(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal"

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 



8 

5 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 






JOURNAL 



OF THS 



ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL, 



EDITED BY 



THE SECEETAEIES. 



VOL. XXXIII. 

^ I- "TO ^' ^^^^ * Supplementary No. and 




«« It. -wrill flourish, if nataralists, chemists, anfciqnaries, philologers, and n 

itf*i»oe in different parts of Asia, will commit their obserirations to writi 

w^ manA tbern to the Asiatic Society at Calcutta. It will languish if s 

^'^^^ nuications shall be long intermitted : and it will die away, if they si 



CALCUTTA : 

PRINTBD BY C. B. LEWIS, BAPTIST MISSION PRBS8. 

1865. 



Digitized byCjOOQlC 



AA^V'^n 






Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



CONTENTS. 



No. 293. 
(Pablislied 2701 April, 1864) 



Page 



On the history o! the Burmah Race. — By Lieut.-Colonel A. 

Phaulb, C. B., Chief Oommissioner of British Barmah, ... 1 
Account of further intercourse with the Natives of the Ayido-man 

Islands, ... ... ... ... ... ... 31 

Note on the Bactro-Pali Inscription from Taxila. — ^By Major- 

Oeneral A. Cunningham,... ... ... 86 

Semarks on the " Lake of Clear Water" in the District of 

Baasein, British Burmah.— By E. O^Rilbt, Esq. F. G. 8., 

Deputy Commissioner, Bassein, ... ... ... 39 

Extract from a Report on the Dependency of Bustar.— By Capt. 

C. Glasvusd, Deputy Commr. of the Upper Godavery 

Districts, ... ... ... .. 44 

Enumeration of the Hot Springs of India and High Asia. — By 

ROBSHT DB SCHLAOIRTWBIT, Esq., ... ^. ... 49 

Memorandum upon some ancient Tiles obtained at Fugiin in 
Burma. — By Lt.-Col. A. P. Phaybb, ... 57 

Literary Intelligence, Correspondence, <fec., ... ... 59 

Proceedings of the Asiatic Society for the months of November 
and December^ 1863 and Januaiy and February, 1864, ... 61 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions taken at the Surveyor OeneralV •Office, Calcutta, for 
the months of August, September, October, November and ... 
December, 1863, ... ... ... ... ... i 



No. 294. 
(Pabliahed 20th Jnne, 1864.) 

An Account of Upper Kash-kar, and Chitrdl, or Lower Kash-kar, 
together with the Independent Afghan State of Panj-korah, 
including Tal-dsh.— By Capt. H. G. Ravbrty, 3rd Regt., 
Bombay, N. I.,... ... ... ... 125 

On the System employed in Outlining the Figures of Deities and 
other Religious Drawings, as practised in Ladak, Zaskar, <&c. 
—By Capt. H. H. Godwin Austbn, F. R. G. S., .. ... 161 

Note on a tank Section at Sealdah, Calcutta.— By H. F. Blan- 
fOEj), Esq., A. R, S. M., F. G. S 154 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



tr CorUenU. 

Page 
Memorandum on the life-sized Stataes lately exhumed inside the 
Palace of Delhi.— By C. Campbell, Esq., C. E., ... ... 159 

Memoranda relative to three Andamanesc in the charge of Major 
Tickell, when Deputy Commissioner of Amherst, Tenasserim 

in 1861.— By Lt.-Col. S. R. Tickkll, ... 162 

On the Ruins of Buddha Oaya. — ^By Bahu Ra'jendrala'la 
MiTBA, ... ... ... ... ... ... 173 

Description of a new species of Paradoxxirus from the Andaman 

Islands.— By Lt.-Col. R. C. Tytlbr, ... 188 

Extract from Journal of a Trip to Bhamo. By Dr. C. Williams, 189 
Note on the Gibbon (Hylobates lar), of Tenasserim, — ^By Lt.-Col. 

S. R. TiCKBLL, ... ... .•. ... ... 196 

Literary Litelligence, ... ... ... 199 

Proceedings of the Asiatic Society for the taonths of March, 
April and May, 1864, ... ... ... ... 210 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions taken at the Surveyor GeneraVs Office, Calcutta, for the 
months of January, Februaiy and March, 1864, i 



No. 295. 
(PtibliBhed 13th September, 1864.) 

Remarks on the date of the Pehewa Inscription of Raja Bho- 
ja. — By Major-General A. Cunningham,... ... ... 223 

Extract h:om a letter from Major-Genend Cunningham, dated 
Nynee TM, 24th May, 1864, 229 

Note on the Fossils in the Society's Collection reputed to be 
from Spiti.— By T. Oldham, Esq., F. R. S., <fec. (fee, ... 232 

Notes on the variation of some Indian and Burmese Helicidaa, 
with an attempt at their re-arrangement, together with de- 
scriptions of new Burmese Gasteropoda. —By W. Theobald, 
Esq., Junior, ... ... ... ... 288 

On Ancient Indian Weights. — By E. Thomas, Esq., ... 251 

On the Language of the Si-ah-po«7t Kdfirs, with a short list of 
words ; to which are added specimens of Kohistini, and 
other dialects spoken on the northern border of Afghanistan, 
&c. — By Captain H. G. Ravkrty, 3rd Regiment, Bombay 
N.L, 267 

Some Persian Inscriptions found in Srinagar, Kashmir. — By 
the late Rev. I, LoEWEfiTHAL,... ,. ... ... 278 

On the Vegetation of the Jhelum District of the Punjab. — By 
J. E. TiERNEY AiTcmsoN, Esq., M. D., F. R. C. S., F. L. S., 
Assistant Surgeon, Bengal Army, &c., &c., ... 290 

On a Land Grant of Mahendrapala Deva of Kanauj. — By Baba 
Ra'jendrala'la Mitra, ... ... ,. ... 321 

Literary Intelligence, ... .*. ... 832 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



GorUenti^ v 

Page 
Proceedings of the Asiatic Society for the month of June, 1864, 336 
Abstract of the Meteorological Obserrations taken at Gangaroo- 
wa, near Kandy^ Ceylon, in July and Angost, 1863, •.. i 



No. 296. 
(Pttblisbed 19th December, 1864.) 

On the application of the Characters of the Roman Alphabet to 
Oriental Languages. — By Capt. W. Nassau Lbbs, 346 

On the Boddhist Remains of Soltanganj. — By Babn Ra'jbndra- 
LA'LA MlTBA, ... ... ... ... ... 360 

Notes on the Didnncnlus Strigirostris, or Tooth-Billed Pigeon of 
the Navigator Islands — the nearest living Ally to the extinct 
Dodo. — Communicated By Sir W. Dbnison, ... ... 373 

Memorandum on the Elephant Statues in the Delhi Palace. — 
By Col. J. Abbott, ... ... ... ... ..; 375 

Observations on the Geological features, (fee, of the Country in 
the neighbourhood of Bunnoo and the Sanatorium of Shaikh 
Boodeen. — ^By C. P. Costxllo, Esq., Assistant Surgeon, 6th 
Punjab Infantry, ... ... ... 378 

Extract from Report of the operations of the Great Trigonome- 
trical Survey of India during the year 1862-63. — ^By Major 
J. T. Walkbb, R. E. Superintendent G. T. Survey, ... 381 

On the Antiquities of Guzerat. — ^By Capt. H. Mackbnzib, ... 402 

Memorandum on the Question of British Trade with Western 
China vi4 Burmah. — By Dr. 0. Williams, ... ... 407 

Table of the Coins of former Governments more or less current 
in the Bazars of the Gt)OJrat District in 1859, ... ... 434 

Literary Intelligence, ... ... ... ... ... 441 

Proceedings of the Asiatic Society for the months of July, Au- 
gust and September, 1864, ... ... 442 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions taken at the Surveyor GeneraFs Office, Calcutta, for the 
months of April, May and June, 1864, ... ... ... xxv 

Abstract of the Meteorological Observations taken at Gangaroo- 
wa, near Kandy, Ceylon, in September, October and Novem- 
ber, 1868, ... ••• ... .•• xvii 



Supplementary No. 

(Published December 28rd> 1864.) 

Colonel Cunningham's Archceological Survey Report for 1863- 64, 
communicated by the Government of India, ... ... i 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



▼i Chntents, 



Page 



No. 297. 
(Published lOth April, 1865) 

On the Origin of the Hindvi Language and its relation to the 
Urdu Dialect. — By Bibu Ba'jbndbala'la Mitba. Correspond- 
ing Member of the German and the American Oriental 
Societies, ... ... ... 489 

The Mines of Khetree in Rajpootana. — "Eij Col. J. C. Brooke, 519 

Note on the Hailstorm of Thur»?day the 24th March. — ^By Henrt 
F. Blanpobd, a. R. S. M., F. G. S., Joint Secretary of the 
Asiatic Society, ... ... ..• ... ... 530 

Observations on keeping Salt-water Fish alive for a considerable 
time—By Lt.-Col.R. C.Tytler,... ... 534 

Observations on a few species of Geckos alive in the possession 
of the Author.— By Lt.-Col. R. C. Tttlbr, ... ... 535 

Inscription on the Muqbura at Hailan, ... 549 

Peculiarities and Uses of the Pillar Towers of the British Islands, 
by Dr. T, A. Wisb, ... ... ... ... ... 552 

Proceedings of the Asiatic Society for the months of November 
and December, 1864, ... ... ... 573 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observa- 
tions taken at the Surveyor General's Oflfice, Calcutta, for the 
months of July, August, September, October, November and 
December, 1864, ... ... ... .. ... xlix 

Abstract of the Meteorological Observations taken at Gangaroowa, 
near Kandy, Ceylon, in December 1863, and January and 
February, 1864, ... ... ... Ixi 

Appendix — List of Naturalists, Numismatists, &c,, ... ... 1 



^^W^fV^WM^^tf^^^^^^MM^I^^^MAAM^^^i^k^^M^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Contents. 



Vll 



LIST OF ILLU8TKATI0NS, &o. 



View on the Lake in Bassein, Plates, 1 and 2, ... 

Sketch showing the Process of Fishery working in the Lake 



in 



PUq of the ruins at Barsoor, 

Figoie of Doiga as Mahisamardini, 

Inscription fonnd in a temple at Barsoor, Pis. 1 and 2, 

Outline for drawing Figs, of Deities, 

PacamUe of a Sakya Thnbba or Bnddha, PI. 11., 

Plan of Ohoortnn from Zaskar, Ladakh, PI. in., 

Stone Figores, D^koo near Padnm, Zaskar, PI. IV., 

Stone Figures, D^koo, near Padnm, Zaskar, PL Y., ... 

Section at Sealdah, Calcutta, 

Section at Knlnah, Jessore,... 

Gronnd plan of the Buins at Bnddha Gtayiy 

Figure of a Nat at Tagonng, 

Plan of Tagonng and Pugan, ... 

Hylobates Lar, L., ^ ^ ... ... ... 

H^ of the Jhelum District, 

Dii^ramatic Section of the Jhelnm District, Plates I. and U. 

Facsimiles of the Benares and the Dighwa Plates, writing. 

Copper Statue of Buddha at Sultdnganj, ... 

Didnncolos Strigirostris, ... 

Tnde Routes to China vi4 Burmah, 

Trade Routes between Burmah and W. China, .•• 

Plates I. to IV. of Coins found in Guzerat, 

Town of E[hetree,... ... ••• ••• 

Pounders of ore with 'Ghuns,' ... 

Eoomar making a Smelting Furnace,... 

Copper Ore smelting famace in play, 

Copper Ore refining furnace, 

Aimn and Sulphate of copper works, Nos. 6 and 7. ... 

Interior of boiling house for Alum and Sulphate of Copper, 

Sections of Hailstones, Pis. I. and 11., 

Sbtches of PiUar Towers, Ac., 654, 656, 559, 561, 564, 

Pillar Tower of Cashel,... 

Doorway of Brechin Bound Tower, ... ... ... , 



Page 
40 

41 

44 
44 
46 
151 
152 
152 
152 
154 
155 
158 
173 
192 
194 
196 
290 
290 
321 
372 
874 
432 
432 
440 
519 
522 
522 
624 
625 
526 
628 
530 
565-8 
561 
562 



t^»0*^^0»^^^»*^^^^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



JOURNAL 



ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



No. I. 1864. 



^ 0% ihe higtary of the Burmah Bace, — By Lieut. -Colonel A. P. 
• Phayre, C. B., Chief Commissioner of British Burmah, 

The ChroDicles of the Kings of Burma, called Maha Badza Weng 
we Reserved with great care. Some years ago, the present writer was 
presented by the king of Burma with a complete copy of this national 
work. His Majesty is himself a man of learning, and the edition from 
which the information now presented is derived, appears to have been 
compiled under his direction with careful research. Supposed errors 
of former editions are pointed out, and original authorities are in such 
ettes quoted. All that part of the histoiy, which refers to cosmogony, 
•od the dynasties of kings in India, is derived from Pali books, and 
has no more real connection with Burmese history, than the Hebrew 
ttnuLi have with British history. The object of the present paper is 
to make an epitome of the Burmese narrative, presenting only an 
outline of the main facts, yet omitting nothing which is necessary to 
be known to understand the history of the Burmese race as written by 
tiiemselves. 

The Mc^ Badxa Weng commences with describing the self-devel- 
opment of the world, and the appearance of man therein. The system 
of cosmogony has, together with the Budhist philosophy and religion, 
been derived from India, and the Burmese kings profess to trace their 
descent from the Budhist kings of Kappilawot of the 8akya tribe, to 
which race Ghtutima Budha belonged. The history contains the 
Budhist account of the iirst formation of human society ; the election 
of a king, and the grant to him of a share of the produce of the soil. 
Theie legends constitute to this day the foundation of the authority. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



2 On the history of the Burmah Race, [No. 1, 

temporal and spiritual, of the Bunnese kings. The foundation of that 
authority they continually refer to, and it is ever present to the minds 
of their subjects. It is proper therefore briefly to record that portion 
of the national history. 

The history opens with announcing that after a cycle of the great 
revolutions of the universe, wherein worlds are destroyed by tire, by 
water, and by air, had elapsed, the present earth emerged from a 
deluge. A delicious substance like the ambrosia of the gods was left 
by the subsiding water, spread over the earth. The throne of Gautama 
first appeared above the water. At the same time, the beings called 
Brahma, who live in the upper world or heavenly regions, had accom- 
plished their destinies. They then changed their state, and becaipe 
beings with corporeal frames, but without sex.* Their bodies shone 
with their own light, and full of joy they soared like birds in the 
expanse of heaven. From eating of the ambrosia, the light of the 
bodies of these beings gradually declined, and because of the darkoees^ 
they became sore afraid. Because of the glory of those beings, and 
because also of the eternally established order of nature, the sun, of gold 
within and gla^s without, fifty ^oodzofuuf in diameter, and one 
hundred and fifty in circumference, appeared above the great Eastern 
island, (of the solar system,) and threw forth his light. The inhabi- 
tants of the world were then relieved from fear and called the eon (in 
Pali) Thoo-ree-ya. 

In like manner the first appearance of the moon and stars is described, 
the central mount Myenmo (Meru,) and the whole sekya or solar 
system. The history then proceeds : — 

" Of the world's first inhabitants, some were handsome, some not 
handsome. As the handsome ones despised the others, in consequence 
of the haughty evil thoughts thus engendered, the ambrosia of the 
earth disappeared, and they ate of the crust of the earth. Then in 
process of time selfishness and desire increasing, the earth's surface 
crust disappeared. They then ate of a sweet creeping plant ; when 
that disappeared, the Thalay rice came up, which as they gathered, it 
was renewed morning and evening. Placing it in a stone jar, flames 

• It is from these beings that the people called by Europeans Burmas^ Bur- 
mans or Burmese take their name. In tho Burmese language the name is written 
Mran-ind or Mram-iiui and is generally pronounped by themselves £a-9n^. BeQ 
note at the end. 

f A modem yoodzatui equals about thirteen English miles. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1$64.] On the hittory of the JBurmah Baee. 8 

indued, aad it was prepared for food. Its flavour was whatever the 
eater diesired. From eating of this food, human passions were develop- 
ed^ and the heings became men and womenf Then as evil deeds began 
^o prevail, the wise censured and severely treated the others. The 
latter wishing to hide their evil deeds built houses. Then the lazj 
UDong them having stored up the food, the Thalag rice acquired 
bosk, witb a coating of coarse and fine bran, and where it once had 
appeared, it did not sprout again. They then said, — " It is good for 
us to divide among us the Thalay rice plaats, to possess each his own." 
Then they distributed the Thalay rice plants. After that, an unprinci- 
pled one among them, fearing that his own share would not suffice, 
stole the share of another. Once and twice he was warned \ in the 
Uiiid offence, he was beaten. From that time theft, falsehood and 
punishment existed." 

The world's first inhabitants then assembled and thus consulted 
together : " Now wicked times have come ; therefore let us select an 
nprigbt religious man, one having the name and authority of a ruler, to 
reptove those who deserve reproof, and to expel those who deserve to 
be expdled, and let us give him a tenth share of our Thalay rice." This 
was agreed to, and an excellent man, full of glory and authority, the 
embryo of. our Gautama Bhra, being entreated to save them, was 
elected king, and was called MahA-iJuMna'M. In verse, it is sung 
that he was of pure nature, of exalted authority, and of the race of 
thesmi. 

" lake a second son, he dispelled darkness or ignorance ; his good 
qualities sbone as the light, and from his power and authority, and 
from being the first of kings in acts of great diligence, he is called 
Manoo.* After this, men of wisdom who desired to destroy ¥ncked« 
nesB, liTed in huts in the forest, and ate only what they received in 
efaarity ; they were called Brdhmans, Others tilled the ground and 
traded ; they were called wealthy men and merchants. The rest bemg 
poor persons in humble employments were called SoodraSj or poor 
people. Such were the four classes of men.f" 
This history r^resents king Maha-tho'tna-dd as reigning for an 

* The word appears to mean generally lawgiver or king. The word is Indian 
not Bnnnan. 

t Ainnfng the fouT clafisos, it will be observed that the ruling power is placed 
first a<xx>nliiig to the Badhist system. The Brahitums appear as literati and 
aMxstics. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



4 On the history of the Burmah Race. [No. 1^ 

athen-khye, being a period represented by a unit and one hundred and 
forty cyphers. He had twenty-eight succesgors who reigned in the 
countries of Malta and Kotha wattee. The next dynasty which num« 
bered fifty-six kings reigned in Ayooz-za^oora. The next of sixty 
kings reigned in BarO'^uhthee or iBenares. Then eighty-four thousand 
kings reigned in Kap-pi-la the native oountry of Gkiutama, in distant 
after times. Next thirty-six kings reigned in Sat-li-poora. Numer- 
ous other dynasties are mentioned which are represented as established 
in various countries of India, and as lasting for many millions of years. 

The first king after Maha-tha-ma^ whose history is brought in as 
directly connected with subsequent events, is Auk-kd-kareet king of 
Bara-na-thee or Benares. It is related that this king had five queens. 
The eldest named Hat^ta had four sons and five daughters. Having 
given birth to these children Mat-ta died. The king then married a 
young Princess who gave birth to a son named Bzandoo. The king 
highly pleased, promised to confer any favour on the young queen 
which she might ask. Prompted by her own kindred, she asked that 
her son might be declared heir to the throne. After much entreaty, 
the king consented, and calling his sons and daughters, gave them a 
retinue of followers, with elephants and horses, and they went forth 
to establish a country, and search for a place to build a city. 

At this time the embryo of QatUama JPhra, a wealthy Kap-pi-la 
Brahman^ having abandoned his house, had become a hermit in a teak 
forest* in the Himalaya jungles or mountams. In the Bad-zc^Weng* 
gyee^ it is called an En-gyeen forest. There the hermit had built his 
lodge. The Princes came to the place in search of a site for a oity. 
The hermit foresaw that a city built there, would, in after time, be of 
great fame in Bzam-bu-dee-pa, the world of man, and advised them to 
build their city there and to call it Kap-pi-la-wot,^ Then the Princes 
consulted together saying " There are with us no king's daughters of 
our own race, nor are there any king's sons for our sisters ; if marriages 
are made with other races the children become impuit' ; in order to 
preserve our race, let us put aside our eldest sister as a mother,^ and 
we four roarry our four younger sisters." It was done so. From that 

* The national clir^nicler disonsses whether the forest in qnestioii oonfiisted o 
Sal or of Teak trees. He finally decides in favour of the teak as the more dignifi- 
ed tree of the two, but appears to have come to a wrong conclusion. 

f This appeal's to si^n^y *' the Kap-pi-la Brahman's place of religious duty. 

{ In Burma to thig day the king's eldest daughter is not given in marriage, bat 
remains unmarried at least during the life of hor parents. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1861.] On the history of the Burmah Race. 6 

time the race became known as the Tha-hya-tha-kee race of Kap-pi' 

Regarding the origin of the Kau-le-yd Princes, the elder of these 
font btothera named Auk-ka-mok-kha^ and the others, had put aside 
thdr elder sister Fee-yd as a mother. She was afflicted with leprosy, 
or a similar disease, and they determined to place her apart in a 
aednded spot They had her conveyed to a cave with a dwelling 
eovered by branches of trees, and she was left there. At that time, 
in Bara-na-theey there reigned Bdma^ the son of Brah-ma-dat, He 
bemg afflicted with leprosy, gave over his kingdom to his eldest son, 
sod went into the forest in search of herbs to cure himself. He 
egtablished himself in a hollow tree, and before long, was by the use of 
bertw restored to health. Not far from this, was the place where the 
Princess Bee-yd was shut up. One day the Princess, being alarmed 
hv a tiger, cried aloud, and king Bdma heard her. He came to the 
place, made himself known, and they were married. The Princess 
bore thirty-two sons, who were instructed by their father in all the 
aeramplishments iit for Princes. When the king of Bara-na-thee 
beard what had happened, he offered to resign the kingdom to his 
fiitber Bdma. But Bdma refused saying, "Here leaving my Ka- 
kn tree, I have built a city," and from that, the city came to be called 
Kau-la-na^get^d and thence Kau-le-ya, When the sons of king Bdnui 
and queen Bee-yd had grown up, their mother said thus to them ; 
" The Princes of the Tha-kee race of Kap-pt-la-wot are your uncles ; 
tiieir daughters are fond of dress and perfumes ; when they come to 
bttiie in the river Bau-ha-nee* you go to the river bank and seeing 
yoor comeliness they will love yoiu" Their mother having said thus* 
tile aons went to the river bank, and when the Tha-kee Princesses were 
dning their hair after bathing, they listened to the words of the 
PrinL*e8 and followed them. When the Tha-kee Princes heard this, 
as the race of the young men was not different, they acquiesced. Thus 
commencing with king Bdma and queen Bee-yd, the Kau-leya tribe 
originated. 

The Demd'da-hd kings began thus. The Tha-kee Princes of Xop- 
pi-la^wot had a small lake where they built a pleasure-house. When 
the country increased the place was called Bewd-da-hd. The Prince 
who lived there was called the Tha-kee Prince of Bewd-da-hd. So the 

• This appears to be the Bohini, cue of the feeders of the Rapti.^^ , 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



6 On the history of the JBurmah Race, [No. I, 

three kings of Detod-da-hd^ ICap-pula-wot and Kau^le-ya^ with numer- 
ous elephants, horses, and soldiers, carried white umbrellas, and attained 
to the dignity of kings of a great country. 

From Auk-ka-moo-kha king of Kap-pi-la-wot, descended after many 
thousand years king Dza-yc^the-na. His son was Thee-ha^ka-noOy and 
the latter's son was Thoo-dau-da-na. The sister of Theeha-ha-noo was 
Ya4haU'dha-ra, The son and daughter of AuJc-ha-ka, the king of 
De^wd-da-ha, were married to the daughter and son of king Dx€hya^ 
ihe-na of Kap^i-la-woU The children of the Dewd-da-h^i chief were 
Inzana the son, and Kvnzana the daughter. Thee-ha^ha-^too the son 
of JJza-ya-tJie-na married Kiiizana, ard they had live sons named, Thoo^ 
dau-^a-na, Dau-tau-da-na^ Thek-kat^da-na, Thook-kau-da-nuy A-meo^ 
tau-da-na ; and two daughters, Afnee-td and JPa^lee^td, Dza-^a^the' 
nd^9 daughter Ya^hau-da-ya married In-za-na the son of king Gi 
jDe-wdrda-ha, and had two sons, Dan-da-^ba-neey a«d Thob-ba^Mod-dha ; 
and two daughters Thi-ri-^HO-hd-ind'ya^ and Fa-za-pa-tee-gaw-da-mee, 
The elder daughter gave birth to the Phri loung* Prince Theiddalta ; 
the younger daughter gave birth to Dza'nch-pa'da'ka4ya-nee, called 
also Roo-pcMian-du and Nanda, Ameeta the daughter of Thee^hd* 
h{Mioo, nuurried Thob-ba-bood-dha the son of In^-aa-na, and bad a 
daughter Bad-da-kin-za^nd^ and a son De-wa^tf The Prince or 
Fhra loung Theid-dat'tchkooma-ra the son of king Thood^dau-da-na 
married Bad'dho'kin'ZCMid called also Ya^-thothdhchra, the daughter 
of Thob'ba-bood'dha king of De-wA-da-hd, They had one son Ya^hoo-la: 

The (maternal) grandfather of the Phra, named king In*za-na^ 
corrected the Calendar in the year 8645, and in 67 (of the new era) 
the Phra loung entered the womb of Thuri-ma-hd-md-yay and when 
ten months were completed he was bom in the year 68, on the full of 
the moon Ka-tshon. At sixteen years of age, he married Ya-thau^dka'» 
ra the daughter of Thob-ba-bood-dha, and for thirteen years enjoyed 
the life of a Prince in the palace. At twenty-nine years old, he went 
forth from the palace, and having attained Boodhahood, and preached 

• Phrti lonng i. e. the embryo Phrii, a terra for Gautama Bndha. The word 
P/irrf, now adopted into the Burmese langua{^, is according to Pro^ssor Wilson 
a corruption of the Sanscrit Prahhu Lord or Master. This appears to be tho 
most probable origin of the word. It certaxnlj is not a pure Burmese word. Tho 
orthography of it in ancient stone inscriptions at Pugun is Bu-rhii and Pu-rha« 
Tho Burmese have used tho original much as European nations have the Pali 
word Da-go-ba. The modem won! is written Fhu-rtL 

t This Dc-ira'(Jfii was the great opponent of Hufiha (iautama. They wore first 
cousins by birth, and Oautaum bad married Dewa-dni^s tister. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



18ft4.X On the history of the Burmah Bace, 7 

the law dining fifty-one y^ears, he, in the year 148,* at the age of 
eighty, passed to Neib-ban, or in common language, died. He died in 
the eoTostTj of Xoo^thi-na-yoon, where the MaUa tribe reded. In the 
raooth Wa^iewkg of the same year, the first ThefUfgd^ya^nd or great 
coimcily was called by A-did-ta-thai ihe king of Badzagyo, and it was 
then agreed, that that year should be counted as the year one, of 
»ligion.t 

Aji the kings of Eurma claim to be descended from the Tha-kya 
rxoe of Kap-pi-la-tcot to which €hiutama belonged, the inter-marri^es 
of the ehie& of that tribe are thus carefully detailed in the history. 

Having' brought down the narrative of events to the death of Budha 
Gmttama^ the first volume of the work proceeds to give an account of 
the geograi^y of the world of Dgam*hoO'dee*pa, where the Budhist 
kingiB reigned. In this mythological geography, Dzam-bcfo-dee-pa refen^ 
to the earth generally, but that term is constantly conftised by being 
sometimes applied to the continent of India only, the other parts of 
the world be^ng considered ap too insignificant whether in extent or 
in civilization, to b3 mentioned. Dzam-boo-dee-pa therefore frequently 
lepresents India prominently, and the world remotely. 

The great earth, or substratum of rock on which Dxam^hoo-dee^a 
reits, is represented as being 82,000 yoozanas in depth. On this rock, 
rests Dzam-boih^e^a or the island of the Bzam-hoo or £ugenia tree. 
It is broad at the north side, and to the south narrows like the fore- 
part of a cart. This represents roughly the form of the continent of 
India, which shows that the ancient books foUowed by the history, 
frequently by the term Bzam-boo-dee-pa, referred to India only. From 
north to south it is ten thousand yoozanas long, and the same from 
eaast tu west. 

