot [doted 'dotid |dotage 'dotids 
doth dA6 — see do 
Dothan 'doGan, 'doOaen 
Dotheboys Hall 'dutJajbaiz'hal 
dotterel 'dataral; ES+'dot- 
Douai, -ay du'e ('DoUjai 'Bible) 
double 'dAbI |-d -d |-ling 'dAblio, 'dAblig 
double-barreled 'dAbl'baerald 
double-breasted 'dAbl'brestid 
double-cross 'dAbl'kras, -'kros |-es -iz |-ed -t 
double-edged 'dAbl'edsd, -'£d3id 
double-entendre 'dublan'tandra {Fr dubla- 

'ta:dr) 
double-faced 'dAbl'fest |-facedly -'fesidli 
double-leaded 'dAbl'ledid 
double-lived 'dAbl'laivd ('double- jlived 'bards) 
double-quick 'dAbl'kwik ('double-^quick 

'time) 
doublet 'dAblit |-ed -id 
doubletree 'dAbl^tri, -tri 
double-U letter 'dAb-lju, 'dAblju, 'dAbju 
doubloon dA'blun 
doubly 'dAbli 

doubt daut |-ed -id |-ful -fal |-fully -fall 
Douce daus, dus |-'s -iz 
douceur du'sy; ES -'s3(r, -'sy; {Fr du'soe:r) 
douche duj" jdouches 'du/iz [douched dujt 
Dougal, -II 'dugl 

dough do |doughed dod |-y -i |-boy -jbai 
Dougherty 'doa'ti, 'daa'ti, 'daha^ti; ES 'doa-, 

'daa-, 'daha- 
doughfaced 'deafest 
doughnut 'donat, -^nAt 
doughty 'dauti 
Douglas, -ss 'dAglas |-'s -iz 
dour dur, dur, daur; ES dua(r, dua(r, daua(r 
Dousabel 'dusa^bel 

douse daus |douses 'dausiz |doused daust 
dove 'pigeon' dAv 
dove 'dived' dov 
Dove Eng name dAv, Ger name 'dova 



dovecot 'dAVjkat; ES+-ikDt;^ — see cot 

dovecote 'dAV/kot — see cot, cote 

Dovedale 'dAv^del 

Dover 'dova'; ES 'dova(r 

dovetail 'dAv^tel [-tailed -jteld 

Dow dau 

dowager 'dauadsa^; ES 'dauadsaCr 

Dowagiac da'wad3aek 

Dowden 'daudn 

dowdy 'daudi 

dowel 'daual |-ed -d 

dower 'daua^; ES 'dau'a(r; j-ed -d |-ing 

'dauarig, 'daurig 
down daun [downed daund 
down-and-out 'daunan'aut, 'daunand'aut 
downcast 'daun^kaest; E+-jkast, -^kast 
downfall 'daun^fal |-en -an, -jfoln 
downgrade adj, adv 'daun'gred, cf upgrade 
downhearted 'daun'hartid ; ES -'ha:t-, E+ 

-'hart- 
downhill n 'daun^hil, daun'hil 
Downing 'daunig 
downpour 'daun^por, -jpar, -ipur; ES -jpoa(r, 

-jpua(r, E+-jpaa(r 
downright adj 'daun^rait 
downright adv 'daun^rait, daun'rait 
downside 'daun'said, 'daun^said 
downstage adj, adv, v 'daun'steds [-s -iz |-d -d 
downstairs n daun'sterz, -'staerz; E -'stsaz, 

ES -'staeaz; acc^ + 'down ^stairs, adj, adv 

'down'stairs 
downstream adj, adv 'daun'strim; v daun- 

'strim [-ed -d 
downtown n daun'taun, 'daun^taun 
downtown adj, adv 'daun'taun ('up^town & 

'down^town) 
downtrodden 'daun'tradn; ES+-'trDdri 
downward 'daunwa^d; ES 'daunwad [-s -z 
dowry 'daun 
dowsabel 'dausajb£l 
doxology daks'aladsi; ES+doks'nl- 
doyen 'daian {Fr dwa'jte) 
Doyle dail 

Doylestown 'dailzjtaun 
doze doz [dozes 'doziz [dozed dozd 
dozen 'stun' 'dozn [-ed -d 
dozen 'twelve' 'dAzn [-ed -d 
dozy 'dozi 
drab draeb [drabbed draebd 



[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fytJa^; ES 'faSa 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 



[custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



drabble 



136 



drizzle 



drabble 'draebl |-d -d |-ling 'draeblig, 


-blio 


drawee dra'I 


drachm draem 




drawer 'one who draws' 'draa^; ES 'dr3-a(r 


drachma 'draekma |-s -z |-mae -mi 




drawer of a dresser drar; ES draa(r; |-s -z 


Draco 'dreko \gen Draconis dre'konis 




drawing-room 'dra-ig^rum, -^rum 


Draconian dre'konian 




drawknife 'dra^naif |-knives -^naivz 


Dracula 'draekjula 




drawl dral | drawled drald 


Dracut 'drekat 




drawn dran 


draff draef 




drawshave 'drajjev 


draft draef t; E+ draft, draft; [ed -id 




dray dre |-ed -d |-age -ids l-man, -men -man 


draftsman 'draef tsman; E+ 'draft-. 


'draft-; 


Drayton 'dretn 


|-men -man 




dread dred |-ed -id |-ful -fal |-fully -fall 


drag draeg dragged draegd 




dreadnought, -naught, D- 'dred^nat 


draggle 'draegj |-d -d |-ling 'draeghg. 


-glio 


dream drim [dreamed drimd or dreamt 


draggly 'draegli 




dr2mpt 


dragnet 'draeg^net 




dreamland 'drimjaend, -land 


dragoman 'draegaman |-mans -manz |-men 


drear drir; ES dria(r, S+dr8a(r 


-man 




dreary 'driri, 'driri; S+'dreri 


dragon 'draegan |-et -it |-fly -jflai 




dredge dreds |-s -iz |-d -d 


dragonnade jdraega'ned 




dregs dregz 


dragoon dra'gun -ed -d [-age -ids 




Dreiser 'draisa', -za^; ES 'draisa(r, -za(r 


dragrope 'draeg^rop 




drench drentj" |-es -iz |-ed -t 


drain dren | drained drend |-age -ids 




Dresden 'drezdan 


drake, D- drek 




dress dres |-es -iz |-ed or drest 'drest 


dram draem 




dressmaker 'drss^meka^; ES -jmeka(r 


drama 'drama, 'drasma, 'drama. 


rarely 


dress suit 'dres'sut, -'siut, -'sjut ('dress- 'suit 


'drema 




iCase, 'dress-jsuit jcase) 


dramatic dra'maetik [-al -1 |-ally -|i, - 


ikh 


drew, D- dru, driu 


dramatis personae 'draematispa^'soni; ES 


Dreyfus 'drefas, 'drai- |-'s -iz (Fr dre'fys) 


-pa- 




dribble 'dribi |-d -d |-Ung 'driblig, -bliQ 


dramatization jdraemata'zejan, -ai'z- 




dribbler 'dribla-; ES 'dribla(r 


dramatize 'draemajtaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 




driblet, dribb- 'driblit 


dramaturgic jdraema'tydsik; ES 


-^tsds-. 


dried draid 


-'tyds- 




drier 'draia-; ES 'drai'a(r 


dramaturgy 'draema^t^dsi; ES -jtsdsi, 


-itydsi 


dries draiz 


dramshop 'draem^/ap; ES+-jXdp 




drift drift [drifted 'driftid [-wood -^wud 


drank draeijk 




drill dril [drilled drild 


drape drep |-d -t [-r -^; ES -a(r; |-ry 


-an, -ri 


drily 'draili 


drastic 'draestik |-ally -h, -ikli 




drink drigk [drank draeijk [drunk dr.vgk 


drat draet [dratted 'draetid 




drinkable 'drigkabl [-bty -bli 


draught draeft; E+draft, draft; [-ed - 


id 


Drinkwater 'drigk^wata', -jwata^, -^wnta^; ES 


draughtsman 'draef tsman; E+ 'draft-. 


'draft-; 


-ta(r 


|-men -man 




drip drip [dripped dript 


Drava 'drava 




drippings 'dripigz 


Dravida 'dravida [-vidian dra'vidian 




drivable, driveable 'draivabl 


draw dra [drew dru, driu |drawn dran 




drive draiv [drove drov [driven 'drivan 


drawbar 'drawbar; ES -jba:(r, E+-;ba 


:(r 


drivel 'drivl [ed -d [ing 'drivhg, -vlig 


drawboard 'dra^bord, -^bard; ES 


-jboad, 


driveling adj 'drivlirj 


E+-;baad 




drivewa}^ 'draivjwe 


drawbridge 'drajbridj |-s -iz 




drizzle 'drizl [-d -d [-ling 'dnzho, -zlig 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [}'et jet [sang saeg |angr>' 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeO; E baO (§10) [ah a [far far [watch watj, wntf (§12) [jaw dga [gorge gards jgo go 



drizzly 



137 



dud 



drizzly 'drizh 

Drogheda 'draada, 'dra-ida 

drogher, droger 'droga^; ES 'drog3(r 

droll drol |-ed -d |ery -an |-3^ 'droUi, -oli 

dromedary 'dramajderi, 'drAm-; ES+-'drDm- 

Dromio 'dromjo, 'dromijO 

drone dron | droned drond |-age -ids 

Drood drud 

drool drul | drooled druld 

droop drup | drooped drupt 

drop drap; ES + drop; |-ped, -t -t 

drop-forge 'drap'fards, -'fords; ES -'foads, 

-'faads; |-s -iz |-d -d — see forge 
droplet 'draplit; ES+'drop- 
droplight 'drap^lait; ES+ 'drop- 
dropper 'drapa^; ES 'drap3(r, 'drnp- 
dropsical 'drapsikl; ES+'drop-; |-ly -i 
dropsy 'drapsi; ES+'drnp-; |-ied -d 
dropt drapt; ES + dropt 
droshky 'drajki; ES+'drnf- 
Drosophila, d- dro'safab; ES+-'sDf-; |-lae 

dross dras, dros |-es -iz |-ed -t 

drought draut 

drouth draue |-ths -6s — Drouth is not an 

error for drought, hut a normal historical 

variant in wide American use. 
drove drov [droved drovd 
drover 'drova'; ES 'drova(r 
drown draun | drowned draund 
drowse drauz |-s -iz |-d -d 
drowsy 'drauzi |-sily 'drauzli, -zili 
drub drAb | drubbed drAbd |-bing -ig 
drudge drAdg |-s -iz |-d -d |-ry -an, -ri 
drug drAg | drugged drAgd |-gist -ist 
drugget 'drAgit 
drugstore 'drAg^stor, -^star; ES -jStoa(r, 

E+-jStaa(r 
druid, D- 'druid, 'driuid 
druidic dru'idik, driu- |-al -1 
drum drAm |drummed drAmd |-mer -a^; ES 

-a(r 
drumfire 'drAm^fair; ES -jfaia(r 
drumhead 'drAm^hed 
drumlin 'drAmlin 
Drummond 'drAmand 
drumstick 'diAm^stik 
drunk drAgk |-en -an |-ard -a^d; ES -ad 
drunkenness 'drAijkannis 



drupaceous dru'pejas, driu- 

drupe drup, driup |-let -lit 

Drury Lane 'druri'len, 'driuri- 

Drusilla dru'sila, driu- 

dry drai | dried draid 

dryad 'draiad, -aed 

Dryasdust 'draiaz^dAst 

Dryburgh 'drai^byo, -a; ES -jbsr-, -^bAr-, 

-jbar-; Brit 'draibara 
dry-clean 'drai'klin, -jklin [ed -d 
Dryden 'draidn 
dryer 'draia^; ES 'drai-aCr 
dryly 'draili 
dry-nurse 'drai^nys; ES -^nss, -^nys; |-s -iz 

l-d-t 
drysalter 'draijsalta'; ES -^saltaCr; |-y -i 
dry-shod 'drai'/ad; ES -'/od 
'dst 'woiildst' dst 

dual 'djual, 'diual, 'dual |-ism -^izam 
dualistic jdjual'istik, jdiu-, ^du- [-ally -li, 

-ikli 
duahty dju'aelati, diu-, du- 
dub dAb I dubbed dAbd 
Du Barry dju'bteri, diu- du- {Fr dyba'rl) 
Du Bartas djubar'tas, diu-, du-; ES -ba:'tas; 

{Fr dybar'tais) |-'s -iz 
dubiety dju'baiati, diu-, du- 
dubious 'djubias, 'dm-, 'du- 
dubitable 'djubitabl, 'dm-, 'du- |-bly -bli 
dubitate 'djuba^tet, 'dm-, 'du- j-d -id 1-tive 

-IV 

dubitation ^djuba'te/an, ^diu- jdu- 

Dubhn 'dAblm 

Dubois, Du Bois da'bais, du-, 'dubais |-'s -iz 

Dubuque da'bjuk, du-, -'biuk 

ducal 'djuki, 'diu-, 'du- |-ly -i 

Du Cange dju'kaends, dm-, du- |-'s -iz {Fr 

dy'kars) 
ducat 'dAkat 
duce It 'du:t/e 
Duchesne in Utah du'Jen, diu-; Fr name 

dy'/e-.n 
duchess 'd At/is ]-'s -iz 
duchy 'dAtJi 

duck dAk I ducked dAkt |-Hng 'dAkhg 
duct dAkt |-ed -id 
ductile 'dAktl, -til |-ly -i 
ductiUty dAk'tilati 
dud dAd 



|full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fy'Sa'; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAStam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 'vigan jEden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Duddon 



138 



durable 



Duddon 'dAdn 


dunderpate 'dAnda^pet; ES 'dAnda- 




dude djud, diud, dud 


Dundreary, d- dAn'driri 




dudgeon 'dAdsan 


dune djun, diun, dun 




Dudley 'dAdli 


Dun Edin, Dunedin dAu'idn, -dm 




due dju, diu, du 


Dunellen dAu'ebn 




duel 'djual, 'diu-, 'du- |-ed -d |-ist -ist 


Dunfermline dAn'fs^mbn, dAm-; ES 


-'fsm-. 


duello dju'elo, diu-, du- {It du'ello) 


-'fym-; /oc. + -'ferm-, -'farm- 




duenna dju'ena, diu-, du- 


dung dAo [-ed -d 




duet dju'8t, diu-, du- |-ted -id 


dungaree, -ri jdAgga'ri 




duff dAf 1 duffed dAft |-el -1 |-er -a^; ES -3(r 


dungeon 'dAudsan |-ed -d 




dug dAg 


dung-fork 'dAg^fark; ES -jfaak 




Dugdale 'dAgdel 


dunghill 'dAg^hil 




dugong 'dugarj, -goij, -gag 


Dunkard 'dAgka^d; ES 'dAgkad 




dugout 'dAg^aut 


Dunker 'dAgka^; ES 'dAgka(r 




dugvvay 'dAg^we 


Dunkirk US 'dAukyk; ES -kak. 


-kyk, 


duke djuk, diuk, duk |-dom -dam |-ry -an 


France 'Dunkirk, Dun 'kirk 




dulcet 'dAlsit 


Dunmore dAn'mor, -'mar; ES - 


'moa(r. 


dulcimer 'dAlsama^; ES 'dAlsama(r 


E+-'maa(r 




Dulcinea dAl'sinia, jdAlsa'nia {Sp jdulGi'nea) 


Dunmow 'dAnmo 




dulia dju'Iaia, dm-, du- 


dunnage 'dAuids |-s -iz |-d -d 




dull dAl Idulled dAld |-ard -a^d; ES -ad 


Duns dAnz, dAns |-'s -iz 




dully 'dAlll, 'dAh 


Dunsany dAn'sem 




Duluth da'lue, du-, -'buO 


Dunsinane 'dAnsa^nen, ^dAusa'nen 




Dulwich 'dAhds, -itj |-'s -iz 


Dunsmuir 'dAuzmjur, -miur 




duly 'djuli, 'diuli, 'dull 


Duns Scotus 'dAuz'skotas, earlier 


Maus- 


Dumain dju'men, dm-, du- 


I-'S -IZ 




Dumas dju'ma, dm-, du-, acc/+ 'Dumas {Fr 


Dunstan 'dAnstan 




dy'ma) 


Dunster 'dAusta^; ES 'dAiista(r 




Du Maurier dju'marije, dm-, du- {Fr 


duo It 'du:o 




dyma'rje) 


duo- 'djuo, 'drao, 'duo, -a 




dumb dAm |-ed -d |-bell -^bsl 


duodecimal jdjua'desaml, ^diua-, jdua 


-1-ly-i 


Dumbarton dAin'bartn; ES -'ba:tn, E+ 


|-mo -jmo 




-'ba:tn; |-sliire -Jir, -/a-; ES -iJiaCr, -/aCr 


duodenal jdjua'dini, jdiua-, ^dua- |-num -nam 


dumdum 'dAmdAm 


|-na -na 




dumfound, dumbf- dAm'faund |-ed -id 


duologue 'djua,lag, 'diua-, 'dua-, -Jag 


;. -iiog 


Dumfries dAm'fris |-shire -/ir, -JV; ES 


dupe djup, diup, dup [d -t [-ry -an, - 


n 


-Xia(r, -/a(r 


duple 'djupl, 'diupl, 'dupl 




dummy 'dAini |-ied -d 


duplex 'djupkks, 'dm-, 'du- j-es -iz [- 


ed -t 


dump dAmp [dumped dAmpt |-ling -lig 


duplicate, n, adj 'djuplakit, 'dm-, 'du- 


, -iket 


dun dAu [dunned dAnd 


dupUcate v 'djupbiket, 'dm-, 'du- 


l-d -id 


Dunbar US 'dAubar; ES -ba:(r, E+-ba:(r; 


[-tor -a^; ES -a(r 




Scotl Dun 'bar 


duplication jdjupla'kejan, jdm-, ^du- 




Duncan 'dAgkan 


duplicity dju'pbsati, dm-, du- 




Duncannon dAn'kaenan 


Dupont 'djupant, 'dm-, 'du-; ES+-pDnt; 


dunce dAns [dunces 'dAnsiz 


acc/+Du'pont ('Du/pont 'product) 




Dunciad 'dAnsijjed 


Duquesne dju'ken, dm-, du- 




Dundas dAn'da^s |-'s -iz 


Du Quoin dju'kain, dm-, du- 




Dundee dAu'di ('Dun,dee 'road) 


durability ,djura'bilati, jdiur-, /dur- 




dunderhead 'dAnda^jhed; ES 'dAuda- 


durable 'djurabl, 'diur-, 'dur- [bly -bb 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret jyet jet [sang saeg [angrj' 'aeg-gn 
[bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ak a [far far [watch wot/, wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards (go go 



duralumin 



139 



dysprosium 



duralumin, D- djuVaeljajinin, diu-, du- 

durance 'djurans, 'diur-, 'dur- 

Durand dju'raend, diu-, du- 

Durango dju'raerjgo, diu-, du- 

Durant dju'raent, diu-, du- 

duration djuVeJan, diu-, du- 

durative 'djurativ, 'diur-, 'dur- 

Durazzo du'ratso 

Durban 'dyban, da^'baen; ES 'dab-, 'dyb-, 

da- 
durbar 'dybar; ES 'dabarCr, 'dyba:(r, 

E+-ba:(r 
D'Urberville 'dyba^^vil; ES 'dsba-, 'dyba- 
Durbeyfield 'dybi^fild; ES 'dsbi-, 'dybi- 
dure djur, diur, dur; ES -3(r; |-d -d 
duress 'djuris, 'diur-, 'dur-, acci+du'ress 
D'Urfey, Durfey 'dyfi; ES 'dsfi, 'dyfi 
Durham 'dyam; ES 'dsram, 'dAr-, 'dy- 
during 'dung, 'diurig, 'djurig 
durn dyn; ES dan, dyn; |-ed -d |-edest -dist 
Duroc 'djurak, 'diur-, 'dur-; ES+-ok 
durst dyst; ES dast, da'st |-stn't -snt — before 

some conss. +-sn (jdysn'go) 
durum 'djuram, 'diur-, 'dur- 
Duse 'duzi (It 'du:ze) 
dusk dAsk I dusked dAskt 
Diisseldorf 'disljdarf, 'dAsl-; ES -jdaaf; {Ger 

'dysaljdarf) 
dust dAst I dusted 'dAstid 
dustman 'dAstman |-men -man 
dustpan 'dAst^paen, 'dASjpaen 
dustproof 'dAst'pruf ('dust-proof 'bearings) 
Dutch dAt/ I dutches 'dAtJiz |dutched dAtft 
Dutchman 'd At/man |-men -man 
Dutchman's-breeches 'dAtJmanz'britJiz 
duteous 'djutias, 'diu-, 'du- 
dutiable 'djutiabl, 'diu-, 'du- 
dutiful 'djutifal, 'diu-, 'du- |-ly -i 
duty 'djuti, 'diu-, 'du- 
duty-free 'djuti'fri, 'dm-, 'du- 
duumvir dju'Amva^, dm-, du-; ES -'Amva(r; 

|-ate -it 
Duxbury 'dAks,b£ri, -ban 
Duyckinck 'daikigk 



Dvina dvi'na 

Dvorak 'dvarsak, da'varsak, 'varsaek, 'var- 

/aek; ES -aa- 
dwarf dwarf; ES dwaaf ; |-ed -t |-ish -ij 
dwarvish 'dwarvij; ES 'dwaavi/ 
dwell dwel [dwelt dw£lt, arch, dwelled dweld 
dwelling 'dwEbg 

dwindle 'dwindl |-d -d |-ling 'dwmdlig, -dhg 
Dwight dwait 
Dyak 'daiaek 

dyarchy 'daiarki; ES -a:ki, E+-a:ki 
Dyce dais |-'s -iz 
Dyck, van vaen'daik 

dye dai |dyed daid |-ing -ig |-r -a^; ES -a(r 
dyed-in-the-wool 'daidntSa'wul, 'daidmtJa- 
dyeing from dye 'daiig 
dyestuff 'dai^stAf 
dying /rom die 'dang 
Dyke, van vaen'daik 
dyke daik | dyked daikt 
Dykema 'daikama 
Dykstra 'daikstra 
Dymond 'daimand 

dynameter dai'naemata^; ES -'naemataCr 
dynamic dai'naemik |-al -1 j-ally -li, -ikli 
dynamism 'dainajmizam |-mist -mist 
dynamite 'daina^mait |-mited -^maitid 
dynamo 'daina^mo 
dynamometer ^daina'mamata'; ES -'mama- 

ta(r, -'mnm- 
dynast 'dainaest, 'dainast 
dynastic dai'naestik [-al -1 j-ally -Ii, -ikli 
dynasty 'dainasti, 'dainaesti — 'dinasti is 

mainly Brit. 
dyne dam 

Dysart 'daiza^t, -zart; ES 'daizat, -za:t 
dysentery 'disn^teri 
d3^sgenic dis'dsemk 
Dyson 'daisn 
dyspepsia di'sprp/a, -/la 
dyspeptic di'speptik |-al -1 |-ally -Ii, -ikli 
dysphasia dis'fega, -31a 
dyspnea, -noea disp'nia 
dysprosium dis'prosiam, -'pro/iam 



|full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fySa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idri [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



140 

E 



eccentric 



E, e letter i \pl E's, Es, poss E's iz 


earwig 'ir^wig; ES 'lajWig, S + 'ea-; ]-wigged 


e- word initial. When unstressed, this varies as 


-/wigd 


i-, I-, £-, or 3- according to style of speech or 


Easdale 'iz^del 


commonness of the word, a- is esp. freq. be- 


ease iz |-s -iz |-d -d j-ful -fal ] -fully -fall 


fore I (elect I'kkt, a'lekt). When only one 


easel 'izl 


or two prons. are given in the vocab., it is to 


easement 'izmant 


he understood that one or more of the others 


easily 'izli, 'izili 


are used by many speakers. 


Easley 'izli 


each itj |each's 'itjiz 


east, E- ist 


Eads idz |Eads's 'idziz 


Eastbourne 'ist^bom, -jbam, -ba^n; ES 'ist- 


eager 'iga^; ES 'ig3(r 


jboan, -ban, E+-ibaan 


eagle 'igl | eaglet 'iglit 


Eastcheap 'ist^tjip, 'isjtjip 


eagre 'iga^, 'ega^; ES 'ig3(r, 'egaCr 


Easter 'ista^; ES 'ista(r 


Eakins 'ekinz |-'s -iz 


easterly 'ista^b; ES 'istali 


Eames emz, imz |Eames's 'emziz, ^imziz 


eastern Usta^n; ES 'istan; |-er -a^; ES -a(r; 


Eamon de Valera 'laman dsvaUera, -Uera, 


|-most -jHiost, -mast — 'istana^ is sometimes 


-'lira 


heard by r-dissimilation {§121). 


can in |eaned Ind |eanling 'inlig 


Eastertide 'ista^^taid; ES 'ista^taid 


ear ir; ES i3(r, S+£3(r; |-ed -d 


East Greenwich RI 'ist 'grin witj*, loc.+ 


earache 'ir^ek; S + 'er^ek 


-'grimds, -itX 


eardrop 'ir^drap; ES 'la^drap, ^la^drnp. 


Eastham 'istam. Mass Zoc. + 'istsm 


S + 'ea- 


East Ham 'ist'haem 


eardrum 'ir,drAm; ES 'i3jdrAm, S + 'ea- 


Eastman 'istman 


earl yl; ES si, yl; |-dom -dam 


Easton 'istan 


early 's^li; ES 'sli, 'yli 


eastward 'istwa^d; ES 'istwad 


earmark 'ir,mark; E 'la^matk, -jma:k; S 


easy 'izi | -going -'goig ('easy, going 'man) 


'i3jraa:k, '23- 


eat it |ate et |eaten 'itn |eat dial, past £t, it — 


earn yn; ES sn, yn; |-ed -d 


8t is occas. in cultivated S, see ate. 


earnest 'ynist, -ast; ES 'sn-, 'yn- 


eatable 'itabl 


earnings 'yniQz; ES 'anigz, 's^n- 


Eaton 'itn jEatonton 'itntan |-town 'itn^taun 


earphone 'ir^fon; ES 'i3jfon, S + 'es- 


Eau Claire jo'kkr, jo'klaer; E jo'kl£a(r, ES 


earring 'ir^rig; ES 'i3jrio, S + 'eaiOO 


,o'klaea(r 


Earsdon 'irzd3n; ES 'i3z-; /oc. + 'jazn 


Eau de Cologne jodaka'lon 


earshot \rjat; ES 'i3iJ"at, 'i3j/Dt, S + 'es- 


eaves ivz 


earth yO; ES 3O, yO; |-th's -Os 


eavesdrop 'ivz^drap; ES + -jdrDp; |-ped -t 


earthborn 'yOjbarn; ES '30,b33n, 'yO^baan 


ebb zh lebbed ebd |ebb-tide 'eb'taid, -;taid 


earthbound 'yG,baund; ES 'sG-, 'yO- 


Ebenezer jeba'ttiza", ES ,£ba'mza(r 


earthen 'yGan; ES 'sGan, 'yGan 


Ebensburg 'ebanz^byg; ES -ibsg, -jbyg 


earthenware 's^Gan^wer, -jwaer; E 'sGan- 


ebon 'fiban | ebony 'ebani 


jW£a(r, 'yG-, ES -jwaea(r 


ebriate adj 'ibriit |ebriated 'ibn^etid 


earthling 's^Oliij ; ES 'sGlig, 'yGlig 


ebriety i'braiati 


earthly 'yOli; ES '3OI1, 'yBli 


Ebro 'ibro, 'ebro 


earthquake 'yGjkwek; ES bG-, 'yQ- 


ebulhence I'bAljans, I'bAhans |-cy -i |-nt -nt 


earthshine 'yGjain; ES 'sG-, 'yG- 


ebullition ^eba'li/an 


earthward 'yOwa^d; ES 'sGwad, 'yGwad 


ecarte ,ekar'te; ES ,eka:'te; (Fr ekar'te) 


earthwork VGjwyk; ES 'sG^wak, 'yG^wyk 


ecce homo 'eksi'homo, 'tkE- 


earthworm 'yG^wym; ES 'sG^wsm, 'yG^wyin 


eccentric ik'sentnk, sk- |-al -I j-ally -h, -ikli 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg langr>' 'aeg-gri 
|bath bae6; E baG (§10) |ah a [far far |watch watj", wot/ (§12) |jaw d^o [gorge gards |go go 



eccentricity 



141 



-ediy 



eccentricity ^eksan'trisati, jEksen- 

Ecclefechan jEkl'fEkan, -'fexan 

Eccles 'eklz [-'s -iz 

Ecclesiastes ijklizi^^stiz |-tes' -tiz 

ecclesiastic ijklizi'sestik |-al -1 j-ally -li, -ikli 

ecclesiasticism i jklizi 'aests jSizam 

Ecclesiasticus ijklizi^aestikas |-'s -iz 

echelon 'ejajlan, -}mi {Fr e/'Io) 

echinoderm e'kainajda^m, 'ekina-; ES -^dsm, 
-jdym 

echinus s'kainas |echini s^kainai 

echo 'eko | echoed 'ekod 1-ing 'ekawig 

echoic £'ko-ik 

eclair e'kler, e'klaer, i-; E -'kkaCr, ES 
-'klae3(r 

eclat I'kla, e'kia {Fr e'kla) 

eclectic ikUektik, £k- j-ticism -jSizam 

eclipse i^klips jeclipses i^klipsiz |-d -t 

ecliptic I'kliptik, i- 

eclogue 'ekbg, -lag, -log 

ecology i'kabdsi; ES + -'kDl- 

economic jika^namik, j£k-; ES+-'nmn-; \-s -s 
|-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

economist I'kansnust, I-; ES+-'kDn- 

economize I'kanajinaiz, i-; ES + -'kDn-; j-s -iz 
|-d -d I -my -mi 

ecru 'ekru, 'ekru, e'kru {Fr e'kry) 

ecstasy 'ekstasi 

ecstatic ik'staetik, £k- |-ally -h, -ikli 

ectoderm 'ektajds'm; ES -jdam, -^dym 

ectoplasm 'ektajplaszam 

Ecuador 'ekwajdor; ES 'ekwajdaaCr 

Ecuadorian jEkwa'dorian, -'dor-; S -'dorian 

ecumenic jEkju'menik j-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

eczema 'eksama, 'egzama, -ima, igVima 

-ed, -d ending of the past and pptc, and of cer- 
tain adjectives. Pronounced -t after voiceless 
consonant sounds except t (walk-ed wak-t, 
price-d prais-t, reach-ed ritj-t) ; pronounced 
-d after vowel and voiced conso7iants sounds 
except d (paw-ed pa-d, free-d fri-d, dragg-ed 
draeg-d, prized praiz-d, horn-ed harn-d, 
age-d eds-d); pronounced -id or -ad after 
t b- d (state-d 'stet-id, -ad, fatt-ed 'faet-id, 
-ad, wood-ed 'wud-id, -ad, raid-ed 'red-id, 
-ad, padd-ed 'paed-id, -ad) ; in a few adjec- 
tives pronounced -id, -ad also after other 
consonants than t 6" d (age-d 'edj-id, -ad, 
crabb-ed 'kraeb-id, -ad, bless-ed 'bles-id. 



-ad, two-legg-ed 'tu'kg-id, -ad). With 
different speakers the unstressed vowel of -ed 
{when sounded at all) varies from a sound 
like that in bit bit to one like the last vowel 
in method 'meOad. Very often it is a sound 
made with the tongue higher than the central 
position {that for a), and back of that for i 
{phonetic symbol i). In the vocabulary, as a 
nde, only the pronunciation -id is given, it 
being understood that many speakers instead 
pronounce -id, or {fewer in the E dr S) -ad 
as in method 'mEGad. The difference be- 
tween -ad &= -id or -az &° -iz is sometimes 
phonemic — used to distinguish words other- 
wise alike, as quotaed {Jefferson) 'kwotad, 
quoted 'kwotid, or Louisa's lu'izaz, 
Louise's lu'iziz, aitd often in ES: Caesars 
'sizaz, seizes 'siziz or mattered 'maetad, 
matted 'maetid. 

Edam 'idam, 'idaem {Du e'dam) 

Edda 'sda 

eddy, E- 'Edi | eddied 'fidid 

Eddystone light 'sdistan. Pa hor. 'EdijSton 

edelweiss 'edl^vais |-es -iz 

edema i'dima |-mata -mata |-tous -tas 

Eden 'idn |-ton 'idntan 

Edgar 'edga^; ES 'Edga(r 

edge Eds ledges 'sdsiz [edged sdsd 

Edgerton 'Edsa'tan; ES 'edsatan 

edgeways 'Eds^wez |edgewise 'Edg^waiz 

Edgeworth 'Edswa^O; ES 'fidswaQ 

edible 'Edabl [edibility jsda'bilati 

edict 'idikt 

edification ^Edafa'ke/an 

edifice 'Edafis [edifices 'Edafisiz |-d -t 

edify 'Eda^fai [edified 'sda^faid 

edile 'idail 

Edinburg US 'sdn^byg, 'Edm-; ES -ibsg, 
-ibyg 

Edinburgh Scotl 'Edn^bs^o, 'Edm-, -a; ES 
-jbsr-, -jbAr-, -;by-; {Brit. pro7i. 'Edinbra, 
'Edn-, -bara, -^bAra) 

Edison 'sdasn 

edit 'Edit [edited 'Editid 

Edith 'idie 

edition I'di/an, i'dijan 

editor 'sdita'; ES 'Edita(r; [-ship -j/ip 

editorial jEda'torial, -'tar-; S -'tor-; |-ly -i 

-edly ending of advs formed on -ed words, as 



[full ful [tooth tue [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Edmondson 



142 



eider 



designedly di^zainidli — Advs in -edly are 


effete e'fit, i- 


only given in the vocabulary when the pron. 


efficacious ^efa'kejas 


cannot be inferred from the form in -ed, as 


efficacy 'efakasi 


disguised dis'gaizd but disguisedly dis- 


efficiency a'fajansi, i-j |-ent -ant 


'gaizidli. But disgustedly dis'gAstidli is 


Effie 'efi 


not entered, since the pron. can be found by 


effigy 'efadsi 


adding -h directly to dis'gAstid. For the 


Effingham US 'efig^haem; Engd -igam 


vowels in -edly see -ed b' -ly in the vocab. 


effloresce jEflo'res, -fb-; S -flo-; |-s -iz \-d -t 


The pron. of -edness as -idnis or -dnis 


1-cence -ns |-cency -nsi 


usually follows that of -edly. 


effluence 'sfluans, 'efliuans |-s -iz 


Edmondson, -nson 'edmansn 


effluvium E'fluviam, i-, -'fhu- |-via -via 


Edmonton 'edmantan 


efflux 'efUks [effluxes 'efLvksiz 


Edmund 'edmand, before some conss. + '8dm3n 


effort 'efa^t; ES 'efat 


('edmand'smiO, '£dm3n'smi9) 


effrontery a'frAntan, i- 


Edmundston 'edmanstan 


effulge E'fAlds, i- |-s -iz I-d -d j-nce -ans 


Edna 'edna 


|-ncy -ansi [-nt -ant 


-edness ending, see -edly 


effuse adj E^fjus, i-, -'fius |-sive -iv 


Edom ^dam |Edomite 'idanijait 


effuse V e'fjuz, i-, -'fmz |-s -iz |-d -d 


educability jgdsaka^bilati, jcdsu- 


effusion a'fjusan, i-, £-, -'fiusan 


educable 'edsakabl, 'edsu- 


eft eft [eftsoon eft'sun |-soons -'sunz 


educate 'edsajket, 'ed3u- |-d -id 


e.g. 'i'dsi, ig'zemplai'grej'ia, farig'zaempl 


educator 'edsa^keta^, 'edsu-; ES -jketa(r 


egad I'gaed, i'gaed 


education jedja'kejan, ^edsu- 


egalitarian iigaela'terian, i-, -'ter- 


educational jEdsa'keJanl, itdsu-, -Jnal j-ist 


Egbert 'ggba-t; ES 'egbat 


-1st |-ly -I 


Egerton 'edsa^tan; ES 'edsatan 


educative 'edsajketiv, ^ed^v- 


egest i'djEst |-ed -id 


educe I'djus, I'dms, I'dus, i- ]-s -iz |-d -t 


Egeus myth. Hdsjus, -dsus, Shak. i'dsias 


eductive i^Aktiv, i- |-tion -kjan 


l-'s -IZ 


Edward 'gdwa'd; ES 'edwad; |-s -z |-s's -ziz 


egg 8g legged Egd 


Edwardian, -dean edVordian; ES ed'waadian 


Eggleston 'eglz-tan, ^Egl-stan 


Edwin 'gdwin jEdwina ed'wina, -Vina 


eggnog 'Eg'nag, 'fig/nag, -'nog, -,nDg 


eel il 


eggplant 'Egjplaent; E+-jplant, -^plant 


eelgrass 'iljgraes; E-h-^gras, -jgras 


eggshell '£g;/El 


eelpout 'iljpaut 


egis 4d3is |egises 'idsisiz 


e'en in 


Eglamore 'Egbjinor, -^mar; ES -jmoa(r. 


e'er ga^; ES ea(r 


E-i--jm3a(r; |-mour -jinor; ES -jmua(r 


eerie, -ry 'in, 'iri 


eglantine 'Eglan^tain, -jtin 


ef ef 


ego 'igo, 'Ego |-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 


efface I'fes, e- |-faces -'fesiz [-faced -'fast 


egocentric jigo'sEntrik, jEgo- 


effect a'fekt, I'fekt, £~ |-fected -'fektid 


egotism 'iga^tizain, 'Eg- [-tist -tist 


effective a'fektiv, i- 


egotistic jiga'tistik, jEg- |-al -1 [-ally -li, -ikh 


effector a'fekta^, i-; ES -'fektaCr 


egregious I'gridsas, I'gridsias 


effectual a^fekt/ual, -t/ul, i- |-ly -i 


egress n 'igiES [egresses 'igrEsiz 


effectuality ajfektju'selati, i- 


egress v I'grES, i- [-es -iz [-ed -t 


effectuate a'fekt/ujet, i- |-ated -^etid 


egret 'igrit, -grEt, 'e- 


effeminacy a'femanasi, i- |-nate -nit 


Egypt 'idsapt, 'idsipt [-ptian I'dsip/an, i- 


efferent 'efarant 


Egj^tology jidsip'taladsi; ES-h-'tol- 


effervesce ^efa^Ves; ES jEfaVes; |-s -iz |-d -t 


eh e, E and various other inquiring sounds 


|-cence -ns |-cent -nt 


eider 'aida^; ES 'aida(r 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [j^et JEt [sang saeg [angr>' 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeG; E baG (§10) jah a [far far [watch watj, wotj" (§12) [jaw dsa (gorge gards [go go 



Eiffel 



143 



electron 



Eiffel 'aifl 


Eldorado Calif jElda'rado; III, Kas, Mo 


eight et | eighth etG [eighty 'eti |-ieth -iiO 


jElda'redo 


|-ieths -iiGs 


eldritch, E- 'EldritJ |Eldritch's 'Eldritjiz 


eighteen e'tin, 'e'tin ('eigh^teen 'years) 


Eleanor 'Elana^, 'filma'; ES -na(r 


eightfold adj, adv 'et'fold ('eight^fold 'loss) 


Eleanora jEla'nora, fiha-, -'nara; S -'nora 


eightpenny 'et^pEni, -pani 


Eleazar, -er jEli'eza^; ES jEli'eza(r 


eikon, E- 'aikan; ES + 'aikon 


elecampane jElakam'pen, jeIi- 


Eileeu ai'lin ('Eijleen 'Johnson) 


elect I'kkt, a'kkt |-lected -'kktid 


Einstein 'amstain |-ian ain'stamian 


election I'lek/an, a'kkjan 


Eire 'era, 'Era |Eireann 'eran, 'eran 


electioneer i^kkjaii'ir, a-; ES -'ia(r, S+-'£a(r; 


eisteddfod e'steSvad, 8-, -vod 


l-ed -d 


either 'iSa^, much less freq. 'ai'Sa^ ; ES -tJaCr 


elective I'kktiv, a'kktiv 


ejaculate I'dsaekjajet, i'dsaekju- |-d -id 


elector I'kkta', a-; ES -'kkta(r 


ejaculation ijdsaekja'lejan, i^dsaekju- 


electoral I'kktaral, a- |-ly -i [-rate -rit, -trit 


ejaculatory I'dsaekjala^tori, i'ds^ekju-, -itari; 


Electra I'kktra 


S -iton 


electress I'kktris, a- j-es -iz 


eject n 'idsekt 


electric I'kktrik, a- |-al -1 |-ally -Ii, -ikli 


eject V I'djekt, i- j-jected -'dsektid 


electrician i;kk'tnjan, a-, jilsk'tn/an 


ejecta i'dsekta 


electricity ijkk'trisati, a-, jikk'trisati 


ejection I'dsek/an, i- |-tment -'dsektmant 


electrification ijkktrafa'ke/an, a- 


eke adv ik 


electrify i'kktra jfai, a- |-fied -^faid 


eke V ik [eked ikt 


electro I'kktro, a- 


eUl 


electroanalysis i^kktroa'naelasis, a- 


elaborate adj I'laebarit, a-, -'labrit 


electrochemical ijkktro'kEinikl, a- j-ly -i 


elaborate v I'laebairet, a- | -rated -^retid 


electrochemist ijkktro'kEiiust, a- |-ry -ri 


elaboration ijlaeba 're/an, a- 


electrocute I'kktra^kjut, a-, -^kiut |-d -id 


Elaine I'len, a'len 


electrocution ijkktra'kju/an, a-, -'kiu/an 


Elam 'ilam |-ite -^ait |-itic ^ila'mitik 


electrode I'kktrod, a- 


elan Fr e'15 


electrodeposit ijkktrodi'pazit, 3-; ES + 


eland 'Hand 


-'pDZlt 


elapse I'laeps, a- \-s -iz [-d -t 


electrodynamics ijEktrodai'naemiks, a- 


elastic I'laestik, a- |-ally -li, -ikh 


electroencephalograph ijkktro-En'sEfalajgraef, 


elasticity ijlaes'tisati, a-, jilaes'tisati 


9-; E+-jgraf, -jgraf 


elate I'let, i- |-lated -'letid 


electrograph I'kktrOigraef, a-; E+-af, -af 


elation I'le/an, i- 


electrokinetics i^kktroki'nEtiks, a-, -kai- 


Elba 'Elba 


electrolysis i^kk'tralasis, a-; ES+-'trDl- 


Elbe Elb (Ger 'elba) 


electrolyte i'kktra jkit, a- 


Elbert 'elba^t; ES 'elbat 


electrolytic i^kktra'litik, a- 


elbow 'eljbo | elbowed 'el^bod 


electrolyze i'kktra ^laiz, a- |-s -iz |-d -d 


elbowroom 'Elbojrum, -^rum 


electromagnet ijkktro'maegnit, a- 


eld eld 


electromagnetic ijkktromaeg'nEtik, a- \-s -s 


elder 'elda^; ES 'sldaCr 


electromagnetism ijkktro'maegnajtizam, a- 


elderberry 'Elda'jbEri, 'elda-, -ban, -bri; ES 


electrometallurgy i;kktro'm£tl,yd5i, a-, -iiie- 


'Elda-; The second pron. results from 


'taela^dsi; ES -isd^i, -j^dsi, -'taeladsi 


r-dissimilation {§121). 


electrometer ijkk'tramata^, a-, jikk-; ES 


elderly 'Elda^h; ES 'eldah 


-'tramata(r, -'trDmata(r 


eldest 'Eldist 


electromotive ijkktra'motiv, a- 


Eldora El'dora, -'dara; S -'dora 


electromotor ijkktra'mota', a-; ES -'mota(r 


El Dorado myth. ^Elda'rado, Ark city -'redo 


electron I'kktran, a-; ES+-tnon 



|full ful [tooth tu6 [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



electroplate 



144 



Eloise 



electroplate I'lektra^plet, a- |-d -id 




Elimelech I'limajek, a- 


electroscope I'kktrajskop, 9- 




ehminate I'limajnet, a- |-nated -^netid 


electroscopic ijlEktra'skapik, a-; ES + -^ 


skop- 


elimination ijlima'ne/an, a- 


electrostatic i^kktra'staetik, a- [-al -1 


l-ally 


Elinor 'ehna^; ES 'elinaCr 


-h, -ikh 




Eliot 'chat, 'eljat 


electrotherapeutic i^lEktrojGera'pjutik 


, 3-, 


Eliphalet I'hfalit, a- 


-'piu- |-al -1 




Eliphaz 'ela^faez |-'s -iz 


electrotherapy ijlektro'eerapi, a- 




Elis 'ihs |-'s -IZ 


electrotype I'lektrajtaip, a- |-d -t 




Elisabeth I'lizabaG, 9 — see Elizabeth 


electrum I'kktram, a- 




Elisha I'lai/a, a- 


electuary I'lekt/u^eri, a- 




eHsion I'lisan 


eleemosynary jEla'masnjEri, fihs-; 


ES + 


elite I'lit, e'lit 


-'niDS- 




elixir I'hksa^; ES i'liksa(r 


elegance 'elagans 1-cy -i |-gant -gant 




Eliza i^laiza 


elegiac i'lid3i,aek, a-, ^ela'dsaiaek, -ak 




Elizabeth I'lizabaO, a- |-ton -tan |-town 


elegiacal jgla'dsaiakl 




-jtaun — spelt with z in the 1611 Bible 


elegize 'ebjdsaiz \-s -iz J-d -d 




Elizabethan ijliza'biGan, a-, -'beGan, I'liza- 


elegy ^adsi |-gist -dsist 




jbeGan 


element 'elamant 




elk elk 


elemental jcla'tnentl [-ly -i ]-tary -tsn. 


-tri 


Elkanah 'elkana, el'kena 


Elena 'elana 




Elkhart 'elk, hart; ES -,ha:t, E+-,lia:t 


Eleonora jela'nora, jElia-, -^nara; S -'nora 


ell el — The n sound was lost from ell (OE eln 


elephant 'Elafant |-a jEla'faenta 




measure) in the same way as from kiln, mill, 


elephantiasis jslafan'taiasis, -faen- 




Milne. 


elephantine iela'fsentin, -tain, -tin 




Ella 'ela 


Eleusinian jelju'sinian 




Ellen 'elm, -an 


Eleusis e'lusis, a-, -'liusis |-sis' -sis 




Ellesmere 'elzmir; ES -miaCr 


elevate 'elajvet |-d -id |-tor -a^; ES -a(r 




Ellice Islands 'ebs'ailandz, -lanz 


elevation jelaVe/an 




Elliott 'ehat, 'eljat 


eleven I'kvan, I'levm, a- j-th -anO |-ths 


-anOs 


ellipse I'lips, a- \-s -iz 


elf elf |-'s -s 1 elves elvz |-in -m 




ellipsis i^ipsis, a- |-pses -psiz 


elfish '£lfi/, 'eIvi/ 




ellipsoid lUipsaid, a- 


elflock 'elf^lak; ES+-M 




ellipsoidal ijip'saidl, a-, jelip'saidl 


Elfrida E^frida 




elliptic I'liptik, a- |-al -1 |-ally -h, -ikh 


Elgar 'elga-; ES 'elgaCr 




ellipticity i^lip'tisati, a-, jclipHisati 


Elgin US 'eldsin; C, Scotl, Lord, marble 


Ellis 'elis l-'s -IZ 


'elgin 




Ellsworth 'elzwa^G; ES 'elzwaG 


Elginshire '£lgin;Xir, -JV; ES -Jia(r, -/a(r 


elm elm 


El Greco ergreko, -^greko 




Elmer 'elma^; ES 'elmaCr 


Eli 'ilai 




Elmira el'maira 


Elia 'iha 




Elmo 'elmo 


Elias i^Iaias |-'s -iz 




El Modena jclmo'dina 


elicit I'lisit |-ed -id 




Elmore 'elmor, -mar; ES -moa(r, E+-maa(r 


elide I'laid |-lided -'laidid 




elocution iela'kjujan, -'kiu- |-ary -ieri 


eligibiUty jclidga'bilati 




Elohim e'lohim, -him j-hist -hist |-hism 


eligible 'elid3abl |-bly -bli 




-hizam 


EHhu Bible I'laihju, -hiu; Am name 'Ela^hju, 


Elohistic ,elo'histik 


-jhiu 




eloign, eloin I'lain j-ed -d 


Elijah I'laidsa, a- 




Eloise 'Heloise' jclo'iz, £«g natne jela'wiz 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'p'^i (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeij |angn,' 'teij-gn 
[bath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far [watch wat/, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



elongate 



145 



embracer 



elongate I'bgget, I'log-; S+i'Iag-; |-gated 
-getid 

elongation ijbg'ge/an, lilog-, ^ibg-, iilog-; 
S+-ag- 

elope I'lop, 3- j-d -t 

eloquence 'ebkwans j-quent -kwant 

El Paso el'pjeso 

Elphinstone 'elfinstan 

Elsa 'elsa {Ger 'eIzq:) 

El Salvador el'saelvajdor; ES -jdo3(r; {Sp 
-iSaipa'tJar) 

Elsass Ger 'elzas 

else eIs [else's 'eIsiz 

El Segundo jelsa'gAndo, -'gun- 
elsewhere 'elsjhwEr, -^hwaer; E -^hweaCr, ES 
-jhwae3(r 

Elsie 'elsi 

Elsinore 'elsainor, -jnor; ES -jno3(r, E + 
-jn33(r; acci + jElsi Wre 

Elsmere 'elzmir; ES -mi3(r 

Elspeth 'slspae 

Elsworthy 'elzwySi; ES -wstSi, -wytJi 

Eltham Kent 'eltam, 'ElGam — 'ElOam is a sp. 
pron. 

elucidate I'lusa^det, I'lius- |-d -id 

elucidation ijlusaMe/an, ijlius- 

elude I'lud, iHiud |-d -id 

elusive I'lusiv, I'liusiv j-sory -san 

elves elvz 

Elvira ei'vaira 

elvish 'eIviJ 

Ely 'ih, pers. name +^i\ai, cfEli 

Elyot 'sliat, 'eljat 

Elyria i^iris, a- 

Elysia I'lisia, I'lizia 

Elysian I'lisan, I'hsian 

Elysium I'ligiam, I'liziam 

elzevir, E- 'flzava', -jVir; ES -V3(r, -jVi3(r 

em Em 

'em unstressed only am, after p or b+m (keep 
'em 'kipm, mob 'em 'mabm) — When tin- 
stressed, hem, the native Eng word for 'them,' 
lost its h sound just as do he, her, his, him 
when unstressed. Hem and hit lost the letter 
h also. The mistaken belief that 'em is an 
abbreviation of them has led some to avoid it, 
hut it is in excellent colloquial use. 

em- unstressed prefix im-, Em — see en- 
emaciate I'me/ijct |-ated -,etid 



emaciation ijme/i'ejan, i^mesi- 

emanate 'Emajnet |-d -id |-tion ;Ema'ne/an 

emancipate I'maensajpet |-pated -^petid 

emancipation i^maensa'pejan 

Emanuel I'maenjual, -jeI 

emasculate I'maeskjajlet |-lated -jletid 

emasculation ijmaeskja'lejan 

embalm im'bam |-ed -d 

embank im'baegk |-ed -t 

embar Em'bar; ES -'ba:(r, E+-'ba:(r; |-red -d 

embarcation jEmbar^keJan; ES -ba:-, E + 

-bar- 
embargo im'bargo; ES -'ba:-, E+-'ba:-; 

l-ed -d 
embark im'bark; ES -'ba:k, E+-'ba:k; |-ed -t 
embarkation jEmbar'keJan; ES -ba:-, E + 

-ba:- 
embarrass im'baeras, -is |-es -iz |-ed -t 
embassador im'baesada^; ES -'baesada(r 
embassage 'Embasids |-s -iz |-bassy -basi 
embattle Em'bajtl |-d -d |-ling -'baetjig, -tlig 
embay Em'be [-ed -d 
embed im'bsd |-ded -id 
embellish im'bEliJ" |-es -iz |-ed -t 
ember 'Emba^; ES '£mba(r 
embezzle im'bEzl |-ed -d |-ling -'bEzlig, -zlig 
embitter im'bita'; ES -'bita(r; j-ed -d 
emblaze Em'blez |-s -iz |-d -d 
emblazon em'blezn |-ed -d |-ing -znig, -znig 
emblem 'fimblam |-ed -d 
emblematic ^Embla'maetik |-al -I j-ally -li, 

-ikh 
embodiment im'badimant; ES+-'bijdi- 
embody im'badi; ES+-'bDdi; j-ied -d 
embolden im'boldn |-ed -d |-ing -dnig, -dnig 
embolic Em'bahk; ES + -'bDl- 
embolism 'Emba^lizam |-lus -las j-li -jlai 
embonpoint Fr abo'pwie 
embosom Ein'buzam, -'buzam |-ed -d 
emboss im'bas, -'bns [-es -iz |-ed -t 
embouchure jambu'/ur; ES -'/uaCr; {Fr 

abu'/y.r) 
embow sm'bo j-ed -d 
embowel Em'baual, -'baul |-ed -d 
embower Em'baua^; ES -'bau'a(r; ]-ed -d j-ing 

-'bauarig, -'baurig 
embrace im'bres |-s -iz |-d -t 
embraceor Em'bresa^; ES -'bresa(r; |-cery -i 
embracer im'bresa^; ES -'bresa(r 



|full ful [tooth tue [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision Visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



embranchment 



146 



empyreal 



embranchment em'braentjmant ; E + -'brant/-, 

-'brant/- 
embrasure 2in'bre53^; ES -'bre33(r; |-d -d 
embrocate 'embrojket |-cated -^ketid 
embrocation jembro'kejan 
embroider im'brDida^; ES -'braidaCr; |-ed -d 

|-ing -dang, -driij |-y -dan, -dn 
embroil em'brDil |-ed -d 
embrown em'braun |-ed -d 
embrue em'bru, -'bnu |-d -d 
embryo 'embrijO 
embryologic jembri3'lad3ik;ES+-'lDd3-; |-al 

-1 I -ally -h, -ikh 
embryologist iEmbri'aladsist; ES+-'d1-; |-gy 

-d3i 
embryonic jembn'anik; ES+-'Dn-; |-ally -li, 

-ikh 
Emden 'emdan 

emeer a'mir; ES a'miaCr; |-ate -it 
Emeline 'emajain, -jlin 
emend i'm£nd |-ed -id 
emendate 'imanjdet |-dated -jdetid 
emendation ^imen'dej'an, -man-, jEinan- 

'de/an 
emendator 'iman^deta^, 'Eman-; ES -jdeta(r 
emendatory I'mendajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 
emerald 'Emarald, 'Emrald 
emerge i'myd3; ES i'm3d3, i'myd3; |-s -iz 

l-d-d 
emergence i'm3'd3ans; ES i'm3d3-, I'myds-; 

|-cy -I I -gent -d3ant 
emeritus I'meratas |-ti -^tai 
emersed i'm^st; ES i'msst, i'myst 
emersion i'my/an, -san; ES -'ms-, -'my- 
Emerson 'Eina^sn; ES 'emasn 
emery 'emari, 'emri |-ied -d 
emetic I'mEtik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 
emigrant 'emagrant, -^graent 
emigrate 'Emajgret |-d -id |-tion jEma'greJan 
emigre 'Emajgre {Fr emi'gre) 
Emil 'iml 

Emilia I'milia, iWilja 
Emily 'ehiIi 

eminence 'fimanans |-cy -i |-nent -nant 
emir a'mir; ES a'mia(r; |-ate -it 
emissary 'EmajSEri 
emission I'mi/an 
emit I'mit [emitted I'mitid 
Emma 'Ema 



Emmanuel I'msenjual 

Emmaus E'meas, 'Emias |-'s -iz 

EmmeMne 'Emajlain, -^lin 

emmet, E- 'Emit 

Emmetsburg, Emmits- 'Emits^byg; ES -jbag, 

-^byg 
emollient I'maljant, -hant; ES-f-'mol- 
emolument I'maljamant; ES-t--'mDl- 
Emory 'Eman 

emotion I'mojan j-al -1, -J"nal |-ally -li, -/nah 
emotionalism I'mojanljizam, -'mojnaljizain 
emotionality i^mofan'selati 
emotionalization ijino/anla'ze/an, -Jnala-, 

-ai'z- 
emotionalize I'mojanljaiz, -Jnal- [-s -iz |-d -d 
emotive I'motiv 
empale im'pel j-d -d 
empanel imVaen] 1-ed -d 
empathic Em'paefiik 1-ally -li, -ikli 
empathy 'smpaGi 
Empedocles Ein'pedajkliz |-'s -iz 
emperor 'Empara^; ES 'emparaCr 
empery 'Empari 

emphasis 'emfasis j-phases -fajsiz 
emphasize 'Emfa^saiz [-s -iz j-d -d 
emphatic im'faetik [-al -1 j-ally -li, -ikli 
empire 'Empair; ES '£inpaia(r 
empiric Em'pirik |-al -1 |-aUy -li, -ikk 
empiricism Em'pirajSizam [-cist -sist 
emplacement im'plesmant 
employ im'pbi |-ed -d |-ment -mant 
employee, -ye, -ye im'pbi!'i» iCnipbi'i 
employer im'pbia^, -'pbj^"; ES -'pbi'a(r, 

-'pbja(r 
empoison Em'pDizn j-ed -d |-ing -znig, -znig 
Emporia Em'poria, -'par-; S -'pona 
emporium Ein'poriam, -'par-; S -'ponam; [-s 

-z |-ia -la 
empower im'paua^; ES -'pau-aCr; |-ed -d |-ing 

-'paurig, -'pauarig 
empress 'Empris |-es -iz 
emprise, -ze Em'praiz |-s -iz 
emption 'Emp/an |-al -1 
empty 'Einpti |-ied -d 
empurple Ein'pypl; ES -'p3pj, -'ps^pl; [-d -d 

I -ling -phg, -plig 
empyema jEmpi'ima, -pai- [-mata -'imata, 

-'Emata 
empyreal Em'pirial, jEmpa'rial, -pai- 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet JEt |sang saeg |angn,' 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) [ah a |far far |watch wat/, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards |go go 



empyrean 



147 



endocrinology 



empyrean jEmps'ridn, 

V 



-pai- 



emu imju, 'imiu 

emulate adj 'emjaht 

emulate v 'emjajlet ] -la ted -^letid |-tive -iv 

emulation jEmja'leJan 

emulator 'Einjajeta^; ES -JetaCr 

emulous 'Emjalas 

emulsification i^mAlsafa'keJ'an 

emulsify I'mAlsa^fai |-fied -jfaid 

emulsion I'mAl/an 

en en 

en- prefix in-, en — When wholly unstressed in 
familiar words, pronounced in-, sometimes 
an-. Since words vary in familiarity, and 
since styles and personal habits vary, many 
such words are pronounced with either in- or 
zrv-. Observe that many such words are spelt 
with either en- or in-, as endorse, indorse. 
These facts will explain seeming inconsis- 
tencies in the pron. of stich words in the vo- 
cabulary. The same statements apply to the 
variant em-. In these prefixes, im-, in- are 
heard in more familiar words; cf im'bEzI 
with Em'blezn, or i^naeml with en'klaesp. 

enable in'ebl |-d -d |-ling -'eblig, -'eblig 

enact in'aekt j-ed -id |-ive -iv |-ory -an 

enamel I'naeml j-ed -d |-ing -mlig, -mlig 

enamor in'aema^; ES -'aBm3(r; |-ed -d 

en bloc En'blak; ES + -'blDk; (Fr a'blSk) 

encage En'keds |-s -iz |-d -d 

encamp in'kaemp |-ed -t |-ment -msnt 

encase in'kes |-s -iz |-d -t 

encaustic en'k3stik |-ally -li, -ikh 

enceinte en'sent {Fr a's«t) 

Enceladus En'sEbdas |-'s -iz 

encephalic jensa^faehk 

encephalitis jEnsefa'laitis, en^sEfa- 

encephalon En'sEfa^lan, -jlnn |-la -la 

enchain En't/en ] -chained -'t/end 

enchant in't/aent; E-^-'t/ant, -'t/ant; |-ed -id 
|-ress -ris |-resses -risiz 

enchase En't/es |-s -iz |-d -t 

encircle in^sykl; ES -'sakl, -'sykl; |-d -d 
|-ling -kbg, -klig 

Encke 'egka 

enclasp en'klaesp; E+-'klasp, -'klasp; |-ed -t 

enclave n 'Enklev {Fr a'klarv) 

enclave v En'klev |-claved -'klevd 

enclitic en'kbtik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikh 



enclose in'kloz |-s -iz |-d -d 

enclosure in'klosa^; ES -'klo33(r 

encomiast En'komijaest 

encomiastic En^komi^^estik |-al -1 [-ally -ji, 

-ikli 
encomium en^konuam |-s -z |-comia -mia 
encompass in'kAmpas [-es -iz |-ed -t 
encore n, v 'agkor, W-, -kar; ES -koa(r, 

E+-kaa(r; |-d -d — »+en'core 
encounter in'kaunta^; ES -'kaunta(r; |-ed -d 

1-ing -tang, -trig 
encourage in'kyids; ES -'ksr-, -'kAr-, -'ks^-; 

|-s -iz |-d -d 
encrimson En'krimzn [-ed -d 
encroach in'krotj" |-es -iz |-ed -t 
encrust in'krAst |-ed -id 
encumber in'kAmba^; ES -'kAmba(r; [-ed -d 

|-ing -bang, -brig 
encumbrance in'kAmbrans |-s -iz 
encycUcal en'siklikl, -'saik- 
encyclopedia, -paed- in^saikla'pidia 
encyclopedic, -paed- in^saikla'pidik |-al -1 

I -ally -h, -ikh 
encyclopedism, -paed- in^saikla'pidizam |-ist 

-ist 
encyst En'sist |-ed -id 
end End [ended 'endid 
endanger in'dendsa^; ES -'dendsaCr; ]-ed -d 

|-ing -dsarig, -dsrig 
endear in'dir; ES -'dia(r, S + -'d£a(r, -'dJ£a(r; 

l-ed -d 
endeavor in'deva'; ES -'dEva(r; |-ed -d [-ing 

-'dEvarig, -'dEvrig 
endemic En'demik |-al -1 [-ally -li, -ikli 
Enderby 'Enda'bi; ES 'Endabi 
endermic En'dymik; ES -'dsm-, -'dym-; |-al 

-1 I -ally -Ii, -ikh 
Endicott 'Endi^kat, -kat; ES+-jkDt 
endive 'Endaiv, 'andiv {Fr a'di:v) 
endlong 'endjag, -jlog; S+-ilag 
endmost 'End^most, 'En^most 
endocarditis ^Endokar'daitis; ES -ka:-, E + 

-ka:- 
endocardium ^Endo'kardiam; ES -'ka:d-, 

E-i--'ka:d- 
endocarp 'Endo^karp; ES -ika:p, E-f-^karp 
endocrin ^Endo^krin 

endocrine 'endojkrain |-nal jEndo'krainl 
endocrinology jEndokrai'naladsi; ES + -'nDl- 



|full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision Visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



endoderm 



148 



enough 



endoderm 'Endojdym; ES -jdsm, -jdym 


England 'iggland |-er -^; ES -a(r; freq. 


endogamy en'dagami, -'dog- 


'igland, which many regard as careless 


endogenous En'dadsanas; ES+-'dDd3- 


Englefield 'eggl.fild 


endolymph 'endojlimf, -Jimpf 


Englewood 'eggl^wud 


endoparasite jcndo'paerajsait 


EngUsh 'igglij |-ed -t |-man -man |-men -man 


endoplasm 'Endojplaezam 


|-ry -n |-woman -^wuman, -^wu- |-women 


Endor 'enda^, -dar; ES 'endaCr, -doaCr 


-jwimin, -■an— freq. 'igli/; see England 


endorse m'dars; ES -'daas; |-s -iz |-d -t 


engorge en'gard3; ES -'goads; |-s -iz |-d -d 


endorsee in^dor'si, jEndor'si; ES -^daa-, -daa- 


engraft En'graeft; E + -'graft, -'graft; |-ed -id 


endoscope 'end3,skop 


engrain in'gren |-ed -d |-edly -idli 


endothelium jendo'Giliam |-lia -ha 


engrave in'grev [-graved -'grevd 


endothermic jEndo'Oa^mik; ES -'Gam-, -'Gym- 


engross in'gros |-es -iz |-ed -t [-edly -idh 


endow in'dau lendowed in'daud 


engulf in'gAlf |-ed -t 


endue in'dju, -'dm, -'du |-d -d 


enhance in'haens; E+-'hans, -'bans; |-s -iz 


endurance m'djurans, -'diur-, -'dur- 


l-d-t 


endure in'djur, -'diur, -'dur; ES -3(r 


enharmonic jenhar'mamk ; ES -lia:'manik. 


endways 'endjwez |-wise -^waiz 


-'mnn-, E-i--ha:-; |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 


Endymion En'dimian 


Enid 'inid 


Eneas I'nias [-'s -iz 


enigma I'mgma 


Eneid I'niid, -ad 


enigmatic ^emg'maetik, ^i- |-al -1 |-ally -li. 


enema 'enama 


-ikli 


enemy 'enami 


enjambment, -bement in'dsaemmant {Fr 


energetic ^ena^'dsetik; ES ^ena-; |-al -1 |-ally 


asab'ma) 


-h, -ikh 


enjoin in'dsain |-ed -d 


energize 'ena^^dsaiz; ES 'ena-; |-s -iz |-d -d 


enjoy m'dsai |-ed -d 


energy 'ena^dsi; ES 'enadsi 


enkindle en'kmdl |-d -d |-ling -dbg, -dlig 


enervate adj I'ns^vit; ES I'nsv-, I'nyv- 


enlace in 'las |-s -iz |-d -t 


enervate v 'ena^jvet; ES 'ena-; |-d -id 


enlarge m'lards; ES -'lards, E+-'la:d3; j-s 


enervation jEna-'veJan; ES ,en3- 


-IZ l-d -d l-dly -idli, -dli 


enfeeble in'fibl |-d -d [-ling -blig, -blig 


enlighten m'laitn [-ed -d |-ing -tnig, -tnig 


enfeoff tn'fef |-ed -t 


enlist in'bst |-ed -id 


Enfield 'enfild 


enliven m'laivan |-ed -d |-ing -vanig, -vnig 


enfilade jenfa'led | -laded -'ledid 


en masse en'maes {Fr a'mas) 


enfold in'fold |-ed -id 


enmesh en'mej |-es -iz |-ed -t 


enforce in'fors, -'fars; ES -'foas, E+-'faas; 


enmity 'enmati 


|-s -iz |-d -t j-dly -idli 


ennoble I'nobl, en'nobl |-d -d |-ling -'nobhg. 


enfranchise en'fraent/aiz ]-s -iz |-d -d 


-'noblig 


enfranchisement en'fraent/izmant 


ennui 'anwi {Fr a'nqi) 


engage in'geds |-s -iz |-d -d |-dly -idli 


Enobarb 'ina^barb, 'tna-; ES -^ba:b, E-i- 


engarland En'garland; ES -'ga:l-, E+-'ga:l-; 


-jba:b 


|-ed -id 


Enobarbus ^ina'barbas, jEna-; ES -'ba:b-, 


Engedi en'gidai 


E + -'ba:b-; |-'s -iz 


Engels Ger 'egals 


Enoch 'inak 


engender in'dsenda^; ES -'d3enda(r; |-ed -d 


enorm I'norm; ES I'naam 


|-ing -'dsendrig, -'dsendarig 


enormous I'narmas; ES I'naamas; |-mity 


engine 'endsan |-d -d |-ry -ri 


-mati 


engineer ^Endsa'nir; ES -'nia(r, S+-'nea(r, 


Enos 'Inas |-'s -iz 


-'nj£a(r; |-ed -d 


enough a'nAf , I'nAf — after t, d, s, z, often n'Af 


engird en'gyd; ES -'gsd, -'g3^d; |-ed -id 


(gudn'Af, 'Saetsn'Af) 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg [angry 'aeg-gn 
[bath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj", wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



149 



enumeration 



enounce i'nauns |-s -iz |-d -t 

enow I'nau 

enplane en'plen |-planed -'pknd 

enquire in'kwair; ES -'kwai3(r; |-d -d |-ry -i 

enrage in 'reds \-s -iz |-d -d j-dly -idli, -dli 

enrapture in'raeptja^; ES -'raept/aCr; |-d -d 

enravish En'raevi/ |-es -iz |-ed -t 

enregister en'redsista- ; ES -ta(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

-trig, -tang 
enrich in'ritj |-es -iz |-ed -t 
enrobe en'rob | -robed -Vobd 
enroll, -ol in'rol |-(l)ed -d 
enroot en'rut, -'rut |-ed -id 
Enroughty en'rauti — 'da:bi is not a pronun- 
ciation oj Enroughty, hut a substitution for 

it. 
en route an'rut {Fr a 'rut) 
ensample en'saempj; E + -'sampl, -'sampl 
ensanguine En'saeggwin j-d -d 
ensconce gn'skans; ES-h-'skons; |-s -iz |-d -t 
ensemble an'sambl {Fr a'sa:bl) 
enshade En'Jed | -shaded -'/edid 
enshrine in '/rain j-d -d 
enshroud en'/raud |-ed -id 
ensign n 'ensain, m/. + 'ensn 
ensign v en'sain |-ed -d 
ensilage 'ens lids 
ensile en'sail, 'ensail |-d -d 
enslave in'slev |-slaved -'slevd 
ensnare en'sner, -'snaer; E -'sn£3(r, ES 

-'snae3(r; |-d -d 
ensphere en'sfir; ES -'sfi3(r, S+-'sf£3(r 
ensue en'su, -'siu, -'sju |-d -d 
en suite an'swit {Fr a'sqit) 
ensure in'Jur; ES -'/u3(r; |-d -d 
enswathe en'sweS | -swathed -'sweSd 
entablature en'taebbtja^; ES -t/aCr 
entablement en'teblmant 
entail in'tel |-ed -d 

entangle in'taeggl |-d -d |-ling -glig, -glig 
entelechy en'telaki 
entente an'tant {Fr a'ta:t) 
enter 'enta^; ES -t3(r; |-ed -d |-ing -tang, 

-trig 
enteric en'terik |-ritis jgnta'raitis 
enteron 'enta^ran; ES-F-jron 
enterprise 'enta^jpraiz, 'enta-; ES 'enta-; |-s 

-IZ |-d -d — In the second pron. a' becomes a 

by dissimilation {§121). 



entertain ^enta^'ten; ES ^enta-; |-ed -d 
enthrall, -al in'Oral |-(l)ed -d 
enthrone in'Oron |-d -d 
enthronize en'Oronaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
enthuse in'Ojuz, -'Oiuz, -'6uz |-s -iz |-d -d 
enthusiasm in'Ojuzijaezam, -'Oiuz-, -'8uz- 

|-ast -jaest 
enthusiastic injOJuzi'aestik, -jOiuz-, -j6uz- |-al 

-1 I -ally -h, -ikk 
enthymeme '£nOa/mim 
entice in'tais |-s -iz [-d -t 
entire in'tair; ES -'taia(r; |-ty -ti ('en^tire 

'length) 
entitle in'taitl |-d -d |-ling -tjig, -tbg 
entity 'entati 
entoil En'tail |-ed -d 

entomb in'tum |-ed -d j-ment -'tummant 
entomologic ^entama'ladsik; ES-h-'lods-; 

l-al -1 l-ally -li, -ikli 
entomologist ^enta'maladsist; ES-H-'mol-; 

l-gy -dsi 

entourage ^antu'ras {Fr atu'rais) 

entr'acte an'traekt {Fr a'trakt) 

entrails 'entralz 

entrain in'tren ]-ed -d 

entrance n 'entrans |-s -iz |-trant -trant 

entrance v in'traens; E-i- -'trans, -'trans; |-s 

-IZ |-d -t |-dly -idli 
entrap in'traep [-trapped -'traept 
entreasure en'tresa^; ES -'tr83a(r; |-d -d 
entreat in'trit |-ed -id |-y -i 
entree 'antre {Fr fi'tre) 
entremets 'antra^me \pl -mets -jmez {Fr 

Stra'niE) 
entrench in'trent/ |-es -iz |-ed -t 
entre nous Fr atra'nu 
entrepot 'antraipo {Fr atra'po) 
entrepreneur ^antrapra'ny; ES -'n3(r, -'ns^; 

{Fr atrapra'noerr) 
entropy 'entrapi 
entrust in'trAst |-ed -id 
entry 'entri 
entwine in'twain |-d -d 
entwist en'twist |-ed -id 
enucleate adj I'njukliit, I'niu-, I'nu-, -^et 
enucleate v I'njukhjet, I'niu-, I'nu- j-d -id 
enucleation ijnjukli'e/an, i^niu-, i^nu- 
enumerate i'n)uma/ret, I'niu-, I'nu- |-d -id 
enumeration ijnjuma're/an, i^niu-, i,nu- 



IfuU ful |tooth tuB [further 'fytJa^; ES 'faSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



enunciate 



150 



eponym 



enunciate I'nAnsijCt, -J"i- |-d -id 

enunciation ijnAnsi'eJan, i^nAnJi- 

enure in'jur; ES in'ju3(r; |-d -d 

envelop n, v in'veiap |-ed -t 

envelope n 'envajlop, 'an-, inVebp {Fr 

a'vlb'p) — 'anvajop is pseudo-French. 
envelopment in'velapmant 
envenom EnVenam |-ed -d 
enviable 'enviabj |-bly -bh |-vious -vias 
environ v inVairan |-ed -d 
environs n in'vairanz, 'envaranz 
envisage en'vizid3 [-s -iz |-d -d 
envision enVisan |-ed -d 
envoy 'postscript' 'envai {Fr aVwa) 
envoy 'messenger' 'envoi 
envy 'envi j-ied -d 
enwrap en'raep [-wrapped -'raept 
enwreathe En'rlti |-d -d 
enzym 'enzim |-zyme - zaim, -zim 
Eoanthropus jioaen'Oropas |-'s -iz 
Eocene 'isjsln 
Eohippus jio'hipas |-'s -iz 
Eolia i'olia |-n -n 

Eolis 'ialis |-'s -iz |-t -t |-m -jhzam 
eolith 'iajhO |-ths -Gs |-ic jb'liGik 
Eolus 'ialas, Vt nit. loc. i'olas |-'s -iz 
eon 'ian, 'ian; ES + 'inn 
Eos 'ias; ES + -ds; l-'s -iz 
eosin 'ia^sin 
Eothen i'oOEn 

Epaminondas Ejpaema'nandas; ES+-'nDn- 
eparch 'epark; ES 'epa:k, E + -a:k 
epaulet, -tte 'epajlet, 'epaht 
epencephalon jEpen'sefajlan, -jlon 
ephah 'ifa 

ephedrine, -in e'ledrin, cfem. -t-'efaidrin 
ephemera, E- a'femara |-s -z |-rae -jri 
ephemeral a'femaral |-ly -i |-rid -rid 
Ephesian I'fisan 
Ephesus 'efasas, -zas |-us' -as 
ephod 'efad, 'i-, -fad; ES+-fDd 
Ephraim 'ifriam |-ite -^ait 
epic 'epik |-al -1 |-ally -li |-ly -li 
epicene 'epajsin 

epicenter, -tre 'Epi^senta*; ES -jS£nta(r 
Epictetus jEpik'titas j-'s -iz 
epicure 'epijijur, -jkiur; ES -a(r 
Epicurean /spikju'rian, -kiu'rian |-ism -jizam 
epicurism 'epikju^rizam, -kiu- 



Epicurus jEpi'kjuras, -'kicras l-'s -iz 
epicycle 'epa^saikl 
epicyclic ^epa'saiklik, -'sik- |-al -1 
epidemic jEpa'deimk |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 
epidermic jcpa'darmik; ES -'dam-, -'dym-; 

l-al -1 l-ally -li, -ikli 
epidermis jEpa'da^mis; ES -'dsm-, -'dym-; 

|-mal -ml 
epigene 'epajdsin [-genesis jEpa'dsenasis 
epiglottal jepa'glati; ES-h-'glotl 
epiglottis jEpa'glatis; ES+-'glDt-; |-es -iz 
epigram 'epajgraem 
epigrammatic j£pagra'maetik ]-al -1 |-ally -li, 

-ikk 
epigraph 'epajgraef; E-[--jgraf, -^graf 
epigraphy e'pigrafi 
epilepsy 'epajlepsi 

epileptic jEpa'leptik |-al -1 l-ally -li, -ikli 
epilogue, -log 'tpajag, -Jag, -Jog 1-d, -ged -d 
Epimenides jepa'menajdiz l-'s -iz 
Epinal 'epinl {Fr epi'nal) 
Epiphany I'pifam 
epiphyte 'epijfait |-tic ^epi'fitik 
Epipsychidion jepisai'kidian, -si'kidian 
Epirus E'pairas |-'s -iz 
episcopacy I'piskapasi 
episcopal, E- I'piskapl 1-ly -i 
episcopalian, E- i^piska'peljan, -kan 
episcopate I'piskapit, -jpet 
episode 'epa^sod, -jzod 
episodic jEpa'sadik, -'zad-; ES-i--Dd-; j-al -1 

I -ally -li, -ikli 
epistemology i^pista'maladsi; ES-t--'mDl- 
epistle I'pisj 
epistolary I'pista^len 
epistyle 'epijstail 

epitaph 'epa^taef; ES+-itaf, -jtaf; |-ed -t 
epithalamium ^epiOa'lemiam |-s -z ]-lamia 

-mia 
epithelium jEpa'Oiliam j-s -z |-ha -ha 
epithet 'epajOtt |-theted -jGetid 
epithetic ,£pa'eetik l-al -1 l-ally -li, -ikli 
epitome I'pitami 

epitomize I'pita^maiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
epoch 'epak |-al -1 |-ally -li — 'ipok is mainly 

Brit. 
epode 'epod 
eponym 'epa^nim |-ous e'panamas; ES-f- 

-'pon- 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet }zi Isang saeg |angry 'aeg-gri 
Ibath baeO; E baG (§10) lah a jfar far [watch wat/, wnt/ (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards Igo go 



epos 



151 



Eritrea 



epos '8pas; ES+-ds; |-es -iz 


-er ending of agent nouns (maker) and the 


Epping '£pig 


comparative degree (slower) -a^ ; ES -a(r. In 


epsilon 'epsalan, -ilan, -jlon, Brit ep'sailan 


the vocab. usually omitted when its sound can 


Epsom 'epsam 


be added directly to that of the head word, as 


Epworth '8pw3^e; ES 'epwaO 


make mek, maker 'mek-a^; ES 'mek-a(r; 


equable 'ekwabl, 'Ik- |-bly -bh 


slow slo, slower 'slo-a^; ES 'slo-a(r. Whett 


equal 'ikwal |-ed -d |-ly -i 


-y- follows -r-, as in blusterer 'blAs«taT», 


equalitarian i^kwab'ttrian, -^kwol-, -Uer- 


'blAS'tra^, or syllabic 1 or n, as in handler 


equality I'kwabti, I'kwol- 


'haend-1-3', 'haend-la-, or fastener 'faes-n-*. 


equalization jikwab'zeXan, -ai'z- 


'faes-na^, thei^ are usually the same alterna- 


equalize 'ikwal^aiz j-s -iz |-d -d 


tives as in tlte addition of -ing jw similar 


equanimity jikwa'nimati 


cases. See also -est. 


equate I'kwet [equated I'kwetid 


era 'ira, 'Ira 


equation i'kwe33n, -/an |-al -1 |-ally -li 


eradiate i'redijCt |-ated -^etid 


equator I'kweta^; ES i'kwet3(r 


eradicable I'raedikabl 


equatorial jikwa'torial, fik-, -'tar-; S -'tor-; 


eradicate I'raedijket |-d -id |-tor -a^; ES -a(r 


l-ly -I 


eradication ijraedi'ke/an 


equerry 'ekwan 


erase I'res |-s -iz |-d -t |-r -a^; ES -9(r 


equestrian I'kwestnan |-ienne i^kwestri'sn 


Erasmus I'raezmas |-'s -iz 


equiangular jikwi'teggjaly; ES -'aeggJ3l3(r 


Erastus I'raestas |-'s -iz 


equidistance jikws'distans |-tant -tant 


erasure I'resa', I'reJV; ES -a(r 


equilateral jikwa'laetaral |-ly -i 


Erath i'raeO 


equilibrant I'kwibbrant 


erbium 'a^biam; ES 'sb-, 'yb- 


equilibrate jikwa'laibret, I'kwibjbret |-d -id 


ere zr, aer; ES £a(r, aea(r 


equilibrist I'kwibbrist 


Erebus 'erabas |-'s -iz 


equilibrium ^ikwa'hbriam |-s -z |-ria -ria 


Erechtheum jerik'eiam 


equine 'ikwain 


Erechtheus I'rEkejus, -Gius |-'s -iz 


equinoctial jikwa'nak/al; ES+-'nDk-; |-ly -i 


erect I'rekt |-ed -id |-ile -1, -il 


equinox 'ikwa^naks; ES+-inDks; [-es -iz 


erectility i^rek'tilati, jirek'tilati 


equip I'kwip [equipped I'kwipt 


erection I'lek/an 


equipage 'ekwapids |-s -iz 


erelong er'bg, aer-, -'log; ES ea-, aea-, 


equipoise 'ekwa^paiz, 'i- |-s -iz [-d -d 


S+-'Iag 


equiponderance jikwi'pandarans; ES+-'pDn- 


eremite 'era^mait 


equiponderate jikwi'ponda^ret; ES+-'pDn-; 


erenow er'nau, aer-; ES £a-, aea- 


l-d -id 


Eretria I'ritria, I'ret- |-n -n 


equipotential jikwipo'tenXal 


erewhile er'hwail, aer-; ES ta-, aea- 


equisetum jekwa'sitam |-s -z |-ta -ta 


Erewhon 'erahwan 


equitable 'ekwitabl [-bly -bh 


erg yg; ES 3g, s'g 


equitation ^Ekwi'te/an 


ergo 'ygo; ES 'ago, Vgo; see argal 


equity 'ekwati 


ergon 'ygan; ES 'agan, 'y-, -gon 


equivalence I'kwivalans |-cy -i |-lent -lant 


ergosterol a^'gastajrol; ES a'gas-, a'gDS- 


equivocal I'kwivakl |-ly -i, -akh 


ergot 'ygat; ES 'agat, Vgat 


equivocate I'kwiva^ket |-cated -^ketid 


Eric 'erik |-son, -riccson 'eriksn 


equivocation i^kwiva'ke/an 


Erie 'iri; 8+ 'in 


equivoque, -oke 'ekwijvok 


Erin 'erin, 'irm 


er intj of hesitation a, a:. A, a: of various 


Erinys I'rinis, I'rainis |-'s -iz \pl Erinyes 


lengths. This spelling originated with writers 


I'rinijiz 


who did not sound the r. It is a blunder in 


Eris 'ins, 'iris, 'ens ]-'s -iz 


reading to pronounce it ^ or y. 


Eritrea jEn'tria |-n -n {It eri'tr£:a) 



|full ful Itooth tuG [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAStam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredj [keep 'em 'kipm 



eriking 



152 



espalier 



eriking 'a^ljkii); ES ^3\-, 'yl — The pronuncia- 


save-s sev-z); pron. -iz or -az after tlte 


tion 'erljkiij is a mixture of Ger and Eng. 


voiceless and voiced sibilants s, J, t/, z, 3, ds 


The Ger is Erlkonig 'Erljkenix. 


(face-s 'fes-iz, Nash's 'nsej-iz, catch-es 


Erma 'yma; ES 'ama, 'yma 


'kaetj-iz, nose-s 'noz-iz, rouge-s 'ru3-iz. 


Ermengarde 's^man^gord; ES bman^gard, 


George's 'dsards-iz). For the variation in 


'ym- 


unstressed vowel between -iz &° -9z, see f idler 


ermine 'ymin; ES bmin, 'a^m-; |-d -d 


statement of the sams variation at -ed in the 


Erminia y'minia; ES s'mmia, y- 


vocab., and for ftdl illustration of tlte ending 


erne, ern s^n; ES 3n, yn 


-es, -s see §88. 


Ernest 'ynist; ES 'snist, 'y- 


Esau 'is3 


Ernestine /ew. waiwe 'yniSjtin; ES b-, V- 


escadrille ^eska'dnl {Fr eska'drirj) 


Ernestine adj 'ynistin; ES '3-, 's'- 


escalade jEska'led [-laded -'ledid 


erode iVod |-d -id 


escalator, E- 'eskajleta^; ES -jletaCr 


Eroica I'ro-ika 


escalop, -11- e'skabp, e'skaebp; ES+-'skDl-; 


Eros 'iras, 'i-, 'e-, -rns |-'s -iz 


|-ed -t 


erosion I'rosan 


Escalus 'eskabs |-'s -iz 


erotic I'ratik; ES+-'rDt-; j-al -1 |-ally -h, 


Escanes 'Eska^niz |-'s -iz 


-ikli 


escapade 'Eska^ped, ^Eska'ped 


eroticism I'ratajSizam; ES+-'rDt- 


escape a'skep, i-, e- j-d -t |-pism -izam j-pist 


Erpingham 'ypig jhaem, 'ypigam; ES 'sp-. 


-ISt 


's'p-; iw 5A(j^. 'Erpingjham 


escarp E'skarp; ES E'ska:p, E+E'ska:p; 


err y; ES 3(r, s^; |-ed -d 


|-ed -t 


errand '£r3nd 


eschatological ;Eskaeta'lad3ikI; ES + -'lDd3- 


errant 'grant ]-ry -ri 


eschatologist jeska'talad3ist; ES + -'tDl-; j-gy 


errata I'reta, e-, -'rata 


-d3i 


erratic a'raetik |-al -1 |-ally -h, -ikk 


escheat Es't/it |-ed -id |-age -ids 


erratum I'retam, e-, -'rat- [-ta -ta 


eschew Es'tju, -'t/iu |-ed -d |-al -al 


erring 'yig ; ES 'sriQ, 'a^ig ; less Jreq. 'eng 


Escorial Es'korial, -'kar-; S -'kor-; {Sp 


erroneous a'ronias, e- 


eskori'al) 


error 'era^; ES 'eraCr 


escort n 'Eskart; ES 'Eskaat 


ersatz Ger er'zats 


escort V I'skart; ES I'skaat; |-ed -id 


Erse 3-s; ES ss, s's 


escritoire jEskn'twar, -'twar; ES -'twa:(r. 


Erskine 's'skin; ES 'as-, 's'S- 


-'twaa(r; (Fr ecritoire ekri'twa:r) 


erst yst; ES 3st, yst; |-while -^hwail 


escrow 'Eskro, E'skro 


eruct I'rAkt j-ed -id |-ate -et |-ated -etid 


esculent 'Eskjalant 


eructation i^rAk'teXan, jirAk- 


escutcheon I'skAtJan |-ed -d 


erudite 'eru^dait, 'erju- 


Esdraelon jEzdra'ilan, ^es- 


erudition jEru'di/an, iCrju- 


Esdras 'Ezdras |-'s -iz 


erupt I'rApt |-ed -id j-ption -pjan 


-ese word ending (Chinese, Burmese) -'iz, -^iz, 


Ervine 'yvin; ES 'svin, '3^- 


-iz; in America much less often -s 


Erwin 'ywin; ES '3win, 'y- 


esker, -kar 'Eska^; ES 'Eska(r 


erysipelas jEra'siplas, jira- 


Eskimo 'Eskajmo |-mauan, -moan jEska'moan 


erythrocyte i'ri6ro;sait, e- 


Esmeralda ^Ezma'taelda 


-es, -s ending for pi &= poss of nouns, &= for 3 


Esmond 'Ezmand 


sg pres of verbs. Pron. -s after voiceless 


esophagus i'safagas; ES + -'sDf-; |-es -iz |-gi 


consonant sounds except s, J, tj (cap-s 


-idsai 


kaep-s, Kate's ket-s, chafe-s t/ef-s); pron. 


Esopus i'sopas |-'s -iz 


z after vowel 6" voiced consonant sounds ex- 


esoteric jEsa'tErik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 


cept z, 3, ds (ball-s bal-z, Joe's dso-z, 


espalier e'spaelja'; ES -ja(r; |-ed -d 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet JEt [sang saeg [angn,' 'aeg-gri 
Ibath bae6; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



especial 



153 



ethereality 



especial a'spE/al |-ly -i, -JIi 

esperance 'csparans |-s -iz 

Esperanto jEspa'ranto, -'raento 

espial I'spaisl 

espionage '8spi3nid3, a^spaianids {Fr espion- 
nage espja'nais) 

esplanade jEspla'ned 

espouse I'spauz [-s -iz [-d -d |-sal -1 

esprit e'spri 

esprit de corps e'sprida'kor, -'kar; ES -'ko3(r, 
E+-'k33(r; {Fr Esprid'kair) 

espy s^spai |-ied -d 

Espy 'espi 

Esquimau 'eska^mo |-maux -]mo, -^moz 
|-mauan jEska'moan 

esquire a'skwair; ES 3'skwai3(r; |-d -d 

ess £s |esses 'esiz 

-ess fern, ending -is, -as; if lightly accented, 
esp. in verse, sometimes -es. In the vocab. 
if only -IS is given, it is to be tmderstood that 
-3S and -ES are also possible. Often omitted 
when the pron. can be found by adding -is, 
-3S, -es to the head pronunciation. 

essay 'composition' 'esi, 'esc; HriaV e'se, 
'ese 

essay Hry' a'se, e'se |-ed -d 

esse 'esi 

Essen 'esn 

essence 'esns ]-s -iz 

Essene 'esin, e'sin 

essential a'sen/al |-ly -i |-ity ajSEn/i'aelati 

Essex 'esiks |-'s -iz 

-est unstressed superlative &' archaic 2 sg pres 
ending -ist or -ast; if lightly stressed, esp. 
in verse, sometimes -est. In the vocab. if 
only -ist is given, it is to be understood that 
many speakers {fewer in the E b' S) also 
pronounce -ast as in August bgast. For the 
vowel see also -ed. 

establish a'stiebhj |-es -iz |-ed -t 

estaminet Fr estami'ne 

estate a'stet |-d -id 

esteem a'stim |-ed -d 

Estella e'stela |Estelle e'stel 

ester 'esta^; ES 'estaCr 

Estes 'estiz |-tes' -tiz 

Esther 'esta^; ES '£sta(r 

esthesia es'eisa, -31a |-thesis -'6isis 

esthete 'esOit 



esthetic es'Oetik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

estheticism Es'OEtajSizam |-thetics -'Oetiks 

Esthonia es'tonia, -'Bon- |-n -n = Estonia 

estimable 'estamabl |-bly -bli 

estimate n 'estamit, -^met 

estimate v 'esta^met [-d -id |-tion jesta'mejan 

estival 'estavl, es'taivl 

estivate 'Esta^vet |-d -id |-tion jEstaVeJ"an 

Estmere 'Estmir; ES -mia(r, S+-mEa(r 

Estonia Es'tonia |-n -n 

estop e'stap; ES+E'stop; |-ped -t |-pel -j 

estovers E'stova^z; ES -vaz 

estrange a'strends |-s -iz |-d -d |-dness -idnis, 

-dnis 
astray I'stre 
estreat I'strit j-ed -id 
estrous 'Estras, 'is- 
estrum 'Estram, 'is- |-trus -tras |-truses 

-trasiz 
estuary 'Est/ujEri |-arial jEstJu'erial 
esurient I'sjuriant, I'siur-, I'sur- 
et 'and' et 
-et unstressed word terminal, as in pocket, 

tablet, comet, carpet, rivet, etc. -it, -at. 

In the vocab. when only -it is given, it is to 

be understood that many speakers {fewer in 

the E b' S) also pron. -at as in pilot 'pailat. 
eta Gk letter 'eta, 'ita 
etaoin 'Etipin — cf shrdlu 
et cetera Et'sEtara, -'sEtra |-s -z 
etch EtJ letches 'et/iz | etched Etjt 
eternal I'tynl; ES I'tsnl, I'tynl; |-ly -i 
eternalize I'tynl^aiz; ES I'tsn-, I'tyn-; |-s -iz 

1-d -d 
eterne I'tyn; ES I'tan, I'ts^n J-nity -ati 
eternization ijtyna'ze/an, -ai'z-; ES ijtsn-, 

lityn- 
eternize I'tynaiz; ES I'tan-, lUyn-; [-s -iz 

l-d-d 
Ethan 'i6an 
ethane 'eOen 
Ethel 'EOal 
Ethelbald 'eOal^bald 
Ethelbert 'eOalba^t; ES -bat 
Ethelberta ^Eeal'byta; ES -'bsta, -'byta 
Ethelred 'EOal^rEd jEthelwulf 'eOal^wulf 
ether 'ie3';ES 'iea(r 
ethereal I'Oirial j-ly -i 
ethereality ijOiri^aelati 



|full ful Itooth tue [further 'fyS*; ES 'fstSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse f juz, fmz [dish dij [vision Vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Etherege 



154 



Euterpe 



Etherege 'eearidg |-'s -iz 


Euganean juga'nian, ju'geman 


etherization jiOara'zeXan, -ai'z- 


Eugene ju'dsin |-nia -la |-nius -las j-nius's 


etherize 'iGSiraiz |-s -iz j-d -d 


-lasiz 


ethic '£eik |-al -1 [-ally -li, -ikli 


eugenic ju'dssnik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 


Ethiop 'iBiiOp; ES + -jDp 


Eugenie Fr 03e'ni 


Ethiopia jiOi'opia |-n -n 


eugenism 'judsajnizam |-nist -mst 


Ethiopic jiOi'apik, -'opik; ES+-'Dp- 


Eulalia ju'lelia, -Ija 


ethmoid 'eOmaid 


eulogia ju'lodsia |-giae -dsiji 


ethnic 'EOnik |-al -1 [-ally -h, -ikli 


eulogist 'juladsist [-gy -dsi 


ethnographic ^EOna'graefik |-al -1 1-ally -li. 


eulogistic jula'dsistik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 


-ikli 


eulogize 'jula^dsaiz ]-s -iz |-d -d 


ethnography eG'nagrafi, -'nog- 


Eumenides ju'menajdiz 


ethnologic jeOna'ladsik; ES+-'lDd5-; |-al -1 


Eunice 'junis j-'s -iz 


|-ally -li, -ikh 


eunuch 'junak 


ethnology eO'naladgi; ES+-'nDl- 


eupepsia ju'pepja, -/la |-ptic -tik 


ethos 'iOas; ES + -6ds 


Euphemia ju'fimia 


ethyl, E- '£03l, -il 


euphemism 'jufajmizam |-mist -mist 


ethylate '8e3jlet j-lated -^letid 


euphemistic jufa'mistik |-al -1 |-ally -li. 


ethylene 'eOajlin 


-ikh 


ethylic I'Oilik 


euphonic ju'ftmik; ES+-'fDn-; ]-al -1 |-ally 


etiology ^iti'abdsi; ES + -'dI- 


-h, -ikli 


etiquette 'Etijkst 


euphony 'jufani |-phonious ju'fomas 


Etna, e- 'etna 


Euphorbia, e- ju'farbia; ES -'faab- 


Eton 'Itn |-tonian i'tonian 


Euphrates ju'fretiz, in Shak. 'jufrajtiz |-tes' 


Etruria I'truria |-n -n 


-tiz 


Etruscan I'trAskan 


Euphronius ju'fronias |-'s -iz 


Ettrick 'etnk 


Euphrosyne ju'frasaini, -'frns- 


etude e'tjud, e'tiud, e'tud {Fr e'tyd) 


Euphues 'jufjujiz |-'s -iz 


etymologic jEtama'ladsik; ES+-'lDd3-; |-al 


euphuism 'jufjujizam |-ist -ist 


-! l-ally -h, -ikh 


euphuistic jufju'istik |-al -1 [-ally -li, -ikk 


etymologist jeta'maladsist; ES+-W10I-; ]-gy 


Eurasia ju'resa, -'reja ]-n -n 


-dsi 


Eureka, e- ju'rika 


etymologize jEta'malaidsaiz; ES+-'mDl-; |-s 


eurhythmic ju'riSmik |-al -1 |-niy -mi 


-IZ |-d -d 


Euripedes ju'ripajdiz |-'s -iz 


etymon 'Eta^man, -jmnn |-s -z |-ma -ma 


Euroclydon juVakli^dan; ES+-'n)klijdDn 


Euboea ju'bia |-n -n |-boic -'bo-ik 


Europa ju'ropa 


eucalypt 'jukajipt |-ic juka'liptik 


Europe 'jurap |-an jjcra'pisn 


eucalyptus, E- juka'hptas 1-es -iz |-ti -tai 


europium ju'ropiam 


Eucharist 'jukarist 


Eurus 'juras |-'s -iz 


Eucharistic jukaVistik [-al -1 [-ally -li, -ikli 


Eurydice juVidajsi 


euchre 'juka^; ES 'iuka(r; |-d -d |-ring -karig, 


eurythmic ju'ri'Smik |-al -1 j-my -mi 


-kng 


Eusebius ju'sibias |-'s -iz 


Euclid 'juklid |-ean ju'klidian 


Eustace 'justis, -tas |-'s -iz 


eudaemon, -dam- ju'diman ]-monia judi- 


Eustachian ju'stekian, -/lan, -/an 


'monia 


Eustis 'justis |-'s -iz 


eudiometer Judi'amata' ; ES -'amata(r, -'nm- 


Euston 'justan 


eudiometric judia'metrik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 


Eutaw 'juta 


-ikli 


eutectic ju'tektik 


Eudora ju'dora, -'dara; S -'dora 


Euterpe ju'typi; ES -Hspi, -Uypi 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret [yet J£t |sang saeg |angry 'aeg-gri 
|bath bsG; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far [watch v/atf, wotj" (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards ]go go 



euthanasia 



155 



euthanasia JuGa'nesa, -313 




eventuate I'vEnt/ujCt j-ated -^etid 


euthenics ju'eeniks |-ist ^eanist 




ever 'ev3^; ES 'Eva(r 


euxenite 'juksajnait 




Everest 'Evrist, 'Evarist 


Euxine 'juksin, -am 




Everett, -itt 'Evrit, 'Evarit 


Eva 'iv3, 'eva 




everglade, E- 'EVS'jgled; ES 'Evajgled 


evacuant iVaekjuant 




evergreen 'Eva^igrln; ES 'Evajgrin 


evacuate iVaekju^et \-d -id |-tion ijvaekju- 


everlasting jEva-'laestirj; ES iEva-, E+-'last-, 


'e/an 




-'last-; ('ever^lasting 'whip^cord) 


evacuee iVaekjuji, ijvaekju'i, -'e (Fr eva 


'kqe) 


evermore /Eva^'mor, -'mar; ES -'moa(r, 


evadable, -ible iVedabl 




E+-'raaa(r 


evade iVed [evaded I'vedid 




aversion i'vy/an, -san; ES i'v3-, i'vy- 


evaluate iVaelju^et |-d -id 1-tion i^vaeljij 


'ej-an 


evert i'vyt; ES i'vat, i'vyt; |-ed -id 


Evan 'Evan 




every 'evo, 'Evari 


Evander iVaenda^; ES i'vaenda(r 




everybody 'Evri^badi, -jbAdi, -badi; ES + 


evanesce jEva'nES |-s -iz |-d -t 




-jbodi 


evanescence jEva'nesns 1-cy -i |-ent -nt 




everyday 'Evn'de ('every ^day 'clothes) 


evangel iVaendsal 




Everyman 'Evri^maen 


evangelic jivaen'dsehk, ^Evan- |-al -I 


l-ally 


everyone 'Evri^wAn, -wan 


-h, -ikli 




everything 'EvrijOig 


Evangeline iVaendsajlin, -hn, -Jam 




everywhere 'Evri^hwEr, -jhwaer; E -jliWEa(r, 


evangelism iVaend3ajlizam [-list -list 




ES -jhwaeaCr 


evangelistic ijvaendsa'hstik [-ally -li, -ikli 


Evesham 'iv/am, 'ivzam, loc. + 'i/am, 'isam 


evangelize I'viendsajlaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 




evict I'vikt |-ed -id |-ction I'vikjan 


evanish iVaeniJ |-es -iz |-ed -t 




evidence 'svadans |-s -iz |-d -t ]-dent -dant 


Evans 'Evanz |-'s -iz |-ville -^vil 




evidential ^Eva'dEnJal |-ly -i 


Evanston 'Evan-stan, 'Evanz-tan 




evidently 'Evadantli, -dEntli, sometimes if 


evaporability ijvaepara'bilati 




emphatic jEva 'dEntli 


evaporable iVaeparabl, -prabl 




evil ^iy], formal, esp. in church, + ^\yi\ |-ly -i. 


evaporate iVaepa^ret |-rated -^retid 




'ivli 


evaporation ijvaepaVeJan 




evince I'vins |-s -iz |-d -t 


Evarts 'Eva^ts; ES 'Evats; |-'s -iz 




eviscerate I'visa^ret |-rated -^retid 


evasion I'vejan |-sive -siv 




evisceration ijvisa're/an 


eve iv 




evocable 'Evakabl |-cation jEvo'keJan 


Eve iv 




evocative I'vakatrv, I'vok-; ES+-'vok- 


Eveleth 'EvaliG 




evoke I'vok [evoked I'vokt 


Evelina jEvaUaina, -'llna 




evolute n, adj, v 'Evajlut, -Jiut |-d -id 


Eveline 'Evajlam, -lin, 'evIiii 




evolution ^Eva'lujan, -'liu-, Evrju/an |-ary 


Evelyn 'Evalin, 'Evlm, Uvlm 




-jEri 


even 'Ivan |-fall -jfal 




evolve iValv, i'vdIv |-d -d 


evener 'ivna', 'ivana^; ES -na(r 




Ewart 'ju3't; ES 'ju-at 


evenhanded 'ivan'haendid ('even-handed 'jus- 


ewe ju, jo — The historical variant jo is still 


tice) 




common among sheep breeders both in Eng- 


evening 'Ivnig 




land and America. 


evenness 'ivannis 




Ewen 'juin, -an 


evensong 'ivan^saoj -iSng; S+-jsag 




ewer 'jua^; ES 'ju'a(r 


event I'vEnt 




Ewers 'jua^z, jurz; ES 'ju-az, juaz; |-'s -iz 


eventide 'ivan^taid 




Ewing 'juig 


eventual I'vEnt/ual |-ly -i, I'vEnt/uli 




ex Eks |exes 'Eksiz 


eventuality i^vEnt/u'aelati 




ex- prefix. When quite unaccented, the vowel 



|full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fytJa-; ES 'fstJa 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 



[custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



exacerbate 



156 



execution 



is tisuatty i in current speech, less freq. a or 
E, of the two 9 being more likely in rapid- 
speech of £ in careful. In the vocab. when 
only I is given, it is to be understood that a 
or £ may also occur. 
exacerbate ig'zaesa^jbet, ik'saes-; ES -aesa-; 

l-d -id 
exacerbation ig^zaesa^ 'be/an, ik^saes-; ES 

-aes3- 
exact ig'zaekt |-ed -id ]-ction -k/an 
exactitude ig'zaektSjtjud, -^tiud, -^tud 
exactly ig'zaektli, ig'zaekk 
exaggerate ig'zaedga^ret |-d -id |-tive -iv 
exaggeration ig^zaedsa 're/an 
exalt ig'zalt |-ed -id |-ation jEgzal'te/an 
exam ig^zaem |-ination igjzaema'ne/an 
examine ig'zaemin |-d -d |-nee igjzaema'ni 
example ig'zaempl; E + -'zam-, -'zam-; |-d -d 

I -ling -phg, -plig 
exanimate adj ig'zaenamit, -^met 
exanimate v ig'zaena^met |-mated -^metid 
exarch 'eksark; ES 'eksark, E+-a:k 
exasperate ig'zaespsjret |-reted -^retid 
exasperation ig^zaespaVefan 
Excalibur eks'kaelaba'; ES -b3(r 
ex cathedra jekska'Oidra, Eks'kaeOidra 
excavate 'ekska^vet |-d -id |-tor -a^; ES -3(r 
excavation jekskaVe/an 
exceed ik'sid |-ed -id 
excel ik's£l [-celled -'ssld 
excellence 'ekslans |-cy -i j-ent -ant 
excelsior ik'selsia^; ES -'selsi'3(r 
except ik'sept |-ed -id |-ption -'sEp/an 
exceptionable ik'sep/anabl, -/nabl |-bly -bli 
exceptional ik'sepjanl, -Jnal |-ly -i 
excerpt 71 'eksypt; ES -sspt, -sypt 
excerpt v ik'sypt; ES -'sspt, -'ss^pt; |-ed -id 

|-ption -p/an 
excess ik'sES |-es -iz |-ed -t ('ek^ses Vet) 
exchange iks't/ends |-s -iz |-d -d 
exchangeability iksjt/endja'bilati 
exchangeable iks't/endjabl |-bly -bli 
exchequer iks't/eka', 'Ekstjeka^; ES -k3(r 
excise n ik'saiz ('exjcise 'duty) 
excise v ik'saiz |-s -iz ]-d -d 
excision ik'sisan 
excitability ikjsaita'bilab 
excitable ik'saitabl 
excitation jEksai'te/an 



excitatory ik'saitajton, -jtori; S -jtori 

excite ik'sait |-cited -'saitid 

exclaim ik'sklem |-ed -d 

exclamation ^Ekskla'mejan 

exclamatory ik'sklaemajton, -jton; S -jton 

exclave 'eksklev 

exclude ik'sklud, -'skhud |-d -id 

exclusion ik'sklusan, -'skku- j-sive -siv 

excogitate eks'kadsajtet; ES-t--'knd5-; |-d 

-id 
excogitation eksjkad33HeX3n; ES + -jkDd3- 
excommunicable jekska'mjunikabl, -'miun- 
excommunicate ^Ekska'mjunaiket, -'miun- 

l-d -id 
excommunication jEkskajinjuna'keJan, -jiniun- 
excoriate ik'skorijct, -'skar-; S -^skor-; |-d -id 
excoriation ikjskori'ejan, jekskon-, -kar; S 

-kor- 
excrement 'ekskrimant 
excremental jEkskri'mentl |-tary -tan 
excrescence ik'skresns j-cy -i |-scent -snt 
excreta ek'skrita |-tal -tl 
excrete ik'skrit l-d -id |-tion -'skrijan 
excretory 'Ekskrijtori, -jtari; S -jtori 
excruciate ik'skru/i,et, -'skriu- |-d -id 
excruciation ik,skruji'e/an, -jskriu-, -si- 
exculpate 'ekskAl^pet, ik'skAlpet |-d -id 
exculpation jEkskAl'pe/an 
exculpatory ik'skAlpajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 
excursion ik'sk^san, -/an; ES -'sks-, -'sky-; 

|-sive -SIV 
excursus ek'skysas; ES -'skss-, -'skys-; |-es 

-IZ 

excusability ikjskjuza'bilati, -jskiuz- 
excusable ik'skjuzabj, -'skiuz- |-bly -bli 
excusatory ik'skjuzajtori, -'skiuz-, -jtari; S 

-itori 
excuse ti ik'skjus, -'skius |-s -iz 
excuse v ik'skjuz, -'skiuz |-s -iz |-d -d 
Exe eks |-'s -iz 
execrable 'eksikrabl |-bly -bli 
execrate 'eksiikret |-crated -^kretid 
execration j£ks-i'kre/an 
execratory 'eksikrajtori, -jtari, -jkretari; S 

-jtori, -jkretari 
executable 'eksijkjutabl, -jkiut-, ig'zekjutabl 
executant ig'ztkjutant 
execute 'Eksijkjut, -jkiut |-d -id 
execution jEksi'kju/an, -'kiu- 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'prti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg langr}' 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baG (§10) |ah a [far far |watch watj, wntj (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



executive 



157 



expiatory 



executive ig'zEkjutiv 

executor 'performer^ 'eksijkjuta', -^kiu-, law 

ig'zekjata^; ES -t3(r 
executory ig'zekjojtori, -itari; S -jtori 
executrix ig'zEkjatriks |-es -iz \L pi -trices 

igjZEkja'traisiz 
exegesis ^eksa'dsisis |-geses -'dsisiz 
exegetic ^eksa'dsEtik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 
exemplar ig'zgmpla^; ES -'zsmplaCr; |-y -i 
exemplification igjzemplafa'kejan 
exemplify ig'zEmpla^fai |-fied -jfaid 
exempli gratia ig'ztmplai'gre/ia 
exempt ig'zempt |-ed -id |-ption -p/an 
exequatur jeksi'kweta^; ES -'kweta(r 
exequy 'tksikwi |-quies -kwiz 
exercise 'eksa^^saiz; ES 'eksa-; |-s -iz |-d -d 
exercitation ig,zysi'tej3n; ES -jzs-, -jzy- 
exert igWt; ES -'zst, -Wt; |-ed -id 
exertion ig'zy/an; ES -'zs/-, -'zy/- 
Exeter 'eksita^; ES 'eksitaCr 
exeunt 'eksiant, 'eksi^Ant 
exhalant Eks'helant, ig'zelant 
exhalation jeksa'le/an, jEgza- 
exhale Eks'hel, ig'zel |-d -d 
exhaust ig'zast |-ed -id |-ion -st/an ]-ive -iv 
exhibit ig'zibit |-ed -id 
exhibition jEksa'bi/an ]-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 
exhibitive ig'zibitiv 
exhibitory ig'zibajtori, -jtari; S -^tori 
exhilarate ig'zil3,ret |-d -id |-rant -rant 
exhilaration ig^zila 're/an 
exhort ig'zart; ES -'zaat; |-ed -id 
exhortation jEgza^'teJan, jcksa^-, -ar^e/an; ES 

jEgza-, jEksa-, -aa'te/an 
exhume ig'zjum, ik'sjum, -lum, -um |-d -d 
exigence 'sksadsans |-cy -i |-gent -dsant 
exiguity jEksa'gjuati, -'giu- 
exiguous ig'zigjuas, ik'sig- 
exile w 'Egzail, 'Eksail 
exile V 'Egzail, 'sksail, igWil |-d -d 
exist ig'zist |-ed -id |-ence -ans |-ent -ant 
exit 'Egzit, ^Eksit |-ed -id 
ex libris eks'laibris 
Exmoor 'Eks^mur; ES -jmua(r 
Exmouth 'EksjinauO, 'EksmaG 
exodontia jfksa 'dan/a, -Jia; ES+-'dDn- 
exodus, E- 'Eksadas |-es -iz 
ex officio /Eksa'fi/ijO 
exogamy Eks'agami, -^ng- 



exonerate ig'zana^ret; ES+-'zDn-; |-d -id 
exorable 'Eksarabl 

exorbitance ig'zarbatans; ES -'zaab-; |-nt -nt 
exorcise, -ze 'Eksar^saiz; ES 'eksaa-; j-s -iz 

|-d -d |-cism -jSizam 
exordium ig'zardiam, ik's-; ES -aad-; |-s -z 

|-ia -la 
exoskeleton ^ekso'skElatn |-tal -tl 
exoteric ^Eksa'tEtik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikh 
exotic ig'zatik; ES + -'zDt-; |-ally -li, -ikli 
expand ik'spaend |-ed -id 
expanse ik'spaens |-s -iz |-sion -/an |-sive -iv 
expansibility ik^spaensa'bilati 
expansible ik'spaensabl |-bly -bli 
expansile ik'spaensl, -sil 
ex parte Eks 'parti; ES -'pa:ti, E+-'pa:tr 
expatiate ik'speji^et |-d -id 
expatiation ikjspeji'e/an 
expatriate adj Eks'petriit, -^et 
expatriate v Eks^petri^et |-d -id 
expatriation Eksjpetri'ejan, ^Ekspetri- 
expect ik'spEkt |-ed -id 
expectance ik'spEktans |-cy -i |-ant -ant 
expectation jEkspEk'te/an 
expectorant ik'spsktarant 
expectorate ik'spEkta^ret | -rated -^retid 
expectoration ik^spEkta 're/an 
expedience ik'spidians j-cy -i |-ent -ant 
expedite '£kspi;dait |-dited -jdaitid 
expedition jEkspi'di/an |-ary -^eri |-tious -Jas 
expel ik'spEl |-led -d ]-lant, -lent -ant 
expend ik'spEnd |-ed -id 
expenditure ik'spEndit/y, -jt/ur; ES -t/aCr, 

-it/ua(r 
expense ik'spsns j-s -iz |-sive -iv 
experience ik'spirians; S+-'spEr-; |-s -iz 

l-d-t 
experiential ik^spiri^En/al; S+-^spEr-; |-ly -i 
experiment ik'spEramant 
experimental ikjSpEra'mEntI, jEkspEra- |-ly -i 

|-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 
experimentation ikjSpEramEn'te/an, -man- 
expert n ^Ekspyt; ES -spat, -spyt 
expert adj ik'spyt, ^Ekspyt; ES -pst, -pyt 

('ex^pert 'workman) 
expert v ik'spyt; ES -'spst, -'spyt; j-ed -id 
expiable' 'skspiabl 

expiate 'Ekspi^et |-d -id |-tion jEkspi'e/an 
expiatory 'Ekspiajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 



|full ful |tooth tue [further 'fs^tJa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how bau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dif [vision Visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



expiration 



158 



exterminable 



expiration ^ekspa 're/an 


express ik'spres |-es -iz |-ed -t |-ive -iv 


expiratory ik'spairajtori, -jtDri; S -jtori 


expressible ik'spresabl |-bly -bli 


expire ik'spair; ES -'spai3(r; [-d -d 


expression ik'spr2/an |-ism -yizam |-ist -ist 


expiry ik^spairi, 'ekspan 


expressionistic ik/sprejan'istik 


explain ik'splen [-ed -d 


expressman ik'spresman |-men -man 


explanation jekspla'nejan 


expropriate eks'proprijet |-d -id 


explanatory ik'splaenajtori, -^tari; S -jtori 


expropriation eksjpropn'e/an, jekspropri- 


expletive 'eksplitiv 


expulsion ik'spAlJan |-sive -siv 


explicable 'eksphkabl, lessfreq. ik'sphkabj — 


expunction ik'spAgk/an 


cf inexplicable 


expunge ik'spAndj |-s -iz ]-d -d 


explicate 'eksplijket |-d -id |-tive -iv 


expurgate cdj 'ekspa^git, -jget; ES -pa- 


explication jeksph'ke/an 


expurgate V 'ekspa^jget, ik'spyget; ES 


explicatory 'Eksplikajtori, -jtari; S -/ton; 


'ekspa-, -'sp3-, -'spy-; |-d -id 


Brii 'eksphjketari, iks'phkatari, -tn 


expurgation iEkspa^'ge/an; ES ^ekspa- 


explicit 'here etids' 'ekspbsit 


expurgatory ik'spygajton, -;tari; ES ik- 


explicit 'precise' ik'splisit 


'spsgajton, -'spy-, E + -jtari 


explode ik'splod |-d -id 


exquisite 'ekskwizit, less Jreq. ik'skwizit 


exploit n 'eksplait, ik'spbit 


exscind Ek'sind |-ed -id 


exploit V ik'spbit |-ed -id 


exsect ek'sekt |-ed -id 


exploitation jEkspbi'teJan 


exsert ek'syt; ES -'sst, -'syt; |-ed -id 


exploration jEkspb're/an, -splo- 


ex-service 'eks'syvis; ES -'s3v-, -'syv- 


exploratory ik'splor3/tori, -'spbra/tari; S 


exsiccate 'eksi^ket |-d -id 


ik'splorajtori 


exsufflicate adj Eks'sAfli^ket, -kit 


explore ik'splor, -'spbr; ES ik'splo3(r, E + 


extant ik'staent, 'ekstant 


-'spb3(r; |-d -d 


extemporal ik'stEinparal |-ly -i 


explosion ik'splosan |-sive -siv 


extemporaneity ikjStempara'niati 


exponent ik'sponant 


extemporaneous ikjStEmpa'renias 


exponential jEkspo'nenXal |-ly -i 


extemporary ik'stempajren |-rarily -rail, esp. 


export n 'eksport, -part; ES -peat, E + -p33t 


if emph. ikjStempa'rErali 


export V iks^ort, -V^rt; ES iks'poat, E + 


extempore ik'stEmpan, -^ri 


-'paat; |-ed -id — ace/ + 'export, esp. in con- 


extemporize ik'stEmpa^raiz [-s -iz |-d -d 


trast to import v. 


extend ik'stEnd |-ed -id 


exportation /ekspor'tejan, -par-; ES -poa-. 


extensibility ikjstEnsa'bilati 


E+-paa- 


extensible ik'stEnsabl 


expose ik'spoz |-s -iz |-d -d |-dness -idnis. 


extensile ik'stEnsl, -sil 


-dnis 


extensimeter iEkstEn'simata^; ES -'simatacr 


expose jskspo'ze 


extension ik'stEnJan |-sive -siv 


exposition jekspa'zi/an 


extensometer jEkstEn'samata' ; ES -'samata(r. 


expositor ik'spazita^; ES ik'spazita(r, -'spoz-; 


-'sDm- 


|-tory -jtori, -/tan; S -/ton 


extensor ik'stEnsa^, as L -sar; ES -sa(r. 


ex post facto 'eks/post'faekto 


-saa(r 


expostulate ik'spastjajet; ES + -'spDS-; |-d 


extent ik'stEnt 


-id 


extenuate ik'st£niu,et |-d -id |-tive -iv 


expostulation ik/spast/a'lefan; ES + -/SpDS- 


extenuation ik^stEnju'e/an 


expostulatory ik'spast/alajton, -jtari; S 


extenuatory ik'stEnjuajton, -^tari-; S -jtori 


-/ton, ES+-'spDS- 


exterior ik'stiri3'; ES -'stin-aCr 


exposure ik'spo3a'; ES -'spo3a(r 


exteriorize ik'stiria^raiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


expound ik'spaund |-ed -id 


exterminable ik'styminabl; ES -'stsm-. 


ex-president 'eks'prezadant, -'prezdant 


-'stym- 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi Ipity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet JEt |sang saeg |angry 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a [far far [watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa Igorge gards |go go 



exterminate 



159 



Ezra 



exterminate ik'stymSinet; ES -'stsm-. 


extravert v jEkstra'vyt; ES -'vat, -'vyt; |-ed 


-'stym-; |-d -id |-tor -^; ES -3(r 


-id 


extermination ikjstyma'ne/an; ES -jstsm-. 


extreme ik'strim (the 'ex^treme 'verge) 


-jstym- 


extremism ik'strimizam |-ist -ist 


external ik'stynl; ES -'stanl, -'stynl; |-Iy -i 


extremity ik'strEinati 


externality ^Eksta^'naebti; ES /eksta- 


extricable 'Ekstrikabl j-bly -bli 


exterritorial jskstera'torial, -'tar-; S -'tor-; 


extricate 'Ekstrijket |-cated -jketid 


l-ly -I 


extrication jEkstri'ke/an 


exterritoriality Eks^terajtori'aelati, ^ekstera-, 


extrinsic Ek'strinsik j-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 


-it3r-; S -jtor- 


extrorse Ek'strars; ES -'straas 


extinct ik'stigkt |-ction -'stigk/an 


extroversion jEkstro'vsJ'an, -'vs^s-; ES -'v3-. 


extinguish ik'stiggwij |-es -iz |-ed -t 


-'vy- 


extirpate 'eksta^^pet, ik'stypet; ES -sta-. 


extrovert n 'Ekstrojvyt; ES -iVat, -jvyt 


-'sts-, -'sty-; |-d -id 


extrovert v jEkstro'vs't; ES -'vst, -'yyt; ]-ed 


extirpation jeksta-'pe/an; ES ^eksta- 


-id 


extol, -11 ik'stal, -'stol, -'stol |-(l)ed -d 


extrude ik'strud, -'stnud |-d -id 


Exton 'ekstan 


extrusion ik'strusan, -'striu- |-sive -siv 


extort ik 'start; ES -'staat; |-ed -id 


exuberance ig'zjubarans, -'ziu-, -'zu- |-cy -i 


extortion ik'starjan; ES -'staajan; |-ary -jsri 


|-ant -ant 


l-ate -It 


exude ig'zjud, -'ziud, -'zud, ik'sjud, -'siud. 


extra 'ekstra — 'Ekstri is often heard from edu- 


-'sud |-d -id [exudation ^Eksju'de/an 


cated speakers, esp. before a vowel (extra 


exult ig'zAlt |-ed -id |-ant -nt 


allowance). 


exultation jEgzAl'teJan, jEksAl- 


extract n 'ekstraekt 


-ey ending see -y 


extract v ik'straekt |-ed -id j-ction -kjan 


eyas 'aias [-es -iz 


extractable, -ible ik'straektabl 


Eyck, van vaen'aik 


extracurricular jEkstraka'rikjala^; ES -la(r 


eye ai |eyed aid j-ful -^ful [-fuls -jfulz 


extraditable 'ekstrajdaitabl 


eyeglass 'ai^glaes; E+-jglas, -jglas; |-es -iz 


extradite 'ekstra^dait |-dited -jdaitid 


eyehole 'ai;hol 


extradition jEkstra'di/an 


eyelash 'aijlaej |-es -iz 


extrados ek'stredas; ES + -dDs; |-es -iz 


eyeless 'aihs 


extrajudicial jekstradsu'difal, -dsiu- |-ly -i 


eyelet 'ailit |-ed -id ]-lid 'aijlid 


extralegal jEkstra'IIgl |-ly -i 


eye-minded 'ai'maindid ('eye-^minded 'man) 


extramarital jEkstra'maeratl |-ly -i 


eye-opener 'aijopana^, -^opna^; ES -na(r 


extramundane jEkstra'mAnden 


eyeservant 'aijsa^vant; ES -iSsv-, -jSS'v- 


extramural jEkstra'mjural, -'nuu- j-ly -i 


eyeservice 'ai^syvis; ES -^ssv-, -jsyv- 


extraneous ik'strenias 


eyeshot 'ai^/at; ES+-^jDt 


extraofEcial ;£kstria'fiXal, jEkstra'a'fi/al 


eyesight 'aijSait 


extraordinarily ik'strardn^Erah, esp. if emph. 


eyesore 'aijsor, -^sar; ES -jSoa(r, E+-jSaa(r 


ikjStrardn'Erali ; ES -aadn- 


eyestrain 'aijstren 


extraordinary ik'strardnjeri, envoy ^Ekstra- 


eyetooth 'ai'tuO, -jtuO |-teeth -'tie, -itie 


'ardnjEn, -tri-; ES -aadn- 


eyewash 'aijwa/, -jwaj", -jwof |-es -iz 


extra territorial jEkstra^tEra 'tonal, -'tar-; S 


eyewater 'aijwata^, -jwata^, -,wotdf-; ES -ta(r 


-'tor-; l-ly -i 


eyewitness 'ai'witnis, -jWit- [-es -iz [-ed -t 


extraterritoriality jEkstra^terajton'ielati, -jtar-; 


eyne 'eyes' ain 


S -jtor- 


eyre, E- Er, aer; E £a(r, ES aea(r 


extravagance ik'straevagans |-cy -i |-ant -ant 


eyrie, -ry 'sri, 'sen, 'iri; S 'aeri, 'in 


extravaganza ik^straeva'gaenza 


Ezekiel I'zikial, -kjal 


extravert n 'Ekstra^vyt; ES -iVat, -^vyt 


Ezra 'Ezra 



|full ful [tooth tue [further 'fy'Sa'; ES 'faSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision Visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



160 



fall 



F, f letter ef \pl F's, Fs, poss F's efs 

fa music fa 

Faber Eng name 'feba', Ger name 'faba^; ES 
-b3(r 

Fabian 'febian |-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 

Fabius 'febias |-'s -iz 

fable 'febl |-d -d |-ling 'feblig, -blig 

Fabre 'faba^, 'fabra; ES -ba(r, -bra; {Fr fabr) 

fabric 'ffebrik |-ation jfaebri'kejan 

fabricate 'faebri^ket |-d -id |-tor -3'; ES -a(r 

Fabrikoid 'faebri^kaid 

fabulous 'faebjalas 

Fabyan 'febian 

fagade fa'sad, fae'sad ]-d -id {Fr fa'sad) 

face fes [faces 'fesiz jfaced fest 

facet 'faesit |-ed -id 

facetiae fa'si/iji 

facetious fa'sijas 

facial 'fefal |-ly -i 

facile 'faesl, -sil 

facilely 'faesli, -sib, -sih, -siUi 

facilitate fa'sila^tet |-tated -jtetid 

facilitation fajSila'te/an 

facility fa'silati 

facing 'fesig 

facsimile faek'simah, -'simaji |-s -z 

fact faekt jfacts faekts, faeks 

faction 'faekjan |-tious -/as 

factitious faek'ti/as 

factitive 'faektativ 

factor 'faekta^; ES 'faekta(r; |-ed -d j-ing 
'faektarig, 'faektng 

factorial faek'torial, -'tarial; S -'tonal 

factory 'faektri, 'faektari 

factotum faek'totam 

factual 'faekt/ual |-ly -i 

facultative 'faekl,tetiv 

faculty 'faeklti 

fad faed | faddish 'faedij" | faddist 'faedist 

fade fed | faded 'fedid 

faeces 'fisiz 

faerie, -ry, F- 'feari, 'fsri, 'f£:n, 'faeri; S 
'feari, 'faeri, 'fen — Some speakers distin- 
guish faerie bf fairy //'om ferry hy a longer 

E. 

I Faeroes 'fsroz, ^faeroz, 'feroz; S 'faeroz, 'feroz 
Fafnir 'favnir, 'faf-, -na^; ES -nia(r, -na(r 



fag faeg [fagged faegd 

Fagin 'fegin 

fagot, fagg- 'faegat [-ed -id 

Fahrenheit 'faeraiijhait, 'faran- 

faience fai'ans, fe'ans {Fr fa'ja:s) 

fail fel [failed feld ]-ure -ja^; ES -ja(r 

fain fen 

faineant 'feniant, -njant {Fr fene'a) 

faint fent [fainted 'fentid 

fainthearted 'fent'hartid; ES -'ha:tid, E + 

-'ha:t-; ('faint-hearted 'hero) 
fair fer, faer; E f£a(r, ES faea(r; [-ed -d |-er -a-; 

ES -a(r 
Fairfax 'fer^faeks, 'faer-; E 'fsa-, ES 'faea-; 

[-fax's -;faeksiz 
Fair Haven, Fairhaven 'fEr'hevan, 'faer-; E 

'fea-, ES 'faea- 
f air-lead 'ferilid, 'faer-; E 'fsa-, ES 'faea- 
f air-minded 'fer'maindid, 'faer-; E 'fsa-, ES 

'faea- 
Fairport 'fer^port, 'faer-, -jpart; E 'fea^poat, 

'faea-, -,paat; S 'faeajpoat 
fair-spoken 'fer'spokan, 'faer-; E 'fea-, ES 

'faea-; ('fair-^spoken 'man) 
Fairview 'ftr^vju, 'faer-, -jviu; E 'fea-, ES 

'faea- 
f airway 'fEt^we, 'faer-; E 'fea-, ES 'faea- 
Fairweather 'fer^weSa^, 'faer-; E 'feajwecJaCr, 

ES 'f«a- 
fairy 'fen, 'fe:ri, 'fan; S 'faeri, 'fen; [-land 

-jlaend — see note at faerie 
fait accompli Fr fetako'pli 
faith feO [-ths -Os [-ful -fal [-fully -fab 
Faiyum fai'jum 

fake fek [faked fekt [faker 'feka^; ES 'feka(r 
fakir fa'kir, 'feka^; ES fa'kia(r, 'feka(r 
Falangist fa'laendsist 
falchion 'faltjan, 'fal/an 
falcon 'falkan, esp. among falconers 'fakan 
Falconbridge 'fakan^brids, 'falkan- |-'s -iz 
Falconer 'fakna^, 'falkana^; ES -na(r 
falderal 'faelda^rael — see folderol 
Falernian fa'lynian, fae-; ES -'Isn-, -'lyn- 
Falkirk 'falkyk, 'fak-; ES -ksk, -ka-k 
Falkland 'fakland, 'falkland 
Falkner 'fakna^; ES 'fakna(r 
fall fal [fell fel [fallen 'falan, fain 



Key: See in full §§3~A7. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang steg [angry 'aeg-gn 
[bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a [far far [watch wat/, wotj" (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



fallacy 



161 



Farrer 



Words below that have ae before r (carry 'k«ri) are often pronounced in N with e ('k£n, §9'f) 
Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 



fallacy 'faelasi [-lacious fa'lefas 


fantasm 'faentaezam 


fallibility ^faeb'bibti 


fantastic faen'taestik |-al -1 |-ally -Ii, -ikli 


fallible 'f^bbl |falKbly 'f^labh 


fantasy 'faentasi, 'faentazi |-ied -d 


Falloden 'faebdn 


far far; ES fa:(r 


Fallon 'faelan 


farad 'faerad, 'faeraed 


Fallopian fa'Iopian, fae- 


Faraday, f- 'faeradi, 'faera^de 


f allow 'faelo, 'faela |-ed -d |-ing 'faelawig 


faradic fa'raedik, fae'raedik 


Falmouth 'faelmae 


faraway adj, n 'far a 'we ('farajway 'look) 


false fals |falsed fDlst 


farce fars; ES fa:s; |-s -iz |-d -t 


falsehearted 'fals'hartid; ES 'fals'haitid; 


farcical 'farsikl; ES 'fa:sikl; |-ly -i, -ikh 


('falsejhearted 'knave) 


fardle 'fardi; ES 'fa:dl 


falsehood 'fals-hud 


fare fsr, faer; E fea(r, ES faea(r; |-ed -d 


falsetto farseto, -'seta 


farewell intj 'fsr'wEl, 'faer-; ES see fare 


falsification ^folsafa'ke/an 


farewell n jfer'wEl, jfaer-; ES see fare; ('fare- 


falsify 'falsajfai Ifalsified 'fols3jfaid 


jwell 'speech) 


falsity 'fDlsati 


farfetched 'for'fEt/t; ES 'fa:-; ('far-fetched 


FalstafiE 'falstaef; E+-staf, -staf 


'pun) 


Falstaffian fol'staefian; E+-'staf-, -'staf- 


far-flung 'far'fkg; ES 'faz'fUg 


falter 'folta-; ES 'faltaCr; |-ed -d |-ing Mtarig 


far-forth 'far^fore, -.farO; ES 'fai^foaG, E+ 


'faltrig 


-;faa6; acct varies 


fame fem |famed femd |famous 'femas 


Fargo 'forgo; ES 'fa:go 


familiar fa'milja^; ES fa'nuljaCr 


Faribault 'fera^bo, 'faerajbo; S 'faerajbo 


familiarity fajnuli'aerati, fa^milji'serati, fa- 


farina fa'rina, -'raina |-naceous jfaera'nejas 


jnul'jaerati 


farinose 'faerajnos 


familiarize fa'miljajraiz |-s -iz j-d -d 


farm farm; ES fa:m; [-ed -d J-er -9-; ES -a(r 


family 'faemli, 'faemali 


farmer-general 'farma^'djenaral, -'dsenral; 


famine 'faeinin 


ES 'fa:raa- 


famish 'faemi/ ] famishes 'faemijiz j-ed -t 


farmhouse 'farm^haus; ES 'farm^haus; [-ses 


fan faen | fanned faend 


-ZIZ 


fanatic fa'naetik |-al -1 [-ally -li, -ikh 


farmistead 'farm^stEd; ES 'farm^stEd 


fanaticism fa'naetajSizam 


farmyard 'farmjard; ES 'faimjaid 


fanciful 'faensifal j-ly -i 


Fame Islands 'farn'ailandz, -anz; ES 'fa:n- 


fancy 'faensi | fancied 'faensid 


Farnham 'farnam; ES 'fa:n- 


fancy-free 'faensi'fri ('fancy-^free 'maiden) 


faro 'fEro, 'faero; S 'faero 


fandango faen'daeggo 


Faroe 'fEro, 'faero, 'fero 


fane fen 


Faroese jfEto'iz, jfaer-, ^fer- 


Faneuil 'faenl, 'faenjal, -jual, older 'fAnl 


far-ofE n, adj 'far'af, -'nf ('far-^off 'look) 


fanfare 'faen^fer, -jfa»r; E -ifeaCr, ES -jfaeaCr 


Farquhar 'farkwa^, -kwar, -ka^; ES 'fa:kwa(r. 


fanfaron 'faenfa^ran; ES+-jrDn 


-kwa:(r, -ka(r 


fanfaronade ifaenfara'ned, -faera- 


farrago fa 'r ego, fa'rago 


fang faeg jfanged ffegd 


Farragut 'faeragat, 'faera^gAt 


fangle 'faeggl |fangled 'faeggld 


Farrand 'faerand 


fanlight 'faen^lait |-ed -id 


Farrar 'faera^; ES 'faera(r; Geraldine fa'rar; 


fanner 'faena^; ES 'faenaCr 


ES fa'ra:(r 


fantail 'faen/el |fantailed 'faen^teld 


far-reaching 'far'ritjig; ES 'fai'ritjig 


fan-tan 'faen/aen 


Farrell 'faeral 


fantasia faen'tesia, -53, -zia {It ;fanta'zi:a) 


Farrer 'faera^; ES 'faera(r 



[full ful [tooth tu0 [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fatJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



farrier 



162 



featherhead 



Words below thai have ae before r (carry 'kaeri) are often pronounced in N with e ('ken, §94) 
Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (farm) 



farrier 'faeria^; ES 'faeri-aCr; |-y -i 


fattish 'faeti/ [fatty 'faeti 


farrow 'fasro, -a [-ed -d |-ing 'faerawig 


fatuitous fa'tjuatas, -'tiu-, -'tu- |-ity -ati 


farse fars; ES fa:s; |-s -iz |-d -t 


fatuous 'faetjuas 


farseeing 'far'siig; ES 'far'siig 


fat-witted 'faet'witid ('fat-jwitted 'Falstaff) 


farsighted 'far'saitid; ES 'far'saitid 


fauces 'fasiz 


farther 'far'Sa^; ES 'fartJaCr; |-most -^most, 


faucet 'fasit, occas. 'faesit, 'fasit 


-mast 


Faucit 'fasit 


farthest 'fartJist; ES 'fartSist 


faugh fa, pf, and variotis pufs of breath 


farthing 'fartJig; ES 'fa:3ig 


Faulconbridge 'fakan^bnds, 'falkan- |-'s -iz 


farthingale 'fartJig^gel; ES 'faitJig/gel 


Faulkner 'fakna^; ES 'fakna(r 


fasces 'faeslz L pi of fascis 'fajsis 


fault fait [faulted 'faltid [faulty 'falti 


fasciate 'fae/ijet ifasciated 'faejijctid 


faultfinding 'falt^faindig 


fascicle 'faesikl [fasicled 'faesikld 


faun fan [fauna 'fana 


fascinate 'faesn^et |-d -id |-tor -a^; ES -3(r 


Fauntleroy 'fantb^rai, ^fnnt-, ^fant- 


fascination jfaesn'e/an 


Fauquier fa'kir; ES -'kia(r, S-i--'k£a(r 


fascine fae'sln, fa'sin |-d -d 


Faust faust [Faustian 'faustian, 'fas- 


fascis 'faesis \pl fasces 'faesiz 


Faustus 'fastas [Faustus's 'fastasiz 


Fascism 'faef^izam |-ist -ist 


faux pas 'fo'pa \pl -'paz {Fr pi -'pa) 


Fascis ti fa'/isti, fae'/isti {It fa'Jisti) 


Faversham 'faevaj'am; ES 'faeva- 


Fascistic fa'/istik |-ally -li, -ikh 


favor 'feva^; ES 'feva(r; [-ed -d |-ing 'fevrig. 


fashion 'faejan |-ed -d |-ing 'faeXanig, 'faejnig 


'fevang [-able 'fevrabl, 'fevarabl [-bly -bli 


fashionable 'faejnabl, 'faejanabl |-bly -bli 


favorite 'fevrit, 'fevarit [-tism -jizam 


Fashoda fa'/oda 


Fawcett 'fasit 


fast fast; E+fast, fast; |-ed -id 


Fawkes faks [Fawkes's ['faksiz 


fasten 'faesn; E + 'fasn, 'fasn; |-ed -d |-ing 


fawn fan [fawned fand 


-smg, -snig 


fay f e 


fastidious faes'tidias, -djas 


Fayal fai'al 


fastness 'faestnis |-es -iz; E see fast 


Fa3aim fai'jum 


Fastolf, -e 'faestalf, -tnlf 


faze fez [fazes 'feziz [fazed fezd — less prop- 


fat faet | fatted 'faetid 


erly spelt f eaze 


fatal 'fetl |-ly -i |-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 


feal Hiirf fil 


fataHstic ^fetl'istik |-ally -li, -ikli 


fealty 'fialti, 'fllti 


fatality fe'taelati, fa'taelati, fi'taelati 


fear fir; ES fia(r, S-i-feaCr, fjia(r, fJ£a(r; [-ful 


Fata Morgana 'f atamar'gana ; ES -maa'gana 


-fal [fully -fah, -fh 


father 'fa3»; ES -Sa(r, E + 'fatJ-; |-hood -jhud 


fearnought 'fir^nat; ES 'fia-, S-i-'fea-, 'fjia-. 


father-in-law 'faSarin^b, 'fatJa^n^b; ES 'fa- 


ifjea- 


(Jarinja, 'faSan^b, E + 'fatJ- 


fearsome 'firsam; ES 'fiasam, S+'fea-, 'fjia-. 


fatherland 'fatJa^Jaend; ES 'fatJa-, E-t-'fatJa- 


'fjea- 


fathers-in-law 'fatSa^zm^b, 'fatJa^zn^b; ES 


feasance 'fizns 


'faSazinib, 'fatJaznJa, E-f-'fatJ- 


feasibility jfiza'bibti 


fathom 'faetiam |fathomed 'faeSamd 


feasible 'fizabl [-bly -bh 


fatigable 'fietigabl 


feast fist [feasted 'fistid 


fatigate 'faetijget |fatigated 'faeti^getid 


feat fit 


fatigue fa'tig [fatigued fa'tigd 


feather 'fetSa^; ES 'fetJaCr; |-ed -d |-ing 


Fatima 'faetima, 'fatima 


'fetSang, 'feSrig 


fatHng 'faetlig 


featherbrain 'fetia^jbren; ES 'fe'Sa-; [-ed -d 


fatten 'faetn |-ed -d [-ing 'faetnig, ^faetnig 


featherhead 'feSa^^htd; ES 'fe'Sa-; [-ed -id 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet ]zt [sang saeg |angr}' 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeO; E baG (§10) [ah a [far far [watch wat/, wotj (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gardj |go go 



featherstitch 



163 



Ferdinand 



featherstitch 'fetJa'.stitJ; ES 'fetJa-; |-es -iz 


feU n, V, adj M |felled ffild 


l-ed -t' 


fellah 'fEla \Arab pi -ahin, -aheen jfEla'hin 


featherweight 'fetJa^^wet; ES 'fe'Sa- 


fellmonger 'fEl^mAgga^; ES -ga(r 


feathery 'fEtJari, 'fEtJri 


felloe 'wheel rim' ^iz\o, -a — Felloe, mainly 


feature 'fit/a-; ES 'fitjad; |-d -d 


Brit, comes from the OE pi f elga ; cf felly. 


feaze 'feeze' fiz |-s -iz 1-d -d, cf faze 


fellow 'fslo, 'ffila |-ed -d |-ship -^/ip 


febrifuge 'febrijfjuds, -jfiuds |-s -iz 


felly 'wheel rim' ^ieh — Felly, Am and Brit, 


febrile 'fibral, 'feb- 


comes from the OE dative sg felge; cf felloe. 