In the great oceaa outside and which surrounds it, are five hundred 
small surrounding islands. Ceylon is a prominent island to the west- 
ward. At the northern extremity of Bzam-boo-dee-pa, grows the Euge- 
nia tree with golden fruit, the size of globular water-pots. 

In the Himalaya, it is stated there are seven great lakes. From one 
named Anau-tat-ta proceed four great aqueducts. By one of these, 
a river issues through the elephant mouth into the western sea ; by 
another, a river falls tlirough the horse -mouth to the northern sea ; 

* This refers to tho era established by king In-za-na, 

t According to tho Burmese Calendar, the year 2406 of religion commenced 
CB the 13th of April, 1862, rhen tho year 1224 of the common era commenced. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



8 



On the history of the Burmah Race, 



[Eo. 1, 



one through the lion-mouth to the eastern sea ; and one through the 
cow-mouth into the southern sea. 

All the countries of India as mentioned in the Maha Baza Weng 
are enumerated below, but there appears to be some confusion, result- 
ing apparently £rom some states having in the course of time subdued 
others, and from the historian not knowing, that some small States 
appear sometimes as members of a confederacy, in an extensive coim- 
try occiisionally caUed by one general name ; and at other times are 
lost in the establishment of a monarchy. 

The region of MeetS'tree-ma-detha or the central land, is bounded 
to the east by Qa-dzeng-ga-lorne-gon village ; to the south-east by 
Thal-khwa-tee river ; to the south by The'ta-kau-nee-ka-^tee-yon vil- 
lage ; to the west by the Brahman village Dho-na ; to the north by 
Oothi-rid-da-dza hilL In the centre is the great Bau-di tree. Aroimd 
are the sixteen great countries which are as follows : — 



1. 


En-ga. 


9. 


Koo-roo. 


2. 


Ma-ga-d^ 


10. 


Pin-tsa-la. 


3. 


Ka-thee. 


11. 


Mits-tsa. 


4. 


Kaw-tha-U. 


12. 


Thoo-ra-the-na. 


6. 


Wits-tsee. 


13. 


A-tha-ka. 


6. 


M&1-1£ 


14. 


A-wan-tee. 


7. 


Ts^-ti-ra. 


15. 


Gan-d^-ra. 


8. 


Wan-tha. 


16. 


Kam-bau-dza. 




There are also 21 


great 


countries : 


1. 


Koo-roo. 


12. 


Weng-ga. 


2. 


Thek-ka. 


13- 


Wee-d6.ha. 


3. 


Kau-tha-la. 


14. 


Kam-bau-dza. 


4. 


Ma-ga-da. 


15. 


Madrda. 


6. 


Thee-wee. 


16. 


Beg-ga, 


6, 


Ka-lin-ga. 


17. 


Eng-ga. 


7. 


A-wan-tee. 


18. 


Thee-ha-hv. 


8. 


Pin-tsa-la. 


19. 


Kath-mi-ra. 


9. 


Wits-tsee. 


20. 


Ka-thee. 


10. 


Gan-d&-ra. 


21. 


Ban«da-wa. 


11. 


Tse-ti-ra. 








The great kingdoms are twenty : 


1 


Ba-ra-na-thee. 


3. 


We-tha-li. 


2. 


Tha-wat-tee. 


4. 


Mi-hti-la. 

Digitized by Google 



18W.] On tie hUtory of the Burmah Bace, 



ai Aa^la-wi. 


13. 


Kap-pi-la-wot, 


€L Kan-thaTn-bee. 


14. 


Tha-k^-ta. 


7. Oodz-dz^-nee. 


15. 


In-da.pa-ta-na-go. 


a T^-ka-shyo-la. 


16. 


Ook-ka-ta. 


9. Tsam-ba. 


17. 


Pa-ta-li-poot. 


la Tka-ga-la. 


18. 


Dze-loot-ta-ra. 


IL lliaii-tlioo-ina-ra-^-ri. 


19. 


Theng-kath-tha-na-go, 


12. Ba-dza-gyo. 


20. 


Koo-thee-na-yon. 



Sneh were the countries in the time of Gautama. 
The countries reigned over by all the great kings commencing irom 
lUka-ika-ma-Mj and numbering three hundred and thirty-four thou- 
I ^e hundred and sixty-nin^ kings were : 



L 


Ko-Uia-wa-tee. 


12. 


Kau-Thamb-bee. 


2, 


Ba-dza-gyo. 


13. 




a 


Mi-hti-hk 


14r. 


Baw-tsa-na. 


4. 


Ba-ra-na-thee. 


15, 


Tsam-ba. 


& 


Kappi-la. 


la 


Tek-ka-so. 


a 


Hat-ti-poo-ra. 


17. 


Ko-thi-na-yon. 


7. 


E-ka-tsek-khoo. 


18. 


Ma-Ht-ti-ya. 


a 


Wa-tsee-ra-wot-tee. 


la 


Kap-pi-la-wot. 


a 


Ma^oo-ra. 


20. 


Kau-li>ya. 


10. 


Aree-ta-poo-ra. 


21. 


De-wa-da-hd. 


IL 


In-da-pa-ta-na-go. 







The first volume of the history then concludes with maxims for 
kisgs and people which need not be entered here. 

The second volume opens with the following words : 

** In the first part we have narrated the history of the kings com« 
meocing firom Maha Thamthdd up to the time of the excellent Fhra 
Gtmiamaj there being three hundred and thirty-four thousand five 
hundred and sixty-nine kings in lineal succession. In this second por- 
tion we shall relate the history of thirty kings commencing from Beim- 
ha^la-ra up to king Dham'ma''thaU'ka.^* 

Of these princes it will not be necessary to relate more than what is 
esKotial in order to understand the history of Burmah. The history 
first refers to the country of Ba^za-gyo and then follows the stream 
of Budhist religion and authority, until it widens into the broad cha* 
nel of sovereignty under JDham-mO'thaU'ka^ whose seat of empire was 
at Ba-H-li-foot 

digitized by Google 



'10 On {he hUt&ry of the Burmah Baee. [No. 1, 

Thoodhau-dha-na, king of the Thek-ka state in the country of Kap- 
pi'la-woty had a great friendship for Bha-gee-nee-ya king of Ba^za-gyo 
in Magadha. The prince Theid-dhat-ta had also a great friendship 
for the prince o{ . Badzchgyo^ Beem-ba-thd-ya, The latter died eight 
years before Gkiatams attuned neibban, and his son A-dzd^a-that 
succeeded. A-dzd-ta4;hat reigned thirty-two years until the year 24 
of religion [B. C. 5J9J when he was succeeded by his son Oo-da-'ya^ 
had'da. 

A-dza-ta-that formed a friendship with that base man De^wa-dai, 
«iid having murdered his &ther was condemned to hell ; but after a 
-long term of suffering he was to be permitted to be bom as a FtU'td- 
kchBudha. He was succeeded by his son Oo'da-ya-bad-da who reigned 
until the year 40 of religion, when his son A-noo-rood^ conspired 
and reigned in his stead. 

In the year 72 of religion his descendant Ifa^a^-tha was set aside 
by the people as one of a parricide race, and a nobleman named 
ThoO'thoo-na^a succeeded hint. His history is as follows. In the 
country of We4ha-U^ the Leitz-tshcMoee princes 4Msembled and con- 
sulted thus — " Our country has all the elements of greatness, yet is 
quiet when exertion is called for. Why are other ooimtries constantly 
stirred up ?*' They decided that the coimtry was quiet because there 
were no courtezans. They therefore caused the daughter of a wealthy 
man, one of their own race, to be so appointed. One of the LeUZ'Uho' 
^loee princes took her to his own house. She gave birth to a son. The 
child was put into a jar and thrown outside the city. The j ir was 
foimd by some of the citizens, opened, and the child was taken and 
brought up by a noble. He was named Thoo-thoo-na^a because the 
city Naga had uttered a sound like thoo-thoo which led to the dis* 
covery of the jar. 

At a time when king A-dza-ta-that meditated an attack against 
We-tha-U, he sent the Brahman Wa-thu-lM-ya to Gautama^ who re* 
plied that the We-thali princes observed the law and were destined to 
long greatness. The king said to the Brahman, *' What shall we do ?*' 
The Brahman replied, '* Make a show of banishing me from the coun- 
try; I will first go and destroy the unanimity of the Wie-tha-U 
princes, and you can then march and conquer the country." In three 

* W»'thc^U appears to have been one of the States of the Leitxisha-WB 
princes P 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



I9S4.] On the history of the Burmah Baee. 11 

jean the plan was accomplished, and by this means, the child Thoo^ 
ikoe-ma-^j who had become a noble, was brought to Bchdatat^o and 
erenimally became king. 

King Thoihihoo-na-^a lived in We-tha-U, After a reign of eighteen 
yevsy he died in the year of religion 90. 

He was succeeded by his son Ka-Uhthau-Jca. In his reign in the 
yesr of religion 100, the second great Cofuncil was held in We-tha-U 
under Shen-ya-tha-tay with seven hundred Bahandas. He died in the 
yetr of religion 118. On his death his son Bad-da-the-nay with nine 
yooBger brothers, reigned for twenty-two years. In the year 14K), the 
last of tbeee ten brothers named Fpn-za-ma-ka, was king. He was 
kOled by one ^^ho-mhotMum-da who became king with the name of 
Oof-^the-na. His history was as follows : — On the border of the 
coantry of We-tha-Uy there lived a robber chief, who at the head of a 
hag& band plundered the country. Once, in plundering a party of 
merchants, a porter belonging to them joined the robbers. He in time 
became the captain of the band and was called Kho-thoo-nan^. 
Gradually he acquired power, and at length usurped the throne, putting 
to death the king JPin-za-^na-ka. 

Ooff-^a^thS-na did not live long. His eight younger brothers sucn 
ceeded him. The last of them was JDa^uhnan-da-men^. He was mur- 
dered by Dza-nek'ka the Brahman, and prince Ttan^da-got-ta of the 
Mmhre-ya line was placed on the throne. He was king of all Bzam- 
hhdee-pa. 

The history of Mat/^re-ya is thus : In the time of the Phra, some of 
the Tha-kee princes went and built a city in the Himalaya forests. It 
was called Mank^e-ya from peacodcs being numerous there, or from 
the city being in the shape of a peacock's neck. Dza^neh-koy the 
Bnhman, was an inhabitant of the country of Tek-ka-tho. His father. 
died early and he was brought up under the care of his mother. He 
when young was noted for his learning and accomplishments. It was 
predicted that he would become a king, but at the request of his 
mother he broke his canine teeth and vowed never to become a king. 
He came to the country of Fa-ti-li-^ooty in the reign of Da-na-nan-^, 
He became acquainted with the king's son, Pap-pa-ta, and persuaded 
faim to leave the city and live in the forest. He endeavoured to find 
a person to substitute for prince Pap-pa-ta as successor to the throne 
and he found T^an-da-got-ta, His history is thus related. Ouce th^ 

c 2 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



12 On the hittary of the Bwmah Baee. [No. 1, 

country of McM-re-ya was attacked and subdued. The queen being 
pregnant fled to the country of Fa-ti-li^oot, and there gave birth to 
a son. The child was put in an eajrthen vessel and placed near a cow 
enclosure. The cowherd found him and brought him up with his own 
children. A friend of the cowherd, a hunter, loved the child and 
asked for him. The child then was made over to the hunter. He 
displayed great power and ability, and the Brahman JDza-nek-ka hear- 
ing thereof gained possession of him from the hunter. The Brahman 
brought him up until he was full grown. He was named Tsan-^- 
ffot-ta. By an artifice Tsan-da^ot-ta was induced to murder prince 
JPap-pa-ta. Tgan-da-yot^ta then under the influence of Dza-nek-ka 
gradually collected forces, attacked villages, and at last expelled king 
Da-na-fum-^a from Fa^ti-li-poot. 

Tian^-got'ta then was consecrated king. He had a son bom to 
him who was named Bein-du-tha^a. Ttan-da^ot-ta died after a reign 
of 24 years in the year of religion 186 = B. C. 857. 

His son Beit^-doO'tha^a married a princess of the Mau-re-ya nuoe^ 
who gave birth to JDham-ma-thau-ka. This Prince appears to have 
murdered all his father's sons by other mothers than his own. Bein» 
doO'tha^a either died naturally or was murdered in 214 of religion. 

Dham-ma'thaU'ka attended to the internal affairs of the country 
for four years before he was crowned, and in the year 218* of religion 
he received the oibeU theit. His brother Tei4ha he appointed Crown 
Prince Four years after being consecrated as king, he sincerely enter- 
ed religion. The history of Bham-ma-thau-ha as the great supporter 
of Budhism, the founder and encourager of missions, is narrated at 
considerable length. He discovered and opened the under-ground 
building in which the relics of Cktutama had been deposited by A^dza- 
ta-that ; he took them out and distributed them. In the year 284t of 
religion, he assembled the third general comicil presided over by 
Mang^a-lee-poot'ta-tee'ththtay and consisting of one thousand selected 
Bahans. He then turned his attention to the great object of esta* 
blishing religion all over the world or in all countries contiguous to 

• B. C. 825. On this snbjeot see Canningham's Bhilsa topes, page 74. 
He applies a oorreotion of sixty-six yean to this Bnddhistioal date, and gives 
good reason for doing so. 

t B. Q, 809. This is not the date of the third general oooncil as given m 
Cunningham's Bhilsa topes, page 116, and to which the oorreotion must be 
applied* 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



f 



lS6i] On the history of the Burmah Bace. 18 

India. For the present history, it is odIj necessary to notice two out 
of tlie Dine missionaries then sent forth* They are Yatk-na-ha-4ham' 
ma-nk'khee-ta to A'pa^an-ta or Borma according to this history ; 
asd Oot-ta^rd and Thau-na to Thoo-tmm-4Ui Bhoom-mee or the Talaing 
CDontiy. In both those conntries the missions were successful, and 
iBiiititiides of men and women became Bahans. King Dham-ma'thau- 
ha died in the year 255 of religion. 

Hie second Yoltune of the history ends with the death of this king. 

Ilieihird volume of the Maha Badza^eng commences with the direct 
Uitoij of the Burmese kings in the following words : *' We shall now 
rdate the first conmiencement of the long line of the Mrafi-md kings in 
tbe gieat country of Tagoung ; the origin of all the kings who have 
nigned in the land ; and also treat of the first foundation and the 
pngreBB of divine religion in the Mran-md country, under the Mran- 
•i kings." 

The country which in the time of our lord Gautama is called To- 
fMy, was originally established by Abhi Badza. His history is as 
folkwB. Before the appearance of the lord Gautama, the king of 
i^Mrika-la and Bin-za-la^eet, wishing to ally himself with the king of 
i^at^-lee^yay sent a noble to demand one of the daughters of that 
■oroeign. The Kau-lee-ya king irom pride of race did not send a 
n^actoiy answer. A war then arose, and the king of Btn-za-lchreet 
v*i nctorious. The three Tha-kee kings of Kau-lee-ya, De-wehda-ha^ 
vAKap^fulor^ujot being conquered, their countries were destroyed. 
Afterwards they were once more restored to prosperity. At the time 
*W the Tha-hee kings were thus depressed, Ahhi Badza the king of 
^^hya I^a-kee race in Kap-ptF-la-tioot, in consequence of the dis- 
^^rted state of mtZ'tzi-fna-^-thaf took with him his army, and went 
•nd established the country called Then^a-tha^a-ta or Tagtmng,^ 
•^Ui Badsia at his death left two sons, the elder named Kan Badza 
Sfee, and the younger Kan Badza pyay. They quarrelled regarding 
tiler succession to the throne. By the advice of the wise men of the 
■•tion, they agreed to abide by the result of a rivalry in good works, 
*Bd Dot of war. It was arranged that each was to commence at night 
M to erect an alhoo manddt or religious building, and the Prince who 
bit finished his building was to succeed to the place of the father. 

. * Tigonag is an ancient city now in rains situated on the Irrawaddy river 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



14 On the history of the Burmah Saee, [No. 1, 

Each selected a hill on which to erect a building. The elder brother 
commenced his building with heavy timbers and bamboou. The 
younger brother commenced with light timbers and covered it with 
white cloth and plaster, so it was finished in one night. In the mom* 
ing when the elder brother saw that he had lost, he collected his 
followers and went down the Irrawaddy river. He then ascended the 
Tha-la-watee or Khyerirdween river, and established himeelf at Ka-le 
doung.* At that time the tribes called JPyoo ham yon and Thek 
asked for a king, and the Prince made his son MoO'doo-tseit-ta king 
over the Pyoo tribe. " Kan Eadza gyee went westward and establish- 
ed himself on the mountain called Kyouh pan tounyf east of the 
river GiiS'tshu-hd. He then became king of the country." 

Kan Badza ngay reigned in Tagoung the country of his father. 
He had thirty-one descendants who reigned successively in Tagoung. 
In the time of Bhein-ruhkd the last king of that race, Chinese and 
Tartars firom Qan-da^Uihreet Province, in the country of S^einy in- 
vaded the kingdom. The king was obliged to retire with his army 
to the Ma-U khyownyX where he died. From thence his force was 
divided into three parts; one went eastward and established the 
nineteen Shan states ; another division went down the Irrawaddy 
river and remained in the country of the JPyoo-kan-ran and Thek 
tribes, where the Tha-kee Prince Moo-doO'Tseit'ta had formerly 
established himself in Thoo-na-pa-^an-ta, A portion remained in Jfa« 
Id with the chief Queen Na-gor-tshein, 

At this time Gautama appeal^ in Mitz-tsee-ma-detha. The king 
of Tka-wat'teey Fa-the-fUhdee, Kau-tha-la, demanded a daughter in 
marriage from Mahd-nA-ma^ king of Kap-pi-la-icot The king did 
not give him a pure daughter, but one bom from a slave girl and 
named Wa-tha-hha-Khat-ti-ya. She gave birth to a son named Wee- 
ta-thoo-pa. When he had grown up, he went to see his relations in 
Kap-pi^khtDot As they insulted him on account of his inferior birth 
he determined oo revenge. After his father's death he thrice led his 
armies against Kap-pi-la-ioot but was restrained by the expostulations 

• ThiB lies west of the Khyeng-dwen in about 23* N. L. 

t This is a mountain in the northern part of Arakan. The story here 
related is found also in the history of Arakan. Vide Journal Asiatio Society, 
Vol. XIII. p. 84. 

J Mal6 is on the Irrawaddy river, about eighty miles above Amerapoora. 

§ It is presumed that after the death of Thoo-dau^dani the father of Budha 
Gautama, Mahi-ni-ma one of the same family succeeded to the throne. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



IS64.] On tie history of the Bwrmah Buee. 15 

oftJie lord Gautama. A fourth time Gautama seeing inevitable 
panalimeDt due to the demerit of the Sakee Princes forbade him not. 
He IWkee race of Kap-pi-la-toot of which Mahd-nA-ma was then 
long was either destroyed, or dispersed among the neighbouring 
Mm of Maure^a and We^dee-tha gir^ra^a, Thua waa that great 
vxLttj of Kap-pi-lO'Wot twice destroyed ; once in the time of king 
KMFh-ya, and once in the time of king MahdrnA-ma. 

At the time of this laat destruction, one of the Tha-hee Princes 
named Baza Badza lefb MUg'tshee-ma-de'tha with many followers, 
ndilnft established himself at Mau^e-ya,* called also Mau-rinyay and 
Bov Mwe-yenff. From thence he removed and established himself in 
the country of Theng-duoai, From thence he removed to Mali where 
he met the Queen Ifa-^a-tthein^ and as they were of the same Thu- 
if^ race they were married. They then built the city of upper 
l^og^ There a son named Wee-ra-ga was bom to them. They 
<nee more removed to the ancient capital of the Thankee race of kings 
ttUed Ta-goung or Theng-ya-thcHrO'ta and called it Fin-tsa-l^hreet^ 
snd hence the country is also called Bin-tsa-ta^oung, This king 
nWiahed regular government. By his two chief Queens he had 
^veuty sons and twenty daughters, and the sons married their half 
Biten. 

To this king there succeeded seventeen kings in regular succession, 
^t their reigns were very short. The last of them was named Tha* 
^f^^^lAHTodza. This king had no son. The chief Queen Kern 
*^ite De^wee had a brother named La-bd-doo-hd and he was ap« 
pomted Mn-She-men or Crown Prince. 

At that time in the country of the Byoo tribe the race of kings 
^^Nended £rom Moo-doo-tseit-ta the son of £an Badza gyee, as above 
lasted, was represented by Tap-hooAa. He was disturbed by attacks 
^ Bhu^yiMoa-tee or Arakan, and went with his people to the 
Tka-^a lake. 

**Afi then we have related the first dawning of the Burmese coun- 
^ of Ta-gouny before the lord Gautama appeared, now we shall 
proceed to narrate the history of Tka-re'khet'ta-ya.Y* 

* By tlda name is meant the ocnmtiy west of the Khyeng-dweng river now 
ttOedtheKnbovaUey. 

t Tlug if tlie name of the ancient city to the east of Pi*ome. It appears to 
'■fo U> the Khatri or Bi^poot caste. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



16 On the history of the Burmdh Race, [No. 1, 

*' In the fifth year after the lord Gautama attained to the state of 
Budha, two brothers named Maha-poon and Tsoo-la-poon askings 
leave from the Phra, built a monastery called l^an^-da-koo-nan-tha 
at the village of Say-gaing in the country of Thoo-na^a-ran^ 
ta.* The Phra also prophesied (that) ' hereafter in the Mran-md 
country my religion will be long established/ and accompanied by five 
hundred Eahandas he frequently came through the air before the 
monastery was finished ; when the monastery was finished he received it 
in gift, and remained there seven days, and preached. At that time 
five hundred men and five hundred women in Thoo-na^a^ran-ta be* 
came Bahandas. At that place was a hermit named Theet-tsa-han-da 
who had attained the state of an Areeya. At his intercession the 
Phra left the impression of one foot on the Theet-tsa-pan hill ; and 
at the intercession of the Na-man-da Na-^a he left the impression of 
the other on the bank of the Min stream. Thus two firmly founded 
pagodas were fixed in the rock as if sealed down, and the Lord sud : — 
' Hereafter my religion shall be long established in the countries of 
Thoo-nchporTa/n'ta and Tampa-dena.^'^ From thence the Fhra went 
and arrived at the Pho-eoo hill.} To the south-east was the sea. On 
the water was the appearance of something floating and just appearing 
above the surface. A little pwe or bamboo rat lifted up its nose and 
did homage to the omniscient Fhra. The Fhra smiled at these two 
omens, and, in reply to his younger brother who asked for explanation, 
said, * Beloved Anan-da, in the year 101, after I shall have entered into 
the rest of pcHree-neih-banj five great omens shall be manifested here. 
They are, Jlrsty A violent earthquake shall shake the whole land. 
Seeondy where the Bho-oo peak now rises there shall be a lake. Thirdy 
the Tsa^moon-than-my-eit river shall be formed. Mfurthy the earth 

• This is on the Hto river which nms into the Irrawaddy from the westward 
near the town of Menboo. 

t Tampa-dena is one of the ancient names for Ceylon. According to the 
practioe of the Budhist nations of Indo-Ohinese to transfer to their own countries 
the name of Badhist lands in the west, this name was given to Pog&n and the 
surrounding coontry. The name was probably given after the books were 
brought from them and a reformation made in religion. Png&n was more anciently 
called A-rimad-^Lob-na, This histoiy, however, intimates that TampOfdee-pa was 
the more ancient name. T^oo-na-^o-rofir-fa is mentioned as a conntiy in the 
Budhist Scriptures. See JTardy'« Bvdhism, p. 259. 

X This is the name of a peak on the west bank of the Irrawaddy near to 
Prome. Gh:eat changes no doubt have occurred in the course of the Irrawaddy 
river, probably within the historical period, about Prome. The rocks around 
Prome contain large deposits of marine shoUs, so that the Burmese had evidence 
of the sea haying once reached there. 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



im] Om ike iiMiaiy of the Burmah Sa^ 17 

lUl BK and form ^oi^-fa-i^vrng,^ l^\fth^ in the ooustry to become 
lU^n-hket-te-ya^ the sea shall be dried up. In the time when thoae 
ontDs flhall be xnaDifested and folfilled, that little fwi^ removed from 
b existing body, and become a man, shall be king ovw a great comi- 
tij Older the name of JhooUta-houng. In that king's reign, in the 
MrmHKd country, my divine religion shall flourish and shall exist 
tbmghoiit long ages-' " 

According to that divine prediction the Phra went to varee-neii^ 
ka and in the year 40 of religion in the reign of l^ha-^l(Miuhh0 
Stdu king of Pin-Uthta^owng before mentioned, a mighty boar 
tvche eabits high ravaged the country. The Crown prince La^fo-^ho- 
^ went forth armed to destroy him. The boar fled to the Shan 
noaiiy, and the prince followed. The glen where he entered tb^ 
Boutains east of the Irrawaddy is called Wet-ioeng (boar entrance) 
fc» thk day. The prince chased him down the west bank of the 
Inawiddy, though how the boar arrived there is not stated, and he 
cnwed again to the east bank. As from his great height his belly 
WIS not wet by the water, the place he reached is still called JFet-mch 
<i»0^ (boar not wet). The boar then continued his flight down the 
evt bank of bhe river until he came to an island near to ThfM'e'kheU 
'fa There the prince overtook him. The place is called Wet-hUh 
^rea to this day. 

The prince now reflected that he was fiur from the country of Ta- 
gOQDg, and that his story of having killed the boar would not be 
kbred; and wearied with the world he determined to become a hermit 
in the |Jaoe where he was. There were then no inhabitants near at 
bttid except wild animals. In the jungle a doe produced a young one 
in the form of a human female child. The doe, startled by the cry of 
^ infant, fled, and the hermit coming to the spot was astonished at 
^ vg^t. The hermit carried the child to his cell, and brought her up 
» his own daughter. When she was grown up, he gave her the name 
of Bhe-da-ree, *' Such is the stoiy of the first establishment of the 
city of Tha^S'kheUta-jfa by the hermit who was the brother-in-law of 
the king of Ta-goung." 

In the very year when the Crown-prince La-hnb-doo-hd went forth to 
^ the boar, the queen of Ta-goung gave birth to twin sons. They 

* The name of an exthiot voloano about 200 mileB north fW>m Protna 
t This is a place below the petroleom wells in the Irrawaddy river« 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



18 On the history of the Burmah Baee. [No. I, 

were both bom blind and named Mahd-Tham-ba-iffA and Tgoo-khtham^ * 
b€hwd. The king from shame ordered them to be killed ; but the 
queen loving the children of her own bosom concealed them, until ^ 
they were nineteen yean of age. The king then having discovered * 
that they were alive, again ordered them to be killed ; but the queen 
had them put into a boat, with many days' provisions, and set them 
afloat on the Irrawaddy river. As they floated down the river, the boat 
struck against the branch of a Tseet tree. At that spot in after times 
was built the city of Tseet Kamg, As they proceeded down they met 
with a Bee-loo-may who gave them some medicine to restore their eye- 
sight. The cure was effected, and looking up and seeing the sky for 
the first time they said, " The sky is as a cover ; the earth is under- 
neath," and hence the place they were passing was called Mtfe-dat, 
At length they reached the place at Prome* where their uncle the 
hermit dwelt. There they beheld the hermit's dsughter Bhe^da^ee 
drawing water from the stream, with a gourd. As the water would 
not flow readily into the gourd they opened it. Bhe^-ree then filled 
it and returned to her father's cell. She told him the cause of her 
quick return, and the young Princes being called, they told their story, 
and the hermit learned then, that they were the sons of his sister the 
Queen Kein-naree-de-wee. After this the elder brother Prince Mahd- 
Tham-ha-wA was married to the hermit's daughter Bhe-^Uhree, This 
was in the year 60. of religion according to the Mah6 Badza Weng^ 
or, by the Burmese reckoning of the period of Gkkutama's death, 483 
years before Christ. From this time commences the history of the 
monarchy established at Thare-khet-ta-ya^ and no further notioe is 
taken of Tagoung and the upper country of the Irrawaddy until some 
centuries later. 



Note on the etymology of the word Myan-ma or Jfran-md. 

In the Journal of the Asiatic Society No. I. of 1858, is on interest- 
ing paper by Mr. B. H. Hodgson, on the languages of the Indo- 
Chinese borderers, compared with the Thibetan and Himalayan tongues. 
In that paper Mr. Hodgson appears to conclude that the term Burma 
or Burmese, which is the Europeanized form of the name by which 

* See JonmaJ of the Asiatic Society, Vol. XXV. p. 178, for an aooonnt of the 
pagoda built upon that spot. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



M^.] On the history of the Bwrmah Bacs. 19 

that people call themselves, can be traced to the native name for 
Bum. This, however, is open to some doubt ; but Mr. Hodgson's 
genenl conclusion that the languages of the Himalayan, Indo-Chinese, 
inni Thibetan tribes are of one family is fully justified. 

The name by which the people known to Europeans as Burmans or 
finrmese call themselves, is written by them Mran-ma and some- 
tbna Mram-ma, and is pronounced Ba-m&. The Arakanese call them- 
selves Ma-ra-mi which is a variation of the same word. The questions 
involved are, — 

1st. Does the word Mran-ma contain the root signifying man in 
some of the Indo-Chinese dialects ? 

2cd. Is the word Mran-ma directly derived from the name for 
man generally, and on that account used as the national designation 
of the Burma ? 

3nL Can any other origin for the term Mran-ma be found, from 
which it is more likely to be derived P 

It is shown by Mr. Hodgson that in many of the above languages 
ma and mi mean J, and man, (pp. 5, 34, 36 and 63), and hence it is 
condoded that the etymology of Burma or Burmese is recovered. 
The word Burma or Burmese no doubt is the European form of Ba- 
mi. Is the written form Mran-ma the original, of which the 
spoken form Ba-md is a mere colloquialism ? or is the latter the real 
original expreflsion of the name for the race ? The Arakanese, it may 
be noted, do not use the form Ba-md and therefore are never called by 
Earopeaos Burmans or Burmese. 

The root mi in the Burmese language has now no known reference 
to tiio pronoxm J, or to man^ as a general term, whatever it may 
formerly have had. It now means female ; with the prefix a it means 
mother, and sometimes a daughter. As an affix to the word tha or 
Sa, ekild, it signifies a female child. The root ma has the same 
gtfoeTBl measaxigf female ; but has a more dignified signification than 
SM. It is also applied to female animals. The word for woman. 
Mien-ma or Mi-ma^ is probably the union of the two forms of the root 
representing female, and is applied to woman as the female ^or exceU 
lemce (see p. 66 of Mr. Hodgson's paper). The personal pronoxm 
Kga^-I, is both^masculine and feminine. But though I cannot agree 
that the root mi or ma appears in the word Mran-md, that root may 
possibly appear in the Burmese word myo^ mro or in its Arakauusa 

D 2 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



20 On the hutory of the Bnrmah Aaee. [No. 1, 

form, mru^BLToeey and need ; possibly also this word may originally have 
Isignified fnan, in the Burmese as now in the MrA language, (see p;. 
M). Mr. J. R. Logan in the Journal of tlie Ind. Arch, for J 867, 
Vol. II., observes " The root of Mran-m&is ran^ one of the forms of & 
widely spread Himalaic name for man. Karen has the same root, 
with the guttaral in pbce of the lateral prefix." I have not been able 
to satisfy myself as to the grounds on which this observation is founded. 
The question still remains, whence the word Mrw^-md, which & 
pronounced Ba-md, and in the Arakanese form Ma-ra-md, is derived ? 
I believe it to be a modem appellation adopted by the people since 
they became Budhist, and derived from the Pali word Brah-ma signi*- 
fying celestial beings, as shown in tho text Hence it really has only 
an accidental similarity to the word for man in some of the Indo-- 
Chinese dialects. It is much as if the At^li had adopted the national 
name Atigeli with their Christianity, with this difference, that we 
know for certain that the Angli originally so called themselves, bu% 
we do not know for certain what the Burmese called themselves, before 
they adopted the name MrofirmA, The pride of the people caused 
them to assume this as their national designation. 7%e only name^ 
for the ancient tribes which may have become the Mran-ma nation, 
which we are acquainted with, are ByoOy Kan^an Or Ktm-ran and 
TheJc or Sah 

Is it possible that in adopting the word Brah-ma as their national 
hame they kept in view also their native root ma as Mr. Hodgson 
would appear to conclude ? This I will not venture to affirm, but 
of the direct orig^ of the present national name I have no doubt. 
Kor need it cause surprise that a people should hkve adopted a foreign 
term to designate themselves. With their religious instructors they 
received knowledge of every kind. The districts of their country 
were named afber the countries of their teachers. Even their great 
river, known in the veroacular as Myit-gyiy received an equivalent terak 
in Pali, — S-ra-ida-ti ; and their capital city always has a Pali namei 
From the history it is evident that the name Mran-m& was not adopted 
until after several tribes had been united under one powerful chief, by 
whose iiat the name would readily have been adopted. 

With reference, however, to the root mi and its appearance in the 
word Mien-ma or Mim-ma (woman), it is curious that the dnneee of 
Yunan call the Burmese Mien or lounff-mien, and that is the 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



)8Gi] On ike higtory of the Burmah Baee. 21 

grato them by Marco Polo. I oannot say how the Chinese got 
the word, but it is possible that Mien was the original name for the 
nee, and contains the root meaning man^ However that may be,^the 
vend in this or any similar sense is now entirely lost among the Bur* 
MR, excepting as above noted in the term for woman, and it may 
be in Mm (race). It does not appear as the name of any of the l^bes 
with which the Burmese might be supposed to be immediately 
ooDoecied. 



Obeen>ationi. 

Hiving traced thus Hur the legends of the Burmese race from the 
fltttiest period, down to the time when a new dynasty was established 
aetrProme, about three hvmdred miles lower down the Irrawaddy 
than the ancient capital Tagoung, it will be convenient to pause, and 
A^aire how far we can discern any true hiritorical bans in the legends 
ttd tales which have been narrated. 

The phyttogttomy imd the language of the Burmese people, as well 
M those of the adjmning tribes, proclaim them all to belong to the 
«t»e family of nations as the tribes of Thibet and the Eastern 
Himalaya. 'Whence did they come 9 and how did they aitive at 
tlieir pfesent country ? The theory of Prichard in his Natural History 
i>f Kan on this subject is probable, is supported by existing facts, and 
ftconds with the physical geography of the r^ons north of the coun- 
1m now occupied by the Indo-Chinese races. That author thus 
lefen to those peoples. " The vast region of Asia forming the south- 
ttffienk comer of that Continent, which reaches in the sea border from 
tile common mouth of the Ganges and the Bn^maputia, to the 
Hoang-ho, or Tellow Biver of China, and even further northward 
towards the mouth of the Amur or Selinga, is inhabited by races of 
people who resemble each ot^er so strongly in moral and physical 
pecnHaritieB, and in the general character of their languages, as to give 
rise to a suspicion that they all belong to one stock. With the rivers 
which descend i^m the high country of Central Asia, and pour their 
^verging waters on all sides, after traversing extensive regions df 
kwer elevation, into the remote ocean, these nations appear also to 
hi?e come down, at various periods, from the south^^eastem border of 
the Qieat Pbteau ; in different parts of which, tribes are still recog- 
tued wtho resemUe them in ieatures and language.*' 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



22 On the hiHortf of the Surmah JRaee. [No. 1, 

To the great central region of high A^ia, Prichard traces what he 
terms the five nomadic races, namely the Ugnan, the Turkish, the 
Mongolian, the Tungusian, and on the south-east the Bhotiya, " the 
mountain people who on the northern boimdary of Hindustan have 
appropriated the name of Tartars, though they have no right to that 
celebrated appellation, which belonged originally to the Mongolian 
tribe who inhabited the banks of the lake Bougir." And again, '' Tf 
we were at liberty to hazard a conjecture as to the origin of their 
nation, it would be, that all the people who inhabit the low countries 
of south-eastern Asia, from the mouth of the Amur, or at least from 
that of the Hoang-ho, southward and westward as far as the Brah- 
maputra, are offsets from one of the great nomadic races of high Asia, 
namely from the Bhotiya, who occupy the southern margin of the 
great central upland." This conjecture is in a great measure confirmed 
by the researches of Mr. B. H. Hodgson, who, in the paper already 
quoted, observes that '' One type of language prevails from the Kali to 
the Kuladan, and from Ladakh to Malacca, so as to bring the Hima- 
layans, the Indo-Chinese, and Thibetans into one family." 

It is reasonable to conclude that tribes leaving the south-eastern 
margin of the great plateau of central Asia, early in the existence of 
the human race, would naturally follow the downward course of streams 
and rivers. Among the earlier emigrants from that part of Asia 
towards the south, as far as we can now discover^ were the ancestors 
of the present Man or Talaing people, the aborigines, so to speak, of 
Pegu. It is also probable that the Karens lefb their ancient dwelling- 
place at an early period. They have remained for the most part up 
to the present time uniniluenced by Budhism, and with their language 
unwritten, until about the year 1830 A. D. Their traditions of their 
-own origin, or at least of the route by which they arrived at their 
present seats, are therefore more trustworthy than those of the 
Burmese or of the Talaings are, regarding themselves. Many of these 
traditions are preserved in a small volume written by the Eev. Dr. 
Mason, Missionary to the Karen people. It is entitled " Traditions 
of the Elders." While the traditions or legends of the Burmese, 
influenced by the source whence they derived their religion, and by 
•the ambition of their kings to trace descent from the Budhist 
sovereigns of their holy land, refer to India as the cradle of the royal 
race, and almost seem to derive the great body of the people from 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



l^.'i On ike huiory cfthe Burtnah Baee. 23 

t^ wme country, the more trustworthy traditions of the Karens point 
to central Asia as their ancient home. 

Their traditions say, " We anciently came from beyond the river of 
roBoing sand, and having marked out Zimmay (two hundred and fifty 
nila north-east of Maubnain), for ourselves, returned. Afterwards 
«^ we oame to dwell there, we found the Shans occupying the 
eonntry. Then the Karens cursed them, saying, * Dwell ye in the 
dividing of oountries.' " 

^^yb countries in which Europeans first came in contact with Karens 
ham only lately been occupied by them, but the mountain country 
between the Salween and Sitang rivers, has probably been theirs for 
many ages. 

Dr. Mason points out that Fa-Hian, the Chinese pilgrim to India 
of the fourth century, also speaks of crossing the '* river of sand*' or 
great desert between China and Thibet. Further it is stated, " Their 
traditions point unequivocally to an ancient connection with China ; 
fi»r Tie or Tien is spoken of as a god inferior to Jehovah,* and offer- 
ing to the manes of their ancestors is as common among the Karens 
as it is among the Chinese." It is evident " the river of sand" of the 
Karens mnst be the great sandy desert of Mongolia, stretching for many 
hundreds of miles along either side of the 40^ of North latitude. The 
stwy of coming to Zimmay under a chief to inspect the country, and 
tbea retnming, must be accepted as the modem version of the fact, 
that about Zimmay they were stopped in their progress south along 
^water-shed range, between the Salween and Menanl rivers, by 
the previous occupation of the Shan race. The Karens are mentioned 
hj Marco Polo, and appear then to have occupied the country east of 
Bamo on the upper Irrawaddy. 

Some of the religious traditions of the Karens are j^markable. 
They are distinguished from all the Indo-Chinese tribes with which 
I am acquainted, by the knowledge they have of the existence of one 
eternal God. He is not worshipped, because, as they appear to suppose, 
he is angry with them. It is impossible to conjecture with proba- 
bility how they acquired this knowledge. They believe also that they 
once possessed books. Notwithstanding what has been said by some 
writers as to the " Caucasian countenances," the long faces, and 
" itraight noses" of the Karens, I must uphold that their national 
• Or Yu-'wa, the namo g^yen by tho Karons to God. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



24 On the history of the Bwrmdk JtaCe. ^o. 1, 

physiognomy is essentially Indo-Chinese, and their speech connects 
them with the same family. In every Indo-Chinese tribe, occasional 
exceptions to the general flat physiognomy are met with. These 
are almost always among the men. The women have more frequently 
the true type of Mongolian or Bhotiya £EU$e. 

Such tribes aa the Burmese, the Karens and the Hon would readily 
find their way from central Asia by the courses of the rivers Salweea 
and Mee-nam towajnls the south. Some would be led westerly, and 
so gain the valley of the Irrawaddy in the upper course of that river. 
This, the Talaings and Burmese probably did at an early period,^ 
while the Karens kept for ages to the mountains bordering east and 
west of the Salween and Mee-nam rivers, and only lately came into the 
Irrawaddy valley and along the mountains bordering the sea-coast as 
for as the 12^ N. L. They may be classed in three great divisions, 
having numerous tribes and dialects, but all possessing the same cha- 
racteristics as far as they have been observed, up to the 20th degree of 
north latitude. 

It has abeady been mentioned that the people called by Europeans 
Burman or Burmese, called themselves Mran-fMty a name which is 
generally pronounced by them Ba-md, This word, as has also been 
stated, is of foreign origin. From the history we learn that at an 
early period there were three tribes in the valley of the Irrawaddy^ 
who appear to have been the progenitors of the present nation. These 

• Mr. J. B. Logan remarks npon this anbject as follows : 

'* The present position of the MomfAiuvm nations might lead ns to soppose thajb 
they moved into Ultra-India, and thenoe into India. But the relation of tho 
Mon-Anam to the Yindyan dialects shows, that the Dravirian traits of the 
former were whoUy or ohieflj acquired in Bengal, and renders it probable that 
they did not reach the south by the basin of the Irrawaddy, but by that of the 
Tsang-po Brahmaputra, like the later Tibeto- Barman tribes. How fiur Ultra-India 
was then inhabited, and what Languages were there spoken, cannot therefore be as- 
certained firom the character of the Mon-Anam languages." Again. '* The Sinusm^ 
and Andok-manm are the purest remnants of a pre-Himalaio colony, and it is pro- 
bable that similar Draviro- Australian tribes occupied it, so far as it was inhabited, 
before the Mon-Anam race entered Uie region." Journal, Indian Arch. pp. 156, 157. 
Among the traditions of the Mran-mi race in Arakao, are traoes of the edstenoe of 
a hateftil race of men, which existed on the sea coast, when the Mran-mas entered 
the countxy. They are called in the vernacular Bee-loo which implies a monster, 
or cannibal, in human shape. It is from these beings that the oountEy received its 
Pali name of Rek-khaik and hence its present name Ba-khaing. Bek-khaik 
appears to have the same general signification as the vernacular Bee-loo. The 
PaJi name being given to the country would seem to show that some Bee-loos 
were still there, when the Budhist missionaries entered Arakan. The word 
Bee-loo appears to answer generally in popular meaning to the English Ogre. 
There are no traoes of the Mon people ever having passed through Axakan. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



18Qil On ihe iutary tft\e JBurmah Bac^ 2S 

tnbei are called Syoo or Fyoo^ Kam^an or Kan^an^ and TheJc 6t by 
lie Arakaneae Sak.* Thej probably were tbree allied tribes^ more 
dotdj eoimected ^ritb ^adb otber tb^ were otbers of the same original 
rtci^ settled in the upper Irrawaddj valley, or on the adjoining 
BooDtauis. I see no reason for doubting tbat they bad found tbeir 
WIT to tbe TaQey of the Irrawaddy by what is now the track of the 
Chineae caraTans from Yunan, which track debouches at Bamo on 
tbe rtver. There they probably remained for many ages without 
being disturbed by any superior tribe. The history of the Burmese 
bnng written under tbe direct influence of the kings, it is not smprising 
that erery effort should therein be made to show, that the royal race 
is dBBcended from the kings of those people who brought to the Bur* 
mese letters, science, and religion ; whereby the savage Indo-Chinese 
tribes of tbe Irrawaddy were civilized and made into a natiom 
Accordingly we find that the foundation of tbe state of Kap-pi-la^woi 
fay a tribe of Bagpoots is carefoUy described, and as it appears to be 
idisitted to be an historical fact tbat Kap-pi-la-Ufot was attacked, and 
the people dispersed, even during the life of Gautama, a previouA 
eaagntion from thence to Burmah under Abhi Badza is invented for 
the national faistoiy. This name Abhi is native not Pali, signifying 
an ancestor in the fourth generation, and the names of bis two soni^ 
both called Kan, with the Pali word for king and the native term^ 
dder and younger, added, appear to refer to them as acknowledged 
ehie£i of the Xan^an tribe. Under the two sons of Abhi Radza a 
separation of the tribes or of the people under their sway takes place ; 
the elder branch going westward and settling in the country now called 
Arakan ; the younger remaining in the valley of the Irrawaddy. In 
this legend there appears to be a germ of truth. The Arakanese also 
have the national name of Mran-ma. The country they inhabit 
reeaved the Budhist name of Bek-khaik finom the monsters beheved 
to bih2bit tbat wild unknown coast, and hence the modem native name 
Ba-kkaing and the European Arakan. But tiiis name baa no oonne<H 
tion with the race of the people. The Arakanese being of the same 
stock as the Burmese, and still acknowledged to be the elder branch 
of the family, imdoubtedly entered their present country from the 
ly that is from the upper valley of the Iivawaddy, as their ow« 



• 84k is still the naane of a small hill tribe in AraJtaa. It is siniilar is $(ymU 
tD tb« name of the tribe Qantama belonged to. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



20 On the hittortf of the BtMrmah Baee. [No. 1, 

traditions attest ; and it appears not improbable that tbis movement 
may have been made by the mountain passes which Kim Radza-gyee 
is described as having traversed to go westward. But according to 
the history this event occurred thirty-one generations of kings before 
the time of Gautama. That race, at the end of the thirty-first king's 
reign, died out in Tagoimg, or rather was driven out by an invasion 
of northern hordes. A female descendant of the kings was preserved, 
and when the Sakya race of Kap-pi-la-toot was destroyed in the time 
of Gautama, or about the middle of the sixth century B. C, one of 
the princes of that tribe named Daza Eadza is again described as 
coming from Kap-pi-la-wot to the Irrawaddy, to continue the ancient 
race in that region. That wild Indo-Chinese tribes should find their 
way from the bleak north, down to warmer and more fertile climates 
of the south, is credible ; and that afber reaching the Irrawaddy they 
should proceed westward across the mountains, and so reach the sea, 
is not improbable, as the more direct route down the Irrawaddy was 
already occupied by the Mon, That such indeed was their course is 
borne out by existing facts. But if we consider the present state of 
the coimtries lying between Bengal and Burmah, from Cachar east- 
ward to the valley of the Irrawaddy ; and consider also the difficulties 
for travelling over that route, which must have been presented twenty - 
five centuries ago, the supposed emigration, either for conquest or 
colonization, by the comparatively civilized tribes of India, to the 
barbarous wilds lying east of Tipperah and Cachar, will appear very 
improbable. On the other hand it is highly probable that religious 
zeal would carry missionaries wherever a route for trade existed, 
however wild and dangerous that route might have been. It appears 
probable that a trade did exist from early times through eastern Bengal 
Did the upper Irrawaddy to China.* Traffic is frequently carried 
on by very difficult routes, And by paths which people well advanced 
in civilization, in a fertile and extensive country, would not follow in 
search of a land to colonize. Merchants will venture into such countries 
as is exemplified in the way the wild tribes east and northeast of Arakan 
are now supplied with salt, and other necessaiies of life. Where traders go 
for love of gain, missionaries will go from religious zeal. From these con- 
siderations then, while the passage of Budhist Missionaries to Burma by 

* The part of Ohina bordering on Burma is called Tsein by the Burmese. 
Was the Lidian name Cheen derived from this source P 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



l^] On the hUicnf o/thj Burmah Race. 27 

tbe difficult patlis in qaestion might be accepted, the 8iq)po8ed immigra- 
tio&of any of the royal races of Ghuigetic India to the Irrawaddy by thd 
cuae route, in tbe sixth century B. 0. or even later, will appear very 
improbable. Those tribes appear to have regarded Gangetic India as 
tbe ^KTonred land of the earth, and would scarcely have emigrated to 
the Hvage country east of Bengal. There is indeed no good reason for 
saj^iosing that any missionaries went to any part of the country now 
caDcd Burma before the year 234 of religion,* when sent in the reign 
of Bham-ma Atoka as related in this history. But is the record of 
of Tmn-nO'ka-dluimnuM'ek'khee'ta being deputed by the third great 
oomieil as missionary to Burma true ? It appears not. The Budhist 
writings preserved in Ceylon inform us that Oot-ta^a and Thau-na 
were deputed as missionaries to Thoo-toan-na-bhoomee, By that name 
no doubt is meant the country inhabited by the Mon or TaJaing race, 
and their chief city then was on the site of the present Tha-ttmg lying 
between the mouths of the Salween and Sittang rivers. No doubt the 
misBionaries reached it by sea. That gold was anciently found in that 
riamty is testified from the Burmese name of Shwe-gyeen, literally 
*^ gold washing," now borne by a town on the Sittang, and gold is still 
finnd there, though probably in diminished quantity to what it was 
aneiently. This no doubt was the origin of the name '' Aurea regio" 
of Ptolemy. This history assumes that the Pali name A-pa^amta 
means Burma. There is not the slightest reason for this conclusion. 
Hie word means western country and we must look westward from 
Gangetic India to find it. The fact is the modem Burmese, jealous 
of tiie Tabling people having beyond all doubt received a Budhist 
miBBonary in the time of the great Dhamma Athauka^ determined to 
appropriate a great missionary to themselves. Portions of their 
country were also, after the fashion of all the Indo-Chinese countries, 
named from the Budhist scriptures, one Province being called TluHhna' 
ja^ran-taj and this name lent a specious support to the modem fraud 
or delusion of A-pa-ran-ta signifying Burma. But many other cir- 
cumstances seem to show that the Mon or Talaing race, received 
Budhism before the Burmese did« Although the conversion of the 
people of Suvanna Bhumi was planned by people in Gangetic India, it 
is not probable that so essentially a sea-hating people had their own 

• B. C. 306 or twelve years before Alexander crossed the Indus. 

s 2 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



SS On the history of the Burmah Bace. [Not I, 

■hips to.eonvey the nusBionaries across the Bay of Bengal. Then how 
did they arrive at their destination P 

We may he sore that the mission to Suvamia Bhumi was not plan- 
ned like a voyage of discovery to an unknown land, hut was determined 
•n as a mission to extend religion to a country already known at least 
on its sesrooast, and the inhahitants of which were considered to offer 
a fair field for success. It is prohahle that the people of the Coro- 
maudel Coast already had settlements on the Arakanese and Talaing 
eoasts as places of trade, and the Budhists of Gangetic India would 
in all prohahility resort to some of the ports on the east coast of the 
eontinent, and not far from the head of the Bay. of BengaL At that 
time it is prohahle that the people of Telingana carried on commerce 
with Suvanna Bhumi, and the Budhist missionaries would emhark in 
their ships. 

It has already heen mentioned that the Talaing people call them* 
selves Jfo».* They are called Talaing by the Burmese. How came 
the latter to give them this designation ? Certainly it does not bear 
the sound of an Indo-Chinese word. It is probably derived from the 
word Telinga, and hence it appears that the tribes of tlie upper Irra- 
waddy, sepaiated during long ages from the kindred tribes to the 
south of them, only came to know the Hon after tliese latter had settle* 
ments of Telingas on their coast.f These people no doubt extended 
their commerce into the interior, and hence the name, easily changed 
into Talamg, came to be given to the whole population. The same 
result of a partial knowledge of a leading race may still be seen. Unial 
comparatively of late years, the Burmese mixed up English and all 
Europeans with the natives of India in the one common appellation 
of Kuld or western foreigners ; and it is cmly since the war with the 



* The Rev. Dr. Mason in his work on Burmah states his opinion that the Mea 
language is entirely distinct from all the Indo-Chinese languages of the tribes 
adjoining, and considers that Mon comes nearer to the Kole or Ho lanunage as 
depictea by Major Tickell in the Journal of the Asiatic Society, Vols. IX. and X., 
than any other. Mr. J. B. Logan considers '* the radical identity of the native 
pronouns, definitives, and numerals of the Kol with those of the Mon- Anam group 
as established." Both ** groups in their glossarial basis, are branches of one 
formation, much more akin to Tibeto Burman than to Dravirian." Jour. Ind. 
Arch. 1859, p. 66. For the connection between all the languages of the southern 
division of the Turanian family, see table No. IV. in Max Miiller'a Science of 
Language. 

t There is said . to have been a U\n4Ak oolony at MwlmsiUi the site of which 
was called Bamapoora, vide CrawfunL 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



lS«tl Off the hUiory of the JBwrmah Baee. 39 

Biiti^ of 1825-26 thaik they have learnt to distinguish between the 
noRpTominent of the nations lying west of them. 

Bat the iact still renudnB that the JBurmese received religion and 
ktlsrs from India. Pid they receive these through the Talaings or 
ffom an independent source ? It is certain that they had no direct in- 
tcnourBe with the sea probably until the second century of the Christian 
era. Thoir alphabet differs in some degree from that of the Talaings, 
though both are formed on the Deva Nagri model. The circular form 
of the letters of both indbates the ii^fluence of the Tamulic letters. 
The Burmese appears the more p^(^t of the two, and has probably 
been formed at a later period than the other. It does not appear that 
the Burmese people received their religion and letters through the 
medium of their cousins the Arakanese, for that people refer to the 
eastward as their own source of both. The passage of Indian Budhist 
misnonaries therefore from Gangetic India through Bengal and 
Jfunnipore to Burma, is a probable event, but it took place much 
later than has been represented. The only direct evidence we yet 
have on this subject, is the discovery of a Budhist image at the ancient 
capital Tagoung, bearing an inscription in the Deva Nagri oharacter aa 
described by Colonel Bumey in the 5th volume of the Journal of tiie 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, page 157. This image was found to have 
a Sanscrit inscription, being the well know|i text of Ye-dhan-ma &jq, &o» 
This ii pot the only inscription of the same kind that has been found 
at Tagoung, and the fact appears to indicate that Tagoung received 
pissionaries direct from northern India. The character in which the 
^bove text is written on the base of the image is considered by Prinsep 
IS coinciding with the letters of the inscription No. 2 on the Allahabad 
Budhist pilliur, 

• We may then conclude that tha rude tribes inhabiting tiie valley 
cf th$ upper Im^waddy, who at that time, like the hill tribes of to* 
day, worshipped only the spirits of the woods, the hills, and the streams, 
were converted and civilized by Budhist missionaries from Gangetic 
India. A monarchy was then established at Tagoung, which gradually 
extended its authority, and appears from the history to have been 
overturned by an irruption of (so-called) Tartars and Chinese. The 
uunes given to the invaders are Tu^et and Ta-rook. The latter word 
is evidently the same as Turk and is applied at the present day by 
the Bttnnese to the Chinese generally. The destruction of the kingdom 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



80 On the hUtory of the Burmah Bace. [No. 1, 

of Tagoung led to. the establishment of a monarchy at Tha-re-khet-te-yn^ 
near the modem Prome. There, according to the history, a descendant 
of the ancient kings of Tagoung, after a series of wonderful events, 
succeeded to the throne of the king of the Pyoo tribe, which people 
was up to that time dominant in the country round Prome. What- 
ever this event as told may really mean, we may consider it as certain, 
that the tribes dwelling in ths country round Tagoung, where Budhism 
and some degree of civilization had been established under a powerful 
dynasty, were overwhelmed by a horde of invaders firom the north-east, 
and that many of them found a refuge among their kinsmen the 
Pyoos. 

The present kings of Burma, as has already been stated, claim descent 
from the ancient Budhist sovereigns of Kap-pi-la-wot. It may not 
be out of place here to mention some of the Indian and Sakyan customs 
preserved by the Burmese royal family. Among these are the marriages 
of half-brothers with half-sisters, a practice which does not exist in 
any other family in the kingdom ; the ceremonial called chheit-theik 
Gt pouring out of water on the accession of a new sovereign ; preserving 
unmarried the king's eldest daughter ; the figures of a peacock and of 
a hare, symbolical of the sun and moon, and typifying descent from 
the solar and lunar races, being painted on the king's throne. For the 
same reason the figure of a peacock is borne on the royal standard. 
One of the royal titles is " sun-descended monarch," and a title of 
honour frequently bestowed even on foreigners is that of " Member 
of the race of the sun ;" while the badge of nobility is the caste-thread 
of the Brahman and Eajpoot tribes represented by golden chains worn 
slung from the left shoulder, across the breast and back, to the right 
hip. These and some other customs are tenaciously adhered to by 
the royal family of Burmah, who consider themselves as ethnologically 
and religiously the descendants of the Budhist kings of Kap-pi-la-wot. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1^.] Aecauttt ofJVatives of the Andaman Islands. 31 

Auount of further intercourse with the Natives of the Andaman Islands, 

(Extract from a letter from CoL. Tttlsb, Superintendent of Fort Bladr, 
dated the I4dh Jaohuary, 1863.^ 

I enclose notes from our daily interview with the aborigines ; 
thoQgh not very interestmg, still they may alford some idea. I think 
the time has now come when we may reasonably expect a friendly 
intercouTse with them ; — ^pray let me know yom- views ; this is the first 
time they have ever been so friendly, and their women are now 
coming forward. Smith and his crew have beyond all doubt gamed 
thdr confidence, so I will encourage him ba much as possible in this 
important duty. 