February 'februjEn, 'fEbjujEri, -an — Loss of 


felly adv 'cruelly' 'fElli, 'fEli 


r in 'fEbjujEri is due to dissimilation and the 


felon 'fElan |-y -i |-lonious fa'lonias, fs- 


influence of 'dsaenjujEri {§121). 


felsite 'fElsait 


feces 'fisiz 


felspar 'fEl^spar; ES -jspa:(r, E+-jspa:(r 


feckless 'fEkks 


felt past £r pptc of feel fElt 


feculence 'fEkjubns |-lent -lant 


felt n, V fElt 1 felted 'ffiltid 


fecund 'fiksnd, 'fEk-, -And 


felucca fa'kka, fE- 


fecundate 'fikanjdet, 'fsk- |-d -id 


female 'fimel 


fecundity fi'kAndati 


feme f£m 


fed fEd 


feme covert 'fEm'kAva^t; ES -'kAvat 


federacy 'fEdarasi 


feme sole 'fEm'sol 


federal, F- 'fEdaral, 'fsdral |-Iy -i j-ist -ist 


feminacy 'fEmanasi j-neity jfEma'niati 


federahze 'fsdaral^aiz, 'fEdral- |-s -iz j-d -d 


feminie 'fEmani 


federate n, adj 'fEdarit, 'fsdrit 


feminine 'fEmanin |feminineness 'fEmamnnis 


federate, v 'fEda^ret |-d -id 


femininity jfEma'ninati 


federation jfEda 're/an 


feminism 'fEma^nizam |-nist -nist 


fedora, F- fi'dora, -'dara; S -'dora 


femme de chambre Fr famda'Jarbr 


fee fi \past &= pptc feed fid 


femoral 'fEinaral 


feeble ^fibl 1-bly -bh |-bler -bla-; ES -bla(r; 


femur 'fima^; ES -ina(r; ]-$ -z j-mora 'fEmara 


|-blest -bhst 


fen f En 


feeble-minded ^fibrmamdid ('feeble-jminded 


fence fEns |-s -iz |-d -t 


'man) 


fencible 'fEnsabl 


feed past &" pptc of fee fid 


fend ffind |fended 'fEndid j-er -a<-; ES -a(r 


feed V fid |fed fEd 


Fenelon 'fEnljon, -jon {Fr fen'lo) 


feedback 'fidjbaek 


Fenian 'finian, -njan |-ism -jizam 


feel fil Ifelt IeU 


fennel 'fEnl 


feere 'mate' arch, fir; ES fia(r, S+fEa(r 


Fennimore 'fEna^mor, -^mar; ES -jmoa(r. 


fee-simple 'fi'simpl 


E+-jraaa(r 


feet fit 


fenny 'fEiu 


feeze fiz | feezes 'fiziz [-d -d 


Fenton 'fEntan 


feign fen | feigned fend |-edly -idh 


fenugreek 'fEnjujgrik 


feint fent | feinted 'fentid 


feod fjud, fiud |-al -1 |-ary -an 


feldspar 'fEld^spar, 'IeI-; ES -iSpa:(r, E + 


feodaUty fju'daelati, fiu- 


-jSpa:(r 


feoff fEf, fif l-ed -t 


Felicia fa'li/ia, -Ja 


feoffee fEf 'i, fif 4 


felicitate fa'hsajtet |-tated -^tetid 


feoffor 'fEfa', 'fifa^; ES -a(r; (fEf^i an fEf'ar) 


felicitation fajlisa'te/an 


feracious faVe/as, fe- 


felicity faUisati |-tous -tas 


feral 'firal 


feline 'filain 


Ferber 'fyba-; ES 'fabaCr, 'fyba(r 


Felix 'filiks |-'s -iz 


fer-de-lance Fr fErda'lars 


fell past of fall f eI 


Ferdinand 'fydn^aend; ES 'fsd-, 'fyd- 



[full ful |tooth tuG [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail |how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredj [keep 'em 'kipm 



fere 



164 



fiddler 



fere ^mate' arch, fir; ES fi3(r, S+fE3(r 

feretory 'ferajton, -jtari; S -^tori 

Ferguson, -sson 'fygasn; ES 'fsg-, 'fs'g- 

Feringi fa'riggi 

ferly 'fyli, 'ferli; ES 'fsli, ^kab, 'fs^h 

ferment 71 'foment; ES 'fa-, 'fy- 

ferment v fa^'ment; ES fa-; |-ed -id |-able -abl 

fermentation jfyman'te/an, -men-; ES jfs-, 

^■^- 
fern fyn; ES fan, fyn; |-ery -an, -n 
ferocious fa'rofas, fi-, em^/z. + 'f i'rojas 
ferocity fa'rasati, fi-; ES+-'rDS- 
Ferrara fa'rara, fe- {It fer'ra:ra) 
ferrate 'feret ]-d -id 
ferret 'ferit |-ed -id 
ferriage 'feriids ]-s -iz 
ferric 'ferik 
ferrite 'ferait 
ferroconcrete jf£ro'kankrit, -kan'krit; ES+ 

-Dn- 
ferromagnetic jferomaeg'nEtik 
ferrous 'feras 

ferruginous fe'rudsanas, fa- 
ferrule 'ring' 'feral |-d -d 
ferry 'feri |-ied -d |-boat -jbot 
fertile 'fytl; ES 'fstl, 'fytl; |-tilely -tli, -tlb 
fertility fs^'tilati; ES fs-, fy- 
fertilization jfytla'zejan, -ai'z-; ES jfst-, 

jfyt- 
fertilize 'fytl^aiz; ES 'fst-, 'fyt-; |-s -iz |-d -d 
ferule 'ruler' 'feral, 'ferul |-d -d 
fervency 'fyvansi; ES 'fsv-, 'fyv-; |-ent -ant 
fervid 'fyvid; ES 'fsvid, 'fyv- 
fervor 'fyva^; ES 'fsvatr, 'fyva(r 
fescue 'feskju, 'feskiu 
Fessenden 'fesndan 
festal 'festj |-ly -i 
Feste 'festi 
fester 'festa^; ES -ta(r; |-ed -d |-ing ^festang, 

'festrig 
festival 'festavj 
festive 'festiv |-vity fes'tivati 
festoon fes'tun |-ed -d |-ery -an 
fetal 'fill I -ism -^izam 
fetation fi'tejan 

fetch fet/ [fetches 'fet/iz [fetched fet/t 
fete, fete fet |-d -id {Fr fe:t) 
feterita jfeta'rita 
feticide 'fitajsaid |-dal ,fita'saidl 



fetid 'fetid, 'fitid 

fetish, -ich 'fiti/, 'fetij |-ed -t 

fetlock 'fet.lak; ES+->k; 1-ed -t 

fetter 'feta^; ES 'feta(r; |-ed -d 

fettle 'fetl |-d -d |-ling 'fetbg, 'fetbg 

fetus 'fitas j-es -iz 

Fetzer 'fetsa^; ES 'fetsa(r 

feu fju, fiu |-ed -d 

feud fjud, fiud |-ist -ist 

feudal 'fjudj, 'fiudl [-ism -jizam |-ist -1st 

|-ly_-i 
feudalize 'fjudl^aiz, 'fiud- |-s -iz |-d -d 
feudatory 'fjuda^ton, 'fiud-, -jtan; S -jton 
fever 'fiva^; ES 'fiva(r; |-ed -d |-ing 'fivang, 

'fivrig |-ous -varas, -vras 
feverfew 'fiva^^fju, -,fiu; ES 'fiva- 
Feversham 'fevaj'am; ES 'feva- 
few, F- fju, fiu 
Fewkes fjuks, fiuks |-'s -iz 
fey fe 

fez, F- fez |fezzes 'feziz |fezzed fezd 
fiacre fi'aka^; ES -'aka(r; {Fr fjakr) 
fiance jfian'se, fijon'se, fi'anse {Fr f ja'se) 
fiancee pron. like fiance 
Fianna Fail 'fiana'fail, -'fail 
fiasco fi'aesko 
fiat 'faiat, 'faiaet |-ed -id 
fib fib I fibbed fibd 

fiber, -bre 'faiba^; ES 'faiba(r; |-ed, -d -d 
fibril 'faibral, -bril |-led -d 
fibrin 'faibrin j-ation jfaibri'ne/an 
fibrinogen fai'brinadsan, -idsen 
fibroid 'faibraid | fibrous 'faibras 
fibster 'fibsta^; ES 'fibsta(r 
fibula 'fibjala |-s -z |-lae -jli 
Fichte 'fixta |-tean -tian l-teanism -tianjizam 
fichu 'fi/u, -/lu, -Jju {Fr fi'Jy) 
fickle 'fikl 
fico 'fiko 
fictile 'fiktj, -til 
fiction 'fik/an |-al -1 [-ally -li 
fictitious fik'ti/as |fictive 'fiktrv 
fid fid Ifidded 'fidid 
fiddle 'fidl l-d -d 1-Hng 'fidhg, 'fidlig 
fiddle-dee-dee ^fidl'di'dl, ^fidldi'di 
fiddle-faddle 'fidl'^fadl l-d -d |-Ung -dlig, 

-dbg 
fiddlehead 'fid], bed 
fiddler 'fidla^, 'fidla^; ES -a(r 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret [j'et jet [sang saeg |angry ^aeg-gn 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards |go go 



fiddlestick 



165 



finger 



fiddlestick 'fidl^stik 
Fidele fi'dili 
Fidelia fi'dilja, -lia 
Fidelio fi'delio, -Ijo 
fidelity fai^delati, fa- 
fidget 'fid3it |-ed -id 
fiducial fi'du/al, -'diu-, -'dju- [-ly -i 
fiduciary fi'dujiieri, -'dm-, -'dju-, -Jan 
fie fai |fie-fie adj, v 'fai^fai |-d -d 
fief fif 

field, F- fild l-ed -id 

fieldfare 'fildjler, -jfaer; E -jf£3(r, ES -jfae3(r 
Fielding 'fildig 
fieldpiece 'fild^pis j-s -iz 
fiend find [fiends findz, finz 
fierce firs; ES fias, S+ftas, fjeas 
fiery 'fain, 'faiari 
Fiesole fi'ezali {It 'f jeizole) 
fiesta fi'esta {Sp 'fjesta) 
fife, F- faif l-d -t |-shire -/ir, ->; ES -/i3(r, 

-jTaCr 
fifteen fif tin, 'fif'tin ('fif jteen 'men) 
fifteenth fif'tinO, 'fif- [-ths -Gs 
fifth fife |-ths -es 
fifty 'fifti l-tieth -tiiO i-fold -'fold ('fifty ,fold 

'loss) 

fig fig 

Figaro 'figa^ro {Fr figa'ro) 

fight fait Ifought f3t 

figment 'figmsnt |figmental fig'tnentl 

figurate adj 'figjarit 

figurate v 'figja^ret |-d -id 

figuration jfigja'te/an 

figurative 'figjarativ, 'figarativ, 'figrativ 

figure 'figja', 'figa'; ES -a(r; |-d -d |-ring 

-gjarig, -garig, -grig — In America 'figa^, 

-a(r is less freq. 
figurehead 'figja-^hed, 'figa'-; ES 'figja-, -ga- 
figurine jfigja'rin 

Fiji 'fidsi jFigian fi'dsian, 'fidsian 
filament n 'filamant |filimented 'filamantid 
filament v 'filajinent |-ed -id 
filar 'fails' ; ES -la(r 
filbert 'fiiba^t; ES 'filbat 
filch filtj |-es -IZ |-ed -t 
file fail jfiled faild 
filet 'fillet' 'fiht ifileted 'filitid 
filet de sole Eng 'fihav'sol, Fr file d'sal 
filet mignon fi'Ie min'ja (Fr file mi'jio) 



filial 'filial, -Ijal |-ly -i 

filiate 'filijct l-d -id |-tion jfih'ejan 

filibuster 'fila/bAsta^; ES -jbAsta(r; |-ed -d 

|-ing -jbAstarig, -trig 
filibusterer jfila'bAstara'; ES -ra(r; |-terism 

-tajrizam [-terous -taras, -tras 
filiform 'filajfarm, 'faila-; ES -jfaam 
filigree 'fila^gri |-d -d 
filing 'failig 

Filipino jfila'pino \fem -pina -'pina, -a 
fill fil [filled fild 
fillet 'filit I filleted 'filitid 
fillip 'filap I filliped 'filapt 
Fillmore 'filmor, -mar; ES -moa(r, E + 

-maaCr 
filly 'fill 

film film [filmed filmd 
filose 'failos 
filter 'filta^; ES -ta(r; j-ed -d j-ing 'filtarig, 

'filtrig 
filterable 'filtarabl, 'filtrabl 
filth file l-ths -Os 1-y -I [filthily 'filOali 
filtrable 'filtrabl 
filtrate n 'filtret, 'filtrit 
filtrate v 'filtret [-d -id [-tion fil'tre/an 
fin fin [finned find 
finable 'fainabl 

finagle fa'negl [-nagler -'negla^; ES -la(r 
final 'fainl |-ism -jizam |-ist -ist [-ly -i 
finale fi'nali {It fi'na:le) 
finality fai'naelati 

finance fa'naens, 'fainaens [-s -iz [-d -t 
financial fa'naen/al, fai'naenjal |-ly -i 
financier ^finan'sir, ^fainan-; ES -^sia(r; 

l-ed -d 
finback 'fin/baek 

finch fintj [finches 'fintjiz [finched fmt/t 
Finchley 'fintjli 
find faind [found faund 
fin de siecle Fr fseda'sjekl 
Findlay 'finli, less freq. 'findli 
fine fain [fined faind [fineness 'fainnis 
fineable 'fainabl 
finery 'fainari 

finespun 'fain'spAn ('fine-spun 'theory) 
finesse fa'nes [-s -iz [-d -t 
Fingal 'figgl 
finger 'figga^; ES 'figga(r; [-ed -d [-ing 'fig- 

garig, 'fig grig 



[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fs^tJa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



fingerer 



166 



Fitzwater 



fingerer 'figgara^; ES -r3(r 

fingerling 'figga^hg; ES 'figga- 

fingernail 'figga^jnel, jfigga^'nel; ES -ga- 

fingerprint 'figga^jprint; ES 'figga-; ]-ed -id 

finial 'finidl, 'fainial 

finical 'finikl |-ly -i, -ikh 

finicking 'finikig |-cky -ki 

finikin 'finikin 

finis 'fainis [finises 'fainisiz | + 'finis 

finish 'finij" |-es -iz [-ed -t 

Finistere Fr finis'terr 

Finisterre jfinis'ttr; ES -'teaCr 

finite 'fainait 

finitude 'finsjtjud, 'faina-, -jtiud, -jtud 

Finland 'finland 

finland 'home of fish' 'finjaend 

Finlay 'finh |Finley 'finli 

Finn fin j-ish -ij 

finnan haddie 'finan'haedi 

finny 'fini 

fiord fjord, fjard; ES fjoad, E+fjoad 

fipple 'fipj 

fir fy; ES f3(r, fy; |-ry -i 

fire fair; ES fai3(r; |-d -d [-ring 'famg 

firearm 'fairjorm; ES -ja:m, E+-ja:m 

fireball 'fair^bal; ES 'fai9- 

firebird 'fair,byd; ES 'faia^bsd, 'fawjbyd 

firebox 'fair^baks; ES 'faia^baks, -jboks; J-es 

-IZ 

firebrand 'f air ^braend ; ES 'faia-; |-ed -id 

firebreak 'fair^brek; ES 'faia- 

firebrick 'fair^brik; ES 'faia- 

firebug 'faitjbAg; ES 'faia- 

firecracker 'fair^kraeka'; ES 'faia^kraekaCr 

firedamp 'fair^daemp; ES 'faia- 

firedog 'fairjdog, -jdng; ES 'faia- 

firedrake 'fair^drek; ES 'faia- 

fire-eater 'fair^ita^; ES 'fair^itaCr 

firefang 'fair,faeg; ES 'faia-; |-ed -d 

firefly 'fair,flai; ES 'faia- 

fireguard 'fair,gard; ES 'fai3,ga:d, E+-jga:d 

firelock 'fair^lak; ES 'faiajak, -^lok 

fireman 'f airman; ES 'faiaman; |-men -man 

fireplace 'fair;ples; ES 'faia-; |-s -iz 

fireproof adj 'fair'pruf; ES 'faia-; ('fire^proof 

Vault) 
fireproof v 'fair,pruf; ES 'faia-; |-ed -t 
fireside 'fair^said; ES 'faia- 
firetrap 'fair^traep; ES 'faia- 



firewarden 'fair^wDrdn; ES 'faia^wDadn 
firewater 'fair^wota--, -jwata^, -^wDt»; ES 

'faia-, -ta(r 
firewood 'fair^wud; ES 'faia- 
firework 'fair^wyk; ES 'faia^wsk, -jW3:k; 

|-s -s 
firkin 'fykin; ES 'fakin, 'fy-; |-ed -d • 
firm fym; ES ism, fym; |-ed -d 
firmament 'fymamant; ES 'fsm-, 'fym- 
firman 'fyman, f^'man; ES 'fam-, 'fym-, fa- 
Firman pers. name 'fyman; ES 'fsm-, 'fym- 
first fyst; ES fsst, fyst 
first-born 'fs^st'bam; ES 'fsst'boan, 'fyst- 

'baan 
first-class 'fyst'klas; ES 'fast-, 'fyst-, 

E+-'klas, -'klas; ('first-jclass 'fare) 
firsthand 'fyst'haend; ES 'fsst-, 'fyst- 
firstling 'fysthg; ES 'fsst-, 'fyst- 
firstly 'fysth; ES 'fsstli, 'fysth 
first-rate 'fys'tret, 'fyst'ret; ES 'fa-, 'fy- 
firth fye; ES fse, fs-G; |-ths -Gs 
fisc fisk 

fiscal 'fiskl |-ly -i 
fish fi/ I fishes 'fijiz [fished fi/t 
fisher, F- 'fija^; ES 'fij"a(r; ]-man, -men -man 
fishery 'fijari 
fishhook 'fij^huk, 'fi/uk 
fishmonger 'fi/^mAgga^; ES -jmAgga(r 
fishwife 'fijjwaif |-'s -s, -vz |-wives -jwaivz 
fishy 'fiji 
fisk, F- fisk 
fissile 'fisj, 'fisil 
fission 'fi/an |-ed -d 
fissure 'fi/a-; ES 'fiJaCr; [-d -d 
fist fist I fisted 'fistid |-ic -ik j-ical -ikl 
fisticuff 'fistijkAf |-ed -t 
fistula 'fist/ula |-s -z |-lae -jli 
fit fit [fitted 'fitid 
Fitch fitj [Fitch's 'fitjiz 
fitchew 'fit/u, 'fitjiu 
fitful 'fitfal l-ly -I 
fitting 'fitig 
Fitzgerald fits'djerald 
FitzGerald Eng poet fits'dserald 
Fitzhugh fits'hju, -'hiu ('FitZjhugh 'Lee) 
Fitzsimmons fit'simanz, fits's- [-'s -iz 
Fitzwalter 'fitsjwalta^; ES -^waltaCr 
Fitzwater 'fitsjwata', -jwata^, -jwota'; ES 

-isix; formerly Fitzwalter 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet J£t [sang saeg |angr}' 'aeg^gri 
[bath baeO; E baG (§10) [ah a [far far [watch wat/, wotj (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



Fiume 



167 



fleece 



Fiume It 'fju-.me 


flank flaegk [flanked flaegkt 


five faiv |-r 'faiva^; ES -V3(r 


flannel 'flaenl [-ed -d 


fivefold adj, adv 'faiv'fold ('fivejfold 'loss) 


flannelette, -let jflaenl'et 


fivepence 'f aivpans, now less freq. 'f ipans 


flap flap [flapped flaept 


fivepenny 'faiVjpEni, -pani 


flapdoodle 'flaep/dudl 


fix fiks 1 fixes 'fiksiz [fixed, fixt fikst |-edly 


flapjack 'flaep/dsaek 


-idli 


flapper 'flaepa^; ES 'flaep3(r; [-ed -d 


fixate 'fikset j-d -id |-tion fiks'ejan 


flare fler, flaer; E fkaCr, ES flse3(r; [-d -d 


fixative 'fiksativ 


flare-up 'fletjAp, 'flaetjAp; S 'flaer, Ap 


fixity 'fiksati 


flash flae/ [flashes 'flajiz [flashed flaejt 


fixt fikst 


flashboard 'flaeJ,bord, -^bord; ES -^boad. 


fixture 'fikstJV; ES 'fikst Ja(r 


E-h-ibaad 


fizgig 'fizjgig 


flashlight 'flaejjlait [-ed -id 


fizz fiz 1-es -iz 1-ed -d |-y -i 


flask flaesk; E+flask, flqsk 


fizzle 'fizl |-d -d |-ling 'fizlig, 'fizlig 


flat flaet [flatted 'flaetid 


fjord fjord, fJ3rd; ES fjoad, E+fjaad 


flatboat 'flaet.bot 


flabbergast 'flaeba^jgaest; ES 'flaeba-; j-ed -id 


flatcar 'flaet^kar; ES -,ka:(r, E+-,ka:(r 


flabby 'flsebi 


flatfish 'flaet.fi/ [-es -iz 


flabellum fb'bElam |-bella -'btla 


flat-footed 'flaet'futid ('flat-,footed 'way) 


flaccid 'flaeksid |-ity flaek'sidati 


flathead, F- 'flaet^hed 


flag flaeg [flagged flaegd 


flatiron 'flaet^aia^n, -,airn; ES -^ai-an, -^aian 


flagellant 'flaedsabnt, fla'dgebnt 


flatten 'flaetn [-ed -d [-ing 'flaetnig, -tnig 


flagellate 'flaedsajet |-d -id 


flatter 'flaeta-; ES -ta(r; [-ed -d [-ing 'flfetarig. 


flageolet jfliedsa'kt 


'flsetrig 


flaggy 'flaegi 


flattery 'flastari, 'flaetn 


flagitious fb'dsipas 


flatulence 'flaet/alans |-cy -i [-lent -lant 


flagman 'flaegman |-men -man 


flatus 'fletas [-es -iz 


flagon 'flaegan 


flatways 'flaet,wez [flatwise 'flast^waiz 


flagrancy 'flegransi [flagrant 'flegrant 


flaunt fbnt, flont, flant [-ed -id 


flagship 'flaegjjip 


flauntily 'fbntji, 'fbnt-, 'flant- 


Flagstad 'flaegstaed 


flautist 'fbtist 


flagstaff, F- 'flieg^staef; E+-jStaf, -^staf; \-s 


Flavins 'flevias, -vjas [-'s -iz 


-s — The pi flagstaves -^stevz is rare in 


flavor 'flev3^; ES -va(r; |-ing 'flevrig, -varig 


America. 


flaw fb [flawed fbd [-less -lis |-y 'fb-i 


flagstone 'flaegiSton 


flax flaeks [flaxes 'flaeksiz [-ed -t |-en -n 


Flaherty 'flaea^ti; ES 'flae-ati 


flaxseed 'flaeks^sid, 'flaek^sid 


flail flel [flailed field 


flay fie [flayed fled 


flair fkr, flaer; E fkaCr, ES flaeaCr; [ed -d 


flea fli [-bane -,ben [-bite -,bait 


flake flek [flaked flekt [flaky 'fleki 


flea-bitten 'fli^bitn 


flam flaem [flammed flaemd 


Fleance 'flbns |-'s -iz 


flambeau 'flaembo [-beaux or -beaus -boz 


Fleay fie 


flamboyance flaem'baians |-cy -i [-ant -ant 


fleck fkk [flecked fkkt 


flame flem [flamed flemd 


Flecknoe 'fkkno 


flame-color 'flem^kAla^; ES -jkAlaCr; [-ed -d 


flection 'fkk/an [-al -1 


flamingo fb'miijgo, flae- 


fled past &> pptc of flee f kd 


Flaminius fb'minias, -njas j-'s -iz 


fledge fkds |-s -iz [-d -d [-dgling, -dgeling 


flan pastry flasn {Fr f 15) 


-lig 


Flanders 'flaenda^z; ES 'flaendaz; |-'s -iz 


flee fli [fled fkd 


flange flaends [-s -iz [-d -d 


fleece flis [fleeces 'flisiz [fleeced flist 



[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstfa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredj [keep 'em 'kipm 



fleer 



168 



flow 



fleer 'gibe' flir; ES fli3(r, S+fkaCr; [-ed -d 

fleer 'one who flees' 'flia^; ES 'fli'3(r 

fleet flit I fleeted 'flitid 

Fleming 'flemig | Flemish 'fkmi/ 

flense, flence fkns |-s -iz j-d -t 

flesh flej I fleshes 'fkjiz | fleshed fkjt 

fleshly 'fkjh [fleshy 'fk/i 

fleshpot 'fk/jpat; ES+-jpDt 

fletch fkt/ |-es -iz |-ed -t 

fletcher 'fktJV; ES 'fktj3(r 

Fletcherism 'fktjajrizam |-rite -;rait 

Fletcherize 'fktj3,raiz |-s -iz \-d -d 

fleur-de-lis .flyda'li, -'lis; ES .fb-, ^fly-; \pl 

-lis -'liz or -Uses -'lisiz 
flew 'dog's lip' flu, fliu |-s -z [-ed -d 
flew past of fly flu, f hu 
flex fkks I flexes 'fkksiz | flexed fkkst 
flexibility jfkksa'bilati 
flexible 'fkksabl |-bly -bli 
flexion 'fkkjan 1-al -1 
Flexner 'fkksna^; ES 'fkksn3(r 
flexor 'fkksa^; ES 'fkks3(r 
flexure 'fkkja'; ES 'fkkj3(r; |-xuous -kjuas 
flibbertigibbet, F- 'fliba^ti.dsibit; ES 'fliba- 
flick fhk I flicked flikt 
flicker 'flika^; ES 'fhkaCr; |-ed -d |-ing 

'fhkdrig, 'fhkrig 
flier 'flaia^; ES 'flai'a(r 
flies flaiz 
flight flait l-y -i 
flimflam 'flim^flaem ]-med -d 
flimsy 'flimzi 

flinch flint/ [flinches 'flmtjiz |-ed -t 
flinder 'flinda^; ES 'flindaCr 
fling fill) I flung flAg 
flint, F- flint |flinted 'flintid 
flintlock 'flintjlak; ES + -jDk 
FHntshire 'flintjir, -Jsr; ES -/laCr, -JaCr 
flip flip [flipped flipt 
flippancy 'flipansi |-ant -ant 
flirt flyt; ES fbt, fbt; [ed -id 
flirtatious fly'te/as; ES fls-, fly- 
flit flit [flitted 'fhtid 
flitch flit/ [flitches 'flit/iz |-ed -t 
flite flait |-d -id [-ting 'flaitig 
flitter 'fhta-; ES 'flit3(r; |-ed -d 
flivver 'fliva^; ES ^fliv3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

'flivarig, 'flivrig 
float flot [floated 'flotid |-age -ids 



floatation flo'tejan 

floe flak; ES-Fflok 

floccose 'flakos, fla'kos; ES-i--Dk- 

flocculence 'flakjsbns; ES + 'flok-; |-nt -nt 

flock flak; ES-i-flok; [-ed -t 

Flodden 'fladn; ES + 'flndn 

floe flo 

flog flag, flog, fbg [ged -d 

flood fbd [flooded 'fbdid j-gate -jget 

floodlight 'flAdjlait |-ed -id 

floor flor, fbr; ES floafr, E-i-fb3(r 

floorcloth 'flor.kbe, 'fbr-, -.kbe; ES 'floa-, 

E-i-'fba-; |-ths -t$z, -es 
flooring 'florig, 'fbrig; S 'florig 
floorwalker 'flor jwoka^, 'fbr- ; ES 'floajWakaCr, 

E + 'fba- 
flop flap; ES+flop; |-ped -t j-py -i 
Flora 'flora, 'fbra; S 'flora 
floral 'floral, 'fbral; S 'floral 
Florala fb'raeb, fla-, fin- 
Florence 'f brans, 'flar-, 'flor- |-'s -iz [-entine 

-anjtin 
flores 'floriz, 'fbriz; S 'floriz 
florescence flo'resns, fb-; S flo-; |-nt -nt 
Floresville 'floriSjVil, 'fb-; S 'flo-, S-t--vl 
floriculture 'florijkAltJV, 'fb-; ES 'flon- 

^Alt/a(r,E + 'f la- 
florid 'fbrid, 'flarid, 'florid 
Florida 'fbrada, 'flar-, 'flor- |-n -n 
Floridian flo'ridian, fb-, fla-, flo- 
Florimel 'fbrajmsl, 'flar-, 'flor- 
florin 'fbrin, 'flar-, 'flor-, 'florin 
florist 'florist, 'fbr-, 'flar-, 'flor- 
Florizel 'fbra^zsl, 'flar-, 'flnr- 
floss fbs, flos |-es -iz [-ed -t 
flota 'flota 

flotage 'flotids |-s -iz 
flotation flo'te/an 
flotilla flo'tila 
flotsam 'flatsam; ES + 'flotsam; less freq. 

'flotsam (19c floatsome) 
flounce flauns [flounces 'flaunsiz [-d -t 
flounder 'flaunda-; ES -da(r; j-ed -d j-ing 

'flaundang, 'flaundrig 
flour flaur; ES flaua(r; |-ed -d 
flourish 'flyi/; ES 'fbrij, 'fLvnJ, 'flyij"; |-es 

-IZ [-ed -t 
flout flaut [flouted 'flautid 
flow flo [flowed flod 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi jpity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang saeg |angr\- 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeG; E baO (§10) jah a [far far jwatch wat/, wotj (§12) [jaw dja [gorge gards [go go 



flower 



169 



foment 



flower 'flaua^, flaur; ES 'flau'3(r, flau3(r; 


flyspeck 'flai^spek [-ed -t 


l-ed -d 


flyte flait |-d -id [-ting -ig 


flower-de-luce 'flaurdi'lus, -'hus; ES 'flaua-; 


flytrap 'flaijtraep 


|-s -IZ 


flyweight 'flai^wet 


floweret 'flaunt 


flywheel 'flai^hwil 


flowerpot 'flaur jpat; ES 'flauSjpat, -jpot 


foal fol [foaled fold 


flowery 'flauri, 'flauari 


foam fom [foamed fomd 


flown f Ion 


f.o.b. 'Efjo'bl 


flu flu, fliu 


fob fab; ES+fnb; |-bed -d 


fluctuate 'flAkt/ujCt |-ated -jCtid [-ant -ant 


focal 'fokl |-ly -i 


fluctuation ^flAkt/u'eJan 


focalize 'fokl^aiz [-s -iz j-d -d 


flue flu, fhu 


Foch fo/, fak {Fr fa/, Ger fak) 


Fluellen flu'elin, -an 


focus 'fokas |-es -iz [-ed -t [foci 'fosai 


fluent 'fluant, 'fliuant |-ency -ansi 


fodder 'fada^; ES 'fada(r, 'fod-; |-ed -d j-ing 


fluff fUf Ifluffed fUft 


-dang, -drig 


Flugel 'fligl {Ger 'fly:gal) 


foe fo 


fluid 'fluid, 'fliuid 


foehn fen {Ger f0:n) 


fluidity flu'idati, fliu- 


foeman 'foman [-men -man 


fluke fluk, fhuk |-d -t [-ky -i 


foetal 'fitl [-ism -jizam 


flume, F- flunis flium 


foetation fi'te/an 


flummery 'fUmari 


foeticide 'fita^said [-dal jfita'saidl 


flummox 'flAmaks ]-es -iz j-ed -t 


foetus 'fitas |-es -iz 


flung flAo 


fog fag, fag, fog [-ged -d [-gy -i 


flunk flAgk [flunked flAgkt 


foghorn 'fag^harn, 'fag-, 'fog-; ES -^haan 


fluor 'flua^, 'fhua-; ES -a(r 


fogy 'fogi 


fluoresce jflua'res, jfliu- [-s -iz ]-d -t |-nce -ns 


foible 'faibl 


|-nt -nt 


foie gras Fr fwa'gra 


fluoric flu'arik, fliu-, -'arik, -'nrik 


foil fail [foiled faild 


fluorine 'flua^rin, 'fliu-, -rin |-rin -rin 


foison 'faizn 


fluorite 'flua^rait 'fliu- 


foist faist [foisted 'faistid 


fluoroscope 'flura,skop, 'fliu- 


fold fold [folded 'foldid 


flurry 'flyi; ES 'fbri, 'fUri, 'flyi 


folderol 'faldajtal; ES-f-'fnldajtnl 


flush flAj [flushes 'flAj"iz [flushed fUJt 


Folger 'foldsa-; ES 'foldsaCr 


fluster 'flAsta^; ES 'flAsta(r; |-ed -d [-ing 


foliage 'fobids [-s -iz [-d -d 


'flAstario, 'flAstrig 


foliate adj 'fohit, -^et 


flustrate 'fUstret |-terate -tajtet, -tret |-d -id 


foliate V 'folijet [-ated -^etid 


flute flut, flmt l-d -id 


folio 'foli|0, -Ijo j-ed -d 


flutter 'flAta^; ES 'flAta(r; |-ed -d 


foHum 'foliam [-s -z j-lia -a 


fluty 'fluti, 'fliuti 


folk fok [-S -s; NEngd+i6\is (§46) 


Fluvanna flu'vaena, fliu- 


Folkestone 'fokjston, Brit 'fokstan 


fluvial 'fluvial, 'fliu- 


folklore 'fokjlor, -jlar; ES -jloa(r, E-h-jbaCr 


flux fkks [fluxes 'fkksiz [fluxed fUkst 


folkmoot 'fokjmut [folkmote, -mot 'fokjinot 


fluxion 'fUk/an 


folkway 'fok/ we 


fly flai [flew flu, fliu [flown flon 


Follansbee 'falanzbi; ES-i-'fol- 


flyaway 'flaiajwe 


follicle'falikl;ES + 'fDl- 


flycatcher 'flai^kaetJV; ES -jkaetJaCr 


follow 'falo, -a; ES + 'fnl-; j-ed-d [-ing -lawig 


flyer 'flaia-; ES 'flai-a(r 


follow-up 'falojAp, 'falajWAp; ES + 'fol- 


flyleaf 'flaijif [-leaves -jlivz 


f oily 'fall; ES + 'fnli 


fljT^roof 'flai'pruf ('fly^proof 'ointment) 


foment n 'fomEnt 



[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse f juz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



foment 



170 



fordo 



foment v fo'ment |-ed -id ('foment 'trouble) 


foot-ton 'fut'tAn 


fomentation jfoman'tejan, -men- 


footway 'futjwe 


fond fand, fnnd 


footwear 'fut^wer, -^waer; E -jWE3(r, ES 


fondant 'fondant, 'fnn- 


-jwaeaCr 


Fond du Lac 'fandsajlaek, -d3u-, 'fanda-. 


footwork 'futjwyk; ES -jwsk, -jwyk 


'fon- 


footworn 'fut^worn, -jwom; ES -^woan. 


fondle 'fundi, 'fon- |-d -d |-ling -dlig, -dbg 


E-i--jWD3n 


fondler 'fandla^, 'fon-; ES -l3(r 


foozle 'fuzl |-d -d |-ling 'fuzbg, 'fuzbg 


fondue 'fandu, fan'du, -on- (Fr fo'dy) 


fop fap; ES+fnp; |-pery -an, -ri 


font font; ES+fnnt 


for stressed 'for, ^far; ES 'f33(r, jfD3(r; unstr. 


Fontaine, La laefan'ten, -fon- (Fr lafo'ten) 


i^; ES f3(r 


Fontainebleau 'fantin^blo, jfantin'blo, -nn- 


forage 'forids, 'for-, 'for- |-s -iz |-d -d 


(Fr foten'blo) 


Foraker 'faraka^, 'for-, 'for-; ES -kaCr 


fontanel, -lie ^fanta'nel; ES+ifon- 


foramen fo'reman |-s -z |foramina fo- 


Foochow 'fu't/au (Chin -'dso) 


'raemana 


food fud jfoodstuff 'fudjStAf 


forasmuch jfaraz'mAtJ 


fool ful 1 fooled fuld j-ery -an 


foray 'fore, 'fare, 'fnre |-ed -d 


foolhardy 'ful^hardi; ES -^hardi, E+-iha:di 


forbade fa^'baed; ES fa'baed 


fooHsh 'fub/ 


forbear 'ancestor^ 'fDr^ber, -jbaer; E 'fDa^beaCr, 


foolproof 'ful'pruf ('fool-proof 'gadget) 


ES -jbae3(r 


foolscap 'fulzjkaep, paper often 'ful^skiep 


forbear v far'ber, far-, -'baer; E faa'beaCr, fa-. 


foot fut |footed 'futid j-age -ids |-ing -iij 


ES -'baea(r; |-bore -'bor, -'bar; ES -'bo3(r. 


football 'futjbol 


E-t--'b33(r; |-borne -'born, -'barn; ES 


footboard 'futjbord, -^bord; ES -jboad, E + 


-'bean, E4--'b33n; ('bear and 'forebear) 


-jboad 


forbearance for'berans, fa^-, -'baEr3ns; E fa3-, 


footboy 'futjbai 


fa-; S fas'baerans, fa- 


footbridge 'fut^bnds |-s -iz 


Forbes-Robertson 'farbz'raba'tsn; ES 'faabz- 


foot-candle 'fut'kaendj 


'rab3tsn, -'rob- 


footfall 'fut^fDl 


forbid fa^'bid; ES f3'bid; J-bad, -bade -'bad 


footgear 'fut^gir; ES -jgi3(r, S + -ig£3(r 


1 -bidden -'bidn | -dance -ns 


foothill 'futjhil 


forbore for'bor, fa^-, -'bar; ES faa'boaCr, fa-. 


foothold 'futjhold 


E-(--'b3a(r; |-rne -n 


footle 'futl l-d -d 1-ling 'futbg, 'futhg 


forby, -bye far'bai; ES faa'bai 


footlights 'futjlaits 


force fors, fars; ES foas, E+f33s; |-s -iz |-d -t 


footling adv, adj 'futbg 


l-dly -idh 


foot-loose 'futjlus 


forceable 'coerceable' 'fors3bl, 'fars-; ES 


footman 'futman |-men -man 


'foas-, E + 'faas- 


footmark 'fut^mark; ES -jma:k, E+-jma:k 


forceful 'forsfal, 'fars-; ES 'fo3S-, E + 'fass-; 


footnote 'fut^not |-d -id 


l-ly -I 


footpad 'futjpaed 


forcemeat 'forsjinit, 'fars-; ES 'foas-, E + 


footpath 'fut/paeO; E-i--jpae, -^paG; |-ths -Sz 


'faas- 


foot-pound 'fut'paund 


forceps 'farsaps; ES 'faassps 


footprint 'futjpnnt |-ed -id 


forcible 'violent' 'fors3bl, 'fars-; ES 'foas-. 


footrest 'futjtest 


E + 'faas-; |-bly -bb 


footrope 'fut^rop 


ford, F- ford, fard; ES foad, E+faad; |-ed -id 


footsore 'futjsor, -jS3r; ES -jsoo(r, E+-jS33(r 


Fordham 'fordam, 'far-; ES 'fo3d3m, E-i- 


footstep 'futjStEp 


'faa- 


footstock 'futjstak; ES^-^stDk 


fordo far'du; ES faa-; ]-does -'dAz |-did -'did 


footstool 'futjstul 


[-done -'dAn 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi Ipity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angry 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wot/ (§12) |jaw dga [gorge gards |go go 



Fordyce 



171 



foreshank 



Fordyce 'fardais; ES 'faa-; |-'s -iz, Scotl 

For'dyce 
fore for, far; ES foa(r, E+f33(r 
fore-and-aft 'foran'aeft, 'far-, -and-; E+-'aft, 

-'aft; S 'foran(d)'aeft 
forearm n 'forearm, 'far-; ES 'forja:m, 

E + 'far-, -fl'.m 
forearm v for'arm, far-; ES for'a:m, E+far-, 

-'arm; |-ed -d 
forebear 'ancestor' 'for^bEr, 'far-, -jbaer; E 

'foajbE3(r, 'faa-, -jbaea(r; S 'foajbaeaCr 
forebode for 'bod, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; |-d 

-id |-ding -10 
forebrain 'for^bren, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E-i-'faa- 
forecast n 'for^kaest, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E+'faa-, 

-jkast, -jkast 
forecast v for'kaest, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-, 

-'kast, -'kast; \past -cast, -casted -id 

\acct + 'f orejcast(ed) 
forecastle naut. 'foksl, as sp. pron. 'forjkaesl, 

'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa-, -jkasl, -jkasl 
foreclose for'kloz, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; \-s 

-IZ |-d -d j-sure -33^; ES -3a (r 
foredo for'du, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; |-does 

-'dAz 1-did -'did |-done -'dAn 
foredoom n 'for^dum, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
foredoom v for'dum, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

l-ed -d 
forefather 'for^faSa', 'far-; ES 'foajfatJaCr, 

E+'faa-, -jfatSa(r 
forefend for 'fend, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

|-ed -id 
forefinger 'forjfirjga^, 'far-; ES 'foa^figgaCr, 

E + 'faa- 
forefoot 'forkful, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa-; 

|-feet -fit — acc^+'fore'f- 
foregather for'gaeSa^, far-; ES foa'gaecSaCr, 

E+faa-; |-ed -d 1-ing -'gae'Sarirj, -'gaeSrig 
forego for'go, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; |-went 

-'went |-gone -'gan, -'gon, less freq. -'gan 
foregoing for'gO'ig, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

('fore^going 'day) 
foregone for 'gan, far-, -'gon; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

('fore^gone con'clusion) 
foreground 'for^graund, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 

'faa- 
forehand 'for^haend, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
forehanded 'for'haendid, 'far-; ES 'foa-, 

E + 'faa- 



forehead 'farid, 'far-, 'for-, -ad, 'far^hed 
foreign 'farm, 'far-, 'for-, -an |-ness -nis 
forejudge for'dsAds, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

|-s -IZ |-d -d 
foreknow for 'no, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

|-knew -'nju, -'niu, -'nu |-known -'non 
foreknowledge 'for^nalids, 'far-; ES 'foa^nal-, 

-jnnl-, E + 'faa-; acd+ fore 'knowledge 
forelady 'for^ledi, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
foreland 'forland, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
foreleg 'forjeg, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa-; 

acd + 'fore 'leg 
forelimb 'for Jim, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa-; 

acd+ 'fore 'limb 
forelock 'forjak, 'far-; ES 'foajak, -jink, 

E + 'faa- 
foreman 'forman, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa-; 

I -men -man 
foremast 'for^maest, 'far-; ES 'foa^maest, 

E + 'faa-, -jmast, -^mast 
foremost 'foremost, 'far-, -mast; ES 'foa-, 

E + 'faa- 
forename 'for^nem, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa-; 

l-d-d 
forenoon for 'nun, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

('fore^noon 'task) 
forensic fa'rensik, fo- |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikh 
foreordain ^forar'den, ifar-; ES iforaa'den, 

E+jfar-; |-ed -d 
foreordinate v for'ardn^et, far-; ES for'aadn-, 

E+far-; |-d -id 
foreordination jforardn'e/an, jfar-; ES ^for- 

adn-, E + jf ar- 
Forepaugh 'for^pa, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
forepaw, F- 'for, pa, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
forequarter 'for^kwarta^, 'far-; ES 'foa- 

jkwaata(r, E + 'faa- 
forerun for 'r An, far-; ES foa'rAn, E+faa-; 

|-ran -'raen \pplc -run -'rAn [-ner -a^; ES 

-a(r; acd + 'fore-runner 
foresaid 'for^sed, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
foresail 'for^sel, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
foresee for'si, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; |-saw 

-'sa |-seen -'sin 
foreshadow n 'forjjaedo, 'far-, -a; ES 'foa-, 

E + 'faa- 
foreshadow v for'/aedo, far-, -a; ES foa-, 

E+faa-; |-ed -d |-ing -'/aedawiij 
foreshank 'for,Jaegk, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 



|full ful |tooth tu6 Ifurther 'fy'Sa'; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dij" [vision 'vijan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



foresheet 



172 



former 



foresheet 'for Jit, 'for-; ES 'foa-, E+'faa- 
foreshore 'forj/or, 'for^Xor; ES 'foaj/oaCr, 

E + 'f33i/33(r 

foreshorten for'Jortn, far-; ES foa'/aatn, E + 

foa-; |-ed -d |-ing -tnig, -tnig 
foreside 'foresaid, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E+'faa-; 

ace/ + 'fore 'side 
foresight 'for^sait, 'for-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
foresighted 'for'saitid, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 

'faa-; ('fore^sighted 'act) 
foreskin 'foreskin, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
forespeak for'spik, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

|-spoke -'spok |-spoken -'spokan 
forest 'farist, 'far-, 'for-, -ast |-ed -id |-ry -ri 
forestall for'stal, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

l-ed -d 
forestation jfaris'te/an, jfar-, jfor- 
foretaste n 'for^test, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
foretaste v for 'test, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

l-d -id 
foretell for'tel, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; [-told 

-'told 
fo rethink for'Giijk, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

I -thought -'Gat 
forethought 11 'for^Gat, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
foretime 'for^taim, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
foretimed 'timed before' for'taimd, far-; ES 

foa-, E+faa- 
foretoken n 'for^tokan, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa- 
foretoken v for'tokan, far-; ES foa-, E+faa-; 

|-ed -d I-ing -'tokanig, -'toknig 
foretop 'for^tap, 'far-; ES 'foa^tap, -jtop, 

E + 'faa- 
f ore- topmast for'tapjOiaest, far-; ES foa'tap- 

jinaest, -'top-, E+faa-, -;mast, -^mast 
fore-topsail for'tapiSel, naut. -sj, far-; ES 

foa'tap-, -'top-, E+faa- 
forever fa-'eva^; ES -'£va(r 
forevermore fa^jEva^'mor, -'mar; ES fa^jsva- 

'moa(r, E + -'maa(r 
forewarn for 'warn, far-; ES foa'waan, E+ 

faa-; |-ed -d 
forewent past of forego for 'went, far-; ES foa-, 

E+faa- 
forewoman 'for^wuman, 'far-, -jwum-; ES 

'foa-, E + 'faa-; |-women -jwimin, -man — 

see woman 
foreword 'for^wyd, 'far-; ES 'foa^wsd, 'foa- 

jwyd, E + 'faa- 



foreyard 'forjard, 'far-; ES 'foaJa:d, E + 

'faa-, -ija:d 
Forfar 'f^rf^^; loc. 'fnrfar; ES 'faafa(r; [-shire 

-Jir, -/»; ES -;Jia(r, -Ja(r 
forfeit 'farfit; ES 'faafit; j-ed -id 
forfeiture 'farfit/a^; ES 'faafit Ja(r 
forfend far'fend; ES faa 'fend; |-ed -id 
forgather far'gaetia'; ES faa'gae?ia(r; j-ed -d 

|-ing -'gaetiarig, -'gaESrig 
forgave fa^'gev; ES fa'gev 
forge fards, fords; ES foads, faadj; |-s -iz |-d 

-d — The pron. with a by many who say ford, 

forG, etc., results from ME double forms 

'fordsa &° 'fatrdsa. 
forger 'fardsa^, 'fordsa^; ES 'foad3a(r, 'faa-; 

|-y -I — see forge 
forget fa^'gEt; ES fa-; \past -got -'gat \pptc 

-gotten, -got -'gatn, -'gat; |ES + -'gDt(n) 
forgetful fa^'gEtfal; ES fa-; \-\y -i 
forgetive 'fardsativ, 'for-; ES 'foads-, 'faads- 

— see forge 
forget-me-not fa^'gEtmijUat; ES fa'gEtmi^nat, 

-jHOt 

forgettable fa-'gEtabl; ES fa- 
forgive fa^'giv; ES fa-; |-gave -'gev [-given 

-'givan |-ness -nis 
forgo far'go; ES faa'go; |-went -'went |-gone 

-'gan, -'gnn, less freq. -'gan 
forgot fa^'gat; ES fa'gat, -'got; |-ten -^i 
forjudge far'dsAds; ES faa-; |-s -iz |-d -d 
fork fark; ES faak; |-ed -t 
forked adj farkt, 'farkid; ES faak- 
forlorn fy'larn; ES fa'laan; |-ness -nis 
form farm; ES faam; |-ed -d [-al -1 j-ally -li — 
The pron. form /or the sense 'rank,' 'bench,' 
once current in Engd, comes from a ME 
variant furme, fourme 'fu:rma. Cf course, 
formaldehyde far'maelda^haid; ES fa'mael- 
formalin, F- 'farmalin; ES 'faam- 
formalism 'farmjjizam; ES 'faam-; |-ist -ist 
formahty far'maelati; ES fa- 
formalize 'farml^aiz; ES 'faam-; |-s -iz |-d -d 
formant 'farraant; ES 'faam- 
format 'farmaet {Fr far 'ma) 
formation far'me/an; ES faa- 
formative 'farmativ; ES 'faam- 
forme farm; ES faam 

former 'farma^; ES 'faama(r; |-ly -li — 
'farmali, by r-dissimilation, is often heard. 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |yet jet [sang saeg |angr>' 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj, wntj" (§12) Ijaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



formic 



173 



Fourier 



leading to easier confusion with formally 

(§121). 
formic 'farmik; ES 'foam-; |-ary -jEri 
formicate adj 'farmikit; ES 'foam- 
formicate V 'formijket; ES 'foam-; |-d -id 
formidable 'fornudabl; ES 'foam-; |-bly -bli 

— Brit+io^mid- 
Formosa far'mosa; ES faa- 
formula 'farmjala; ES 'faam-; |-s -z |-lae -}i 

|-lary -Jen 
formulate 'farmjajet; ES 'faam-; |-d -id 
formulation jfarmja'le/an; ES ifaam- 
fornicate 'farnijket; ES 'faan-; |-d -id 
fornication jfarni'keXan; ES jfaan- 
Forres 'fans, 'fans, 'foris, -iz |-'s -isiz, -iziz 
Forrest 'farist, 'farist, 'fonst 
forsake fa^'sek; ES fa-; |-sook -'suk 1-saken 

-'sekan 
forsooth fa^'suO; ES fa'suG 
forspend far 'spend; ES faa-; [-spent -'spent 
forswear far'swer, -'swaer; E faa'swea(r, ES 

faa'swaea(r; |-swore -'swor, -'swar; ES 

-'swoa(r, E + -'swaa(r; |-sworn -'sworn, 

-'swarn; ES -'swoan, E+-'swaan 
Forsyte 'farsait; ES 'faasait 
Forsyth fa^'saiO; ES fa'saiG 
forsythia, F- fa^'siOia, far-, -'sai6-, -Oja; ES 

fa-, fa-; The 1st pron. follows English Latin 

tradition, as in Lydia (Z, Lydia); the 2d, 

the analogy of Forsyth, 
fort fort, fart; ES foat, E+faat 
forte ^strong point' fort, fart; ES foat, E+faat 
forte music 'farti, -te; ES 'faat- 
Fortescue 'fartis^kju, -jkiu; ES 'faat- 
forth, F- fore, farO; ES foae, E+faaO 
forthcoming 'forG'kAmig, 'farO-; ES 'foaG-, 

E+'faaG- 
forthright adj, adv forO'rait, farG-; ES foaG-, 

E+faaG-; ('forth^right 'mind) 
forthwith forG'wiG, farG-, -'wi(J; ES foaG-, 

E+faaG- 
fortification jfartafa'ke/an; ES /faata- 
fortify 'farta^fai; ES 'faata-; |-fied -jfaid 
Fortinbras 'fartn^braes, 'fartin-; ES 'faat- 
fortissimo far'tisajino; ES fa'tis-; {It for- 

'tissijmo) 
fortitude 'farta^tjud, -jtiud, -^tud; ES 'faat- 
fortnight 'fartnait, 'fort-, -nit, -nat; ES 

'faat-, 'foat-; |-ly -li — All the pronuncia- 



tions of fortnight here given are regtdar 

phonetic or analogical developments. 
fortress 'fartris, -tras; ES 'faat-; |-es -iz 

l-ed -t 
fortuitous far'tjuatas, -'tiu-, -'tu-; ES fa-; 

|-tism -jtizam |-ty -ti 
Fortuna far'tjuna, -'tiu-, -'tu-; ES faa- 
fortune 'fart/an; ES 'faa-; |-nate -it 
fortuneteller 'fart/an^tela^; ES 'faat/an^telaCr 
forty 'farti; ES 'faati; |-tieth -tiiG |-fold -'fold 
forty-niner ^farti'naina^; ES jfaati'naina(r 
forum 'foram, 'faram; S 'foram; |-s -z j-ra -ra 
forward 'farwa^d; ES 'faawad; |-s -z — Some 

good speakers still use the historical pron. 

'fara'd; ES 'farad. 
forwent past of forgo far 'went; ES faa- 
forwhy far'hwai; ES faa'hwai 
fosse fas, fos |-s -iz |-d -t 
fossil 'fasl, 'fosj; |-ize -^aiz |-izes -^aiziz |-ized 

-^aizd 
foster, F- 'fasta^, 'fas-, ^fos-; ES -ta(r; |-ed -d 

|-ing -tang, -trig 
Fostoria fas'tona, fos-, -'tar-; S -'tor- 
Fotheringay 'faSarigjge, -'Srig-; ES + 'ft»?l- 
fought fat 

foul faul |-ed -d |-ly 'fauUi, 'fauli 
foulard fu'lard, fa'lard; ES -'la:d, E+-'la:d 
foul-breathed 'faul'breGt 
foulmouthed 'faul'mau'Sd, -Gt |-thedly -'Sidli 
foulness 'faulnis |-es -iz 
Foulness jfaul'nes |-'s -iz 
found past b" pptc of find faund 
found V faund [founded 'faundid 
foundation faun'de/an |-al -| |-ally -Ii 
founder n 'faunda^; ES -da(r; |-dress -dris 
founder v 'faunda^; ES -da(r; j-ed -d j-ing 

'faundang, -drig 
foundery 'faundari, 'faundn |-dry -dri 
fount faunt 

fountain 'fauntn, -tin, -tan 
four for, far; ES foa(r, E+faa(r 
Fourdrinier fur'drini*; ES fua'drini'a(r 
four-flush 'for'fkj, 'far-; ES 'foa-, E + 'faa-; 

|-es -IZ |-ed -t [-er -a^; ES -a(r 
fourfold adj, adv 'for 'fold, 'far-; ES 'foa-, 

E + 'faa- 
four-footed 'f or'f utid, 'far- ; ES 'foa-, E + 'f aa- 
Fourier jfuri'e, 'funa^; ES jfuri'e, 'furi-aCr; 

{Fr fu'rje) 



[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fySa^; ES 'faSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kiedl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Fourierism 



174 



fraud 



Fourierism 'furia'jizam |-ist -ist 
four-in-hand 'foriiijhaend, 'for-; S 'for- 
four-legged 'for'kgid, 'for-, -'kgd; ES 'foa-, 

E + 'f33- 

four-masted 'for'maestid, 'for-; ES 'foa-, 

E-i-'faa-, -'mast-, -'mast- 
four-o'clock 'fora^klak, 'fora-; ES 'fora^klak, 

-jklok, E + 'fara- 
fourpence 'forpans, 'for-; ES 'foa-, E + 'foa-; 

I -penny -jpeni, -pom 
four-poster 'for 'posts', 'for-; ES 'foo'postoCr, 

E + 'foo- 
fourscore 'for'skor, 'for'skor; ES 'foa'skooCr, 

E + 'fo3'sko3(r; ('four, score and 'ten) 
foursome 'forsom, 'for-; ES 'foo-, E + 'foo- 
foursquare 'for'skwer, 'for-, -'skwaer; E 

'foo'skwEoCr, 'foo-, -'skwaeoCr; S 'foo- 

'skwaeo(r; ('four,square 'room) 
fourteen for 'tin, for-; ES foa-, E+foa-; (,he's 

'four'teen, 'four^teen 'men) 
fourteenth for'tinO, for-; ES foo-, E+foo-; 

I -ths -8s — acct + 'four 'teen th 
fourth fore, forO; ES fooG, E-t-fooO; |-ths -Gs 
four-wheel adj, n 'for,liwiI, 'for-; ES 'foo-, 

E + 'foo- 
four-wheeled 'for'hwild, 'for-; ES 'foo-, E + 

'fo3-; ('four-, wheeled 'truck) 
f outer, -tre 'futa^; ES 'futoCr 
fowl faul [fowled fauld |fowhng 'faulig 
fox faks; ES+fnks; |-es -iz |-ed -t |-glove 

-,glAV |-hound -,haund |-tail -,tel 
foy V foi |-ed -d 
foyer 'pilot' 'foijy; ES 'foi-3(r 
foyer 'lobby' 'foia^, 'foi-e; ES 'foi-3(r, 'foi-e; 

{Fr fwa'je) 
fra, F- fra 

fracas 'frekas |-es -iz; Brit 'fraeka, pi -kaz 
fraction 'fraek/an |-ed -d |-al -} |-ally -li 
fractionate 'fraekj"an,et |-d -id 
fractious 'fraek/as 
fracture 'fraektJV; ES -tJaCr; |-d -d 
f rae stressed 'f re, ,f re ; unstr. fre, f ri 
fragile 'fraedsal, -dsil |-gilely -dsali, -djili, 

-alli, -lUi 
fragility frae'djilati, fra- 
fragment 'fraegmant 
fragmental fraeg'mentj |-ly -i 
fragmentary 'fraegman,t£ri |-ly -li, esp. if 

efnph. ,fraegman'terali 



fragrance 'fregrans |-cy -i |-ant -ant 

frail frel |-ly 'frelb, 'freh |-ty -ti 

f raise frez |-s -iz |-d -d 

frame frem |-d -d 

frame-up 'frem,Ap 

framework 'frem/wyk; ES -,w3k, -,wyk 

Framingham Mass 'fremig,haEm, Engd 

-migam 
franc fraegk 

France fraens; E-i-frans, frans; |-'s -iz 
Frances 'fraensis E-i-'fran-, 'fran-; |-ces' -sis 
Francesca fran'tjeska {It fran'tjeska) 
franchise 'fraent/aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
franchisement 'fraent/izmant 
Francis 'fraensis; E-h'fran-, 'fran-; |-cis' -sis 
Francisca fraen'siska |-can -kan |-co -ko 
Franck fraok {Fr fra:k, Ger fragk) 
Francke, Kuno 'kuno'fragka 
Franco-American 'f raeijkoa 'merakan 
Franco-British 'fraegko'britij" 
Franco-German 'fraegko'dsyman; ES -Mssm-, 

-'ds^m- 
Francophile 'fraegka,fail 
Francophobe 'fraegka,fob j-bia jfraegka'fobia 
Franco-Prussian 'fraegko'prAjan 
frangible 'fraendsabl |-bihty jfraendsa'bilati 
frangipane 'fraendsa^pen 
frangipani ^fraendsi'paeni, -'pani 
frank, F- fraegk |-ed -t 
Frankenstein 'fraegkan,stain, -kin- 
Frankfort 'fraegkfa^t; ES 'fraegkfat 
Frankfurt 'fraegkfa^t; ES 'fraegkfat; {Ger 

'fragkfurt) 
frankfurter, F- 'fraegkfa^ta^; ES 'fraegkfata(r 
frankincense 'fraegkin,sens 
franklin, F- 'fraegklin |-ite -^ait 
frankpledge 'fraegk^pleds |-s -iz 
frantic 'fraentik j-ly -li |-ally -li 
frappe frae'pe |-ed -d (Fr fra'pe) 
Eraser 'freza^, 'fresa^; ES -a(r; {Sc 'fre:3ar) 
frater 'freta^; ES 'freta(r 
fraternal fra'tynl, fre-; ES -'tsnl, -'tynl; 

l-ly-i 
fraternity fra'tynati; ES -Han-, -'tyn- 
fraternize 'fraeta^^naiz, 'fret-; ES -ta-; |-s -iz 

1-d-d 
fratricide 'fraetrajsaid, 'fretra- 
fratricidal jfraetra'saidl, ^fretra- 
fraud frod |-ful -fal | -fully -fall 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angr},' 'aeg-gri 
jbath baeO; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wntj (§12) |jaw dso [gorge gord3 |go go 



fraudulence 



175 



fritter 



fraudulence 'fr3d33l3ns [-cy -i |-lent -lant 


frequence 'frikwans |-s -iz [-cy -i [-nt -nt 


fraught f rat 




frequent v fn'kwent [-ed -id 


Fraunhofer 'fraun/hofa^; ES -^hofaCr 




Frere frir; ES fna(r, S-i-fr£a(r 


fray fre |-ed -d 




fresco 'fresko [-ed -d 


Frazer 'freza', 'fresa^; ES -3(r; {Sc 'fre-.sar) 


fresh fre/ [-es -iz [-ed -t 


Frazier 'fresa'; ES 'fre53(r; cf Fraser, Frazer 


freshen 'f re/an [-ed -d [-ing 'fre/anig, -/nig 


frazzle 'fraezl |-d"-d |-ling 'fraezhg, -zlig 




freshet 'fre/it 


freak f rik 




freshman 'fre/man [-men -man 


freckle 'frekl |-d -d |-ling 'freklirj, -klig 




Fresno 'frezno 


Frederic, -ick 'ftEdarik, 'fr£drik 




fret fret [-ted -id [-ful -fal [-fully -fall 


Frederica jfredaVika 




fretsome 'fretsam 


Fredericksburg 'frednksjbyg; ES - 


ibsg. 


fretwork 'fret^wsk; ES -jwsk, -jwa^k 


-ibyg 




Freud fraid {Ger frayt) Freudian 'fraidian 


Fredonia NY, Kan fri'donia; Colombia 


fre- 


Frey fre, Swiss statesm. frai 


'donja {Am Sp fre'Sonja) 




Freya 'frea [Freyja 'freja 


free fri |freer 'fria^; ES 'fri-aCr 




friable 'fraiabi 


freeboard 'fri^bord, -^bard; ES -jboad, 


E + 


friar, F- 'fraia', frair; ES 'frai'a(r, fraia(r 


-jbaad 




friary 'fraiari 


freebooter 'fri^buta^; ES -jbutaCr 




fribble 'fribl [d -d [-ling 'friblig, -blig 


freeborn 'fri^born; ES -jbaan 




fricassee ^frika'si [-d -d 


Freeborn 'friba^n; ES 'friban 




fricative 'frikativ 


freedman, F- 'fridman [-men -man 




friction 'frik/an [-ed -d 


freedom, F- 'fridam 




Friday 'fraidi — spelt Fridy in 1642 


freedwoman 'frid^wuman, -jwu- | 


-men 


fried past b' pptc of fry fraid 


-Vimin, -an — see woman 




friedcake 'fraid jkek 


free-for-all 'frifa^bl ('free-for-.all 'fight) 




friend trend |-ly -li [-ship -/ip, 'fren/ip 


freehand 'frijhaend 




frier 'fryer' 'fraia^; ES 'frai'a(r 


freehanded 'fri'haendid 




Fries Sw hot., Ger philos. fris; Am schol. friz 


freehold 'fri^hold 




[-'s -IZ 


freeman, F- 'friman |-men -man 




fries from fry fraiz 


Freemason 'frijmesn, ;fri'mesn |-ry -ri 




Friesian 'frisan [-sic -zik |-sish -zij 


freer, F- 'fria^; ES 'fri-aCr 




Friesland 'frizland, -Jaend 


free-soil, F- 'fri'sail ('Free-jSoil 'party) 




frieze friz [-s -iz [-d-d 


free-spoken 'fri'spokan 




frigate 'frigit 


freestone, F- 'frijston 




Frigg frig [Frigga 'friga 


freethinker 'fri'eigka^; ES -'GigkaCr 




fright frait |-ed -id 


freeze, F- friz |-s -iz [froze froz [frozen 'frozn 


frighten 'fraitn [-ed -d [-ing 'fraitnig, -tnig 


Freiburg 'fraibyg; ES -bsg, -byg; 


(Ger 


frightful 'fraitfal [-ly -i 


'fraiburk) 




frigid 'fridsid |-ity fri'd3idati . 


freight fret [freighted 'fretid 




frijol, -e 'frihol, -'bol 


Fremont John C. 'frimant, -mont, fri'm 


- 


frill fril l-ed -d 


Fremont 'frimant, -mont 




fringe fnnds [-s -iz [-d -d 


French frsntj [-'s -iz [-man, -men 


-man 


frippery 'fripari 


[-woman -^wuman [-women -jWimin, - 


an — 


Frisian 'frisan, 'fri3ian 


see woman 




frisk frisk |-ed -t 


Frenchify 'f rent/a ^fai [-fied -^faid 




frit frit 


Freneau fri'no, f re- 




frith frie [-ths -Os 


frenetic fra'netik, fri- |-al -1 [-ally -h 




fritillary 'fritljeri 


frenzy 'ftEnzi |-ied -d 




fritter 'frita-; ES 'frita(r; [-ed -d 



[full ful [tooth tu6 [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse f juz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



frivol 



176 



full 



frivol 'frivi |-ed -d 1-ing 'frivlig, -vlig 


frowzy 'frauzi 


frivolity fnValati; ES + -'vd1- 


froze froz [frozen 'frozn 


frivolous 'frivabs, 'frivlas 


fructification jfrAktafa'keJan 


friz, -zz friz [frizzes 'fnziz [frizzed frizd 


fructify 'frAkta^fai |-fied -^faid j-tose -tos 


frizzle 'frizl |-d -d |-ling 'frizlig, -zlig 


fructuous 'frAktJuas 


fro fro 


frugal 'frugl, 'friugl |-ity fru'galati, fnu- 


Frobel 'frebl {Ger 'frorbal) 


fruit frut, friut |-ed -id |-ful--fal [-fully -fall 


Frobisher 'frobija^; ES 'frobij3(r 


fruitcake 'frut^kek, 'friut- 


frock frak; ES+frnk; |-ed -t 


fruiterer 'frutara^, 'friut-; ES -tara(r 


froe fro 


fruition fru'i/an, fnu- 


Froebel ^frebl {Ger 'frotbal) 


frumenty 'frumanti, 'fnu- 


frog frag, frag, frog; S frog, frag, frog; |-eye 


frump frAoip j-ed -t 


-jai 


frustrate 'frAstret [-d -id |-tion frAs'treJan 


Frohman 'froman 


frustrum erron. for frustum 'frAstram [-s -z 


Froissart 'froisart; ES -sa:t, E+-sa:t; {Fr 


j-tra -tra 


frwa'sa:r) 


frustum 'frAstam |-s -z |-ta -ta 


frolic 'frahk; ES + 'frolik; |-some -sam 


fry frai [fried fraid [fryer 'fraia^; ES -a(r 


from stressed 'from, jfram, ^frnm, jfrom. 


Fryeburg 'fraibyg; ES -bag, -byg 


'frAm, jfrAm; tmstr. fram 


fuchsia, F- 'f ju/a, 'fiu-, -Jia, generic 'fuksia 


Frome Eng rivs. b' places frum — A sp. pron. 


fuchsin 'fuksin [-sine -sin, -sin 


from is also heard in Engd. 


fuddle 'fAdl l-d -d j-ling 'fAdhg, 'fAdhg 


frond frond, frnnd 


fudge fAds [fudges 'f Adsiz [fudged fAdsd 


Fronde Fr fro:d 


Fuegian f ju'idsian, fiu-, 'fweds- 


front frAnt [fronted %Antid j-age -ids 1-ages 


Fuehrer 'fira', 'fju-; ES -ra(r; {Ger 'fy:rar) 


-idsiz |-al -1 |-ally -li 


fuel 'fjual, 'final [-ed -d 


Frontenac 'frantajnaek, 'frnn-, in C+Fr 


fugacious fju'ge/as, fiu- 


frota'nak 


fugitive 'fjudsativ, 'fiu- 


frontier frAn'tir, fran-, frnn-, ^frAntir, ^fran-. 


fugleman 'fjuglman, 'fiu- j-men -man 


'fron-; ES -'ti3(r, -ti3(r, S+-'te3(r, -t83(r; 


fugue fjug, fiug |-d -d 


|-sman -zman |-smen -zman 


Fiihrer 'fira^, 'fju-; ES -ra(r; {Ger 'fj-:rar) 


frontispiece 'frAntis^pis, 'fran-; ES + 'fron-; 


Fuji 'fudsi [Fujiyama jfudsi'jama 


|-s -IZ 


-i\i\ unstressed ending forming adjectives (plaj^- 


frontlet 'frAntlit 


ful), pron. -fal, -fl, less freq. -ful. Only the 


frore arch, fror, frar; ES fro3(r, E+fr33(r 


pron. -fal is given in the vocabulary, it being 


frost frast, frost |-ed -id |-ing -ig 


understood that -f 1 is a common variant, and 


frostbite 'frast^bait, 'frost- |-bit -jbit [-bitten 


-ful a less freq. one, being heard chiefly in 


-jbitn 


formal style or consciously careful speech. 


frostflower 'frost ^f la ua^, 'frost-, -jflaur; ES 


Many adjectives in -ful are omitted from the 


-yflau'3(r, -jflau3(r 


vocabulary. 


frostwork 'frost jwyk, 'frost-; ES -jwak. 


-ful half-stressed ending of compound nouns 


-iWyk 


(cupful 'kApjful). 


froth froe, froO |-ths -Gs |-ed -t 


-ful, -full stressed second element of compound 


Froude frud 


adjectives (brimful, -11 'brim'ful, -jful, half- 


frou-frou 'frufru 


full 'h^f'ful, -,ful). 


frounce frauns j-s -iz |-d -t 


fulcrum 'fAlkram [-s -z [-ra -ra 


frouzy 'frauzi 


fulfill, -fil ful'fil |-(l)ed -d 


fro ward 'froa^d, 'frowa'd; ES -ad, -wad 


fulgent 'fAldsant [-gid -dsid 


frown fraun |-ed -d 


fulgor 'fAlga'; ES -ga(r; |-ous -as 


frowsty 'frausti 


full ful [fulled fuld [fully 'full 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret jyet jet [sang s£eg |angr\' 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeO; E baG (§10) |ah a [far far [watch wat/, wot/ (§12) jjaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



fullback 



177 



fustigate 



fullback ^fuljbaek 

fuller 'fula^; ES 'ful3(r; |-ed -d 

fulmar 'fulma^; ES 'fulm3(r 

fulminate 'f Alma^net |-d -id |-nant -nant 

fulmination jfAlma'nefan |-nous ^fAlmanss 

fulsome 'fulsam, 'IaI- 

Fulton 'fultni 

Fulvia 'f a1vi3, -vja 

fulvous 'f a1v3s 

fumarole 'fjumajtol, 'fiu- 

fumatory 'fjumajtori, 'fiu-, -jt3ri; S -jtori 

fumble 'fAmbl |-d -d |-ling ^fAmblig, -blig 

fume fjum, fium \-d -d 

fumet 'fjumit, 'fiu- |fumette f ju'met, fiu- 

fumigate 'f juma^get, 'fiu- [-d -id 

fumiter 'fjumata', 'fiu-; ES -t3(r 

fumitory 'fjumajtori, 'fiu-, -itari; S -jton 

fumy 'fjumi, 'fiumi 

fun fAn I funned fAnd 

function 'fAgk/an |-ed -d |-al -1 [-ally -|i 

functionary 'fAgkJaiijeri 

fund fAnd [funded 'f Andid 

fundament 'f Andaman! 

fundamental ^f Anda'mentj |-ly -i |-ism -jizam 

|-ist -ist 
fundus 'fAndas |-es -iz 
Fundy 'f Andi 
funeral 'fjunaral, 'fiu- 
funereal fju'nirial, fiu- j-ly -i 
funest f ju'nest, fiu- 
fungi 'f Andsai 
fungicide 'fAndsa^said 
fungoid 'fAggaid |-al fAg'gaidl 
fungous adj 'fAggas 
fungus n 'fAggas |-es -iz |fungi 'fAudsai 
funicle 'fjunikl, 'fiu- 
funicular fju'nikjala^, fiu-; ES -la(r 
funk fAgk [funked f Agkt 
funnel 'fAnl |-ed -d 
funny 'f Am 

fur fy; ES f3(r, fy; |-red -d 
furbelow 'fybl^o; ES 'fs-, 'fy-; j-ed -d 
furbish 'fs^biji ES 'fs-, 'fy-; |-es -iz |-ed -t 
furcate adj 'fyket, -kit; ES 'fs-, 'fy- 
furcate v 'fyket; ES 'fs-, 'fy-; \-d -id 
furfur 'fa^fa^; ES 'fsfaCr, 'fyfaCr; |-es -^iz j-al 

furibund 'fjun^bAnd, 'fio- 
furious 'fjurias, 'fiu- 



furl fyl; ES fsl, fyl; |-ed -d 

furlong 'fs'bg, -log; ES 'fs-, 'fy-, S + -lag 

furlough 'fylo; ES 'fslo, 'fylo 

furmenty 'fs^manti; ES 'fs-, 'fs*- 

furmity 'fs'mati; ES 'fs-, 'fy- 

furnace ^fs'nis, -as; ES 'fs-, 'fy-; |-s -iz 

Furnas 'fs^nis, -as; ES 'fs-, 'fs'-; |-'s -iz 

Furness, -niss 'fynis, -as; ES 'fs-, 'fy-; |-'s 

-IZ 

furnish 'fyni/; ES 'fs-, 'fs^-; |-es -iz |-ed -t 

furniture 'fs^nitja^; ES 'fsnit/aCr, 'fs'nit/aCr 

Furnival, -all 'fynavl; ES 'fsn-, 'fs^n- 

furor 'f juror, 'fiu-; ES -raa(r 

furrier 'fyia^; ES 'fsri-aCr, 'fAr-, 'fyi'a(r 

furring 'fs'ig; ES 'fsrig, 'fs'ig 

furrow 'fyo, -a; ES 'fsr-, 'fAr-, 'fy-; |-ed -d 

furrowing 'fs^awig; ES 'fsrawig, 'fAr-, 'fy- 

furry 'fs^i; ES 'fsn, 'fyi 

further 'fytJa-; ES 'fsSaCr, 'fy3a(r; |-ed -d 

|-ing -tiarig, -'Srig ]-ance -ans, -Srans 
furthermore 'fs^Sa^jinor, 'fySa-, -^mar; ES 

'fstSa^moaCr, 'fySajmoaCr, E+-jm3a(r; — In 

the 2d pron. ^ has become a by dissimilation 

{§121). 
furthermost 'fytJa^jmost; ES 'fstSa-, ^fs'tSa- 
furthest 'fytJist; ES 'fs-, 'fy- 
furtive 'fs^tiv; ES 'fs-, 'fs'- 
fury 'fjuri, 'fiuri 

furze fyz; ES fsz, fyz; j-s -iz |-d -d 
fusain 'fjuzen, 'fiu-, f ju'zen, fiu- {Fr fy'z«) 
fuscous 'fAskas 
fuse fjuz, fiuz j-s -IZ |-d -d 
fusee gun f ju'zi, fiu- 
fusee mils. Fr fy'ze 
fusel 'fjuzl, 'fiu-, -si 
fuselage 'fjuzlids, 'fiu-, -^05; |-s -iz {Fr 

fyz'lazs) 
fusibility jfjuza'bilati, jfiu- 
fusible 'fjuzabl, 'fiu- |-bly -bh 
fusiform 'fjuza^farm, 'fiu-; ES -jfaam 
fusil 'fjuzl, 'fiu-, -zil 
fusilier, -eer ^fjuzl'ir, ^fiu-; ES -'ia(r, S + 

-'eaCr 
fusillade jfjuz|'ed, ^fiu- |-d -id 
fusion 'fju3an, 'fiu- 
fuss fAs [fusses 'f Asiz [fussed fAst 
fustian 'f Ast/an 
fustic 'f Astik 
fustigate 'f Astajget [-d -id [-tor -»', ES -a(r 



jfuU ful [tooth tu6 [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij* [vision Visan [Eden 'idiri [cradle 'kred} [keep 'em 'kipiii 



fusty 



178 



galleass 



fusty 'fAsti ]-tily -tli, -till 

futhorc, -rk 'fuOark; ES 'fuOaak 

futile 'fjutl, 'fiu-, -til |-ly -i 

futilitarian jfjutib'terian, jfiu-, -'ter-, -rjan, 

acct + f u J tili ' tarian 
futility fju'tilati, fiu- 
Futrall 'fjutral, 'fiu- 
Futrell 'f jutral, 'fiu- 
Futrelle f ju'trel, fiu- 



futtock 'f Atak 

future 'fjutja^, 'fiu-; ES -tj3(r; |-rism -jizam 

|-ist -ist 
futuristic ,f jut/a 'ristik, jfiu- 
futurity fju'turati, fiu-, -'tiur-, -'tjur- |-ric 

-rik 
fuze fjuz, fiuz j-s -iz |-d -d 
fuzee f ju'zi, fiu- 
fuzz fAZ I fuzzes 'fAziz I fuzzed fAzd |-y -i 



G 



G, g letter dgi \pl G's, Gs, poss G's dgiz 

gab gaeb | gabbed gaebd 

gabardine, -ber- 'gteba'jdin, jgaeba^'din; ES 

-ba- 
gabble 'gaebl |-d -d |-ling 'gaebhg, 'gaeblig 
gabby 'gaebi 

gable 'gebl |-d -d |-ling 'geblig, 'geblig 
Gabriel 'gebrial 
gad, G- gaed | gadded 'gaedid 
gadabout 'gaeda^baut 
Gadarine jgaeda'rin, 'gaeda^rln 
Gades 'gediz |-es' -iz 
gadfly 'gaedjflai 
gadget 'gaedsit 

gadolinium jgaedaUinistn, -^linjam 
Gadsden 'gaedzdan 
Gadshill 'gaedz^hil 
gadzooks 'gaed'zuks, 'gaed'zuks 
Gaea 'djia 

Gaekvvar 'dsikwar; ES 'dsikwarCr 
Gael gel | Gaelic 'gelik jGaelicist 'gelasist 
gaff gaef | gaffed gaeft 
gaffer 'gaefa^; ES 'gaef a (r 
gaff-topsail 'gaef'tapsl, -jsel; ES+-'tDp- 
gag gaeg | gagged gaegd 
gage gads 1 gages 'gedsiz | gaged gedsd 
Gaia 'gea, 'gaia 
gaiety 'geati | gaily 'geli 
gaillardia ge'lardia, gi-; ES -^lardia, E + 

-'la:d- 
gain gen |-ed -d |-ful -fal | -fully -fab 
Gainesville 'genzvil; S+-vl 
gainly 'genii 
gainsay gen'se |-says -'sez, -'sez |-said -'sed, 

-'sed, acd + 'gain jsay, -jsaid 



Gainsborough 'genz^byo, -a; ES -^bar-;, 

-jbAr-, -jby-; Brit -bara, -bra 
Gairdner 'gardna^, 'g2rd-, 'gaerd-; ES 

'ga:dna(r, 'gaead-, E-i-'ga:d-, 'gead- 
gait get Igaited 'getid 
gaiter 'geta^; ES 'geta(r 
Gains 'geas, 'gaias j-'s -iz 
gala 'gela 
galactic ga'laektik 
galactose ga'laektos 
Galahad 'gaelajhaed 
Galapagos ga'lapa/gos {Sp ga'lapagas) 
Galashiels jgaela'Jilz 
Galatea ^gaela'tia 

Galatia ga'le/a, ga'lejia- |-tians -/anz, -Jianz 
Galax, g- 'gelaeks |-'s -iz |-ias ga'l^eksias 
galaxy 'gaelaksi |-xian ga'l^eksian 
Galba 'gaelba 
gale gel |galed geld 
Galen 'gelan, 'gelin 
galena, G- ga'lina 

Galesburg 'gelzbyg; ES -bsg, -byg 
Galicia ga'lijia, -'hja |-cian -Jian, -Jan 
Galilee 'gaela^li [Galilean jgaela'lian 
Galileo jgaela'lio {It igali'kro) 
galingale 'gaelin^gel, 'gaelig^gel 
Gallon 'gaelian 
gall gal I galled gald 
Gall gal, gal, gael 
gallant adj '■brave' 'gaelant 
gallant adj 'amorous' ga'laent, 'gaelant 
gallant n 'gaelant, ga'laent |-ry 'gaelantn 
gallant v ga'laent |gallanted ga'laentid 
Gallatin 'gaslatin 
galleass 'gaeli,aes, 'gaebas |-es -iz 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angr}' 'seg-gri 
jbath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj", wotj" (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



galleon 



179 



gaol 



galleon 'gaehan, ^gaeljsn 


Gambia 'gaembi«3 


gallery 'gaelari, -ki |-ied -d 


Gambler 'gaem,bir; ES -jbi3(r; /oc-t-gaem- 


galley 'gaeh 


'bir 


gallfly 'gDljflai 


gambler 'gaemjbir; ES -jbi3(r 


Gallia 'gaeha 


gambit 'gaembit 


galliard 'gaelja^d; ES 'gaeljad 


gamble 'gaembl [-d -d |-ling 'gaemblio. 


galHardise 'gaelja^djiz; ES 'gaeljad^iz 


'gaemblio 


gallic, G- 'gaehk 


gambrel 'gaembral [gambreled 'gaembrald 


Gallicism 'gaelajSizam 


Gambrinus gaem'brainas |-'s -iz 


Galli-Curci 'gah'kurtji, 'gaeli'kytji; ES 


game gem |-d -d [-some -sam 


-'ku3-, -'k3-, -'ky-; {It 'galll'kurtji) 


gamecock 'gem^kak; ES-i--/kDk 


gallimaufry jgaeb'mofri 


gamester 'gemsta^; ES 'gemstaCr 


gallinaceous jgaeb'nejas 


gamete 'gaemit, ga'mit, gae'mit 


gallinule 'gaelajojul, -^niul, -^nul 


gamin 'gaemin {Fr ga'mse) 


Gallipoli gsUipali, ga'hpajli 


gamma 'gaema 


Gallipolis jgaelapa'lis |-lis's -Uisiz 


gammer 'gaema^; ES 'gaema(r 


gallipot 'gaebipat; ES + -jpiot 


gammon 'gaeman 


Gallitzin Pa ga'litsm 


Gamp gaemp 


gallium 'gaeliam 


gamut 'gaemat 


gallivant 'gaebjvaent, jgaelaVaent |-ed -id 


gamy 'gemi 


gall-less 'gallis 


gan gaen 


gallnut 'galjHAt 


Gananoque jgaena'nok, /oc.-i--'nakwi {Fr ga- 


galloglass 'gaelojglaes |-glasses -jglaesiz 


na'nak) 


gallon 'gaebn 


gander 'gaenda^; ES 'gaendaCr 


gallop 'gaebp | galloped 'gaebpt 


Gandhi 'gandi, 'gandi, 'gaendi, 'gaendi 


Galloway 'gaeb^we 


ganef 'ganaf- 


gallowglass 'gasbjglaes ] -glasses -jglaesiz 


gang gaeo [ganged gaegd [ganging 'gaegig 


gallows 'gaebz, -az | gallowses rare 'gaebziz. 


gange gaends [-s -iz [-d -d 


-bziz \dial. gallus 'gaebs [galluses 'gaebsiz 


Ganges 'gaendsiz [Ganges' 'gaendsiz 


gallstone 'galjSton 


gangling 'gaegglig [-gly -gli 


Gallup 'g«bp 


gangHon 'gaegglian [ganglia 'gaegglia 


Gallus 'gaebs j-li -lai |-'s -iz 


gangplank 'gaeg^plaegk 


galop 'gaebp | galoped 'gaebpt 


gangrene 'gaeggrin, 'gaen-, gaeg'grin, gaen- 


galore ga'br, -'br; ES -'b3(r, E-h-'baCr 


l-d-d 


galosh ga'laj; ES-h-'IdJ; |-es -iz 


gangster 'gaegsta^; ES 'gaegsta(r 


Galsworthy 'galz^ws'tJi, 'gaelz-; ES -jWstSi, 


gangue gaeg 


-jwySi; Dev 'gaelzari 


gangway 'gaeg^we 


galumph ga'lAmf [galumphed ga^Umft 


gannet, G- 'gaemt 


Galvani gaelVani {It galVami) 


ganof 'ganaf 


galvanic gael'vaenik [galvanism 'gaelv3iniz3m 


ganoid 'gaenaid [ganoidal ga'naidl 


galvanize 'gaslvajnaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


Gans gaenz [-'s -iz {Ger gans) 


galvanometer jgaelva'namata'; ES -'namatCr, 


Gansevoort 'gaensvurt; ES -vuat 


-'nom-; |-metry -matri 


gantlet 'gaentlit — see gauntlet 


galvanoscope gaelVaenajskop, 'gaelvana^skop 


gantline 'gaentjlain 


Galveston 'gaelvistn, 'gaelvastn 


gantry 'gaentn 


Galway 'galwe 


Ganymede 'gaena^mid 


gam gaem [gammed gaemd 


gaol djel [gaoled A^eXA, formerly gel, geld — 


Gamaliel ga'mehal, gaWeljal 


^' Some, .again are boring their very Noses 


Gambetta gaem 'beta 


•with hot Irons, in rage that they cannot corns 



[full ful [tooth tu6 [further 'fa^'Sa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



gaolbird 



180 



Gatling 



Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 
Words below that have ae before r (carry 'kaeri) are often pronounced in N with e ('ken, §94) 



ling -bho, 
^garjboad. 



to a Resolution, whether they shall say. . 

Jayl or Gaol."— i?. UEstrange {OED). 
gaolbird 'dselibyd; ES -^bsd, -^byd 
gap gaep [gapped gaept 
gape gep, gaep | gaped gept, gaept — see gaup 
gapingstock 'gepig^stak, 'gaep-; ES+-jStDk 
gar gar; ES ga:(r 
garage ga'ras, ga'radj, 'gaeras [-s -iz |-d -d 

{Fr ga'rais) — The f idly Anglicized 'gaeridj 

{of carriage 'kaerids) is not general in 

American cultivated use. 
Garand 'gserand 
garb garb; ES ga:b; j-ed -d 
garbage 'garbids; ES ^gaibids 
garble 'garbl; ES 'ga:bl; |-d -d ] 

-bill) 
garboard 'gar^bord, -^bard; ES 

E+-jb33d 
Garcia 'gar/ia, -/a, -sia, Col gar'sia; ES -a:-: 

{Am Sp gar'sia) 
garden 'gardn, 'gardin; ES 'ga:dn, -dm 
gardener, G- 'gardna^, 'gardna^; ES 'ga:d- 
gardenia gar'dinia, -nja; ES ga'din- 
Gardiner 'gardna^, 'gardna^, 'gardina^; ES 

'ga:dn3(r, -dn3(r, -din3(r 
Gardner 'gardna^; ES 'ga:dn3(r 
Gareth 'gaeriG, 'gaeraO 
Garfield 'garfild; ES 'ga:fild 
Gargantua gar'gaent/ua ; ES ga'gaentfua; 

|-n -n 
gargle 'gargi; ES 'ga:gl; |-d -d |-ling 

-glio 

gargoyle 'gargail; ES 'gaigail; [-d -d 
Gargrave 'gargrev; ES 'gargrev 
Garibaldi ^gaera'baldi (// jgari'baldi) 
garish 'gerij", 'gaerij; S 'gaerij 
garland, G- 'garland; ES 'garland; |-ed 
garlic 'garhk; ES 'ga:bk 
garment 'garmant; ES 'ga:mant; j-ed -id 
garner 'gorna^; ES 'ga:na(r; |-ed -d 
garnet 'garnit; ES 'ga:nit; |-ed -id 
garnish 'garnij; ES 'ga:ni/; |-es -iz 
garnishee igarni'Ji; ES iga:-; |-d -d 
garniture 'garnit/a^; ES 'gamit/aCr 
Garrard 'gaera^d; ES 'gaerad 
garret 'gaerit 
Garrett 'gaerit |-sville -s,vil 



?liO. 



-id 



1-ed -t 



Garrick 'gaerik 

garrison 'gaerasn |-ed -d 

garrote, -tte ga'rot, ga'rat; ES+-'rDt; [-d -id 

garrulity ga'rulati, ga'riulati 

garrulous 'gaeralas, 'gaerjalas 

Garry 'gaen 

garter 'garta^; ES 'ga:ta(r; |-ed -d 

garth gare; ES gaiG; |-ths -Os 

Gary 'g£ri, 'g2:ri, 'gaen, 'gen; S 'gen, 'gaen — 

Some speakers distinguish Gary /row Gerry 

by a longer e. 
gas n gaes [gases 'gaesiz [gassy 'gaesi 
gas V gaes [gasses 'gaesiz [gassed gaest 
Gascoigne gaes'kain, 'gaeskain, 'gaeskin 
Gascon 'gaeskan [Gascony 'gaeskani 
gasconade ^gaeskan'ed |-aded -'edid 
gaseous 'gaesias, 'gaesjas, 'gaez- 
gash gaej [gashes 'gae/iz [gashed gaejt 
gasiform 'gaesajfarm; ES -^faam 
gasify 'gaesa^fai |-fied -^faid 
Gaskell 'gaeskl 

gasket 'gaeskit [gasketed 'gaeskitid 
gasKght 'gaesjlait [-lighted -jlaitid 
gasohne, -lene 'gaesl^in, ;gaes)'m, 'gaez-, 

jgaez- 
gasometer gaes'amata^; ES -'amata(r, -'oma- 

ta(r 
gasp gaesp; E+gasp, gasp; [-ed -t 
Gaspe gaes'pe {Fr gas'pe) ('Gasjpe 'tourist) 
gaspergou ^gaespa^'gu, 'gaespa^jgu; ES -pa- 
gastight 'gaes'tait ('gasjtight 'joint) 
Gaston US 'gaestan; Fr name gass'tan, -'tan, 

-'ton {Fr gas'to) 
gastric 'gaestnk [gastritis gaes'traitis 
gastroenteritis 'gaestrojcnta'raitis 
gastronomic jgaestra'namik; ES + -'nDinik; 

l-al -1 l-aUy -h, -ikh 
gastronomy gaes'tranami; ES + -'trDnami 
gastropod 'gaestrajpad; ES-F-jpod 
gastroscope 'gaestra^skop 
gat gaet 

gate get [gated 'getid [-way -jwe 
gate-leg 'getjkg [gate-legged 'getjegd 
Gath gaee 
gather 'gaetJa^; ES 'gae?ia(r; j-ed -d [-ing 

'gaeting, 'gaeSarig 
Gatling 'gaetlig 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang saeg [angry 'aeg-gn 
[bath baeG; E baO (§10) jah a [far far [watch watj", wutj (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



Gatun 



181 



Genevieve 



Gatun ga'tun 

gauche goj 

gaucherie jgoja'ri, 'gojajri {Fr goJVi) 

Gaucho 'gaut/o 

gaud god I gaudy 'gadi |-ed -id 

gauffer 'gofa^, 'gnfa', 'gafa'; ES -faCr; [-ed -d 

|-ing -fang, -frig 
gauge geds jgauges 'gedsiz Igauged gedsd 
Gaul gal 

gaunt, G- gant, gont, gant 
gauntlet 'gantht, 'gnnt-, 'gant — cf gantlet 
gaup gap Igauped gapt — see gape 
gauss gaus [gausses 'gausiz 
Gauss Christian, Karl gaus; Clarence gas 

l-'s -iz 
Gautama 'gatama 

gauze gaz | gauzes 'gaziz | gauzy 'gazi 
gave gev 

gavel 'gaevl |-ed -d |-ing 'gaevlig, 'gaevhg 
gavelkind 'gaevl^kaind 
Gawain 'gawin, 'gawin 
gawk gak | gawky 'gaki 
gay ge Igayety 'geati 
Gaza Palestine 'geza, Mozambique 'gaza 
gaze gez | gazes 'geziz | gazed gezd 
gazelle ga'zel 

gazette ga'zet [gazetted ga'zetid 
gazetteer ^gaeza'tir; ES -'tia(r, S+-HEa(r 
Gdynia ga'dinja, -ma {Pol 'gdijia) 
gear gir; ES gia(r, S+ge3(r; [-ed -d |-sliift 

-Jrft 
Geauga dsi'aga 
gecko 'geko 

Geddes 'gediz, -is |-'s -iz 
gee dsi |geed dsid 
geese gis [geese's 'gisiz 
geest gist 

geezer 'giza", ES 'giza(r 
Geffrey 'dsefri 
Gehenna gi'hena 
Gehrkens 'gykinz, 'ger-; ES ^g3-, 'gy-, 

'gea-; [-'s -iz 
Geierstein 'gaia^^stain; ES 'gaia- 
Geikie 'giki 
geisha 'ge/a 

gel chem. dsel [gelled djeld 
gelatin, -e Mselatn [-(e)d -d 
gelatinate dsa'laetrijet j-d -id [-nous -as 
gelation dsEl'eXan, dsa'l- 



geld n geld 

geld V geld [gelded 'geldid or gelt gelt 

Gelderland 'gelda'land; ES 'gelda- 

gelding 'geldig 

gelid 'dselid |-ity dsa'lidati, dse- 

gelt past b' pptc of geld gelt 

gem dsem jgemmed dsemd 

geminate n, adj 'dsemanit 

geminate v 'dsema/iiet [-d -id 

gemination idsema'nejan 

Gemini 'd5emainai, as intj 'dsimani 

gemot, -e ga'mot 

gemsbok 'gemzbak; ES+-bDk 

gendarme 'sandarm; ES -da:m, E+-da:m; 

[-ry -an, -ri (Fr sa'darm) 
gender 'dsenda^; ES -dad; |-ed -d |-ing -dang, 

-drig 
gene dsin 
genealogical jdsenia'ladsikl, ^dsini-; ES+ 

-'lods-; |-ly -i 
genealogy jdsini'aeladsi, jdseni-, -'aladsi; 

ES+-'d1-; [-gist -st; The a or n sound is 

found in all parts of the US and in Canada. 

The -ology words have influenced it. 
genera pi of genus 'dsenara 
general M3enaral, 'dsenral |-cy -si 
generalissimo jd3enararisajmo, ^dsenral- 
generality jdsenaVaelati 
generalization jdsenarala'zejan, Msenral-, 

-ai'z- 
generalize 'dsenaral^aiz, Msenral- |-s -iz 

j-d-d 
generally Msenarali, 'dsenrali 
generally 'dsenaralti, 'dsenralti 
generate 'dsenajret [-d -id [-tor -3^; ES -a(r 
generation ^dgena're/an 
generic dsa'nerik [-al -1 [-ally -Ii, -ikli 
generosity jdsenaVasati; ES+-'rDS- 
generous 'dsenaras, 'dsenras 
Genesee jdsena'si ('Gene^see 'River) 
Genesee jdjena'sio 

genesis, G- 'dsenasis \pl geneses 'dgena^slz 
Genest, Genet dsa'net, sa'ne {Fr 3a 'ne) 
genet, -tte M3enit, dsa'net 
genetic dsa'netik [-al -1 [-ally -li, -ikli [-s -s 
geneticism dsa'netajSizam [-cist -sist 
Geneva dsa'niva [-van -van 
Genevese jd3ena'viz 
Genevieve 'dsenajviv, jd3enaViv 



[full ful [tooth tu8 [further 'fytia'; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail jhow hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision Visan [Eden 'Idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Genevieve 182 

Genevieve, -vicve saint 'dsena^viv {Fr 

33nVJ£:v) 
Genghis Khan 'djEn-giz^kan, 'dseggiz- 
genial 'cheerful' 'dsinjal |-ly -i 
genial 'generative' 'dsinial 
genial 'of lite chin' dsi'naial 
geniality jdsini'aelati, -n'jael-, -nji'aelati 
genie 'dsenik 
geniculate adj dss^nikjalit 
genie 'dsim 
genii 'dsinijai 
genital 'dsEnatl 
genitival jdsena'taivl j-ly -i 
genitive MsEnativ 
geni to-urinary jdsEnato'jura^nEri 
geniture 'dssnitja'; ES -t/alr 
genius 'dsinjas, 'spirit' + -ni3s |-'s -iz \pl 

geniuses 'dsinjasiz, 'spirits' genii 'dsinijai 
Gennesaret ga'nEsarit, dsa- 
Genoa Italy 'djenawa, dsa'noa {It Geneva 

'd3£:nova) ; US dsa'noa 
Genoese jdsena'wiz 
genotype 'dsenOjtaip 

genotypic jdseno'tipik |-al -1 j-ally -li, -ikli 
genre '3anr3 {Fr 5a:r) 
genro 'gen'ro 

gens dsenz \pl gentes ^dsentiz 
Genseric 'djensarik, 'gen- 
gent dsent 

genteel dsenHil |-ly -'tilk, -'till 
gentes pi of gens 'dstntiz 
gentian 'dsenjan, -/lan 
gentile, G- Msentail 
gentilesse 'dsentj^es, ME 'dsenti^kssa 
gentility dsen'tilati 
gentle 'dsentl |-d -d j-ling -tlig, -tlig |-r -tla^; 

ES -tl3(r; 1-st -tlist, -thst 
gentlefolk Msentljfok j-s -s 
gentleman 'dsentlman |-men -man j-ly -h 
gentlewoman 'dsentljwuman, -jwu- [-men 

-jWimin, -an — see woman 
gently 'dsentli 
gentrice 'dsentris 
gentry 'dsentri 

genuflect 'djenjujfkkt |-ed -id 
genuflection, -flexion jdsEniujflEkJan 
genuflexuous ^dsEnju'tlekJuas 
genuine MjEnjuin |-ineness 'dsEnjuinnis 
Genung dsi'nAg 



gerent 

genus 'd3in3s \pl genera 'dsEnara \less freq. 

-es -iz 
geocentric jdsio'sEntnk |-al -1 |-ally -Ii, -ikh 
geochemistry jdsio'kEnustri 
geode 'dsiod 

geodesic jdsia'dEsik, -'dis- |-al -} 
geodesist dsi'adasist; ES-i--'Dd- 
geodesy dsi'adssi; ES+-'Dd- 
geodetic jdsia'dEtik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 
Geoffrey 'dsEfri 

geographer dsi'agrafa^, -'og-; ES -faCr 
geographic ^dsia'graefik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikb 
geography dsi'agrafi, -'og- 
geoid 'dsiaid |-al dsibidl 
geologic jdsia'ladsik; ES-|--'lDd3-; [-al -I 

l-ally -h, -ikh 
geologist dsi'aladsist; ES-i--'d1- 
geologize d3i'alajd3aiz; ES + -'d1-; \-s -iz 

i-d-d 
geology d3i'al3d3i; ES-h-'dI- 
geomancer 'd3ia,maens»; ES -S3(r; |-cy -si 
geometer dsi'amata^; ES -'amataCr, -'om- 
geometric jd3i3'm£trik |-al -j !-ally -li, -ikh 
geometrician jd3i3m3'trij"3n, d3ijani3-; ES + 

-jom- 
geometrize d3i'ain3jtraiz; ES + -'Dm-; |-s -iz 

l-d -d 
geometry d3ram3tri; ES-h-'om- 
geomorphic jd3i3'in3rfik; ES -Waa- 
geophysics ^dsio'fiziks 
geopolitics jdsio'palatiks; ES + -'pd1- 
geoponic jdsia'panik; ES-h-'ponik; |-al -1 
George d33rd3; ES dsoads; |-'s -iz 
Georgette d33r'd3Et; ES dsaa- 
Georgia 'd33rd33, -d3i3; ES 'd333d3-; ]-n -n 
Georgiana d33r'd3aen3, -d3i'aen3; ES d333- 
georgic, G- 'd33rd3ik; ES 'd333-; |-al -1 
geostatic jd3i3'st£etik [-s -s 
geosyncline jd3io'sinklain |-nal -sin'klainl 
geotectonic jdsiotEk'tanik; ES + -'tDn- 
geo tropic jdsb'trapik; ES + -'trDpik 
geotropism d3i'atr3jpiz3m; ES-F-'nt- 
gerah 'gira, 'giro 
Geraint d33Vent 
Gerald 'd3Er3ld |-ine -jin, -in 
geranium d33Veni3m, -njam 
Gerard d33'rard; ES -'ra:d, E-f--'ra:d; Brit + 

'd3Era:d, -rsd 
gerent 'd3ir3nt 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret jyet JEt |sang saei) |angr\' 'aeo'g" 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far [watch wat/, wntj" (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gDrd3 [go go 



gerfalcon 



183 



gigolo 



gerfalcon ^d^j^tiolkan, -^fakan; ES 'd33-, 

'dsy- 
Gergesenes 'gyga^sinz; ES 'gs-, 'gy- 
Gerhard 'gyhard; ES 'gshard, 'gy-, E+-ha:d 
Gerizim ga'raizim, 'gerazim 
germ dsym; ES dssm, ds^m 
german 'ds^man; ES 'dssm-, 'dsym- 
German 'djyman; ES 'ds^m-, 'dsym-; |-ism 

-jizsm 1-y -I 
germander dsa^'maenda^; ES dsa'mfendaCr 
germane ds^'men, dsa^-; ES dsa-, dsy-, 

dsa-; |-maneness -'mennis 
Germanic d33''maenik, d^d^-; ES dss-, dsy-, 

d33- 
germanium dsa^'meniam, -njam; ES dss-, 

ds^- 
Germantown 'dsyman^taun; ES 'dssm-, 

'dsym- 
germen 'dsymin, -an; ES 'dssm-, 'dsym-; 

|-s -z |-mina -mina 
germicide 'ds^maiSaid; ES 'dssm-, 'dsym- 
germinal 'ds^manl; ES Mssm-, Msym-; 

l-ly -I 
germinant ^dss'manant; ES 'dsam-, 'dsym- 
germinate 'dsyma^net; ES 'dssm-, ^dsym-; 

|-d -id |-tive -IV 
germination jd5yma'nej'an; ES jdsam-, 

jdsym- 
Gerontius dsaVantias; ES+-VDn-; |-'s -iz 
Gerrard 'dsera^^d; ES 'dserad 
Gerrold» 'dserald 
Gerry 'gen 

gerrymander 'gerijinaenda', 'dseri-; ES -da(r 
Gertrude 'gytrud; ES 'gst-, 'gyt- 
gerund 'dserand, -And |-ive dsa'rAndiv 
Geryon 'dsirian, 'genan |-es dsiVaiajniz, ga- 
gest, -e dsEst 

Gestapo ga'stapo (Ger ga'/tapo) 
gestate 'dsestet |-d -id |-tion dses'te/an 
gesticulate dsEs'tikjaJet |-d -id 
gesticulation jdsestikja'le/an, dsesjtik- 
gesticulatory dsEs'tikjabjton, -itari; S -^tori 
gestion 'dsestjan 
gesture 'dsEst/a^; ES -tXa(r; |-d -d 
get get \past got gat, arch, gat gaet \pptc got 

gat or gotten 'gatn; ES+gDt(n) — in un- 
stressed position often git (wi jk^ent git 'in) 
get-at-able gHt'aetabl, git'aetabl 
getaway 'getajwe 



Gethsemane geG'sEmani 

Gettysburg 'getiz^byg; ES -ibsg, -jbyg 

getup 'getjAp 

gewgaw 'gjuga, 'giu- |-ed -d |-ry -ri 

geyser 'spring' 'gaiza^, 'gaisa^, water-heater 

Brit 'giza^; ES -a(r 
ghast arch, gaest j-ful -fal |-fully -fall 
ghastly 'gaesth; E + 'gast-, 'gast- 
ghat, ghaut gat 
ghazi, G- 'gazi 
ghee gi 

Ghent Belg gent, O djent 
gherkin 'gykin; ES 'gsk-, 'gyk- 
ghetto 'geto 
Ghibelline 'giblin, -jin 
Ghoorka 'gurka; ES 'guaka 
ghost gost |-ed -id |-ly -h 
ghoul gul |-ish -i/ 
Ghurka 'gurka; ES 'guaka 
ghyl 'ravine' gil 

giant 'dsaiant |-ess -is | -esses -isiz 
giaour d3aur; ES dsauaCr 
gib, G- gib 
gibber v 'jabber' 'dsiba', 'giba^; ES -ba(r; |-ed 

-d 1-ing -bang, -brig |-ish -barij, -brij" 
gibber n 'hump' 'giba^; ES 'giba(r 
gibbet 'dsibit |-ed -id 
gibbon, G- 'giban 

gibbosity gi'basati; ES + -'bDS-; |-bous 'gibas 
gib-cat 'Gilbert cat' 'gib/kaet 
gibe dsaib [gibed djaibd 
Gibeon 'gibian |-ites -^aits 
giblet 'dsibht 

Gibralter dsib'ralta'; ES -ta(r 
Gibson 'gibsn 
giddy 'gidi 

Gideon 'gidian j-s -z |-ite -^ait 
Gielgud 'gilgud 
gier-eagle 'dsir^igl 
gift gift I gifted 'giftid 
gig gig 1 gigged gigd 
gigantean jdsaigaen'tian |-tesque -^tesk 
gigantic djai'gaentik j-ally -li, -ikli ('gi- 

jgantic 'hound) 
gigantism 'dsaigaenjtizam, dsai'gaentizam 
gigantomachy jdsaigaen'tamaki; ES-t--'tDm- 
giggle 'gigl 1-d -d I -ling 'giglig, 'giglig 
giglet 'gight 
gigolo 'djigajlo {Fr siga'lo) 



|full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fytJ*; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail jhow hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz jdish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



gigue 



184 



Glamis 



gigue 3ig 

Gila 'hib 

gilbert, G- 'gilba^t; ES -bat 

Gilbert and EUice Islands 'gilba^tn'ehs- 

^ailsndz, -Isnz; ES -bat- 
Gilbertian gil'bytian; ES -'bat-, -'byt- 
Gilboa gil'boa 
Gilchrist 'gilkrist 
gild gild I gilded 'gildid or gilt gilt 
Gilead 'giliad |-ites -^aits 
Giles dsailz |-'s -iz 
Gilfillan gil'fibn 
gill 'quarter pint' dgil 
Gill Jack 6= Gill dsil 
gill 'ravine' gil 
gill of a fish gil Igilled gild 
Gillespie gi'lespi 
Gillett, -e dsa'let, 'dsilit 
Gillian 'dsiban, -Ijan 
gillie, -y 'servant,' 'serve' 'gili |-d -d 
Gilliss 'gilis |-'s -IZ 
gill-less 'gilbs 
gillyflower 'dsili^flaua^, -^flaur; ES -jflau-3(r, 

-jflau3(r 
gilt past &= pptc of gild gilt 
gilt-edged 'gilt'edsd ('gilt-hedged 'book) 
gimbals 'dsimblz, 'gim- 
gimcrack 'dsinijkraek 
gimlet 'gimlit |-ed -id 
gimmal 'giml, 'dsiml |-ed -d 
gimmick 'ginuk 
gimp 'trimming' gimp |-ed -t 
gin 'begin' gin \past gan gsen \pptc gun gAn 
gin liquor djin 

gin machine dsin [ginned dsind 
Ginevra dsi'nevra 
ginger 'd3ind33^; ES -d33(r; |-ly -h [-bread 

-jbred |-snap -jsnaep 
gingham 'gigam |-ed -d 
gingival d3in'd3aivl, 'd3ind39vl 
gingko, ginko 'gigko, 'dsigko 
gink gigk 
Ginn gin 

ginseng, -sing 'dsinsEi), -sig 
Giotto 'd3ato, 'd5Dto {It 'd33tto) 
gip d3ip |-ped -t 
gip 'cut fish' gip |-ped -t 
gipon d5i'pan, 'd3ipan; ES+-Dn 
gipsy 'd3ipsi 



girafife dsa'raef; E+-'raf, -'raf 

girandole 'dsiran^dol 

Girard d33'rard; ES -'ra:d, E+-Va:d 

gird 'encircle' gyd \past b° pptc girt gyt or 
girded 'gydid; |ES -3-, -y- 

gird 'sill' 'sneer' gyd; ES gsd, gyd; |-ed -id 

girdle 'gydl; ES 'gsdl, 'gydl; |-d -d l-hng 
-dlig, -dlig |-ler -dla^, -dja^; ES -db(r, 
-djaCr 

girl gyl, mu£h lessfreq. gerl; ES gal, gyl, geal; 
|-hood -hud 

Girondist dsa'randist; ES-h-'ron- 

girt gyt; ES gst, gyt; |-ed -id 

girth gye; ES gsO, gyB; |-ths -Gs |-ed -t 

gisarme gi'zarm; ES -'za:m, E-t--'za:m 

Gissing 'gisig 

gist d3ist 

gittern 'gita^n; ES 'gitan 

give giv Igave gev [given 'givan 

give-and-take 'givan'tek 

giveaway 'giva^we 

given 'givan 

Giza 'giza |Gizeh 'gize 

gizzard 'giza^d; ES 'gizad 

glabrous 'glebras 

glace glae'se {Fr gla'se) 

glacial 'gle/al, -Jial |-ly -i 

glaciate 'gle/ijct |-d -id 

glacier 'gleJV; ES 'gleJaCr; Brit tmcally 

'glaesia, 'glasja 
glacis 'glesis, 'glaesis {Fr gla'si) |-es -iz 
glad glaed | gladded 'glaedid 
gladden, G- 'glaedp j-ed -d |-ing 'glaednig, 

-dnig 
glade gled 

gladiator 'glaedijeta^; ES -jeta(r 
gladiatorial ^glaedia 'tonal, -'tar-; S -'tor- 
gladiola jglaedi'ob, gb'daiab \pl -s -z 
gladiolus plant jgl^edi'obs \pl -es -iz |-li -lai 
Gladiolus tlie genus gb'daiabs \pl -li -Jai 
gladsome 'glaedsam 

Gladstone 'glaed^ston, -stan — W. E. Glad- 
stone pronounced his name 'glad^ston 
{Wyld). 
Gladys 'glaedis |-'s -iz 
glair gler, glaer; E gka(r, ES glaea(r; |-ed -d 

|-eous -las |-y -i 
glaive glev Iglaived glevd 
Glamis Scotl glamz, in Shak. 'glamis |-'s -iz 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) )rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg langr}' 'ag-gri 
Ibath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a [far far |watch watj", wot/ (§12) |jaw d3a [gorge gDrd3 [go go 



Glamorganshire 



185 



Gloucester 



Glamorganshire glaWargan^/ir, -/a^; ES 

-'mD3g3njXia(r, -JaCr 
glamorous 'glaemaras, ^glaemrss 
glamour, -mor 'glaema'; ES 'glaem3(r 
glance glaens; E+glans, glans; |-s -iz |-d -t 
gland glaend 

glanders 'glaenda^z; ES 'glaendaz 
glandular 'glaendsala'; ES 'glaendsalaCr; |-lous 

-bs 
glandule 'glaendsul 
glans glaenz \pl glandes ^glaendiz 
Glansdale 'glaenzjdel, -dl 
glare gkr, glaer; E gleaCr, ES glaeaCr; ]-d -d 
Glarus Swtz 'glaras {,Fr Glaris gla'ris), Wis 

'glaeras |-'s -iz 
Glasgow 'glaesgo, 'glaez-, 'glaesko, 5n7+'gla- 
glass glaes; E+glas, glas; |-es -iz |-ed -t 
glassful 'glaesjful; E + 'glas-, 'glas-; |-s -z 
glasshouse 'glaes^haus; E + 'glas-, 'glas-; 

I -houses -jhauziz 
glassmaker 'glaes^meka'; ES -^mekaCr, E + 

'glas-, 'glas- 
glassman 'glaesman; E + 'glas-, 'glas-; |-men 

-man 
glassware 'glaes jWef, -jwaer; E -^weaCr, 

-jwae3(r, 'glas-, 'glas-; S 'glaes;waea(r 
glasswork 'glaes jwyk; ES -jwsk, -^wyk, 

E + 'glas-, 'glas- 
Glastonbury 'glfestan^ben, 'glaesn-, -ban 
Glaswegian glaes'widsan, -dsian 
Glauber 'glauba^; ES 'glaub3(r 
glaucoma gb'koms 
glaucous, G- 'gbkas 
glaze glez | glazes 'gleziz | glazed glezd 
glazier 'glesa^; ES 'gle33(r 
gleam glim |-ed -d 
glean glin |-ed -d 
glebe glib 
glee gli |-ful -fal [-fully -fall I -man -man 

I -men -man 
glee V 'squint^ gli Igleed glid — see agley 
gleet glit I glee ted 'glltid 
glen glen 
Glencairn glen'kern, -'kaern; E -'kean, ES 

-'kaean 
Glencoe US 'glenko, Scotl glen'ko 
Glendower 'glendaua^, gkn'daua'; ES -a(r 
Glengarry gkn'gaeri 
gley V 'sq^dni' glai Igleyed glaid — see agley 



glib glib Ighbbed ghbd 

glide glaid |gUded 'glaidid |-r -a^; ES -a(r 

glim gbm 

glimmer 'ghma'; ES -a(r; |-ed -d [-ing 'glim- 

arig, 'glimrig 
glimpse glimps |-s -iz |-d -t 
glint glint I glinted 'glintid 
glissade gli'sad, -'sed |-d -id 
glissando gli'sando \pl -di -di {pseitdo-It) 
glisten 'glisn |-ed -d |-ing 'glisnig, -snig 
glister 'glista^; ES -ta(r; |-ed -d |-ing 'glistarig, 

'ghstrio 
glitter 'glita^; ES -ta(r; |-ed -d 
gloam glom |-ed -d |-ing -ig 
gloat glot I gloated 'gbtid 
global 'globl |-ly -i 
globate 'globet |-d -id 
globe glob I globed globd 
globeflower 'glob^flaua^, -jflaur; ES -jflau-a(r, 

-jflaua(r 
globoid 'globoid 

globose 'globes, glo'bos |-bous 'globas 
globular 'glabjala^; ES 'glabjala(r, 'glob- 
globule 'glabjul; ES + 'glnb- 
globulin 'glabjalin; ES + 'glob- 
Glocester 'glasta', 'gins-; ES -ta(r 
glockenspiel 'glakan^spil; ES + 'glok-; {Ger 

'gbkanjpi:!) 
glomerate adj 'glamant, -mrit; ES+'glom- 
glomerate v 'glama^ret; ES+'glom-; |-d -id 
glomeration jglama'rejan; ES + jglom- 
gloom glum I gloomed glumd |-y -i 
Gloria 'gloria, 'gbr-; S 'gloria; [G- Patri 

-'patri, -'petrai 
Gloriana jglori'aena, ^gbr-, -'ena; S jglor- 
glorification jglorafa'ke/an, jgbr-; S iglor- 
glorify 'glorajfai, 'gbr-; S 'glor-; |-lied -^faid 

I -her -jfaia^; ES -jfai>a(r 
glorious 'glorias, 'gbr-; S 'glor- 
glory 'glori, 'gbri; S 'glori; |-ried -rid 
Glos. ahhr. for Gloucestershire glas, gins, gbs 
gloss gbs, gins |-es -iz |-ed -t 
glossary 'glasan, 'gins-, 'gbs- 
Gloster Ga, La, Minn, Miss 'glasta^, 'glos-; 

ES -ta(r 
glottal 'glatl; ES+'gbtl 
glottalize 'glatl^aiz; ES + 'glnt-; j-s -iz |-d -d 
glottis 'glatis; ES + 'glot-; |-es -iz 
Gloucester 'glasta^, 'glos-, 'gbs-; ES -ta(r; in 



jfull ful |tooth tue [further 'fytSa-; ES 'fatJa [custom 'k\stam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision Visan [Eden 'idi^ [cradle 'kredj [keep 'em 'kipip 



Glouster 



186 



godown 



Engd loc. 'gbs- | -shire -i/ir, -/a^; ES -i/i3(r. 


freq. gan — in unstressed position often gu 


-/3(r 


(jlets gu'in), or ga (jkts ga'daun) 


Glouster 'glausta^; ES 'glaustaCr 


goad god 1 goaded 'godid 


glove glAV 1 gloved gUvd 


go-ahead adj 'goa'hed ('gq-a'head jchap, 


Gloversville 'glAva^z^vil; ES -vaz- 


'go-ajhead 'spirit) 


glow glo 1 glowed glod 


go-ahead n 'goa^hed 


glower 'glaua^; ES 'glau'3(r; [-ed -d |-ing 


goal gol |-ed -d, children'' s game +gul 


'glaurig, 'glauarig 


goalkeeper 'goljkipa'; ES -^kipaCr 


glowfly 'glojflai 


goalless 'goUis 


glowworm 'glojwym; ES -jwam, -jwym 


goat got 


gloxinia, G- glak^siiua, -nja; ES+glok- 


goatee go'ti 


gloze gloz Iglozes 'gloziz Iglozed glozd 


goatherd 'got^hyd; ES -Jaad, -^ha-d 


glucinum, -nium glu^samam, -'siniam, gliu- 


goatsbeard 'gots^bird; ES -jbiad, S+'^bead 


Gluck gluk 


goatsucker 'gotjSAka'; ES -^sAka(r 


glucose 'glukos, 'gku- ]-coside -ka^said 


gob, G- gab; ES-f gob 


glue glu, gliu |-d -d 


gobbet 'gabit; ES + 'gobit 


Glueck gluk 


gobble 'gabl; ES + 'gobl; j-d -d [-ling -blig. 


glum gUm 


blio 


glume glum, glium 


gobbler 'gabla^; ES ^gabla(r, 'gnb- 


glut gUt Iglutted 'gUtid 


Gobbo 'gabo; ES+'gobo 


gluten 'glutn, 'ghutn |-ous -as 


GobeHn 'gabalin, 'gob-; ES+'gob-; (^Fr 


glutinus ^glutinas, 'gliu- 


ga'bl«) 


glutton 'gUtn |-ous -as |-y -i 


go-between 'gobajtwin 


glyceric gli'serik, 'ghsarik 


Gobi 'gobi, 'gobi 


glycerin 'glisrin, -sarin |-ine -rm, -S3jrm 


goblet 'gabht; ES-t-'gnb- 


glycerol 'glisajtol, -^ral, -fv\ 


goblin 'gablin; ES + 'gnb-; In 'Little OrpJtant 


glyceryl 'glisajril 


Annie' Riley protioimced it 'gabajlm. 


glycine 'glaisin, glai^sin 


goby 'gobi 


glycogen 'glaikadsan, -dsin 


go-by 'gOjbai 


glycol glaikol, -kal, -knl 


gocart 'gOjkart; ES -jka:t, E-i--jka:t 


glycoprotein jglaikaVrotiin 


god gad, god 


glyph ghf 


God gad, god, less freq. gad 


glyptic 'gliptik 1-al -1 


Godalming 'gadlmig, 'god- 


G-man 'dsi^maen |-men -jinen 


godchild 'gadjtjaild, 'god- 


Gnadenhutten 0, loc. dsi'nednjhAtn {Ger 


goddaughter 'gadjdata', 'god-; ES -ta(r 


-hiitten 'gnazdan^hytan) 


goddess 'gadis, 'god- |-es -iz 


gnarl narl; ES na:l, E-i-na:l; |-ed -d 


godfather 'gad.fa'Sa^, 'god-; ES -,fatJa(r, 


gnash naej | gnashes ^nae/iz [gnashed naej't 


E+-,fa(Ja(r 


gnat naet 


god-fearing 'gadjfing, 'god-; S+-jferig, 


gnaw na [gnawed nad ]-er 'naa'; ES ^na'a(r 


-,f jirig, -^f jerig 


gneiss nais 


god-forsaken 'gadfa^'sekan, ^god-; ES -fa-; 


gnome nom 


Cgod-for^saken 'place) 


gnomic 'nomik |-al -1 [-ally -li, -ikli 


Godfrey 'gadfri, 'god- 


gnomon 'noman, ^nomon 


godhead 'gadhed, 'god- |-hood -bed 


Gnossus ^nasas; ES + 'nos-; |-sus' -sas 


Godiva go'daiva 


gnostic ^nastik; ES + 'nos-; |-al -1 |-ally -li. 


godlike 'gadjaik, 'god- 


-ikli |-ism -ta,sizam 


godly 'gadli, 'godb 


gnu nu, niu, nju 


godmother 'gadjOiAS*, 'god-; ES -jmA'Sa(r 


go go [went went Igone gan, gnn, much less 


godown 'a drink' 'go^daun 



Key: See in fidl §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret [j'et jtt [sang saeg langrA' 'aeg-gri 
Jbath baeO; E bae (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wo*/ (§12) |jaw d5a Igorge gards |go go 



godown 



187 



Gorgonzola 



godown 'warehouse' go'daun 
godparent 'gadjperant, 'god-, -jpaer-, -jper- 
godsend 'gad^send, 'god- 
godson 'gadjSAn, 'god- 
Godspeed 'gadjspid, 'god-, -'spid 
Godward 'gadwa^d, 'god-; ES -wad 
Goebbels Ger 'goebals 
goer 'goa^; ES 'gO'3(r 
Goethals 'goOslz |-'s -iz 
Goethe 'geti, 'g3t3 (Ger 'g0:ta) 
Goffe gaf, gof 
goffer 'gafa^, 'gofa', 'gafa^; ES -faCr; |-ed -d 

|-ing -fang, -frig 
Gog gag, gog, gag 
go-getter 'golgEta^; ES -'geta(r 
goggle 'gagl, 'gog! 1-d -d |-ling -glig, -glig 
goggles 'gaglz, 'gog- 
Gogmagog 'gagmajgag, 'gogma^gog 
Gogol 'gogal, 'gogol 
Goidelic gai'debk 

goiter, -tre 'gaita^; ES 'gaita(r; |-(e)d -d 
Golconda gal'kanda ; ES -f gol'konda 
gold gold, formerly guld 
goldbeater 'gold^bita^; ES -jbita(r 
golden 'goldn 

goldenrod 'goldn ^rad; ES+-jrDd 
goldfinch 'goldjfintj |-es -iz 
goldfish 'goldjfij* |-es -iz j-'s -iz 
goldilocks, G- 'goldijlaks; ES-h-Joks; |-'s -iz 
gold-plate V 'gold'plet | -plated -'pletid 
goldsmith, G- 'gold^smiG |-ths -6s 
Goldwin, Gouldin 'goldwin, 'goldin 
goK galf , golf, galf, much less freq. gaf, gof 

|-ed -t 
Golgotha 'galgaOa, 'gol- 
goliard 'golja^d; ES 'goljad 
GoHath ga'laiae 

Gollancz 'galants, -aents; ES-i-'gol-; |-'s -iz 
golliwog 'galijwag, -jwog; ES + 'gol- 
golosh ga'la/; ES + -'loJ; \-es -iz 
Gomorrah, -rrha ga'mara, -'mar-, -'mor- 
gonad 'ganaed, 'gon- 
gondola 'gandala, 'gon- |-ed -d 
gondolier jganda'lir, ;gon-; ES -'lia(r, S+ 

-'l£3(r 
gone gan, gon, miich less freq. gan 
goneness 'gannis, 'gon-, much less freq. 'gan- 
Goneril 'ganaral, 'gon-, -nl 
gonfalon 'ganfalan, 'gon- 



gonfalonier jganfala'nir, jgon-; ES -'nia(r, 

S + -'n£a(r 
gonfanon 'ganfanan, 'gon- 
gong gag, gog, gag |-ed -d 
gonococcus jgana'kakas \pl -cocci -'kaksai; 

lES + jgona'kok- 
gonof 'ganaf, 'gon- 
gonorrhea ^gana'ria, jgon- 
Gonzaga gan'zaga (It gon'dza:ga) 
Gonzalo gan'zalo 
goober 'guba^, 'guba^; ES -ba(r 
good gud I goodly 'gudli 
good-by, -bye gud'bai 
good deal 'good bargain' 'gud'dil, 'much' 

gu'dil 
goodhearted 'gud'hartid; ES -'ha:tid, E + 

-'lia:tid 
good-humored 'gud'juma^d, -'hjuma'd; ES 

-mad 
goodman 'gudman |-men -man 
good-natured 'gud'netja^d; ES -'net/ad; 

Cgood-jnatured 'dog) 
goodness 'gudnis |-es -iz 
goods gudz 

good-tempered 'gud'tempa^d; ES -Htmpad 
goodwife 'gudjwaif — see wife 
Goodwin 'gudwin 
goody 'gudi 
Goodyear 'gudsir, 'gudjir; ES -ia(r, S-i- 

-ea(r 
goof guf |-y -I 
googly 'gugk 
goon gun 
Goop gup 

goose gus j-'s -IZ Igeese gis [geese's 'gisiz 
gooseberry 'gusjberi, 'guz-, -ban, rarely 

'guz- 
gooseherd 'guSihyd; ES -/hsd, -^hyd; for- 

merly 'gaza'd, 'goz- 
gooseneck 'gusjnEk |-ed -t 
gopher 'gofa^; ES -fa(r; j-ed -d ]-ing ^gofarig, 

'gofrig 
Gordian 'gardian, -djan; ES 'gaad- 
gore gor, gar; ES goa(r, E-i-gaa(r; |-d -d 
gorge gards; ES gaads; j-s -iz |-d -d |-ous -as 
gorget 'gardsit; ES 'gaadsit; |-ed -id 
Gorgon 'gargan; ES 'gaagan 
Gorgonian gar'gonian, -njan; ES ga- 
Gorgonzola jgargan'zola; ES jgaagan- 



|full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fytJa-; ES 'faSa 
(using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 



[custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipip 



Gorham 



188 



grammatical 



Gorham 'garam, NH 'goram, ^garam 




governance ^gAva^nans; ES 'gAvanans; |-s -iz 


gorilla ga'rila 




governess 'gAva^nis; ES 'gAvanis; |-es -iz 


Gorky, -ki 'garki; ES 'goaki 




government 'gAva^mant, 'gAvanmant; ES 


gormand 'garmand; ES ^gasmsnd 




'gAvamant, 'gAvanmant, 'gAvmant; No 


gormandize 'garman^daiz; ES 'gDam-; 


-S -IZ 


competent observer can doubt the prevalence 


l-d-d 




of 'gAvanmant, 'gAvamant among the leading 


gorse gars; ES gaas; |-s -iz 




statesmen of US and England, even in formal 


gory 'gori, 'gan; S 'gori 




public address. 


goshawk 'gasjhak, 'gns- 




governor 'gAvana', ^gAvna', 'gAva^na^; ES 


Goshen 'gojan 




'gAvana(r, 'gAvna(r; — a for &■ in 'gAvana^ 


gosling ^gazlig, ^gnz- 




shows dissimilation {§121). 


gospel 'gaspl, 'gDS- |-ed -d 




gowan 'gauan 


gossamer 'gasama^; ES ^gasama(r, ^gos 




Gowanda ga'wanda, go-, -'wonda 


Gosse gas, gos, gas 




Gower ME poet 'goa^, 'gaua'. Loud street 


gossip 'gasap; ES + 'gos-; |-ed -t 




'gaua^; ES 'go-a(r, 'gau-aCr 


gossoon ga'sun; ES+go- 




gown gaun |-ed -d 


got gat; ES+gDt 




grab graeb [grabbed graebd 


Gotama 'gatama, ^got- 




grabble 'graebl |-d -d |-ling 'graeblig, -blig 


Goteborg 'jetajbarg or Gothenburg 


gatn- 


Gracchus 'graekas |-'s -iz \pl -chi 'graekai 


jbyg; ES 'jeta^baag, 'gatn>3g, -jbyg. 


'gDt-; 


grace, G- gres |-'s -iz |-s -iz j-d -t 


{Sw jflta'barj) 




gracile 'graesl, -il 


Goth gaO, gne, gaO 1-ths -Os 




gracious 'gre/as 


Gotham ^New York' ^gaOam, 'goeam, 'go8am. 


grackle 'graekl 


in Notts 'gatam, ^gotam, loc. 'gotam 




gradate 'gredet |-d -id 


Gothard 'gata^d; ES 'gatad, 'got-; 


(Fr 


gradation gre'de/an |-ed -d |-al -1 j-ally -li 


ga'tarr) 




grade gred [graded 'gredid 


Gothic 'gaOik, 'gD0ik [-ism -GajSizam 




Gradgrind, g- 'graedjgraind ]-ian -lan |-ism 


Gotland 'gatland, 'got- 




-jizam 


gotten 'gain; ES + 'gotn 




gradient 'grediant, -djant 


Gotterdammerung Ger 'goetar^dEma/rur 


1 


gradual 'graedsual, -dsul |-ly -i, -dsak 


Gotthard 'gata^d; ES ^gatad, 'got- 


(Fr 


graduate n, adj 'graedsuit, -jCt 


ga'ta:r) 




graduate v 'graedsu^et [-d -id 


Gottland ^gatland, ^gnt- 




graduation jgraedju'e/an 


gouge gauds Igouges 'gaudsiz Igouged gaudsd 


Gradus, g- 'gredas |-es -iz 


— Brit +gud5 




graft graeft; E+graft, graft; j-ed -id 


Gough gaf , gnf, gaf 




graham, G- 'gream 


goulash 'gulaef, -laj |-es -iz 




grail grel 


Gouldin = Goldwin 'goldin 




grain gren j-ed -d 


Gouldsboro 'guldz,byo, -a; ES -jbar-, - 


jbAr-, 


grainery, -ary 'grenan, 'grenn — cf granarj'. 


-jbs'- ; Me loc. 'gulzbra 




Both grainery, -ary and granary date from 


Gounod 'guno {Fr gu'no) 




the 16c. In US 'grenan, 'grenn appears to 


gourd gord, gard, gurd; E goad, gaad, guad; 


prevail. 


Sgoad 




gram graem 


gourmand 'gurmand; ES ^guamand 


; (Fr 


gramarye, -ry 'graeman 


gur'ma) 




gramercy gra'mysi; ES -'mssi, -'my si; 


gourmet 'gurme; ES 'guame; (Fr gur^mE) 


('Gramercy 'Park) 


gout gaut 




grammar 'graema^; ES 'graema(r 


Gouverneur NY jgAva^'nur; ES jgAva^nua(r 


grammarian gra'mErian, -'maer-, -'mer- 


govern 'gAva^n; ES 'gAvan; |-ed -d 




grammatical gra'maetikl |-ly -i, -ikli 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angr}- 'aeg-gn 
|bath baeG; E ba6 (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj, woij (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



gramme 



189 



gratitude 



gramme graem 


grandsire 'graen^sair, 'graend-; ES -^saiaCr 


gramophone, G- 'graemajfon 


grandson 'graen^sAn, 'graend- 


Grampian 'graempian, -pjan 1-s -z 


grandstand 'graen^staend, 'graend- 


grampus ^graempas \-es -iz 


Grand Teton 'graen'titn, 'graend-, -tan, -tnn 


Granada gra'nada (Sp gra'natJa) 


granduncle 'graend'Aokl 


granary 'graenari — cf grainery. Granary 


grange, G- grends \-s -iz 


'graenari comes from Latin granarium; 


Granicus gra'naikas |-'s -iz 


grainery, -ary from English grain. 


granite 'graemt j-tic gra'nitik, grae- 


Granby 'graenbi; in Mass loc. 'graembi 


granny 'graem 


Gran Chaco 'gran'tjako 


grant graent; E+ grant, grant; |-ed -id 


grand graend, before some conss.+^xa {cf 


Grant graent 


'graend'lek with 'graen'vju) 


grantee graen'ti; E+gran-, gran- 


grandad 'graen^daed [-dy -i 


grantor 'graent*, graen'tar; ES -ta(r, -'taa(r. 


grandam 'graendam 


E+gran-, gran- 


grandame 'graendem, -dam 


granular 'graenjala^; ES 'graenjalaCr 


grandaunt 'graend'aent, miich less freq. -'ant; 


granulate adj 'graenjalit 


E -'ant, -Wt, -'aent 


granulate v 'graenjajlet |-d -id 


grandchild 'graen^tjaild, 'graend- [-ren -it/il- 


granulation jgraenja'lejan 


dran 


granule 'graenjul 


Grand Coulee 'graend'kuli, -'kuli 


Granville 'graenvil 


granddad 'graen^daed |-dy -i 


grape grep 


granddaughter 'graen^data', 'graend-; ES 


grapefruit 'grep jf rut, -jfriut 


-jdata(r 


grapeshot 'grep^/at; ES+-i/i)t 


grandee graen'di 


grapevine 'grep^vain |-d -d 


grandeur 'graendsa', -dsur; ES 'graendsafr. 


graph graef; E+graf, graf; |-ed -t 


-d3ua(r 


graphic 'graef ik |-ly -li |-ally -li 


grandfather 'graenjfa'Sa', 'graend-; ES -jfa?Sa(r, 


graphite 'graef ait |-d -id 


E + -jfa3a(r; |-ly -h 


graphophone, G- 'graef a jf on 


Grandgent 'graendsant 


grapnel 'graepnal |-ed -d 


grandiloquence graen'dilakwans |-ent -ant 


grapple 'graepl |-d -d |-ling 'graeplig, -plig 


grandiose 'graendi^os 


Grasmere 'graesmir; ES -mia(r, E + 'gras-, 


grandiosity jgraendi'asati; ES + -'Dsati 


'gras- 


Grandison 'graendasn 


grasp graesp; E+ grasp, grasp; |-ed -t 


grandma 'graenma, 'graemma, 'graema, 


grass graes; E+gras, gras; |-es -iz |-ed -t 


'graema, 'grandma 


Grasse, de da'gras 


grandmamma 'graen/mama, 'graend-, -ma,ma 


grasshopper 'graes^hapa^; ES -jhapa(r, -jhDpa(r, 


grandmother 'graen^mAcSa^, 'graend-; ES 


E + 'gras-, 'gras- 


-jmAtSaCr; ]-ly -h 


Grassmann 'grasman 


grandnephew 'graen'nef ju, 'graend-, muck less 


grate gret [grated 'gretid 


freq. -'nevju 


grateful 'thankful' 'gretfal |-ly -i 


grandniece 'graen'nis, 'graend- |-s -iz 


grateful 'filled grate' 'grateful |-s -z 


grandpa 'graenpa, 'graempa, 'graempa, 'graend- 


Gratiano jgrae/i'ano, jgra/-, Brit igre/- 


pa 


gratification jgraetafa'ke/an 


grandpapa 'graen,papa, -pa 'pa, 'graend- 


gratify 'graeta^fai |-fied -jfaid 


grandparent 'graen operant, 'graend-, -jpaer-. 


gratin 'graet^ (Fr gra'tse) 


-jper-; S -jpaer-, -/per- 


grating 'gretirj 


Grand Pre 'graen'pre, 'graend- {Fr gra'pre) 


Gratiot 'grae/iat, 'gre- 


Grandpre Shak. 'graenpre, 'graendp-; Fr vil. 


gratis 'gretis 


gra'pre 


gratitude 'graeta^tjud, -jtrad, -jtud 



|full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail jhow hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



G rattan 



190 



grey 



Grattan 'graetn 


Grecian 'gri/an 


gratuitous gra'tjuatas, -'tiu-, -'tu- |-ty -ti 


gree gri 


gratulate 'graetjajlet, -t/u- 


Greece gris ]-'s -iz 


gravamen gra'vemen |-s -z |-mina -Vaemina 


greed grid |-y -i |-ily 'gridli, -dih 


grave grev \past graved grevd \pptc graven 


Greek grik 


'grevan or graved grevd 


Greeley 'grili 


gravel 'graevl |-ed -d |-ing 'grfevhg, -vhg 


green grin | greened grind ]-ness 'grinnis 


gravel-blind 'graevljblamd 


Greenaway 'grina^we 


graven 'grevan 


greenback 'grin^baek 


gravestone 'grevjSton 


green-backed 'grin'baekt ('green-jbacked 'bird) 


graveyard 'grevjard; ES -jard, E+-ja:d 


greenbrier, G- 'grin^braia ; ES -jbrai'a(r 


gravid 'graevid |-ity graVidati 


greenery 'grinari, 'grinri 


gravitate 'graevajtet \-d -id 


green-eyed 'grin'aid ('green-^eyed 'Becky) 


gravitation jgraeva'tejan 


greengrocer 'grin,gros3^; ES -jgrosa(r; |-y -i. 


gravity 'graevati 


-sn 


gravure 'grevjar, -jur; ES 'grevja(r, -jua(r 


greenhorn 'grin^harn; ES -jhaan 


-gravure -gra'vjur; ES -VjuaCr 


greenhouse 'grin^haus |-s -jhauziz 


gravy 'grevi 


Greenland 'grinland 


gray, G- gre 


greensward 'grin^sward; ES -^swaad; |-ed -id 


graybeard 'gre^bird; ES -jbiad, S+"-jbead 


Greenville 'grinvil; S-i--vl 


grayling 'grelio 


Greenwich Engd 'grinidg, 'grtn-, -itj; US 


graze grez | grazes 'greziz | grazed grezd 


places usually 'grinwitj". How far 'gnnitj". 


grazier 'gresa^; ES 'gresaCr 


'gren- are traditional a^id prevalent for some 


grease n gris | greases 'grisiz 


Eastern places, or recent imitations of Brit 


grease v gris, griz; S griz; |-s -iz |-d -grist, 


is doubtful. 'grEiutJ appears to prevail for 


grizd — 'grizi and ta griz are phonetically 


Greenwich Village, NY. 


normal; 'grisi and ta gris imitate the noun 


greenwood, G- 'grin^wud 


grease (gris). 


greet grit | greeted 'gritid 


greasewood 'grisjwud 


Greet, William Cabell 'wiljam'kaebl'grit 


greasy 'grisi, 'grizi; S 'grizi — Some distin- 


gregarious gri'gerias, -'gaer-, -'ger- 


guish 'grisi 'covered -with grease' from ^grizi 


Gregorian gr£'gorian, -'gar-; S -'gorian 


'slimy'. 


Gregory 'gregari 


great gret; S occas. gret, a historical ^orm, cj 


gremial 'grimial 


threat Gret; The pronunciation gret paral- 


Gremio 'grimijO, 'grimjo 


lels that of bread, deaf, sweat, thread, tread. 


Grenada Miss gri'nada, Brit colony gri'neda 


etc. 


grenade gri'ned 


great-aunt 'gret'aent, much less freq. -'ant; E 


grenadier ^grena'dir; ES -'dia(r, S-f-'d£a(r 


-'ant, -'ant, -'aent 


grenadine ^grena'din, 'grena^din 


Great Britain 'gret'britn, -tan 


Grendel 'grendl 


greatcoat 'gret^kot |-ed -id 


Gresham 'grejam, 'gresam — 'gre/am is a 


great deal 'important bargain' 'gret'dil, 


sp. pron. 


'large amount' 'gre'dil, 'gret'dil 


Gretchen 'gretjin 


greaten 'gretn |-ed -d |-ing 'gretnig, -tnig 


Gretel 'gretl — see Hansel and Gretel 


Greatheart 'gret.hart; ES -jha:t, E + -iha:t 


Gretna 'gretna 


greathearted 'gret'hartid; ES -'ha:tid, E + 


Gretna Green 'gretna'grin 


-'ha:tid 


Greville 'gr£vl, -il 


great-uncle 'gret'Agkl 


grew past of grow gru, grra 


greave griv |greaved grivd 


grewsome 'grusam, 'gnu- 


grebe grib 


grey, G- gre 



Key: See in full §§3-A7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angn,- 'aeg-gn 
|bath baeO; E bad (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards Igo go 



greyhound 



191 



gruel 



greyhound 'gre^haund 

grid grid |gridded 'gridid 

griddle 'gridl |-d -d j-ling ^gndlig, -djig 

griddlecake 'gridl^kek 

gride graid | grided 'graidid 

gridiron 'gridjaia^n, -jairn; ES -^ai-an, -jaian 

grief grif 

Grieg grig 

Grierson 'grirsn; ES 'griasn 

grievance 'grivans |-s -iz 

grieve griv \-d -d 1-dly -idly ]-vous -as 

griff grif 

griffin 'grif in | griffon 'grif an 

Griffith 'grifie 

grifter 'grifta^; ES 'griftaCr 

grig grig Igrigged grigd 

grill, -e gril [grilled grild 

grim grim 

grimace gri'mes |-s -iz |-d -t 

grimalkin gri'maelkin, -Wolkin, -'mokin 

grime, G- graim | grimed graimd | grimy 

'graimi 
Grimm grim 
grin grin | grinned grind 
grind graind | ground graund 
grindstone 'grainjstoh, 'graind- 
gringo 'griggo 
Grinnell gri'nel 
grip grip [gripped gript 
gripe graip | griped graipt 
grippe grip 
gripsack 'grip^saek 
Griqualand 'grikwajaend, 'grikwa- 
Griselda gri'zelda 
grisly 'ghastly' 'grizli 

grisly 'gristly' 'grisli, 'grisli v 

grist grist 

gristle 'grisl |-tly 'gnsli, 'grisli 
gristmill 'grist ^mil 
Griswold 'grizwald 
grit grit [gritted 'gritid Igritty ^griti 
grith griO |-ths -Gs 
grits grits |-tten 'gritn 
grizzle 'grizi |-d -d j-ling 'gnzlig, -zhg 
grizzly 'grizli 
groan gron [groaned grond 
groat grot 

grocer 'grosa^; ES 'gros3(r; |-y -i, -sri 
Groesbeck 'grosbek 



grog grag, grng, grag |-ged -d [-gery -an 

l-gy -I 

grogram 'gragram, 'grog-, 'grog- 
groin grain [groined graind 
grommet 'gramit; ES + 'grnmit 
Groningen 'gronigan 
groom grum, grum |-ed -d 
groomsman 'grumzman, 'grumz- j-men -man 
groove gruv [grooved gruvd 
grope grop [groped gropt 
grosbeak 'gros/bik 
grosgrain 'grojgren j-ed -d 
gross gros |-es -iz[-ed -t 
grot coin grot \pl grote 'grota or groten 'grotan 
grot 'grotto' grat; ES+grnt 
grotesque gro'tesk |-rie -an, -skri 
Grotius 'grojias \or De Groot da'grot [Gro- 

tius's -IZ 
Groton US places variously pron. 'gratn, 

'grntn, 'gratn, 'grotn — in NEngd £f NY 

usually 'gratn, 'grntn 
grotto 'grato; ES + 'grnto 
grouch grautj |-es -iz |-ed -t 
ground graund |-ed -id j-ling -lig 
ground-hog 'graund jhag, -jhag, -ihng; S 

-jhag, -thag, -^ng 
groundnut 'graund^nAt, 'graun^nAt 
groundsel 'graunsl, 'graundsl 
groundwork 'graund^wyk; ES -jwak, -^wyk 
group grup [grouped grupt 
grouse bird graus |i ^g -s -iz [-d -t 
grousy 'having grouse' 'grauzi, -si 
grout graut [grouted 'grautid 
grove grov [groved grovd 
grovel 'gravl, 'grAvI; ES+'grovl; J-ed -d |-mg 

-vlig, -vlig — A shows the original vowel, 

a being a sp. pron. 
Grover 'grova^; ES 'grova(r 
grow gro [grew gru, griu [grown gron 
growl graul [growled grauld 
grown gron 
grown-up n 'gron^Ap 

grown-up adj 'gron'Ap ('grown-^up 'boys) 
growth groO |-ths -Gs 
grub grAb [grubbed grAbd 
grubstake 'grAbjStek [-staked -jStekt 
grudge grAdj [grudges 'grAdsiz [grudged 

grAdsd 
gruel 'grual, 'griual [-ed -d 



[full ful [tooth tue [further 'fySa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



gruesome 192 

gruesome 'grusam, 'griu- 

grufE grAf 

grumble 'grAmbl |-d -d |-ling 'grAmblig, 

-blig 
Grumio 'grumijO, 'grumjo 
grumpy 'grAmpi 

Grundy 'grAndi |-ism -/izam |-dyist -ist 
grunt gfAnt | grunted 'grAntid 
Gruyere gru'jer, gri'jer; ES -'je3(r; {Fr 

gry'je:r) 
gryphon 'grifan 
Guadalquivir jgwadrkwiv*, jgwod-; ES 

-V3(r; {Sp jgwatJalki'liir) 
Guadalupe Tex 'gadl^up, jgadl'up, jgwadj'up, 

igwod- {Sp jgwatSa'lupe) 
Guadalupe Hidalgo Mex ,gwadl'up'hi'daelgo, 

jgwod- {Sp jgwaSaUupe-i'tJalgo) 
Guadeloupe WI jgadj'up, ^gwad-, jgwnd- 
Guam gwam, gwnm 
guanine 'gwanin, 'gwon- 
guano 'gwano, 'gwono 
guarantee jgaeran'ti |-d -d 
guarantor 'garanta', -tar, in contrast -'tar; ES 

-t3(r, -t33(r, -'t33(r 
guaranty 'gaeranti |-tied -tid 
guard gard; ES ga:d, E+ga:d; |-ed -id 
guardhouse 'gard^haus |-houses -jhauziz; ES 

see guard 
guardian 'gardian; ES see guard 
guardroom 'gard,rum, -,rum; ES see guard 
guardsman 'gardzman |-men -man; ES see 

guard 
Guatemala ^gwata mala, jgwnt-, older igata- 

^mala |-n -n 
guava 'gwava, 'gwova 
Guayaquil jgwaia'kil {Sp jgwaja'kil) 
gubernatorial jgjub^na'torial, igiu-, -'tar-; 

ES -bana-, S -'tor- 
gudgeon 'gAdsan |-ed -d 
Gudrun 'gudrun 

guelder-rose 'gelda^^roz; ES 'gelda- 
Guelph gwelf 
guerdon 'gydn; ES 'gsdn, 'gydn j-ed -d 

|-ing -dnig, -dnig 
Guernsey, g- 'ga^nzi; ES 'gsnzi, 'gynzi 
guerrilla, gueri- ga'rila 
guess g£s I guesses 'gesiz | guessed gsst 
guesswork 'ges^ws^k; ES -^wsk, -jwyk 
guest g£st Iguested 'gestid 



gun 

guffaw gA'fa, ga'fa |-ed -d 

Guiana gi'asna, gi'ana {Sp 'gjana) 

guidance 'gaidns |-s -iz 

guide gaid | guided 'gaidid 

Guiderius gwi'dirias, -rjas |-'s -iz 

guidon 'gaidn 

guild gild 

Guildenstern 'gildn^styn; ES -^stsn, -^styn 

guilder 'gilda^; ES 'gilda(r 

Guildford 'gilfa^d; ES 'gilfad 

guildhall, G- 'gild'hal— c/ ylw 'town 'hall 

guile gail |-ful -fal | -fully -fall [-less 'gailhs 

Guilford 'gilfa-d; ES 'gilfad 

guillemot 'gila^mat; ES + -jmDt 

guillotine n 'gila^tin 

guillotine v jgila'tin, 'gilajtin |-d -d 

guilt gilt |-y -I |-ily 'giltab, -tib 

guimpe 'chemisette^ gaemp, gimp {Fr g^:p) 

Guinea, g- 'gini 

Guinevere, -ver 'gwina^vir, -va^; ES -jViaCr, 

-va(r 
Guiney 'gaini 

guise gaiz [guises 'gaiziz [guised gaizd 
guitar gi'tar; ES -'ta:(r, E + -'ta:(r 
Guiterman 'gita^man; ES 'gita- 
gulch gAlt/ I gulches 'gAltJiz |gulched gAlt/t 
gulden 'guldan 
gules gjulz, giulz 
gulf gAlf I gulfed gAlft 
gulfweed 'gAlf^wid 
gull gAl Igulled gAld 
Gullah 'gAla 
gullet 'gAlit |-ed -id 
gullibility ^gAla'bilati 
gullible 'gAlabl |-bly -bh 
Gulliver 'gAlava^; ES 'gAlava(r 
gully 'gAb I gullied 'gAbd 
gulp gAlp I gulped gAlpt 
gum gAm Igummed gAmd 
gum arable jgAm'aerabik, now rare ^gAma- 

'rebik 
gumbo 'gAmbo 

gumdrop 'gAm^drap; ES-h-jdrup 
gumption 'gAmpJan |-tious -Jas 
gums 'alveoli' gAmz, jnuch less frcq. gumz, 

gumz 
gumshoe 'gAm'/u, 'gAm^/u 
gumwood 'gAm^wud 
gun gAn Igunned gAnd 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret Iji-et jst |sang saeg ]angry 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj, wntj (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards |go go 



gunboat 193 

gunboat 'gAn^bot 

guncotton 'gAnjkatn; ES+-jkDtn 

gunfire 'gAn^fair; ES -jfai3(r 

gunman 'gAn^maen, -man |-men -jmen, -man 

Gunnar 'gunar. Am pers. name 'gAna^; ES 

-a:(r, -3(r 
gunnel 'gAnl 

gunner 'gAna^; ES 'gAn3(r; |-y -i 
gunny 'gAni 

gunpowder, G- 'gAHjpauda'; ES -jpaud3(r 
gunrunning 'gAn^rAnig 
gunshot 'gAn/Jat; ES+'j/ot 
gunwale 'gAnl 

gurge gyds; ES gsds, gs^ds; \-s -iz 1-d -d 
gurgitation jgyd33'te/an; ES jgsds-, jgyds- 
gurgle 'gygl; ES 'gsgl, 'gygl; |-d -d j-ling 

-ghg, -glig 
Gurkha 'gurka; ES 'guaka 
gurnard 'gyna'd; ES 'ganad, 'gynad 
Gurney, -nee 'gym; ES 'gsni, 'gym 
gush gAj I gushes 'gAjiz | gushed gA/t 
gusset 'gAsit Igusseted 'gAsitid 
gust gAst I gusty 'gASti 
gustation gAs'te/an 
gustatory 'gAstajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 
Gustavus gAs'tevas |-'s -iz 
gusto 'gAsto 
gut gAt I gutted 'gAtid 
Gutenberg 'gutn^byg; ES -ibsg, -jbyg; {Ger 

'gurtanjberk) 
Guthrie 'gAOri 
Guthrun 'gutSrun 
gutta 'gAta 

gutta-percha 'gAta'pytJa; ES -'pstja, -'pyt Ja 
Guttenberg US 'gAtn^byg; ES -ibag, -jbyg 
gutter 'gAta'; ES 'gAta(r; |-ed -d 
guttersnipe 'gAta^^snaip; ES 'gAta- 



habitant 

guttural 'gAtaral |-ly -i 

guy gai I guyed gaid 

Guyandot 'gaian^dat; ES+'idnt 

guzzle 'gAzl |-d -d [-ling 'gAzjig, 'gAzlig 

Gwendolen, -ine, -yn 'gwendjin 

Gwinnett gwi'net 

gybe dsaib |-d -d 

gymnasium dsim'neziam, -zjam |-s -z |-sia 

-zia 
gymnast Msimnaest 

gymnastic dsim'naestik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikh 
gynae- see gyne- 

gynarchy 'dsainarki; ES -a:ki, E + -a:ki 
gynecologic jdsaimka'ladsik, jgain-; ES + 

-'lDd5-; l-al -1 
gynecologist jdsaini'kaladsist, ^gaim-; ES + 

-'knl- 
gynecology jdsaim'kaladji, ^gaini-; ES + 

-'kol-; — One form is as 'correct' as the 

other. The first is more Englished. 
gyp dsip I gypped dsipt 
g)T)sum 'dsipsam 
gypsy 'dsipsi 
gyral 'dsairal |-ly -i 
gyrate 'dsairet j-d -id j-tion dsai 're/an 
gyrator dsai'reta', 'dsaireta^; ES -ta(r 
gyratory 'dsairajtori, -jtari; S -^tori 
gyre dsair; ES dsaiaCr; |-d -d 
gyrfalcon 'dsy^falkan, -jfakan; ES 'djs-, 

'dsy- 
gyro 'dsairo 

gyrocompass 'dsairojkAmpas |-es -iz 
gyroscope 'dsaira^skop 
gyroscopic jdsaira'skapik; ES+-'skDp-; [-ally 

-h, -ikli 
gyrostatic jdsaira'staetik [-ally -li, -ikk 
gyve dsaiv | gyved dsaivd 



H, h letter etf \pl H's, Hs, poss H's 'et/iz 

ha intj, n ha \pl has, ha's haz 

ha V ha |haes haz |haed had |haing 'ha-ig 

Haarlem 'harlam; ES 'ha:lam, E-i-'ha:lam 

Habakkuk ha'baskak, 'haeba^kAk 

Habana 'Havana' Sp a'(5ana 

habeas corpus 'hebias'karpas; ES -'kaapas 



H 



haberdasher 'haeba'^dae/a'; ES 'haebajdaeja(r; 

|-y -I, -Jri 
habergeon 'haeba^dsan; ES 'haebadsan 
habiliment ha'bilamant 
habilitate ha'bila^tet |-tated -jtetid 
habit 'haebit |-ed -id |-able -abl |-bly -bb 
habitant 'haebatant 



|full ful |tooth tuG Ifurther 'fytJa^; ES 'fsSa |custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
|using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dif |vision 'vijan |Eden 'idn [cradle 'kred} [keep 'em 'kipm 



habitat 



194 



half-tone 



habitat 'haebajtaet |-tation jhaeba'te/an 


hail hel [hailed beld |hailstone 'bel/Ston 


habitual ha'bit/ual, -t/ul |-ly -i 


Haile Selassie 'baibsa'lasi, -sa'laesi 


habituate ha'bit/uict |-ated -jctid 


hailstorm 'bel^starm; ES 'beljstaam 


habitude 'haeba^tjud, -jtiud, -jtud 


hair her, baer; E bea(r, ES baea(r ; |-ed -d |-y -i 


habitue ha'bit/uje, ha.bit/u'e (i^r abi'tqe) 


hairbreadth 'berjbrede, 'baer-; ES see hair 


Habsburg 'haepsbyg; ES -bsg, -ba^g; {Ger 


hairbrush 'bEr,brAj, 'baer-; ES see hair 


'harpsburk) — see Hapsburg 


haircloth 'berjkbe, 'baer-, -jklnB; ES see hair; 


hacienda jhasi'enda {Sp a'sjenda) 


pi see cloth 


hack bask | hacked haekt 


haircut 'ber jkAt, 'baer- ; ES see hair 


hackamore 'haekajmor, -jinar; ES -^moaCr, 


hair-do 'berjdu, 'baer-; ES see hair 


E+-jm33(r 


hairdresser 'ber^drEsa^, 'baer-; ES -a(r, see 


hackberry 'haek^beri, -ban 


hair 


hackbut 'haekbAt — see hagbut 


hairline 'berjlam, 'baer-; ES see hair 


hackle 'haekl |-d -d |-ling ^sekhg, %aeklig 


hair's-breadth 'berz'bredO, 'baerz-, -jbredG; 


hackman 'haekman, -jmaen [hackmen 'haek- 


E 'beaz-, ES 'basaz- 


man, -jmen 


hairsplitter 'ber^spbta^, 'baer-; ES -iSphta(r, 


hackney 'haekni | hackneyed 'haeknid 


see hair 


had stressed 'haed, jbaed; Mwsi?". had, bed, ad. 


hairspring 'ber^spng, 'baer-; ES see hair 


Ed, id I'd d 


Haiti 'heti |Haitian 'hetian 


Haddington ^haedigtan 


hake bek 


haddock 'haedak 


Hakluyt 'baeklut, 'baeklait, 'baekkt 


Hades 'hediz | Hades' 'bediz 


halation be'le/an, bae'lejan 


hadj haeds |hadjes 'baedsiz |hadji 'baedsi 


halberd 'baelba^d; ES 'bselbad; [-rt -t— for- 


hadn't 'haednt, before some conss. + ^hxdn 


merly 'balb-, 'bab-, spelt haubert, holberd 


('baedn 'sinim) 


halcyon 'baelsian 


Hadrian 'hedrian 


Haldane 'balden 


hadst stressed 'baedst, jbaedst; unstr. hadst, 


hale bel |haled beld 


adst, dst 


half baef ; E baf, baef, haf ; |-'s -s |-lves -vz 


haem- see hem- 


half-and-half 'baefn'baf ; E see half 


haemo- see hemo- 


halfback 'baef^baek; E see half 


Haensel 'bensl = Hansel 


half-baked 'baef 'bekt; E^ee half; ('half-^baked 


haft haeft |hafted 'baeftid 


'scheme) 


hag baeg 


half-blooded 'bafbUdid; E see half; ('haK- 


Hagar 'bega', 'begar; ES 'bega(r, 'hega:(r 


iblooded 'Indian) 


hagbut 'baegbAt 


half-breed 'baef^brid; E see half 


Hagen 'bagan 


half-caste 'baef^kaest; E+'baf^kast, 'baf^kast 


Hagerstown 'bega^Zjlaun; ES 'hegaz- 


half -full 'baf'ful; E see half 


haggada ba^gada, -da \pl haggadoth ha^gadoO 


halfhearted 'baef'bartid; ES -'ba:tid, E+ 


Haggai 'haegijai, 'haegai 


-'bartid — see half; ('half-hearted 'effort) 


haggard, H- 'baeg^d; ES 'baegad 


half-hour 'baef'aur; ES -'aua(r, E see half 


haggis 'baegis |-es -iz 


half-length 'baef'kgke, -'kge; E sec half 


haggle 'baegl |-d -d j-ling 'baeglig, 'baegbg 


half-mast 'baef'maest; E -i- 'baf 'mast, 'baf- 


hagiography jbaegi'agrah, jhedsi-, -'ng- 


'mast 


hagiolatry jbaegi'alatn, jbedsi-; ES + -'d1- 


half-moon 'baef'mun; E see half 


hagiology jbaegi'aladsi, jbedsi-; ES+-'d1- 


halfpenny Brit 'bepm, 'bepani \pl halfpence 


Hague beg 


'bepans, halfpennies 'hepniz, 'bepaniz 


Hahnemann ^banaman (Ger 'ba:naiman) 


half-timbered 'baef 'timba^d ; ES -'timbad, E 


Haidarabad ^baidara^baed, jbaidara^bad 


see half 


haikwan 'bai'kwan 


half-tone 'baef^ton; E see half 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg [angry 'aeg-gn 
|bath baeG; E baB (§10) |ah a |far far [watch wat/, -wniS (§12) jjaw dsa [gorge g3rd3 [go go 



half-truth 



195 



handful 



half-truth 'haefjtrue; E see half 




Hamburg 'haembyg; ES 'haembag, -byg; 


halfway 'haef'we; E see half; ('halfjway 'up) 


{Ger 'hamburk) 


half-witted 'haef'witid; E see half 




hamburger 'haembyga^; ES 'haeinb3ga(r, 


Haliburton 'haelajbs^tn; ES -ibstn, - 


jbytn 


-byga(r 


hahbut 'haebbat, 'habbat; ES + 'hol 


- 


hame hem 


Halicarnassus /haelikar'naesas ; ES 


-ka:'n-; 


Hamilcar ba'milkar, 'haemj-; ES -ka:(r. 


|-SUS' -S3S 




E+-ka:(r 


halide 'haelaid, ^belaid 




Hamilton 'haemltan jHamiltonian jhaemj- 


halidom 'haehdam |halidome 'haelijdom 


'toman 


Halifax 'haelajfaeks [Halifax's 'haela^faeksiz 


Hamite 'baemait |-tic baem'itik, ha'mitik 


Haligonian jhaela'gonian, jhaeh- 




hamlet, H- 'haembt 


halitosis jhaela'tosis 




hammer 'haema^; ES 'haema(r; j-ed -d |-ing 


HaHver 'haebva', 'hae^liva'; ES -va(r 




'haemariij, 'haemrii) 


hall, H- hal 




hammerhead 'haema^jbed; ES 'baemajbed; 


Hallam 'hsebm 




|-ed -id 


Halle Am name 'haeh; Ger city 'hala 




hammock 'baemak 


Halleck 'h«hk, 'hsbk 




Hammurabi jhama'rabi, jhamu'rabi 


hallelujah, -iah jhsebluja, -'huja 




Hampden 'baempdan, 'baemdan 


Halley 'h«h 




hamper 'haempa^; ES 'haempa(r; |-ed -d |-ing 


Halliburton 'haebjbytn; ES -ibstn, - 


jbytn 


'baemparig, ^baemprig 


Halliday 'haebjde 




Hampshire 'baemp/ir, 'baempja^; ES -/laCr, 


Halliwell 'haeb^wel, 'haebwal 




-Xa(r 


hallmark 'hallmark; ES 'hDl^ma 


k, E + 


Hampstead 'baempsted, 'baempstid 


-;ma:k; |-ed -t 




Hampton 'baemptan 


hallo, -loa ha'lo 




hamstring 'hfem^strig [-strung -jStrAg or 


halloo haUu [hallooed hsUud 




-stringed -,strigd 


hallow 'haelo, -a J-ed -d, worship ' 


laebwid 


Hamsun, Knut 'knut'baemsan, -'bamsun 


|-ing 'haebwig 




Hamtramck Mich baem'traemik 


Halloween jbaelo'in, jhab'in ('Hallowjcen 


Han ban 


'joke) 




hanaper 'baenapa^; ES 'baenapa(r 


Hallowmas 'haelojinaes, -mas |-es -iz 




Hancock 'haenkak; ES + 'baenkok 


hallucinate ha'lusrijet, -'bu- |-d -id 




hand baend [handed 'haendid 


hallucination hajlusn'e/an, -jhu- 




handbag 'baend^baeg, 'baen^baeg 


hallucinatory hs'lusna^tori, -'bu-. 