For upwards of a month a body of aborigines have been seen at 
North Point and in their canoes in North Bay, and when boats have 
gone near them, they have evinced a friendly feeling towards Europeans, 
although they are distrustful to natives, and on one occasion they 
entered a boat containing a crew of Europeans, and danced ; this has 
induced me to desire that some, if possible, could be persuaded to visit 
Boss Island in order by kindness to establish a friendly intercourse ; 
accordingly I suggested to a party of the Naval Brigade to carry 
out if possible my views ; and on the 7th inst., Smith a Petty Olficer 
went over with six men in the jolly-boat, and found the natives very 
friendly ; they came down to the boat, and received bottles, plantains 
and pieces of old iron which were given to them, and in return they 
gave six bows and a lot of arrows and waist belts ; this is a large party, 
and a fresh arrival here, they are all evidently strangers. 

Januarjf Sth, — Smith and the same party of Europeans went over 
again in the morning and had a long interview with them, they gave 
their bows and arrows, and anything else they had about them, willingly 
in exchange for biscuits and pUmtains ; this is the first time they have 
ever parted with their bows in such numbers. At noon, Smith acd the 
same crew went across again to induce some to come over to Ross 
Island ; though about 24 came down to the boat they did not like 
staying in her ; at last two of them, a boy and a man, got into the boat, 
and as they shewed an inclination to cross over, they were brought to 
Boas Island where they had clothes given to them ; they then walked 
^ the hill to the Superintendent and then to the barracks ; they shewed 
no ngns of fear, only did not like being separated ; they were much taken 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



82 Account of Natives of the Andaman Islands. [No. 1, 

vnth a looking-gl^s, and kissed it to see what it was, and then looked 
behind it to see who was there ; the wooden floors of the bungalows 
and barracks astonished them at first ; they seemed to wonder at the 
noise made when walking. They soon however got over that, and then 
danced vigorously, thumping as hard as they could and slapping their 
chests, at the same time singing ; the boy was about 18 years old and 
the man about 25 ; the former shewed great intelligence, and both 
appeared docile ; afber remaining two hours they were taken back with 
lots of presents. 

^th. — Smith and his crew going across this morning, the natives 
came down without hesitation, and several wanted to be taken to 
Ross Island ; five were brought over, one of whom was over yesterday ; 
all the way across he was talking to the others and pointing out 
the different place«i, and on reaching Ross Island he took the lead on 
shore. On coming into the officers' quarters where they were at 
breakfast, they wanted every thing they saw on the table, and did not 
scruple to help themselves to whatever they fancied. They were all 
young men, very short, from 4 ft. 6 in to 4 ft. 10 inches in height, 
roughly tatooed, very black, and all except one quite bald ; the hair 
is very woolly, and very thick and short ; the hair of those that wer6 
quite bald had evidently been shaved ; — one had a little crop of hvct 
on his head ; they were taken to see the pigs and were very mucE 
astonished at seeing such large ones, and seemed to wonder why they 
were shut up. A box was put up for them to shoot at with their bows 
and arrows ; — they shot very well at 80 yards, but beyond that they 
were uncertain, though they shot with considerable force. A pig was 
given to them to take away, and some dogs ; on taking them back, 
three women were seen, the first that have ever shewn themselves t6 
Europeans, and some of the men went on shore, and into the jungle ; 
the natives wanted Smith and his crew to stop with them and sleep ; 
they made signs that they would soon make a hut and bed ; their 
huts are the simplest things possible — three or four ratans stuck in the 
ground and bent together at the top, and a few leaves laid on loosely 
at the top ; the height of them from the ground is only three feet, and 
for all the shelter they afford, one might as well be under a tree or 
bush. The fondness they evince for children was unmistakeable ; when 
they saw mine, they stroked the head of my little son, who has long 
flaxen hair, and oarefully tried to. re-part the hadr when they had 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



l^L^ Ajccaunt of Ncstiveu of the Andaman lilanth. 88 

raf&fii it a \ittle. I mention this trifling incident to shew that they 
iRDCit devoid of feeling, however savage they may have become from 
tbor miserable wild life, and I have no doubt but that the time has 
Mv wrived when we may reasonably hope to reclaim and civilize these 
children of nature. As they trust Smith and his crew, who certainly 
have guned their confidence, I will endeavour through their agency 
to aecomplish my object. 

IQtk. — It was some time this morning before any natives 
came down to the boat on its going across ; — they probab- 
ly were gorged with ail they eat yesterday, for they had also kill- 
ed aad eaten the pig that had been given to them ; but by going 
into the jangle to their camp, some were soon induced to come 
down, and also one of their women and two men ; the woman came 
into the boat, and came to Ross Island ; one of the men had been over on 
both the former occasions, and although clothes had been given to him 
eadb time, still be came over in a state of nudity ; the wonuin also, 
with the exception of a waist belt, with a buff passing between her 
thighs, was quite naked ; she was very timid and kept a tight hold of 
the man's hand, and was very observant of eveiy thing ; a large pig 
was diot for them to take away, and they stood by when the gun was 
fired, without expressing any fear or wonder as to how the pig was 
killed. — On taking them back, the natives crowded round the two 
that had been to Boss Island and had a long talk ; they evidently 
bad been a&aid that we should have kept the woman, and were de%hted 
to see her safe back ; the woman was about 20 years of age, smaller 
in height than the men, very black and excessively African looking 
— no bair on the head but a thin line in the shape of a long horse 
shoe extending from the centre of the head downwards, so, Q , and 
the skull daubed over with clay ; for decency's sake, the sailors put a 
sort of jacket and gown around her. One of the men had his right 
foot amputated, and his right ear nearly cut off, — evidently an old 
warricHr, and about 40 years of age, but not grey in his woolly head of 
hair ; — ^the sailors made a crutch for him with which he was delighted 
sad used it well ; — ^the other man was about 30 years old* 

lUk, — ^Two men and a woman were taken this morning up to 
Chatham Island, and were there photographed, they were thnn 
brought oTer to Koss Island — the woman was very lively, and laughed 
a gf^t deal, going about any where without the slightest ahu7u« 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



84 Account of Natives of the Andaman Islands. [No. 1 

She had her head shaved, like the men ; — a little patch of woolly hair 
was left on the back of the head, — ^her height was 4ft. 4^ inches. The 
men appear to make the women perform all the work, and do not 
themselves cany anj thing but their bows and arrows, and to-day 
when the boat got back from Ross Island, although only three women 
were on the beach and about twenty men, the women were made to 
carry all the things from the boat ; — ^the men helped in cooking the 
pig ; — ^the woman who came to-day was rather good looking, and about 
20 years of age, very black, but with a pleasing coantenance ; — she 
frequently repeated the name the sailors had given her (Madam 
Cooper — ^the former one being called Queen Nic) — she was very much 
struck with the appearance of our little children, and begged to have 
them to kiss ; — great respect appears to be shewn by the men towards 
the women, who appear almost to command the men, notwithstanding 
that they seem to do all the work for them ; this may be owing 
to the apathetic nature of the men ; fchey give every thing up to the 
women, who freely take from the men any presents they may have 
received. Amongst themselves they have a kind and friendly feeling ; 
— ^they appear to love dogs and small animals, which they hold and 
nurse with affection. I remark the men have an aversion to carrying 
anything, for when presents are given to them they try to get the 
sailors or even the convicts, to carry them. Both the men had their 
heads only half shaven, which gave them an odd appearance. 

12th. — ^The second Launch went over with Smith and his crew, 
and remained there all day. Some of the men went on shore and 
cleared away a piece of ground on which they will build a hut ; — ^the 
natives watched the proceedings very attentively, but on trying to 
get them to do anything in the shape of work they only laughed, and 
would try for a few minutes and then give up and point to their arms 
and legs. On the Launch returning for the evening, five men and three 
women came across, and were taken to the barracks, and a pig given 
to them for supper, — ^they singed the hair off first and then cut it up 
into joints and chops ; — ^they had a common knife to do this with, and 
no butcher could have done it better, — each joint came off as easily as 
possible, — ^they never missed the joint or had to cut twice. A room was 
given them in the barracks, and they passed the night quite quietly, 
— ^before dark they were rather anxious, and seemed to wish themselves 
on the other side again, but when they got their supper that wore off; 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



ISGi] IfOe on the Baciro-Pali Imervption from Taxih. 35 

m tie evening tbej sat outside near a fire and roasted plantains, 
|iBi% and fish, and were not at all timid, and quite pleased. 

131ft. — ^The Launch started from Ross Island with them, taking 
poitions of a hut to he erected on North Point for them ; hut after 
{iroeeeding some distance, it was, owing to an accident ohliged to put 
\mk to 1U)6S Island, so the natives or rather ahorigines amused 
iiiaiiselves by entering the hazar and receiving presents of rings, 
fte. Ac £rom the convicts and shop-keepers. In the evening, the 
Laanch put off again, and as it was late when they reached the other 
sde, the aborigines would not land but returned to Boss Island and 
^ept in the boat with the sailors. 

\Uh, — ^The Launch went over to North Point with the abori- 
gina ; this morning upwards of ten women came out to welcome 
the party ; — the hut is being erected. Smith and his crew have not 
je^ ntomed, and a]l promises to be successM, at least £ hope so. I 
will continue this Journal, for I must now close this^ to send off by 
the Bunnah Mail Steamer. 



I^oteon the Bactro-Pali Inscription from Taxila. — By Major- General 
A. CimsisQWLM. 

In hif note on my remarks on the Taxila inscription, Babu Bajendra 
Lai ftates that according to me " the Hidda record opens with the 
words SamvaUaraye athavisatihi, 20.4.4. (= 28) mase Apilaesa eJca» 
tisiiiki; but that, on referring to the facsimile in Ariana Antiqua, he 
finds that the only letters visible are 4 4 mate Apeiisa chidasa, and 
that the letters from * Samvat^ to * 20' do not exist in the original." 

A similar remark has heen made hy Professor Dowson on my pre* 
Tlow reading of this date as 28, (see Boyal As. Soc. Jour. Vol. XX, 
p. 230). The Professor'a words are as follow : " The inscription on 
the Hidda jar appears to be the earliest date known, the year heing 
X X = 8. Col. Cunningham in his last paper on these dates reads it 
as consisting of three figures, but this is a mistake, as there are only 
two figures." 

Notwithstanding these rather startling statements of two well 
known scholars, I adheje to my reading as noted in the extract from 

£ 2 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



66 Note on the JBaetro-Pali Imcription from Taxila. [No. 1^ 

Bajendra Lai's remarks. The words which are so confidently stated 
not to exist in the original will he found at the end of the tipper 
line in the copy of the inscription in Ariana Antiqua. As this record 
is stated to he inscrihed On an earthen jar, I concluded that the writing 
was continuous round the ressel, and that Masson in making his copy 
in a straight line, had hegun with the two remarkahle crosses, simply 
because he was obliged to begin somewhere ; and, as it is certain that 
he could not read a word of the inscription, I felt no hesitation in 
transferring the last twelve letters of his copy of the first line to the 
beginning of it. 

Bajendra Lai specially objects to my reading of the letter I in the 
word Apilaesa, as, in his opinion, the word of the original cannot by 
any possibility have an Z in it. In reply to this I need only refer the 
Babu to the very same form of the letter l, as read by him!ie\{ through- 
out the Wardak inscription. I therefore adhere to my first reading of 
Apilaesa for the Macedonian month of Apellaios. 

I note that Professor Dowson reads atfa for eight, whilst I read 
atha. The latter form is that which is used in the Indian Pali 
inscriptions of the western caves,* and it is also the spoken form of 
the present day. Moreover I look upon the character, which he reads 
as a double f , to be only a slight modification of the th of the Sh&h- 
b^garhi inscription. For these reasons I adhere to my own reading. 

Bajendra Lai objects to my reading of the word Fanemasa for the 
Macedonian month of Panemos, for which he proposes to res^j^pancha- 
tnasa, or the '* fifth" mouth. But there is a serious objection to this 
reading in the fact that we have no grounds whatever for assuming 
that the Hindus ever numbered their months beyond the four months 
oieaeh of the three seasons into which the early Indian year was divided. 
There could not therefore be a fifth month. It is true that both 
Dr. Stevenson and Mr. Thomas Lane managed to squeeze 32 days 
into a fortnight, but this has only been effected by misreading the 
final ill-formed letter of the word hatiya as a cypher for 30, thus 
making " hati 32" instead of " hatiya 2."t 

With reference to Bajendra's correction of my translation, [ beg 
again to state that I only put it forth as an " imperfect version of 
such parts of the inscription as I had been able to make out," (see 

• See Bombay As. See. Journal, Vol. V. Junir 24, and Nasik 6, 
t Bombay Joam. As. Soo. Vol. V. Karli 18, line 8. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



18W.] Note on the JBaefro-Fali Inscription from Taxila. 37 

p. 1S9, Joum. JLs, Soe, Bengal, 1863). On all questions of Sanskrit 
Gtammar, I bow to Rajendra Lai's acknowledged learning, and I have 
therefore only a few words to say regarding his remarks. The word 
tapotika (or sepcdika in Professor Dowson's copy) I left mitranslated — 
bwt the next word, aprativddita, I rendered by " matchless teacher" 
M a simpler and more characteristic expression than the more literal 
form of " unopposable in argument." I translated the words mputrtt- 
dan, as " together with his son's wife," instead of " together with his 
ton and wife," because I believed that if the latter sense had been 
intcaded, the word cha " and" would have followed ddra. 

In page 153 Babu Rajendra accuses me of "dropping altogether 
the vre before hi in my reading of the date of the Wardak inscrip- 
tion;" bat in making this statement he is again mistaken, as he will 
find by referring to p. 145 of my remarks, where there is a star, thus * 
before hi^ which is the usual way of marking that a letter is not satis- 
iactorily legible. But besides this prominent star, the Babu will find, 
only juat two lines afberwards, the following remark : " One letter only 
is doubtful, although according to the form given to it in the copy, it 
ahotdd be «^«, or perhaps vri." The insertion of the word divasa in 
my first reading was a simple oversight, as the Babu might have seen 
by its omission in my last reading. 

In the engraving of my inscription from Ohind, the straight stroka 
whidi follows the syllable San, and precedes the figures, is a mistake 
of tbe engraver. On this part of the stone there is a slight irregular 
cnui the whole way across it, which has been straightened and 
Aortened by the engraver into a thick upright stroke, which looks 
exactly as if it was a part of the inscription. I notice this the more 
particularly, because Professor Dowson has thought it possible that 
this stroke might, if it meant any thing, stand for 100. 

With reference to the names of the Macedonian months, which I 
bare read m no less than three of these Bactro-Pali inscriptions, 
Baba Rajendra remarks (see p. 152) that *' the system of naming days 
according to the moon's age is peculiarly Sanskritic, and the division 
of the month into the light and dark halves of the moon is of Indian 
or Sanskritic origin." On this point I wish to draw the Babu's 
Attention to the practice of the ancient Ghreeks, from Homer's time 
downwards, who divided their months exactly in the same way, namely 
U)to the ''first" and "second" halves, ftijvos nrrafici^v being the first 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



88 Note on the Bactro-Fali InseripHonfrom Taxila. [No. 1, 

or waxing half of the moon, and /i^os ^ivoktos helng the second or 
waning half of the moon. This mode of computing the days of the 
month fell into disuse hefore the time of Alexander, as he is recorded 
to have died on the 28th day of Daesius. 

I may note here, with reference to early dated inscriptions,that Profes- 
sor Hairs conjecture that the Budha Gupta inscription of Eran had a 
figured date of three cyphers, as well as a written one, is correct. The date 
is given in figures, San 165. The middle figure is the same as that to 
which Mr. Thomas has assigned the value of 50 ; hut the true 50 is form- 
ed thus, ^ , and the 60 hoth of this inscription and of the coin is found 

differently thus, m • The cypher for 40 as found on Skanda Gupta*s 

coins is like the Bactrian cA, >{ , or the pt in Gupta characters. 

The decimal cypher on Budha Gupta's coins I read as 70. In the early 
Indian system of notation, there would appear to have heen two dis- 
tinct cyphers for 100. Thus on the Gupta coins, and in the early 

Mathura inscriptions, I find the Bactrian letter (j or A, the initial 

of hat or 100 in the spoken dialects of the West ; hut on the early 
coins of Ujain as well as in the inscriptions of the Balahhi copper 

plates, the cypher for 100 is the old NSgari '^ or *, — the initial 

letter of soit, or 100 ; and this same letter is still used in Malahar in the 
old form as the cypher for 100. The other centenary numhers are 
formed hy attaching the units on the right hand of the cypher for 100 

thus '^ is 200, '^ is 300, and *^ is 500, in the series formed 

from ^ . In the other series we have ^ or ^ for 100, and also 

^ for 100 in the Budha Gupta inscription, and in one of the later 

Mathura inscriptions I find the date of Samvatsara ^cTGD which I 

read as 780, hut with considerahle hesitation. This system of forming 
the hundreds by joining the unit figures to the centenary cypher 
I showed to Mr. Griffith of the Benares CoUege, as well as to 
Mr. Bayley some two or three years ago. Por the cypher of 500 1 am 
indebted to Dr. Bhau Daji : but, as will be seen above, I do not agree 
with him in the forms of the figures for 200 and 300. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



"ISSi^ ItemarJss an a Lake in the Dittrict ofBassein. 39 



Bmtrhs on the ** iMke of the Clear Wafer" in the District qfJBassein^ 
BritUh JBurmah. — Bif E. O'Kilet, F. G. S,y Deputy Commission^ 
€r, Bassein, 

One of the most material branches of the revenae of the Province 

«f Pegu IB that derived from fisheries, which, as the purchase price 

of the monopoly of lakes and rivers, tax upon nets and other apparatus 

for dtcbing fish, produces to Government the large item of 4,20,000 

Bupeea annually. Of this item about one-third is formed from the i«nt 

of frnh water preserves situated above the tide-flow in the principal 

riven and their affluents ; and when that amount is taken as a base 

of vahiation for the quantity of fish obtained, bearing in mind that it 

repRsents simply the riyht of fishing only, it will be found that this 

sonroe of sustenance of life assumes a character almost miraculous ; in 

lact even those who regard the products of nature only as a means 

to the end of their own wants, can form no appreciable idea of the 

magnitude of the gifb a bountiful Providence has thus bestowed. 

Considering the subject of sufficient importance scientifically to 
engage the interest of the enquiring mind, I have taken as '* data** 
the **Ijake" of these remarks, a preserve formed by nature to 
supply the waters of the main river with a never-failing source of 
hunun sustenance, and characterized by geological features that render 
it the more interesting on that accountr 

The subjoined rough sketch shews the position of the Lake ; its cir- 
cumference is about 5 miles with a pretty uniform breadth of 280 to 300 
yards and depth from 20 to 45 in the centre ; it is connected with the 
•* Dugga Eiver," a large branch of the " Na-woon" or Bassein River, 
by a small outlet which serves to replenish the water of the lake at 
the period of the ireshes firom the Irrawaddy during the S. W, mon- 
soon, and carries oS the surplus water on the subsidence of the river* 
In both the small streams indicated forming the inlet as well as the 
main river, the water is shallower than that of the lake, and the general 
breadth of the latter greater than the river, so that, notwithstanding 
fheimpresaon on first view of its having at some distant period formed 
Mpattof the river, a subsequent exploration induced the conclusion 
that the lake has been formed by causes totally independent of stream- 
l«tJQD and from the homogeneous character of the formation of its 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



40 Bemarks on a Lake in the District ofBassein, 

banks, without any material break in its uniformity of outline, 
may be attributable to a gradual subsidence of the substrat 
slip of the lower-lying beds of the tertiary shales and clays up 
the lake rests. It is certainly the fact that the water of 
when relieved of the surcharge from the river has a 
colour (dark opaque olive) from that of the river when unin 
by the efflux from the Irrawaddy, and its properties are ea^ 
cause the fish in it to attain a larger size and greater de^ 
&tne8S than those of either river or lakes in the vicinity. It i 
concluded therefore that at a period perhaps coeval with that 
river itself, the springs which now feed the lake broke throug 
superior beds, leaving the present circular depression with its 
as one of those eccentric feats of nature usually classed as pheno 

As a " preserve" for fish to which their natural instincts ^ 
direct them for purposes of spawning and breeding, it will be seen 
the lake is eminently adapted ; and I am informed by the villi 
who reside on its banks that after the rains of the monsoon have 1 
the water-courses, and the " Dugga" has become swollen and ra 
the fish seek the still waters of the lake in vast numbers, making t 
entrance through the small channel and shallow water at its south 
entrance, where the land is low and swampy ; this entrance is left oi 
ontil the fish have passrd through, it is then closed during the hei§ 
of the waters ; and on their subsidence, when the channel haa becoij 
too shallow to admit of the fish escaping, it is again opened. 

Under the Burman Government, this lake had a for«famed celebri^ 
from the abundance and excellence of the fish caught on the oecasiol 
of the annual drawing of its bed during the full moon of June ; on 
which occasion, traders from Ava, from Frome, and the larger tov 
on the Irrawaddy, assembled to make their investments in smoke-drie 
fish cured on the spot, while the fish-dealers from Ba«seiii, and other! 
towns on the lower streams, as at present obtains, purcliased the fish ] 
alive, and transported them in bamboo ci^es inmiersed in the water, 
from which they were sold stiU in a live state ; owing to the profits 
realized in this trade, the competition for the purchase of the fish 
at the lake became so great, that it wa* not unusual to make advances 
several seasons previous to the completion of the contract. 

So valuable a source of revenue to the Burmese Government as 
this filshery afibrded, was not allowed to escape easily ; accordingly the 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 




'^.yrm 



^w*V-='rfsSiii' 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



i 




Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



18G4.] Bemarki on a Lake in the District ofBatsein, 



41 



% 



!» I 



sum of 60 yiss of silver or about 6000 tickals 
annually was exacted as a Royal tax from the 
" Payhnen" or hereditary chief of the lake, who 
exercised sole authority over the villagers employ- 
ed in the fishery, and, with his subordinate 
officers, formed an establishment separated in its 
interests from aU other administrative proceed- 
>|i ll.ilIJi ings. The conditions of the payment of this 
amount of tax were, however, favorable to the 
villager, as he was exempt from all other process 
of taxation, and in proportion to his means had 
a right of investing his capital in the general 
working of the fishery, the purchase of material 
for weirs, traps, nets, <&c. in proportion with which 
amount so invested, he received a share in the 
out-turn at the end of the season. 

Writing this memo, on the lake itself, I have 
been witness to the process of drawing it, so as 
to enclose the fish within a small space from 
which they are taken out and sold, and, as I am 
not aware of any other fishery in Burmah in 
which the work involved is so extensive, I shall 
endeavour to give a brief description of it. 
On the cessation of the rains of the S. W. 
I iT "'V ' n monsoon, when the water of the lake has attained 
its lowest level, a fixed weir is placed across the 
lake at its shallowest part (marked A on the 
sketch,) and another at the point B ; a drag net of 
reeds and grass strongly constructed with the 
toughest jungle creepers, forming from its great 
length of about J 800 cubits a deep concavity, 
! 1 1 and sweeping the bed of the lake, is then placed 
icross, inside of the weir at A, and gradually moved round the lake 
in the direction of that at B ; the process of dragging the firame is 
performed by floating capstans worked by stout hawsers of jungle 
rope attached to the ends of the frame, which by this tedious process 
is carried forward during three months at about 45 fathoms; each 

a 






,11 



HI'I 



ll I 



Digitized by 



Google 



42 Remarks on a Lake in the District of Bassein. [^o. I, 

day, until it is brought opposite the Tillage marked C on the sketch ; a 
fixed " weir" of bamboo is then made across the lake to form the one 
side of the enclosure into which the fish are driven ; the ponderous 
mass of framework is now taken to pieces and reconstructed across 
the water at the point B, from whence it is dragged to the weir last 
fixed at the village, and the ends gradually contracted until they form 
an oblong space within which the fish are enclosed. 

When the length of the weirs and of the moving drag frame 
is considered (about 900 yards,) and the depth of &om 12 to 30 fb. 
of the latter, together with the excessive labour in moving so large 
a body in one mass, it will be a matter of surprise to learn that the 
sum of 3000 Rupees is annually paid by the Een Thoogyee or Chief 
of the LakiB for the privilege of monopoly of its waters, but as no 
Burman can be brought to appreciate the value of his own labour 
when employed in his own work, this essential charge, (which would 
swallow up the entire profits of the specidator were he necessitated 
to hire such labour), forms no item of the estimate, and each man 
employed counts as gain all the fish which come to his share after 
paying any substantial expense he may have incurred during the period 
of working. 

The taking of the fish from the enclosure into which they are 
ultimately driven is deferred until the full moon of June, by which 
time the first showers of the monsoon have reduced the temperature 
of the water, and the fish are then less subject to die than would 
be the case vHlth the full blaze of the sun, unmitigated by the rain, 
striking upon the crowded mass ; with this precaution, however, a 
large number of fish die before the whole has been cleared, and the 
stench of their corruption taints the air for miles around. 

Being unable to stay to witness the final process of catching and 
disposing of the fish, I am dependant upon the Chief of the Lake 
for the following description, and as his interests are affected in de- 
preciating the amount of outturn, the quantities stated may be con- 
sidered as within the actual. 

On the near approach of the drag-net to the space forming the 
enclosure, the fish are observed to be in great commotion, rushing in 
all directions and attempting to force their way through ; finding the 
net too strong, many of the larger kind attempt to leap over the 
barrier, which they efiect, only, however, to fall into nets spread to catch 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



li*64.] Semarks on a Lake in the District ofBoisein. 43 

them ere they reach the water ; as the space becomes more confined, 
the distm-banoe of the mass of fish becomes so great that the noise of 
the splashing, and especially the deep hollow " grunting" of the larger 
kinds, is heard at several miles distance, and although this may appear 
tinctured with a little exaggeration, it will be intelligible when the 
number of fish caught is never below 70,000 to 80,000 of all kinds, some 
of which weigh upwards of 15 viss or about 60 lbs. ; and mixed up with 
the mass it is not unusual to find alligators of all sizes, from the infant 
of a month, to the grown parent whose skull measures two cubits in 
length. Strange to relate, no accident or casualty has ever been known 
to occur from the presence of alligators in this lake, although the men 
employed in working the drag net are constantly compelled to dive to 
the bottom in the deeper parts, to clear the lower portion of obstruo- 
tions in its hed, and I have myself seen an ancient member of the 
family, whose length could not be short of 15 fb., lying lazily on the 
surface within 100 yards of a cluster of children bathing near the 
bank. 

During the taking and disposal of the fish, some 8 to 10,000 
persons are collected at the small village in front of the preserve, a 
bazar is formed, and temporary sheds for smoking the fish are built, 
where the principal amount of business is transacted ; the scene alto- 
gether is novel and exciting, and, but for the fishy odour, fresh and 
corrupt, which pervades the atmosphere, would be well worth the visit 
of the curious observer. 

I omit the native names of the principal fish ; they belong, however, 
to the following genera, — Perca, typrinusy Gohio^ Laheo, timelodiM, 
Cirrkinus, C^prinodon and SiluruSy some of which attain the large size 
previously noted. In addition to these, however, there is a multitude 
of smaller firy which are converted into the coarser kinds of " Nga-pee," 
and are only interesting to the Ichthyologist, who would here find a 
Luge field for observation. 

But of those named above, some 25,000 viss, or upwards of 40 tons, 
are annually disposed of on the spot, and, taking the amount of revenue 
paid for this fishery or 3000 viss as representing 40 tons of fish, we have 
for the whole of the fresh water fisheries of Pegu an amount of upwards 
of 1800 tons of fish annually supplied to meet native requirements, 
an item considerably within the actual production, but which will 

DigfzJbyLjOOgle 



44 Beport on the Dependency of Bustar. [No. 1. 

•erve, hoprever, to exhibit the value of the inland fisheries as a souro* 
of Government Revenue. 

The accompanying rough sketch will give but a faint idea of thj 
beauty of the scenery of the lake or of the picturesque sites of tb 
villages on its banks ; it must be seen to be fully appreciated. 



Extract from a Report on the Dependency of Bustar. — By Captd 
C. Glasfubd, Deputy Commissioner of the Upper Oodavek 
Districts. 

In comparison with the extent of the Dependency, there are not . 
many objects of interest as might be expected. None of the pr«viof 
Rajas of Bustar have erected temples or any permanent building 
and were the present dynasty to pass away, they would not lear 
behind them a single edifice of any description to commemorate th< 
rule. It was different with the ruling power whom they appear * 
have displaced, viz. tliat of the Nagbunse Rajas of Barsoor as 
Bhyrumgurh. Although it is nearly five hundred years since their pow* 
was broken, and their name has been all but forgotten, yet no one cs 
see the ruined temples at Barsoor without instituting a comparisc 
between the past and present rule. It is not that the former wei 
greater than many other petty Rajas, but that the present are I 
inferior. The ruins of the ancient Barsoor, said to have been th 
capital of the previous power, are to be traced cloee to the north C 
the present village of that name, through a dense jungle of bambo 
which has overgrown the site. A high brick wall, the ruins of whid 
are now difficult to follow, seems to have enclosed a space of abou: 
one square mile ; whether the city was contained within this I an 
unable to say ; but within it there are the ruins of four or five templefl. 
They are at some little distance from each other, and from the massei 
of rock of which they have been constructed, and the richness and 
beauty of their sculpture, impress one with a favorable idea of th6 
taste and wealth of those under whose rule they were built. Three are 
in a tolerable state of preservation, one sacred to Mahadeo and another 
to Peddama, the sister of Dunteshwarree, the original representation 
of whom was removed to Duntewara by Dulput Deo, Raja of Bustar. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



44 

•ervc 
ofG 
T 
beau 
villa 



Exi 
C 

1 

I 

mar 
Raj 
and 

beh 

ruk 

hav 

Bh; 

wag 

see 

bet 

gre 

inf< 

ca^ 

th< 

wh 

are 

on« 

un 

Tl 

of 

be 



8 removed to Duntewara by Uuipot jLreo, ±v»ji» ui ^«« 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 




Digitized by VjOOQ IC 






Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1664.] Beport on HW Dependency ofBustmr. 45 

The third appears to have been unfiiiished, as most of the niches 
intended for idols are vacant, and there is no representation inside. 
The fallen ruins of* three others testify to the damage wrought bj 
the insinuating roots of the Ficm Indiea; persons digging for 
concealed treasure have also facilitated their destruction. The 
first temple is a flat roofed building supported on 82 pillars, under 
which are two dia^ct shrines to M ahadeo, the domes over which 
have fallen down, carrying part of the roof and wall with them. The 
whole building is composed of massive blocks of gneiss quarried in 
the neighbouring hills, well dressed and put together apparently with- 
out the aid of mortar ; around and inside are a few idols, all of steatite ; 
ihey are as minutely and elegantly carved as any I have seen, with 
perhaps the exception of some of the better temples at Yizanuggur 
on the Toongabuddra near Bellary. In front of this temple I found 
a slab with an ancient Sanscrit and Teloogoo inscription on both sides ; 
part of it had been broken off and was nowhere to be found ; after 
offering a reward and causing search to be made, I had the satisfaction 
of obtaining it. As the Teloogoo is of an antiquated character, I 
regret to say I have not succeeded in obtaining an accurate translation 
of the inscription ; — a fac simile is appended. From what I can ascertain 
it would appear that the temple of Mahadeo, where the slab was found, 
wag built by a Bajah Someshwur Deo a Nagbimse Kshutrya in the 
year 1130 of the Vikramaditya era, viz. about 790 years ago. I would 
be glad to receive information on the subject from any one who is 
able to decipher the character, and whatever further information I may 
glean will be communicated. 

A gigantic representation of Gimputty, about 10 feet in height 
and stout in proportion, is one of the most remarkable objects among 
these ruins. There is one lai^e tank in good repair at Barsoor, and 
•everal old ones, and I was told that within a circuit of about 15 miles 
the ruins of about 150 tanks could be counted. At Bhyrumgurh in 
the Kootroo talook there are the ruins of 'two temples within a walled 
space similar to that at Barsoor. 

At Duntewara again on the western bank of the Dunkunee, close 
to the present village, there are the remains of two temples, one sacred 
to " Bun Bhyroo ;" the remwns of a brick wall similar to that of Barsoor 
can also be traced. I was much struck with the quality of the bricks. 
I presume they were built shortly afber the buildings which they 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



46 Report on the Dependency ofBustar, [No. 1, 

enclose, and if so they must be at least 500 years old. The bricks 
were as hard as if they had beon taken out of the kiln but yesterday. 
I could not gather any traditions in the neighbourhood connected 
with these remains of a former power. All that I have been able to 
collect is given in the chapter on History and Traditions. 

The ruins of Madliota, one of the former capitals of the Bustar 
Rajas, along with those of Old Bustar, are hardly worthy of remark. 
There are no buildings of a permanent structure, and the remains of 
mud walls and ditches are all that can be traced. Near Rajapoor, a 
few miles north of Chitterkote, there are the ruins of a palace built by 
Rajpal Deo ; his favourite son having died at Madhota he wished to 
remove his capital to Rajapoor ; owing, however, to its vicinity to the 
Narenjee river, it was subject to inundations, and the people could not 
be induced to remain there, and upon the death of Raj pal Deo, soon 
afterwards, the palace was deserted and fell into ruins. 



^ii^i ^TfRift^ Tj^ V^ m:^\ I vr^5 ^^i^ wt ^'^- 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 









47 

rt- 



^. 



5lT 
'It 



^- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



i 



46 

end 
wer€ 

I CO 

with 
colle 
TI 
Raja 
Thei 
mud 
few 1 
Kajp 
remo 
Nare 
be in 
after 






Digitized by LjOOQ IC 




y*yw3i^aniTm«fm I 



Digitized by^OOQlC 



46 

end 
wert 

I CO 

witb 
coUe 
T 
Raja 
Thei 
mud 
few 1 
Kajp 
remc 
Nare 
be in 
after 



t 

f' -■' 



Digitized by V^OOQlC 



18(>4.^ Report on the Dependency of Bustar. 47 



Digitized byLjOOQlC 



48 Report on the Dependency ofButtar. [No. 1, 

^*<4K*iiT iprt^HT?n i=NrT?iiT^ I ^^^CI^lIW^l^: ^rei^- 
iirer^^ ?flw ^ ^B^m ^t«1^ ^1^ ^^^inr^rprTift «nc^* 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1864.] Snumeration of the hot springs of Indicu 49 

Sttumeration of the hot springs 0/ India and Hiffh Aula, — 

By KOBEBT DE SCHLAGINTWEIT, JSifq, 

A memoir by Dr. John Macpherson, " The Mineral waters of Indi% 
with gome hints on Spas and Sanatoria," Calcutta, 1854,* which was 
published originallv in the " Indian Annab of Medical Science" has 
been rery valuable for the present compilation. Dr. Macpherson 
includes in his memoir, hot springs as well as mineral ones ; I have, 
however, restricted myself to the enumeration of hot springs only, 
viz. of those, the temperature of which considerably exceeds the tem- 
perature of the air at the spot of their origin. I have, therefore, 
excluded every spring, which, though it may contain mineral ingre- 
dients, yet shows a temperature scarcely differing from that of other 
sweet springs in its neighbourhood. Petroleum wells arc not contained 
in the present list, which comprises the hot springs between 8|^ to 
2&> Latitude North, and -670 to 88^0 Longitude East Green., Ceylon 
being excluded, as well as the Indo-Chinese peninsula (Tenasserim, 
Bormah, &cJ) 

To each locality, where a hot spring exists, the province is added, 
in which it is situated ; of the abbreviations, which follow next, and 
which are contained in brackets, Ind. signifies '' India ; Him. = Hima- 
laya ; Tib. = Tibet ; C. As. = Central Asia." " Un." means unknown ; 
ab. = about. The geographical co-ordinates, — ^latitude, longitude, and 
height (Eng. feet) above the sea-level, — given almost for every locality, 
are taken from ToL II. "Hypsometry of India and High Asia," 
of our " Besults of a Scientific Mission to India and High Asia." The 
longitudes are referred to the Madras Observatory, for which we 
•dopt 80» IdT 56" Long. East Green. 

With few exceptions, there are several springs existing at everj one 
of the different localities ; the temperatures given refer to the hottest 
<^th6 springs at the respective locality. 

Dr. Macpherson alludes in his memoir to the diffioulties he expe- 
nenced in verifying the localities of the hot and mineral springs 
^ which in many instances, owing to strange transmutations of names 
vere so great, that I cannot hope to have escaped mistakes." These 
tie, however, very few in number, and they are noticed by me in the 

* An extxuct has also appeared in this Journal, Vol. XXV. p. 197. 

% Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



50 Enumeration of the hot sprinffs of India. [No. 1, 

last column of the table, headed " Authorities and Bemarks." In this 
column I have also added in chronological order the various describers 
of the respective springs, and the books and pamphlets in which their 
accounts have been published. 

For the sake of comparison I add the temperatures of some of the 
most famous hot springs of Europe. These dates are taken &om the 
** Einleitung in die Mineralquellen Lehre," by Dr. £. M. Lersch, 
Erlangen, 1855-60. 

Temp. Fahr. 
Aachen: Hottest spring, • . . . • 166o 
Baden-Baden: Bruhquelle, " - - - - 155 
Ems: Bondelquelle, • . . • • 131 
Gastein : Hottest spring, - - - - - 119 

Karlsbad: Sprudel, 162^ 

Plombieres : Roman spring, ... - . 158 
Schlangenbad: Hottest spring, ... 90^ 
Teplitz : Hottest spring, ... . . 121 

Vichy: Grand Putts, 113 

Wildbad: Herrenbad, 99i 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



iSM.] 



Snumeraiion of the hot tpringt of India. 



61 









J^)^ I^«i 









o> o oo 



4 



o 

9 



ILMi 



St= t= 



^ ooc 






00 lO^ 



a 



28 



t*QO 



8 



1^ 



o^S ^ S3 






O 

O 
1^ 



'JLIOQ 'OfH 




• • • • 



•2 >-" 



11 ill 



l| 



pqpq 



li 

pom 



aO<« 



cot* 000> OpH 






.a a 
gfe* 

Is. 



;S 



•s.g 

■§"2 



1'^ 



4:) 



Digitized 5 V?,OOgle 



62 



Enumeration of the hoi spring* of India. 



[No. 1. 



M 
< 

QQ 
H 

o 
w 







cgsi;i 



^ s o -« c 5 £ 






5 



o «> 

t> 00 

"^ CO 



»o.oo»oo co.ooo ., , 

t*p0000i-iO i-< P CO N pp p p 



bo o o 



o o 



ON S5 2" $o ooc ^ 

p 5o" r-lDpH,-rpTir cT'^. TjTyT rt'' rt- P 



s 



-'go 



i> 1^ r» i^ t* w t> c 



< "* ri N 



I CO O) t» u» 



If 
3« 



:s 



i> NcoNpHoorH i-<oo«Do i-HO \a 

rH lAOOOOlO COr-l ^ 



■^ W -^ »0 (N CO 
00 CO C4 CO 00 CO 



4 o!i 






o 



•iiao ox 






a 

H 

0" 

.S 

N« s2 ^ 



.S 



^ 6 









n 



M 

.g 

Ja 



fL, .= ^ .S .£ ;ih « 

,g •- XJ ^ „ 



&£; "iS <rf-S 

^ :; .r c S3 ^;3 
«_■ w ^- U O O 




iS 



s 
.g 



00 "^ >0 CC l> 00 05 O iH N 00 -^ lO pt^ 00 o 
^ ,H rH iH iH iH r-i 09 IN M 04 9^ S^ ^ 01 0^ a| 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



J86i.2 



Enumeration of the hot sprinffi of India. 



53 











W« VXJ ^ 







c 









^ ^ 



C fH (N . C, »0 CO 



n 



S ^ ^ 

2-^^ 



8 



« o . 



o o o 

O O O 



s 



9 

s 



oo 



va oD 









lo C4 to »a 



00 Q0t»-CO 



'f" "H* pH 

00 to 



00 tN.00 



9 



CO o 



e4 eo 



CO oo 



»OI> O fH "^ CO o 
»0 »0 -^ . rl rH CO 



Oi o to -^ 

iH CO CO CO 



"^f «o »o 






•4| 



I ^ 



J 



s 
•3 



-S-S 






(Tib.) 
khan, 


>—' 




Ut^' 


tc cP 


fd 




11 


If! 
Ill 


in 


? 






1 


»^^UJt>d 


M^»3 


;^ 


» 



s 



£ oS 



8 



CQ 09 09 OO 



00 a> Q ph w m "^ 

00 CO ^ ^ ^ ^<^ 



Digitized byLjOOQlC 



64 



Enumeration of the hot tpringi of India. 



[No.1, 



GQ 

M 

S3 






a; 
o 
w 

5 







o 
53 



P 



ss 



coo . . o . 

t^Odpp cop 



PP'H 



o c^ 
d eq 






So 



P S' 



cT P*^«P 






III 



S Si! 






s & 



ii 
1.1 



'CO iH 



Q-eO to OD Q r-l CD 09 

e^^MS^ .p-10004 

< ihP H* C0»O 



s s 



o 
o 
1^ 









s 



M 
I 



If 



2 o 
OQ d 

fi- 
ll 



n3 

ill 









;^S?5i^'^i^;^^pucHi 




•XIUQ -O^ 



fH O) 
C0 CO 



9 $ 32 SSSISS&SSS 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1864.] 



Enumeration cfthe hot ipringt of India. 



65 



c 2 o c •« 





s 3 ^. 






















o. 


q 




o 


O 


<=l . . 


_o 


q 




o 


fl 


^5 




iH 


5^ 




1 


O C 0O 


•^1 



p 


rH 


a 


c a 


s 


1 


dd 


dfl 


a 


§ 


d 


II 





S 

r^ 


U 


PP 


^D* 


^ 


PD 


t>P 


l=> 


©"DP^P 


^j5 


p 


« 








fH 








»H 




-s 






a 


e s 


2 


s 


SS 


S-* 


S 


sa^ 


dS 


9«^ 


d 


00 


s 


PP 


g 


s 


85 


gs 


g 


00 ^oq 


^s 


gR 


p 


s 


) 


B e 


S 


01 


iH 


iHOO 


lO 


«5j« 


00 



SS 


d 


s 


^ 


t3t3 


•H 


CO 


w»t^ 


t«eo 


00 


09 -^lO 


tSu, 


sss 


p 


iH 


« 




00 


eo 


N^ 


1-4 (M 


iH 


eooooo 


e« 




09 





& Am 02 c 



•i -i-S- 

I .9 .3 -9.9.9 

GQ QQ QQ QQ OQ OQ 



.§1 



.9" 



2S 



CO ^tocoi> 



Digitized byLjOOQlC 



66 



Enumeration of tlie hot springi of India'. 



[Xo. 1, 









P3 
o 

w 

<1 








^7% 

»0 oc *i ij* 






amiBJddinex 






a d d d 



QC C' q « ^ 

d ci -si r4 -fi (>i 

P « ro ^ ca ^ 



^^ > 

to © © 

Hi 






GQ 



O 

c 

Hi 



•AlOO OJJI 



O « <M 

lo 00 o 



d 



d d d 
P PP 



p^ 



QD ^ P ts' 1^" 



S '"S 



00 t^ 



00 00 00 iH "^ 






I 

.9 

■s. 

3 




'S c s ^ 



.-^ (^ c s il; 



^ * ^ "ffl ^ 

^ ^- .2 .6 - 

. . c P d E W-% *5 fc 

Pt>ppp>P^>->H 



3 



Digitized by LjOOQ I 



5 



1^ 

53 
g§ 






'3,3 






u 

§■9 
Q g 

|§ 
-I 

t5:S 
•1 



ISGi.^ Jkfefnorandum upon same aneient Tiles, 67 

Memorandum upon some ancient Tiles obtained at Puffon in Burma. — 
By Lt-Col. A. P. Phayee. 

I send hen^with four tiles having Budhist figures and inscriptions 

which were discovered at Pugan. They were given to me by the 

principal Monk of a Budhist Monastery there. I only saw one of the 

four kinds in the original site ; viz. the tile marked No. 1. The 

Monk assured me that all were found in different parts of the ruined 

citv, but he did not wish me to go to the several sites, being appai*- 

ently a&aid that I should carry away too many, and that he might be 

blamed for being instrumental in injuring ancient pagodas. As my 

visit on this occasion was a hurried one, I had not time to discuss the 

matter with the old Phoon-gyee, who was exceedingly obliging, but 

he gave me one of his scholars to show me the place where the tile 

No. 1 was discovered. 

It was the ruins of a small solid pagoda. In one comer the foim- 
datioQ at the level of the ground was exposed. The tiles like that 
marked No. J, were laid on edge, and apparently formed the upper 
layer of the arch of the relic chamber. The hollow portion of the 
tiles was filled with sand partially mixed with lime to resist pressure. 
Bearing in mind the fears of the Phoon-gyee I brought none of the 
tiles away with me, but after inspecting a few, replaced them. 
I now proceed to describe the tiles. 

No. 1 bears thirty figures of Budhas. Of these two which are 
distinguished from the rest are evidently the figures ol Gautama. The 
renuuning twenty-eight are apparently intended to represent the 
Budhas of an antecedent period. At the bottom o( the tile are two 
lines in the Deva Nagri character. On the back are inscribed seven 
lines in rude Burmese characters, and in the Ma-ga-da, or Pali lan- 
guage. I give them in the Roman character as follows : 
Ata wisa ti m^ budha 
Ti gi ihu me ka tsa tha ha 
Budhat ta ya Tat tat ta ya 
Thabbau matu pitu a ya 
Tsa ri ya putta ra ditsa 
Thabba that ta hita pitsa 
Budhau hithati n&ga teti. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



68 Memorandum upon some ancient Tiles. [No. 1, 

No. 2. This tile has eight groups or compartments of figures. 
Each no doubt represents a marked event or scene in the life of 
Oautama Budha though I cannot recognise all. The first is the group 
in the right hand, lower comer. It represents the birth of Gautama. 
He is issuing from the right side of his mother who grasps the Shorea 
rohusta tree above her head, and is attended by her sister. The figure 
at the top where Guutama is seen reclining represents his death in the 
country of Koothinaron. At the foot are two lines of writing in 
ancient Deva Nagri character. 

No. 3. A figure of Gautama Budha seated on a sort of throne 
and his feet on a foot-stool. Around him are what appear to be 
intended to represent pagodas or relic caskets. The modern pagodas 
of Burma and Siam appear to have been fashioned after such-like 
models. There is a Deva Nagri inscription below the figure. 

No. 4, is a small tile in the shape of the leaf of the Ficus religiosa. 
It bears a figure of Gautama in the usual attitude of reflection, and 
a Deva-Nagri inscription below. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



1864.] Literary Intelligeneey Correspondence^ !fc, 59 



LiTSBABT InTELLIOEKCE, CobBESPOKDEKCE, &C. 

Dr. Weber writes to Mr. Cowell from Berlin, November 9th, 1863. 

" Out of the many interesting news contained in your letter of 
June 5th, that about the Elliot collection of course claims the greatest 
attention. Mr. Austin's estimate for the cost of printing appears 
exceedingly moderate. Your Sanskrit College edition of the Siddhdnta 
Eaumudi will be welcomed very heartily, as it may be used as a text- 
book in our Universities' Sanskrit Courses. The Nagdnanda too will 
be very welcome. Your translation of the Kusum^jali must be 
bard work and will do us a great service. 

Buna's Harshacharitra is a work which seems of the utmost import-* 
ance, to judge after the notices which we owe to Dr. Hall about it. 
I cannot a8 yet reconcile myself to the idea that the author of such a 
didl and clumsy work as the Kadambari, should have lived in the 
seventh century, before Bhavabhiiti wrote Ids dramas, which indeed 
abow already symptorM enough of a kindred style, but still appear in 
that regard more to resemble a weak stem, whereas a Kidambari is to 
be likened to a nyagrodha-wildemess. 

The second part of M. Pictet's *' Origines Indo-europeennes'' has now 
appeared. It is a great pity that he is no better Sanskrit scholar. 
The principles laid out and followed throughout his work are the very 
b^, his assiduity and ardour deserve the highest praise, but the re- 
aolts, alas, are rather too often of a too questionable character to 
admit of acknowledgment or adoption. Professor Spiegel has just 
DOW published a series of old and new papers on '* £r£n" (this is the 
title of his book) : two of them on the relation of the Avesta to the 
Veda and to the Genesis will be of particular interest : I have not yet 
lead tiiem, but I saw Spiegel in Meissen and we spoke to him about 
tbese themes. That meeting in Meissen was a very interesting one, 
forty members of our German Oriental Society being present (a larger 
nmnber, than ever hitherto). Professor Wright is now to print under 
tbe patronage of our Society an old Arabian grammar, the Kamil of 
ai-Mubarrad (about 800 pages quarto). Dieterici is occupied wi'.h his 
teislataon of the treatises of the Ikhwan u^ 9af4. Gosche has given 
<Mxt a prospectus for an edition of the Mufa<)hdhaliydt, a collection of 
old Arabic poetry. Amari's publication of the state documents of 

JigiledbyLjOOgle 



(JO Literary Intelligence^ Correspondence , Sfc. [No. 1, 

treaties between Venice etc. and the Moslems is highly praised. Emil 
Schlagintweit*s Buddhism in Tibet with a copious Atlas of original 
drawings and pictures from the temple shrines of Tibet (representing 
Buddhist gods, saints and symbols) is a work of great interest. Curi- 
ous enough, I found among these pictures the exact counterpart to a 
stone figure of Manju9ri, deposited now in our Royal Museum here, 
but imported from Java, and containing two Sanskrit inscriptions in 
old character (from ^aka 1265), a decyphering and translation of 
which Dr. Friederich left with me (for th(^ Jonmal of our Society) on 
his departure for Java at the end of February last. Five centuries 
between, and still the same picture in Java and in Tibet, — this is indeed 
a mark of much tenacity to the old form of representing this deity 
(or half god), and at the same time also an evidence for its even much 
higher antiquity. The last proof sheet of the Petersburg Worterbuch 
went to ^^ and I think that number 6 of the fourth volume will 
soon be ready. The twelfth vol. of Kuhn's Zeitschrift fur verglei- 
chende Sprachforschung is finished. It is a great pity, that Kuhn 
has not more leisure to devote to his studies on comparative mytho- 
logy : he is professor at a Gymnasium (high school) and his time very 
much restricted. Windischmann's Zoroastrische Studien (edited by 
Spiegel) is a very excellent work. The author (a Catholic clei^yman 
of high distinction in Munich) combined Bumoufs method with a 
very deep and successful study of the Pehlvi literature : his premature 
death is a great loss for science. The first volume of Boehtlingk's 
collection of Sanskrit " Spruche" appeared in July : to the text (al- 
phabetically arrangeJ) is added the translation, and at the foot the 
enumeration oi all the passages, where the verse is occurring, and the 
varietas lectionis. The second part is to contain the rest (from ^ to ^) 
and ample indices to the whole. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THS 

ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL, 

Fob November, 1863. 



The men till J general meeting of the Society was held on the 4th 
inatant, 

E. C. Bayley, Esq., President, in the chair. 

The proceedings of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Presentations were received — 

L From Hin Highness the Maharajah of Benares, a copy of the 
Bev. M. A. Rherring's lecture on " Benares and its Antiquities." 

2. From Baboo Rajendra Mallika, a dead blue and yellow Macaw. 

3. From His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, a mete- 
oric stone, which fell at Shytal near Dacca, on the llth August, the 
&U of which was announced at the last meeting. 

4. From Prince Mohammad Jallaluddin, a specimen of a dead snake 
—Bungarm Candidua 

5. From Colonel B. C. Tytler, a collection of zoological specimens. 

6. From His Excellency the Viceroy, a stone Buddhist figure, with 
to insciiption, from Sahet Mahet, the ancient SravastL 

The President announced that a pension of £150 a year had been 
gnnted to the Society's Curator, Mr. E. Blyth, to take effect from 
the Ist January, 1863. 

Read Lettebs. 

From Colonel J. C. Haughton to the President, giving an account 
of a large collection of coins lately found at a place called Gosain 
Hane, about 14 miles S. S. W. from Cooch Behar. 

From Captain Speke, acknowledging the vote of thanks of the 
^^wiHy, and announcing his proposed expedition to discover the source 
rf the Congo. 

From Captain H. H. Godwin Austen, giving an account of the 
^iiOOTery of some coins at Islamabad. 

From K. H. Barnes, Esq., returning thanks to the Society for his 
eleetion as a corresponding member. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



62 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 1, 

A letter from Dr. G. Gordon, intimating his desire to withdraw 
from the Society, was recorded. 

The following gentlemen, duly proposed at the last meeting were 
balloted for and elected ordinary members : — 

Dr. J. McLelland ; W. P. Duff, Esq. ; Dr. Ferd. Stoliczka ; B. T. 
Martin, Esq. ; Major J, G. Go wan ; Baboo Modhoosoodun Doss, and 
H. D. Sandeman, Esq. 

The following gentlemen were named for ballot as ordinary members 
at tlie next meeting : — 

The Rev. M. D. C. Walters, Chaplain of Calcutta, proposed by Mr. 
Cowell and seconded by Mr. Grote. 

A. G. Walker, Esq., proposed by Major Layard and seconded by 
Colonel Gastrell. 

T. Dickens, Esq., Barrister-at-law, proposed by Mr. Blanford and 
seconded by Mr. H. C. Sutherland. 

J. Forsyth, Esq., Bengal Staff Corps, proposed by Mr. R. A. 
Stemdale and seconded by Mr. Blanford. 

The Rev. Mr. Corbyn introduced some aborigines of the Andaman 
Islands, and gave an interesting account of these people, with a short 
narrative of the circumstances which have led to the establishment of 
a Mendly feeling between them and the settlers. 

Thanks were unanimously voted to Mr. Corbyn for his interesting 
account of the Aborigines of the Andaman Islands. 

After a few preliminary remarks on the ethnology of the Anda- 
manese, Mr. Blanford stated that he was doubtful whether the inter- 
course opened will tend eventually to the civilization of the natives 
of the Andamans. He stated that the history of the New ZeaUnders 
and other barbarous people in Australia and America sufficiently war- 
rants us to assume the broad fact that when two different races in 
very different states of civilization come in contact with one another, 
the more powerful race exterminates the less powerful, and that civili- 
zation, to be permanent, must be attained by gradual steps and mainly 
be developed from within, foreign influence being but a seco^idary 
agent. 

Mr. Cowell could not concur in the opinion of Mr. Blanford ; on 
the contrary he believed that history generally bears out the fact 
that nations cannot rise in civilization without an influence ab extra. 
He quoted some instances fi'om ancient history in support of this view. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



J86*.] Proceedings nffhe Asiatic Society. 63 

The President remarked that without entering into the abstract 
(joestion raised by Mr. Blanford, it might perhaps be doubted if the 
fiu?tg dted by him fully warranted in their entirety the conclusions at 
vhich he had arriyed. 

No doubt it was unfortunately true that in the majority of cases 
ill which a race of. high civilization had come into cootact with 
mother of a very inferior civilization, the result had been fatal to thd 
latter. It was unnecessary here to discuss the causes which had con- 
tributed to produce this effect. The President, however, would call 
tbe attention of the meeting to one instance which he believed proved 
it least that an exception might exist to the general rule. The Laps 
vhom Mr. Blanford had cited as forming a part of the same brachy- 
cephalic family to which the Andamanese belonged, had been for some 
time (for more at least than a century and a half) in contact on either 
ode with Swedish and Russian civilization, and however it might be 
the fashion to decry the character of the latter, thei-e could in reality 
be no doubt that it was civilization of the highest order, especially 
in that part of Russia which bordered on the territory of the Laps. 