■jtari; S 


handball 'baend^bal, 'baen/bal 


-(ton 




handbarrow 'baend^baero, 'baen,baero, -a 


hallway 'hal^we 




handbill 'basndjbil, 'baen,bil 


halo 'helo | haloed 'helod 




handbook 'baendjbuk, 'baen^buk 


halogen 'baebdsan, -d3in 




handbreadth 'baend^brEde, 'baeiijbrEde |-ths 


haloid 'haebid, 'hebid 




-es 


Halpin, -ine 'haelpm 




handcar 'baend^kar, 'baen-; ES -ika:(r, E + 


Hals, Frans 'frans'hals, 'fraens'haels 


l-'s -IZ 


-jka:(r 


Halstead 'hoisted, 'halstid, 'bael- 




handcart 'baend jkart, 'baen-; ES -jkait. 


halt halt [halted 'haltid 




E+-,ka:t 


halter 'halta-; ES 'haltaCr 




Handcock 'baenkak; ES + -kDk 


halve haev; E hav, haev, hav |-d -d 




handcuff 'baendjkAf, 'haen^kAf [-cuffed -jkAft 


halyard 'haelja'd; ES 'haeljad 




Handel 'baendl {Ger Handel 'bEndal) 


ham, H- baem 




HandeHan baen'dihan, -'diljan 


hamadryad jhaema'draiad, -'draiaed 




handfast 'baend^fiest, 'baen-; E-i--jfast, -jfast 


Haman 'heman 




handful 'baend ,ful, 'baen^ful [-s -z 



[full ful [tooth tu6 [further 'fytSa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while bwail [how bau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan jEden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



handgrip 



196 



hardheaded 



Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 



handgrip 'hsend^grip, 'haen^grip 


Hanover 'haenova'; ES 'haenovaCr; {Ger Han- 


handicap 'haendijkaep |handicapped 'haendi- 


nover ha'no:var, loc. ha'norfar) 


(kaept 


Hanoverian ,haeno'vinan 


handicraft 'haendi^kraeft; E+-;kraft, -^kraft 


Hans haens, -z {Ger hans) 


handicraftsman 'haendijkraeftsman; E + 


Hansard 'haensa'd, 'haensord; ES 'hansad, 


-jkrafts-, -jkrafts-; |-men -man 


-sa:d 


handiwork 'haendi^wyk; ES -jwsk, -jW^k 


hanse haens |hanses 'haensiz 


handkerchief 'haegka^t/if, -itjif; ES -ka-; |-s 


Hanseatic ,haensi'aetik, ,haenzi'aetik 


-t/ivz, -tfifs, -itjivz, -it/ifs 


hansel 'haensl hanseled 'haensld 


hand-knit 'haend'nit, 'haen'nit |-ted -id 


Hansel and Gretel 'henslan'gretj 


handle 'haend| |-d -d |-Hng 'haendhg, -dlig 


hansom 'haensam 


handleless 'haend}hs. 


Hants short for Hampshire haents 


handmade 'haend'med, %aen- ('handimade 


hap haep ] happed haept | haply 'haepli 


'shoe) 


haphazard /haep'haeza^d; ES -'haezad 


handmaid 'haend^med, 'haen- |-en -^med^ 


haploid 'haeplaid |-loidic haep'laidik 


hand-me-down 'haenmi^daun 


haplosis haep'losis 


handout 'haend^aut 


happen 'haepan, -pm |-ed -d |-ing -panig, 


handrail 'haend^rel 


-pnig 


handsaw 'haend^sa, 'haen- 


happy 'haepi |-pily -pli, -pili 


handsel 'hiensl |-ed -d 


happy-go-lucky 'haepi,go'lAki 


handset 'haend'set, 'haen- ('hand^set 'type) 


Hapsburg 'haepsbyg; ES -bag, -byg; {Ger 


handsome 'haensam 


'ha:psburk) 


handspike 'haenjspaik, 'haend- 


hara-kiri 'hara'kiri, 'haera- 


handspring 'haen^sprii), 'haend- 


harangue ha'raeg |-d -d |-guing -'ragig 


hand-to-mouth 'haendta'mauG, 'haentta- 


harass 'haeras, ha'raes; S + 'haens; |-es -iz 


handwork 'haend^wyk; ES -jwsk, -,wyk 


|-ed -t — The pronunciation ha'raes instead 


handwriting 'haend^raitig 


of the older 'haeras appears to be on the in- 


handy 'haendi 


crease. 


hang haeg |hung hAg or hanged haegd |-ing 


Harbin 'har'bin; ES 'har'bin 


'haegig 


harbinger 'harbindsa^; ES 'ha:bmd3a(r; 


hangar 'haega', 'haeggar; ES 'haegaCr, 'haeg- 


l-ed -d 


ga:(r 


harbor 'harba^; ES 'ha:ba(r; |-ed -d |-ing 


Hangchow 'hajg't/au (CJiin 'xag'dso) 


-bang, -bng |-age -bands, -brids 


hangdog 'haeg, dag, 'haeg, dog 


Harcourt 'harkort, -kart, -ka^t; ES -koat. 


hanger 'haega^; ES 'haeg3(r 


-kat, E+-kaat 


hanger-on 'haega^'an, -'on, -'an 


hard hard; ES ha:d 


hangers-on 'haega^z'an, -'on, -'an; ES 'haegaz- 


hard-bitted 'hard'bitid; ES 'ha:d-; ('hard- 


hangman 'haegman [hangmen 'haegman 


jbitted 'horse) 


hangnail 'haeg,nel 


hard-bitten 'hard'bitn; ES 'ha:d- 


hank haegk |hanked haegkt 


hard-boiled 'hard'baild; ES 'ha:d- 


hanker 'haegka^; ES 'haegka(r; |-ed -d |-ing 


harden 'hardn; ES 'ha:dn; |-ed -d |-ing 


'haegkarig, 'haegkrig 


-dnig, -dnig 


Hankow 'haen'kau, 'haeg'kau {Chinese 'xan- 


hard-featured 'hard'fit/a^d; ES 'haid'fitjad 


'ko) 


hard-fisted 'hard'fistid; ES 'ha:d- 


hanky-panky 'haegki'paegki 


hardhack 'hard^hsk; ES 'ha:d,haek 


Hanley 'haenli 


hardhanded 'hard'haendid; ES 'ha:d- 


Hannah 'haena 


hardhead 'hardjhcd; ES 'ha:d- 


Hannibal 'haenabl 


hardheaded 'hard'hedid; ES 'hard- 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angry 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E ba6 (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards |go go 



hardhearted 



197 



hasty 



Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:m) 
Words below that have ae before r (carry 'kaeri) are often pronounced in N with e ('ken, §94) 



hardhearted 'hard'hartid; ES 'ha:d'ha:tid 

hardihood 'hardi^hud; ES 'ha:di- 

hardly 'hardh; ES 'ha:dli 

hardmouthed 'hard'mau'Sd, -9t; ES %a:d-; 

('hardimouthed 'horse) 
hardpan 'hard;paen; ES 'hard- 
hard-shell 'hardjEl; ES 'hard-; |-ed -d 
hardship 'hardjip; ES 'hard- 
hardtack 'hardjtaek; ES 'hard- 
hardware 'hardjWEr, -jwaer; E 'hard^weaCr, 

ES -jwaeaCr 
hardwood 'hardjwud; ES 'hard- 
hardy, H- 'hardi; ES 'hardi; |-dily -dli, -dili 
hare her, haer; E heaCr, ES hae3(r; |-d -d 
harebell 'her^bel, 'hter-; ES see hare 
harebrained 'her'brend, 'haer-; ES see hare 
harelip 'hEr'hp, 'haer-, -jhp; ES see hare 
harelipped 'het'lipt, 'haer-; ES see hare; 

('harejlipped 'boy) 
harem 'heram, 'haer-, 'her-; S 'haeram, 'her- 
Harfleur 'harfly; ES 'harfbcr, 'harfls^; (Fr 

ar'flcErr) — in Shak Harflew 'harflu, -fhu; 

ES 'harf- 
haricot 'haeri^ko j-coed -,kod 
hark hark; ES hark; j-ed -t 
harken 'harkan; ES 'hark-; [-ed -d |-ing 

-kanig, -knit) 
Harleian 'harlian, har'lian; ES 'harl-, har'l- 
Harlem 'harlam; ES 'harlam 
harlequin, H- 'harlakwin, -km; ES 'harl- 
harlequinade ^harlakwin'ed, -kin-; ES jharl- 
Harley 'harh; ES 'hark 
harlot 'harlat; ES 'harbt; |-ry -ri 
harm harm; ES harm; |-ed -d |-ful -fal |-fully 

-fall 
harmonic har'manik; ES har'manik, -'mon-; 

|-a -a l-ally -li, -ikh 
harmonious har'monias; ES ha'mon-; |-nium 

-mam 
harmonize 'harmajnaiz; ES 'harm-; [-s -iz 

l-d-d 
harmony 'harmani; ES 'harm-; |-nied -nid 
harness 'harms; ES 'harms; |-es -iz |-ed -t 
Harold 'haerald 
harp harp; ES harp; |-ed -t 
harpoon har'pun; ES har'pun; [-ed -d 
harpsichord 'harpsi/kard; ES 'harpsijkaad 



Harpy 'harpi; ES 'harpi 

harquebus 'harkwibas; ES 'harkwibas; |-es 

-IZ 

harquebusier jharkwibas'ir; ES jharkwibas- 

'ia(r, S+-'£a(r 
harridan 'haeradan 
harrier 'haena^; ES 'haeri-a(r 
Harriet 'hasriat, 'haeriit 
Harrison 'haerasn 

Harrisburg 'haeriSibyg; ES -/bsg, -^byg 
harrow, H- 'haero, -a |-ed -d |-ing 'haerawig 
harry, H- 'haeri | harried 'haerid 
harsh harj; ES bar/ 
hart hart; ES hart 
Harte hart; ES hart 
hartebeest 'harta^bist; ES 'harta^bist 
Hartford 'hartfa-d; ES 'hartfad 
hartshorn 'harts jharn; ES 'harts jbaan 
Harum 'hsram, 'haeram; S 'haeram 
harum-scarum 'heram'skeram, 'haeram- 

'skaeram; S 'haeram'skaeram; ('harum- 
-scarum 'manners) 
Harun-al-Raschid 'haerunael'raejid, ha'run- 

jarra'Jid 
haruspex ha'rAspeks, 'haeras- |-pexes -^peksiz 

|haruspices ha'rAspi,siz 
Harvard 'harvard; ES 'harvad 
harvest 'harvist, -vast; ES 'harvist; |-ed -id 
Harvey 'harvi; ES 'harvi 
Harwich Engd 'haerids, 'haeritj; Mass 'har- 

wit/; ES 'harwitj; |-'s -iz 
Harz harts ; ES harts 

has stressed 'haez, ^haez; unstr. haz, az |'s z, s 
has-been 'haez, bin 
Hasbrouck 'haezbruk 
Hasdrubal 'haezdrubl, 'haezdrujbael 
hash haej [hashes 'hae/iz [hashed haejt 
hashish, -eesh 'haejij 
hasn't 'haeznt, bef. some com55. + 'haezn ('hazn 

'gan) 
hasp haesp; E-i-hasp, hasp; |-ed -t 
hassock 'haesak |-ed -t 

hast stressed 'haest, jhaest; unstr. hast, ast, st 
haste best | hasted 'hestid 
hasten 'hesn |-ed -d |-ing 'hesnig, 'hesmg 
Hastings 'hestigz |-'s -iz 
hasty 'hesti [hastily 'hestli, -tili 



|full ful [tooth tu9 [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fstSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij" [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



hat 



198 



headgear 



hat haet |hatted 'haetid 


Havre de Grace 'haeva'da'graBs, -'gres; 


ES 


hatband 'haetjbaend 


'baeva- 




hatbox 'haetjbaks; ES+-,bDks; |-es -z 


haw ba [hawed had 




hatch haetj | hatches 'haetjiz [hatched haet/t 


Hawaii ha'waija, ba'waja, ba'wnja. 


ba- 


hatchel 'haetjal |hatcheled 'hsetjald 


'wai'i, ba'wa-i 




hatchery 'haetjari, 'haetjri 


Hawarden US 'bewardn; ES -wa:dn; \\ 


'ales 


hatchet 'haet Jit |-ed -id 


'ba-a'dn, 'bardn; ES 'ba-adn, 'ba:dn 




hatchway 'haetX,we 


hawk hak [hawked bakt 




hate het | hated 'hetid [hateful 'hetfal [-fully 


hawk-eyed 'bak,aid 




-fall 


Hawkins 'bakmz [Hawkins's 'bakmziz 




hath stressed 'haeG, jhaeG; tmstr. haO, 36 


hawse baz [hawses 'baziz 




Hathaway 'haeOajWe 


hawsehole 'bazjbol, 'bas- 




Hathorn(e) 'hDOarn; ES ^hoQoani—The BBC 


hawser 'baza^; ES 'baza(r 




recommends 'haeGorn/or the British name. 


hawthorn, Hawthorn (e) 'ba,eam; ES -jOaan 


hatred 'hetrid 


hay be [hayed bed [haying 'be-ig 




hatter 'haeta^; ES 'haet3(r 


Hayakawa jhaia'kawa 




Hatteras 'haetaras jHatteras's 'haetarasiz 


haycock 'be^kak; ES + 'bejkok 




hauberk 'habyk; ES 'habsk, 'habyk 


Hayden 'bedn 




Haugen 'haugan 


Haydn 'haidn, 'bedn 




haughty 'hati j-tily -tli, -tih 


Haydon 'bedn 




haul hal [hauled bald [haulage 'halids 


Hayes bez Hayes's 'beziz 




haunch bantj", hontj, bant/ [-es -iz |-ed -t 


hayfork 'be.fark; ES 'be^faak 




haunt bant, hrnit, bant [-ed -id 


hayloft 'be^laft, 'be.lnft 




Hauptmann 'bauptman, 'baupm- {Ger 'baupt- 


haymarket 'hejinarkit; ES 'be^markit 




man) 


haymow 'bcjinau 




hautboy 'bobai, 'obai {Fr o'bwa) 


hayrack 'be^raek [-rick -^rik 




hauteur bo'ty, o'ty; ES -'t3(r -'ty; {Fr 


hayseed 'be^sid -stack -,stsk 




o'toe:r) 


Hayti 'beti, US places + \eta.\ 




Havana haVaena {Sp Habana a '(Sana) 


Hayward 'bewa^d; ES 'hewad 




have stressed 'baev, ,baev; unstr. bav, av [Ve v 


hayward 'be^ward, -wa^d; ES 'be^waad, - 


wad 


[have to hef. conss. 'baefta, bef. vow. 'haeftu, 


hazard 'baeza^d; ES 'baezad; [-ed -id [-ous 


-as 


'baefta — In "I could of done it," of is 


haze bez [hazes 'heziz [hazed bezd 




merely a misspelling for have. Their pro- 


hazel, H- 'bezl [-nut -nat, -^nAt 




nunciation is identical. The pron. %aefta. 


Hazledean 'bezljdin 




'baeftu is universal in unafected familiar 


Hazleton 'bezltan 




speech in US and England. 


Hazlitt 'baezbt 




Havelock, -lok, h- 'baevlak; ES+-lDk 


hazy 'bezi [-zily -zji, -zili 




haven 'bevan [havened 'bevand 


he stressed 'hi, ^bi; unstr. i, i, hi 




haven't 'baevnt, hef. some com^5. + 'baevn 


head bed [headed 'btdid 




('baevn 'sinim) 


headache 'b^d^ek 




Haverford 'baeva^fa^d; ES 'baevafad 


headband 'bed^baend 




Haverhill 'bevaril, 'bevril, -ral 


headboard 'bEd^bord, -^bard; ES -jboad, 


haversack 'baeva'jsaek; ES 'baeva,saek 


E-f-jbaad 




Haverstraw 'baeva'jstra; ES 'baevajStra 


headcheese 'bedjijiz [-s -iz 




havior 'bevja'; ES 'hevja(r 


headdress 'bedjdres [-es -iz 




havoc 'baevak 


headfirst 'bed'fyst; ES -'fsst, -'fyst 




Havre US 'baeva^; ES 'bava(r 


headforemost 'bed'torjinost, -'far-, -mast 


ES 


Havre France 'bava^, 'bavra; ES 'bava(r, 


-'foa-, E-i--'faa- 




'bavra; {Fr la'a:vr) 


headgear 'bed^gir; ES -igia(r, S-i--jgea(r 





Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang saeg [angrj-- 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeG; E ba6 (§10) [ah a [far far [watch wat/, wot/ (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



heading 



199 



Hecuba 



Words below in which ea before r (heart) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (ha:t) 



heading 'hedig 


hearthstone 'harO^ston; ES 'harO-; — see 


headland implowed land 'hedjaend, 'promon- 


hearth 


tory^ 'hedland 


heartily 'hartli, -ih; ES 'hart- 


headlight 'hedjait 


heartsease 'hartSjiz; ES 'harts- 


headline 'hedjlain j-d -d 


heartsick 'hart;Sik, -'sik; ES 'hart- 


headlock 'hed^lak; ES + -jlDk 


heartsore 'hart^sor, -jsar; ES -jSoa(r, E + 


headlong 'hed'bg, -ibg, -og; S + -ag 


-(Saa(r; ace/ -i- 'heart 'sore 


headman 'hEdmon -men -man 


heartstring 'hartjstrig; ES 'hart- 


headmaster 'hed'tnaesta^; ES -t3(r, E+-'mas-, 


heart-to-heart 'hartta'hart; ES 'hartta'hart 


-'mas- 


heart-whole 'hart 'hoi; ES 'hart-; ('heart- 


head-on 'hed'an, -'on, -bn ('head-pn 'crash) 


-whole 'maid) 


headphone 'hed^fon 


heartwood 'hartiWud; ES 'hart- 


headpiece 'hEd^pis |-s -iz 


heat hit [heated 'hitid 


headquarters 'hed'kworta^z, -jkw-; ES -'kw33- 


heath hie |-ths -Os 


taz, -jkw- 


heathen 'hiSan |-ism -^izam |-ness -Sannis 


headrest 'hsd^rest 


heathenesse arch. 'hiSanjes 


headsman 'hedzman |-men -man 


heather 'hetJa^; ES 'hE'Sa(r; |-ed -d 


headspring 'hed^sprig 


heatstroke 'hitjstrok 


headstock 'hedjStak; ES-h-iStnk 


heaume horn 


headstone 'h£djSton 


heave hiv | heaved hivd or hove hov 


headstrong 'hEd^strag, -^strDg; S+-iStrag 


heaven 'hsvan, 'hevm |-ward -wa^d; ES -wad 


headwater 'hedjwata^, -jwata^, -jwota^; ES 


Heavener 'hivna^; ES 'hlvna(r 


-t3(r 


heavily 'hevli, -ili 


headway 'hedjwe 


Heaviside 'he vi, said 


headwork 'hediWyk; ES -jwsk, -^wyk 


heavy 'weighty' 'hevi 


heal hil | healed hild 


heavy 'broken-winded' 'hivi 


health helO |-ths -Os |-ful -fal |-fully -fall 


heavy-hearted 'hevi'hartid; ES -'hartid 


healthy 'helGi |-thily -Gali, -Oik 


heavyweight 'hevijwet 


heap hip | heaped hipt 


hebdomad 'hebdajmaed 


hear hir; ES hia(r, S-t-hjeaCr, hjiaCr, h£a(r; 


hebdomadal hefo'damadl; ES + -'dom-; |-ly -i 


1 heard hyd; ES hsd, hyd 


Hebe 'hibi 


hearken 'harkan; ES 'hatkan; ]-ed -d |-ing 


Hebraic hi'bre-ik |-al -1 -ally -li 


-kanig, -kmg 


Hebraism 'hlbriiizam |-ist -ist 


hearsay 'hir^se; ES 'hia-, S-h'hjea-, 'hjia-. 


Hebraistic jhibri'istik [-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 


'hea- 


Hebrew 'hibru, 'hibriu 


hearse hys; ES hss, hys; |-d -t 


Hebrides 'hebrajdiz 


heart hart; ES hart 


Hebron 'hibran 


heartache 'hart^ek; ES 'ha:t- 


Hecate 'hekati, in Shak. 'hekit 


heartbreak 'hart^brek; ES 'hart- 


hecatomb 'hekajtom, -jtum 


heartbroken 'hartjbrokan, -'brokan; ES 


Hecht hekt 


'hart- 


heckle 'hekl |-d -d |-ling 'hekhg, 'heklig 


heartburn 'hartjbyn; ES 'hart^bsn, 'hart,byn; 


hectare 'hekter, -taer; E -tea(r, ES -taea(r 


l-ed -d 


hectic 'hektik |-ly -li |-al -1 |-ally -li 


hearten 'hartn; ES 'hartn; |-ed -d |-ing -tnig. 


hectograph 'hekta^graef; E-h-^graf, -igraf 


-tnig 


Hector 'hekta^; ES 'h£kta(r 


heartfelt 'hart^felt, -'felt; ES 'hart- 


hector 'hekta^; ES 'hekta(r; |-ed -d |-ing 


hearth harO; ES harO; |-ths -&s— Poetic hyO, 


'hsktang, 'hektrig 


hsO is still occas. heard. 


Hecuba 'hekjuba 



jfull ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fytSa'; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail jhow hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan jEden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



he'd 



200 



Helot 



he'd abbr. spelling ofhe had, he would, stressed 


helicoid 'heli/kaid 


'hid, ,hid; imstr. id, id. hid 




hehcoidal jheh'kaidl |-ly -? 


heddle 'hedj |-d -d |-ling -dlig, -dhg 




Hehcon, h- 'hEli,kan, -kan; ES-t--ikDn 


hedge hedj |hedges 'hedjiz |hedged hedsd 


helicopter jheh'kapta^; ES -'kaptad, -'kop- 


hedgehog 'heds^hag, -thog, -ihng; S ■ 


*h3g. 


Heligoland 'hehgojaend 


-,hag, -,hDg 




hehocentric jhiho'sentrik |-al -i |-ally -li. 


hedgerow 'heds^ro 




-ikh 


Hedjaz he'dsaz 




Heliogabalus ;hiha'gaebalas |-'s -iz 


hedonic hi'danik; ES+-'dDn-; |-al -1 |-ally -li 


heliograph 'hihajgraef; E-i--jgraf,, -^grof 


hedonism 'hidrijizani |-ist -ist 




heUometer jhili'amata^^; ES -'amatafr, -'nm- 


Hedwig 'hedwig 




Heliopolis jhih'apahs; ES-i--'Dp-; |-'e -iz 


heed hid | heeded 'hidid |-ful -fal | -fully- 


-fah 


Helios 'hihjQs; ES-f--jDS 


heedless 'hidhs 




heUoscope 'hihajskop, 'hilja= 


heehaw 'hijho, 'i^hS (nasal i) |-ed -d 




heliotherapy jhiho'OErapi 


heel hil | heeled hild |-less 'hilhs 




heUotrope 'hiljajtrop, 'hiha- 


heelpiece 'hil^pis |-s -iz |-d -t 




helium 'hiham 


heeltap 'hil,taep |-tapped -jtaept 




helix 'hihks [-es -iz | helices ^h£k,siz 


Heep, Uriah ju'raia'hip 




hell hel 


hett hsft Ihefted 'heftid [-y -i 




he'll abbr. spellhig of he will, stressed 'hil, jhil; 


Hegel 'hegl 




unstr. il, il, hil 


Hegelian he'gehan, hi'dsihan 




hellbender 'hel^benda^; ES -jbEnda(r 


hegemony hi'dsemam, 'hedsa^mom 




hellbroth 'hEl^braO, -jbroe |-ths -Gs 


hegira, H- hi'dsaira, 'hsdsara 




hellcat 'hEljkaet 


Heidelberg 'haidl^byg; ES -ibsg, -jbyg; 


{Ger 


hell-diver 'hEljdaiva'; ES -jdaiva(r 


'haid3l>£rk) 




hellebore 'hElajbor, -jbar; ES -jboaCr, E+ 


heifer 'hEta-; ES 'hefaCr 




-ibo3{r 


Heifetz 'haifits |-'s -iz 




Hellen 'hslin, -an, -En 


heigh intj he, hai 




Hellene 'helin |Hellenes 'helinz 


heigh-ho intj, n, v 'he'hoj 'hai'ho |-ed -t 




Hellenic hE'lEnik, -'lin- |-ally -li, -ikli 


height halt — cf highth 




Hellenism 'hEhnjizam, -Ian- |-ist -ist 


heighten 'haitn |-ed -d |-ing 'haitnig, -tnig 


Hellenistic jhElm'istik, -Ian- |-al -1 |-aliy -li. 


Heine 'haina 




-ikh 


Heinic, -ne nickname 'haini 




Hellenize 'hfilinjaiz, -Ian- |-s -iz |-d -d 


heinous 'henas 




Hellespont 'hslajspant, -,spDnt 


Heinz haints, hainz |-'s -iz 




hell-fire, H- 'hel'fair, -,fair; ES -aia(r 


heir er, aer; E £3(r, ES ae3(r; |-ess -is |- 


esses 


hellgrammite 'helgrajmait 


-ISIZ 




hellhound 'hEl,haund 


heirloom 'er'lum, 'aer-, -jlum; E 'ea-, ES 


'aea- 


hellion 'hEljan 


Hejaz hs'dsaz 




hellkite 'hEljkait 


hejira, H- hi'dsaira, 'hedsara 




hello hE'lo, ha'lo, "helo, 'hAlo, emph. 'hEVlo, 


Hekate 'hekatij m Shak. 'hekit 




'hAl'lo 


held held 




helm hslm ] helmed helmd 


Helen 'hebn, -an 




helmet 'hElmit |helmeted 'hElmitid 


Helena 'hehna, he 'Una; cf Saint H. &= Lena 


Helmholtz 'hElnijholts |-'s -iz 


Helgoland 'hElgO/laend {Ger -jlant) 




helmsman 'hElmzman j-men -man 


hehacal hi'laiakl -ly -i, -akh 




Heloise Eng name jhElo'iz -'s -iz 


helical 'hehk} -ly -i 




Heloise wife of Abelard jclo'iz \-'s -xz {Fr 


Helicanus ^hEli'kenas |-'s -iz 




ela'iiz 


heUcline 'h£li,klain 




Helot, h- 'hslat, 'hilat |-ism -,izam |-ry -n 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee hi |pity *piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg iangrs' 'ag-gri 
|bath baeO; E ba© (§19) |ah a |far far |watch wat.J', wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa Igorge gards |go go 



help 



201 



hereby 



help help |helped helpt |holp arch. 


past b" 


hennery 'hEnari 


pptc holp |holpen arch, pptc 'holpan 




henpeck 'hEn^pEk |-pecked -ipskt 


helpful 'helpfal |-ly -i 




Henrietta jhenri'Eta 


helpmate 'help^met |helpmeet 'helpjinit 


henry, H- 'hEnri 


Helsingfors 'helsitj^farz, -jfDrs; ES 


-jfaaz, 


hepatic hi'paetik -a -a |-al -1 


-jfaas 




Hephaestus hi'fEstas |-'s -iz 


Helsinki 'helsigki 




Hephzibah 'hEfziba 


helter-skelter 'hElta^'skElta^; ES 'helta'sktl- 


Hepplewhite 'hEpl^hwait 


t3(r 




heptagon 'hEptajgan; ES + -jgDn 


helve helv | helved htlvd 




heptagonal hEp'taeganl 


Helvetia hEi'viJa, -/la |-n -n 




heptameter hEp'taemata'; ES -'t£emata(r 


Helvetii hel'vi/ijai 




heptarchy, H- 'hEptarki; ES -ta:ki, E + -ta:ki 


hem liEm |hemmed h£md 




Heptateuch 'hEpta^tjuk, -jtiuk, -;tuk 


Hemans 'hemanz, 'himanz |-'s -iz 




Hepzibah Pyncheon 'hEpziba'prntJan 


hematic, hae- hi'maetik 




her stressed 'hy, jhs'; ES 'h3(r, ihsir, 'by, ^by; 


hematite, haem- 'hEmajtait 




tmstr. ^, ba^; ES a(r, ha(r 


hemicycle 'hEinajSaikl 




Hera 'bira, 'bira 


hemicyclic jhEma'saiklik, -'sik- 




Heracles 'bErajkliz |-'s -iz 


hemidemisemiquaverjhemi;d£mi's£in3jkwev3^; 


Heraclitus jbEra'klaitas |-'s -iz 


ES -jkwev3(r 




Herakles 'bEra^kHz |-'s -iz 


hemin, hae- 'himin 




herald 'bErald, bErld |-ed -id |-ry -ri 


Hemingway 'hEinig^we 




heraldic bE'raeldik |-al -1 -ally -li, -ikli 


hemiplegy 'hEinijplidsi |-gia ^liEini'plidsia 


herb yb, hyb; ES sb, bsb, yb, hyb 


hemisphere 'hEinasjfir; ES -jfi3(r, S-i- 


-/fEa(r 


herbaceous hy'bejas; ES bs-, by- 


hemispheric jhema'sfErik |-al -1 |-ally 


-li 


herbage 'ybids, 'byb-; ES 'sb-, 'bsb-, %b-. 


hemispheroid jhEma'sfiroid 




'byb- 


hemistich 'hEma^stik 




herbal 'bybl, 'ybl; ES 'bsbj, 'sbl, 'hs-bl, 'ybl; 


hemlock 'hemlak; ES-f-lok 




|-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 


hemoglobin, haem- jhima'globm, jhEina- 


herbarium hy'bEriam, -'baer-, -'ber-; ES hs-. 


hemophiha, haem- ^hima'filia, jhEma- 




by-; |-s -z |-ia -la 


hemorrhage, haem- 'hEmarids, 'hEmrids |-s 


Herbert 'byba^t; ES 'bsbat, 'bybat 


-IZ 




herbiferous hy'bifaras; ES bs-, by- 


hemorrhoid, haem- 'hEmajtaid, 'hEiiiji 


raid 


herbivorous by'bivaras; ES bs-, by- 


hemp hEmp hempen 'hEmpan |-seed - 


jsid 


Herculaneum ihykja'leniam; ES ihs-, jby- 


Hempl, George, Am scholar 'hEmpl 




•herculean, H- by'kjuban, -'kiul-, jbykja'lian; 


hemstitch 'hEmjStitJ -es -iz |-ed -t 




ES -3-, -y- 


hen hEn [henbane 'hEn^ben 




Hercules 'b^kjajiz; ES 'bs-, 'bs^-; |-'s -iz 


hence Hehs 




herd byd; ES bsd, hyd; -ed -id 


henceforth jhEns'forO, -'farG; ES 


-'foaO, 


Herder Ger poet 'hErda^; ES 'hEada(r 


E-F-'faaO 




herdsman 'bydzman; ES 'bsdz-, 'bydz-; 


henceforward jhEns'farwa'd; ES -'faawad 


|-nien -man 


henchman 'hEntJman |-men -man 




here bir; ES bia(r, S+bjea(r, biia(r, iEa(r, 


hencoop 'hEn^kup, -jkup — see coop 




bEa(r 


hendiadys hEn'daiadis 




Here 'biri=Hera 


henequen, -quin %Enakin 




hereabout jbira'baut, 'bira^baut; S+5ee here 


Hengist 'hEggist, 'hEndsist 




hereafter bir'aefta^; ES bir'aefta(r, E-h-'af-, 


Henley 'hEnli 




-'af-, S+see here 


henna 'hEna |hennaed 'hEnad 




hereat hir'aet; S-f-see here 


Hennepin 'hEnapin {Fr En'p^) 




hereby bir'bai; ES bia'bai, S+5ee here 



|full ful |tooth tuG [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while bwail [how bau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision Visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



hereditable 



202 



Hesperia 



hereditable ha'redatabl |-bly -bli 
hereditament jhera'ditamant 
hereditary ha'redajteri |-dity -dati 
herefor hir'far; ES hia'faaCr, S+5ee here 
Hereford 'herafa'd, by Am stockmen usually 

'hyfa^d; ES 'herafad, 'hsf-, 'hyfad; |-shire 

-Jir, -JV; ES -Ji3(r, -/aCr 
herefrom hir'fram, -'from; ES hia-, S+5ee 

here 
herein hir'in; S+^ee here 
hereinafter jhirin'aef ta^ ; ES -'aeftaCr, E+-'af-, 

-'af-, 'Si+see here 
hereinbefore jhirinbi'tor, -'far; ES -'fo3(r, 

E + -'f33(r, ?>+see here 
hereinto hir'intu, -tu; S+^ee here — acct + 

jherein'to 
hereof hir'av, -'af, -'d-; S+i'ee here 
hereon hir'an, -'on, -'an; S+see here 
heresy 'hsrasi jheretic 'heratik 
heretical ha'retikl |-ly -i, -ikh 
hereto hir'tu; ES hia'tu, S + see here 
heretofore jhirta'for, -'far; ES ^hiata'foa(r, 

E + -'faa(r, S+^ee here 
hereunder hir'Anda^; ES -'Anda(r, S+^ee here 
hereunto hir'Antu, -tu; S+^ee here — acct+ 

/hereun'to 
hereupon ;hira'pan, -'pon, -'pan; S+5ee here 
Hereward 'herawa^d; ES 'herawad 
herewith hir'wiG, -'wi?i; ES hia-, S+^ee here; 

cf wherewith 
Herford 'hyfa^d; ES 'hsfad, 'hyfad 
Hergesheimer 'hygas,haim3'; ES 'hsgas- 

jhaima(r, 'hygas;haima(r 
Herington 'herigtan 
heriot, H- 'heriat 
heritable 'heratabl |-bly -bli 
heritage 'hcratids |-tance -tans [-s -iz 
heritor 'hsrata^; ES 'herata(r 
Herkimer 'hykama^; ES 'h3kama(r, 'hyka- 

ma(r 
herl hyl; ES hsl, hyl 
Herman 'hyman; ES 'hsm-, 'hym- 
hermaphrodite hy'maefrajdait; ES hs-, hy- 
hermaphroditic hy/mafra'ditik; ES h3-,hy-; 

l-al -1 l-ally -h, -ikli 
hermeneutic jhyman'jutik, -ma'niutik, -'nu-; 

ES jhs-, jhy-; |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikk 
Hermes 'hymiz; ES 'hsmiz, 'hymiz; l-mes' 



hermetic hy'metik; ES ha-, hy-; |-al -1 

l-ally -h, -ikli 
Hermia 'hymia, -mja; ES 'hsm-, 'hym- 
Hermione hy'maiani; ES ha-, by 
hermit 'bymit; ES 'ham-, 'ham-; |-age -ids 

I -ages -idsiz 
Hermon 'hyman; ES 'ham-, 'ham- 
hernia 'bynia, -nja; ES 'han-, 'ban-; |-s -z 

|-niae -ni,i 
hero, H- 'hiro, 'biro 
Herod 'herad |-rodian he'rodian 
Herodias ha'rodias, he- |-'s -iz 
Herodotus ha'radatas; ES + -'rDd-; |-'s -iz 
heroic bi'ro-ik, ha-, he- |-al -1 |-ally -li |-icly 

-ikh 
heroin, H- drug 'hero-in 
heroine 'heroic woman' 'bero-m 
heroism 'berojizam 
heron 'beran |-ry -ri 
heronsew, -sewe arch, 'heran^sju, -;Siu, -jSu 

|-shaw -j/a 
herpes 'hypiz; ES 'ha-, 'by- 
herpetology jbypa'taladsi; ES jbap-, jhyp-, 

-'tol- 
Herr Ger title her; ES bea(r 
Herrick 'herik 
herring 'berig |-bone -jbon 
Herriot Ain pers. name 'heriat, Fr statesman 

er'jo 
hers hyz; ES haz, byz 
Herschel 'by/al; ES 'ha/-, 'by/- 
herself h3''self, + //" "oi initial or after a pause 

3^'self; ES ha-, a- 
Hertford US 'bytfa^d; ES 'batfad, 'ba-tfad; 

Engd 'harfa^d, 'bartfa^d; ES 'ha:fad, 

'ha:tfad, E + 'ha:-; |-shire -iJir, -JV; ES 

- Ji3(r, -Ja(r 
Herts short for Hertfordshire harts, byts; ES 

harts, hats, byts, E+ha:ts 
Hertz berts, byts; ES heats, hats, hyts; |-'s 

-IZ |-ian -lan 
he's abhr. spelling o/he has, he is, stressed 'hiz, 

jhiz; unstr. iz, iz, biz, hiz 
Hesiod 'bisiad, 'bes- 
Hesione hi'saiani, he- 
hesitance 'hezatans |-cy -i |-tant -tant 
hesitate 'bezajtet |-d -id |-tion jbeza'te/an 
Hesper 'bespa^; ES 'hespa(r 
Hesperia bes'piria |-n -n 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret [yet jet |sang saeg |angr\- 'aeg-gn 
|bath bicG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa Igorge gards |go go 



Hesperides 



203 



high -test 



Hesperides hes'perajdiz 


hiccup 'hikAp, 'hikap |-ed -t 


Hesperus 'hesparas |-'s -iz 


hickory, H- 'hikri, 'hikari 


Hesse Ger region hes, 'hesi {Ger Hessen 


hickory-nut ^hikrmat, 'hikari-, -^iiAt, dial. 


'hesan) — The Ger word Hesse 'hesa means 


'hika^nat 


'resident of Hesse' (Ger Hessen). 


hid hid 


Hessian 'he/an 


hidalgo, H- hi'daelgo (Sp i'tJalgo) 


hest best 


hidden 'hidn |-ness 'hidnnis 


Hester 'hesta^; ES 'hestatf 


hide 'conceal' haid |hid hid |hidden 'hidn 


Hestia 'hsstia 


hide 'skin' haid hided 'haidid 


hetaera hi'tira |hetaira hi'taira 


hide-and-seek 'haidn'sik 


Hetch Hetchy Valley 'het/'hEtXi'vaeli 


hidebound 'haid^baund 


heterodox 'hetarajdaks, 'hetra-; ES + ^dnks; 


hideous 'hidias 


l-y-i 


hie hai |hied haid 


heterodyne 'hetarajdam 


Hiems, h- 'haiamz |-'s -iz 


heterogeneity jhetaradsa'niati, jhctaro- 


hierarch 'haia^rark; ES -jaik, E+-jra:k; 


heterogeneous jhetara'dsinias, -njas 


|-y-i 


heteronym 'hetarajnim 


hieratic jhaia'rjetik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikh 


heterosyllabic jhetajro-si'laebik 


hieroglyph 'haiara^ghf, 'haira- 


hetman 'hetman \pl hetmans 'hetmanz 


hieroglyphic jhaiara'ghfik, jhaira- |-al -1 


hew hju, hiu \past -ed -d \pptc -ed -d or -n -n 


l-ally -h, -ikh 


hex heks |hexes 'heksiz |hexed hekst 


Hieronymus jhaia'ranamas, -'rnn- 


hexachord 'heksajkard; ES -jkaad 


higgle 'higl |-d -d -ling 'highrj, ^higlig 


hexa-emeron jheksa'cmajran, ES + -jrDn 


higgledy-piggledy 'higldi'pigldi 


hexagon 'heksajgan, -gan; ES + -jgDn 


high hai |-er 'haia^; ES 'hai-a(r; |-est -ist 


hexagonal heks'aeganl |-ly -i 


Higham ^haiam 


hexagram 'h8ksajgraem 


highball 'haijbal 


hexahedral jheksa'hidral 


highbinder 'haijbainda'; ES -jbainda(r 


hexahedron ^heksa'hidran |-s -z |-dra -dra 


highborn 'hai'barn; ES -'baan; ('high-born 


hexahemeron jheksa'hEmajran; ES+-jrDn 


Hass) 


hexameter heks'aemata^; ES -'aemata(r; |-ed -d 


highboy 'hai^bai 


hexane 'heksen 


highbred 'hai 'bred 


hexangular hEks'aeggjala^; ES -'aeggjalaCr 


high-brow 'hai^brau 


hexapla 'heksapla 


highfalutin, -ting, -ten ,haifa'lutn, -'hutn 


hexapod 'heksajpad; ES + -jpnd 


highflier 'haijflaia-; ES -jflai'3(r 


hexarchy 'heksarki; ES 'heksaiki, E+-a:ki 


high-flown 'hai'flon ('high-jflown 'speech) 


Hexateuch 'heksajtjuk, -jtiuk, -^tuk 


Highgate US 'hai^get, Engd 'haigit 


hey he [heyday 'he^de 


highhanded 'hai'haendid 


Heyne 'haina 


highjacker 'haijdsaeka^; ES -idgaekaCr 


He)rwood 'hewud 


highland, H- 'hailand |-er -a^; ES -a(r 


Hezekiah jheza'kaia 


highlight V 'haijlait |-ed -id 


hiatus hai'etas |-es -iz 


highminded 'hai'maindid 


Hiawatha jhaia'waOa, -VnOa 


high-pitched 'hai'pit/t ('high-,pitched 'note) 


hibernal hai'bynl; ES -'bsnl, -'bynl 


high-pressure 'hai'preja^; ES -'prs/aCr 


hibernate 'haiba^^net; ES -basnet; |-d -id 


highroad 'haijtod, -'rod 


hibernation jhaiba^'ne/an; ES jhaiba- 


high-spirited 'hai'spiritid 


Hibernia hai'bynia; ES -'bsn-, -'byn-; |-n -n 


high-strung 'hai'strAij ('high-jstrung 'nervesj 


■ l-nicism -najSizam 


hight arch, v 'call' 'called' bait 


hibiscus, H- hai'biskas, hi- |-es -iz 


hight var. sp. of height hait 


hiccough erroneous sp. for hiccup 


high-test 'hai'test 



|full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



highth 



204 



history 



highth doublet of height haitO, Bril+haiQ — 
Highth is not an error for height, hut a pho- 
netically normal historical variant, found 
e.g. in Milton. 

high-toned 'hai'tond 

highty-tighty 'haiti'taiti 

highway 'haijwe 

highwayman 'robber' 'hai^weman, hai'we- 

highwayman 'road overseer' 'haiwe^maen 
|-men -jm£n 

hike haik | hiked haikt 

Hilaire hi'ler, -'laer; E -'kaCr, ES -laeaCr 

hilarious ha'krias, hi-, hai-, -'laer-, -'ler- 

hilarity ha'laerati, hi-, hai- 

Hilda 'Hilda 

Hildebrand 'hildsjbrasnd {Ger 'hildajbrant) 

Hildegarde 'hildajgard; ES -;ga:d, E + -jga:d 

hilding 'hildig 

hill hil I hilled hild 

hillbilly 'hil^bih 

HilUs 'hilis |-'s -iz 

hill-less 'hillis 

hillock 'hibk |hillocked 'hilakt 

hillside 'hil^said 

hilt hilt ihilted 'hiltid 

hilum 'hailam |-s -z |-la -la 

him stressed 'him, jhim; unstr. im, him 

Himalaya hi'malja, -'malaja, jhima'lea |-n -n 
i-s -z — In Engd the traditional Anglicized 
pron. still prevails (Jones says hi'malaja is 
rare), as it once did in America, but the pron. 
more like the native one has recently become 
frequent here. 

himself him's£lf,+?/ not initial or after a 
pause im'self 

hind haind 

hindbrain 'liaind^bren, 'ham- 
hinder 'hack' 'hainda^; ES 'haindafr 

hinder 'obstruct' 'hindaf; ES 'hindaCr; |-ed -d 
|-ing 'hindrig, 'hindarig 

hindermost 'hainda^jmost; ES 'hainda- 

Hindi 'hindi, 'hin'di 

hindmost 'haind^most, 'ham- 
Hindoo 'hindu, 'hin'du |-ism ^hindujzam 
|-stani jhindu'staeni, -'stani 

Hindostan ,hindu'staen, -'stan |-i -i 

hindquarter 'haind'kwarta', 'ham-; ES 
-'kw33t3(r 

hindrance 'hindrans I-s -iz 



hindside 'hamd/Said, 'hain- 
hind-side-foremost 'hamdjsaid'forjmostj'hain-, 

-'far-; ES -'foa-, E-f--'faa- 
hindsight 'haind^sait, 'ham- 
Hindu 'hindu, 'hin'du ('Hin^du 'races) 
Hinduism 'hmdujizam 
Hindu Kush 'hmdu'kuj, -du- 
Hindustan jhmdu'stsen, -'stan |-i -i 
hinge hinds |hinges 'hindsiz |hinged hindsd 
Hingham 'higam 
hinny 'hini 
Hinsdale 'hmzdel 
hint hint [hinted 'hmtid 
hinterland 'hmta^jlaend; ES 'hinta-; {Ger 

-jlant) 
hip hip |hipped hipt |-bone -'bon, -^bon 
hippocampus jhipa'kaempas |-es -iz |-pi -pai 
hippocras 'hipajkraes 

Hippocrates hi'pakrajtiz; ES + -'pDk-; j-'s -iz 
Hippocratic ,hipa'kraetik 
Hippocrene 'hipa/krin, jhipa'krini 
hippodrome 'hipa,drom 
hippogriff, -gryff 'hipa,grif 
Hippolyta hi'palita; ES-h-'pnl-; |-tus -tas 

|-tus's -tasiz 
hippopotamus ^hipa'patamas; ES + -'pDt-; 

|-es -IZ |-mi -^mai 
Hiram 'hairam 

hircine 'hysain, -sin; ES 'hs-, 'hy- 
hire hair; ES haia(r; |-d -d [-ling -lig 
Hirohito jhiro'hito 
Hirsch hy/; ES hsj, hsj"; |-'s -iz 
hirsute 'hysut, -siut, -sjut; ES 'hs-, 'hy- 
his stressed 'hiz, jhiz; unstr. iz, hiz — When 

entirely unstressed, his has no h, just like he, 

her, him, 'em, it. 
Hispania his'penia, -nja |-nic his'paenik 
Hispaniola ^hispan'jola 
hispid 'hispid |hispidity his'pidati 
Iiiss his |hisses 'hisiz |hissed hist 
hist hist |histed 'histid 
histology his'taladji; ES-h-'toI- 
historian his'torian, -'tor-; S -'tor- 
historic his'tarik, -'tank, -'tnrik ]-al -1 |-alty 

-h, -ikh 
historicity ^hista'risati 
historiographer jhistori'agrafa', hiSjton-, -an, 

-'og-; S -on-, ES -fa(r 
history 'histri, 'histari |-ried -rid 



Key: See in full §§3~47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet [sang saeg |angry 'asg-gri 
Ibath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wot/, wntj (§12) |jaw dsa Igorge gards Igo go 



histrionic 



205 



hole 



histrionic ^histri^anik; ES + -'Dn-; |-al -1 


Hoboken 'hobokan 


|-ally -Ii, -ikh 


Hobson 'habsn; ES-f-'hobsn 


hit hit 


hock hak; ES+hnk; |-ed -t 


hit-and-miss ^hitn'mis 


hockey 'haki; ES + 'hoki 


hit-and-run 'hitn'rAn ('hit-and-^run 'driver) 


hocus 'hokas |hocuses 'hokasiz [hocused 


hitch hit/ Ihitches 'hitjiz |hitched hit/t 


'hokast 


hitchhike 'hit/^haik | -hiked -^haikt 


hocus-pocus 'hokas'pokas [-ed -t 


hithe, H- halts 


hod had; ES-f-hod 


hither 'hitJa^; ES 'hitJa(r; [-most -jmost 


Hodgenville 'hadsan^vil; ES-f-'hodj-, S+-vl 


hitherto ^hitSa^'tu; ES ^hitJa-; ('hither.to 


hodgepodge 'hads^pads; ES-f'hndsjpods; 


'came) 


|-s -iz |-d -d 


hitherward 'hitJa'wa'd ; ES 'hitiawad; [-s -z 


hodman-bhnd 'hadman'blaind; ES+'hod-; 


Hitler 'hitla^; ES 'hitlaCr; |-ism -jizam [-ite 


see hoodman-blind 


-jait 


hoe ho jhoed hod [-cake -jkek 


Hitlerian hit'lirian 


hog hag, hag, hog; S hag, hag, hng; [ged -d 


hit-or-miss 'hita^'mis; ES 'hita^mis 


Hogarth 'hogarO; ES -ga:0, E-|--ga:0 


hit-skip 'hit'skip |-ped -t ('hit-^skip 'driver) 


Hogarthian ho'garOian; ES -'ga:0-, E-f- 


Hittite 'hitait 


-'ga:0- 


hive haiv | hived harvd 


hogback 'hag^baek, 'hag-, 'hog- |-ed -t — c/hog 


h'm, hm hm — the h nasal, w-ith closed lips 


hogmanay jhagma'ne, jhog- 


ho ho 


hognose 'hag^noz, 'hag-, 'hog- j-d -A—cf hog 


hoar, H- hor, har; ES ho3(r, E-i-hosCr 


hognut 'hagjnAt, 'hag-, 'hng-, -nat — cf hog 


hoard herd, hard; ES hoad, E-t-haad; |-ed -id 


hogshead 'hagz^hed, 'hagz-, 'hogz-, -zid — cf 


hoarfrost 'hor^frast, 'har-, -^frDst; ES 'hoa-, 


hog 


E-f-'haa- 


hogwash 'hagjwaj", 'hag-, 'hog-, -iWa/, -jWdJ 


hoarhound 'horjhaund, 'har-; ES 'hoa-. 


—cf hog 


E-i-'haa- 


Hohenlinden 'hoan^hndan 


hoarse hors, hars; ES hoas, E-i-haas 


Hohenstaufen Ger jho:an'/taiifan 


hoary 'hori, 'hari; S 'hori 


Hohenzollern 'hoan^zala^n; ES -jzalan, -jZdI-: 


hoaryheaded 'hori'h£did, 'hari-; S 'hori-; 


{Ger jho:an'tsalarn) 


('hoary jheaded 'joke) 


hoicks haiks 


hoax hoks |hoaxes 'hoksiz [hoaxed hokst; 


hoiden 'haidn |-ed -d j-ing -dniij, -dnig 


\NEngd+}x6ks {§46) 


hoi polloi 'haipa'lai 


hob hab; ES+hob; |-bed -d 


hoise arch, haiz jhoised haizd or hoist haist 


hob-and-nob 'haban'nab; ES + 'hoban'nnb 


hoist V pres haist |-ed -id 


Hobart Tasni 'hoba^t, -bart, US pers. name 


hokeypokey 'hoki'poki 


'hoba^t; ES -bat, -ba:t 


Hokkaido ha'kaido, ho- 


Hobbes habz; ES-t-hnbz; |-'s -iz 


hokum 'hokam 


hobble 'habl; ES + 'hnbl; ]-d -d |-Ung -blig, 


Holbein 'holbam, 'hal-, 'hol- 


-bhg 


Holborn Loud 'hoba^n, 'hoi-; ES -ban; Scotl 


hobbledehoy 'habldi.hai; ES-f 'hob- 


hol'bom, -'bam; ES -'boan, E + -'baan 


hobby 'habi; ES-i-'hobi; |-horse -^hars; ES 


hold hold [held held \arch. pptc hoiden 'holdan 


-jhaas 


holdall 'holdpl 


hobgobHn 'hab^gabbn; ES-t-'hob^gobbn 


holdback 'hold^baek 


hobman-blind 'habman'blaind; ES-f'hnb-; 


Hoiden 'holdan, -dm 


see hodman-blind 


holder 'holda^; ES 'holda(r 


hobnail 'hab^nel; ES-h'hob-; |-ed -d 


holdfast 'hold.faest; E-t--,fasf, -,fast 


hobnob 'hab^nab; ES+'hob^nnb; |-bed -d 


holdup 'holdjAp 


hobo 'hobo 


hole hoi jholed hold 



[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fs'Sa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fmz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



holiday 



206 



homoDhonous 



holiday 'habjde; ES + 'hnl- 

holiness, H- 'holinis |-'s -iz 

Holinshed 'hahnzjhEd, 'halnij/ed; ES + 

'hoi-; -]Jed is a sp. pron.; the second part= 

'head.' 
holla 'hala, ha 'la — see hollo 
Holland 'habnd; ES+'hnl- 
hollandaise ^halan'dez; ES+^hul-; ('hollan- 

jdaise 'sauce) 
hollo 'halo, ha'lo — This 'wordb'\io\\diare hardly 

in current use. The living word is holler 

'hala^; ES 'hal3(r, 'hoi-, shunned by many. 
hollow 'halo, 'hab; ES + 'hnl-; |-ed -d |-ing 

-bwiij |-er -lawa^; ES -W3(r; |-est -lawist 
holly 'hah; ES + 'hoh 
hollyhock 'hah,hak, -jhok; ES + 'hoh^faDk; 

The pronunciation 'hah^hok is evidenced 
from all parts of US and from Canada. 
Hollywood 'hahjwud; ES + 'holi- 
holm horn 

Holmes homz; NEtigd+h'6mz (§46) |-'s -iz 
holmia 'holmia |holmium 'holmiam 1-mic 

-mik 
holocaust 'halajkast; ES + 'hol- 
Holof ernes, -pher- jhab'fyniz; ES jhab- 

'faniz, jhnl-, -'fyniz; |-nes' -niz 
holograph 'hab^graef; ES + 'hol-, E+-^graf, . 

-/graf 
holophote 'habjfot; ES + 'hnl- 
holp arch, past &' pptc of help help 
holpen arch, pptc of help 'holpan 
Holstein 'holstain, with US farmers usually 

'holstin {Ger 'halXtain) 
Holstein-Friesian 'holstain'frisan, -stin- 
holster 'holsta^; ES -st3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 'hol- 

starig, 'holstrig 
holt, H- holt; NEngd+Kolt {§46) 
holy 'hoh |holily 'holali, -hh 
holyday 'holi,de 

Holyhead Wales 'hah.hed, -'hed; ES + 'tnli- 
Holyoke 'holijok. Mass city cf college 'holjok 
Holyrood Scotl 'halijrud; ES + 'hnli- 
holystone 'holi/Ston |-d -d 
holy tide 'holi^taid 

Holywell 'halijW£l, -wal; ES + 'hnli- 
homage 'hamids, 'am-; ES + 'hom-, 'nm-; 

|-s -IZ |-d -d 
hombre Sp 'man' bmbre \pl -bres -bres 
hombre 'omber' 'amba^; ES 'ambaCr, 'nm- 



home hom |homed homd; \A^Engd+K6m 

{§46) 
homebred 'hom'bred ('home-bred 'mink) 
homeland 'homeland 
homelike 'hom,laik 
homely 'homh; A^Eng^+'hb'mli {§46) 
homemade 'hom'med 
homemaker 'honijmeka^; ES -^mekaCr 
homeopath 'homi3jpae6 |-ths -6s 
homeopathic jhomia'pseOik |-ally -li, -ikh 
homeopathist jhomi'apaGist; ES+-'dp-; |-thy 

-ei 

homer 'homa^; ES 'homaCr 

Homer 'homa^; ES 'homaCr 

Homeric ho'inerik |-al -1 |-ally -h, -ikli 

homesick 'hom^sik 

homespun 'honijSpAn 

homestead, H- 'homjSted, 'homstid 

homestretch 'hom'stret/ |-es -iz 

homeward 'homwa-d; ES 'homwad 

homework 'hom^wyk; ES -^wsk, -^wyk 

homey 'homi 

homicidal jhama'saidl; ES+-ihDm-; |-ly -i 

homicide 'hamajsaid; ES + 'hom- 

homiletic jhama'ktik; ES + ihnm-; |-al -1 

l-ally -li, -ikh 
homily 'hamli; ES+'hom- 
hominy 'hamani; ES + 'hom- 
homo, H- 'homo \pl homines 'hamayiiiz; 

ES + 'hom- 
homogamic jhoma'gasmik, ^ham-; ES + zhom- 
homogamy ho'magami, -'mng- 
homogeneity jhomadsa'niati, jham-; ES + 

jhiom- 
homogeneous jhoma'dsLmas, ^ham-; ES + 

jhom- 
homogenesis jhoma'dsEnasis, jham-; ES + 

/hnm- 
homogenize ho'mad33,naiz; ES+ -'mods- 
homologous ho'malagas; ES+-'mDl- 
homologue 'hamajbg, -jlag, -jlog; ES + 'hom- 
homology ho'maladsi; ES + -'mDl- 
homonym 'hama^nim; ES + 'liDm- 
homonymous ho'manamas; ES+-'mmi-; 

|-my -mi 
homophone 'ham3;fon; ES + 'hnm- 
homophonic jhama'fanik; ES + ihoma'tomk 
homophonous ho'mafanas; ES+-'mDf-; |-ny 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang S£eg langry 'asg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) [ah a |far far |watch watj, wotj (§12) |jaw dga |gorge gards [go go 



homorganic 



207 



hornpipe 



homorganic jhomar'gaenik, jham-; ES jhomaa- 


Hooker 'huka^; ES 'hukaCr 




'gaenik, jham-, jhora- 


hookup 'hukjAp 




Homo sapiens 'homo'sepiiCnz 


hookworm 'huk^ws^m; ES -^wsm, -jwa^m 


homunculus ho'mAgkjabs -li -Jai 


hooky 'huki 




Honan 'ho'naen, -'nan(C/ww 'xA'nan) 


hooligan 'huhgan [-ism -jizam 




Honduran han'duran, -'diur-, -'djur-; ES + 


hoop hup, hup [-ed -t 




hnn-; |-ras -ras |-ras's -rasiz 


hooping-cough 'hupigjkof, 'hupig-, -jknf 


hone hon [honed hond 


hoopoe 'hupu 




honest Wist; ES + 'nn-; |-y -i 


hooray hu're, hu- 




honey 'hAni jhoneyed 'liAnid |-bee -jbi 


Hoosac 'husak, -saek 




honeycomb 'hAni,kom |-ed -d 


hoosegow, hoosg- 'husgau 




honeydew 'hAnijdju, -jdni, -^du 


Hoosic, -sick 'husik 




honeymoon 'hAnijinun |-ed -d 


Hoosier 'husa-; ES 'husaCr 




honeysuckle 'hAiu^sAkl |-d -d 


hoot hut [hooted 'hutid 




honey-tongued 'hAni'tAijd ('honey-jtongued 


Hoover 'huva^; ES 'buva(r 




'Ann) 


hooves pi of hoof huvz, huvz 




Hong Kong 'hag'kag, 'hon'kng 


hop hap; ES+hnp; |-ped -t 




Honiton 'hanitn, loc. 'hAnitn; ES + 'hnn- 


Hopatcong ho'paetkqg, ha-, -kog 




honk 'hogk, 'haok, 'hogk |-ed -t 


hope, H- hop [hoped hopt; \NEngd+h'6p 


Honolulu jhana^la, -lu; ES + ^hon-; native 


(§46) 




'ho'noUuUu {even stress) 


Hopeh, -pei 'ho'pe 




honor 'ana'; ES 'an3(r, 'Dn3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 


hoplite 'haplait; ES + 'hnp- 




-nang, -nrig [-able -abl, -nrsbl |-bly -bli 


hop-o'-my-thumb 'hapamai'OAm; ES4- 


'bnp- 


honorarium jana'rEriam, -'raer-, -'rer-; ES + 


hopper 'hapaf; ES 'hapa(r, 'hep- 




jon-; |-s -z |-ria -na 


hopscotch 'hapjskatj"; ES + 'hop^skntj"; 


[-ed -t 


honorary 'an3,rEri; ES + 'on- 


Horace 'bans, 'bar-, 'bor-, -as [-'s -iz 




honoritic ^anaVifik; ES + ^Dn-; [-al -1 [-ally 


Horatian ha'rejan, bo-, -/lan 




-h, -ikli 


Horatio ba're/o, bo-, -J"io 




Honshu 'hanju, 'hon- 


Horatius ba'rejas, bo-, -Jias |-'s -iz 




hooch hutj 


horde hord, hard; ES boad, E+baad; 


1-d -id 


hood, H- hud |hooded 'hudid 


Horeb 'borab, 'bar-, -eb; S 'bor- 




-hood efiding, pron. -hud, -^hud according to 


Hore-BeUsha 'borba'lija, 'har-; ES 


'boa-. 


number of syllables; as 'maenbud, 'laikh- 


E-i--'baa- 




jhud. The pron. of all such words omitted 


horehound 'bor^baund, 'bar-; ES 


'boa-. 


from lite vocab. can be found by adding -hud 


E-i- 'baa- 




or -jhud directly to the main ward. 


horizon ba'raizn |-ed -d |-ing -'raizmg 


, -znig 


hoodlum 'hudbm 


horizontal ^bara'zantj, jbar-, ^bor-; 


ES + 


hoodman 'hudman |-men -man 


-'zon-; |-ly -i 




hoodman-blind 'hudman'blamd 


hormone 'barmon; ES 'baamon 




hoodoo 'hudu [hoodooed 'hudud 


Hormuz 'barniAz; ES 'baamAz; |-'s -iz 




hoodwink 'hud^wigk |-ed -t 


horn, H- barn; ES haan; |-ed -d 




hooey 'hui 


hornblende 'barnjbknd; ES 'haan- 




hoof huf , huf |-s -s \rarely hooves -vz |-ed -t — 


hornbook 'barn^buk; ES 'baan- 




The pronunciation huf clearly prevails in 


Hornell bar'nel; ES baa'nel 




the N, E, and S, and probably in Canada. 


Horner 'barna'; ES 'baana(r 




Hooghly, -gly 'hugh 


hornet 'barnit; ES 'baanit 




hook huk [hooked hukt 


Hornie 'bami; ES 'baam 




hookah, -ka 'huka 


horn-mad 'barn'maed; ES 'baan- 




hooked adj 'hukid, hukt |-ness 'hukidnis 


hornpipe 'bam,paip; ES 'baan- 





[full ful [tooth tuO [further 'fy'Sa'; ES 'fa'Sa [custom 'kAstam [while bwail jhow bau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse f juz, fiuz [dish dif [vision 'vijan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



horologe 



208 



Hottentot 



horologe 'harajods, 'har-, 'hor-, -]lad5; 

ES+'Jods; |-s -iz 
horologer ho'raladsa^, ho-; ES -'raladsaCr, 

-'rol-; |-gist -dgist |-gy -dsi 
horoscope harajskop, 'har9-, 'hnra- 
horoscopy ho'raskapi, ha-; ES + -'rDS- 
horrendous ha'tEndas, ha-, ho- 
horrent 'harant, 'har-, 'hor- 
horrible 'harabj, 'har-, 'hur- |-bly -bli 
horrid 'hand, 'har-, 'hor- 
horrific ha'rifik, ha-, ho- 
horrification ^harafa'kejan, jhar-, ^hor- 
horrify 'hara^fai, 'har-, 'hor- |-fied -jfaid 
Horrocks 'haraks, 'har-, 'hnr- |-'s -iz 
horror 'hara', 'har-, 'hor-; ES -ra(r 
Horsa 'harsa; ES 'haasa 
hors de combat 'arda'kamha; ES 'aada-, 

-'kom-; {Fr ardako'ba) 
hors d'oeuvre ar'doevra, -'dAv; ES aa-; {Fr 

ar'doe:vr) 
horse hars; ES haas; |-s -iz |-d -t 
horse-and-buggy adj 'harsn'bAgi; ES 'haas- 
horseback 'hars^baek; ES 'haas- 
horsecar 'harsjkar; ES 'ha3Sjka:(r, E + -jka:(r 
horsecloth 'hars^kbG, -^kloO |-ths -6s, -tSz — see 

cloth 
horseflesh 'harsjfkj; ES 'haas- 
horsefly 'hars,flai; ES 'haas- 
horsehair 'harsjhcr, -^haer; E 'haasjh£a(r, ES 

'haaSjhaeaCr 
horsehide 'hars,haid; ES 'haas- 
horse jockey 'harsjdsaki; ES 'haas-, -jdsoki 
horselaugh 'harsjaef; ES 'haas-, E + -jlaf, 

-^laf ; |-ed -t 
horseleech 'hars,litX; ES 'haas-; j-es -iz 
horseman rider, manager 'harsman; ES 

'haas-; |-men -man 
horseman racing sport, expert 'harsjinaen; ES 

'haas-; |-men -jin£n 
horseplay 'hars^ple; ES 'haas- 
horsepower 'harsjpaua^; ES 'ha3s,pau-a(r 
horse-radish 'hars'rajdi/; ES 'haas-; |-es -iz 
horseshoe 'harjjju, 'harsjju, -jjiu; ES 'haa/-, 

'haas-; |-d -d 
horsetail 'hars,tel; ES 'haas- 
horsewhip 'harsjhwip; ES 'haas-; |-ped -t 
horsewoman 'harsjwiiman, -jwum-; ES 

'haas-; |-women -jWimin — see woman 
Horsham 'harjam; ES 'haa/am; sp. pron. 



Horst Wessel 'harst'vssl; ES 'haast- 

horsy 'harsi; ES 'haasi 

hortative 'hartativ; ES 'haata- 

hortatory 'hartajton, -jtari; ES 'haata,ton, 

E + -;tari 
Hortense har 'tens; ES haa-; |-'s -iz (F,- 

b'r'ta:s) 
Hortensia har'tensia, -Jia; ES ha- |-ius -s 

|-ius's -siz 
Hortensio har'tensi^o, -'tEnJjo; ES ha- 
horticulture 'hartiikAhJa- ; ES 'haatijk Alt/a (r 
hosanna, H- ho'zaena 
hose hoz |hoses 'hoziz |hosed hozd 
Hosea prophet ho'zia, pers. name ho'zia, 'hozia 

('Hojsea 'Biglow) 
hosier 'hosa^; ES 'ho3a(r; |-y -i, -sri 
Hosmer 'hazma^; ES 'hazma(r, 'hoz- 
hospice 'haspis, 'hns- |-s -iz 
hospitable 'haspitabl, 'hns-, much less freq. 

has'pitabl, hos- |-bly -hh 
hospital 'haspitl, 'has^pitl, 'hns- 
hospitality ;haspi'taelati, ^hos- 
hospitahzation jhaspitla'ze/an, jhns-, -ai'z- 
hospitahze 'haspitj^aiz, 'hos- |-s -iz |-d -d 
host host [hosted 'hostid 
hostage 'hastids; ES + 'hns-; |-s -iz |-d -d 
hostel 'hastl; ES + 'hos-; |-ry -ri 
hosteler 'hastla^; ES 'hastla(r, 'hns- 
hostess 'hostis [hostesses 'hostisiz 
hostile 'hastl, -til: ES + 'hos- 
hostility has'tilati; ES+hos- 
hostler 'hasla^, 'asla^; ES 'hasla(r, 'asla(r 

'hos-, 'ds- 
hot hat; ES+hnt 
hotbed 'hat^btd; ES + 'hnt- 
hot-blooded 'hafbUdid; ES + 'hot- 
hotbox 'hatjbaks; ES + 'hot^boks; |-es -iz 
hot-breathed 'hat'breet; ES + 'hnt- 
hotchpot 'hat/jpat; ES + 'hot/jpot 
hotchpotch 'hat/ipatj; ES + 'hot/jpotJ"; |-es 

-IZ |-ed -t 
hotel ho't£l ('Hojtel 'Cleveland) 
hotfoot 'hat.fut; ES + 'hnt-; i-ed -id 
hothead 'hatched; ES-i- 'hot- 
hotheaded 'hat'hedid; ES + 'hnt- 
hothouse 'hat,haus; ES + 'hnt-; |-ses -ziz 
hotspur, H- 'hatjspy; ES 'hatjsp3(r, -/spy, 

'hot- 
Hottentot 'hatn,tat; ES + 'hotn^tot 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee hi [pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jst [sang saeg |angn,- 'aeg-gn 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch wat/, wotj (§12) |jaw dja |gorge gards |go go 



Houdini 



209 



hullabaloo 



Houdini hu^dini 


Howard 'haua^d; ES %au«ad 


hough hak; ES+hok; [-ed -t (Sc hox) 


howbeit hau'biit 


Hough hAf, hoi, hai, hni 


howdah 'hauda 


Houghton 'hotn, 'hautn, 'hotri 


how-do-you-do ^haudaJaMu, 'haudaju'du. 