Now, the result had certainly not been in this case the eztermina- 
tion of the Laps ; indeed, though not speaking on accurate informa- 
tion, the President believed that the Laps had neither diminished in 
munbers nor deteriorated in condition, since the commencement of the 
last century. 

Bat whatever might be the opinion of the meeting on the merits 
of Mr. Blanford's general proposition, it was important to remember 
that in the present case the question was not whether or not we 
should leave the Andamanese alone, for the commencement of our 
intercourse with them was unavoidable. These islands lie in the very 
tiack of a very important and daily increasing line of commerce. 
They contain what are in reality the only harbours of refuge within 
the Bay of Bengal. It had been already constantly pressed upon 
OoYemment that it was their duty for the protection of these our 
tnbjects, and those of other nations trading in these seas to reclaim 
tbese Islands now abandoned to a barbarous and hostile population. 
Ko doubt these considerations have sooner or later made interference 
inevitable. The establishment of a penal colony which the necessities 
of jail discipline in India had compelled Government to form, only 
hastened the event. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



64 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, [No. 1, 

It was beyond denial that the commencement of snch an inter- 
conrse with this uncivilized race involved grave moral re8po!nsibilitie&, 
and these could not be approached without anxious consideration. 

But the question was not now, whether this intercourse should be 
commenced at aU, but by what means and in what manner it could 
be most humanely and successfully commenced. ^ 

So far as they had gone, Mr. Corbyn*s endeavours had been unu8u«> 
ally happy, and promised most favorably for the future. No doubt 
Luther efforts would be made in the same direction, and it was to be 
hoped with the same prosperous result. It might indeed be otherwise, 
but at any rate it was the duty of the more civilized race to omit no 
effort to avoid the evils which had hitherto resulted from its contact 
with those of the lower grades of civilization, and the meeting would 
doubtless consider that Mr. Corbyn was entitled to all praise for the 
patience, tact, and humanity which had hitherto distinguished his 
efforts to reclaim and civilize the Andamanese. 

Communications were received — 

1. From Eev. I. Loewenthal, a paper on some Persian inscriptioDs 
found in Srinagar, Kashmir. 

2. From Baboo Gopinath Sen, Abstract of the hourly Meteorolo- 
j^cal Observations, taken at the Surveyor General's office, for the 
month of August last. 

3. From W. Theobald, Esq., Jr. a paper on the variation of some 
Indian and Burmese Helicidaa, with an attempt at their re-arraxige- 
ment, together with description of new Burmese Gasteropoda. 

4. From Professor J. Dowson, through £. Thomas, Esq., remarks 
on Major General Cunningham's paper on the Taxila inscription. 

Mr. Cowell read some extracts from a paper by Colonel Abbott on 
the site of Aornos. 

Mr. Cowell, having read extracts from the paper. Major Walker 
made some conmients on the subject of it, and stated that so £a.r as 
he was aware of the merits of the question he would adopt the 
position as given by Mr. Loewenthal in opposition to Colonel Abbott's 
arguments. 

In consequence of the la/fceness of the hour the paper of Mr. Loe- 
wenthal on some Persian inscriptions was not read, and the meeting 
separated. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



1864.] Froeeedings of the Asiatic Society. 66 

Fob Decembeb, J 863. 
The numthlj general meeidng of the Society was held on the 2nd 
nvtant. 
A. Grote, Esq., in the chair. 

The proceedings of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
Presentations were received — 

1. From the Assistant Secretary to the Government of India, 
Foreign Department — a copy of a report by B. H. Davies, Esq., on 
the trade of Central Asia. 

2. From Baboo Ganendra Mohan Tagore, Professor of Hindoo Law 
in Uniyersity College, London — a pamphlet containing the substance of 
a lectme delivered by him before the Ethnological Society of London, 
" On the f(»rmatioa and institution of the caste system — ^the Aryan 
polity." 

3. From Baboo Prosonno Coomar Tagore — a copy of his English 
translation of Vivdda Ohint6mani from the original Sanskrit of Y&chas* 
patiMisra. 

4. From his Highness the Maharajah of Burdwan — a copy of the 
iM and the Sahhd parvae of the Mahdbh&rata in Sanskrit, with a 
Bengali translation, published under his auspices. 

The following gentlemen duly proposed at the last meeting were 
btlloted for and elected ordinary members: — ^The Rev. M. D. C. 
Walters ; A. G. Walker, Esq. ; J. Forsyth, Esq. ; and T. Dickens, Esq. 

W. Murray, Esq., B. C. S. was then proposed by Mr. Cowell for 
baDot as ordinary member at the next meeting, seconded by Mr. 
Hanfoid. 

The Secretary read the following report, which had been adopted by 
titt Council, on a proposition submitted by Mr. C. Home for facilitating 
> more extended correspondence on Natural History subjects : — 

"* The practicability of carrying out Mr. Home's proposition depends 
Bsnly on the assistance afforded by those interested in its accom* 
pHahment, the Council being unanimously of opinion that a publish- 
ed list of naturalists, nimiismatists, and others would be of great 
^■Bstanoe to those engaged in these studies, and it is believed that 
•Qch a list would facilitate the exchange of duplicate specimens, and 
<t the same time enable those interested in special subjects to know in 
what quarter to apply for information and assistance. 

Digiti^ by Google 



66 Proceedings oftht. Atsiatic Society, [No. 1, 

" Much help for the formation of such lists may be afforded by mem- 
bers of the Society, and it is therefore recommended that, as a preli- 
minary step, a circular with a blank form be forwarded to members of 
the Society, requesting them to insert the names and addresses of those 
collectors with whom they may be acquainted, and to specify the 
subjects wherein they are respectively interested ; at the same time 
members should be requested to state whether they wish their own 
names to appear in the proposed list, and to furnish similar informa- 
tion with regard to themselves, as well as to mention any specimens 
which they might wish to offer as exchanges. 

" It would, in the next place, be necessary to apply directly to those 
gentlemen who, not being members of the Society, may be indicated 
by the latter as collectors, in order that their assent to the publication 
of their names, and perfectly authentic information respecting their 
requirements, &c., may be obtained ; and they might be asked at the 
same time to communicate to the Society the names of others with 
whom they may be acquainted, and who may in like manner wish their 
names to be recorded. In all cases, however, no name or details should 
be published that are not furnished or mentioned by the individuals 
themselves. 

" The materials thus obtained should be classified in a manner 
hereafter to be determiced upon, and the lists so formed, printed on 
fly-sheets for insertion at the end of each number of the Journal, It 
might be found desirable also to append authentic information as to 
those who may be engaged in the working out of any special subject 
with a view to publication." 

The Chairman, on the part of the Council, recommended that the 
reference of Capt Lees' amendment of Rule 77 to the Society at large 
be for the present deferred. This recommendation was made in conse- 
quence of the Council's having just appointed a committee to revise 
the rules generally. It seemed expedient to include in one reference 
other amendments of the rules which might result from this revision. 

Communications were received — 

1. From Baboo Qopinath Sen — an abstract of the hourly meteoro- 
logical observations taken at the Surveyor General's office in September 
last. 

2. From Major J. T. Walker, Superintendent Gr. T. Survey — report 
of the operations of the G. T. Surve\' of India during J 862-63. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



ISW.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 67 

Mr. Oldham was then invited to read his paper submitted in 
October, entitled "Notes on the Fossils in the Society's Collection 
reputed to be from Spiti ;" and that gentleman, after objecting to the 
postponement of the paper, proceeded to read it. 

The ChEurman remarked on the objections raised by Mr. Oldham, 
that his paper, though announced at the October meeting, had not 
been read on account of Mr. Oldham's absence from that and the 
following meeting. 

An interesting discassion ensued between Mr. Oldham and Mr. 
Blanford as to the identity or otherwise of these fossils with those of 
the Greraxd collection. 

Mr. Oldham then exhibited to the Society a small collection of 
itone implements which had very recently been discovered by Messrs. 
Xing and Foote of the Geological Survey of India, near Madras. 
These were all of the ruder forms, so well known as characterizing the 
fluit implements which had excited so much attention within the last 
few years in Europe. They were all formed of dense semi- vitreous 
quartzite — a rock which occurred in immense abundance in districts 
dose to where these implements had been found, and which formed 
a very good substitute for the flints of north Europe. This was the 
first instance in which, so far as he knew, such stone implements had 
been found in India in situ. True celts of a totally different type 
»nd much higher finish, and in every respect identical with those 
found in Scotland and Ireland, had been met with in large numbers in 
Central India, but never actually imbedded in any deposits. They 
were invariably found under holy trees, or in sacred places, and were 
objects of reverence and worship to the people, who could give no 
information as to the source from which they had been originally 
gathered together. A single and very doubtful fragment of a stone 
implement had been found by Mr. W. Theobald, Junior, in examining 
tiie deposits of the Gangetic plains near the Soane river. This occur- 
red in the Kunknrry clay of that district ; but, with this exception, 
he was not aware of any stone implements, of any kind, having 
previously been noticed in situ anywhere in India Those now on 
the table had been collected partly by himself, from a ferruginous 
lateritie gravel bed, which extended irregularly over a very large 
srea west of Madras. In places this was at least fifteen feet below 
the surface, cut through by streams, and in one such place from which 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



68 Froceedmgs of the Asiatic Society. [No. 1» 

some of the specimens on the table were procured, there stood an 
old ruined pagoda on the surface, evidencing that, at least at the time 
of its construction, that surface was a permanent one. This bed of 
gravel was in many places exposed on the surface and had been parti- 
ally denuded ; and it was in such localities where these implements 
had been washed out of the bed and lay strewed on the surface that 
they were found most plentifully. 

Mr. Oldham remarked on the great interest attaching to such 
a discovery, and on the probable s^ of the deposit in which they 
occurred. Another point of interest connected with the histoiy 
of such implements was the remarkable fact that, while scattered 
in abundance over the districts where they occurred, were noble 
remains of what would by many be called Druidical character-circles 
of large standing stones, cromlechs, kistvaens, often of large size 
and well preserved* all of which were traditionally referred to 
the Karumbers, a race of which there still existed traces in the 
hills ; still all the weapons and implements of every kind found in 
these stone structures were invariably of iron. No information what* 
ever regarding these stone implements could be obtained from the 
peasantry, who had been quite unaware of their existence. 

Thanks were unanimously accorded to Mr. Oldham for his interest- 
ing remarks on the stone implements. 



Foe Januaet, 1864. 
The annual general meeting of the Asiatic Society was held on the 
18th instant. 
E. C. Bayley, Esq., President, in the chair. 
The Secretary read the following Annual Report for 1868 : — 

AITNTJAL BEPORT. 

The Council of the Asiatic Society have much satis&ction in 
announcing that the marked prosperity of the Society during the past 
year has been fiilly equal to that of the previous years, indicating an 
ever-increasing interest in the objects of the Society on the part of 
the public, which augurs well for the future progress of Indian science. 

It is, however, with feelings of deep regret that the Council have 
to record the decease of the Society's patron, the Right Hon'ble the 
Earl of Elgin and Kincardine, whose cordial sympathy with the 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



18G1.] Praeeedingsof the Asiatic Society. 69 

objects of the Society has been manifested on all occasions when the 
lapport or ooncuirence of the Government has been solicited by the 
Society. 

During the past year the Society has received an accession of fifty- 
niiie ordinary and two corresponding members, making a total of 
siity-one. The loss by death (three) and retirement (twelve) has 
not exceeded fifteen members ; so that the Council is enabled to con- 
gratulate the Society on a net increase of forty-four members, making 
an actual total of 355,* against 311 of the preceding year. 

Baboo Sumbhoo Chunder Boy, Maharaja Narendra Narain Bhupa, 
and Dr. J. Browne are tbe names of the deceased members. 

PINAirCB. 

The amount received by way of contributions from members was 
Bfi. 8,930-2-9, which is in excess of the collection of the previous 
jear. Of this sum Bs. 1,792 were for admission fees, and the balance, 
Bs. 7,138-2-9, for quarterly subscriptions. 

Annexed is a table showing the average collection of the previous 
ten years. The resulting sum does not exceed the collection of the year 
under review. 

lU. As. P. 

1853, 7,778 9 8 

1854, 7,082 

1855, 7,166 

1856, 8,096 

1857, 7,068 

1858, 6,923 8 

1859, 6,750 

1860, 6,441 

1861, 6,812 

1862, 7,222 9 

Total Bs., 71,339 10 3 



* fiesident Members, 129 

Non-resident^ .., 147 

Absent, 79 



Total, 866 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



70 Proceedings of the Asiatic Societtf. [No. 1, 

The average being Rs. 7,133-15-5 per year. 

The details of the accounts have been referred to auditors, and will 
be laid before the next monthly meeting.* 

The probable income and expenditure of the Society for the next 
twelve months may be estimated as follows : — 

Ificorne, 

Contributions, Rs. 8000 

Admission Fees, 1800 

Journal, 600 

Library, 400 

Museimi, 6000 

Secretary's Office, 10 

CoinFimd, 50 



Total, 16,800 



Uxpenses. 

Journal, Rs. 3,200 

Library, 2,400 

Museum, 7,200 

Secy.'s Office, 1,900 

Building, 600 

Coin Fund, 150 

Miscellaneous, 350 



Total, 15,700 



LIBHABT. ' 

During the past year the library has received large additions, both 
by presentation and purchase. 

In the Natiiral History Department, the mosb important additions 
have been Mr. Gould's large works on the Birds of Asia, purchased 
in England, and 30 vols, of the Transactions of Leopoldino-CaroUnc 
Academy (which completes the Society's set of that most valuable 
series up to the year 1851) from the late Dr. Walker's library. 

In the Philological Department the Codex Sinaitictts, edited by 
Professor Tischendorf and presented by the Imperial Russian govern- 
ment, is the most note-worthy acquisition. 

• Having been snbmittod to the March meeting and adopted, they are printed 
in the usual place at the end of the proceedings of the Annual General Meeting. Sd. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1864.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 71 

The total number of volumes, pamphlets, and periodicals added to 
the library during the year is 572. 

With a view to the further improvement of the library, the Council 
hare requested the Xiibrary Committee to enquire into, and especially 
report upon, its present condition, and to submit propositions for its 
fdtaie arrangement ; so that future additions may be made system- 
atically as the fonds of the Society may permit, and in accordance 
with the demands of science. Special attention will be given to the 
ftimpletion of those serials or other works, deficient sets of which now 
exist in the library. 

COINS. 

The collection of these valuable relics has not received any accession 
of moment. The only addition deserving of mention is from Baboo 
8hibchunder Mulliik, who presented a trove of silver Mahomedan 
coins from his zemindary in the Sunderbuns. 

MUSEUM. 

Owing to the severe illness of the Society's late curator, Mr. Blyth, 
which compelled that gentleman to proceed to England at the close 
of 1862, the museum has been deprived of the supervision of a pro- 
ftsgional curator during the whole of the year. 

Dr. Jerdon has, however, most kindly given much time and atten- 
tion to the collections while engaged in the preparation of his Manual 
«i the Natural History of India, and Baboo Poomo Chunder BysHck 
having had chaige of the collections mainly with a view to their 
preservation, the Council are enabled to report that the collections 
We been well cared for, anti that recent additions have been mounted 
and arranged so as to be equally available with the former for study 
or inspection. 

The coUection of fossil remaLos of invertebrate animals and plants 
bs been mounted, worked out, arranged, and catalogued, and the 
eoDections of birds' eggs remounted and arranged in a cabinet espe- 
cially provided for that purpose. 

Tne valuable series of stuffed quadrumana which had been hitherto 
exposed in one of the lower rooms, has been arranged in two large 
g^asB cases, and it is trusted that they have been placed beyond 
danger of future deterioration. A new case has been provided for the 
Society *s models and specimens of meteorites, and insect cabinets have 
been ordered from England at a cost of Ks. 500 ; a cabinet of shde 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



72 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 1, 

drawers for the reception of duplicates and specimens under examina- 
tion has also been provided. 

The Society's collection of Indian meteorites was transmitted to 
Professor Maskeljne in 1862, that gentleman having most kindly 
imdertaken the charge of their chemical investigation and of their 
section with a view to the exchange of portions of them with the 
British Museum. The Society have now received from Professor 
Maskelyne a very beautifully-executed series of models of the original 
stones and portions of the stones themselves, together with a series 
of specimens of foreign meteorites presented by the Trustees of the 
British Museum. 

They have also received, through the kindness of Dr. Haidinger, 
another valuable series from Dr. Homes, Director of the Imperial 
Mineral Cabinet of Vienna, to which a set of Indian specimens had 
been presented by the Society. 

In the Zoological Department the Society have received a set of 
upwards of 300 species of invertebrate fossils from Mr. H. F. Blan- 
ford, and numerous specimens of the mammals and birds of the 
Andaman Islands, with two almost entire skeletons of the natives of 
those islands, from Lieutenant -Colonel Tytler. 

Captain Smyth has also presented several skins of Thibetan ani- 
mals ; — ^these last, together with some skeletons of those animals that 
had been purchased by the Society and since mounted, form valuable 
representatives of the zoology of Thibet and Northern India. 

In the Ethnological Department the collection of crania has received 
but few additions, but a considerable numW of portraits of ethnolo- 
gical interest have been added to their photographic albums, chiefly 
from the Government of India. 

The archsBological collection has received a slightly mutilated colos- 
sal figure of Buddha exhumed by General Cunningham at Sahet 
Mahet, the ancient Srdvasti in Oudh, presented by the Right Hon'ble 
the late Earl of Elgin. Its basement bears an important inscription, 
Lq which the name Srdvasti, of the place where it was found also 
occurs. 

The Council are glad to be able to announce that the preliminaiy 
negotiations for the transfer of the Society's Museum to Government 
have now assumed a shape which permits of their being submitted 
to the Society at large, with a view to definite action. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1861.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, 73 

The number of visitors to the Socioty^s Museum has not diminished 
dniing the past year, amounting in average to 291 visitors per dienu 

Natives. 

Male, 96,629 

Female, 5,924 

JEuroj^eans, 

Male, 2,545 

Female, 1,384 

Total, 106,482 



OFVICEBS. 

The Council have great pleasure in announcing that the home 
nithorities have at last consented to grant a retiring pension of £150 
per annum to their late Curator, Mr. Blyth. Mr. Blyth has for more 
than twenty years laboured most zealously in the cause of natural 
icieoce in India ; and it must be a cause of congratulation to the 
Society that his services have at length received this well-earned 
acknowledgement from the Home Government. He has been absent 
oo sick leave in Europe during the whole of the past year. 

The arrangements which have been sanctioned by the Council in 
oonsequence of his absence, will be submitted at a future meeting. 

Baboo Poomo Chunder Bysack has officiated as assistant-curator 
iinoe the last annual meeting. 

The Librarian and Assistant-Secretary continues to discharge his 
Unties to the entire satisfaction of the Council. 

JOUENAL. 

Fire numbers of the Journal (including a supplementary number) 
W been published during the year ; several valuable papers on 
^stonl History and Archaeology have been contributed, and the 
"elementary number possesses great interest as containing General 
Canningham's Report of his Archaeological Survey in 1861-62. 

BIBLIOTHECA DfDICA. 

Seventeen numbers of the Bibliotheea Indica have appeared during 
the post year, viz, — eight of the new series, and nine of the old. 

hi the new series, Pundit Prema Chandra Tarkabagish has com- 
pleted his edition of the K&vyddars'a of S'ri Da^din, with his original j 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



74 Proceeditiys of the Asiatic Society. [No. 1, 

eommentary, and Mr. Cowell has publiBhed the second part of thu 
Maitri Upanishad. 

Two new works have been also commenced of considerable interest, 
in two different departments of Oriental literature — the Tabakat-i- 
Nasiri in our series of Muhammadan historians, and the Purva 
Mimd/nsa Sutrtie, 

The former is the chief authority of the early Muhammadan history 
of India, and is especially valuable for the Bibliotheca, as we had 
already published the history of Zid-i 6 ami, which was expressly- 
designed as its continuation. The latter takes up a branch of Hindoo 
philosophy which had hitherto been comparatively neglected; and 
the present publication will render the Sidrae of Jaimini, and the 
rare commentary of Sahara, available to European research. The 
Council hope ere long to be able to announce an edition of the To^a 
Sutras ; the only one of the six philosophical systems of the Hindoos, 
remaining unpublished. 

In the old series we have to announce the completion of the edition 
of the Veddnta Sutras with the commentary of Sankara Acharya and 
the gloss of Govinda Ananda, originally commenced by Dr. Boer, 
and subsequently continued by Pundit Kima Nar6yana Vidyaratna. 

Baboo Edjendraldl Mitra has issued two numbers of the Taittiriya 
Srdhmana, and Mr. Cowell two numbers of the Taittiriya Sanhitd. 

The titles of the fasciculi of the new series are : — 

1. The Kdvyddars'a of S'ri Dandin, edited by Pundit Prema 
Chandra Tarkab^gfs'a, Nos. 88, 39, 4 J, Pasc. III. IV. V. 

2. The Maitri Upanishad, edited by Mr. E. B. Cowell, M. A., 
No. 40, Ease. II. 

3. The Tabakdt'i'Nasiri by Minhajuddin Juzjani, edited by Cap- 
tain W. N. Lees, LL. D. ^os. 42, 43, 45, Ease. I., II., III. 

4. The Furva Mimdnsa Sutras of Jaimini, edited by Pundit 
Moheshshunder Nyiyarataa, No. 44, Ease. I. 

The titles of the fasciculi of the old series publislied during the 
year, are — 

1. The Veddnta Sutras, edited by Pundit Bam a N4r^yana Vidyd- 
ratna, Nos. 195, J98, 199, 200, 201, Ease, IX., X., XL, XIL, XIII. 

% The Taittiriya Brdhmana, edited by Baboo Bajeiidral&l Mitra, 
Nos. 196, 197, Ease. XVII and XVIII. 

8. The TaiUiriya Sanhitd, edited by Mr. E. B, Cowell, M. A., 
Nos. 202, 203, Ease. XVIII. and XIX. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



J86i.] Proceedings cf tHe Atiatie Society. 75 

The Bepoii having been read, it was proposed bj Colonel Thuillier, 
seconded by Mr. Grote, that it be adopted. The proposition being 
pot to the Tote wa» carried unanimously. 

The meeting then proceeded to ballot for the Council and officers 
for the next year. 

Colonel Thuillier and Mr. W. L. Heeley were appointed scrutineers, 
aad at the dose of the ballot the chairman announced the following 
lenilt: — 

Omfk^a— E. C. Bayley, Eisq., President; Captain W. N. Lees, Dr. 
T. Anderson, Baboo Bajendralal Mitra, Vice-Presidents; Dr. J. 
Payrer; E. B. Cowell, Esq. ; Dr. S. B. Partridge ; J. Obbard, Esq. ; 
Lieat.-Col. C. H. Dickens; Lieutt-Col. J. E. Gastrell ; Lieut.-Col. 
H. Hyde ; H. Leonard, Esq. ; Baboo Jadava Krishna Sing ; — H. F. 
Blanford, Esq., and W. L. Heeley, Esq., Juint Secretaries. 

The meeting then resolved itself into an ordinary general meeting. 

The following presentations were announced — 

1. From Col. Fytche, Commissioner, Tenasserim Division, British 
Bormah, — heads and horns of a male and a female double-homed 
ibinooeroe, from the source of the Tenasserim river. 

2. From Baboo Bajendra Mullick, — a dead hybrid goat, and ar 
kangaroo. 

8. From Baboo Shoshee Chimder Dutt, — a copy of his work 
oitiUed Stray Leaves, or Essays, JPoems, and Tales, 

4. From the Bombay Qt)vemment, — ^a copy of a Sindi work 
entitled Saswi and Fwnhu. 

5. From Captain F. Stubbs, — a number of c(Hns collected at 
different times, in the Pui^b and Delhi. 

A vote of thanks to the above donors was proposed by the Presi- 
dent, and carried unanimously. 

Letters from Lieut.-Col. L. Pelly, Lieut. W. J. Stewart, Rev. J. 
C. Thompson, E. Qt. Glazier, Esq., and Saheb Zada Mohammad 
Walagohur, intimating their desire to withdraw from the Society, 
were recorded. 

W. Murray, Esq., proposed at the hist meeting was balloted for 
ud elected an ordinary member. 

The following gentlemen were named for ballot as ordinary membera 
tt the next meeting : — 

Hon'ble Snmbhoo Nauth Pundit, Judge of the High Court, Calcutta,, 
proposed by Mr. Cowell^ seconded by the President. LtOOqIc 

igi ize y g 



76 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, [No. 1, 

Baboo Kaliprosunno Duti, Pleader High Court, proposed by Baboo 
Bajendralal Mitra, seconded by Mr. Grote. 

H. Leeds, Esq., Conservator of Forests in Burmah, proposed by Mr. 
Theobald, seconded by Mr. Grote. 

A. M. Verchere, Esq., H. M.'s Tndian Army, proposed by Capt. 
H. H. G. Austen, seconded by Capt. Lees. 

Lieut. A. Pullan, Topographical Assistant G. T. Survey, Kashmir 
Series, proposed by Capt. H. H. G. Austen, seconded by Mr. Grote. 

The Council reported that the following correspondence had passed 
between them and the Government of India, on the subject of the 
transfer of the Society's Museum to Government. 

No. 173. 

Fbom the Seceetaey to the Asiatic Society of Bengal, — ^To 
E. C. Baylet, Esq., Secy. Govt, of India, Home Dept. 

Asiatic Society^ s Itooms, Calcutta, 18/A April, 1863. 

SiE, — With reference to former correspondence on the subject of 
the proposed new museum, I am directed by the Coimcil of the 
Asiatic Society to solicit the attention of Government to the plan 
sketched out in my letter dated 18th June, 1862, No. 180, as the 
basis of a definite arrangement for the transfer of the Society's 
museum. 

As some years must probably elapse before a new museum building 
can be erected and fitted for the reception of the Society's collections, 
during which time the zoological portion of the collections will be 
liable to continued deterioration, if adequate provision be not made 
for their preservation, it appears highly desirable to the Society's 
Council that arrangements should be speedily completed* for the 
permanent curatorship of the museimi. 

It is the more advisable that the consideration of this question be 
no longer deferred, as the Society's curator, Mr. Blyth, has now left 
India in such a state of health that there appears but little proba^ 
bility of his returning to resume his former duties, and the valuable 
services now voluntarily given by Dr. Jerdon to the superintendence 
of the zoological portion of the museum, are necessarily temporaiy, 
and not to be permanently relied on. It will, consequeutly, be neces- 
sary before long to consider the appointment of a permanent successor 
to Mr. Blyth, auJ it is obviously desirable that the wJiole Question 

Digitized by VjOOv IC 



18Wl] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 77 

of the future maniig^aQent of the museum should be decided before 
nev engagements are entered into. 

The Council are of opinion that it is by no means necessary to 
wait for the transfer of the coUections to the new museum building 
in order to give effect to that portion of the proposed arrangement 
vhich relates to the internal management of the museum. With a 
proper staff of curators and assistants, the museum may be retained 
for some time to come in the present building, and with some increase 
of available Ainds, the present collections and such additions as may 
be expected in the interval, may be kept in a state of good preserva- 
tion, and be made available for the purposes of science, even though 
they cannot be entirely displayed to casual visitors. 
I am accordingly directed to solicit that the Government will take 
• No. 180, dated 18tJi June, '^^ ^^J consideration the proposi- 
1*2. tions of t^e Council communicated 

in my former letter,* with a view to determining the conditions on 
vhich the proposed transfer of the Society's museum may be finally 
•greed to. 

I have, <&c. 

(Sd.) W. S. Atkinson, 

Secy, Asiatic Society, 

No. 5503. 

ihw E. C. Batlet, Esq., Secy, to the Govt, of India, To W. S. 
AxKiiraoK, Esq., Secy, Asiatic Society of Bengal, 

Dated Fort William^ the 1st Sept., 1863. 

Home Department. 

Sib, — With reference to your letters of the 13th April last, and 
18th June, 1862, 1 am desired to state that his Honor the President 
it Council is not unwilling to enter at once upon the consideration of 
^ amngemeiits suggested in the last named letter, instead of post- 
poning it until the Grovemment may be in a position to erect a fitting 
Wilding to contain a Government Museum. 

2. But before doing so, the President in Cour.cil desires to offer 
"oiae observations upon the rules suggested by the Council of the 
Sodety as the basis of a plan for the transfer of the Society's museum 
to Government, to be submitted for the approval of the Society at 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



78 Froeeedings of ike Anatie Society, [No. 1, 

3. The rules to which these observations apply, are the second^ 
fifth, tenth and thirteenth. 

4. The second defines the number and mode of election of the 
governing bodj of the proposed Qovemment museum, and would, 
as it is now worded, leave the nomination of the Vice-President and 
of one-half of the Council with the Society. I am directed to point 
out, that as the museum will hereafter be whoDy public and supported 
at the expense of the State, it seems to be inconsistent with ite char- 
acter to reserve so large a share in its management to a private 
Society. The President in Council is, therefore, of opinion that no 
more than one- third, instead of one-half, of the trustees should be 
named by the Asiatic Society. 

5. For the same reasons, the President in Council dissents from 
the fifth rule, which would secure separate and distinct privileges to 
members of the Asiatic Society. When the museum has become the 
property of the public, the public ought to enjoy as free a use of its 
contents as is consistent with their due preservation. It by no means 
necessarily follows that the terms on which this use is granted to the 
public should be more limited than those on which the members of 
the Asiatic Society now enjoy the use of their own collection, or that 
the privileges of the members should be in any way restricted by the 
transfer. 

6. Similarly, the President in Council would suggest that the 
reservation as to the library and manuscripts contained in the tenth 
and thirteenth Bules, should be omitted. It seems almost unavoid- 
able that the proposed museum should possess the adjunct of at least 
a library of reference, such as the library of the Society would, with 
some additions, form ; and there seems to be no good reason why two 
similar libraries should co-exist under the same roof. If the library 
and manuscripts were transferred with the other collections, it is not 
probable that the conditions attached to their use would be less liberal 
than those of the Asiatic Society, so that the members of that Society 
need not in any degree, as has been already said with respect to the 
other collections, suffer any abridgment of their privileges by the 
transfer. 

I have, <&c. 

(Sd.) E. C. Baylet, 

Secy, to the Govt, of India^ 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



19M.] Proceedings qf the Asiatic Society, 79 

No. 489. 
From the Secretary to the Asiatic Society of Bengal,—To E. C. 
Batlet, BsQ.y Secretary^ Oovemment of Indian Home Department, 

Asiatic Society's Booms, Calcutta, ^th Nov,, 1863. 
Sib, — ^With reference to the previous correspondence noted in the 

margin, on the subject of the pro- 

From the Gk»vt. of India, Home posedtransferof the Society's museum 

^ No.. 2864. d»Ud 22nd May, ^ Qo^emment, I have the honor to 

To the Govt, of India, in reply submit to you the views held by the 

No. 180, dated 18th Jun«, 1862. ^ -i /xi. c • i. 4.1, 

TotheGovt.ofIndia,incontraua- Council of the bociety on those mo- 
tion No. 17a, dated 13th April, 1863. difications of the Council's scheme 

From the Govt, of India, in reply 

Ha 5503 dated lat September, 1863. proposed m your letter No. 65a3 of 

the 1st September, 1863. 

Previous to doing so, I am desired to assure you that the Council 

have received with much pleasure the announcement that his Honour 

the President in Council is not unwilling to enter at once upon the 

eoBsideratioii of the proposed transfer, feeling that the interest thus 

manifested by Government in the progress of natural science cannot but 

have a most beneficial influence upon its cultivation in this country. 

Under these circumstances, 1 am desired to state that the Council 

are prepared to modify, in accordance with his Honour's views, the 

rules proposed in their late Secretary's letter, (dated June 18th) so far 

as may not, in their opinion, seriously impair the well-being of the 

Society which they represent. Thus, while their original proposal, 

that one-half of the trustees of the new museum should be nominated 

by the Society, was su^ested by the probable preponderance of the 

Society's collections for many years to come in the new museum, as 

well as by the fact that the Society has on many occasions acted as 

the flcientific advisers of Government, the Council feel confident that 

the interests of Science will be so cared for by Government in the 

selection of its nominees, that they may without hesitation defer to 

bis Honour's views on the proposed revision of their second Rule. 

With similar feelings and on similar grounds, the Council concur in 

his Honour's suggestion that the fifth Kule proposed by them be so 

modified that the public at large be admitted to the same free use of 

the museum as that now enjoyed by the members of the Society. Both, 

they understand, would be only subject to such restrictions as may be 

aeeesmy for the due preservation of the collections. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



83 Froceedlngg of the Asiatic Society. [No. 1, 

While, however, the Council are thus prepared to accede to his 
Honour's suggestions with regard to the management of the new mu- 
seum, and to waive any claim of exclusive privilege for the members 
of the Society, they regret that the proposed modifications of Rules X. 
and XIII. are such as they cannot for a moment entertain. On this 
point there is ei t re unanimity on the part of the Council, and they 
feel sure that the same feeling pervades the Society at large. In fact, 
his Honour must on further consideration concur with them that the 
Society would, after such a transfer as that suggested, cease to exist. 
It would have no privileges to offer to its members, who would gradu- 
ally leave an institution which had nothing but its traditions and its 
name to hold it together, and would in a few years have nothing but 
its house to yield it an income. 

It appears, however, to the Council that the objects which the 
Government and the Society respectively have in view are not incom- 
patible, and that the Society's library and the museum being under the 
Fame roof, while the library remains the property of the Society, it 
may equally be available to the curators or others working in 
the museum, as ?s at present the case ; and thus that such funds as 
may be allotted by Government for the formation of a museum library- 
may for some time to come be devoted to the purchase of such works 
as are not already possessed by the Society. I am, therefore, directed 
by the Council to propose the above modification of his Honour's 
suggestions, and to express their hope that this arrangement may be 
foimd to fulfil every desired end. 

I have, &c. 

(Sd.) H. F. Blai^foed, 

Secy, Asiatic Society. 

No. 7622. 

IVom E. C. Batlet, Esq., Secy, to the Govt of India, To H. F. 
Blanfoed, Esq., Secy, to tlie Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

Dated Fort William^ the 5th Dec, 186a 
Home Department. 

SiE, — I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter No. 

489, dated the 6th ultimo, intimating that the Council of the Asiatic 

Society are prepared to accede to the suggestions offered to them with 

egard to the management of the new museum, and to waive any 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



IBS!.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, 81 

daim of exclusive privilege for the members of the Society ; but that 
they caanot consent to transfer the Society's library to Government. 

2- In reply I am directed to state that the Governor-General in 
Council has no wish to press upon the Society the proposed modifica- 
tions of Bules X. and XIII., to which your letter expresses such 
itrong objections, and that the alterations in Eules II. and V., which 
have been accepted by the Council, are considered by his Excellency 
in Council satisfactorily to have cleared the way to a definite concla- 
aon of the negotiations pending between Government and the Society. 

I have, <&c. 

(Sd.) E. C. Batlet, 

Secy, to the Govt, oflndi^. 



After the correspondence had been read by the Secretary, it was pro- 
posed by Dr. Oldham, seconded by Mr. Atkinson, and carried — 

" That the present meetmg desire to impress on the Society at large 
the propriety of authorising the Council of the Society to enter into 
definite and conclusive arrangements with the Government of India 
relative to the transfer of the Society's museum, in accordance with 
the terms of the correspondence now read. 

" That the Council be requested to forward a copy of the whole 
eorregpondence to the members of the Society at large, and that the 
ordinaiy meeting in March be made special for the purpose of deciding 
this matter, in accordance with No. 43 of the Bye-laws." 

The Secretary read the following letter from Captain Balph Ouseley 
to the address of the President, on some ancient localities in the 
Fyzabad district : — 

** I am at work near the ruins of an old town named Uldemow. 
Tradition says it belonged to the *^ Bhurs" and was destroyed many 
kondieds of years ago. I went a few days ago to see the ruins of 
That is supposed to have been a fort, and also the remains of an old 
tonple. The town was situated on the banks of the Goomtee about 
twenty miles below Sultanpore, and opposite the fort; there is a 
ittioary dam below the water right across the river ; — the natives 
dedare that it is neither more nor less than the roof of a tunnel 
which runs below the river bed. If I go there again I intend to 
make farther enquiries on this point. I ascertained in conversation 
with some of my native friends that coins are very often picked up 

DigitizlbyLjOOgle 



82 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, [No. 1, 

about the ruins, and I managed, through the mfluence of a very 
learned Pundit here resident, to obtain a few, and I am sending you 
by registered letter dak to-day four ; one silver modem one which 
does not belong to these parts, but which some one had by him. It 
is said to be a Bhootan coin, coined in the present King of Nepal's 
reign. The other three coins are copper — one, a Mahomedan one, 
bears the date 1021, supposed to bo Hegira, ard therefore about 260 
years old. The other two neither Hindoos nor Mahomedans can 
read. The most learned pimdits are at fault, but say that the 
characters are like Chinese, and so they appear to me. 1£ these coins 
prove any addition to your collection, I will try and get some more." 

The following extract from a letter from Baboo Rungolal Banerjea 
was also read : — 

" I have also seen a copper-plate inscribed on both sides and bearing 
the record of a grant of land by Rajah Purusottama Deo of Orissa. 
It is now in the possession of an old man of eighty years, the Bhuniya 
of Goapadha, He values it very highly, and cannot be prevailed 
upon to part with it. I have, however, managed to get a transcript, 
which I enclose. You will perceive from it that, though an Ooria 
document, it was executed in Bengal, a part of which was at one time 
held in sovereignty by the Kings of Orissa. The donor, Purusottama 
Deo of the Surajvansa dynasty, who, according to Stirling, reigned 
from 1478 to 1503, A. D., died in Bengal on the banks of the 
Bhagirntee, probably near Triveni, where the grant was made on the 
occasion of an eclipse. The record names the Ganges (Ounga 
Oarbha) but, of course, it means the Hooghly, for you know that waa 
the old bed of the Ganges ; and what is now called by that name by 
Englishmen has no sanctity, and owes its present volume to a shifting 
of the ever-changing river. The date of the document is Monday, 
the 10th of Baisakha in the year 25 of the Rajah's reign, which will 
be equal to 1501, or a Httle before his death. The Rajah was a great 
patron of Chaitanya Deva, whose religion he adopted ; and it was 
probably to visit the birth-place of that reformer that he came to 
Bengal ; for there is no mention anywhere of his ever having entered 
the country as a conqueror, although Stirling gives a long account of 
his military successes in Oonjeveram. His calling himself " Lord of 
Gau^a** I take to be of no better import than the name of France in 
the BR. FR. et HIB. REX of the coins of Queen Anne and the first 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



I8G1.] Froceedmgg of the Asiatic Society. 83 

two Georgeii. The Nava KoH (nine forts) alluded to in the record 
lefers to some of the baronial castles of the Tributary Mehals, but I 
cannot ascertain vhich of them. 

^ The subject of the grant was the village of Purusottomapura, in 
the district of Balasore, close to Bastah. It was at the time of gifb 
Lugelj inhabited by Brahmins ; hence the distinctive title of Sdsana 
BkumL The donee was a Brahmin of the name of Poteswara Bhatta, 
whoee descendants still own it, though they are no longer Brahmins. 
During the supremacy of the Pathans two brothers quarrelled about 
their patrimony, and to secure the good graces of the Moslem 
Governor, one of them embraced the religion of the Koran, to which 
his descendants still adhere. The ladies of the family, however, 
notwithstanding their nominal allegiance to Mahomed, continue 
Brahminical in their habits and mode of life, and the household gods 
aad the fire altar may still be seen in the family homestead. The 
plate, which is in a good state of preservation, is shaped like a 
Kan/gwra^ and has the deed of gifb inscribed on one side, and the 
imprecatory verses on the other. 

OBVERSE. 

^ 9«;tQ^C^9fl8 1 gQ ^930 G€iICO€>.Q ftQSQll 

iqgi^Gd c^€i 9c^fi9 QOiqsi ^Qm 3@o s^ €9^ ii 

BETEBSE. 

gl9rWG€Iiai»8 €1Qa° 9918 II 

TBAirSLATION OP THE DTSCEIPTION. 

" Salutation to the auspicious Jayadurga. This is a deed* of gift 
of the great hero, the fortunate Lord of Elephants (Gajapati) th6 

* The ffotd 'paMa, \a used in tho text, but a pottoA is never granted for rent- 
free land, and the word therefore must be taken here for simply a * deed*' ^^ , ^ 

DigitizecUy VjOOv LC 



84 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 1, 

Lord of Gauda, Navakoti, Kamata, and Utkala, the auspicious 
Mahdrdja Purusottama Deva to Poteswara Bbatta — 

" On Monday, the 10th of Aries (Bais&kha) in the year 25 Z7* on 
the occasion of an eclipse, I, while in the bed of the river Ganges, do 
present to you the Brahmin-inhabited village of Purusottamapura 
with all its appurtenances, waters, gardens, and fields, that you and 
your heirs may enjoy the same as long as the sun and moon will last. 

'^ As long as the sun and moon will run their course, and as long as 
the earth shall last, for even so long may the gifb of mine of fruitful 
land last (with you). Whoever robs a Brahmin of his land, whether 
the same be his gift or that of others, shall be bom a maggot in 
ordure for the period of 60,000 years. Sri Madanagopala Sarmana.t 
My marks, " figures of a conch, a dagger and a sword." 

Communications were received — 

1. From the Assistant Secretary to the Government of Bengal, . 
copy of a report from the Executive Engineer of the Tirhoot division, 
on the subject of the saline matter which pervades the surface soil of 
that district. 

2. From Lieutenant-Colonel J. Abbott, a letter containing a de- 
scription of the elephant statues recently exhumed at the Delhi palace. 

3. From Dr. F. E. Hall, a letter containing a reply to the remarks 
made by Baboo Eajendralal Mitra on an article published by him in 
the Society's Jowmal for 1861 entitled, " The Inscription of Erikaine 
now Eran, re-deciphered and re-translated." 

4. From Baboo Gopinauth Sen, abstract of the hourly meteorologi- 
cal observations taken at the Surveyor General's office in October last. 

5. From Baboo Eajendralal Mitra, " On the ruins of Buddha Gya." 
The Baboo read the above paper, and the thanks of the meeting 

were voted to him on the motion of the President. 

6. From the Military Secretary to his Excellency the Governor- 
General, a note on the Didunculus Strigirostris with photograph, being 
an extract from a New South Wales paper. 

7. From the President, a note on a coin of the new Bactrian King 
Theophilos. 

* The letter JJ evidently stands for Utkala, and the question is, was thero 
ever an Utkala era ? 

t The word in the original is clearly Baranam, bnt I take it to be a missorip^ 
for it is not at aU likely that the donor should think of invoking the god 
Madanagopala at the end of the document. The plaoe is where the mimster of 
Mohapatra should sign i and I take the name to be of such an officer 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



ISSk] Proceedings of ike Anafic Society. 85 



ABSTRACT STATEMENT 



OP 



RECEIPTS AND DISBUESEMENT8 



OP TH£ 



ASIATIC SOCIETY, 

TOB 

THE YEAE 1863. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 1, 

STATEMENT 
Abstract of the Gash Account 



RECEIPTS. 

1863. 1862. 

Admission Fees. 
Received from New Members, Rs. 1,792 

• 1,792 1,600 

CONTEIBUTIONS. 

Received from Members, ... 7,138 2 9 

7,138 2 9 7,222 9 O 

JOUENAL. 

Sale proceeds of, and subscriptions 

to the Joomal of the Asiatic 

Society, ... ... 606 1 

Refund of Postage Stamps, ... 6 14 

Discount on ditto, ... ... 6 3 



LlBSA^Y. 

Sale proceeds of Books, ... 365 12 

Refund of Freight, ... ... 23 

Museum. 

Received from the General Trea- 
sury, ... ... ... 6,000 

Savings of Salary, ... ,„ 31 12 6 



611 5 3 637 3 



388 12 521 



6 12 





1 12 


9 


8 





1 11 






6,031 12 6 6,211 2 3 



10 11 9 6 3 



Secbetaet's Office. 
Sale of Postage Stamps, 
Discount on ditto, ... 
Fine, ... 
Refimd of Postage, ... 

Vested Fund. 

Sale jproceeds of Government Se- 
cunties, ... ... 5,000 

Interest on ditto, ... ... 134 1 8 

Premium on the sale of ditto, ... 360 

6,494 1 8 246 O 

Messes. Williams and NoBaATB. 
Received from them, as per order 
in favor of Mr. E. Blyth on 
account of his salary, as per their 
letter, dated 9th July, 1863, ... 900 
Ditto ditto as per ditto, dated 
26th Sept. 1863, ... ... 325 

1,226 

Carried over,.,. 22,691 13 11 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ibdi.] 



Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 



87 



No. 1. 

of the Asiatic Society, for 1863. 



DISBURSEMENTS. 
1863. 



Journal. 



152 
55 
25 



173 



83 

3 

13 



15 
1 



PrintiDg Charges, induding paper, 3,072 11 

Freight,.... 

Parchasing Postage Stamps, 

Packing Charges, ... 

Charges for preparing Litho- 
graphs, 

Charges for Engraving and Print- 
ing of Plates, 

A Blank Record Book, 

Commission on the Sale of Books, 

Purchase of a Copy of Journal, No. 
III. of 1863, 

Preparing a Photograph, 

Petty Cluurges, 



LiBBASY. 

Salary of the Lihrarian, 

£i>tablishment. 

Purchase of Books, ... 

Buok- Binding, 

Books Cleaning, 

Commiraion on Sale of Books, . 

Printing Charges, ... 

Paid for a Teaikwood Book Case, 

Banghy Expenses, ... 

Landing Charges, ... 

Porcha^ 4i Stone Bottoms for 

the Book Cases, ... 
Paid Ticket writer for Labelling 

Photographic Album Books, 
PeUy Charges, 



3 10 



. 770 








84 








. S12 








. 262 12 





42 








39 


8 11 


31 








. 246 








1 


8 





5 


8 





22 








27 


5 


4 


14 


4 


3 



1862. 





6 




3,696 15 4 3,128 16 



1,857 14 6 2,( 



1 3 



MusBric. 
Salary of the Carator, £. Biyth, 

V>4{, at Rs 250 per month, for 

12 months, from Deo. 1862 to 

Nov. 1863, ... ... 3,000 

Hiit i{ou«e-rent for half month, in 

Dec 1862, ... ... 40 

Paid Income Tax on Mr. Blyth's 

Salary, ... ... 107 8 

Carried over,.,. 



5,454 13 10 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



88 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 1, 

3,691 13 11 





RECEIPTS. 






Brought 


over,...R8. ! 


Deposit. 








Li J. Johnstone, ... 


■■• 


18 





Capt. J. P. Basevi, ... 


••• 


18 





E. G. Glazier, Esq.,... 


••■ 


18 





Qaazee Abdool Quodoos, 




6 10 





V. Irwin, Esq., 


••. 


18 





Dr. Bhau D^jee, 


••• 


42 





Babu Nobin Chunder Roy, 


... 


4 11 





Major J. T. Walker, 
F. Fedden, Esq., ... 


... 


24 





... 


22 





B. A. Stemdale, Esq., 


... 


12 





A. E. Russell, Esq 


... 


4 





J. Stephenson, Esq., 
Lt..Col. A. Phayre, ... 


... 


36 





... 


88 





Babu Brojendra Gopal Pal Chow- 






dry, ... 
E. Blyth, Esq., 


... 


2 3 





••• 


675 





W. T. Dodsworth, Esq., 


••• 


6 





T. H. Thornton, Esq., 


**• 


16 





C. Campbell, Esq., ... 


... 


6 





T. B. Lane, Esq., ... 


... 


36 





Baboo Munphool Pundit, 


... 


8 





Capt. Raverty, 

Capt. F.B. Norman,... 


... 


7 4 





... 


4 





Miyor J. J. M. Innes, 


•••• 


12 






1,082 12 221 8 6 



MlBCELLAJTEOUS. 

Refiyid of the amount paid to Mr. 
A. M. Cameron through Miyor 
J.T.Walker, ... ... 50 



50 



BAL1.NCE OF 

Bank of Bengal, 757 8 9 

Cash in hand, 78 5 6 



835 14 3 



Inefficient Balance, ... ... 1,277 3 6 2,113 1 9 



Carried over, 25,937 11 8 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1^6-i.] Proceediftgs of the Asiatic Society. 89 

DISBURSEMENTS. 

Brought over,... Btf. 6,454 13 10 
Pkid Mr. E. Blyth on account of 

preparinj^ Mammalia Catalogue, 250 
Printing 1^ pag^t of 200 copies 

of Catalogue of Mammalia, ... 254 
Salary of the Sub-Curator, at Ra. 

lOt) per month, for 11 months, 1,100 

EsUblishment, ... ... f<38 8 

Extra TaxidermistH* Salary, ... 833 6 9 
Paid Pasaage-money for a Taxider- 

mijit to Burmah, ... ... 50 

Contingent Charges,... ... 645 15 8 

Lithographing and printing Char- 
ges including paper, ... 80 8 
Charges for labelling Tickets of 

F(N«il Shells, ... ... 19 

Matting the Bird Booms with 

Zinc Sheets, ... ... 98 5 6 

B4fpatr of old MaU, ... 6 

Freight, ... ... 78 12 O 

Purchase of Skeletons, ... 209 
A Teakwood Case for keeping 

Birds' Eggs, ... ... 50 

Tvo ditto ijuadrumana Cases, at 

30<) Rs. ... ... 600 

A ditto working Cabinet, ... 50 

A ditto Meteorite Case, ... 135 12 
Purchased 32 Stone Bottoms for 

the Quadrnmana Cases, ... 16 

A Blank Book, ... ... 6 8 



Sscrktaby'8 Office. 
General Establishment, 
iWretary's Office Establishment, 
Purchase of Postage Stamps, 
A Sheet Almanac for 1863, 
Pnuting Charges, ... 
LitbcMpraphing Charges, 
Two Blank Books, 
i^tationery, 
Putage, 
Petty Charges, 

Vbstsd Fund. 

Paid Commiiision upon Interest on 
the Government Securities, ... 12 12 11 

Ditto Income Tax on ditto, ... 7 5 

Utto discount on the sale pro- 
ceeds of Govt Securities, ... 10 

Ktlo fee for renewing Government 
Securities, ... ... 2 



776 8 





858 





92 


6 


1 8 





171 8 





6 





16 4 





109 7 


6 


4 15 


3 


10 14 


3 



8,469 3 11 6,192 



2,047 I 6 1,979 3 3 



15 14 4 5 6 2 



Carried over,... 16,987 1 7 

Digitize^by Google 



00 JProeeedingt qf the Auiatie Society. [No. 1, 

BECEIPTS. 
Brought over, ...Bs. 25,937 11 8 



Carried over, 25,937 11 8 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



m^:\ 



Proceedings of the Atiatie Society^ 



91 



DISBURSEMENTS. 
Brought over,...R8. 15,987 

MVSSBA. Yl\JAAAMB AND NOBGATB. 

Pud. ibeiT draft in favor of the 
Bank of Bengal, on acoount 
corrent, ... ... ... 2,000 

PuTcViaae of 3 Copies of Mr. 
Laing's Lecturea for them, ... 3 



1 7 



Dbposit. 

Qoazee Abdool Quodoos, 
Major J. T. Walker, 
Narranjee Trictiinjee, Esq., 
Lieut.-CoL A. Phajre, 
F. Fedden, Esq., ... 
W. T. Dodsworth, Esq., 
E. BIyth, Esq., 
Lieat-Col. J. Abbott, 
lieat. J. Johnstone, 
£. G. Glazier, Esq., 
T. Irwin, Esq., 
Msjor J. J. M. Innes, 

B. A. Stemdale Esq., 
J. Stephenson Esq,... 
T.H. Thornton, Esq., 
T. B. Lane, Esq., ... 
Dr. Bhaa Diyee, 
Capi. Baveity, 

Capt J. P. Basevi, ... 

C. Campbell, Esq., ... 

CoiK Fund. 

Paid Banghy Charges, 
IKtto Petty Charges, 

BriLDIKO. 



6 10 





24 





1 14 





36 





22 





18 





676 () 





7 7 





18 





18 





18 





12 





12 





24 





6 





. 12 





18 





7 4 





18 





6 






2,003 



3 12 
2 10 6 



Assessment, 


*•• 


292 8 





IHtto for Lighting, ... 
Kepairs of the Premises, 




72 





"*- 


61 4 


3 


MlSCBLULNBOUS. 






Advertising Charges, 
Meeting Charges, ... 




9 12 







168 9 


6 


Wages of a Ticca Mally, 




57 





Parchasing Beceipt Stamps, 
A Clock Winder, ... 




6 







5 





Repair of a Carpet, ... 




10 





Copying Charges of Arthava veda 










Oriental Society. ... 


•.• 


13 7 


9 


BepttrofOldMats, 


••• 


2 8 






969 3 657 



6 6 6 572 13 6 



425 12 3 380 



Carried over,.., 19,351 7 4^ . 

DigitizecyjykjiOOQlC 



92 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, [No. 1,. 

RECEIPTS. 

Brought over. ... 25,9:37 11 8 



Co/s Rupees,... 26,937 11 8 
Examined. 

LxLGOPAL DUTT, 

Assistant Secretary. 
Asiatic Society's Rooms, 

The 3lW December, 1863. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



19W.] Proceedingg of the Asiatic St^dety^ 93. 

DISBURSEMENTS. 
Brought over,...R8. 19,381 7 4 
Yv\ Mr. A. M. Cameron as per 
Council order, dated 26th Jane, 
1863.... ... ... 50 

Ditto fee to the Bank of Bengal, 

for Stamping Cheques, ... 19 

Pettj Charges, ... ... 28 9 



350 15 302 5 » 



Balancb. 



fink of Bengal, 

On account Vested 

Fond, ...6,360 

Do. Current Fund, 249 13 1 6,609 13 I 
Cidiinhand, ... ... 104 6 3 

Inefficient Balance, ... ... 491 2 6,205 5 



Co/sRs, ...... 25,937 11 8 

W. L. Heeley, 

Seereiaiy, As, Society. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



94 FrtMseedwgs of the Asiatic Society. [Nori, 

STATEMENT 
Abstract of ths Oriental 

EECEIPTS. 

1863. 1862. 

Obiental Publications." 
Beceived by Sale of Bibliothecs 

Indica, .,. Bs. 1,610 15 

Ditto by Subscription to ditto, ... 168 2 

Ditto by Sale of White Y^ur Veda, 161 10 

Refund of Postage Stamps, ... 7 6 



GOYBBNMBKT AlLOWANCB. 

Beceived from the General Trea- 
sury at 600 Rs. per month, 12 
months, ... ... 6,000 



Vbstbd Fund. 
Received by Sale of Government 

Securities, ... ... 9,600 

Ditto Interest on ditto ditto, ... 262 1 9 
Ditto Pemium on ditto ditto, ... 640 



Custody of Obiental Wobes. 
Savings and Establishment, ... 2 8 

Dbfosit. 
Rao Saheb Yishwanath Narayan 

Mandlick, ... ... 26 

Pundit Gopeenath Nagar, ... 16 

Balance of 1862. 
Bank of Bensal, ...637 4 2 
Cash in hand, ... 2 8 8 



639 12 10 
Inefficient Balance, ... ... 1,614 8 6 



1,928 1 1,193 9 O 

6,000 6,000 O 

10,302 1 9 440 

2 8 17 9 

40 

2,164 6 4 



Canned over,... 20,427 I 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1«64.] 



JProetedinys of the Asiatic Society. 



95 



Xo. 2. 

Tmd for 1863. 



DISBURSExMENTS. 



OsiE^iTAL PrBLICATIONfl. 

CannDi««ion on Sale of Books, Rs. 

Freig:ht,... 

Packing Charges, ... 

Purchflfle of Potitage S tam ps, ... 

A Blank Book, 

Printing and Lithograjphing 500 

Subn. Bilk for the Bibliotheca 

Indica, 
Petty Charges, 



138 2 3 

108 12 

24 9 

14 

4 



5 8 
12 6 3 



Vested Fund. 

Commission npon Interest on Go- 
vernment Securities, ... 8 10 

Ditto on Sale of Government Secu- 
rities,... ... ... 23 12 

Discount on ditto ditto, ... 4 6 2 

Piid Fee for renewing a Govern- 
ment Security, ... ... 10 

Ditto Income Tax upon Interest 
en Government Securities, ... 1 10 10 



CrsTODY OF Obiental Wobks. 