Houlton 'holtn 


'haudaji'du, 'haudja'du, 'haudju'du, 'hau- 


hound haund |hounded 'haundid 


di'du, 'haud'du 


Hounslow 'haunzlo 


how-dy-do 'haudi'du 


hour aur; ES aua(r 


howe'er hau'er; ES hau'ea(r 


hourglass 'aur^glaes; ES ^aua-, E+-]glas, 


Howells 'haualz |-'s -iz 


-iglas; |-es -iz 


however hau'eva^; ES hau'£va(r 


houri 'huri, 'hauri 


howitzer 'hauitsa^; ES 'hauitsa(r 


Housatonic jhusa'tanik; ES+-'tDn-; loc.+ 


howl haul [howled hauld [-er -a^; ES -a(r 


jhuza- 


howlet 'haukt 


house n haus [house's 'hausiz [houses 'hauziz 


howsoever jhauso'eva'; ES -'8va(r 


house V hauz [houses 'hauziz [housed hauzd 


hoy hai [hoyed hoid 


houseboat 'hausjbot [-ed -id 


hoyden 'haidn [-ed -d [-ing -dnig, -dnig 


housebreaking 'haus,brekig 


hub hAb [hubbed hAbd 


housebroken 'haus^brokan 


Hubbell 'hAbl 


housecarl 'hausjkarl; ES -^ka:l, E+'^ka:! 


hubbub 'hAbAb 


housefly 'haus^flai 


Hubert 'hjuba^t, %iu-; ES -bat 


houseful 'hausjful [fuls -jfulz 


huckaback 'hAka^baek 


household ^aus^hold, -jold 


huckle 'hAkl [-back -jbaek (-backed -jbaekt 


housekeeper ^hauSikipa*; ES -jkipaCr 


huckleberry, H- 'hAkl^beri, -ban 


housel 'hauzl [houseled 'hauzld 


hucklebone 'hAkjjbon 


houseless 'hauslis 


huckster 'hAkst*; ES 'hAksta(r 


housemaid 'haus^med 


hucksterer 'hAkstara^; ES 'hAkstara(r 


house-raising 'haus^rezio 


huddle 'hAdl |-d -d [ling ^hAdhg, 'hAdhg 


housetop 'hausjtap; ES+-jtDp 


Hudibras 'hjudi^braes, 'hiu- [-'s -iz 


housewarming 'hauSjWDrmig; ES -jWDamig 


Hudibrastic jhjudi'braestik, jhiu- 


housewife ^wommi' 'hausjwaif |-ves -vz 


Hudson 'hAdsn 


housewife 'sewing-kit' 'hAzif, 'haus^waif |-fes 


hue hju, hiu jhued hjud, hiud 


-fs [-ves -vz 


Huebner 'hjubna^, 'hiub-, 'hib-; ES -na(r; 


housewife v 'haus^waif |-s -s [-d -t 


{Ger 'hy:bnar) 


housewifery 'hausjwaifn, -fan, 'hAzifri 


Huerta 'werta {Sp Verta) 


housework 'hausjwyk; ES -jwsk, -jwyk 


huff hAf [huffed hAft 


housing 'hauzig 


hug hAg [hugged hAgd 


Housman 'hausman 


huge hjudg, hiuds, judj 


Houston Tex soldier b" city 'hjustan, 'hius-; 


huggermugger 'hAga^^mAga^; ES 'hAga^mAgaCr 


Eng botanist 'hustan, NYC street, Ga co. 


Hugh h)u, hiu 


'haustan, Scotl 'hustan 


Hughes hjuz, hiuz |-'s -iz 


Houyhnhnm hu'inam, ^winam, ^hwin- 


Hugh 'hugk 


''m^m^m — 


Hugo %jugo, 'hiugo 


hove n &° past of heave hov 


Huguenot 'hjugajnat, 'hiu-; ES-h-^nrat 


hovel %Avl, much less freq. 'havl; ES + 'hDvl; 


huh hA {nasal a) &" various other grunts 


[-ed -d [-ing -vlig, -vlig 


Huidekoper 'haidi^kopa^; ES -;kopa(r 


hover 'hAva^, imich less freq. 'hava^; ES -V3(r, 


hula or hula-hula 'hula, 'hula 'hula 


'hov-; j-ed -d [-ing -varig, -vrig 


hulk hAlk [hulked hAlkt 


how hau 


hull hAl [hulled hAld 


How(e) hau 


hullabaloo 'hAlabajlu, 'hAlaba'lu 



[full ful [tooth tue [further 'fytSa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipni 



hulio 



210 



husband 



hullo ha'lo Ihulloed ha'lod 


humph hmmm b° various other grimts C7° nasal 


Hulme hjum, hium, hAlm 


pufs 


Hultzen hul'tsen 


Humphrey, -ry 'hAmfn, 'Am-, -pfri |-s -z 


hum hAm jhummed hAmd 


l-s' -z 


human 'hjuman, 'hiuman, 'juman |-ness 


humus 'hjumas, 'hiu- 


-mannis 


Hun hAn 


humane hju'men, hiu'men, ju'men |-ness 


hunch hAntJ" [hunches 'hAntJiz [hunched 


-'mennis 


hAnt/t 


humanism 'hjumaiiiizam, 'hiu- |-ist -ist 


hunchback 'hAntJjbaek [-backed -jbtekt 


humanitarian hju^maena'tErian, hiu-, -'ter-, 


hundred 'hAndrad, -drid, -da'd; ES -drad. 


^hjumaena-, jhiu- 


-drid, -dad; [th -e [-fold -'fold, -,fold 


humanity hju'maenati, hiu- 


j-weight -'wet, -jwet — 'hAnd»d, -dad Jias 


Humber 'hAmba^; ES 'hAmb3(r 


been current from the 14c to Tennyson and 


Humbert ^Amba^t; ES 'hAmbat 


King George V. 


humble 'hAmbl, Umbl |-d -d — The historical 


hung hAQ 


Umbl is well preserved in the S. 


Hungary 'hAugari |-rian hAg'gEnan, -'ger- 


bumblebee 'hAmbl^bi 


hunger 'hAgga^; ES 'hAgga(r; [-ed -d |-ing 


humbler 'hAmbla^, Um-; ES -blaCr; |-blest 


'hAggarig, 'hAggrig |-gry -gri 


-bhst |-bly -bk 


hunh hA (nasal a) a' other similar sounds 


Humboldt 'hAmboIt {per 'humbalt) 


hunk hAgk 


humbug 'hAitiybAg [humbugged 'hAm,bAgd 


hunky 'hAgki 


humdrum 'hAm^drAm |humdrunimed 'hAm- 


hunky-dory jhAgki'dori, -'dan; S -'don 


jdrAmd 


Hunnish 'hAmJ 


Hume hjum, hium 


hunt hAnt hunted 'hAntid 


humerus 'hjumaras, 'hiu- |-es -iz |-ri -{tai 


hunter, H- 'hAnta^; ES 'hAnta(r 


humid 'hjumid, 'hiumid 


Hunterian hAii'tinan 


humidify hju'midajfai, hiu- |-fied -jfaid 


Huntingdon 'hAntigdan [-shire -i/ir, -Ja'; ES 


humidity hju'midati, hiu- 


- Jia(r, -Ja(r 


humidor 'hjumijdar, 'hiu-; ES -jd3a(r 


Huntington 'hAntigtan 


humiliate hju'imlijCt, hiu- |-ated -/Ctid 


Hunts short for Huntingdonshire hAnts 


humiliation hjujimli'ejan, hiu-, jhjumili-. 


huntsman 'hAntsman -men -man 


;hiu- 


hurdle 'hydl; ES 'hsdl, 'hydl; [d -d [-Ung 


humiliatory hju'mihajtori, biu-, -^tari; S 


-dhg, -dhg 


-jtori 


hurdy-gurdy 'hydijgydi; ES 'hsdijgsdi. 


humility hju'milati, hiu- 


'hydijgydi 


hummer 'hAma^; ES 'hAin3(r 


hurl hyl; ES hsl, bs^l; |-ed -d 


hummingbird 'hAmiQjbyd; ES -^bsd, -^byd 


hurly-burly 'hylijbs'li; ES 'hsli^bsli, 'hyli- 


hummock 'hAmak |hummocked 'hAmakt 


>yh 


humor 'hjumy, 'hiu-, 'ju-; ES -ma(r; |-ed -d 


Huron 'hjuran, 'hiu- 


|-ing -mariij, -inrig — The pron. 'juma'. 


hurrah ha'ra, ha'ra, hu- 


'juma(r is most likely to occzir in 'sense of 


hurray ha 're, hu- 


humor,' 'mood,'' and in the verb. 


hurricane 'hyijken; ES 'hsn-, 'hAn-, 'hyi- 


humoresque jhjumaVesk, jhiu- 


hurry 'hyi; ES 'hsn, 'hAn, 'hyi; [-ried -d 


humorist 'hjumarist, 'hiu-, 'ju- 


hurry-scurry, -sk- 'hs'i'skyi; ES 'hsn'sksn. 


humoristic jhjumaVistik, jhiu-, jju- |-al -1 


'hAn'skAn, 'hyi'skyi [-ried -d 


humorous 'hjumaras, 'hiu-, 'ju- 


hurt hyt; ES hst, hyt; |-ful -fal [-fully -fall 


hump hAmp [humped hAmpt 


hurtle 'hytl; ES 'hstl, 'hs^tl; |-d -d [-Ung 


humpback 'hAmpjbaek [-backed -jbaekt 


-thg, -thg 


Humperdinck 'humpa^jdigk; ES 'humpa- 


husband 'hAzband [husbanded 'hAzbandid 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi [pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret [yet jet [sang saeg [angn*^ 'aeg-gri 
[bath bae6; E ba6 (§10) [ah a [far far [watch watj, wutj" (§12) [jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



husbandman 



211 



Hyksos 



husbandman 'hAzbandman, -banman j-men 

-man 
husbandry 'hAzbandri 
hush HaJ I hushed hAjt |-edly -idli 
hushaby 'hAjajbai 
Hushai 'hju/ijai, 'hiu-, -Jai 
husk hAsk I husked hAskt 
husky 'hAski | Husky 'hAski 
Huss Has |Huss's 'Hasiz |-ite -ait 
hussar hu'zar; ES hu'za:(r, E+-'za:(r 
hussy 'Hasi, 'Hazi 
hustings 'hAstigz 

hustle 'hAsl |-d -d |-ling ^hAshg, 'hAs]ig 
huswife 'hAzif 
hut hAt Ihutted 'hAtid 
hutch hAt/ [hutches 'hAtJiz [hutched hAtJt 
Hutten, von fan'hutn 
Huxley 'hAksli 
Huygens ^haiganz 
huzza ha^za, hu'za 
Hwang-ho 'hwseij'ho, 'hwag- 
hyacinth, H- ^hais^sinO |-ths -Os 
Hyads 'haiadz |Hyades 'haia^diz 
hyaena hai'ina 
hyaline 'haislin 
hyalogen hai^£el3d33n, -dsm 
Hyannis hai'aenis |-'s -iz 
Hybla 'haibb 

hybrid ^haibrid |-ity hai^bridati 
hybridization jhaibrida'zefan, -ai'z- 
hybridize 'haibrid^aiz \-s -iz [-d -d 
Hydaspes hai^dsespiz |-pes' -piz 
Hyderabad, Hydra- 'haidsrs^b^d, jhaidara- 

'bad, 'haidra-, ^haidra- 
Hydra 'haidra |-s -z |-drae -dri 
hydracid hai'draesid 

hydrangea, H- hai'drendsa, -'draendsia, -dsa 
hydrant 'haidrant 
hydrate n 'haidret, -drit 
hydrate v 'haidret |hydrated 'haidretid 
hydraulic hai'drolik |-al -1 [-ally -li, -ikli 
hydride ^haidraid, -dnd |drid -drid 
hydrocarbon jhaidro'karban, -ban; ES 'ka:b-, 

-bon, E + 'ka:b- 
hydrocephaly jhaidro'sefab |-lic -sa'faelik 
hydrochloric jhaidra'klorik, -'kbr-; S -'klor- 
hydrochloride jhaidra'kloraid, -'kbr-, -id; S 

-'klor-; |-rid -id 
hydrocyanic jhaidrosai'aenik 



hydrodynamics jbaidrodai'nsemiks 

hydroelectric jhaidro-i'lektrik 

hydrogen 'haidradsan, -d3in |-ate -fit |-ated 

-jCtid 
hydrogenize ^aidradsanjaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
hydrogenous hai'dradsanas; ES^-'drnds- 
hydrographer hai'dragrafa^, -'drog-; ES 

-fa(r; |-phy -fi 
hydroid 'haidraid 
hydrolysis hai'drabsis; ES+-'drDl-; |-yses 

-jsiz 
hydromechanics jhaidromi'kaeniks 
hydromel 'haidrajmel 
hydrometer hai'dramata^; ES -'dramata(r, 

-'drom- 
hydropathic jhaidra'paeOik |-al -1 
hydropathy hai'drapaOi; ES + -'drDp- 
hydrophobia /haidra'fobia 
hydroplane 'haidra^plen 
hydroponics jhaidra'paniks; ES+-'pDn- 
hydroponist hai'drapanist; ES + - 'drop- 
hydropsy 'baidrapsi; ES + -drDp- 
hydroquinone jhaidrokwi'non 
hydrosphere 'haidra^sfir; ES -jsfia(r, S + 

-'sfeaCr 
hydrostatic ^haidra'staetik [-s -s |-al -1 |-ally 

-h, -ikh 
hydrosulphide, -fide, ^haidro'sAlfaid, -fid 

|-phid, -fid -fid 
hydrosulphite jhaidro'sAlfait 
hydrotherapeutics jhaidrOjOera'pjutiks, -'piu- 
hydrous 'haidras 
hydroxide hai'draksaid, -id; ES+-'drDks-; 

l-id -id 
hydroxyl hai'draksil; ES+-'drDk- 
hydrozoan, H- ^haidra'zoan 
hyena hai'ina 
Hygeia hai'dgia 
hygiene 'haidsin, 'haidgi^m 
hygienic jhaid3i'£nik |-s -s |-al -1 ]-ally -li, 

-ikh 
hygienist 'haid3ianist 
hygrometer hai'gramata'; ES -'gramata(r, 

-'grom- 
hygrometric jhaigraWetrik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 

-ikh 
hygroscope 'haigrajskop 
hying ptc of hie 'haiirj 
Hyksos 'hiksos, -sas; ES + -sds 



|full ful [tooth tue [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
(using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan jEden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Hymen 



212 



Hymen, h- 'haiman 

hymeneal ^haima'nial |-ly -i |-nean -'nian 

hymenopterous jhaima'naptaras, -tras; ES + 

-'nnp- 
Hymettus hai'metas |-'s -iz 
hymn him [hymned himd [hymning 'himii) 
hymnal 'himnal |-nist -nist |-nody -nadi 
hymnbook 'him^buk 
hymnology him'naladsi; ES+-'nDl- 
hyoid 'haiaid 
Hypatia hai'pe/ia, -/a 
hyperacid jhaipa^'aesid 
hyperacidity jhaipara'sidati, -ae'sidati 
hyperbola hai'pa^bala; ES -'ps-, -V^^-; I-s -z 
hyperbole haiipyba^li, -li; ES -'ps-, -'py-; 

|-s -z 
hyperbolic jhaipy'balik; ES jhaipa'balik, 

-'bol-; [-ally -li |-icly -ikli 
hyperbolize hai^s^bajlaiz; ES -'p3-> -'py-; 

|-s -IZ |-d -d 
hyperborean, H- jbaipa^'borian, -'bar-; ES 

jhaipa'bor-, E + -'bar- 
hypercivilized jhaipa^'sivljaizd; ES jhaipa- 
hypercritic ^haipa^'kritik; ES ^haipa-; |-al -| 

|-ally -ji, -ikli |-ticism -tajSizam 
hyperfunction jhaipa^'fAijkXan; ES jhaipa- 
Hyperion haiVinan 
hyperopia jhaipa^'opia 
hypersensitive jhaipa^'sensativ; ES jhaipa-; 

|-vity -jS2nsa'tivati 
hyperthyroidism jhaip^'Oairaidjizam; ES 

jhaipa- 
hj^ertrophy hai'pytrafi; ES -'p3-, -V^'-; 

|-phied -fid 
hyphen 'harfan j-ed -d |-ate -jCt |-ated -jctid 
hyphenize 'haifaiijaiz [-s -iz |-d -d 
hypnosis hipWsis [-noses -'noslz 



hypnotic hip'natik; ES-i--'nDt-; [-ally -li, 

-ikh 
hypnotism 'hipna^tizam |-tist -tist 
hypnotize 'hipna^taiz [-s -iz [-d -d 
hypo 'haipo 
hypochondria ^haipa'kandna, ^hip-; ES-i- 

-'knn-; [-driac -drijaek 
hypocrisy hi'pokrasi; ES + -'pDk- 
hypocrite 'hipa^krit 
hypocritical jhipa'kritikl [-ly -i, -ikli 
hypodermic jhaipa'dymik; ES -Mam-, 

-'dym-; [-ally -li, -ikli 
hypogene 'hipajdjin, 'haipa- 
hypophosphate jhaipa'fasfet; ES+-'fDs-; 

|-phite -fait 
hypophosphorous jhaipa'fasfaras; ES+-'fDS- 
hyposulphite ^haipa'sAlfait 
hyposulphurous ^haipa'sAlfaras, -SAl'fju-, 

-'fiu- 
hypotenuse, -poth- hai'patrijus, -jius, -jus, 

-z; ES+-VDt-; [-s -iz 
hypothecate hai'paGajket; ES-f-'pnG-; |-d -id 
hypothecation haijpaea'ke/an; ES-h-iPoG- 
hypothesis hai'paOasis; ES-i--'pdG-; |-ses 

-jsiz 
hypothesize hai'paOajsaiz; ES+-'pDe-; |-s -iz 

l-d-d 
hypothetic jhaipa'OEtik |-al -1 [-ally -li, -il:!i 
hyrax, H- 'hairaeks [-es -iz [-races -ra^siz 
Hyrcania hy'kenia; ES hs-, hy-; |-n -n 
hyson 'haisn 
hyssop ^hisap 
hysteresis ,hista'risis 
hysteretic ^histaVrtik [-ally -li, -ikli 
hysteria his'tiria, less freq. his'teria 
hysteric bis'tsrik |-s -s |-al -1 j-ally -li, -ikli 
hythe, H- haitS 



I, i letter ai \pl I's, Is, poss I's aiz 

I pro stressed 'ai, ^ai; unstr. ai, 3i, familiar a 

i-, -i- I, a — The non final unaccented vowel 
spelt i and originally pron. i shoivs a tendency 
in innumerable words of normal conversation 

. to he obscured in the direction of the sound a, 
as in possible 'pasabl, divide daVaid. As a 



rule only one pronunciation (a or i) is shown 
in the vocab. The alternative pron. with i is 
permissible if it does not sound artifi-cial (as 
it woidd in possible) , or with a if it does not 
sound slovenly (as it would in sluggish). 
But such judgments depend somewhat on 
habit, and as regional practice varies con- 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi jpity 'piti (§6) [rate ret \ytt jet [sang saeg [angry 'aeg-gri 
[bath baeO; E bae (§10) |ah a [far far [watch wat/, wntj (§12) jjaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



213 



ideography 



siderably, only an enlightened judgment and 


ichneumon ik'njuman, -'niu-, -'nu- 


observation can decide. 


ichor 'aikor, -ka^; ES 'aik33(r, 'aik3(r 


-ia ending (mania) , -ia- plus consonant (trivial, 


ichthyologic ^ikGis'ladsik; ES + -'lDd5-; |-al -1 


ruffian), -ie- plus cons, (alien), -io (Bas- 


|-ally -li, -ikli 


sanio), -io- plus cons, (scorpion), -ious 


ichthyologist jikOi'aladsist; ES-t--'Dl-; |-gy 


(tedious), -ius (radius). These and similar 


-d5i 


combinations of unstressed i plus vowel 


ichthyosaur 'ikGiajSar; ES -jS33(r 


regularly have double prons. la &" ja. In 


ichthyosaurus, I- jikOia'saras |-es -iz |-ri -rai 


the vocab. usually the one believed to be most 


icicle 'aijsikl, 'aisikl |-d -d 


common in ordinary speech is given, with 


icily 'aisli, 'aisili 


the understanding that the other pron. is also 


icing 'aisig 


more or less common. 


Ickes 'ikis, -as, -iz [-'s -iz 


lachimo 'jakijmo; so Shak.; mod.+3a}sek^ imo 


icon 'aikan, -knn |-s -z |-es 'aika,niz 


lago I'ago 


iconoclasm ai^kana^klaezam; ES-h-'knn-; 


-ial see -ia 


1-clast -iklaest 


iamb 'aiaemb |-ic ai'aembik 


iconoclastic ai,kana'klaestik, ^aikana-; ES-i- 


iambus ai'aembas |-es -iz |-bi ai'aembai 


-on-; |-ally -li, -ikh 


-ian see -ia 


iconography ^aikan'ografi, -'ng- 


iarovize 'jara^vaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


icosahedron jaikosa'hidran |-dra -dra 


Iberia ai'biria |-ian -lan 


ictus 'iktas |-es -iz 


ibex, I- 'aibeks |-es -iz |ibices 'ibi^siz, 'ai- 


icy 'aisi 


ibidem abbr. ibid, i^baidem, 'ibid, 'aibid 


I'd abbr. spelling of I had, I would, stressed 


ibis 'aibis |-es -iz 


'aid, jaid; unstr. aid, aid, occas. ad 


-ibie see -able 


Idaho 'aida^ho, 'aidi^ho |-an -an 


Ibsen 'ibsn 


idea ai'dia, ai'dia, occas. by sentence rhythm 


-ically ending of advs to words in -ic (comic) or 


'aidia 


in -ical (radical), pron. -ik-l-i ('raedik-l-i) 


ideal ai'dial, ai'dil, ai'dial |-ism -jizam |-ist 


or -ik'h ('raedik-b). The pron. ivith -ik-li 


-ISt 


is very common colloquially, and in a good 


idealistic jaidial'istik, -dial-, ai^d- |-al -1 


many ivords is recognized by the spelling, 


1 ally -li, -ikh 


which usually lags behind pronunciation; 


ideality jaidi'aelati 


as in authentically, -thenticly, cubically. 


idealization ai,diala'zeXan, -jdial-, -ai'z- 


-icly, heroically, -icly, rustically, -icly, 


idealize ai'dialjaiz, ai'dial- |-s -iz |-d -d 


specifically, -icly, symbolically, -icly, ty- 


ideate n ai'diit, -et 


rannically, -icly, etc. 


ideate v ai'diet, -'diet |-d -id 


Icarian I'kerian, I'ker- 


ideation ^aidi'ejan 


Icarus 'ikaras, 'ai- |-'s -iz 


ideatum jaidi'etam |-ta -ta 


ice ais |ices 'aisiz |iced aist 


idem 'aidem 


iceberg 'aiS/byg; ES -ibsg, -jbyg 


idempotent ai'dtmpatant 


iceboat 'aisjbot 


Iden 'aidn 


icebound 'aiSjbaund 


identic ai'dentik |-al -1 [-ally -|i, -ikli 


icebox 'aiSjbaks; ES + -jbDks; [-es -iz 


identification aijdentafa'kejan 


ice cream 'ais'krim 


identify ai'denta^fai j-fied -jfaid 


ice-cream 'ais%rim ('ice-'cream jcone, 'ice- 


identity ai'dentati 


jcream 'soda) 


ideogram 'idia^graem, 'aidia- 


icehouse 'aiSjhaus |-ses -ziz 


ideograph 'idia^graef, 'aidia-; E-t--jgraf, 


Iceland 'aisland |-ic ais'laendik 


-iirai 


iceman 'aiSjmaen, -man |-men -jinEn, -man 


ideographic jdia'graefik, ^aidia- 


Ichabod 'ika^bad, -jbod 


ideography ,idi'agrafi, ^aidi-, -'og- 



|full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzio [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



ideology 



214 



illume 



ideology ^aidi'abdsi, jid-; ES + -'d1- 


ileum 'iliam [ileac, iliac 'ilijaek 


ides aidz 


ilex, I- 'aikks |-es -iz 


id est 'that is' ^id'est 


Ilfracombe 'ilfra/kum, jilfra'kum 


idiocy 'idiosi 


iliac 'ihjaek = ileac 


idiom 'idiam 


Iliac 'of Ilium' 'ili^aek 


idiomatic /idia'maetik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 


Iliad 'ibad 


idiosyncrasy jidia'smkrasi, -'siij- 


Ilion 'iban |Ilium 'ibam 


idiosyncratic ^idiosm'kraetik |-al -I |-ally -h. 


ilium 'ibam 


-ikh 


ilk ilk 


idiot 'idiat |-ism -jizam 


iUiI 


idiotic ;idi'atik; ES + 'Wik; |-al -1 |-ally -h. 


I'll ahhr. spelling o/ 1 will ail — not a contraction 


-ikh 


of I shall (= 'aijl) but often suhstittited for it 


idle 'aidj |-d -d j-ling ^aidliij, -dlig \-r -dla^; 


ill-advised 'ibd'vaizd |-sedly -zidb 


ES -dl9(r; |-st -dhst 


illation I'le/an [illative 'ibtrv 


idly 'aidli 


ill-boding 'il'bodig 


idol 'aidl |-ed -d ]-ing 'aidlig 


ill-bred 'il'bred 


idolater ai'dabta^; ES ai'dabtaCr, -MdI-; 


illegal I'Hgl, il'lJgl l-ly -i 


|-tress -tris |-try -tri 


illegality jili'ga;bti 


idolization jaidja'zejan, -ai'z- 


illegibility jikdsa'bibti, ^ilkds-, ijrds- 


idolize 'aidljaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


illegible I'kdsabl, il'kds- |-bly -bb 


Idomeneus ai'daman jus, -m3inius, -majnus; 


illegitimacy jib'djitamasi, jilb- [-mate -mit 


ES + -'dDm-; |-'s -iz 


ill-fated 'il'fetid ('ill-^fated 'project) 


Idumaea, -mea jidju'inia, ^aid-, -du- |-n -n 


ill-favored 'il'feva^d; ES -'fevad 


Idun 'idun = Ithunn 


ill-gotten 'il'gatn; ES-f-'gntn 


idyl, -11 'aidl 


ill-humor 'il'juma', -'bjuma^, -'hiu-; ES -ma(r; 


idyllic ai'dikk |-al -1 |-ally -h, -ikh 


l-ed -d 


-ie ending see -y 


illiberal I'bbaral, I'bbral, il'l- |-ly -i 


-iel ending see -ia 


iUiberality jibba'raebti, jillib- 


-ien ending see -ia 


illicit I'bsit, il'bs- 


if if, f 


illimitable I'bmitabl, il'bm- ]-bly -bb 


igloo ^iglu 


illinium I'lmiam 


Ignatius Loyola ig'ne/as bi'ob, b'job 


Illinoian ,ib'naian 


igneous 'ignias 


Illinois jib'nai, -'n3iz |-nois's -'naiz, -'naiziz 


ignescent ig'nEsnt 


— jib'naiz, not infrequent generally, is esp. 


ignis fatuus. 'ignis 'f set Juas [ignes fatui 'igniz- 


common in the S. 


'faet/ujai 


Illinoisan jib'naian, -'naizan 


ignite ig'nait |-d -id |-nition ig'ni/an 


illiteracy I'btarasi, il'lit- |-rate -nt, -trit 


ignoble ig'nobl |-bly -bli 


ill-looking 'il'lukiij 


ignominious jigna'minias 


ill-mannered 'il'maena^d; ES -'maenad 


ignominy 'ignajmnii 


ill-natured 'il'netja^d; ES -'net/ad 


ignoramus jigna'remas |-es -iz 


illness 'ilnis |-es -iz 


ignorance 'ignarans |-rant -rant 


illogical i'lad3ikl, il'l-; ES + -'lod3-; [-ly -i. 


ignore ig'nor, -'nor; ES ig'no3(r, E + -'n33(r; 


-ikb 


l-d-d 


ill-omened 'il'omind, -mand 


Igorot jiga'rot, ^I- {Sp ^iga'rrote) 


ill-starred 'il'stard; ES -'sta:d, E + -'sta:d . 


Igraine I'gren 


ill-tempered 'il'tempa-d; ES -'tempad 


iguana I'gwana 


ill-timed 'il'taimd ('ill-jtimed 'start) 


il- 'not'' see in- prefix 


ill-treat il'trit |-ed -id 


11 Duce il'dutji {It il'du:t/e) 


illume I'lum, I'lium |-d -d 



Key: See in f nil §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saerj |angr}- 'aeij-gri 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a [far far [watch watj, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards |go go 



iliuminant 



215 



immorality 



iliuminant i^lumsnant, I'hum- 


imbroglio im'broljo (It im'braXXo) 


illuminate I'lumajnet, I'lium- |-d -id 


imbrue im'bru, -'briu |-d -d 


illuminati, I- i/luma'netai, ijlumi'nati, ijliuin- 


imbrute im'brut, -'briut |-d -id 


illumination ijluma'ne/an, ijium- 


imbue im'bju, -'biu |-d -d 


illuminative I'lumajnetiv, i 'hum- 


imid 'imid |imide 'imaid, 'imid 


illuminator I'luma^neta^, I'lium-; ES -t3(r 


imidogen I'midadsan, I'mida-, -dsm 


illumine I'lumin, I'liunun |-d -d 


imine I'min 


ill-usage 'il'jusidj, -'juz- [-s -iz 


imi table 'imitabl 


ill-use n 'il'jus |-s -iz 


imitate 'ima^tet [-tated -jtetid ]-tive -iv 


ill-use V il'juz |-s -IZ |-d -d 


imitation jima'te/an 


illusion i'lu53n, I'liugan |-ed -d 


imitator 'ima^teta^; ES -jteta(r 


illusive I'lusiv, I'liusiv |-sory -sari 


immaculate I'maekjaht 


illustrate 'ibstret, I'Ustret |-d -id 


immane I'men 


illustration jibs'trejan, ijlAs'trefan 


immanence 'imanans |-nent -nant 


illustrative I'lAstrativ, 'ibs^tretiv, I'Usjtretiv 


Immanuel I'maenjual 


illustrator 'ibsjtreta', I'lASjtreta'; ES -t3(r 


immaterial ^ima'tinal |-ly -i |-ism -^izam 


illustrious I'lAstnas 


immateriality jimajtin'aebti 


illy subsiattdard for adv ill 'ih 


immature ,ima'tur, -'tiur, -'tjur; ES -a(r; 


Illyria I'liria |-n -n 


|-rity -ati 


Ilokano jilo'kano 


immeasurable I'mesrabl, im'm-, -'mesara- 


11 Penseroso jilpensaVoso (It il^pense'roiso) 


l-bly -bk 


I'm abbr. spelling of I am, stressed 'aim, ^aim; 


immediacy I'midiasi 


unstr. aim, occas. am 


immediate I'midiit, esp. C I'midjat 


im- 'not' see in- prefix 


immemorial ^ima'morial, jiimna-, -'mar-; S 


image 'imids |-s -iz ]-d -d 


-'mor-; |-ly -i 


imagery 'iimdsri, -dsari 


immense I'mens |-sity -ati 


imaginable i'maed3in3bl, i'ma2d3n3bl |-bly 


immerse I'mTs; ES I'mss, I'mys; [-s -iz |-d -t 


-bh 


immersion I'my/an; ES I'ms/-, I'msJ"- 


imaginary I'maedsa^nEri 


immigrant 'imagrant, -/graent 


imagination i^maedsa'neXan |-tive I'maedga- 


immigrate 'ima,gret |-d -id |-tion jima'gre/an 


jnetiv 


imminence 'imanans |-nent -nant 


imagine I'maedgin |-d -d 


immiscible I'misabl |-bly -bli 


imagist 'im3d3ist |-gism -jdsizam 


immitigable I'mitagabl |-bly -bli 


imago I'mego \pl -s -z |imagines I'maedsi^niz 


immix im'miks |-es -iz j-ed -t 


imam I'mam |imaum I'mam, I'mom 


immixture im'mikst/a^; ES -'mikstja(r 


imbalm im'bam; E + -'bam; |-ed -d 


immobile I'mobl, im'm-, -bil, -bil 


imbark im'bark; ES -'ba:k, E+-'ba:k; |-ed -t 


immobility jimo'bibti, jmmo- 


imbecile 'imbasl, -jsil |-lity /imba'sibti 


immobilization i^mobla'ze/an, im^mo-, jimob-. 


imbed im'bed | -bedded -'bedid 


jimmob-, -ai'z- 


imbibe im'baib |-bibed -'baibd 


immobilize i'mobl,aiz, im'mo- [-s -iz [-d -d 


imbitter im'bita^; ES -'bit3(r; |-ed -d 


immoderate I'madarit, im'mad-, -drit; ES-t- 


imbody im'badi; ES+-'bDdi; |-died -did 


- 'mod- 


imbolden im'boldn |-ed -d |-ing -'boldnig. 


immodest I'madist, im'mad-; ES-f-'mod-; 


-'boldmo 


l-y-i 


imbosom im'buzam, -'buzam [-ed -d 


immolate 'ima^let |-d -id |-tion jima'le/an 


imbower im'baua^; ES -'bau»3(r 


immolator 'ima^leta^; ES -,leta(r 


imbricate adj 'imbrikit, -^ket 


immoral I'maral, im'm-, -'mar-, -'mor- |-ly -i 


imbricate v 'imbn^ket \- d -id 


immorality jima'raebti, -ma-, -ma-, -mo-. 


imbrication jimbri'kejan 


-mo- 



|full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstfa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'vijan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



immortal 



216 



impersonality 



immortal I'martl; ES I'maatl 


impeach im'pit/ |-es -iz [-ed -t 




immortality jimDr'taebti; ES jimD'taebti 


impeachability jimpit/a'bilati, im^plt/a 


- 


immortalize I'martljaiz; ES I'maatl-; |-s -iz 


impeachable im'pitjabl 




l-d-d 


impearl im'pyl; ES im'psl, -'pyl; |-ed 


-d 


immortelle jimar'tel; ES jimaa'tel 


impeccabihty ^impEka'bilati, im^pek- 




immovability i^muva^bibti, inijmuv-, jimuv-. 


impeccable im'pEkabl -bly -bh 




jimmuva- 


impecuniosity ^impijkjuni'asati, -jkiuni-; 


immovable I'muvabl, im'muv- |-bly -bli 


ES-i--'ds- 




immune I'mjun, I'nuun |-nity -ati 


impecunious jimpi'kjunias, -'kiun- 




immunization jimjuna'zejan, -ai'z- 


impede im'pid |-d -id |-dance -'pidns 




immunize 'imjainaiz, -ju- |-s -iz |-d -d 


impediment ira'pedamant 




immunology jimjs'naladsi, -ju-; ES + -'nDl- 


impedimenta jimpeda'mEnta, im,p£d- 




immure I'mjur, I'miur; ES -3(r; |-d -d 


impedimentary imjpEda'mEntari, -tn 




immutability ijmjuta'bilati, -^miut-, jimjut-. 


impel im'pEl |-pelled -'peld 




jimiut-, jimra- 


impend im'pend |-ed -id 




immutable I'mjutabl, I'mnit- |-bly -bli 


impenetrability jimpenatra'bilati, im^pen- 


Imogen 'im3d3m, -an [-gene -jdsln 


impenetrable imVenatrabl -bly -bh 




imp imp limped impt 


impenitence im'p£natans |-tent -tant 




impact n 'impaekt 


imperative im'perativ 




impact V im'paekt |-pacted -'paektid 


imperator jimpa'reta^; ES -Veta(r 




impair im'pEr, -'paer; E -'p£3(r, ES -'paEa(r; 


imperatorial jimpera 'tonal, im^pEra-, 


-'tar-; 


l-ed -d 


S -'tor- 




impale im'pe! |-d -d 


imperceptibility jmpa'jsepta'bilati; ES 


jimpa- 


impalpability jmpaelpa'bilati, im^pael- 


imperceptible jimpa^'septabj; ES j 


impa-; 


impalpable imVaelpabl |-bly -bli 


l-bly -bh 




impanel im'paenl -ed -d 


imperceptive jimpa^'sEptiv; ES jimpa- 




imparadise im'paerajdais |-s -iz |-d -t 


imperfect im'pyfikt; ES -'psf-, -'ps^f- 




impark im'park; ES im'pa:k, E+-'pa:k; 


imperfection jimpa^'fEkJan; ES ^impa- 




l-ed -t 


imperforate adj, n im'ps^farit; ES 


-W-. 


impart imVart; ES -'pa:t, E+-'pa:t; [-ed -id 


-'ps^f- 




impartation jimpar He/an; ES -pa:-, E 4- -par- 


imperforated im'pyfajretid; ES -'paf-. 


-'pyf- 


impartial im'parfal; ES -'pa:j3l» E + -'pa:j3l"» 


imperial im'pirial |-ly -i 




l-ly -I 


imperialism im'pirial^izam |-ist -ist 




impartiality jimparlfaelati, -Ji'ael-; ES -pa-. 


imperialistic imipinal'istik [-ally -h, -i 


kh 


E + -pa- 


imperil im'pEral, -il |-ed -d 




impassability jimpaesa'bilati, im^paes-; E-t- 


imperious im'pirias 




-pas-, -jpas-, -pas-, -jpas- 


imperishability ,impEriJa'bilati, imjpEi 


'- 


impassable imVaesabl; E-i--'pas-, -'pas-; 


imperishable im'psnjab}, |-bly -bh 




l-bly -bh 


imperium im'piriam |-ria -na 




impasse im'paes, 'impaes; E-i--a-, -a- |-s -iz 


impermanent ira'pymanant; ES - 


'p3m-. 


{Fr x\a:%) 


-'pym- 




impassible im'paesabl |-bly -bh 


impermeability jimpymia'bilati, inijpym-; 


impassionate adj im'paeXanit 


ES -3-, -y- 




impassionate v im'paeXanjet |-d -id 


impermeable im'pymiabl; ES -'psm-, -' 


pym-; 


impassioned im'pae/and 


l-bly -bh 




impassive im'pajsiv |-sivity jimpas'sivati 


impersonal im'pysnl, -'pysnal; ES 


-'p3S-, 


impaste im'pest |-d -id 


-'pys-; |-ly -I 




impatience im'pefans |-tient -/ant 


impersonality ^imps'sn'aelati, nn^pys 


-; ES 


impavid im'paevid 


-3-, -3^- 





Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi jpity 'piti (§6) |rate ret jyet JEt |sang saeij Iangr>^ 'aerj-gri 
|bath baeO; E baG (§10) |ah a jfar far jwatch watj", ^votj" (§12) jjaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



impersonate 



217 



impressive 



impersonate irnVs'sn^et; ES -'p3s-, -'pys-; 

l-d -id 
impersonation jimpysn'e/an, ini/pys-; ES 

-3-, -y- 

impertinence ira'pytnans; ES -'pat-, -'pyt-; 

|-s -iz |-tinent -tnant 
imperturbability jimpa^jtyba'bilati; ES -pa- 

jtsb-, -p3jtyb- 
imperturbable jimpa^'tybabl; ES -pa'tsb-, 

-pa'tyb-; |-bly -bli 
imperturbation jimpyta^'be/an; ES -pata-, 

-pyta- 
impervious im'pyvias; ES -'psv-, -'p^'v- 
impetigo jimpi'taigo 
impetuosity jimpet/u'asati, im^pEt-; ES + 

-'ds- 
impetuous ira'pet/uas 
impetus ^mpatas |-es -iz 
Impey 'impi |-an -an 
impiety imVaiati | impious 'impias 
impinge im'pmds |-s -iz [-d -d 
impish 'impij" 

implacability jimpleka'bilati, im^plek-, -laek- 
implacable im'plekabl, -'plaek- |-bly -bh 
implant im'pl«nt; E + -'plant, -'plant; |-ed -id 
implausible im'pbzabl |-bly -bh 
implead im'plid |-ed -id 
implement 7t 'implamant 
implement v 'impla^mEnt |-ed -id 
implemental ^impla'mentl 
implementation jimplamen'te/an 
implicate adj 'imphkit 
implicate v 'imph;ket |-d -id 
implication jimpb'ke/an |-tive 'implijketiv 
implicit im'pbsit 
implore im'plor, -'pbr; ES -'ploa(r, E + 

-'plaa(r; |-d -d 
imply im'plai |-plied -'plaid |-pliedly -'plai- 

idli 
impolite jimpa'lait 
impolitic ira'pala^tik; ES + -'pd1- 
imponderability jimpandara'bilati, im^pan-; 

ES+ -Dn- 
imponderable im'pandarabl; ES + -'pDn-; 

l-bly -bk 
import ti 'import, -part; ES -poat, E + -paat 
import V im'port, -'part; ES -'poat, E + -'paat; 

|-ed -id — acc^ + 'import, esp. in contrast to 

export, V. 



mportance im'partns; ES -'paatns; |-tant 

-tnt 
mportation jimpor'tejan, -par-; ES -poa-, 

E+-paa- 
mportunate adj im'part/anit; ES -'paa- 
mportunate v ira'part/a^net; ES -'paa-; \-d 

-id 
mportune adj, v jimpa^'tjun, -'tiun, -'tun, 

im'part/an; ES jimpa-, im'paat/-; |-d -d 
mportunity jimpa^'tjunati, -'tiun-, -'tun-; ES 

jimpa- 
mpose im'poz |-s -iz |-d -d |-sing -ig 
mposition jimpa'zi/an 
mpossibility jimpasa'bilati, im^pas-; ES + 

-DS- 

mpossible im'pasabl; ES + -'pDS-; |-bly -bb 
mpost 'impost |-ed -id 
mpostor im'pasta^; ES -'pasta(r, -'pns- 
mpostume im'past/um; ES + -'pDS- 
mposture im'past/a^; ES -'pastXa(r, -'pos- 
mpotence 'impatans |-tent -tant 
mpound im'paund |-ed -id |-age -ids 
mpoverish im'pavarij", -vrij"; ES + -'pDV-; 

|-es -IZ |-ed -t 
mpracticability jimpraektika'bilati, im^praek- 
mpracticable im'praektikabi |-bly -bh 
mpractical im'praektikl 
mpracticality jimpraekti'kaelati, im^praek- 
mprecate 'impri^ket |- d -id 
mprecation ^impri'ke/an 
mprecatory 'imprika^tori, -;tari; S -jtori 
mpregnability jimpregna'bilati, im^preg- 
mpregnable im'pregnabl |-bly -bh 
mpregnate adj im'prEgnit 
mpregnate v im'pregnet |-d -id 
mpregnation jimprEg'neJan 
mpresario jimpri'sarijO 
mprescriptible jimpri'skriptabi |-bly -bh 
mpress w 'imprES |-es -iz 
mpress v im'pres |-es -iz |-ed -t [-edly -idh 
mpressibility jimptEsa'bilati, im^prES- 
mpressible im'prEsabl |-bly -bh 
mpression im'prs/an |-al -1 [-ally -h 
mpressionability imjpre/ana'bilati, -Jna- 
mpressionable im'preXanabl, -/na- |-bly -bh 
mpressionism im'prejanjizam |-ist -ist 
mpressionistic inijprE/an'istik |-ally -li, 

-ikli 
mpressive im'presiv 



|full ful [tooth tue [further 'fytJa^; ES 'faSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredj [keep 'em 'kipm 



imprest 



218 



inartistic 



imprest adj, n 'imprest 

imprest v im'prest j-prested -'prestid 

imprimatur jimpri'meta^; ES -'met3(r 

imprimis im'praimis 

imprint n 'imprint 

imprint v im'print |-ed -id 

imprison im'prizn |-ed -d |-ing -'pnznig, 

-znig 
improbability jimpraba'bilati, im^pr-; ES + 

-rob- 
improbable im'prababi; ES+-'pn)b-; |-bly 

-bh 
improbity im'probati, -'prabati; ES+-'pnjb- 
impromptu im'pramptu, -tiu, -tju; ES + 

-'promp- 
improper im'prapa^; ES -'prap3(r, -'prnp- 
impropriety jimpra'praiati, jimpa'praiati — In 

jimpa'praiati r is lost by dissimilation 

{§121). 
improvability iiiijpruva'bilati 
improvable im'pruvabl |-bly -bb 
improve im'pruv |-d -d 
improvidence im'pravadans; ES+-'prDV-; 

|-nt -nt 
improvisation jimpravai'zefan, -prava'ze-; 

ES 4- -prov- 
improvise 'imprajvaiz, jimpra'vaiz |-s -iz j-d 

-d |-visedly -'vaizidb 
imprudence im'prudns, -'priud- |-dent -dnt 
impudence 'impjadans, -pju- |-dent -dant 
impugn im'pjun, -'piun |-ed -d |-er -3'; ES 

-3(r; |-able -abj |-bly -bh 
impugnable 'unconqueyable' im'pAgnabl 
impuissance im'pjuisns, -'piu- j-sant -snt 
impulse n 'impAls ]-s -iz 
impulse v im'pAls [-s -iz |-d -t 
impulsion im'pAlJan j-sive -siv 
impunity im'pjunati, -'piun- 
impure im'pjur, -'piur; ES -a(r; |-rity -ati 
imputability inijpjuta'bilati, -^piut-, jimp- 
imputable im'pjutabl, -'piut- |-bly -bli 
imputation ^impju'te/an 
impute im'pjut, -'piut |-d -id 
in adj, adv in 
in prep stressed 'in, ^in; unstr. in, n (cut in two 

'kAtn'tu), occas. nonsyllahic n before the 

article a a (I'm in a hurry jaimna'hs'i, 

He'll go in a minute bil'gona'minit) 
in- prefix. In words like inactive, ivhere in- 



means 'not,' and the second part clearly has 
its separate meaning, the in- just before the 
main accent has a slight stress that could be 
marked thus: jin'aektiv, or under emphasis 
even 'in'aektiv. But if the second part does 
not show a clear meaning, being fused with 
the in- into a sim-ple word, as insipid in- 
'sipid, then the in- is quite stressless. Since 
with different speakers and styles of speech 
there are all grades between no stress and full 
stress, it is not feasible to m^rk this accent, 
though it often exists in speech. The same 
statements apply to the variants il- and im-. 
nabiHty jina'bdati 
n absentia ^inab'sEnJia 
naccessibility jinak,s8sa'bilati, ^maek- 
naccessible ^inak'sEsabl, jinaek- |-bly -bh 
naccuracy in'jekjarasi [-rate -nt 
naction in'aek/an |-active -'jektrv 
nactivity ^inaek'tivati 
nadequacy in'aedakwasi |-quate -kwit 
nadmissibility jinadjnusa'bilati 
nadmissible jinad'nusabi |-bly -bh 
nadvertence jinad'vytns; ES -'vat-, -'vyt-; 

|-cy -I |-ent -tnt 
nadvisability jinad^vaiza'bdati 
nadvisable jinad'vaizabl [-bly -bh 
nalienability jineljana'bilati, injcljan-, -han- 
nalienable in'eljanabi, -'ehan- |-bly -bh 
nalterable in'aharabi |-bly -bh 
namorata injaema'rata, jinaem- 
nane in'en 
nanimate in'aBnamit 
nanity in'aenati [inanition jina'ni/an 
nappeasable yina'pizabl 
napplicability jinaephka'bilati, in^aep- 
napplicable in'aephkabl |-bly -bh 
napposite in'aepazit 
nappreciable ;ina'pri/iabl |-bly -bh 
nappreciative ^ina'pri/ijCtiv 
napproachabiHty ^ina/prot/a'bilati 
napproachable ^ina'prot/abl |-bly -bh 
nappropriate jina'propnit 
napt in'aept 

naptitude in'aeptajtjud, -;tiud, -^tud 
narm m'arm; ES -'a:m, E + -'a:m; |-ed -d 
narticulate /inar'tikjaht; ES -a-, E + -a- 
nartistic ^inar'tistik; ES -a:'tis-, E-)--a:'tis-; 
l-al -! l-ally -li, -ikh 



Key: See in fidl §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret [j'et jet [sang saerj |angr}- 'aeo'g" 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dja Igorge gard5 |go go 



inasmuch 



219 



incompact 



inasmuch jinaz'mAt/ 


inch intj [inches 'int/iz [inched int/t 


inattention ^ma 'ten/an |-tive -tiv 


Inchbald 'mt/bald 


inaudibility jinoda'bibti, inpd- 


inchoate adj in'kcit 


inaudible in'odabl |-bly -bli 


inchoate v 'inko^et [-d -id 


inaugural in'agjaral, inbgaral 


inchworm 'intJ'jWS'ni; ES -^wam, -^ws^m 


inaugurate inbgja^ret, -'aga- |-d -id 


incidence 'insadans [-dent -dant 


inauguration inpgja're/an, -pga- 


incidental jinsa'dentl |-Iy -i 


inauspicious jina'spi/ss 


incinerate in'smajret [-d -id |-tor -a^; ES -a(r 


inboard 'in^bord, -^bard; ES -^boad, E + 


incipience in'sipians [-cy -i |-ent -ant 


-^baad 


incipit 'here begins' 'insipit 


inborn m'barn; ES -'baan; ('in^born ^ace) 


incise in'saiz [-s -iz |-d -d 


inbound 'in'baund ('in^bound 'ship) 


incision in'sisan 


inbreathe in'bri'S |-d -d 


incisive in'saisiv, -ziv 


inbred adj in'bred ('injbred 'tact) 


incisor in'saiza^; ES -'saiza(r 


inbreed in'brid |-bred -'bred 


incite m'sait |-d -id [-tation jinsai'te/an 


Inca 'igka 


incivility ^insa'vilati 


incalculability jinkaelkjala'bilatr, in^kael- 


inclemency in'kkmansi [-clement -'kkmant 


incalculable in'ktelkjalabl |-bly -bh 


incHnable in'klainabl 


incandesce ^inkan'des, -kaen- |-s -iz |-d -t 


inclination ^inkla'nejan 


incandescence ^inkan'desns )-cy -i |-nt -nt 


incline n 'inklain, in'klain 


incantation jinkaen'te/an 


incline v in'klain |-d -d 


incapabiHty /inkepa'bilati, in^kep- 


incUnometer jnkli'namata'; ES -'namataCr, 


incapable in'kepabl |-bly -bli 


-'nnm- 


incapacitate jinka'paesajtet ]-d -id |-ity -ti 


inclose in'kloz |-s -iz [-d-d 


incarcerate m'karsa^ret; ES -'ka:s-, E + 


inclosure in'klosa';. ES -3a(r 


-'ka:s-; |-d -id 


include m'klud, -'kbud [-d -id 


incarceration injkarsa're/an; ES -jka:s-. 


inclusion in'klusan, -'kliu- 


E+-ika:s-; ^ink- 


inclusive m'klusiv, -'khu-, -ziv 


incarnadine m'karnajdam, -dm; ES -'ka:-. 


incog in'kag, -'kng 


E+-'ka:-; |-d -d 


incognito in'kagnijto, -'kng- 


incarnate adj in'karnit, -net; ES -'ka:-. 


incoherence jinko'hirans |-cy -i |-ent -ant 


E + -'ka:- 


incombustibility jinkanijbAsta'bilati 


incarnate v in'kamet; ES -'ka:-, E + -'ka:-; 


incombustible jinkam'bAstabl [-bly -bh 


l-d -id 


income 'in^kAm, 'ig^kAm 


incarnation, I- jinkar'ne/an; ES -ka:-. 


incoming 'in^kAmig 


E+-ka:- 


incommensurability jinka^mEnJara'bilati, 


incase in'kes [-cases -'kesiz |-cased -'kest 


-sara- 


incaution in'kajan |-tious -/as 


incommensurable (inka'ttienjarabl, -sara- 


incendiary in'sendi^Eri |-arism -a^rizam 


[-bly -bh 


incense n 'insens \adj - d -t 


incommensurate jinka'men/arit, -sarit 


incense v in'sens |-s -iz [-d -t 


incommode jinka'mod [-d -id [-dious -las 


incentive in'sentiv 


incommodity jinka'madati; ES+-'niDd- 


incept in'sept |-ed -id 


incommunicability jinkajmjunika'bilati. 


inception in'sEp/an |-tive -tiv 


-jiniun- 


inceration jinsa'Tc/an 


incommunicable jinka'mjunikabl, -'miun- 


incertitude in'ss'tajtjud, -jtiud, -jtud; ES 


[-bly -bh 


-'s3t-, -'syt- 


incommunicado ^inkajmjuni'kado, -^miun- 


incessancy in'sEsnsi |-sant -snt 


incommunicative /inka'injunajketiv, -'miun- 


incest 'insest |-uous in'sEst/uas 


incompact jnkam'paekt 



[full ful [tooth tu6 [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstia [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy ti. 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/ [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipitt. 



incomparability 



220 



inculcation 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with d in E and S 



incomparability jinkampara'bilati, -pr3-, in- 

jkam- 
incomparable m'kamparab), -pra- |-bly -bli 
incompatibility jinkaniipaeta'bilati 
incompatible jinkam'paetabl |-bly -bli 
incompetence in'kampatans |-cy -i |-tent 

tant 
incomplete ;inkam'plit I-pletion -^plijan 
incompliance jinkam'plaians |-cy -i |-nt -nt 
incomprehensibility jinkamprijhensa'bilati, 

in/kam- 
incomprehensible jinkampri'hensabl, in^kam- 

|-bly -bli |-sive -siv 
incompressible jinkam'prEsabl |-bly -bh 
incomputable jinkam'pjutabi, -'pmt- 
inconceivability ^inkaiijsiva'bilati 
inconceivable jinkan'sivabl |-bly -bli 
inconclusive ^inkan'klusiv, -'kliu- 
inconformity jinkan'farmati; ES -^faamati 
incongruence in'kaggruans |-ent -ant 
incongruity ^inkag'gruati, -kag-, -n'gru-, 

-'gnu- 
incongruous in'kaogruas 
inconsecutive jinkan'sskjativ 
inconsequence in^kansa^kwEns |-quent -^kwent 
inconsequential /inkansa'kwEn/al |-ly -i 
inconsequentiality jinkansajkwEn/i'aelati, in- 

jkan- 
inconsiderable jinkan'sidarabl, -'sidra- |-bly 

-bli 
inconsiderate ^inkan'sidarit, -'sidrit 
inconsideration jinkan,sida'reXan 
inconsistence ^inkan'sistans |-cy -i |-nt -nt 
inconsolability jinkanjsola'bilati 
inconsolable jinkan'solabl |-bly -bli 
inconsonance in'kansanans |-nant -nant 
inconspicuous ^inkan'spikjuas 
inconstancy in'kanstansi |-tant -tant 
incontestable jinkan'testabl |-bly -bli 
incontinence in'kantanans |-cy -i |-nt -nt 
incontrollable jinkan'trolabl |-bly -bh 
incontrovertability jinkantrajvyta'bilati, m- 

jkan-; ES -jvat-, -jvyt- 
incontrovertible jinkantra'vytabl, in^kan-; 

ES -Vst-, -Vs't-; occi+in'contro avertible 

I-bly -bli 
inconvenience jinkanVinjans |-s -iz [-d -t [-nt 

-nt 



inconvertibility ^inkanjVS'-ta'bilati; ES -jVst-, 

-jvyt- 
inconvertible ^inkanVytabl; ES -Vst-, -Vyt-; 

I-bly -bU 
inconvincibility ,inkan;\insa'bilati 
inconvincible jinkanVinsabI |-bly -bli 
in-co-ordinate jinko'Drdnit; ES -badnit; 

|-nated -dn^etid 
in-co-ordination jinkoprdn'ejan; ES -padn- 

'e/an 
incorporable in'karparabl; ES -'kaap- 
incorporate adj in'karparit, -prit; ES -'kaap- 
incorporate v in'karpajtet; ES -'koap-; |-d -id 

|-rative -jtetiv 
incorporation in^karpa 're/an; ES -jkaap-; 

jink- 
incorporeal jinkar'porial, -'par-; ES jinka- 

'porial, E + -'parial 
incorporeity jinkarpa'riati; ES -kap-; in^k- 
incorrect jinka'tekt ('incorrect 'answer) 
incorrigibility ^inkandsa'bilati, m^kar-, -ar-, 

-nr- 
incorrigible in'karidsabl, -'kar-, -'kor- |-bly 

-bh 
incorrupt jinka'rApt |-ed -id 
incorruptibility jinka^rApta'bilati 
incorruptible jinka'rAptabl |-bly -bli 
incorruption jinka'rAp/an 
increase n 'inkris, 'igk- |-s -iz 
increase v in'kris |-s -iz |-d -t |-dly -idli 
increasingly in'krisir)li 
incredibility jinkreda'bilati, in^kreda- 
incredible in'kredabl |-bly -bh 
incredulity jinkra'dulati, -'diul-, -'djul- 
incredulous in'kredsalas 
increment 'inkramant, 'igk- |-al jinkra'm£ntl 
incriminate in'krimajnet |-d -id 
incrimination injkrima'ne/an, jinkrima- 
incriminator in'krimajneta'; ES -jneta(r 
incriminatory in'krimanajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 
incrust in'krAst |-ed -id 
incrustation jinkrAs'te/an 
incubate 'inkjajbet, 'igk- |-d -id 
incubation jinkja'bejan, jigk- 
incubator 'inkjajbeta^, 'igk-; ES -ta(r 
incubus 'inkjabas, 'igk- |-es -iz |-bi -jbai 
inculcate in'kAlket, 'inkAl^ket |-d -id 
inculcation jinkAl'ke/an 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret Ij^et J2t [sang saeg Iangr>- 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far Jwatch wat/, wotj" (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



inculpate 



221 



indignity 



inculpate in'kAlpet, 'inkAljpet |-d -id 
inculpation jinkAl'peJan 
inculpatory in'kAlp9jtori, -ttsri; S -^tori 
incult in'kAlt ('in^cult 'beard) 
incumbency in'kAmbansi |-bent -bant 
incumber in'kAmba'; ES -'kAmbaCr; |-ed -d 

|-ing -'kAmbrig, -bang 
incumbrance in'kAmbrans |-s -iz 
incunabula jnkju'naBbjala \sg -lum -lam 
incur in'ky; ES -'ksCr, -'ky; |-red -d 
incurability ^inkjura'bilati, -kiur-, irijk- 
incurable in'kjurabl, -'kiur- |-bly -bh 
incuriosity jinkjuri'asati, -kiur-; ES+-'ds- 
incurious in'kjurias, -'kiur- 
incurrence in'kyans; ES -'karans, -'kArans, 

-'kyans; |-s -iz 
incursion in'kysan, -'ky/-; ES -'ks-, -'k?- 
incursive in'kysiv; ES -'kss-, -'kys- 
incurvate adj in'kyvit, -vet; ES -'ksv-, -'ka^v- 
incurvate in'kyvet; ES -'ksv-, -'kyv-; |-d -id 
incurvation jinks^Ve/an; ES -ks'v-, -ks^V- 
incurve n 'in^ks^v; ES -jksv, -jkyv 
incurve v in'kyv; ES -'ksv, -'kyv; |-d -d 
incus 'igkas |-es -iz |-cudes in'kjudiz, -'kiu- 
Ind 'India' ind, aind — The historical pron. is 

aind, as in Chauc. and Shak. 
indamin 'indamin |-mine -jinin, -mm 
indebt in'det |-ed -id |-edness -idnis 
indecency in'disnsi |-cent -snt 
indecipherability .indijsaifra'bilati, -fara- 
indecipherable jindi'saifrabl, -fara- [-bly -bli 
indecision jindi'sisan |-cisive -'saisiv 
indeclinable jindi'klainabl |-bly -bh 
indecorous in'dekaras, jindi'koras; EN+ 

-'kar- 
indecorum jindi'koram, -'kar-; S -'koram 
indeed in'did, n'did, ew^//. + 'in'did ('jEsn- 

'did) 
indefatigability jindi^faetiga'bilati 
indefatigable jindi'faetigabl |-bly -bh 
indefeasible ^indi'fizabl |-bly -bh 
indefensible jindi'fensabi |-bly -bh 
indefinable jindi'fainabl |-bly -bh 
indefinite in'dEfanit 
indehiscence jindi'hisns | -scent -snt 
indelibility iindela^bilati, inydel- 
indelible ni'delab! |-bly -bh 
indelicate in'dElakat, -kit |-cacy -kasi 
indemnification nijdemnafa'ke/an 



indemnify in'dEmna/fai |-fied -jfaid |-ity -ti 
indemonstrable in'dEmanstrabj, ^indi'man- 

strabl; ES+-'mDn-; |-bly -bh 
indene 'indin 
indent n in'dent, 'indent 
indent v in'dent |-ed -id |-ation jinden'te/an 
indention in'den/an 

indenture in'dentja"-; ES -'dent/a(r; |-d -d 
independence ;indi'p£ndans |-cy -i |-nt -nt 
indescribable jindi'skraibabl |-bly -bh 
indestructibility jindijStrAkta'bilati 
indestructible jindi'sttAktabl |-bly -bh 
indeterminable iindi'tyminabl; ES -'tsm-, 

-'tym-; |-bly-bh 
indeterminate ^indi'ts-manit; ES -'tsm-, 

-'tym- 
inde termination ^indijtyma'ne/an; ES -^tam-, 

-itym- 
indeterminism jindi'tymanjizam; ES -'t3m-, 

-'tym-; |-ist -ist 
index 'indeks |-es -iz [indices 'indajsiz |-ed -t 
India 'india, 'indja |-n -n |-man -man |-men 

-man 
Indiana ;indi'aena — BBC indi'a:na is not Am. 
Indianapolis jindian'asphs, -'aephs, -as |-'s -iz 
Indianian jindi'aenian, -njan 
Indie 'indik 

indie 'indik |indican 'indikan 
indicant 'indikant 

indicate 'inda^ket [-d -id |-tion ^inda'kejan 
indicative in'dikativ, -'dikitiv 
indicator 'inda^keta^; ES -jketa(r 
indices pi of index 'inda^siz 
indict in'dait |-ed -id |-er, -or -a^; ES -a(r 
indictable in'daitabl |-bly -bh 
indictee jindait'i 
indiction in'dik/an 
indictment in'daitmant 
Indies 'indiz, 'indiz 

indifference in'difrans, -'difarans ]-nt -nt 
indigence 'indadsans |-gent -dsant 
indigene 'inda^dsin 
indigenous in'didsanas 
indigestibility jindajdsesta'bilati 
indigestible jinda'dsestabl |-bly -bh 
indigestion jinda'dsestjan 
indign in'dain 

indignant in'dignant |-gnation jindig'nejan 
indignity in'dignati 



|full ful [tooth tuO [further 'fy'Sa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



indigo 



222 



inebriacy 



indigo 'indijgo |-digoid -di^gaid 


Indo-Germanic (indodsa^^'maemk, -ds^-; ES 


indigotin in'digatin, ^indi'gotin 


-dsa-, -dss-, -dsy- 


Indio 'indijO 


indol 'indol, -dal, -dol |-dole -dol 


indirect jinda'rekt |-rection -Vek/an 


indolence 'indalans |-lent -bnt 


indiscernible yindi'zynabl, -'syn-; ES -an-. 


indomitable in'damatsbl; ES-h-'dnm-; |-bly 


-yn-; |-bly -bh 


-bh 


indiscreet jindi'skrit |-scretion -'skreXan 


Indonesian ^indo'niXan, -33n 


indiscriminate ^indi'skrimanit 


indoor 'in^dor, -/dar; ES -jdo3(r, E + -jd33(r 


indiscrimination jindijskrima'ne/an 


indoors n in'dorz, -'darz; ES -'doaz, E-i- 


indispensability jindiyspensa'bibti 


-'dD3Z 


indispensable jindi'sp8ns3bl |-ljly -bli 


indoors adj 'in^dorz, -jdarz; ES -^doazj 


indispose jindi'spoz |-s -iz |-d -d 


E + -jdD3Z 


indisposition ^indispa'zi/an 


indoors adv 'in'dorz, -'darz; ES -'doaz. 


indisputability ^indijSpjuta'bibti, -^spiut-. 


E + -'d33Z 


m^dispjuta'bilati 


indophenol jindo'finol, -nal, -nol 


indisputable jindi'spjutabl, -'spiut-, in'dis- 


indorse in'dars; ES -'daas; |-s -iz |-d -t 


pjutabl |-bly -bh — Usage appears to he 


indoxyl in'daksil; ES-f-'dok- 


sensibly foUoidng the analogy 0/ dispute. 


Indra 'indra 


indissolubility jindijsalja'bilati, in^dislju- 


indraft, -draught 'm^draeft; E+-jdraft, -^draft 


'bibti; ES + -jSd1- 


indrawn 'in'dran ('in;drawn 'breath) 


indissoluble jindi'saljabl, in'disljubl; ES + 


indubitable in'djubitabl, -'diu-, -'du- |-bly 


-'sdI-; |-bly -bb 


-bh 


indistinct jindi'stiijkt 


induce in'djus, -'dius, -'dus |-s -iz |-d -t 


indistinguishability jindijstiijgwija'bilati 


|-cible -abl |-dly -idh 


indistinguishable jindi'stiggwijabl 1-bly -bh 


induct in'dAkt |-ed -id |-ance -ans 


indite in'dait |-d -id 


inductile in'dAktl, -til 


indium 'indiam 


inductihty jindAk'tibti 


individual jinda'vidsual, -dgul |-ly -i 1-ism 


induction in'dAk/an |-tive -trv 


-jizam |-ist -ist 


inductivity jindAk'trvati 


individualistic jinda^vidsual'istik, -d3ul- 


inductor in'dAkta^; ES -'dAktaCr 


|-ally -Ii, -ikh 


indue in'dju, -'dm, -'du |-d -d 


individuality jindajvidsu'aelati 


indulge in'dAlds |-s -iz |-d -d 


individualization jmdajvidsuala'zejan, -d5ul-, 


indulgence in'dAldgans |-s -iz |-d -t |-nt -nt 


-ai'z- 


indulin 'indjuhn |-line -Jin, -hn 


individualize jindaVidsual^aiz, -dsul- |-s -iz 


indurate adj 'indjurit, -durit 


l-d-d 


indurate v 'indjujret, -du^ret |-d -id 


indivisibility jindajViza'bibti 


induration ^indju're/an, -du- 


indivisible jinda'vizabl |-bly -bh 


Indus 'indas |-'s -iz 


Indo-Aryan 'indo'Erian, -W-, -W-, -rjan; 


industrial in'dAstrial |-ly -i j-ism -jzam j-ist 


S -'aer-, -'er-, -'ar- 


-ISt 


Indo-British 'indo'briti/ 


industrialization injdAstriala'ze/an, -ai'z- 


Indo-Chinese 'indotJ"ai'niz 


industrialize in'dAstrialjaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


indocile in'dasl, -sil; ES+-'dDS- 


industrious in'dAstnas 


indocility jindo'sibti 


industry 'indastri, 'in^dAstri "~ 


indoctrinate in'daktrinjet; ES-h-Mok-; |-d 


indwell in'dwel [-dwelt -'dwelt 


-id 


indweller 'in^dwela^; ES -jdwelaCr 


indoctrination in^daktri'iiejan, jindak-; ES + 


indwelling n 'in,dwEhg 


-D- 


inearth in'yO; ES -'36, -'yO; |-ed -t 


Indo-European ^inda jura'pisn* jindo- 


inebriacy in'ibrissi |-briant -briant 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angr}- 'asg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a [far far |watch wat/, wotj" (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge g3rd5 |go go 



inebriate 



223 



infinitive 



inebriate adj in'ibnit 


inexpiable in'Ekspiabl |-bly -bli 


inebriate n in'ibriit, -ifii 


inexplainable jinik'splenabj 


inebriate v in'ibriiet |-d -id 


inexplicability injEkspIika'bilati, jinsks- 


inebriation mjibri'e/an 


inexplicable in'sksplikobj |-bly -bli — Brii 


inebriety ^ini'braiati 


occasional ^inik'splikabj seems to he gaining 


inedibility jineda'bilati, injcda- 


groiond here. 


inedible lo'edabl 


inexpressible ^inik'sprEsabl |-bly -bli 


inedited in'editid 


inexpressive jinik'sprESiv 


ineducability jinedsaka'bilati, -dsu- 


inexpugnable jnik'spAgnabl [-bly -bli 


ineducable in'edsakabl, -A^v- 


in extenso ^inik'stEnso 


ineffability jiiiEfa'bibti, in^efa- 


inextinguishable ^imk'stiggwijabl |-bly -bli 


ineffable in'efabl |-bly -bli 


in extremis ^imk'striniis 


ineffaceable jina'fesabj |-bly -bli 


inextricable in'Ekstrikabl |-bly -bh 


ineffective jina'fsktiv 


infallibility jinfaela'bilati, in^faela- 


ineffectual jina'fekt/ual, -t/ul |-ly -i 


infallible in'faelabl |-bly -bli 


ineffectuality jinajfEkt/u'aebti 


infamous 'infamas | infamy 'iiifami 


inefficacious jinEfa'ke/as |-cacy in'efakasi 


infancy 'infansi |-fant -fant 


inefficience jina'fi/ons |-cy -i |-nt -nt 


infanta in'faenta infante in'faente 


inelastic jini'laestik 


infanticide in'faenta^said 


inelasticity jinilaes'tisati 


infantile 'infan^tail, -tal, -til 


inelegance in'sbgans |-s -iz |-cy -i |-nt -nt 


infantine 'infan^tain, -tm 


ineligibility jinekdsa'bibti, in^Elidsa- 


infantry 'infantri |-man -man ]-men -man 


ineMgible in'shdjabl |-bly -bli 


infatuate in'faet/ujet |-d -id 


ineluctable jini'lAktabl |-bly -bli 


infatuation in^fastju'e/an 


inept in'Ept 


infeasible in'fizabi 


ineptitude in'Eptajtjud, -jtiud, -^tud 


infect in'fEkt |-ed -id 


inequality jini'kwabti, -'kwol- 


infection in'fEkJan |-tious -/as |-tive -tiv 


inequitable in'skwitabl |-bly -bli |-ty -ti 


infelicitous jinfa'lisatas |-ty -ti 


ineradicable jim'raedikabl |-bly -bli 


infelt 'in^fElt 


inerrancy in'sransi |-rant -rant 


infer mfe; ES -'f3(r, -'fy; |-red -d 


inert in'yt; ES in'at, -'yt 


inferable in'fyabl, 'infarabi; ES+-'f3rabl 


inertia in'^/a; ES -'a/a, -'y/a 


inference 'infarans |-s -iz 


inescapable iina'skepabl |-bly -bli 


inferential jinfa'rEn/al |-ly -i 


in esse ih'esi 


inferior in'firia'; ES -'firi'a(r 


inessential jina's£nj"al 


inferiority injfin'arati, -'ar-, -'nr-, jnfir- 


inestimable in'sstamabl |-bly -bli 


infernal in'fynl; ES -'fsnl, -'fynl; [-ly -i 


inevitability ^inEvata'bilati, idjEv- 


inferno, I- in'fyno; ES -'fane, -'fyno 


inevi table in'svatabl |-bly -bli 


inferrible m'fyabl; ES + -'f3rabl 


inexact jinig'zaekt 


infertile in'fytl, -til; ES -'fs-, -'fy-; l-ly -i 


inexactitude jinig^zaekta^tjud, -^tiud, -^tud - 


infertility jnfa^'tilati; ES jinfa- 


inexcusable jinik'skjuzabl, -'skiuz- |-bly -bli 


infest in'fEst |-ed -id |-ation jinfEs'te/an 


inexhaustibility ^inigjzasta'bilati 


infidel 'infadi |-delity ^infa'dElati 


inexhaustible jinig'zastabj |-bly -bli 


infield 'in^fild 


inexorable m'Eksarabl |-bly -bh 


infiltrate in'filtret |-d -id 


inexpedience jinik'spidians |-cy -i |-nt -nt 


infiltration jinfil'tre/an 


inexpensive jimk'spEnsiv 


infinite, I- 'infanit, worship occas. -^nait 


inexperience jnik'spirians [-d -t 


infinitesimal jinfina'tEsaml |-ly -i 


inexpert jnik'spyt; ES -'spst, -'spyt; ('inex- 


infinitival jnfina'taivl, in^fina- |-ly -i 


jpert 'help) 


infinitive in'finativ 



|full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstJa |custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
[using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dij [vision Vi5an |Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



infinitude 



224 



ingratitude 



infinitude in'finajtjud, -jtiud, -^tud 


infusoria, I- jinfju'soria, -fiu-, -'soria; S 


infinity in'finati 


-'soria; |-1 -1 |-n -n 


infirm in'fym; ES -'fsm, -'fym; |-ary -an, -n 


-ing ending of pres ptc b' verbal n, pronounced 


|-ity -3ti 


-ig, -g, -in, -an, n. Syllabic -g frequeiitly 


infix n 'in^fiks |-es -iz 


replaces -ig after a k or g sound, as making 


infix V in'fiks |-es -iz |-ed -t 


'mekig, 'mekg, or dragging 'draegig. 


inflame in'flem |-d -d |-dly -idli 


'draegg. The pronunciation -with -in, -an 


inflammability in/flaema'bilati, jinflaems- 


(running 'rAnin, 'rAnan) or ivith -n (getting 


inflammable in'flaemabl |-bly -bli 


'getn) is occasionally heard in tJie informal 


inflammation jinfb'mejon 


speech of the cultivated in all parts of the 


inflammatory in'flaemajtori, -jtori; S -^tori 


US b" C. It is more frequent in the S, "where 


inflate in'flet |-d -id 


it is not infreqii-ently heard also on formal 


inflation in'fle/an |-ary -jgri |-ism -^izam ]-ist 


occasions. In this vocabulary only -ig is 


-ISt 


given, and this is usually omitted if the pro- 


inflect in'fkkt |-ed -id 


nunciation can be inferred by adding the 


inflection in'fkk/an |-al -j |-ally -li 


sounds -ig directly to the head pronunciation. 


inflexibility injfkksa'bibti, jinfkksa- 


Ingaevones ^indsiVoniz 


inflexible in'fkksabl |-bly -bh 


ingather m'gieSa'; ES -'gaeSaCr; |-ed -d ]-ing 


inflexion in'fkkjan 


-'gaeSrig, -'gaeSarig 


inflict in'fhkt |-ed -id |-ction -kjan 


ingathering n 'in^gaetJrig, -jgaeSang 


inflorescence jinflo'resns, -fb-; S -flo-; J-s -iz 


Inge Dean of St. FauFs ig 


|-cent -snt 


Ingelow 'indsajo 


inflow n 'iiijflo 


ingeminate in'dsEmajnet |-d -id 


influence 'influans, -fliuans |-s -iz |-d -t 


ingenerate adj in'dsenarit 


influential jinflu'En/al, -fliu- j-ly -i 


ingenerate v in'dsEnajret [-d -id 


influenza jinflu'enza, -fliu- 


ingenious in'dsinjas 


influx 'in^fUks |-es -iz 


ingenue Fr ieje'ny 


infold in'fold |-ed -id 


ingenuity ^indsa'nuati, -'nni-, -'nju- 


inform in^form; ES -'foam; |-ed -d |-edly -idh 


ingenuous in'dsenjuas 


informal m'farmj; ES -'faamj; |-!y -i 


Ingersoll 'igga-sal, -jsal, -jSdI, -^sal; ES 'igga- 


informality jinfor'tnaelati; ES -fD^maslati 


ingest in'dsEst \-ed -id j-gestion -'dsEstJon 


informant in'fDrmant; ES -'faamant 


Ingham 'igam 


information jinfa-'mejan; ES jinfa- 


ingle 'iggl |-nook -^nuk 


informative in'farmativ; ES -'foamativ 


inglobe in'glob |-d -d 


infra 'infra 


inglorious in 'glorias, -'gbr-; S -'glor- 


infract in'fraekt |-ed -id 


ingoing 'in^goig 


infra dig short for infra dignitatem 'infra- 


Ingold 'ingold, 'iggold 


'dig(ni'tet£m) 


Ingoldsby 'iggjzbi, 'iggaldzbi 


infrangible in'fraendsabl |-bly -bli 


ingot 'iggat -ed -id 


infrared jinfra'red 


ingraft in'grasft; E + -'graft, -'graft; |-ed -id 


infrequence in'frikwans |-cy -i |-nt -nt 


Ingraham 'iggriam, 'iggraham 


infringe in'f rinds |-s -iz |-d -d 


ingrain n 'in^gren 


infundibulum jinfAn'dibjabm |-la -la 


ingrain adj, v in'gren ]-ed -d ('in^grain 'rug) 


infuriate c^f/m'fj unit, -'fiur- 


ingrained adj in'grend |-nedly -nidli, -ndli 


infuriate v in'fjurijet, -'fiur- |-d -id 


Ingram 'iggram 


infuse in'fjuz, -'fiuz |-s -iz |-d -d |-dly -idli 


ingrate n 'ingret 


infusible in^fjuzabj, -'fiuz- 


ingratiate in'gre/ijct [-d -id 


infusion in'fjusan, -'fiujan 


ingratiatory in'grefiajtori, -jtari; S -jtori 


infusive in'fjusiv, -'fius- 


ingratitude in'graBta,tjud, -jtiud, -jtud 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angr}' 'seg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj", wotj (§12) |jaw dsa Igorge gards |go go 



ingredient 



225 



Innsbruck 



ingredient in'gridiant 


inion 'inian 


ingress n 'ingrts |-es -iz 


iniquitous I'nikwatas |-ty -ti 


ingress v in'grES |-es -iz |-ed -t 


initial I'm/al |-ly -i 


ingression in'greXan |-sive -'gr£siv 


initiate n, adj I'ni/iit, -^et 


ingrow 'in^gro |-grew -igru, -jgriu |-grown 


initiate v I'm/iiCt |-d -id 


-igron 


initiation ijiu/i'efan 


ingrown adj 'm'gron ('in^grown 'habit) 


initiative i'ni/i,etiv, I'ni/iativ 


ingrowth 'iiijgroB |-ths -0s 


initiatory I'ni/iajtori, -jtori; S -jtori 


inguinal 'iggwinl 


inject in'dsekt |-ed -id j-ction -kjan 


ingulf in'gAlf |-ed -t 


injector in'dsekta^; ES -'dsektaCr 


ingurgitate m'gs'dsajtet; ES -'gsds-, -'gyds- ; 


injudicious ^indsu'diXas, -dsiu- 


Id -id 


injunction in'dsAgkJan [tive -tiv 


inhabit in'haebit |-ed -id 


injure 'indsa^; ES -d53(r; |-d -d |-ry -i 


inhabitability ' habitabiliiy' injhaebita'bilati 


injurious in'dsurias, -'dsiu- 


inhabitability 'nonhabitability' ^inliaebita- 


injustice in'dsAstis |-s -iz 


'bibti 


ink iflk |-ed -t |-horn -jhorn; ES -jhaan 


inhabitable 'habitable' in'hiebitabl 


inkling 'igklig 


inhabitable 'not habitable' 'in'haEbitabl 


inkstand 'iflkjstaend 


inhabitancy in'haebatansi |-tant -tant 


inkwell 'igk^wel 


inhabitation in^haeba'tejan 


inland adj 'inland 


inhalant in'hebnt 


inland n, adv 'injaend, 'inland 


inhale in'hel |-d -d |-lation jinha'Ie/an 


inlander 'inlanda^; ES -da(r 


inharmonic jinhar'manik; ES -ha:'manik. 


inlaw n 'inja, v in'la |-ed in'lad 


-'mon-, E+ -bar- 


inlay n \n\e, v in'le |-laid in'led 


inharmonious jnharWonias; ES -ha'mon-. 


inlet n 'in^kt, v in'let 


E + -ha- 


inly 'ink 


inhere in'hir; ES -'hi3(r, S + -'he3(r; |-d -d 


inmate 'inmet 


inherence in'hirans |-cy -i |-nt -nt 


in medias res in 'inidi,aes 'riz 


inheritable in'heratabl |-bly -bb 


in memoriam jinma'morijaem, -'man-, -jon. 


inheritance m'heratans |-s -iz 


S -'mori- 


inheritor in'berata'; ES -'h£r3t3(r; |-tress 


inmost 'in^most, -mast 


-tris 1 -tress's -trisiz 


inn in |inned ind 


inheritrix in'heratriks [-es -iz 


innate I'net, in'net ('in^nate 'poise) 


inhibit in'hibit [-ed -id 


inner 'ina^; ES 'ina(r; |-most -^most, -mast 


inhibition jini'bijan, jinhi- 


innervate I'nyvet, 'ina^jvet; ES I'nsv-, I'nyv-, 


inhibitive in'hibitiv 


'ina-; |-d -id 


inhibitory in'hibajtori, -jtari; S -^tori 


innervation jina^'vejan; ES jina- 


inhospitable m'haspitabl; ES + -'hDS-; much 


innerve I'ns'v, in'nyv; ES -'nav, -'nyv; 


less freq. jinhos'pitable |-bly -bh 


1-d-d 


inhospitality ^inhaspa'taelati; ES-i- -bos- 


Innes, Inness 'inis |-'s -iz 


inhuman inTijuman, -'hiuman, -'juman 


innholder 'in^holda^; ES -jholda(r 


inhumane jinbju'men, -biuWen, -juWen 


inning 'inii) 


inhumanity jinhjuWaenati, -hiu-, -ju'maen- 


innkeeper 'in^kipa'; ES -jkipa(r 


inhumation jinbju'mejan, -hiu- [-tionist -ist 


innocence 'inasns |-cy -i |-cent -snt 


inhume m'bjum, -'hium |-d -d 


innocuous I'nakjuas; ES + -'nnk- 


Inigo 'inijgo 


innominate adj I'namanit, in'n-; ES + -'nDm- 


inimical in'imikl |-ly -i, -ikb 


innovate 'inajvet |-d -id |-tion jina'vejan 


inimitability jinimitD'bilati 


innoxious I'nakjas, in'n-; ES + -'nDk- 


inimitable in'imatabl |-bly -bh 


Innsbruck 'inzbruk (Ger 'insbruk) 



|full ful |tooth tuG Ifurther 'fySa^; ES 'fstJa |custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
|using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dij [vision 'visan |Eden 'idn |cradle 'kredl |keep 'em 'kipm 



innuendo 



226 



insincerity 



innuendo ^inju'Endo 

innumerable I'njumarabl, m'n-, -'mum-, 

-'num- |-bly -bh 
innumerous m'njumaras, -'mum-, -'num- 
innutrition jinju'tri/an, ^mnju-, -mu-, -nu- 

|-tious -/as 
inobservance jinab'zyvans; ES -'z3V-, -'zyv-; 

|-nt -nt 
inoculable in'akjalabl; ES + -'iok- 
inoculate in'akjajlet; ES + -'Dk-; |-d -id 
inoculation injakja'leXan; ES+-jt)k- 
inodorous in'odaras 
inoffensive jina'fEnsiv 
inofEcious jina'fi/as 
inoperable in'aparabl; ES+-'Dp- 
inoperative in'apajretiv, -'aparativ, -'aprativ; 

ES+-'Dp- 
inopportune ^inapa^'tjun, in^ap-, -'tiun, -'tun; 

ES+-DP-, -jop- 
inordinate in'ordnit; ES -'aadnit 
inorganic jinar'gaenik; ES -aa'gaen-; j-al -j 

I -ally -h, -ikh 
inosculate in'askjajlet; ES+-'ds-; \-d -id 
inositol I'nosijtol 
inpatient 'injpejant 
inphase adj 'in^fez 
inpour n 'iii/por, -jpar, -ipur; ES -,po3{t, 

-;pu3(r, E + -;pD3(r 
inpour v in'por, -'por-, -'pur; ES -'po3(r, 

-'pu3(r, E + -'p33(r; |-ed -d 
input 'in^put 
inquest 'inkwEst 
inquiet in'kwaiat 

inquietude in'kwaiajtjud, -jtiud, -jtud 
inquire in'kwair; ES -'kwai3(r; |-d -d 
inquiry m'kwairi, 'inkwari 
inquisition jnkwa'zi/on 
inquisitive in'kwizativ |-tor -t^; ES -t3(r 
inquisitorial iiijkwiza 'tonal, jinkwiza-, -'tor-; 

S -'tor- 
in re in'ri 
inroad 'in^rod 
inrush n 'in^rAX 1-es -iz 
inrush v in'rAj |-es -iz |-ed -t 
insalivate in'saelajvet |-d -id 
insalubrious jinsa'lubrias, -'hub- ]-brity 

-brati 
insane in'sen ('iujsane 'root) 
insanitary in'saenajteri 



insanity in'saenati 

insatiability injse/ia'bilati, -^seja-, /insej- 

insatiable in'sefiabl, -'seja- |-bly -bli 

insatiate in'sejiit |-ated -^etid 

inscribe in'skraib |-d -d 

inscription in'sknpjan 

inscroll m'skrol |-ed -d 

inscrutability iiijskruta'b^ati, -^sknut-, ^in- 

skr- 
inscru table in'sknitabl, -'skmit- |-bly -bb 
insculp in'skAlp |-ed -t |-ture -t/a--; ES -tja(r 
insect 'insekt 

insectarium ^insEk'tEnam, -'ter- 
insectary 'insEk^tEn 

insecticide in'sektajsaid |-dal -jsekta'saidl 
insectival jinsEk'taivl, in'sektavl 
insectivore in'sEktajVor, -^var; ES -^voaCr, 

E+-jV33(r 
insectivorous jinsEk'tivaras, -'trvras 
insecure jinsi'kjur, -'kiur; ES -a(r 
insecurity jinsi'kjurati, -'kiurati 
inseminate in'sE magnet |-d -id 
insemination nijSEma'neJan, jinsEma- 
insensate m'senset, -sit 
insensibility jinssnsa'bilati, in^SEnsa- 
insensible in'sEusabj |-bly -bli 
insensitive in'sensativ 
insensitivity jinsEusa'tivati, nijSEnsa- 
insentient in'sEnJiant, -Jant 
inseparability jinsEpara'bilati, in^SEpara-, 

-pra- 
inseparable in'sEparabj, -pra- |-bly -bli 
insert n 'insyt; ES -sst, -syt 
insert v in'syt; ES -'sst, -'s^t; |-ed -id 
insertion in'saj'an; ES -'ss/an, -'syjan 
inset n 'in^sEt, v in'set 
insheathe in'/itS \-d -d 
inshore adj \nJot, -/Jar; ES -j/oa(r, E + 

-yJaaCr; adv 'in'shore 
inside n, adj 'in'said ('in^side 'door) 
inside adv 'in'said ('in^side & 'out^side) 
inside prep in'said 
insider in'saida^; ES -'saida(r 
insidious in'sidias 
insight 'lUjsait 
insignia in'signia 

insignificance jinsig'mfakans j-cant -kant 
insincere jinsin'sir; ES -'si3(r, S-i--'sEa(r 
insincerity ,insin's£rati 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet JEt |sang saerj langrj- 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |\vatch watj, wotj" (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



insinuate 



227 



insurgence 



insinuate in'sinjujct |-d -id 


instead in'sted — The historical doublet in^stid 


insinuation injSinju'e/an 


is frequently heard. 


insipid in'sipid |-ity ^insiVdati 


instep 'injstep 


insipience m'sipians |-ent -ant 


instigate ^instajget |-d -id |-tor -a^; ES -a(r 


insist in'sist |-ed -id 


instigation /insta'gejan 


insistence m'sistans |-cy -i |-ent -ant 


instill, -il in'stil |-ed, -led -d 


in situ in'saitju, -tiu-, -tu 


instillation jinsti'Ie/an 


insnare in'sner, -'snaer; E -'sn£3(r, ES 


instinct n 'instigkt 


-'snaE3(r; |-d -d 


instinct adj in'stigkt |-ive -iv 


insobriety jinsa'braiati, ^inso- 


institute 'insta/tjut, -jtiut-, -^tut |-d -id 


insociability jinso/a'bilati, in^so/a- 


institution jinsta'tju/an, -^tiu-, -'tu- |-ary 


insociable in'so/abj |-bly -bh 


-fin 


insolate 'insojiet |-d -id 


institutionalize jmsta'tju/anj^aiz, -Jnal- |-s 


insolation jinso'le/an 


-IZ |-d -d 


insole 'injsol |-d -d 


institutive 'msta^tjutiv, -/tiu-, -^tu- 


insolence 'msalans |-s -iz j-cy -i |-nt -nt 


instruct in'strAkt |-ed -id 1-ction -k/an |-ive 


insolubility jinsalja^bibti; ES+-sdI- 


-IV |-or -3^; ES -a(r 


insoluble in'saljabj; ES + -'sd1-; ]-bly -bli 


instrument 'instramant 


insolvable in'salvabl, -'solv- |-bly -bli 


instrumental /instra'mentl |-ist -ist 1-ly -i 


insolvency in'salvansi, -'sdIv- |-vent -vant 


instrumentality /instramen'taelati 


insomnia in'samms; ES + -'si3m- 


instrumentation /instramen'tejan 


insomuch jinsa'mAt/, -so- 


insubordinate jinsa'bardnit; -dnit; ES -^baad- 


insouciance in'susians {Fr ^esu'sja-.s) 


insubordination jinsa/bardn'e/an; ES -^baad- 


insouciant in'susiant {Fr ^su'sja) 


insubstantial jinsab'stjenjal 


inspan in'spsen j-ned -d 


insubstantiality /insabjstaenXi'aelati 


inspect in'spekt |-ed -id J-ction -kjan 


insufferable m'sAfrabl, -fara- j-bly -bh 


inspector m'spekta^; ES -'spektaCr; ]-ate -it 


insufficience /insa'fi/ans |-cy -i |-ent -ant 


insphere lu'sfir; ES -'sfi3(r, S+-'sfE3(r 


insufflate in'sAflet, 'insa/flet |-d -id 


inspirable in'spairabi 


insufflation jinsa'fle/an 


inspiration jinspa'rejan |-al -1 |-ally -li 


insular 'insala^, 'insju-; ES -Ia(r 


inspiratory in'spaira^tori, -jtari; S -/ton 


insularity jnsa'lasrati, /insju- 


inspire in'spair; ES -'spai3(r; |-d -d j-dly 


insulate 'insajlet, 'insju- |-tor -9-', ES -a(r 


-idh 


insulation jinsa'lejan, -sju- 


inspirit in'spint j-ed -id 


insulin 'insalin, -sju- 


inspissate in'spiset j-d -id 


insulize 'msa^laiz, -sju- |-s -iz |-d -d 


instability jinsta'bilati 


insult n 'insAlt, v in'sAlt |-ed in'sAltid 


install in'stal |-ed -d 


insuperability in^supara^bilati, -^siu-, -iSJu-, 


installation imsta'lejan 


^ins- 


installment, -stalm- in'stolmant 


insuperable in'suparabl, -'siu-, -^sju- |-bly 


instance 'instans |-s -iz |-d -t j-stant -stant 


-bh 


instantaneous jinstan^enias 


insupportable jinsa'portabi, -'part-; ES 


instanter m'stasnta^; ES -'staenta(r 


-'poat-, E+-V33t-; ]-bly -bh 


instar n ^instar; ES -sta:(r, E+-sta:(r 


insuppressible jinsa'prEsabl |-bly -bh 


instar v in'star; ES -'sta:(r, E+-'sta:(r; 


insurable in'/urabl |-ability inj/ura'bilati 


l-red -d 


insurance m'/urans |-s -iz 


instate in'stet |-d -id 


insure in'/ur; ES -'j"ua(r; |-d -d 


in statu quo in'stetju'kwo, -^staetju- 


insurer in'/ura^; ES -ra(r 


instaurate in'staret |-d -id 


insurgence in'sydsans; ES -'ssds-, -'s3'd3-; 


instauratlon /instaVe/an 


|-cy -I |-ent -ant 



|full ful Itooth tue Ifurther 'fytJa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam |while hwail [how hau |toy tai 
[using 'juzirj |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish di/ [vision Visan |Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



insurmountabie 



228 



interest 



insurmountable jinsa^'mauntabl; ES -sa-; 


intercalary in'tyka^lEri; ES -'tsk-, -'ts'k- 


l-bly -bh 


intercalate in'tyka^let; ES -'tsk-, -'tyk-; j-d 


insurrection jinsaVek/an |-ary -^en 


-id |-tive -IV 


insusceptibility jins3jS£pt3'bibti 


intercalation in^tyka^lejan; ES -^tsk-, -jt^rk- 


insusceptible jinsa'septabl l-bly -bli 


intercede ^mta^'sid; ES /inta-; [-d -id 


inswathe m'swetJ |-d -d 


intercellular ^inta^'sEljala--; ES ^inta'sEljalaCr 


inswept 'in^swEpt 


intercept n 'inta^jSEpt; ES 'inta- 


intact in'taekt 


intercept v ^mta-'sEpt; ES jinta-; |-ed -id 


intaglio m'taeljo, -'taljo {It inHaXito) 


j-ption -p/an 


intake 'in^tek 


intercession jinta^'se/an; ES ^inta- 


intangible in'tiendsabl l-bly -bk 


intercessory ^inta^'sEsan; ES ^rnta- 


integer 'intadsa^; ES -d33(r 


interchange n 'inta^yt/ends; ES 'inta-; j-s -iz 


integral 'intagral 1-ly -i 1-grable -gr9bl 


interchange v jinta^'t/ends; ES ^mta-; |-s -iz 


integrality ^inta'graelati 


I-d-d 


integrant 'intagrant | -grand -^graend 


interchangeability ^inta'jtj'endsa'bilati; ES 


integrate 'intajgret 1-grated -^gretid 


jinta- 


integration jinta'grejan 


interchangeable ^mta^'t/endsabl; ES ^inta-; 


integrator 'intaigreta^; ES -jgreta(r 


l-bly -bh 


integrity in'tegrati 


interclass 'inta-^klaes ; ES 'mta-, E-i--'klas, 


integument n in'tEgjamant 


-'klas; ('inter^class 'game) 


integument v in'tEgjajiriEnt |-ed -id 


intercollegiate jintyka'lidsiit, -dsit; ES ^mta- 


intellect 'mtl.ekt 


intercolonial ^inta^ka'lonial; ES ;inta-; 1-ly -i 


intellection jintrek/an I-tive -tiv 


intercommunicate jinta^ka'mjunajket, -'miiin-; 


intellectual ^intrekt/ual, -tjul 1-ly -i |-ism 


ES jinta-; |-d -id 


-jizam j-ist -ist 


intercommunication jnta'kajinjuna^ej'an. 


intellectuality jintl/ektXu'aelati 


-jiniun-; ES ^inta- 


intellectualize jintl'ektjualjaiz, -tjul- |-s -iz 


intercommunion ^inta'ka'mjunjan, -'miun-; 


I-d-d 


ES jinta- 


intelligence in'teladsans |-s -iz j-d -t 


interconnect jint3<^ka'n£kt; ES jinta-; |-ed -id 


intelligent in't£lad3ant 


interconnection yinta^ka'nEk/an; ES jinta- 


intelligential injtela'dsen/al 


intercostal jinta^'kastl, -'kos-, -'kas-; ES 


intelligentsia in^tEla'dsEntsia, -'gEntsia 


iinta-; |-ly -i 


intelligibility injtElidsa'bilati 


intercourse 'mta'jkors, -jkars; ES 'intajkoas, 


intelligible in'tElidsabl |-bly -bli 


E + -jkaas 


intemperance in'tEmparans, -prans 


intercurrent ^inta^'kyant; ES jinta'ksr-. 


intemperate inHEmpant, -pnt 


-'kAr-, -'ky- 


intend in'tEnd j-ed -id 1-ance -ans |-ant -ant 


interdenominational jinta^dijnama'nej'anl. 


intense in'tEns j-sity -ati 1-sive -iv 


-/nal; ES iintadi^nama-, -jnoma- 


intensification iiijtEnsafa'kcJan 


interdental jinta^'dEntl; ES ^inta-; 1-ly -i 


intensify in'tEnsajfai |-iied -jfaid 


interdepartmental jinta-dijpart'mEntl, -,di- 


intension in'tEn/an 


part-; ES ^mtadi^pait-, -jdipa:t-, E + -;pa:t-, 


intent in'tEnt 


-pa:t-; |-ly -i 


intention in'tEn/an |-al -1, -Jnal j-ally -li, 


interdependence jinta^di'pendans; ES ^inta-; 


-/nail 


|-ent -ant 


inter in'ty; ES -'t3(r, -'ty; |-red -d 


interdict n 'inta^^dikt; ES 'inta- 


inter- prefix 'inta^-; ES 'inta(r- 


interdict v jinta^'dikt; ES ^inta-; 1-ed -id 


interact jinta^'aekt j-ed -id -ion -k/an |-ive -iv 


interdiction jinta^'dik/an; ES ^inta- 


interblend jinta-'blEnd; ES jnta-; |-ed -id 


interest n 'intarist, 'intrist 


interbreed iinta^'brid; ES ^inta-; j-bred -'brsd 


interest v 'intarist, 'intrist, 'inta;rEst 



Key: See hi full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret lyet JEt Isang saeg |angr\- 'aef-gri 
|bath baee; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa Igorge gards Igu go 



interested 



229 



interpellant 



interested 'intaristid, -ros-, 'intristid, -tras-, 

'inta^restid 
interesting 'intaristirj, -ras-, 'intristiQ, -tras-, 

'inta/estig — The former pron. ^inta'rEstid, 

-II), is now somewhat old-fashioned {though 

still heard both in America and England), 

but 'inta^rEstid, -ig are still in excellent use, 

esp. in England. 
interfere jinta^'fir; ES jinta'fioCr, S+-'f£3(r'; 

|-d -d I -nee -ans |-nces -ansiz 
interferometer ^inta^fiVamata^; ES jintafi- 

'ramataCr, -Vom- 
interfuse jinta^'fjuz, -'fiuz; ES jinta-; |-s -iz 

|-d -d |-sion -3an 
interglacial jinta^'gleXal; ES jinta- 
intergrade n 'inta^^gred; ES 'inta- 
intergrade v jnt3''gred; ES jinta-; |-d -id 
interim 'intarim 
interior in'tiria'; ES -'tiri'a(r 
interiority in^tiribrati, -'ar-, -W- 
interject jinta^'dsakt; ES jinta-; |-ed -id 
interjection ^inta^'dgek/an; ES ^inta-; |-al -] 

|-ally -Ii |-tory -tan 
interknit ^inta^'nit; ES jinta-; \past df pptc 

-knit -'nit or -knitted -'nitid 
interlace jnta^'les; ES jinta-; |-s -iz |-d -t 
Interlaken 'inta^ilakan; ES 'mta- 
interlard jinta^'lard; ES jinta'lard, E + -'la:(I; 

l-ed -id 
interlay n 'inta^Je; ES 'inta- 
interlay v jinta^'le; ES jinta-; |-laid -'led 
interleaf n 'inta^^lif; ES 'inta-; | -leaves -vz 
interleaf v jinta^Uif ; ES ^inta-; |-s -s |-ed -t 
interleave v jinta^'liv; ES ^inta-; |-s -z |d -d 
interline n 'inta^jlain; ES 'inta- 
interline v jinta^'lain; ES ^inta-; |d -d 
interlineal jinta^'Iinial; ES jnta-; |-ly -i 
interlinear jint3^'lini3^; ES ,inta'lini'a(r 
interlineate jnta^ 'limpet; ES jinta-; j-d -id 
interlineation jinta^jluu'ejan; ES ^inta- 
interlink n 'inta'Jigk; ES 'inta- 
interlinkz) iinta^'hgk; ES jinta-; |-ed -t 
interlocate ^inta^'Ioket; ES jinta-; |-d -id 
interlock n 'inta^jlak; ES 'intajak, -jlok 
interlock v jinta^'lak; ES jinta'lak, -'Ink; 

l-ed -t 
interlocution jnta^la'kju/an, -'kiu-; ES jinta- 
interlocutor ^inta-'lakjata^; ES ,inta'lakjata(r, 

-'Ink-; |-tory -,tori, -itari; S -,tori 



interlope jinta^'Iop; ES /inta-; |-d -t |-r -'3; 

ES -a(r; flcc^ + 'interloper 
interlude 'inta^jlud, -Jiud; ES 'inta- 
interlunar jinta^'luna', -'liuna^; ES jinta- 

'luna(r, -'liu- 
intermarriage jinta^'maerids; ES jinta-; |-s 

-IZ 

intermarry jinta^'mjeri; ES ^inta-; |-ied -d 
intermeddle jinta^'mEdj; ES ^inta-; |-d -d 

|-ling -'medlig, -'medlig 
intermediacy jinta^'midiasi; ES ;inta- 
intermediary jinta^'midijEri; ES ^into- 
intermediate adj jinta^'midiit; ES ^mta- 
intermediate v jinta^'midi^et; ES jinta-; |-d -id 
interment in'tymant; ES -'ts-, -'ty- 
intermezzo jinta^'metso, -'medzo; ES jinta-; 

{It jinter'meddzo) 
interminable in'tyminabl; ES -'tsm-, -'tym-; 

l-bly -bh 
intermingle jinta^'miggl; ES jnta-; |-d -d 

|-ling -'migghg, -gjig 
intermission jinta^'mijan; ES jinta- 
intermit jinta^'mit; ES jinta-; j-ted -id |-tent 

-nt 
intermix jinta^'miks; ES jinta-; ]-es -iz j-ed 

-t |-ture -iS^; ES -tJaCr 
intern, -e adj in'tyn; ES -'tan, -'tyn 
intern, -e n 'intyn; ES -tsn, -tyn 
intern v 'segregate' m'tyn; ES -'tsn, -'tyn; 

l-ed -d 
intern v 'act as intern' 'intyn; ES -tsn, -tyn; 

l-ed -d 
internal in'tynl; ES -'tsnl, -'tynl; |-ly -i 
internal-combustion in'tynlkam'bAstJan; ES 

-'tsnl-, -'ts'nl-; | ace/ + 'in ternal- 
internality jinta^'naelati; ES jinta- 
int&rnational, I- jinta^'nae/an], -J"nal; ES 

jinta-; |-ly -i |-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 
internationalization jinta^^naeJanla'zeTan, 

-/nala-, -ai'z-; ES ^inta- 
internationalize jinta^'nae/anjjaiz, -J"nal-; ES 

jinta-; |-s -iz |-d -d 
internecine jinta^'nisin, -sain; ES jinta- 
internment in'tynmant; ES -'tsn-, -'tyn- 
internship, -terne- 'intyny/ip, in'tyn/ip; ES 

-sn-, -s'n- 
internuncio jnta^'nAnJijO; ES jinta- 
interoceanic jinta^joXi'aenik 
interpellant ^inta^'pelant; ES ,inta- 



|full ful jtooth tuG Ifurther 'fytSa^; ES 'fstJa [custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
|using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz Idish dij" |vision 'visan |Eden 'idn |cradle 'kredl |keep 'em 'kipm 



interpellate 



230 



intort 



interpellate jinta^'pelet, in'ts^pi^Iet; ES jinta-, 

-hs-, -'ta--; |-d -id 
interpellation jinta^pEle/an, m^typi'lejan; ES 

jinta-, -its-, -ity- 
interpellator jinta^pe'leta', in'ts^pijleta^; ES 

jint3p2'Iet3(r, in'tspijletaCr, -'ts'pijletacr 
interpenetrate jinta^'pEiajtret; ES jinta-; 

l-d -id 
interpenetration jinta^^pena'trejan; ES jinta- 
interplanetary jinta^'plaena^tEri; ES jinta- 
interplay n 'inta'iple; ES jinta- 
interplay v ^inta^'ple; ES ^into-; |-ed -d 
interplead jinta^'p'id; ES ^inta-; |-ed -id or 

-plead, -pled -'pltd 
interpolate in'typa^let; ES -'ts-, -'ty-; j-d -id 

|-tor -9-; ES -3(r 
interpolation in^ts^ps'le/on; ES -^ts-, -^ty- 
interposal jinta^'pozj; ES ^inta- 
interpose ^inta^'poz; ES jinta-; |-s -iz |-d -d 
interposition jinta^pa'zi/an; ES jinta- 
interpret in'typrit; ES -'tsp-, -'ts'p-; |-ed -id 

— The occasional pron. in'ts^pit is due to 

dissimilation {§121). 
interpretability in^typrits^bdati; ES -itsp-, 

-ityp- 
interpretation in^typri'teXan; ES -jtap-, 

interpretative in'ts^pn^tetiv; ES -'tsp-, -'typ- 
interpretive in'ta^pritiv; ES -'tap-, -'typ- 
interracial jinta^'rejal, -/lal; ES jinta- 
interregnum jinta^'regnam; ES ^inta-; j-s -z 

|-na -na 
interrelate ^intari'let; ES ^inta-; |-d -id |-tion 

-'le/an 
interrenal jinta^'rinl; ES jinta- 
interrex 'inta^jtEks; ES 'inta-; j-reges jint<r- 

'ridsiz; ES jinta- ^ 

interrogate in't2rajget |-d -id [-tor -a-; ES 

-3(r 
interrogation injtEra'ge/an |-al -1 
interrogative ^intaVagativ, -'rog- |-tory -jtori, 

-/tan; S -,ton 
interrupt jintaVApt |-ed -id |-ption -p/an 
interscholastic jinta^ska^laestik, -sko-; ES 

iinta- 
intersect jinta^'sckt; ES jinta-; |-ed -id 

|-ction -k/an 
interspace n 'inta^jspes; ES 'inta-; |-s -iz 
interspace v jinta^'spes; ES jinta-; |-s -iz |-d -t 



interspatial jinta^'spe/al; ES ^inta-; ]-ly -i 
intersperse jinta^'spys; ES jinta'spss, -'spys; 

|-s -iz |-d -t |-dly -idli |-sion -/an, -3311 
interstate jinta^'stet; ES jinta-; (.'inter jState 

'act) 
interstellar ^inta^ 'stela--; ES jinta'stelafr 
interstice in'tystis; ES -'tas-, -'tys-; j-s -iz 

. '"^■*. 

interstitial jinta^'sti/al; ES jinta-; |-ly -i 

intertribal jinta^'traibl; ES jinta- 

intertwine n 'inta^^twain; ES 'inta- 

intertwine v ^inta^ 'twain; ES jinta-; |-d -d 

intertwist n 'inta^jtwist; ES 'mta- 

intertwist v jinta' 'twist; ES jinta-; |-ed -id 

interurban jinta^'yban; ES ^inta^'sban, -'ab- 

interval 'inta^vl; ES 'inta-; |-ed -d 

intervale 'inta^,vel, attrib. + -\\, -vil; ES 'inta- 

intervene jinta^'vin; ES jinta-; |-d -d 

intervenience ^inta^'vinjans; ES ^inta-; |-cy -i 

I -lent -jant 
intervention jinta^'ven/an; ES jinta-; |-al -1 

1-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 
interview 'inta^jvju, -jViu; ES 'inta-; ]-ed -d 
intervocal ^inta^'vokl; ES ^inta-; |-ly -i 
intervocalic jinta^vo'kaelik; ES jinta-; [-ally 

-h, -ikh 
interweave ^inta^'wiv; ES ;inta-; ]-\vove -'wov 

I -woven -'wo van or -wove -'wov 
intestate in'testet, -tit |-tacy -tasi 
intestine in'testin |-nal -1 j-nally -li {BLC 

jintes'taml) 
inthrall, -al in 'Oral |-(l)ed -d 
inthrone in'Oron j-d -d 
intimate adj 'intamit |-macy -masi 
intimate v 'inta^met |-d -id j-tion (inta'me/on 
intimidate in'timajdet |-d -id 
intimidation in^tima'dejan 
intitle in'taitl |-d -d |-ling -tlig, -tlig 
intitule in'titjul |-d -d 
into before vowel 'intu, 'inta; before cons, 'inta; 

before pause 'intu; in poetry often in'tu 
intolerability injtalara'bilati; ES + -jtDl- 
intolerable in'talarabl; ES + -'tDl-; j-bly -bli 
intolerance in'talarans; ES+-'tDl-; |-ant -ant 
intomb m'tum |-ed -d [-ment in'tummant 
intonate 'into^net |-nated -^netid 
intone in'ton |-d -d |-nation jinto'nejan 
in torsion in'tarjan; ES -'taa/an 
intort in'tart; ES -'taat; l-ed -id 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg |angr\' '«o*gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj", wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



in toto 



231 



investigation 



in toto in'toto 

intoxicant in'taksakant; ES+-'tDks- 

intoxicate in'taks9jket; ES+-'tDks-; 



-tive 



intoxication in^taksa'kejan; ES+-jtDks- 

intra 'intra 

intracellular jintra'seljala'; ES -laCr 

intracollegiate jintraka'lidsiit, -dsit 

intractability jintraekta'bibti, in^traekta- 

intractable in'traektabl |-bly -bk 

intractile in'traektj, -til 

intrados in'tredas; ES + -dDs; |-es -iz 

intramolecular jintrama'kkjala^; ES -laCr 

intramural jintra'mjurol, -'miural 

intramuscular jintra'mAskjala^; ES -lafr 

intransigence in'traensadsans |-cy -i |-ent -ant 

intransitive in'traensativ 

intrant 'intrant 

intrastate jintra'stet ('intranstate 'trade) 

intravenous jntra'vlnas 

intreat m'trit j-ed -id 

intrench in'trentj j-es -iz |-ed -t 

intrepid in'trepid |-pidity ^intra'pidati 

intricate 'intrakit |-cacy -kasi 

intrigue n in'trig, 'intrig 

intrigue v in'trig |-d -d 

intrinsic in'trinsik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 

intrinsicate in'trinsikit, -jket 

introduce jintra'djus, -'dius, -'dus j-s -iz |-d -t 

introduction jintra'dAk/an j-tive -tiv |-tory 

-tan, -tri 
introit in'tro'it 
introjection ^mtra'dsekjan 
intromission jintra'mi/an 
intromit jintra'mit |-ted -id |-tent -nt 
introrse in'trars; ES -'traas 
introspect jintra'spekt j-ed -id 
introspection jintra'spek/an j-tive -tiv 
introversion jintra'vy/an, -5an; ES -'vs-, 

-'vy-; |-sive -siv 
introvert n 'intrajvyt; ES -iVst, -jvyt 
introvert v jintra'vyt; ES -'vst, -'vyt; |-ed -id 

|-ive -IV 
intrude in'trud, -'tnud j-d -id 
intrusion in'trusan, -'triusan |-sive -siv 
intrust in'trAst |-ed -id 
intuit 'intjuit, -tiu-, -tu-, in'tjuit, -'tra-, 

-'tu- |-ed -id 
intuition jintu'ijan, -tiu-, -t]u- 



intuitive in'tjuitiv, -'tiu-, -'tu- 

intumescence jintju'mEsns, -tiu-, -tu- |-nt -nt 

inturn 'in^tyn; ES -jtsn, -jtyn; |-ed -d 

intussuscept jintassa'sept |-ed -id |-ion -pjan 

intwine in'twain |-d -d 

inulin 'injalin 

inunction in'AgkJan 

inundate 'inan^det, -An-, in'Andet |-d -id 

inundation jinau'dejan, jinAn- 

inure in'jur; ES -'jua(r; |-d -d 

inurn in'yn; ES -'sn, -'yn; |-ed -d 

inutile in'jutj, -til |-ly -i 

inutility ^inju'tilati 

in vacuo in'vaekjujO 

invade in'ved |-vaded -'vedid 

invalid 'not valid' in'vaelid 

invalid n, adj 'sick' 'invalid j-ism -^izam , 

invalid v 'invalid |-lided -jlidid 

invalidate in'vjelajdet |-dated -jdetid 

invalidation injvaela'dejan, ^invsela- 

in validity jinva'lidati 

invaluable in'vaeljabl, -'vaeljuabl |-bly -bli 

invariability jinvEria'bilati, -ver-, -vaer-, 

lUjV- 

invariable in'vEnabl, -'ver-, -'vaer- 1-bly -bli 

invasion lu'vegan |-sive -siv 

invective in'vektiv 

inveigh in've |-ed -d 

inveigle in'vigl, -'veg| |-d -d |-ling -gjig, 

-glio 

invent in 'vent |-ed -id |-ive -iv |-ntion -n/an 
inventory 'invanjtori, -jtari; S -^tori 
Inverness jinva^'nes; ES -va-; ('Inver^ness 

'cape) |-ness-shire -'nesjir,- 'ne//-, -JV; ES 

-Xia(r, -fair 
inverse n, adj in'vs's; ES -'v3S, -'vys; ('in- 

jverse 'ratio) 
inverse v in'vys; ES -'v3s, -'vs's; \-s -iz |-d -t 

1-dly -idh, -tli 
inversion in'v3\fan, -san; ES -'v3-, -'vs^- 
invert n, adj 'invyt; ES -vst, -vyt 
invert v in'vyt; ES -'vst, -'vyt; l-ed -id 
invertebrate n, adj in'vytabrit, -jbret; ES 

-'vst-, -'v3*t-; |-d -jbretid 
invest in'vest |-ed -id 
investigable in'vestigabl j-gatable -;getabl 
investigate in'vEsta^get \-d -id |-tor -a^; ES 

-a(r 
investigation in/vesta'gejan 



|full ful Itooth tue [further 'fySa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



investiture 



232 



Irish 



investiture inVestat/a'; ES -tJaCr 

investment m'vestmant |-stor -ta^; ES -t3(r 

inveteracy inVetarasi |-rate -rit 

Invictus inViktas 

invidious inVidias 

invigorate inViga^ret |-rated -^retid 

invigoration in^vigaVe/an 

invincibility iiijVinsa'bilati, jinvinsa- 

invincible in'vinsabl j-bly -bli 

inviolability injvaiala'bilati, ^invaiala- 

inviolable inVaialabl 1-bly -bh 

inviolate inVaialit, -Jet 

invisibility jinviza'bilati, in^viza- 

in visible inVizabl |-bly -bli 

invitation jinva'te/an 

invite n 'invait 

invite v inVait |-vited -Vaitid 

invocate 'inv3jket \-d -id |-tion jinva'kejan 

invoice 'invais |-s -iz |-d -t 

invoke in'vok |-voked -Vokt 

involucre 'invajluka^, -jliuka^; ES -kaCr; |-d -d 

involuntar}/ in'val3n,tEri; ES -Vol-; |-rily 

-rail, esp. if emph. ^involun'tarily 
involute 'invajlut, -\ii\t |-d -id 
involution jinva'lujan, -'liujan, -vl'ju/an 
involve in'valv, -VdIv j-d -d j-dly -idli 
invulnerability jinvAlnara'bilati, in^vAl-, -nra- 
invulnerable in'vAlnarabl, -nra- |-bly -bli 
inwall n 'in^wal, v in'wal |-ed in'wald 
inward 'inwa'd; ES 'inwad; j-s -z 
inweave in'wiV |-wove -Vov |-woven -Vovan 

or -wove -Vov 
inwind in'waind | -wound -Vaund 
inwork in'wyk; ES -'wsk, -'wyk; 1-ed -t or 

-wrought -Vat 
inwound inVaund 
inwove in Vov | -woven -'wovan ('in^woven 

'hue) 
iriwrap in'raep |-ped -t 
inwreathe in'riS |-d -d 
inwrought in Vat ('in^wrought 'colors) 
lo 'aio 

-io ending see -ia 
iodate 'aiSjdet |-dated -jdetid 
iodide 'aia,daid, -did jiodid 'aiadid 
iodin 'aiadin 

iodine 'aia^dain, -dm, chem. usually -jdin 
iodize 'aia^daiz j-s -iz |-d -d 
iodoform ai'odajfarm, -'ad-; ES -jfaam, -'od- 



lola ai'ola 

lolanthe jaia'laenGi 

-ion ending see -ia 

ion 'aian, 'aian, -nn 

Ion 'aian, -on 

lona ai'ona 

lone heroine ai'oni 

lone village, geol. formation ai'on 

Ionia ai'onia, -nja |-n -n 

ionic, I- ai'anik, -'on- 

ionium ai'oniam 

ionization jaiana'zejan, -ai'z- 

ionize 'aian^aiz \-s -iz |-d -d 

Iosco ai'asko; ES + -'ds- 

iota ai'ota J-cism -^sizam 

iotize 'ai3jtaiz j-s -iz |-d -d 

I O U 'aijo'ju 

-ious ending see -ia 

Iowa 'aiawa, /oc. -i-'ai3jwe 

I P A 'aijpi'e, jinta^'naefanl fo'nEtik a^sosi- 

jejan, ajso/i-; ES ^inta-; c/" A P I 
ipecac Vpi^kaek |-uanha -ju'aena 
Iphigenia jifadsi'naia, mod. name -'dsinja 
ipse dixit Vpsi'diksit 
ipso facto 'ipso'faekto 
Ipswich Vpswit/ |-'s -IZ 
Iquique i'kike 
iracund 'airajkAnd 
irade i'radi 

Iran ai'raen, i'ran ]-ian ai 'reman 
Iraq i'rak |-i -i 
Iras 'airas ]-'s -iz 
irascibility ai^raesa'bilati, i,rjesa- 
irascible ai'raesabi, I'raesa- |-bly -bli 
irate 'airet, ai'ret ('irate 'foreman) 
ire air; ES aia(r; |-ful -fal |-fully -fall 
Iredell 'airdsl; ES 'aia- 
Ireland 'airland; ES 'aialand 
Irenaeus ^aira'nias |-'s -iz 
Irene ai'rin, myth, ai'rini 
irenic ai'rsnik, -rinik |-al -I |-ally -Ii, -ikli 
iridaceous jairi'de/as, jiri- 
iridesce ^ira'dss |-s -iz |-d -t 
iridescence ^ira'desns |-cy -i |-ent -snt 
iridium ai'ridiam, i- 
Irion 'irian, -an, -nn 
iris, I- 'airis |-es -iz ]-ed -t 
Irish 'airi/ |-man -man |-men -man | -woman 

-jwuman, -jwu- |-\vomen -jWimin, -an 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet J£t |sang saeg |angry 'aeg-gri 
I bath bae6; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj", wot/ (§12) |jaw Ayi | gorge gards |go go 



iritis 



233 



irresolution 



iritis arraitis |-tic -Vitik 

irk yk; ES ak, yk; |-ed -t |-some -sam 

Irkutsk ir'kutsk; ES la- 

Irma 'yma; ES 'sma, 'yma 

iron, I- 'aia^n; ES 'ai-an |-ed -d 

ironclad 'aia'n'klaed; ES 'ai-an-; ('ironjclad 

'shoe) 
iron-gray, -grey 'aia^n'gre; ES 'ai-an-; ('iron- 

jgray 'hair) 
ironic ai'ranik; ES-h-Von-; ]-al -1 |-ally -Ii, 

-ikh 
ironmonger 'aia^n^niAgga^ ; ES 'ai-an^raAggaCr; 

|-y -gari, -gri 
ironside, I- 'aia^n^said; ES 'ai-an-; |-s -z 
ironsmith 'aia^n^smifl; ES 'ai-an-; |-ths -Gs 
ironstone 'aia^n^ston; ES 'ai-an- 
ironware 'aia^n^wer, -jwaer; E 'ai'3njW£3(r, 

ES -jwae3(r 
ironwork 'aia^n^wyk; ES 'ai-an^wsk, 'ai-an- 

jwyk 
irony Hike iron' 'ai»ni; ES 'ai-ani 
irony kind of humor 'airani 
Iroquoian jira'kwaian 
Iroquois 'ira^kwai, -^kwDiz |-'s -jkw3iz, 

-;kw3iziz 
irradiance iVedians j-cy -i |-ant -ant 
irradiate I'redi^et |-ated -^etid |-tive -iv 
irradiation jiredi'e/an, i^redi- 
irrational iVaefanl, ir'raej-; ES I'r-, la'r-; 
_ 1-Iy-i 
irrationality ijrae/a'naelati, jirrae/a-; ES 

i^raefa-, jiarae/a- 
Irrawaddy jira'wadi, -Vodi 
irreclaimability jirijklems'bilsti, jirri-; ES 

jiri-, jiari- 
irreclaimable /iri'klemabl, ^irri-; ES jiri-, 

;i3ri-; |-bly -bh 
irreconcilability ijrekanjsaila'bilatis ir^rek-; 

ES litEk-, la^rek- 
irreconcilable iVekan^sailabl, ir'rek-; ES 

I'rek-, laVek-; em/'/^. + jirrecon'cilable |-bly 

-bk 
irrecoverable jiri'kAvarabl, jirri-, -vra-; ES 

jiri-, jiari-; |-bly -bh 
irredeemable jiri'dimabi, jirri-; ES ^iri-, 

jian-; |-bly -bli 
Irredentist jiri'd£ntist 
irreducible jiri'djusabl, jirri-, -Mius-, -'dus-; 

ES jiri-, jiari-; |-bly -bh 



irrefragability ijrEfraga'bibti, ir^ref-; ES 

ijfEf-, la^ref- 
irrefragable I'refragabl, irVef-; ES I'lef-, 

la'ref-; |-bly -bh 
irrefutabihty ijrefjuta'bilati, ixitzi-, ^iri- 

jfjuta-, jirri-, -jfiuta-; ES i^rEf-, la^ref-, 

jiri^f-, jiarijf- 
irrefutable I'refjutabl, ir'r£f-, jiri'fjutabl, 

jirn-, -'fiuta-; ES iVef-, la'rcf-, jiri'f-, 

jiari'f- 
irregular I'tEgjala^, ir'reg-; ES I'rEgjalaCr, 

la'reg- 
irregularity jirEgja'Iaerati, jirreg-, ijreg-, 

ir^reg-; ES ;ireg-, iiareg-, ijreg-, lajieg-; 

|-lation -ja'le/an 
irrelative I'rdativ, ir'rel-; ES I'rel-, la'rel- 
irrelevance I'relavans, irVel-; ES I'rsl-, 

laW-; |-cy -i |-ant -ant 
irreligion jiri'hdsan, ^irri-; ES ^in-, ^lari-; 

|-gious -dsas 
irremediable jin'midiabj, jirn-; ES iiri-, 

jian-; |-bly -bh 
irremovabihty jrijmuva'bilati, ^im-; ES 

jiri-, jiari- 
irremovable jin'muvabi, iVtn-', ES ^iri-, 

jiari-; |-bly -bh 
irreparability jirepara'bilati, jirrep-, ijrep-, 

ir^rep-; ES jirep-, jiarep-, i^rEp-, la^rep- 
irreparable iVEparabl, ir'rep-; ES I'rep-, 

la'rep-; |-bly -bh 
irrepealable jiri'pilabl, jirri-; ES ;in-, jian-; 

l-bly -bh 
irreplaceable jiri'plesabl, jirri-; ES jiri-, 

jiari-; |-bly -bh 
irrepressibility jirijpresa'bilati, ^im-; ES 

yiri-, jiari- 
irrepressible jri'pr£sabl, jim-; ES iiri-, jiari-; 

l-bly -bh 
irreproachable jiri'protj'abi, jim-; ES ^iri-, 

jiari-; 1-bIy -bh 
irresistibility ^irijZista'bilati, jim-; ES jiri-, 

jian- 
irresistible jiri'zistabl, iim-; ES jiri-, iiari-; 

l-bly -bh 
irresolute iVeza^lut, ir'rEz-, -ihut, -Vczljut; 

ES iVez-, la'rez- 
irresolution jireza'lujan, ,irr£z-, i^rez-, ir^rez-, 

-'hu-, -zFjuJan; ES iirez-, ^larez-, i^rez-, 

ia,r£z- 



jfull ful |tooth iu6 jfurther 'fySa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam |\vhile hwail [how hau |toy tai 
[using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fniz |dish dij [vision 'visan |Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



irresolvable 



234 



isoclinal 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 



irresolvable ^iri'zalvabl, jirri-, -'zdIv-; ES 

jin-, jian- 
irrespective ^iri'spektiv, iim-; ES jin-, jian- 
irresponsibility jinjspansa'bilah, ^im-; ES 

irresponsible jin'spansabl, iim-; ES jin-, 

jiori-; |-bly -bh 
irresponsive iiri'spansiv, jirn-; ES ^in-, 

irretraceable jiri'tresabi, jirn-; ES jin-, 

jiari-; |-bly -bli 
irretrievabiHty ^iri^triva^bilati, jirn-; ES ;iri-, 

irretrievable /in'trivabl, iirn-; ES jin-, 

jiari-; |-bly -bli 
irreverence I'rEvarans, iiVev-; ES I'rev-, 

la'rev-; |-ent -gnt 
irreversibility jirijVS'sa'bilati, iirn-; ES 

jirijvss-, -jvys-, jiari- 
irreversible jiriVysabl, iirn-; ES jiriVas-, 

-Vys-, jiari-; |-bly -bli 
irrevocability ijrevaka'bilati, ir^rev-; ES 

I /rev-, i3,rev- 
irrevocable I'revakabl, ir'rev- 



ES 



is'rEV-; |-bly -b!i — Cultivated speakers often 
pron. jin'vokabl, hy confusion of revocable 
with revokable. 

irrigable 'irigabl |-bly -bli 

irrigate 'ira^get |-d -id |-tion jira'gejan 

irritability jirata'bilati 

irritable 'iratabl |-bly -bli 

irritant ^irotant 

irritate 'ira^tet |-tated -itetid |-tive -rv 

irritation ^ira'tefan 

irruption I'rAp/an |-tive -tiv 

Irvine 'yvin; ES 'svin, 'a^vm 

Irving 'yvig; ES 'sviij, 'yvig |-ton -tan 

Irwin 'ywin; ES 'swin, 'ywin 

is stressed 'iz, jiz; imstr. cf sometimes spelt 's: 
after voiced sounds except sibilants z; after 
voiceless sounds except sibilants s; after tlte 
sibilants (s, z, /, 5, t/, ds) iz—see 's or §88. 

Isaac 'aizak |-s -s |-s's -siz 

Isabel 'izajbsl, -bl |-la jizo'bela 

Isadora jiza'dora, -Mara; S -'dora 

isagoge ^aisa'godsi 

isagogic jaisa'gadsik |-al -1 |-ally -li, 
-ikb 



Isaiah ai'zea, ai'zaia 

isatin 'aisatin 

Iscariot is'kaenat 

ischium 'iskiam |-ia -la 

Iseult I'sult 

Isfahan jisfa'han, -'hasn 

-ish adj ending -1/ — often omitted when the 
pron. can be found by adding -ij to the head 
pronunciation 

Ishbosheth iJ'bo/iG 

Ishmael 'i/mial |-ite -;ait 

Ish tar 'i/tar; ES -ta:(r, E + -ta:(r 

Isiac 'aisij^k 

Isidore 'iza^dor, -jdar; S -jdor 

Isidorian ^iza 'dorian, -'dar-; S -'dor- 
isinglass 'aiziOyglaes; E + -;glas, -jglas 

Isis 'aisis |Isis' 'aisis 

Islam 'islam, is'lam j-ic is'laemik, -'lamik 

Islamite 'islam^ait |-tic jisla'mitik 

island 'ailand 

isle ail |-d -d |-less 'aillis 

Isle Royale 'ail'raial, -'rajal 

islet 'ailit 

Isleton 'ailtan 

Isleworth 'aizlwa^O; ES -wa6 

Islington 'izligtan 

Islip 0.x f, LI 'aislip, N orthants +'^saz- 

ism n 'izara 

-ism ending -izam, -izm — The pron. -izm is 
less frequent, though the vowel iit -izam is 
often very brief. In the vocab. only -izam is 
given, it being understood that -izm is also a 
possible pron. If tlte syllable before has the 
main accent, as in 'truism, -iz- has slightly 
more stress than -am, though usually the 
accent mark is not used. If -ism follows a?! 
unaccented syllable, it has a secondary accent 
('htaraljizam, 'fEma^nizam, 'fetjjizam). 

Ismail Rus city, Egyp viceroy ^isma'il 

isn't 'iznt, before some conss. + hzr\. (There 
isn't time Sa^jizn'taim) 

isobar 'aisa^bar; ES -jba:(r, E + -jba:(r 

isobaric jaisa'baerik 

Isobel 'izabl, -^bel 

isochromatic jaisakro'mactik 

isochronal ai'sakranl j-ly -i |-nous -nas 

isochronize ai'sakrajiiaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

isoclinal jaisa'klainl |-clinic -'klmik 



Key: See in fidl §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang sjeg |angry 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



isocline 



235 



izzard 



Those words below in which the a sound is s 
isocline 'aiso/klain 
isocracy ai'sakrasi 
Isocrates ai'sakra^tiz |-'s -iz 
isodynamic jaisadai'naemik |-al -I 
isoelectric jaiso-i'lektrik |-ally -li, -ikh 
isogenous ai'sadsanas 

isogeo therm ^aisa'dsiajOs^m; ES -fism, -^Oym 
isogonal ai'sag3n| |-ly -i |-gonic ^aisa'ganik 
isolable 'aisalabj, 'is- 
isolate 'aisj^et, 'is- |-ated -fitid 
isolation jaisre/an, js- 
Isolda I'solda, I'zol- 

Isolde I'sold, I'solda, I'zol- {Ger h'zolda) 
isomagnetic jaisamajg'nstik 
isomer 'aisama'; ES -m3(r 
isomere 'aisajinir; ES -^miaCr 
isomeric ^aisa'ttiErik |-al -1 |-ally -h, -ikli 
isomerism ai'samajrizam |-rous -ras 
isometric jaisa'metrik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikh 
isometry ai'samatri 
isomorph 'aisOimarf; ES -jinaaf 
isomorphic jaisa'tnorfik; ES -'moafik; |-phism 

-fizam |-phous -fas 
isopiestic ^aisapai'tstik |-ally -h, -ikli 
isopleth 'aisa^pIeG |-ths -Gs 
isopod 'ais3ipad 
isoprene 'ais3;prm 
isosceles ai'sasljiz 
isoseismal jaisa'saizml, -'sais- 
isoseismic ^aisa'saiznuk, -'sais- |-al -1 
isostasy ai'sastssi 

isostatic ^aisa'staetik j-al -1 |-ally -ji, -ikli 
isothere ^aisa^Gir; ES -jGiaCr 
isotherm 'ais3iGym; ES -fism, -fis^ni 
isothermal jaisa'Oyml; ES -^Gsml, -'Gyml 
isotonic jaisa'tanik |-ity jaisato'nisati 
isotope 'ais3jtop |-pic jaisa'tapik 
isotrope 'aisajtrop |-pic ^aisa'trapik 
isotropy ai'satrapi 
Ispahan jispa'han, -^haen 
Israel 'izrial |-ite -^ait |-itish -jaitij 
Issachar 'isaka^; ES -k3(r 
issuable 'i/uabj, 'ijju- |-bly -bk 
issuance 'i/uans, 'ijju- |-s -iz j-ant -ant 
issue 'iju, hfjv \-d -d — 'isju is mainly Brit. 
Issus 'isas |Issus' 'isas 
Istanbul jstan'bul, jistam- 
isthmus 'ismas |-es -iz l-mian -inian 



dt o are often pronounced with n in E and S 

Istria 'istria |-n -n 

it stressed \t, ^it; tmstr. it or {spelt 't) t 

see 'tis, 't'll, 'twas, 'twere, 'twill, 'twould 

Italian I'taeljan, a-, now less freq. ai'taeljan 

Italianate adj I'taeljan^et, -it 

ItaUanate v I'taeljanjet |-ated -^etid 

Italianize I'taeljan^aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

italic, I- I'taelik |-ally -li, -ikh 

italicize I'taela^saiz |-s -iz |-d -d 

Italy 'itli 

Itasca ai'tasska 

itch It/ litches 'it/iz |itched it/t 

Itchen 'it/in, -an 

it'd Ht woidd' 'itad 

item L adv 'aitem 

item n, v 'aitam |-ed -d 

itemize 'aitam^aiz |-s -iz [-d -d 

iterate 'ita^ret |-d -id |-tive -iv 

iteration ^ita 're/an 

Ithaca 'iGaka, 'iGika 

Ithamar 'iGa;mar; ES -jma:(r, E + -jma:(r 

Ithunn, -un 'i'Sun = Idun 

Ithuriel I'Gjurial, I'Giurial 

itineracy ai'tinarasi, i- |-ancy -ansi |-ant -ant 

itinerary ai'tinajteri, i- 

itinerate ai'tina^ret, i- |-rated -^retid 

it'll Ht will' 'itl 

its pass its I it's 'it is,' 'it has' its 

itself it'self 

-ity word ending (fatahty, familiarity, au- 
thority) -ati, -iti. It seems clear that -ati is 
the prevailing pron. in colloq. speech, -iti is 
probably somewhat more common in the 
E b' S than in the N. 

-ius ending see -ia 

Ivan 'aivan 

Ivanhoe 'aivan^ho 

I've '/ have' aiv 

-ive unstressed ending -iv — often omitted from 
the vocab. when its pron. may be added di- 
rectly to that of the head word 

Ives aivz |-'s -iz 

ivory, I- 'aivri, 'aivan 

ivy 'aivi [-ied -d 

iwis, y- I'wis \erron. I wis ai'wis 

Ixion iks'aian 

izard, I- 'iza'd; ES 'izad 

izzard 'iza^d; ES 'izad 



[full ful |tooth tuG [further 'fySa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
|using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dij |vision Visan |Eden 'idn |cradle 'kredl |keep 'em 'kipiii 



236 



Janiculum 



J, j letter dse \pl J's, Js, poss J's dsez 

jab dsaeb Ijabbed dsaebd 

jabber 'dsaeba^; ES -b3(r; |-ed -d |-ing 

'dsaebrig, Msaebarig 
Jabberwock ^dsaeba^jwak, -jwnk; ES Msaeba- 
Jabesh-gilead 'dsebc/'gihad 
Jabez 'dsebiz |-'s -iz 
jabot gae'bo {Fr sa'bo) 
jacinth 'dsesinO |-ths -0s 
Jack, j- dsaek |jacked dsaekt 
jack-a-dandy jdsaeka'dtendi 
jackal 'd3tek3l 

jackanapes 'djaekajneps |-napeses -jnepsiz 
jackass 'dsaek/aes |-es -iz |-ed -t 
jackdaw Msaek^da 
jacket 'dsaekit j-ed -id 
jack-in-a-box Msaekina^baks; ES + -jbDks; 

|-es -iz 
jack-in-the-box 'dsaekin'Sajbaks; ES+-jbioks; 

I-es -IZ 
jack-in-the-pulpit 'd3aekin'33'pulpit 
jackknife 'dsaek^naif |-knives -^naivz 
Jack-of-all-trades, j- jdsaekavbljtredz 
jack-o'-lantern 'dsaskajaenta-n, 'dsaek^l-; ES 

-tan 
jack-rabbit Msaekjraebit 
jackscrew ^djaek^skru, -jskriu 
Jackson Msaeksn j-ville -iVil; S-i--vl 
Jacksonian dsask'sonian 
jackstay Msaek^ste 
jackstraw 'dsaekjstra 
jack-tar Msaek'tar; ES -Ha:(r, E-i--'ta:(r 
Jacob Msekab, 'dsekap 
Jacobean jdsaeka'bian ('Jacojbean 'style) 
Jacobi Am dsa'kobi, various Germans ja- 

%obi {Ger ja'ko:bi:) 
Jacobian dsa'kobian, dse- 
Jacobin 'dsaekabin 

Jacobinic jdsaeka'binik |-al -1 J-ally -Ii, -ikk 
Jacobite 'dsaeka^bait 

Jacobitic jdsaeka'bitik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 
jacobus dsa'kobas |-es -iz 
jacoby M3aek3bi 

Jacoby, Harold dsa'kobi, Johann ja- 
Jacquard, j- dsa'kard; ES -'ka:d, E-i--'ka:d; 

(Fr 5a'ka:r) 
Jacqueline Msaekwalin, -Jin 



Jacquerie Fr sak'ri 

jactation dsaek'te/an |-titation -ti'te/an 

jade dsed |jaded 'dsedid 

jaeger, jag- bird 'jega', 'dse-, rifleman 'jega^; 

ES -g3(r; {Ger 'jeigar) 
Jael 'dseal 
Jaffa 'dsaeia 
Jaffrey 'dsaefn 
jag dsaeg | jagged dsaegd 
jagged adj M5aEgid 
jagged-toothed 'dsaegid'tuGt, -'Sd 
jaguar 'dsaegwar, Msaegjujor; ES -wa:(r, -,a:(T 
Jahveh 'jav£ |-vism -vizam |-vist -\ist 

|-vistic ja'vistik 
Jahweh 'jawe |-wism -wizam |-wist -vnst 

|-wistic ja'wistik 
jail dsel [jailed dseld |-er -a^; ES -a(r; rfgaol 
jailbird 'dseljbyd; ES -jbsd, -^byd 
Jain dsain |-a -a |-ism -izam |-ist -ist 
Jaipur dsai'pur; ES -'pua(r; acd-h'Jaipur 
Jairus dse'airas, 'dsearas |-'s -iz 
jalap Msaelap 
Jalna ^dsalna 
jalopy dsa'lapi; ES-f-%pi 
jalousie jsaelu'zi {Fr salu'zi) 
jam dsaem | jammed dsaemd 
Jam dsam 

Jamaica dsa'meka |-n -n 
jamb, -e dsaem 
jambeau 'dsaembo ]-x -z 
jamboree jdsaembaVi 
James dsemz j-ian -lan |-'s -iz 
Jameson 'dsemsn 
Jamestown 'djemz^taun 
Jamestown weed 'dsimsn^wid 
Jamieson 'dsemasn 
Jamy Mseini 
Jan dsaen 
Jane dsen 

Janeiro dsa'mro, -'nero {Pg sa'neiru) 
Janesville 'dsenzvil 
Janet /c7?J. name 'dsjenit, dsa'net; Fr writer 

Sa'ne {Fr sa'ns) 
jangle 'dsaeogl |-d -d |-Hng 'dsaeggliQ, -glio 
Janice 'dsaenis |-'s -iz 
Janicula dsa'nikjala 
Janiculum d5a'nikjalam 



Key; See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'p'ti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang Sicg |angr>' 'aeg-gn 
|bath baeO; E ba0 (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



janitor 



237 



jerkin 



janitor 'dsaenata^; ES -t3(r; ]-ed -d |-ing 

Msaenatarii), -trig 
Janizary 'dsaenaiZeri 
Jansen 'dsaensn |-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 
January Msaenjujeri, 'dsaenjuari 
Janus 'dsenas |-'s -iz 
Jap dsaep 

Japan, j- dsa'psen, dsae- j-ned -d 
Japanese jdsaepa'niz ('Japa^nese ^beetle) 
jape dsep | japed dsept 
Japhet 'dsefit 
Japheth 'dsefiO, -fit 
Japhetic dsa'fetik, d^e- 
Jaqueline 'dsaekwalin, -Jin 
Jaquenetta jdsaekwa'neta, jdsaeka- 
Jaques surname dsaeks, dseks; iw ^/za^. 

'dsekwiz, -kwiz |-'s -iz 
jar dsar; ES dsarCr, E+dgaUr; |-red -d 
jardiniere jdsardn'ir; E jd3a:dn'i3(r, jd3a:d-; 

S jd3a:dn'i3(r, -'83(r; (Fr 3ardi'nJ£:r) 
Jared 'd3erid 

jarful 'd3arjful; ES 'd3a:-, E + 'dsa:-; |-s -z 
jargon M3arg3n, -gan, -gnn |-ed -d 
jarl jarl; ES jail, E+ja:l; |-ess -is 
jar less 'without jar' 'dsarlis; ES Msa:-, 

E + 'd3a:- 
jarovize 'jaraivaiz |-s -iz [-d -d 
Jarrow 'd3aEro, -a 

Jarvis M3arvis; ES ^30:-, E + 'd3a:-; ]-'s -iz 
jasmine, -min 'd3aesmin, Msaez- 
Jason 'dsesn 

jasper, J- 'd3aesp3'; ES 'dsaespaCr; j-ed -d 
Jassy ^jasi, 'd3aesi 
Jastrow Msaestro 

jaundice Msandis, M3Dn-, ^300- |-s -iz |-d -t 
jaunt d33nt, d3Diit, d3ant |-ed -id j-y -i 
Java 'dsava |-n -n 
Javan Bible 'd3ev3n, Msevaen 
Javanese jdsaeva'niz ('Java^nese ^people) 
javelin M3aevlin |-ed -d 
jaw dsD Ijawed dsad 
jawbone Mso'bon, -^bon 
jawbreaker 'd33jbrek3'; ES -jbrekaCr 
jay, J- d3e 

jayhawk 'd3ejh3k j-ed -t |-er -a^; ES -3(r 
jay-walk 'd3ejW3k |-ed -t j-er -a^; ES -3(r 
jazz dsasz [jazzes M3aeziz |-ed -d |-ily -li, -ili 
Jeaffreson M3Ef3^sn; ES M3£f3sn 
jealous 'dsElas |y -i 



Jeames dsimz [-'s -iz 

Jean Eng name d3in, Fr name 3a 

jean cloth A'^m, d3en 

Jeanne Eng name d3m, Fr name 30:11 

Jeanne d'Arc Fr 3a:n'dark 

Jeannette d33'ii8t 

Jeans d3inz |-'s -iz 

Jebusite M3£bjujzait | -si tic jdsEbju'zitik 

Jedburgh 'dsed^byo, -a; ES -^bar, -^bAr-, 

-jby-; Brit 'd3Edb3r3 
Jedediah jd3edi'dai3 
jeer d3ir; ES d3i3(r, S+d3£3(r; |-ed -d 
Jefferies 'dsefriz |-ries' -riz 
Jefferson Msefs'sn; ES 'd3Ef3sn 
Jeffersonian jd3£f3' 'soman; ES id^eis- 
Jeffrey, -fferey 'd3£fri 
Jeffreys 'd3Efriz |-reys' -riz 
Jeffries 'dsEfriz |-ries' -riz 
jehad dsi'had 
Jehoiakim dsi'haiajkim 
Jehoram d3i'hor3m, -'bar-; S -'horam 
Jehoshaphat d3i'haX3jfaet, -'has-; ES+-'hD- 
Jehovah dsi'hova 
Jehu 'd3ihju, -hiu 

jejune d3i'd3un, -'d3iun ('jej'une 'diet) 
jejunum d3i'd3un3m, -'d3iun3m 
Jekyll 'dslkl, 'd3Ekl 
jelly 'd3Eli |-ied -d |-fish -jfif 
Jemima d33'niaini3 
jemmy, J- 'dsEini 
Jena 'jena 

Jenghiz Khan, -is 'd3En-giz'kan, 'd3Eggiz- 
Jenkins 'dsEgkinz |-'s -iz 
Jenner 'd3£n3'; ES 'd3£n3(r 
jennet 'dsEnit 
Jenny, j- 'd3£ni 

jeopard 'dsEpa^d; ES 'd3£p3d; |-ed -id |-y -i 
jeopardize 'dsEpa^d^aiz; ES 'd3Ep3d-; \-s -iz 

l-d-d 
Jephtha 'dsEfGa, 'dsEpGa 
Jerauld dsa'rold 
jerboa d33''bo3; ES d33'bo3 
jeremiad jd3Er3'mai3d, -aed 
Jeremiah jd3Er3'mai3 
Jeremy 'd3£r3mi 
Jericho 'dsEra^ko 
Jeritza 'JEritsa 

jerk d3yk; ES d33k, ds^k; |-ed -t 
jerkin 'd3ykin; ES 'dssk-, 'd3yk-; |-ed -d 



|full ful |tooth tu6 [further 'fycJa^; ES 'fsSa |custom 'kAstam |while hwail |how hau |toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dij [vision 'vi33n [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipin 



Jeroboam 



238 



Joe 



Those words below in which the a sound is spelt o are often pronounced with d in E and S 



Jeroboam, j- jdsEra'boam 

Jerome dsa'rom, 'dsEram 

Jerrold 'dsErald 

Jerry, j- 'dseri 

Jerry -build 'dseri^bild | -built -^bilt 

Jersey, j- M5TZ1; ES 'dsszi, 'ds^zi; j-ed -d 

Jerusalem dsa'rusalam, -Viu- 

Jervaulx Yks 'dsarvis, Msyvo; ES 'djaivis, 

'dgsvo, 'dsyvo, E + 'dsaivis; |-'s -isiz, -voz 
Jervis 'd33'vis, 'dsarvis; ES 'dsavis, 'dsyv-, 

'd3a:v-, E + 'dsarv-; |-'s -iz 
Jervois Austral 'dgyvis; ES M33V-, Msyv- 
Jeshurun 'dsEjjuran, ^seJu- 
Jespersen 'jespa^sn; ES 'jespasn 
jess dses Ijesses 'dsEsiz |jessed dsest 
Jessamine, J- 'dsesamin 
Jesse 'dsEsi Ijessie 'dsEsi |-sica 'dsESika 
Jessopp, Jessup 'dsEsap 
Jest djEst I Jested ^d3Estid 
Jesu Msizju, 'dsis-, -lu, -u 
Jesuit 'd3£3uit, 'dsEzju- |-ry -ri 
Jesuitic, J- jd3E3u'itik, jdsEzju- |-al -1 |-ally 

-li, -ikli 
Jesup 'dsEsap 
Jesus 'd3iz3s |-sus' -zas 
Jet d3£t iJetted 'dsEtid 
Jet-black 'dset'blaek ('Jet-^black 'eyes) 
Jethro 'dsEGro 
Jetsam 'dsEtsam 
Jettison ^d3Et3sn, -zn [-ed -d 
Jetty 'd5£ti Ijettied 'd3£tid 
Jeu d'esprit Fr 3odEs'pi'i 
Jevons 'dsEvanz |-'s -iz 
Jew d3u, d3iu |-ess -is |-ry -ri 
Jewel, J- 'd3U3l, 'dsiuol |-ry -ri 
Jewett 'dsurt, 'dsiuit 
Jew's-harp Vl3UZjharp, 'd3us-, M31U-; ES 

-jha:p, E-i--iha:p; M3us/liarp preserves a 

regular old form, dissociated from Jew's. 
Jezebel 'dsEzabl 

Jezreel 'd3Ezri3l, d3£z'ril |-ite 'dsEzrial^ait 
Jib d3ib I Jibbed dsibd 
Jibber M3ib3^; ES -3(r; |-ed -d j-ing -bang, 

-brig 
Jibboom 'd3ib'bum 
Jibe d3aib |jibed d3aibd 
Jiffy 'dsifi 
Jig dsig 1 Jigged d3igd 



Iger 'dsiga^; ES -3(r; |-ed -d |-ing -ig, -gnij 
iiggle 'd3ig! |-d -d |-ling 'dsiglig, -glig 
igsaw 'd3igjS3 [-ed -d 
ihad d3i'had 
Jill d3il 

Jilt d3ilt I jilted 'dsiltid 
Jim dsim 

Jimjams M3iinjd3aemz 
Jimmy, J- Msinu |-ied -d 
Jimson weed 'd3imsn;wid 
Jinghis Khan 'd3in-giz'kan, 'd3iggiz- 
jingle 'd3iggl |-d -d |-hng 'd3igglig, -glig 
Jingo 'd3iggo J-ed -d |-ism -jizsm 
Jink dsigk |jinked d3igkt 
Jinn pi d3iii 

Jinnee, -nni d3i'ni \pl jinn dsin 
Jinniyeh dsi'nijE \pl jinn d3m 
Jinricksha, -rikisha dsinVikJa, -^3 
Jinx d3igks Ijinxes M3igksiz Ijinxed dsigkst 
Jitney 'd3itni 

jitters 'dsita^z; ES 'dsitaz; |-ery -an 
Jiujitsu, jiujutsu d3u^d5itsu, d3iu- 
Joab Msoaeb 
Joachim, -akim Bible 'dsos^kim, violinist 

'jo3jkim {per jo'axim) 
Joan d3on, 'd303n, dso'aen — d3o'aen is a 

spelling pron., not used by those familiar 

with the traditional pron. 
Joanna d3o'aen3 
Joan of Arc Msonav'ark, d3o'aen-; ES -'a:k, 

E-i--'a:k; — see Joan 
Joaquin hwa'kin {Am Sp hwa-) 
job d3ab |-bed -d |-ber -a*; ES -3(r 
Job dsob 

Jobson 'dsabsn, 'dsob- 
Jocasta d3o'kaest3 

Jocelin, -ine, -lyn 'd3asb;n, 'dsasalm 
Jock dsak 

jockey 'd3aki ]-ed -d 
jocko 'dsako 

jocose dso'kos j-sity -'kas3ti 
jocular 'dsakjsla^; ES -l3(r; |-ity jd3akJ3- 

'la;r3ti 
jocund 'd3ak3nd, -And [ity dso^Andati 
jodel 'jodl |-ed -d j-ing 'jodlig, 'jodlig 
Jodhpur d3od'pur; ES -'pu3(r; af c/ -h ' Jodhpur 
jodhpurs 'd3adp3^z, 'djod-; ES -p3z 
Joe d30 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet JEt |sang saeg |angr}- 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw d33 |gorge gards |go go 



Joel 



239 



judgement 



Those words below in which the a sound is 
Joel 'dsoal 
Joffre Fr sbfr 
jog dsag I jogged dsagd 
joggle 'dsagl |-d -d |-ling 'dsaghg, -giro 
Johanna d3o'haen9 
Johannes, j- dso'haeniz |-es' -iz 
Johannesburg dso'haeniSjbs'g, jo-; ES -jbsg; 

-ibyg 
John dsan, dson |-ian 'dsonian 
johnnycake 'dsani^kek 
Johnny-jump-up 'dsani'dsAmpjAp 
Johnson 'dgansn |-ese ^dsansn'iz 
Johnsonian dsan'sonian 
Johnston 'dsanstan ' 

Johnstown 'dsanz^taun 
joie-de-vivre Fr jwadaVivr 
join dsDin |-ed -d 
joinder 'dsDinda^; ES 'dsoindaCr 
joiner 'dsama^; ES 'd53in3(r; |-ed -d |-y -i 
joint d33int |-ed -id j-ress -ris |-resses -risiz 
joint-stock 'dsaint'stak ('joint-jstock 'bank) 
jointure 'dsaintja^; ES ^dsointJaCr; |-d -d 
joist d33ist, d33is ] -joists dsaists, dsois: 
joke dsok | joked d3okt 
JoHet III 'dsohjEt, -at, jdsoli'et, -al- 
Jolhet, JoK- explorer 'dsolijEt, -3t, ^dsoli^et. 

-al- {Fr 3l>'lJ8) 
jollification jdsalafa'ke/an 
jollify 'dsabjfai |-fied -^faid 
jolly M3ali Ijollity Msalati 
jolt d3olt Ijolted 'dsoltid 
Jon d3an 
Jonah 'dsona 
Jonas 'd3on3s |-'s -iz 
Jonathan 'dsanaGan 
Jones dsonz |-'s -iz 
jonglery 'dsagglan 
jongleur 'dsaggla^; ES 'dsagglaCr; {Fr 30- 

'gloe:r) 
jonquil 'dsagkwil, 'd3an- 
Jonson 'dsansn |-ian dsan'sonian 
Joplin 'dsaplin 
Joppa 'd3ap3 

Jordan 'dgordn; ES 'd333dn 
jorum 'dsoram, Msor-; S 'd3or3m 
Joseph Msozaf |-phine 'd30Z3;fm 
Josepha d3o'sif3 |-phus -fas |-phus's -fasiz 
josh dsa/ Ijoshes 'dsajiz [joshed dsajt 



spelt o are often pronounced with o in E mid S 
Joshua 'dsajua, o.j. 'dsaja^we 
Josiah d3o'sai3 
joss d3as, dsDS |-es -iz 
jostle 'dgasj |-d -d |-hng 'd3ashg, -slig 
jot dsat Ijotted 'd3atid 
Jotunn, -un 'jatun, 'jot- [-heim -jhem 
Joule d3aul, dsul, dsol |joule dsaul, dsul 
jounce dsauns Ijounces Msaunsiz |-d -t 
Jourdain Shak. dsur'den; ES dsua-; Fr name 

3ur'd£e 
journal 'ds^nj; ES 'dsanl, 'dsynl; j-ed -d 

|-ism -jizani |-ist -1st 
journalese jdsynl'iz, -'is; ES jdssnl-, jdsynl- 
journalistic jdsynl'istik; ES jdssnl-, jd3ynl-; 

I -ally -h, -ikli 
journahze 'd3ynljaiz; ES 'dgsnj-, 'dynl-; 

j-s -IZ |-d -d 
journey ^33^111; ES Mssni, 'dss'ni; |-ed -d 

I -man -man |-men -man 
joust d3Ast, dsaust |-ed -id 
Jove dsov I Jovian 'dsovian 
jovial 'd3ov3al, -vial |-ity jdsovi'aelati 
Jovinian d3oVinian 
Jowett 'd3auit 
jowl dsaul, dsol |-ed -d 
joy d3Di |-ed -d |-ful -fal | -fully -fah j-ous -as 
Joyce dsais |-'s -iz 
Juab 'dsiiaeb, 'dsiuasb 
Juan 'dsuan, 'dsiiian {Sp xwan) 
Juanita wa'nita, wd-, wa- {Sp xwa'nita) 
Juarez, Juarez 'hwares {Am Sp 'hwares) 
Jubal 'dsubj, 'dsiubl 

jubilance 'd3ublans, 'dsiu- |-cy -i |-ant -ant 
jubilate 'dsubl^et, 'dsiu- |-d -id 
Jubilate jdsuba'leti, jd3iu- 
jubilation jdsubl'e/an, jdsiu- 
jubilee 'd3ublji, 'd3iu- 
Judaea d3u'dia, d3iu- |-n -n 
Judah 'd3uda, 'dsiuda 

Judaic d3u'de'ik, dsiu- |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 
Judaism 'dsudi^izam, 'dsiu- 
judaize 'dsudi^aiz, 'dsiu- j-s -iz j-d -d 
Judas 'd3udas, 'dsm- j-'s -iz 
Judd dsAd 
Jude dsud, dsiud 
Judea d3u'dia, d3iu- |-n -n 
judge d3Ad3 [judges 'dsAdsiz 1-d -d 
judgement 'd3Ad3mant 



[full ful [tooth tuG [further 'fytiV; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fiuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan jEden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Judges 



240 



justificatory 



Judges 'dsAdsiz 

judgeship 'dsAdsJip 

judgmatic dsAds'maetik |-al -1 j-ally -li, -ikh 

judgment 'dsAdsmant 

judicable Msudikabl, 'dsiu- 

judicatory 'dsudika^ton, ^dsiu-, -jton; S 
-jton 

judicature ^dsudikat/a^, M31U-; ES -tj3(r 

judiciable dsu'di/iabl, dsiu- 

judicial dsu'di/al, dsiu- |-ly -i 

judiciary dsuMiJi^en, dsiu-, -^difan 

judicious dsu'di/as, dsiu- 

Judith 'dsudiG, M31U- 

Judson MsAdsn 

Judy Msudi, 'dsiudi 

jug d3Ag Ijugged dsAgd 

Juggernaut, j- 'dsAga^^nat; ES MsAga-; |-cd 
-id 

juggle MsAgl I-d -d |-ling 'dsAglig, -ghij 

jugglery ^dsAgbri 

Jugoslav n ^jugo^slav, -jslaev 

Jugoslav adj 'jugo'slav, -^slaev ('Jugo^slav 
'state) 

Jugoslavia 'jugo'slavia, -vja |-n -n 

Jugoslavic jugo'slavik, -'sliev- 

jugular MsAgjala^, less freq. 'dsug-; ES -b(r 

Jugurtha dju'gyGa; ES -'g303, -'gyOa 

juice dsus, dsius j-s -iz |-d -d j-cy -i 

jujitsu dsuMsitsu, dsiu- 

juju 'dsudsu |-ism -jizam ]-ist -ist 

jujube 'd3ud3ub, 'd3nid3iub {Fr 3y'3yb) 

jujutsu d3u'd3itsu, d3iu- 

Jukes dsuks, d3iuks j-'s -iz 

julep 'd3ukp, 'dsiu-, -lap 

Julia 'd3ulJ3, 'd3iul- |-n -n 

Juliana jdsub'aena, ^dsiul-, -ji'aena 

Julien 'd3ulJ3n, M3iulJ3n 

julienne jdsuh'en, idsiul- 

Juliet 'd3ulJ3t, Msml-, -hat — The freqnerd 
modern pron. jd5uh'Et has no basis in Shake- 
speare's verse. Gf some 47 occiurences, 43 
show only two syllables and initial accent; 
in the 4 cases of three syllables {all highly 
emotional) there is no evidence that the last 
syllable had more than secondary accent. 

Julius 'dsuljas, 'dsml- |-'s -iz 

July dsu'lai, d3iu- ('Ju^ly 'first) 

jumble 'd3Ambl |-d -d |-ling 'd3Amblio, -blig 

Jumbo, j- 'd3Ambo 



jump dsAmp [jumped d3Ampt 

junco, J- 'd3Ai)ko 

junction 'd3Ar)k/3n j-ed -d 

juncture 'd3AgktJV; ES M3Agktj3(r 

June d3un, d3run 

Juneau 'd3uno, 'dsiu- 

Jungfrau 'jug;frau 

jungle 'dsAggl |-d -d 

Juniata jdsuni'aeta, jdsiu- 

junior 'd3unJ3', M3iun-; ES -J3(r 

juniority d3un'J3r3ti, d3iun-, -'jar-, -'jnr- 

juniper 'd3un3p3', 'd3iun-; ES -p3(r 

Junius Mjunjas, 'd3iun-, -mas |-'s -iz 

junk d3Agk Ijunked dsAgkt 

Junker, j- 'jugka-; ES 'jugkaCr 

junket 'd3Agkit j-ed -id 

Juno M3uno, 'd3iuno 

junta 'd3Ant3 |junto 'dsAnto 

Jupiter 'd3Up3t3^, 'dsiu-; ES -t3(r 

Jura 'dsura, 'dsiura {Fr 3y'ra) 

jural Msural, 'dsiur- |-ly -i 

jurant 'd3ur3nt, 'dsiur- 

jurassic d3uVaesik, d3iu- 

jurat 'd3uraet, 'dsiur- 

juridical dsu'ridik}, dsiu- |-ly -i, -ikli 

jurisconsult jdsuriskan'sAlt, jd3iur-, -'kan- 
saU; ES + -'kDii- 

jurisdiction jd3uris'dikj"3n, jd3iur- |-al -1 
1-ally -h 

jurisprudence ^dsuns'prudns, jdsicns'priud- 

|-dent -dnt 
jurist 'd3urist, 'd3icr- 
juristic d3uVistik, dsiu- |-al -1 j-ally -Ii, 

-ikh 
juror 'd3ur3', 'dsiuras ES -r3(r 
jury 'd3uri, 'd3iun j-man -man |-men -man 
jury-rigged 'dsuri^rigd, 'dsiuri- 
Jusserand Fr 3y'sra 
just dsAst, lightly stressed adv often d5ast, 

d38st 
justice 'd3Astis |-s -iz |-d -t j-sliip -^Jip 
justiciable dsAs'tiJiabl 
justiciar d3As'tiXi3'; ES -'tiJi-aCr 
justiciary d3As'tiJij£ri 
justifiability jd3Astajfaia'bilati 
justifiable 'd3Astajfaiabl |-bly -bli 
justification jdsAstafa'ke/an 
justificatory dsAs'trfakajton, 'd3Astafajke- 
tari; EN+-jtari 



Key: See in full §§3-^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg jangn.- 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wotj (§12) |jaw d33 |gorge gard3 |go go 



j ustif y 



241 



Kazan 



justify 'djAstajfai |-fied -jfaid 
Justin ^dsAstin |-ian dsAs'tmian 
Justus MsAstas |-'s -iz 
Jut dsAt Ijutted 'dsAtid 
jute, J- dsut, dsmt 
Jutland MsAtland 



Juvenal 'dsuvanl, 'dsiuv- 
juvenescence jdsuva'nesns, jdsiu- j-ent -nt 
juvenile 'dsuvanl, 'dsiu-, -ml, -^nail 
juvenility jdjuva'nilati, jdsiu- 
juxtapose ^dsAksta'poz j-s -iz |-d -d 
juxtaposition jd3Akst3p3'zij3n |-al -1 



K 



K, k letter ke \pl K's, Ks, pass K 


s ke2 




Karakoram ^kara'koram, ^kaera-; EN+ 


Kaaterskill 'kat^z.kil, 'kat-; ES 


-taz- 




-'karam 


Kabul 'kabul 






KareHa ka'rUia 


Kadesh-Barnea 'kede/'bornia; 


ES - 


'bam-. 


Karl karl; ES ka:l, E+ka:I 


E+ -'barn- 






Karlsbad 'karlzbaed; ES 'ka:lz-, E + 'ka:lz-; 


Kaffir, Kafir 'kaefa^; ES 'kaefaCr 






{Ger 'karlsbat) 


Kahoka ka'hoka 






Karlsruhe 'karlzrua; ES 'ka:Iz-, E + 'ka:lz-; 


kaiser, K- 'kaiza'; ES 'kaiz3(r 






{per 'korlsru-.a, -'ru:a) 


Kalamazoo ^kaelama'zu 






karma 'karma, 'ks^ma; ES 'ka:ma, 'ksma. 


kale kel 






'kyma; {Hind 'kArma) 


kaleidoscope ks'laida^skop 






Karnak 'karnaek; ES 'ka:-, E + 'ka:- 


kaleidoscopic ka^laida'skapik; ES+- 


sknp-; 


Karroo, Karoo, k- ka'ru, kae'ru 


l-al -1 l-ally -li, -ikh 






Kashmir India kaej'imr; ES -'mia(r; |-ian 


kalends 'kaelindz, -andz, -nz 






-ran 


Kalevala jkabVola 






Kaskaskia kaes'kaeskia 


Kalkaska kael'kaeska 






Katahdin ka'tadin, -dn 


Kallyope 'calliope' 'kaebiOp 






Kate, k- ket 


Kalmuck, k-, -muk 'kaebnAk 






Katharina jkaeOa'rina 


kalsomine 'kjelsa^main |-d -d 






Katharine 'kaeOrin, 'kteGarm 


Kama 'kama 






katharsis ka'Oarsis; ES -'Oa:s-, E+-'6a:s- 


Kamchatka kaem'tjaetka 






Katherine 'kaeGrin, 'kaeGarin 


Kamerun jkaema'run (Ger jkama' 


ru:n) 




Kathleen 'kaeGlin 


Kanaka ka'naeka, 'kaenaka 






kathode 'kaeOod 


Kanawha ka'nawa 






Kathrine 'kaeGrin, 'kaeGann 


Kanchanjanga jkantX3n'd3agga 






Katrine 'kaetnn, 'kaetrin, Sc 'kat- 


Kandahar jkaenda'hctr, ^kAnda-; 


ES 


-'ha:(r 


Kattegat 'kaetiigaet, jkaeti'gaet 


Kandy 'kaendis %an- 






katydid 'ketijdid |-dided -jdidid 


Kane ken 






Kauai jka-u'a-i 


kangaroo ^kaegga'ru |-ed -d 






Kauffman 'kafman [Kaufman 'kafman {Ger 


Kankakee jk^gka'ki 






'kaufman) 


Kansas 'kaenzss, rarely -sas; S+- 


zis; 1 


-an -an 


Kaukauna ka'kana 


|-sas' -as, -IS 






Kavanagh 'kaeva^na, -na 


Kant kaent {Ger kant) |-ian -lan 


|-ism 


-izam 


Kavanaugh 'kaevajna, -na 


|-ianism -lanjizam 






kay ke 


kaoliang ^kaoh'aeg 






Kay ke 


kaoUn, -ine 'keahn 






kayak 'kaiaek 


kapok 'kepak, 'ksepak; ES+-pnk 






Kaye ke jKaye-Smith 'ke'smiG 


kappa 'kaepa 






Kazan ka'zan 



|full ful jtooth tuG [further 'fytJa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish d^J" [vision 'visan [Eden 'idif [cradle 'kred| [keep 'em 'kipip 



Kean 



242 



Keswick 



Kean, -e kin 




Kenmore US 'kenmor, -mar; ES -moafr, E + 


Kearny, -ey 'karni; ES 'ka:ni, E + 


'ka:ni 


-mD3(r; Scotl Ken'more 


Kearsarge 'kirsards; ES 'ki3sa:d3, E + 


Kennan 'kenan 


-sa:d3; l-'s -iz 




Kennebec jkena'bek ('Kennejbec 'River) 


Keats kits |-'s -iz 




Kennebunk jkena'bAgk 


Keble 'kibl 




Kennebunkport jkenabAok'port -'port; ES 


Kedar 'klda^; ES 'kidaCr 




-'poat, E-K-'paat 


kedge keds |kedges 'kedsiz |kedged kedsd 


Kennedy 'kenadi 


kedgeree 'ked33jri, ^kedsaVi 




kennel 'kenl j-ed -d |-ly 'kenli 


Kedron 'kidrsn 




Kennedy 'kena-b; ES 'kenali 


keel kil 1 keeled kild [-less 'killis 




Kennesaw 'kena^sD 


keelhaul 'kil^hal |-ed -d 




Kenneth 'keniG 


keelson 'k£lsn, 'kii- 




Kennett Square 'kenit'skwEr, -'skwasr; E 


keen kin |-ness 'kinnis 




-'skw£a(r, ES -'skwasa(r 


Keene kin 




keno 'kino 


keep kip |kept kept |-sake 'kip^sek 




Kenora ka'nora, -'nara; S -'nora 


Keewatin ki'watin, -'wnt- 




Kenosha ka'nqfa 


keg kEg L.A. shows that keg 6" less 


freq. kaeg 


Kenova ka'nova 


are used by cultured informants. 




Kensington 'kenziijtan 


Keighly Yks 'kiGh 




Kent kent |-ish -ij 


Keightley 'kith 




Kenton 'kentan 


Keijo 'ke'dso 




Kentucky kan'tAki, /oc. +ken'tAki j-kian -an 


Keith kie 




Kenya 'kenja, /oc. + 'kinia 


Kellar, -er \el^; ES 'kela(r 




Kenyon 'kenjan 


Kelley, -ly, k- 'keli Ikelhed 'kehd 




Keokuk 'kla^kAk 


Kellogg 'kebg, -ag, -og 




kepi 'kepi 


Kelmscot 'kemskat (Kelm- J274, 


Kemscott 


Kepler 'keplsr; ES 'kepla(r 


1695), 'kelm- 




kept kept, before some conss. +kep ('kep'takig) 


kelp kslp 




Ker, -rr ky, kar; ES k3(r, ky, ka:(r, E + ka:(r 


kelpie, -py 'kelpi 




keratin 'keratin 


Kelsey 'kelsi 




kerb kyb; ES ksb, kyb; | -stone -jSton 


Kelso 'kelso 




kerchief 'kyt/if; ES 'ks-, 'ky-; j-s -s !-ed -t 


kelson 'kelsn 




kerf kyf, karf; ES kaf, kyf, ka:f, E+ka:£ 


Kelt kelt |-ist -ist 




kermes 'ks^miz; ES 'ksm-, 'kym- 


kelter 'kelta^; ES 'keltaCr 




kermis, -mess 'kymis; ES 'ksm-, 'kym-; ]-es 


Keltic 'ksltik |-ally -h, -ikh 




-IZ 


Kelticism 'keltajSizam |-cist -sist 




kern kyn; ES ksn, kyn; |-ed -d 


Kelvin 'kelvin 




Kernahan, -no- 'kyna/hten, 'kar-; ES 'ks-, 


Kemal ka'mal, 'kemal 




'ky-, 'ka:-, E + 'ka:- 


kemb kem |kembed kemd or kempt kempt 


kernel 'kynl; E-S 'ksnl, 'kynl; |-ed -d 


Kemble 'kembl 




kernelless 'kynlhs; ES 'ksn-, 'kyn- 


Kemmerer 'kemara^; ES 'kemaraCr 




kerosene 'kera^sin, jkera'sin |-d -d 


kemp, K- kemp 




Kerr ky, kar; ES ksd, ky, ka:(r, E-t-ka:(r 


Kempis 'kempis |-'s -iz 




Kerry 'ken 


ken ken kenned ksnd 




kersey, K- 'kyzi; ES 'kszi, 'kyzi 


Kendal, -11 'kendl |-ville -jVil 




Kershaw ky'/a; ES ks-, ky- 


Kenedy 'ksnadi 




Kesteven Lines 'kestivan, /oc.+kes'tivan 


Kenelm 'kenalm, -elm 




kestrel 'kestral 


Kenilworth 'kEnljwyG; ES -jW30, - 


jW3^G 


Keswick 'kezik 



Kc^: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg langrs' 'aeg-gri 
|bath baeS; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far |watch watj, wDtJ (§12) |jaw Ay» |gorge gards |go go 



ketch 



243 



kindle 



ketch, K- ketf ]-es -iz 




Kilauea jkilau'ea 


ketchup 'ketjap 




Kildare kil'der, -'daer; E -'dE3(r, ES -'dae3(r 


ketene 'kitin 




kilderkin 'kilda^kin; ES 'kilda- 


ketone 'kiton 




kilerg 'kiljS'g; ES -flg, -^yg 


kettle, K- 'ketl i-drum -jdrAm — 'kitl, a his- 


Kilkenny kil'ksni ('Kil^kenny 'cats) 


torical variant, is still not infrequently heard. 


kill kil Ikilled kild |-able -abl 


Keturah ki'tjura, -'tiura 




Killarney ki'larni; ES -'la:ni, E + -'la:ni 


Keuka ki'juka, 'kjuka 




killdeer 'kilidir;ES -jdi3(r, S + -jdE3(r, -jdje3(r 


Kew kju, km 




Killiecrankie /kili'kraegki 


Kewanee ka'wani, -'wnni 




Killigrew 'kib^gru, -igriu 


Kewaunee ka'wani 




killjoy 'kil(d33i 


Keweenaw 'kiwi^nD 




Kilmarnock kil'marn3k; ES -'ma:n-, E+ 


key, K- ki j-ed -d |-board -^bord, - 


jbord; ES 


-'ma:n- 


-jboad, E+-jb33d 




Kilmer 'kilma^; ES 'kilm3(r 


Keyes kiz, kaiz |-'s -iz 




kiln kil, kiln — spelt kill since 1470 {so in the 


keyhole 'ki^hol 




1611 Bible) — The n sound was lost from 


keyman 'ki^maen, -'maen |-men -jinEn, -'mEn 


kiln in the same way as it was from ell, mill, 


Keynes kenz |-'s -iz 




Milne. 


keynote 'ki^not, -'not 




kiln-dry 'lul^drai | -dried -^draid 


Keyport 'ki^port, -^pDrt; ES -^poat, 


E + -iP33t 


kilo 'kilo, 'ki- 


Keyser 'kaiz*; ES 'kaiz3(r 




kilocalorie 'kibikaebn 


keystone, K- 'kijston j-d -d 




kilocycle 'kil3jsaikl 


Key West 'ki'west 




kilogram, -mme 'kib^graem 


Kezia, -h ka'zaia 




kiloliter, -tre 'kibjita^; ES -jlit3(r 


khaddar 'kAda^; ES 'kAdaCr 




kilometer, -tre 'kil3/mit3^, much less freq. 


khaki 'kaki, 'kaeki |-ed -d 




ki'lam3t3*; ES -t3(r, -'loin- 


khan, K- kan, kaen 




kilowatt 'kibjwat, -J wot 


Kharkov 'karkDf, -k»f ; ES 'ka:-, E 


+ 'ka:- 


kilowatt-hour 'kib^wat'aur, -^wot-; ES 


Khartoum, -turn kar'tum; ES ka:-. 


E+ka:- 


-'au3(r 


Khayyam kai'am, -'aem, -'jam, -'jaem 


Kilpatrick kil'paetrik 


khedive, K- ka'div j-vial -lal, -jal 


-viate -lit 


kilt kilt Ikilted 'kiltid 


Khmer kmer; ES kme3(r 




kilter 'kilta^; ES 'kilt3(r 


Khyber 'kaiba^; ES 'kaib3(r 




Kim kim |-ball -bl |-berley -ba^li; ES -bab 


Kiangsu 'kjaeo'su {Chin 'dsjag'su) 




Kimbolton kim'boltn, NC 'kimblt3n. 


Kiaochow 'kjau't/au {Chin 'dsjau'dso) 


Hunts kim'boltn, /orwe/'Zy 'kimlt3n {Shak. 


kibe kaib |kibed kaibd 




Kymmalton) 


kibitzer 'kibitsa^, ka'bit-; ES -S3(r 




kimono k3'mon3, -no 


kibosh 'kaiba/, ki'baj; ES + -dX 




kin km 


kick kik |-ed -t |-back -jbaek j-ofE - 


of, -jOf 


kinaesthesia ^kims'Oiss, -zi3 |-thetlc -'GEtik 


kickshaw 'kik/a 




Kincaid kin'ked, kig'ked 


kickup 'kikjAp 




Kincardine kin'kardin, kig-; ES -'ka:d-. 


kid kid Ikidded 'kidid i-dy -i 




E + -'ka:d- 


Kidd kid 




Kinchinjunga jkint/in'dsAgga 


kidnap 'kidnajp l-(p)ed -t 




kind kaind 


kidney 'kidm 




kindergarten 'kinda^jgartn; ES 'kind3jga:tn; 


Kidron 'kidran 




E+-jga:tn; |-tner, -tener -tna^; ES -tn3(r 


kidskin 'kidjskm 




kindhearted 'kamd'hartid; ES -'ha:t-, E + 


Kiel kil 




-'ha:t-; ('kind-hearted 'man) 


Kiev kl'Ev, -'eI, 'kiEv, -Ef 




kindle 'kindl |-d -d |-ling -dlig, -dlig 



I full ful I tooth tu6 [further 'fySa^; ES 'f3t53 [custom 'kAst3m | while hwarl |how hau |toy tai 
|using 'juzig |fuse fjuz, fiuz |dish dif [vision 'vi33n |Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



kindling 

kindling n 'kindlig 

kindness 'kaindnis, 'kainms |-es -iz 

kindred 'kindrid, -ad 

kine kam |-pox -^paks; ES + 'ipoks 

kinema 'kinama 

kinematic jkina'maetik j-al -1 j-ally -li, -ikli 

kinematograph jkina'maetajgraef; E + -jgraf, 

-igraf 
kinesthesia jkinis'Gisa, -zia |-thetic -'Gstik 
kinetic ki'netik, kai- [-al -1 [ally -li, -ikli 
kinfolk 'kin,fok 
king, K- kig 

kingbird 'kig^byd; ES -^bsd, -^byd 
kingbolt 'kig,bolt 

kingcraft 'kig^kraeft; E+-jkraft, -^kroft 
kingdom 'kigdam 
Kingdon 'kigdan 
kingfisher 'kigjfi/a'; ES -^fiJaCr 
kinglet 'kiglit 
kingpin 'kig^pin 
Kingsbury 'kigzjberi, -ban 
kingship 'kigjip 
Kingsley 'kigzli 

Kingston, -e 'kig-stan, 'kigz'tan, 'kigks- 
Kingstown 'kigzjtaun 
kink kigk [kinked kigkt Ikinky ^kigki 
Kinkaid kin'ked, kig'ked 
kinkajou 'kigka^dsu 
kinnikinnick, -kinic jkinika'nik 
Kinross kin'ras, -'ros |-ross-shire -Vasfir, 

-'raj/-, -Vd-, -Ja^; ES -JiaCr, -JaCr 
Kinsey 'kinsi, -zi 
kinsfolk 'kinz^fok 
kinship 'kinjip 

kinsman, K- 'kinzman ]-men -man 
kinswoman 'kinzjwuman, -jwu- |-women 

-jWimin, -an 
kiosk ki'ask, 'kaiask; ES + -'Dsk, -osk 
Kioto 'kjoto 

Kiowa US places 'kaiawa 
Kiowa, -way Indian 'kaiajwe, -wa 
Kipling 'kiplig 

kipper 'kipa^; ES 'kipa(r; |-ed -d 
Kirby 'kybi; ES 'ksbi, 'kybi 
Kirghiz kir'giz; ES kia-; |-'s -iz 
kirk, K- kyk; ES ksk, kyk 
Kirkby 'kykbi, 'kybi; ES 'ks-, 'ky- 
Kirkcaldy ky'kaldi, -'kadi, -'kadi; ES ks-, 

ky- 



244 knead 

Kirkcudbright ky'kubn; ES ks-, ky-; ]-shire 

-Jir, -JV; ES -Jia(r, -/a(r 
Kirkland 'ka-kland; ES 'ksk-, 'kyk- 
kirmess 'kynus; ES 'ksm-, 'kym-; |-es -iz 
Kirtland 'kytland; ES 'kst-, 'kyt- 
kirtle 'kytl; ES 'kstl, 'kytl; |-d -d 
kismet 'kizmet, 'kis- 
kiss kis Ikisses 'kisiz |kissed kist 
kist kist 

kit, K- kit l-ty -i 
kitcat 'kit/kaet 
kitchen, K- 'kit/in, -an 

Kitchener, k- 'kit/ina', -ana^, -t/na^; ES -na(r 
kitchenette jkitj'in'et, -an- 
kitchenware 'kitjin^wer, -an-, -jwaer; E 

-jwea(r, ES -jwaea(r 
Kitchin 'kitjin 
kite kait | kited 'kaitid 
kithkiG 

Kittanning ki'tsenig 
Kitta tinny jkita'tini 

kitten 'kitn — The pron. ^hitan is substatidard. 
Kittery 'kitari 
Kittitas 'kitijtaes |-'s -iz 
kittiwake 'kitijwek 
kittle 'kitl 

Kittredge 'kitrids |-'s -iz 
kitty, K- 'kiti 

Kitty Hawk 'kiti'hak |Kittyhawk 'kitijhak 
kiva 'kiva 

Kiwanian ka'wanian, -'won- |-wanis -nis 
kiwi 'kiwi 

Klaeber 'kleba^; ES 'kkbaCr 
Klamath 'kltemaO 
KleinSmid, von fan'klainjsmid 
kleptomania jkkpta'menia |-niac -'meiUjak 
klieg klig 

Klingsor 'kligzor, -zar; ES -zoa(r, E+-z3a{r 
Klondike 'klandaik; ES + 'klnn- 
Klopstock 'klapstak; ES + 'klopstnk; {Ger 

'klap/tak) 
Kluge Ger scholar 'kluga; Eng jiaine kluds, 

kliuds 
knack naek |knacked naekt 
knag naeg |knagged 'naegid |-gy -i 
knap naep | knapped naept |-sack -jS£ek 
knar nar; ES na:(r, E+na:(r; |-red -d |-ry -i 
knave nev ]-d -d |-ry -an, -n |-ship -/ip 
knead nid [kneaded 'nidid 



Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) [rate ret |yet J£t |sang saeg Iangr\- 'feg-gn 
|bath baeO; E baO (§10) lah a Ifar far Iwatch watf, wntf (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



knee 



245 



Krakatao 



knee ni | kneed nid |-cap -jkaep 


knur, -rr ny; ES n3(r, ny; [-(r)ed -d 


knee-deep 'ni'dip ('knee-jdeep 'clover) 


knurl nyl; ES nsl, nyl; [-ed -d 


knee-high 'ni'hai 


Knut ka'nut, -'niut, -'niut = Canute 


kneel nil [knelt nelt or kneeled nild 


knut 'nut' humorous ka'nAt 


kneepad 'ni^paed |-pan -jpaen 


Knutsford 'uAtsfa'd; ES 'nAtsfad 


knell nel | knelled neld 


Kobe 'kobi 


Kneller 'nela^; ES 'ndad 


Koblenz 'kobknts [-'s -iz 


knelt nelt 


kobold 'kobald, -bold, -bold {Ger 'korbalt) 


knew nju, nm, nu 


Kobuk ko'buk 


knicker 'luka^; ES 'nikaCr; [-ed -d 


Koch Ger kax; 'Assamese^ kotj [-es^otjiz 


Knickerbocker, k- 'nika^jbaka^; ES ^mka- 


Kodak 'kodaek kodaked 'kodakt 


ibak3(r, -jbnk-; |-ed -d 


Kodiak 'kodi^ajk 


knickknack 'nik^naek -ery -an, -ri 


Koekeritz 'k£karits |-'s -iz 


knife n naif [knife's naifs {in Shak. knives 


Koheleth ko'hehO 


naivz) \pl knives naivz — The pronunciation 


Koh-i-noor, Kohinoor, -nur ^ko-i'nur; ES 


naivz for knife's is the older possessive singu- 


-'nua(r 


lar. 


kohl, K- kol [Kohlan 'kolan 


knife v naif [knifes naifs [knifed naift 


Kohler 'kola^; ES 'kob(r 


knifeful 'naif^ful [-s -z 


kohlrabi 'kol^rabi, 'kol'rabi 


knight nait [knighted 'naitid |-age -idg 


koine 'kaini, -ni 


knight-errant 'nait'erant [-ry -ri 


Kokomo 'koka^mo 


knighthood 'nait-hud 


kola 'kola 


knit nit [knit nit or knitted 'nitid 


Komintern jkamin'tyn, 'kamin^tyn; ES -an. 


knives naivz knive's naivz — see knife n 


-s'n, -Dm- 


knob nab; ES+nnb; [-bed -d, -id |-by -i 


Kongo 'kaggo; ES + 'kog- 


knobble 'nabl; ES + 'nubl; [-d -d [-hng -bho. 


Konigsberg 'kenigz^byg; ES -jbsg, -jbyg; 


-bhg [bly -bli, -bli 


{Ger 'k0:niksjberk) 


Knoblock 'nablak; ES-t-'noblok 


koodoo 'kudu 


knock nak; ES+nok; [-ed -t [-about -a^baut 


Kootenay, -nai 'kutn^e 


knockdown 'nak,daun; ES-i-'nok- 


kopeck, -pek 'kopek 


knock-knee 'nak^ni; ES + 'nok-; [-d -'nid 


kopje 'kapi; ES + 'kopi 


knockout 'nak^aut; ES + 'nok- 


kor kor, kar; ES koa(r, E-t-kaaCr 


knoll nol |-ed -d [-y -i 


Koran ko'ran, -'raen 


knop nap; ES+nop; [-ped -t [-py -i 


Korea India 'korijO, 'kar-; S 'kor- 


Knossus 'nasas; ES + 'nos-; [-sus' -sas 


Korea Japan ko'ria, ka-; S ko-; [-n -n 


knot nat; ES-t-nnt; [-ted -id [-ty -i 


Korzybski kar'zibski; ES kaa- 


knothole 'natjhol; ES-h'nnt- 


Kosciusko ;kasi'Asko; ES-t-^kos-; mt. -zi- 


Knott nat; ES+not 


kosher 'koJV; ES 'koJa(r 


knout naut [knouted 'nautid 


Kossuth ka'suG, ko- {Hung 'ko/ut) 


know no [knew nju, niu, nu [known non 


kotow ko'tau [-ed -d 


knowledge 'nalidg; ES-t-'nul-; [-s -iz |-d -d 


koumis, -ss, -yss 'kumis 


[-able -abl [-bly -bli 


Koussevitzky jkusa'vitski 


Knowles nolz |-'s -iz 


kowtow kau'tau, ko- [-ed -d 


know-nothing, K-N- 'nOjnA0ig 


Koyukuk ka'jukuk, ko- 


Knox naks; ES+noks; j-'s -iz [-ville -vil; 


kraal kral [kraaled krald 


S + -vl 


kraft kraeft; E+kraft, kraft 


knuckle 'nAkj |-d -d [-ling -klig, -khg 


Kraft, -fft kraft, krjeft 


knucklebone 'nAkl,bon 


Krag krag, kraeg 


Knudsen 'nudsn, 'niudsn, 'njudsn 


Krakatao jkraka'tao 



[full ful jtooth tu6 [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstSa [custom 'kAStam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipm 



Krakow 



246 



lachrymal 



Krakow 'kreko, 'kraekau {Pol 'krakuf) 
Krapotkin city kra'patkin, -'pot- 
kraut kraut 

Kreisler 'kraisla^; ES 'kraisl3(r 
kremlin, K- 'kr£mlin 
Kresge 'kr8sgi, 'kreski 
kreutzer, K-, kreuz- 'kroitsa^; ES 'kr3its3(r 
Kreymborg 'krembarg; ES -baag 
kriegspiel 'krig^spil 
Kriemhild 'krimhild (Ger 'krirmhilt) 
Krimhild 'krimhild 
kris kris |krises 'krisiz 
Krishna 'krijna |-ism -jizam |-ist -ist 
Kriss Kringle 'kris'kriggl 
krona 'krona {Sw 'kruma) \pl -nor -nor 
krone 'krona \Ger pi kronen 'kronan 
krone 'krone \Dan pi kroner 'kroner 
Kropotkin anarchist kra'patkin, -'pot- 
Kruger 'kruga^; ES 'kruga(r 
Krupp krAp, krup (Ger krup) 
Krutch krutj |-'s -iz 
krypton 'kriptan, -ton 
Kshatriya 'kjaetrija 
Kubelik 'kubahk 

Kublai Khan Chin rider 'kublai'kan 
Kubla Kahn poem 'kubla'kan 
kudos 'kjudas, -dos, 'kiu- ]-ed -t 
kudu 'kudu 



Kufic 'kjufik, 'kiu- 

Ku-Klux, Kuklux 'kju^klAks, 'kiu- |-es -iz 

|-ed -t 
kulak ku'Iak |-ism -izam 
kultur 'kultur; ES -tua(r; {Ger kul'tu:r) 
kumiss 'kumis 
kiimmel 'kiml {Ger 'kymal) 
kumquat 'kAmkwat, -kwot 
Kundry 'kundri 

Kuomintang 'kwonun'taeg, 'gwo-, -'tag 
Kurath, Hans 'haens'kjuraeO, -'kiu-, 'hans- 

'kurat 
Kurd kyd, kurd; ES ksd, kyd, kuad 
Kurdistan jkydi'stsn, jkur-, -'stun; ES 

jkad-, jkyd-, jkuad- 
Kure 'kure 

Kuril 'kuril |-ian ku'rilian, -Ijan 
Kurland 'kurland; ES 'kua- 
Kutztovv'n 'kutSjtaun 
Kwangsi 'kwaeg'si, 'gwag- 
Kwangtung China 'kwaeg'tAg, 'gwag'dug 
Kwantung Manchuria 'kwaen'tAg, 'gwan- 

'dug 
Kweichow 'kwe't/au, 'gwe'dso 
Kyd kid 

Kyoto, Kio- 'kjoto 
Kyrie eleison 'kiri^i a'leasn 
Kythera 'kiGara 



L, I letter el \pl L's, Ls, poss L's elz 




laborious la'borias, -'bar-; S -'bor- 


la intj la, la ; music la ; Fr article la 




laborite, L- 'leba^rait 


laager 'catnp' 'laga^; ES 'laga(r; \-ed -d 




labor-saving 'leba- ^sevig ; ES 'leba- 


Laban 'leban 




Labrador 'lasbra^dar; ES -,daa(r 


label 'lebl j-ed -d |-ing 'leblig, 'leblig 




laburnum la'bynam; ES -'bsn-, -'ba^n- 


labellum la'belam |-la -'bela 




labyrinth 'laeba^rmO j-ths -8s 


labial 'lebial |-ly -i 




labyrinthian jiaeba'rineian 


labialize 'lebialjaiz j-s -iz \-d -d 




labyrinthine jlaeba'nnein, -6in 


labiate adj 'lebijct, -but 




lac laek 


labile 'lebl, -bil 




lace les [laces 'lesiz | laced lest 


labium 'lebiam |-bia -bia 




Lacedaemon jlaesa'diman 


labor 'leba^; ES -ba(r; |-ed -d |-ing 


-brig. 


Lacedaemonian ,laesadi'monian, -njan 


-bang 




lacerate 'laesa^ret |-d -id |-tion jlaesa'refan 


laboratory 'laebrajtori, 'laebara-, -bri-. 


-]tari; 


laches 'laetjiz 


S -jtori 




Lachesis 'laekasis |-sis' -sis 


laborer 'lebara^; ES 'lebara(r 




lachrymal 'laekraml 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret Ij^et jet |sang saeg |angr\- 'aeg-gri 
I bath baeG; E baO (§10) iah a [far far | watch watj", wotj" (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards |go go 



lachrymatory 



247 



laminate 



lachrymatory 'laekramajtori, -itari; S -^tori 


lag laeg | lagged laegd 


lachrymose 'laekrajmos 


lager 'cafnp' 'laga-; ES -g3(r; [-ed -d 


laciniate la'sinijet, -it |-ated -jctid 


lager beer 'laga*, 'bga^; ES -g3(r 


lack laek | lacked laekt 


Lagerlof Sw 'Ia:g3rjl0:v 


lackadaisical jlaeka'dezikl |-ly -i, -ikh 


laggard 'laega^d; ES 'lajgad 


lackaday 'laekajde 


lagniappe, -gnap- laen'jaep, 'Isenjaep 


Lackawanna JaekaVana, -'wona 


lagoon la 'gun 


lackey 'laeki j-ed -d 


La Guardia b'gwardia, -'gar-; ES -a:d-. 


lackluster, -tre 'laekjAsta^; ES -t3(r 


E+-a:d-; (// la'gwardja) 


Laconia Is'konia |-n -n 


Lahore b'hor, -'hor; ES -'ho3(r, E+-'h33(r 


laconic, L- b^kaiuk; ES+-'kDn-; |-ally -ji, 


laic 'le-ik |-al -1 |-ally -li, -ikli 


-ikh 


laid past cr pptc of lay led 


lacquer 'laeka^; ES -3(r; |-ed -d j-ing 'laekang. 


lain pptc of He len 


Uaekng 


lair kr, laer; E le3(r, ES laeaCr; |-ed -d 


lacrosse, L- la'kros, -'kros |-'s -iz 


laird lerd, laerd, Sc lerd; E lead, ES laead 


lactate 'laektet |-d -id |-tation laek'tejan 


laissez faire, laisser jlese'fer, -'faer; E -'f£3(r. 


lacteal 'laektial | lactic 'laektik 


ES -'faea(r; {Fr kse'feir) 


lactometer laek'tamata^ ; ES -'tamataCr, -'tom- 


laity 'leati, 'le-iti 


lactone 'laekton |-tose -tos 


La Junta la'hAnta {Am Sp la'hunta) 


lacuna b^kjuns, -'kiu- |-s -z |-nae -ni 


lake lek 


lacustrine b'kAstrm 


Lalla Rooldi 'lala'nik, Brit 'laeb'ruk 


lacy 'lesi 


L'Allegro la'legro {It lal'le:gro) 


lad laed | laddie Uaedi 


lam laem |-med -d 


ladder 'laeda-; ES -daCr; j-ed -d |-ing -dang, 


lama 'lama 


-drig 


Lamar b'mar; ES la'ma:(r, E + -'ma:(r 


lade led \past -d -id \ppic -d -id or laden 'ledn 


Lamarck la'mark; ES -'ma:k, E+-'ma:k; 


laden v 'ledn |-ed -d |-ing 'lednig, Uednig 


|-ian -lan {Fr la'mark) 


ladle 'ledl |-d -d |-ling 'ledlig, Uedlig 


lamasery 'lamajS£ri 


Ladoga Finl Uadoga, US places la'doga 


lamb laem [lambed laemd | lambing 'laemig 


ladrone b'dron, Sc 'laedran 


lambaste laem'best |-d -id 


lady Uedi | ladies, ladies', lady's 'lediz 


lambda 'laemda 


ladybird 'ledi^b^d; ES -ibsd, -^byd 


lambency 'laembansi |-bent -bant 


ladybug UedijbAg 


Lambeth 'laembiO, -baO, -beO 


ladyfinger Uedi^figga^; ES -g3(r 


lambkin 'laemkin 


lady-killer 'ledijkila^; ES -l9(r 


lamblike 'laemjlaik 


ladyhke Uedi^laik 


lambrekin 'laemba^jkin, 'laembra-; ES 'laem- 


ladylove UedijUv 


ba-, -bra- 


ladyship 'ledi,Jip 


lambskin 'laem^skin 


lady-slipper 'ledi^slipa^; ES -p3(r 


lame lem | lamed lemd 


lady's-slipper Uediz,sbp3^; ES -p3(r 


Lamech 'lemak, -mek 


Laertes li'ytiz, le-; ES -'stiz, -'s^tiz; |-tes' -tiz 


lamella b'mela j-s -z |-lae -'meli 


La Farge Wiai's, commonly Anglic, la'fards; 


lament la'ment |-ed -id 


ES -'fa:-, E + -'fa:-; |-'s -iz 


lamentable 'laemantabl |-bly -bli 


Lafayette Fr general Jafi'tt {Fr lafa'JEt), US 


lamentation ilaeman'tejan 


places pron. variously jlaefi'(j)£t, jlefi'(i)£t. 


La Mesa b'mesa |Lamesa la'mlsa 


b'fe(j)it 


Lamia poem 'lemia; Gk town b'mia, 'lemia 


Lafeu, Shak. Lafew b'fju, -'fiu 


lamina 'lamana |-s -z 1-nae -jnl |-nar -na^; ES 


La Follette b'falit; ES + -'fDl- 


-n3(r 


La Fontaine lafan'ten, -fon- {Fr lafo'ten) 


laminate adj 'laemanit, -,net 



[full ful I tooth tuG [further 'fySa^; ES 'fstSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan jEden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipip 



laminate 



248 



Laplace 



laminate v 'laemajnet \-d -id |-tion ^laema- 


Landseer 'laendsir, 'laen-; ES -si3(r 


'nejan 


Land's End 'laendz'end, 'laenz- 


Lammas Uaemas |-tide -jtaid 


landskip arck. 'landscape' 'laendskip 


Lammermoor 'laema^iinur; ES 'laema^muaCr; 


landslide 'laend, slaid, 'Isen- 


(Sc jlamar'muir) 


landslip 'laend^shp, 'laen- 


Lammermuir 'laema^jinjur, -jiniur; ES 'laema- 


landsman 'laendzman, 'laenz- j-men -man 


jmju3(r, -jmiU3(r; (5c jlamar'mjuir) 


landward 'laend wa^d; ES 'laend wad; |-s -z 


Lamont b'mant; ES + -'inDnt 


lane len 


lamp laemp | lamped laempt 


Lanett b'nst 


lampad 'laempaed 


Lanfranc 'laenfraegk 


lampblack 'laemp^blaek |-ed -t 


Langlade 'liegled {Fr la'glad) 


lamplight 'laempjlait |-er -a^; ES -3(r 


Langland 'laegbnd 


Lampman 'laempman 


Langley 'laegh 


lampoon laem'pun |-ed -d 


Langmuir 'laegmjur, -miur; ES -afr 


lamppost 'laemp/post 


langsyne 'laeg'sain, in the song cjtcn -'zain 


Lamprecht 'laemprekt {Ger 'lamprExt) 


Langtree, -try 'laegtri 


lamprey 'laempri 


language 'laeggwids |-s -iz |-d -d 


Lanark 'laena^k; ES 'laenak; |-shire -Jir, -/a^; 


langue d'oc, L- Fr lag'dak 


ES -i/i3(r, -S3(r 


langue d'oil Fr lag'dail, -'db:j 


Lancashire 'laegkaj/ir, -JV; ES -;Ji3(r, -X3(r 


languid 'laeggwid 


Lancaster Engd 'laegkasta^ ; ES -t3(r; US 


languish 'laeggwij |-es -iz |-ed -t 


places variously 'laegkasta^, Uaeijikaesta^, 


languor 'laegga^; ES 'laegga(r; |-ous -as, -gras 


'laenjkaesta' ; ES -t3(r 


laniard 'laenja^d; ES 'laenjad 


Lancastrian laso'kaestrian 


Lanier b'nir; ES -'nia(r 


lance laens; E+lans, lans; j-s -iz |-d -t 


lank laegk |-ily 'laegkli, -ili 


Lancelot 'lasnsabt, 'Ian-, -Jat; ES+'^lot 


lanolin 'laenalin |-line -lin, -,lin 


lanceolate 'laensialit, -Jet 


Lansdowne 'laenzdaun 


Lanes short for Lancashire laegks 


Lansing 'laensig 


land laend landed 'laendid 


lantern 'laenta^n; ES 'laentan 


landau 'laendD 


lanthanum 'laenOanam 


landfall 'lasnd.fal, 'la;n- 


lanthorn arch. sp. 0/ lantern 'laenta^n; ES -tan 


land-grant 'lajndjgrtent, Uaen-; E+-jgrant, 


lanyard 'laenja-d; ES 'laenjad 


-jgrant 


Laocoon le'akajwan, -,WDn, -ko,an, -jon; 


landgrave 'laend, grev, 'laen- 


ES + -'Dk- 


landgravine 'laendgr3,vin, 'laen- 


Laodamia Jeoda'maia 


landholder 'laend jholda^; ES -^holdaCr 


Laodicea Jeada'sb, ,leo-, le,ada'sio; ES+ 


landlady 'l^endjedi, 'laen- 


-,Dd-; |-n -n 


landless 'laendhs 


Laomedon le'ama,dan, -'omajdon, -dan 


landlocked 'laendjakt; ES + -,lDkt 


lap laep | lapped laept 


landlord 'laend ,brd, 'lajn-; ES -jbad 


La Paz b'pas {Am Sp la'pas) 


landlubber 'laend jUba^; ES -jUbaCr 


lapboard 'laep,bord, -jbard; ES -jboad. 


landmark 'laend ,mark, 'laen-; ES -;ma:k, 


E + -,baad 


E+-jma:k 


lapel b'pel |lapelled b'peld 


land-office 'laendpfis, -^nfis, -^afis |-s -iz 


lapful 'laepjful j-s -z 


Landor 'laenda^, -dor; ES -d3(r, -d33(r 


lapidary 'laepajden 


landowner 'laendjona^; ES -j0n3(r 


lapin 'laepin {Fr la 'pa) 


land-poor 'laend 'pur, 'laen-; ES -'pu3(r. 


lapis lazuh 'laepis'laezjajlai, -ju- 


-'po3(r, -'p33(r 


Lapithe 'laepijOi 


landscape 'laenskep, 'laend- |-d -t 


Laplace b'plaes, lae- |-'s -iz {Fr la'plas) 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet J£t [sang s«g langr>' 'ieg-gri 
|bath baeG; E baO (§10) |ah a [far far |watch wat/, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



La Place 



249 



Latrobe 



Words below in which a before r (farm) is sounded a are often pronounced in E with a (fa:in) 
Words below that have se before r (carry 'kaeriX.are often pronounced in N with e ('ken, §94) 



La Place la 'pies |-'s -iz 


Las Casas las'kasas (Sp las'kasas) 


Lapland 'laep^laend 


Lascelles 'laeslz, b'selz |-'s -iz (Lassells 1574) 


Laplander 'laepilaenda', -bnda'; ES -daCr 


lascivious la'sivias, lae- 


La Plata b'plata (Sp la'plata) 


Las Cruces las'krusis (Am Sp las'kruses) 


Lapp lap 


lash laef [lashes 'lae/iz [lashed laeft 


lappet 'laepit |-ed -id 


lass laes [lasses 'laesiz [lassie 'laesi 


lapse laeps [lapses 'laepsiz [lapsed laepst 


lassitude 'laes3itjud, -jtiud, -^tud 


lapsus linguae 'laepsas'liggwi 


lasso 'laeso, older lae'su [-ed -d 


Laputa b'pjuta, -'pm- |-tan -tn 


last n, adj, v laest; E+last, last; [-ed -id — bef. 


lapwing 'laepjWig 


conss. often laes ('laes'nait) 


lar lar; ES la:(r; \Latin pi lares 'leriz \Eng pi 


Las Vegas las'vegas [-'s -iz 


lars -z 


latch laetj [latches 'laet/iz [latched laetjt 


Laramie 'laerami 


latchet 'laet/it 


larboard 'larba^d, -jbord, -jbord; ES 'laibad. 


latchkey 'laet/^ki 


-jboad, E+-jb33d 


latchstring 'laet/jstrig, -ijtrig 


larcener 'larsna^; ES 'la:sn3(r; j-cenous -snas 


late let 


|-ceny -sni 


lateen lae'tin 


larch lart/; ES laitj; j-es -iz 


latency 'letnsi [-tent -tnt 


lard lard; ES la:d; |-ed -id 


lateral 'laetaral |-ly -i 


larder 'lorda-; ES 'la:d3(r 


Lateran 'laetaran 


Lardner 'lardna^; ES 'la:dn3(r 


latex 'leteks [-es -iz [latices 'laetajslz 


Laredo b'redo, la-, -'ri- 


lath n laeO; E+laG, laO; [ths -3z, -Gs 


lares L pi of lar 'leriz 


lath V laeO; E+laG, laG; [-ths -Gs |-ed -t 


large lards; ES la:d5 


Lathbury 'laeG^beri, -ban 


large-hearted 'lards'hartid; ES 'lards'hartid 


lathe leti |-thes -tJz 


large-scale 'lards'skel; ES 'la:d3-; ('large- 


lather 'one who latJts' 'laeGa^; ES 'laeGa(r, 


-scale 'buying) 


E + 'laG-, 'laG- 


largess, -sse 'lardsis; ES 'lardsis; j-es, -s -iz 


lather 'lathe-worker' 'letSa^; ES 'letJa(r 


larghetto lor'geto; ES la:-; {It lar'getto) 


lather foatn' 'laeSa^; ES 'lae?a(r; |-ed -d |-ing 


largo 'largo; ES 'la:go 


'laetSarig, 'laetirig 


lariat n 'laeriat 


Lathrop 'leGrap 


lariat v 'laerijaet |-ed -id 


lathwork 'laeGjWyk; ES -jwsk, -jwyk, E-i- 


lark lark; ES la:k; |-ed -t 


'laG-, 'laO- 


larkspur 'larkjspy; ES 'la:kjsp3(r, -jspy 


lathy 'like a lath' 'laeGi; E + 'laGi, 'laGi 


Lamed 'lamid; ES 'la:nid 


Latimer 'laetama^; ES 'laetama(r 


larrikin 'laerajkin 


Latin 'laetn, 'laetin |-ed -d [-ism -jizam [-ist 


larrup 'laerap [larruped 'laerapt 


-ISt 


Lars Porsena 'larz'porsina ; ES 'laiz'paasina 


Latinity lae'tmati 


Lartius 'larjias, -/as; ES 'la:/-; |-'s -iz 


Latinize 'laetrijaiz, -tiiijaiz |-s -iz [-d -d 


larum 'laeram, 'leram; S 'laeram 


latish 'letij 


larva 'larva; ES 'la:v3; |-vae -vi l-val -vl 


latitude 'laetajtjud, -^tiud, -;tud 


laryngeal la'rmdsial [-gitis jlienn'dsaitis 


latitudinarian jlaetajtjudn'Enan, -jtiud-. 


laryngology Jaerig'galadsi; ES+-'gDl- 


-;tud-, -'er- 


laryngoscope la'riggajskop 


Latium 'le/iam 


larynx 'laerigks |-es -iz [larjoiges b^nndsiz 


Latona la'tona, le- 


La Salle la'sael (Fr la'sal) 


latrine la'trin 


lascar, L- 'laska^; ES 'IteskaCr 


Latrobe la'trob 



[full ful [tooth tuO [further 'fytS*; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tDi 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish di/Jvision 'vi3an [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipiji 



latron 



250 



leadsman 



latron Uetran 


lavender 'Isevanda-; ES -da(r 




latten 'laetn 


Lavengro la'vEggro, lae- 




latter 'laeta-; ES 1aet3(r; [-ly -li 


laver 'leva^; ES 'levaCr 




lattice 'laetis |-s -iz |-d -t 


Lavinia la'vinia, -nja 




latticework 'laetiSjwyk; ES -jWak, -^wyk 


lavish 'laevi/ j-es -iz j-ed -t 




Latvia 'laetvia \-n -n 


law b |lawed bd |-ful -fal [-fully -fal 


I 


laud, L- bd 1 lauded Uadid 


law-abiding 'ba/baidig 




laudability jbda'bibti 


lawbreaker 'bjbreka^; ES -jbreka(r 




laudable 'bdabl j-bly -bli 


lawgiver 'b^giva^; ES -jgiva(r 




laudanum 'bdnam, ^bdnsm 


lawmaker 'b^meka^; ES -^mekaCr 




laudation b'de/an 


lawmaking 'b^mekig 




laudatory 'bdajton, -jtDri; S -^ton 


lawn bn |lawned land 




Lauder Uoda^; ES 'bd3(r; |-derdale -jdel 


Lawrence, -ance 'brans, 'lar-, 'lor- | 


-'S -IZ 


laugh laef ; E laf, laef, laf ; |-ed -t 


lawsuit 'bjsut, -^siut, -,sjut 




laughable 'laefabl |-b]y -bli; E see laugh 


lawyer 'bja^; ES 'bjaCr 




laughingstock 'laefiOiStak; ES+-jStDk, E see 


lax laeks |laxes 'laeksiz 




laugh 


laxative 'lasksativ | laxity 'laeksati 




Laughlin 'Isflin, 'laf-, 'lak-, 'lax-; ES + 'b-, 


lay past of lie le 




E + 'la- 


lay V le [laid led 




laughter 'laefta'; ES -t3(r, E see laugh 


lay n, adj le 




Launce bns. Inns, lans |-'s -iz 


Layamon 'leaman, 'iajaman 




Launcelot 'bnsabt, 'Ion-, 'Ian-, -Jat; ES + 


layer 'lea^, kr; ES 'le-aCr, lea(r; |-ed 


-d 


-Jot 


layette le'et 




Launceston Tastn 'bn^sestan, 'Ian-; Cornw 


layman, L- 'leman [laymen -man 




'bnstan, loc. 'Ian-, 'bn-, -sn 


layoff 'lepf, -.of 




launch bntj", lontj, lantj" |-es -iz j-ed -t 


layout 'le^aut 




launder 'bnda^, 'Ion-, 'Ian-; ES -da(r; |-ed -d 


layover 'lejova^; ES -jovacr 




|-ing -drig, -darig 


lazar 'leza^; ES -za(r; — The a in lazar li'as 


laundress 'bndris, 'Ion-, 'Ian- ]-es -iz 


lengthened after the word 2vas shortened frcm 


laundry 'bndri, 'Inn-, 'Ian-; NEfigd+^\an-; 


Lazarus. 




1 -dried -drid 


lazaret, -tte Jaeza'ret |-retto -'reto 




Laura 'bra 


Lazarus 'laezaras, -zras |-'s -iz 




laureate n 'brut [-ship -jj"ip 


laze lez | lazes 'leziz | lazed lezd 




laureate v 'bri^et |-d -id 


lazy 'lezi | -bones -;bonz 




laurel 'bral, 'lar-, 'lor- j-ed -d 


lazzarone Jaeza'rone \pl -ni -nl {It 


Jaddza- 


Laurence 'brans, 'lar-, 'lor- |-'s -iz 


'rome) 




Laurens 'brans, 'lar-, 'Inr-, -anz j-'s -iz 


lea, L- li 




Laurentian b'ren/ian, -Jan, la-, lo- 


leach, L- lit/ | leaches 'lit/iz | leached 


Ht/t 


Laurie 'bri, 'lor- 


Leacock 'lijkak, 'le-; ES+-jkok 




Laurier 'bna^, 'lar-, 'Inr-; ES -i-aCr; C states- 


lead n, v lid [led kd 




man 'brijC, 'lar-, 'Inr- 


lead metal kd | leaded 'kdid 




Lausanne lo'zaen {Fr lo'zan) 


Lead lid 




lava 'lava, 'laeva 


leaden v, adj 'kdn |-ed -d |-ing 


'kdnig. 


lavabo, L- la'vebo 


'kdnig 




Lavache la'vaetj |-'s -iz, in Shak. Lavatch 


leader 'guide' 'lida^; ES 'lida(r 




lavaliere, -ier Jaeva'lir; ES -'lia(r; (Fr lava- 


leader Head-worker^ 'kd*; ES 'kdaCr 




'lie:r) 


leadoff 'lidpf, -ioi 




lavatory 'laeva jtori, -/tan; S -jtori 


lead-pencil 'kd'pensl, -iPtnsl 




lave lev ] laved levd 


leadsman 'kdzman |-men -man 





Key: See in full §§3^7. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret |yet jet |sang saeg langrj- 'aeg-gn 
]bath baeG; E baG (§10) |ah a |far far [watch watj, wotj (§12) |jaw dsa [gorge gards [go go 



Leadville 



251 



legatee 



Leadville 'ledvil 


leazing 'falsehood' Uizig 


leaf n lif | leaf's lifs [leaves livz 


Lebanon 'kbanan 


leaf V lif 1 leafs lifs 1-ed -t — c/ leave v 


Le Beau la 'bo, in Shakespeare's day b'biu 


leafage 'lifids |-s -iz 


Lebrun Fr b'brce 


leaflet 'liflit 


lecher, L- 'ktJV; ES 'kt/aCr; |-ous -as, -t/ras 


leafy 'lif i — cf leavy 


l-y -I, -t/n 


league lig [leagued ligd 


lecithin 'ksa6m 


leaguer 'liga^; ES -g3(r; |-ed -d |-ing -gang. 


Lecky 'kki 


-griO 


Le Conte li'kant; ES+-'kDnt 


Leah 'lia 


lectern 'kkta^n; ES 'kktan 


Leahy Am diplomat Uci, 'lehi 


lection 'kk/an j-ary -,eTi 


leak lik [leaked likt [leaky 'llki [-age -ids 


lector 'kkta-; ES 'kkta(r 


leal lil 


lecture 'kkt/sr; ES -t/aCr; [-d -d [-ring 'kk- 


Leamington 'kmigtan, cf Lemington 


t/arig, 'kktjng 


lean lin [leaned lind or leant knt 


lectureship 'kkt/a^j/ip; ES 'kktja- 


Leander li'aenda^; ES -'aendaCr 


led past &' pptc of lead kd 


leanness 'linnis 


Leda 'lida 


leant past 6" pptc of lean lent 


ledger 'kdga^; ES -dsaCr; [-ed -d |-ing 


lean-to 'lin^tu 


'kdsang, 'kdsrig 


leap lip [leaped lipt, kpt or leapt lept, lipt 


Ledyard 'kdja^d; ES 'kdjad 


leapfrog 'lip ^f rag, -ifrog, -jfrog; S -ifrog. 


lee, L- li 


-jfrag, -ifrng; [ged -d 


leeboard 'liibord, -jbard; ES -^boad, E + 


leapt past b' pptc of leap kpt, lipt 


-jbaad 


Lear lir; ES li3(r, S+k3(r 


leech 'lit/ [leeches 'lit/iz [leeched litjt 


learn lyn; ES bn, lyn; [-ed -d, -t or -t -t 


Leeds lidz [Leeds's 'lidziz 


learned past df pptc lynd, Is'nt; ES bn-, lyn-; 


leek, L- lik 


adj -ned -nid 


leer lir; ES lia(r, S-j-ka(r; [-ed -d 


learnt past &° pptc of learn l^nt; ES bnt, lynt 


lees liz 


lease 'rent' lis [-s -iz j-d -t 


leese 'lose' {1611 Bible) liz 


lease 'tell a lie' 'liz j-s -iz j-d -d 


leet lit 


leasehold 'lisjhold 


leeward 'liwa^d, nazit. 'lua-d, 'liua^d; ES 'liwad. 


leash lij [leashes 'li/iz [leashed li/t 


'lu-ad, 'liu-ad 


leasing 'falsehood' 'lizig 


Leeward Islands 'liwa^d'ailandz, -lanz; ES 


least list 


Uiwad- 


leastways 'list^wez [leastwise 'list^waiz 


leeway 'li^we 


leather 'letJa^; ES 'ktSaCr; [-n -n [-y -i, -tJri 


leeze 'lose' liz = leese 


leatherette, L- JetJaVet [-roid 'ktSa^raid 


Lefevre la'fiva^; ES -'fiva(r 


leave n liv, dial, b' Brit army+IH 


left kft 


leave 'to leaf liv [leaved livd 


left-hand 'kft'haend ('left-^hand 'turn) 


leave 'depart' liv [left kft 


left-handed 'kft'haendid 


leaved adj livd 


leg kg [legged v kgd 


leaven 'kvan [-ed -d |-ing 'kvanii), -vnig 


legacy 'kgasi 


Leavenworth 'kvanwa'O, -jwy0; ES -waO, 


legal 'ligl [-ly -i [-ism -^izam [-ist -ist 


-jW36, -iWyO 


legalistic ^ligl'istik [-ally -li, -ikli 


leaves pi of leaf b' leave w, J sg of leave j; livz 


legality li'gaelati 


leave-taking Uivjtekig 


legalization jligja'ze/an, -ai'z- 


Leavit, -tt Uevit 


legalize 'ligl^aiz |-s -iz |-d -d 


leavy Uivi 


legate 'kgit 


leaze 'fell a lie' liz j-s -iz |-d -d 


legatee jkga'ti 



[full ful [tooth tu6 [further 'fytSa^; ES 'fsSa [custom 'kAstam [while hwail [how hau [toy tai 
[using 'juzig [fuse fjuz, fiuz [dish dij [vision 'visan [Eden 'idn [cradle 'kredl [keep 'em 'kipiji 



legatine 



252 



Leonatus 



legatine Uegatin, -jtain 

legation li'ge/an 

legato li'gato {It le'garto) 

legend 'ledsand |-ary -fin 

Leger Uedsa'; ES 'kdsaCr 

legerdemain jEdsa^^di'men; ES jl£d33- 

legged past of leg z^ kgd, adj 'legid, legd 

leggings 'legigz |leggins 'kginz 

leghorn 'kga^n, 'legjhorn; ES 'legan, -^liDan 

Leghorn Italy 'kgjhorn; ES -jhaan; fowl 

'kga^n, -jharn; ES 'legan, -^haan 
legibility jledsa'bilati 
legible 'l£d53bl |-bly -bli 
legion 'lidsan |-ary -^n 
legionnaire Jidgan'er, -W; E -'eaCr, ES 

-'ae3(r 
legislate 'kdsisjet |-d -id |-lative -jletiv 
legislation jledsisUe/an 
legislator 'kdgiSjleta'; ES -Jet3(r 
legislature 'kdsis^letja^; ES -jletJaCr 
legist 'lid3ist 

legitimate adj li'dsitamit ]-macy -masi 
legitimate v Ii'd3it3jm3t ]-d -id 
legitimist Ii^d3it3mist |-matist -'d3it3m3tist 
legitimize Ii'd3it3jmaiz |-s -iz |-d -d 
leg-of-mutton adj 'kga^mAtn, 'kgav- 
Legree li'gri 

legume 'kgjum, li'gjum, -'gium 
legumen li^gjuman, k-, -'giu- |-s -z |-mina 

-mina 
legumin li'gjumin, k-, -'giumin |-ous -as 
Le Havre France la'hava', -'havra; ES 

-'hav3(r, -'havra; {Fr Wa:\x) 
Lehigh 'lihai 
Lehman Uimsn, ^leman 
lehua li^hua 
lei k, 'k'l 
Leibnitz 'laibnits |-'s -iz {Ger Leibniz 

Uaipnits) 
Leica 'kika 
Leicester 'ksta^; ES 'kst3(r; |-sliire -//ir, -JV; 

ES - Ji3(r, -/3(r 
Leiden 'laidn 
Leif Ericson 'lif'Eriksn 
Leigh pers. name li; places li, lai 
Leila 'lib 

Leinster 'knsta^; ES 'knst3(r 
Leipsic Uaipsik, 'lipsik 
Leipzig 'laipsig, -sik {Ger 'laiptsix) 



leisure '1133', now less freq. 'ks^-; ES -33fr; 

l-d-d 
Leitch litj" |-'s -iz 
Leith lie 

leitmotiv, -tif 'laitmOjtif 
Leland 'liland 
LeHa 'lilia, -Ija 
leman 'kman 
Leman lake 'liman 
Lemington 'kmigtan, cf Leamington 
lemma 'kma |-s -z |-mata -ta 
lemming 'kmiij 
lemon 'leman |-ade Jeman'ed 
Lemuel 'kmjual 
lemur 'lima'; ES 'lim3(r 
Lena 'lina 

Lenawee 'knawi, -jwi 
lend lend |lent lent 
L'Enfant 'lanfant {Fr la'fa) 
length krjke, legO j-ths -Gs |-thy -i 
lengthen 'legkOan, 'legOan |-ed -d [-ing 

-Banig, -Gnig 
lengthways 'legkGjwez, 'kg6- |-wise -jwaiz 
lenience 'linians, -njans |-cy -i |-ent -ant 
Lenin 'knin |-grad -igrsed, -jgrad 
lenitive 'knativ |-ty 'knati 
Lennox 'lenaks |-'s -iz 
Lenoir US places la 'nor, -'nar; ES -'noa(r, 

E-f--'naa(r 
Lenoir, Etienne Fr e'tjen la'nwarr 
Lenore la 'nor, -'nar; ES -'noa(r, E + -'naa(r 
lens lenz | lenses 'knziz |lensed knzd 
lent lent 

Lent lent | Lenten 'kntan 
lenticular kn'tikjala^; ES -la(r 
lentigo kn'taigo |lentigines kn'tid3ajniz 
lentil 'kntl, -til 
lento It 'lento 

I'envoi, -voy 'knvai, knVai (Fr la'vwa) 
Leo 'lio 
Leominster Mass 'kminstcy, Engd 'kmst», 

'kmin-; ES -sta(r 
Leon US places 'lian, PI le'on 
Leonard 'lena^d; ES 'lenad 
Leonardo Jia'nardo; ES -'na:do 
Leonardo da Vinci /lia'nardo da'\intXi; ES 

-'na:do; {It Jeo'nardo do'vintji) 
Leonato jlia'nato 
Leonatus ^lia'netas |-'s -iz 



Key: See in full §§3-47. bee bi |pity 'piti (§6) |rate ret \\tt jet jsang saeg |angr},' 'aeg-gn 
|bath bae6; E bae (§10) |ah a |far far jwatch watj, wot/ (§12) |jaw dsa |gorge gards |go go 



Leonid 



253 



lexical 



Leonid 'lisnid 


Lethe 'Uei, 'liOi |-d -d |-thied -Bid 




Leonidas li'anadas; ES+-'Dn-; |-'s -iz 


Lethean li'Gian 




leonine, L- 'lisinain 


Letitia Ii'ti/ia, -/a 




Leonora jlia'nora, -'nora; S -'nora 


Leto 'lito 




Leontes li^antiz, -'ontiz 


let's kts, ks 




leopard 'kpa^d; ES 'lepad; |-ess -is 


let's see kts'si, kt'si {originally let sec 


) 


Leopold 'li3ipold, older 'kpld 


Lett kt 




Lepanto li'paento 


letter 'kta^; ES ^kta(r; |-ed -d 




leper 'kpa^; ES 'kpoCr; |-ed -d 


letterhead 'kta^^ed; ES 'kta- 




lepidopterous Jepa'daptaras, -tras; ES + 


letter-perfect 'kta^'pyfikt; ES 'kta'psf-. 


-'dnp- 


-'ps^f- 




Lepidus 'kpidas |-'s -iz 


letterpress 'kta'jpres; ES 'kta- 




leprechaun 'kprajkan 


Lettice 'ktis |-'s -iz 




leprosy 'kprasi |leprous 'kpras 


Lettish 'ktiX 




Lesbian 'kzbian 


lettuce 'ktis, -as |-s -iz 




Lesbos 'kzbas, -bas; ES+-bns 


letup 'ktjAp 




lese majesty 'liz'maedsisti 


leucocyte 'luka^sait, 'liuka- 




lesion 'lisan 


leucorrhea, -rhoea Juka'ria, jliuka- 




Leslie 'ksli 


leud lud, hud [-s -z |-es -iz 




less ks 1 lesser 'ksa^; ES 'ks3(r 


Leutner 'bitna^; ES 'bitnaCr 




-less unstressed suffix -lis, -las. The pronun- 


Levant laVaent 




ciation -ks is not normal to conversational 


Levantine laVaentin, 'kvanjtain 




style, hut occurs occasionally in deliberate 


levator laVeta^; ES -Veta(r; |-tores 


ikva- 


reading style, especially in rime. In the 


'toriz 




vocab. only the pron. -lis is given, hut it is 


levee 'hank'' 'kvi |-d -d, 'reception' +\3 


'vi 


to be understood that many speakers (feiver 


level 'kvl, older b' still occas. 'kvil 


l-iy -I 


in the E and S) also pronounce -las as in 


|-ed -d |-ing 'kvlig, -vlii) 




stylus 'stailas. In the vocabulary the ending 


levelheaded 'kvl'hedid ('level-headed 


move) 


-less is usually not given. WJten -less is 


lever 'kva^, 'liva^; E -va(r; S 'llva(r, ' 


l£va(r; 


added to words ending in -1 or -1, tivo 1 


|-ed -d |-ing -varig, -vrig |-age -ids. 


-vnds 


sounds are pronounced, as in soulless 'soUis, 


Levi 'livai 




bridleless 'braidllis. Cf -ness. 


leviable 'kviabl 




lessee ks'i 


leviathan, L- laVaiaGan 




lessen 'ksn |-ed -d |-ing ^ksnii), 'ksnig 


levigate 'kvajget |-d -id 




Lesseps 'ksaps |-'s -iz {Fr k'seps) 


levin 'kvin 




Lessing 'ksiij 


Levis 'livis {Fr le'vi) 




lesson 'ksn |-ed -d |-ing 'ksnig, 'ksniij 


levitate 'kvajtet |-d -id |-tion ^kva'tej 


a