Salary of Librarian,... ... 330 

Establishment, ... ... 96 

Book-Binding, ... ... 212 (» 

Books Cleaning, ... ... 66 10 

Banghv Expenses, ... ... 9 12 

Sslary'ofaTiccaDuflory, ... 49 5 3 
Stamp- fee paid to the Bank of 

Bengal, ... ... 19 

Two Blank Books, ... ... 7 12 

12 Htone Bottoms for Book Cases, 26 o 

Petty Charges, ... ... 1 13 



Deposit. 
Pondit Gopeenath Nagar, 

LiBBUKT. 

Purchase of Books, ... 



CoPTiKO Mbs. 
Copying Charges, 

Vedanta Sutbas. 
Eating Charges, 
Printing ditto. 



15 








98 


6 





44 


5 





564 
. 1,770 



2 







1862. 



307 4 6 220 15 9 



31 5 10 



9 13 9 



800 13 3 

15 

98 6 

U b 



773 1 

41 13 

114 9 9 



2,334 2 675 4 



Carried over,... 3,631 1 oltizedbyGoOgle 



96 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [Xo. 1 , 

RECEIPTS. 
Brou^^ht over,. ..Rs. 20,427 1 



Co/iR».,... :iO,427 1 
Examined. 

LaLGOPAL Dl'TT, 

AtufuiuMl iSt'crcfarjf, 
Asiittic StK'ielif's Rooms, 

The '6Ut December, 1803. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



2864] JProeeedinfs of the AnaHo Soeieiy. Vt. 

DISBURSEMENTS. 
Brought over,...R8. 3,631 4 7 
Ka'tta'daes'a. 
Editing Charges, ... ,.. 460 

PtinUng ditto, ... ... 1,064 

— 1,544 

Si^iTKHTA. APHOBI8M8 OF Eafila (Translatioiv^. 
Printing Charges, ... ... 242 

— 242 

Sakhita of the Black Tajub Yxda. ' 

Editing Chan^, ... ... 60 

Printing Charges, ... ... 448 

'—^ 508 (> 224 

Taittibi'ta Bba'hkaka. 
Editing Charges, ... ... 1,989 

Printingditto, ... ... 916 Q 

Kaitri Upaihshad. 
Editing Charges, ... ... 120 

Printing ditto, ... ... 448 

Su'bta Siddha'nta. 
Compiling 21 pages of the Index 
to ditto, ... ... 32 



Na'baba Pakcha Ra'tba. 
Charges for assistance in editing 
ditto, ... ... 35 

Tabaeta'i Nasibi. 
Editing and Printing Charges, ... 584 

Kk'MJLSrDAKl. 

Printing Charges, ... ... 129 10 

^^».^M^ ■■ II .III I. 

Lalita Yistaba. 
Printbg Charges, ... ... 233 8 

Pba'kbita Yta'kabana. 
Printing Charges, 442 4 

Siddha'nta SiBOHAirZ. 
Printing Charges for the Index,,.. 54 12 

BlLAJrCB. 

h the Bank of Bengal, 9,451 4 1' 
Giahinhand, ... 4 13 11 

— -.^i i — 9,456 2 

kident Balance, ... ... 61 7 6 

■. 9,517 9 6 



2,905 

568 

32 

35 642 12 

584 

129 10 140 

233 8 

442 4 

54 12 U ^214 8 



Co,'»R8.... 20.427 1 



W. L. Hbelet, 

iary, ji 

Digitiz^byLjO(55lC 



Secretary, As. Society 



9S 



Proceedings of the Aiiatic Society. 



[No. U 



o**©** o o oo 
3 aDt«eiie9 o oo o ^ 



f-« 5D00 "f 1 
l> rH lO < 



t« 00 



aot>!-! 000 O"* 



CO 

6 
5zi 



« 
^ 

w 

B 

ca 



CO 
00 



's* 



^ 



eg 



3 



rO 

« 









.Si 



CQ 



t* rH t^ t* 



s ©« ^ 



(4 



Ul 



•"S -g* : * 



p to * 00 



*" g -o is •*• a ^, . a 
.2'-' Hb hTsaSTfciQ 

tl|l-^Cfi^Cfi PL, OG » 







I 




*Si^ized by Google 



v^:\ 



Proceedifiys of the Asiatic Society. 



99 



QQ 



o 



oo 






2 












I 

Ok 



CQ 



2 • 



o 
o 

s 

o 

o 

2 



o 


o 


o 


00 


o 


to 


ei 


Q 


0) 






iH 






iH 


^ 


^ 


«" 



o o 
o o 



QQ 

M 

H 

3 

3 



<S 



I 



1 



O 
09 



& 



s I 

w «» 



£ 6 



1 ^ I 



I 



00 
00 



CO 

00 



iH '^ rH 



o 
o 



o 
o 



0» 

l> 
o 

CD 
(D 



QQ 

3 



& 



f 



^ o 



.9 -I 
I 1 



I s 



p 

QQ 

1 
■I 

QQ 



I 



I 
m 



I 



I 



A 



p 



II 



H 



I 






Digitized bvC^OOQlC 



LIST OF MEMBERS* 

OK THS 31 8T Dec. 1863« 



Digitrzed by VjOO^ IC 



J8H.] 



Proeeedingt of the Atiatie Soeietif. 



101 



LIST OF ORDINARY MEMBERS. 



The * distingnisbeB Non-Snbscribiiig and the f Non-Resident Members. 



"^s^^nsssEssr 



mi .Time 
iHGODec. 

1860 July 
1862 Apnl 
1862 April 

1859 Feb. 
1852 July 

1860 Oct 
18438^ 



1861 Maj 1. 



IWNov. 
lS62 0ct 
li^Oct. 
mSept. 
lH61JaIy 
I I««OMar. 
1^55 July 
lb61F«b. 



?. 
8. 
12. 
4. 
8. 
7. 
4. 
6 



lS26Sept. 6. 

l%Oct r 

l^SoT. 7. 

1^1 Mar. 6. 

1*162 Aug. 6. 

1S60 July 4. 

1838 Jan. 8. 

IBSQJfay 4. 



tAbbott, Lieut.-Col. J., Artillexy. 


Umballa. 


Abdool Luteef, Khan Bahadur, Man- 




lavi. 


Calcutta. 


tAhmed, Saied, Khan Bahadur. 


Gharipore. 


Aitchison, C. U. Esq., C. S. 


Calcutta. 


tAitchison, J.. E. T. Esq., M. D. 


Lahore. 


♦Alabaster, C. Esq. 


China. 


♦Allen, C. Esq., B. C. S. 


Europe. 


Amir All, Khan, MiinshL 


Calcutta. 


♦Anderson, Lieut.-CoL W., Bengal 




Artilleiy. 


Eurc^w. 


Ajiderson, T. Esq. M. D., P, L. S., 




Boyal Bot. Garden. 


Calcutta. 


tAnley, W. A. D. Esq. 


AUahabad. 


Apuira Krishna, Bajah Bahadur. 


Calcutta. 


Archer, Dr. C. 


Calcutta. 


Asghur All, Khan Bahadur, Nawab. 


Calcutta. 


♦Asphar, J. J. T. H. Esq. 


Europe. 


Atkinson, Lieut.-Col. F. D. 


Calcutta. 


Atkinson, W. S. Esq., M. A., P. L. S. 


Calcutta. 


tAusten, Capt. H..H. G., H. M.'s 24 




Foot, Surv. Genl.'s Dept. 


Dehra Dhoon. 


AvdaU, J. Esq. 


Calcutta. 


♦Baker, Col. W. E., Bengal Engineers. 


Europe. 


Banerjea, Rev. K M. 


Calcutta. 


tBaraes, C. H Esq. 


Bhagulpore. 


♦Basevi, Capt. J. P. , Bengal Engineers. 


Europe. 


tBatten, G H. M. Esq., B. C. 8. 


Allahabad. 


tBatten, J. H. Esq., B. C. S. 


Agra. 


Bayley, E. C. Esq., B. C. S. 


Calcutta. 




Digitized by'GoOgle 



102 



ProeeedingB of the AMatie Society. 



[No. 1, 



0ateof]gSlection. 



1861 Feb. 
18*9 June 
1841 April 

1861 Sept. 
1847 Aug. 
1830 Sept. 

1862 Dec. 
1862 Aug, 
1862 June 
1862 July 
1840 July 15. 



Bayley, S. C. Esq., B. C. S. 
Beadon, Hon'ble C, B. C. S. 
Beaufort, F. L. Esq., B. C S. 
•Beavan, Lieut. R. C, late 62nd B. N. I. 
♦Beckwith, J. Esq. 
♦Bensim, Lieut. -Col. R. 
tBernard, C. E. Esq. 
tBeverley, H. Esq., C. S. 
tBhau Daji, Dr. 
Bhola Nath Mullick, Bdbu. 
•Birch, Major-General Sir R. J. H. 
K. C. B. 
1846 Mar. 4. *Blagrave, Major T. C, 26th Regt., 
B. N. I. 
7. Blane, Lient.-Col. S. J. 
4. Blanford, H.F.E8q.,A.R.S.M.,F.G.S 
3. tBlanford, W. T. Esq. , A. R. S. M., F. G. S 
Geol. Survey. 

2. •Bogle, Lieut.-CoL Sir A., Kt. 

3. Bolie Chand Sing, Bdbu. 

6. Boulnois, C. Esq., B. A. 
12. tBowring, L. B. Esq., B. C. S. 

1. •Boycott, Dr. T., B. M. S. 

7. tBrandis, Dr. D. 

3. •Brandreth, J. E. L. Esq. 
16. tBriggs, Major D. 

2. *Brodie, Capt. T., 6th Regt., B. N. I. 
7. fBrowne, Capt. Horace A. 
7. Browne, Rev. J. Cave, M. A. 
6. fBunkim Chunder Chatterjea, B. Ai 

4. fBunsput Sinha, Rajah. 

3. Busheerooddin, Sultan Mohammad. 

4. tByme, L. F. Es»q., C. E. 



1859 Sept. 
1857 Mar. 
1859 Aug. 

1857 Aug. 
1859 Aug. 

1861 Mar. 

1859 Oct. 
1854 Nov. 

1860 Mar. 
1860 Oct. 

1862 Jan. 
1847 June 
1860 Nov. 
1860 Mar. 

1863 Aug. 
1860 July 
1856 Sept. 
1860 July 

1859 April 

1860 June 

1859 Sept. 
1863 June 

1860 Jan. 
1856 Sept. 

1860 Oct. 
1863 Aug. 
1863 Jane 
1863 April 

1863 June 

1861 Sept. 



6. Calcutta, Right Rev. Lord Bishop of, 

6. tCampbeU, C. J. Esq., C. E. 

7. •CampbeU, Dr. A. 

3. Campbell, Hon'ble G. 

4. tCamac, J. H Rivett, Esq., B. C. S. 
3. Chapman, R. B. Esq., B. C. S. 

3. tChristian, J. Esq. 
6. tChunder Nath Roy, Cowar. 
3. fChunder Sekur Roy, Rajah. 
1. fClcghorn, Dr. H., Conservator of For- 
ests. 

3. tClementson, E. W. Esq. 

4. tCockbum, J, F. Esq., C. E. 



1862 Apiil 2. tCoUes, J. A. P. Esq., M. D. 



Digitized by 



Calcutta. 

Calcutta. 

Calcutta. 

Europe. 

Europe. 

Europe. 

Nagpore. 

Darjiling. 

Bombay. 

Calcutta. 

Europe- 
Europe, 
Calcutta. 
Calcutta. 

Bombay. 

Europe. 

Calcutta. 

Calcutta. 

Mysore. 

Europe. 

Rangoon* 

Eiux)pe. 

Assam. 

Europe. 

Rangoon. 

Calcutta. 

Khoolneah. 

Allahabad. 

Chinsurah. 

Lahore. 

Calcutta. 

Delhi. 

Europe. 

Calcutta. 

Nagporo. 

Calcutta. 

Monghyr. 

Nattore. 

Julpigoru 

Lahore. 
Moulmein. 
Kurhurbarl 
Colliery. 



ISCiJ 



^r€>eeeding% cf the Asiatic Society^ 



103 



isssns'msBssr 



1S51 Mar, 
1860 Dec. 
1S57 Mar. 
li^lJuly 

1862 April 
1847 Jane 

lS61M«r. 
Is61 Sept- 
1861 Nov. 
1856 June 
1861 June 
1868 Feb. 
1S63 June 



5 
5 

4. 



3. *Crockett, OUver R. Esq. 



2- 
2. 

6. 
4>. 
6. 
4- 
5. 
4. 
3. 



1861 
1862 
1853 
1863 
1863 

iseo 

1861 
1859 
1851 
1S68 
1861 
1860 



Mar. 

May 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Dec. 

Nov. 

Jan. 

Sept. 

July 

Nov. 

Feb. 

Jan. 



•Colvin, J. H. B. Esq., B. C. S. 
tCooper, F. R Esq., B. C. S* 
Cowell, E. B. Esq., M. A. 



tl>alrymple, P. A. E. Esq., C. S. 
tI>alton, Lieut.-Col. E. T., 9th Begt; 

B. N, L 
-f-Davey, N. T. Esq., Eevenue Survey. 

I>avid8on, Capt. E., Beng&l Engineers 
•I>avies, R. H. Esq., B. C. S. 
i-I>eBoiirbel, Major R., Bengal Engrs. 

I>enison, His Excellency Sir W.,K. C. B. 
-t-I>eo Narain Sing, The Hon'ble Rajah. 
■fl>epree, Capt. G. C, Royal Artillery. 



6. *r>evereux, Hon'ble H. B., B. C. S. 

7. -f-I>hunpati Sinha Dooghur, B&bu. 
7. I>ickenfl, Lieut.-Col. C. H, 

7. Dickens, Major A. D. 
2. I>ickens, T. Esq. 
7. Digumber Mitra, B&bti. 
O. 1-r>odsworth, W. T. Esq. 
7. Douglas, Lieut.-Col. C. 

5. +Drummond, Hon'ble E., B. C. S. 
4. Duff, W. P. Esq. 

6. +I>^an» H. Esq., G. T. Survey. 
4. *Duka, Dr. T. 



1861 May 
1H57 May 
IJ^Oct. 
1^63 Mar. 
l>j63May 
lSS9May 
1S46 Jan. 
1859 Nov. 
1S63 April 
lS56Mar. 



1. i-Earle, Capt. E. L., Bengal Artillery. 

6. •Eatwell, Dr. W. C. B. 

7. •Edgeworth, M. P. Esq., B. C. S. 
4, -f-Eden, Hon'bl^ A. 
6- tEdgax, W. Esq., B. C. S. 

4. •Bdmonstone, Hon'ble G. F., B. Oi S. 
7. •Elliott, Hon'ble Walter, M. C. S. 

2. tElUott, C. A Esq., B. C. S. 
1. EUis, Hon'ble R. S., C. B. C. S., 

5. •EUis, Lieut..eol.R. R. W., 23rd Regt. 
B. N. I. 

IS^ Nov. 1. tElphinstone, Capt. N. W. 4fth Regt. 

B. N. I. 
1^61 Jan. 9. fErskine, Hon'ble C. J., B. C. S. 
1856 Aug. 6. ♦Erskine, Major W. C, C. B. 
1863 Oct. 7. Ewart, Dr. J. 
1862 Aug. 6. *Eyre, Col. Vincent, C. B. 



1S51 May 7. 



Europe. 
Delhi. 
Calcutta. 
China. 

Chittagong. 

Chota Nag- 
pore. 

Sylhet. 

Calcutta. 

Europe. 

Allahabad. 

Calcutta. 

Benares. 

Chota Nag- 
pore. 

Europe. 

Moorshedabad. 

Calcutta. 

Calcutta. 

Calcutta. 

Calcutta, 

Meerut. 

Calcutta. 

Allahabad. 

Calcutta. 

Dehra Dhoon. 

Europe. 

Kumal. 

Europe. 

Europe. 

Bhootan. 

Dacca. 

Europo. 

Europe. 

Hoshungabad. 

Calcutta. 

Europe. 

JuUundur. 

Bombay. 

Europe. 

Calcutta. 

Europe. 



Fayrer, Dr. J., B. M. S. 



Calcutta. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



104 



F'roeeedings of the Asiatic Society, 



[No. 1, 



"'i)ateorEfectioiL 



ISeSJan. 16. 


1859 Oct. 12. 


1860 Mar. 7. 


1861 Feb. 6. 


1863 Dec. 2. 


1868 June 3. 


1360 Jan. 4. 


1860 Mar. 7. 


1861 Sept. 4. 


1859 Oct. 12. 


1859 Dec. 7. 


1849 Sept. 5. 


1859 Sept. 7. 


1859 Aug. 3. 


1859 Sept. 7. 


1842 Sept. 2. 


1862 April 2. 


1859 Sept. 7. 


1862 July 2. 


1860 Sept. 5. 


1862 Feb. 5. 


1840 Sept. 6. 


1863 Nov. 4. 


1860 July 4. 


1859 Dec. 7. 


1860 J^ti. 4. 


1860 July 4. 


1861 Sept. 4. 


1860 Nov. 7. 


1849 Aug. 1. 


1861 Feb. 6. 


1860 Dec. 6. 


1862 Feb. 5. 


1847 June 2. 


1860 May 2. 


1863 June 3. 


1855 Mar. 7. 


1828 Nov. 12. 


1847 May 6. 


1869 Oct. 12. 


1863 Mar. 4. 


1862 Oct. 8. 



fFedden, Francis, Esq., GeoL Survey. 

Fisher, A. E.<iq. 

Fitzwilliam, Hon'ble W. S. 
fForrest, R- Esq., Civil Engineer. 
tForsyth, J. Esq. 
tForsyth, T. D. Esq., C. B. 
tFraser, Capt. A. 
tFrere, His Excellency Sir H. Bartle, 

K. C. B., B. C. S. 
tFuller, Capt. A. R. 
tFuriong, Capt. J. Or. R. 

Futteh Ali, Maulavi. 
tFytche, Lieut.-Col. A., 70th Regt 
B. N. I. 

tGardener, D. M. Esq., B. C. S. 

Gastrell, Lieut.-Col. J. E., 13th Regt. 
N. I., Rev. Survey. 

Geoghegan, J, Esq., B. C. S 
•Gladstone, W. Esq. 
tGlazier, E. G. Esq., C. S. 

Goodeve, E. Esq., M. D. 
•Gordon, J. D. Esq., C. S. 
fGoss, W. Forbes, Esq. 
fGourdoss By sack, Bdbu. 

Govin Chunder Sen, B&bu. 
fGowan, Major J. G. 

Grant, J. P. Esq. Jr., B. C. S. 
•Grant, Sir J. P., K. C. B. 

Grant, T. R. Esq., 

Grey, Hon'ble W., B. C. S. 
tGriliin, L. Esq., B. 0. S. 
tGriffiih, R. T. H. Esq. 

Grote, A. Esq., B. C. S., F. L. S. 
•Growse, F. S. Esq., B. C. S. 
tGuru Chum Doss, Bdbu. 

Guthrie, Col. C. S., Bengal Engineers. 



•HaU, F. E. Esq., M. A., D. C. L. Europe. 
•Halleur, Dr. H. Europe. 

tHamilton, Col. G. W. Delhi, 

•Hamilton, R. Esq. China. 

•Hamilton, Sir R. N. E., Bart., B. C. S. Europe. 
•Hannyngton, Col. J. C, 63rd Regt. 

N. I. Europe. 

•Hardie, Dr. G. K. Europe. 

Hari Doss Dutt, Bdbu. Calcutta. 

Harington, Hon'ble H. B. Calcutta. 

Digitized byCaOOQlC 



Basseiii. 

Calcutta. 
Calcutta. 
Dehra Dhoon. 
Seonee. 
Lahore. ' 
Alguada^ReeC 

Bombay. 
Lahore. 
Agra. 
Calcutta. 

Maulmein. 

Meerut. 

Calcutta. 

Calcutta. 

Europe. 

Backergunge. 

Calcutta. 

Europe. 

Sunibulpore. 

Khoolneah. 

Calcutta. 

Saugur. 

Calcutta. 

Europe. 

Calcutta. 

Calcutta. 

Guzerat. 

Benares. 

Calcutta. 

Europe. 

Berhampore, 

Calcutta. 



)m\ 



^roeeedinga tf tit Ariatie SoeUtjf. 



lOS 



BMgtBMttia. 



/ I860 Oct. 


3.ltHarri8, E. B. Esq., Civil Sni^eon. 
6. tHarrison, A. S. Esq., B. A. 


Monghyr. 


/ Ih&l Feb. 


Behar. 


f 1859 C^et. 


12. tHaugbton, Lieut.-CoL J. C. 


Assam. 


l^^May 


3. ^Hearsay, MajoivGenl. Sir J. B., K. C. B. 


Europe. 


1862 Aug. 


6. 


Heeley, W. L. Esq., B. C. S. 


Calcutta. 


1S59 Aug. 


3. 


•Henessey, J. B. N. Esq. 


Europe. 


1S53 July 


6. 


tHerschel, W. J. Esq., B. C. S. 


Pumeah. 


lH54Mar. 


1. 


•Hichens, Lieut. W., Bengal Engineers. 


Eun^. 


ISeOMaj 


2. 


Hobhouse, 0. P. Esq., B. C. S. 


Calcutta. 


ise2 0ct. 


8. 


Hogg, C. S. Esq. 


Calcutta. 


Is59 Sept. 


7. 


♦Hopkinflon, Major H. 


Europe. 


1S63 July 


1. 


tHome, C. Esq., C. S. 


Benares. 


1K60 Mar. 


7. 


tHovenden, Major J. J., Bengal Engrs. 


Allahabad. 


Ib63 Jao. 


15. 


tHowell, M. S. Esq., C. S. 


Bareilly, Ro- 






[Engineers. 


hilkund. 


1862 July 


2. 


Hyde, Lieut.- Col. H., Eoyal Bengal 


Calcutta. 


1860 Jan. 


4. 


tinnes, Major J. J. M. 
tirwin, Valentine, Esq , C. S. 


Lahore. 


1862 Oct. 


8. 


Dinajpore. 


f 1853 Dec. 


7. 


flshureeprasdd Sinha, Bahadur, Rajab. 


Beniures. 


1861 Jan. 


9. 


Jackson Hon'ble L. S., B. C. S. 


Calcutta. 


1S41 April 


7. 


•Jack«)n, W. B. Esq., B. C. S. 


Europe. 


1851 April 


2. 


J&dava Krishna Sinha, B4bu. 


Calcutta. 


I860 Jan. 


4. 


Jall^uddin Mohammad, Prince. 


Calcutta. 


1861 Dec. 


4. 


tJames, Major H. R., C. B. 


Peshawnr. 


1^15 Dec. 


3. 


tJerdon, T. C. Esq., M. M. S. 


UmbaUa. 


1862 July 


2. 


Johnson, Major A. B., Bengal Staff 








Corps. 


Calcutta. 


1847 June 


2. 


^Johnstone, J. Esq. 


Europe. 


1862 Mar. 


5. 


tJohnstone, Lieut. J., Assistant Com- 








missioner. 


Bunnoo. 


1859 Sept. 


7. 


*Jone8, B. Esq. 


Europe. 


1857 April 


1. 


Joygopal Bysack, B4bu. 


Calcutta. 


1853 May 


4 


tEabeeruddin Ahmed, Huzrut Shah. 


Sasaeraita. 


1858 Feb. 


3. 


Ealiprasanno Sinha, Bdbu. 


Calcutta. 


1868 July 


1. 


Kane, H. S, Esq , M. D. 
KAsinath Boy Chaudhuri, Bibu. 


Calcutta. 


1859 Mar. 


2. 


Cdsipore, Cal<. 








cutta. 


1850April 


3. 


Kay, Eer. W., D. D. 


Calcutta. 


1861 Dec. 


4. 


tKempeon, M. Esq., M. A. 


Bareilly. 


1862 Jan. 


15. 


tKing, W. Esq., Jr., Geological Survey. 


Madras. 


1839 Mar. 


6. 


•Laidlay, J. W. Esq. 


Europe. 


1861 Mar. 


6. 


•Laing, Hon'ble S. 


Europe. 


1863 Sept 


2. Lane, T. B. Esq., B. C. S. 
a fLayard, Major F. P. 


Calcutta. 


ItflDec. 


Bhagulpoie. 






Di 


gitizedfyLjOOgle 



106 



FroceedingB of the Asiaiie Society. 



[Na. 1, 



1852 April 

1859 Dec. 
1863 May 
1856 Feb. 

1860 Jan. 
186i Nov. 

1862 Dec. 
1835 Oct. 
1828 July 

1861 April 

1854 Nov. 

1863 April 
1860 Dec. 
1848 April 

1862 Mar. 

1853 April 

1863 Jan. ! 
1860 Jan. 
1862 Sept. 

1860 July 

1852 Nov. 

1861 June 
1850 Jan. 

1862 Sept. 

1863 Nov. 
1863 Oct. 
1863 Nov. 

1862 July 
1837 Oct. 

1860 Mar. 

1853 April 

1861 Feb. 

1855 Nov. 
1850 April 

1863 Nov. 
1860 April 
1847 April 

1856 Feb. 

1862 July 
1860 Feb. 

1854 Dec. 
1837 July 
1854 Oct : 
1859 Aug. 



Lees, Capt. W. N., LL.D. 


Calcutta. 


Leonard, H. Esq., C. E. 


Calcutta. 


Levinge, Hon'ble E. P. 


Calcutta. 


•Liebig, Dr. a. Von., B. M. S. 


Europe. 


Lindsay, £. J. Esq. 


Calcutta. 


tLloyd, Capt. M. 


Tounghoo. 


tliobb, S. Esq., M. A. 


Dacca. 


Loch, G. Esq., B. C. S. 
•Low, Major-General Sir J., K. C. B. 


Calcutta. 


Europe. 


tLumsden, Major P. S. 


Murree. 


•Lushington, F. A. Esq., B. C. S. 


Europe. 


tMacDonald, Capt. D., Rev. Survey. 


Bengal. 


Macfarlane, D. H. Esq. 


Calcutta. 


tMaclagan, Lieut.-Col B. 


Murree. 


Macnamara, Dr. F. N. 


Calcutta. 


Macrae, Dr. A. C, B. M. S. 


Calcutta. 


Maine, Hon'ble H. S. 


Calcutta. 


Mair, D. K. Esq., M. A. 


Calcutta. 


MaUet, F. B. Esq. 


Calcutta. 


•Man, E. G. Esq. 


Europe. 


Manickjee Bustomjee, Esq. 


Calcutta. 


tM&n Sinha Bahadur, Mahiu^jah. 


Oudh. 


•Marshman, J. C. Esq. 
tMartin, R. L. Esq., B. A- 


Eiux»pe. 


Dacca. 


Martin, R. T. Esq. 


Calcutta. 


Martin, T. Esq. 


Calcutta. 


McClelland, Dr. J. 


Calcutta. 


McCrindle, J. W. Esq., M. A. 


Calcutta. 


tMcLeod, D. F. Esq., C. B., B. C. S. 


Lahore. 


Medhcott, H. B. Esq., F. G. S. 


Calcutta. 


tMedlicott, J. G. Esq., B. A. 


Midnapope. 


tMelville, Capt. A. B., late 67th N. I. 
Surv. Qenl.^s Dept. 




Gwalior. 


•Middleton, J. Esq. 


Europe^ 


•Mills, A. J. M. Esq., B. C. S. 


Europe. 


tModhoosoodun Doss, Bdbu. 


Dacca. 


tMoney, A. Esq., B. C. S. 


Bhagulpore. 


•Money, D. J. Esq., B. C. S. 


Europe. 


Money, J. W. B. Esq. 


Calcutta. 


Monteath, A. M. Esq., B. C. S. 


Calcutta. 


tMontgomerie, Capt. T. G., B. E., F. R. 




G. S., Trigonometrical Survey. 


Dehra Dhooxu 


•Morris, G. G, Esq., B. C. S. 


Europe. 


•Muir, J. Esq. 


Europe. 


tMuir, W. Esq., B. C. S, 


Allahabad. 


tMurray, Lieut. W. G., 68th N. I. 


RewaL 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



IM.] 



ProeeedingM of the Anatie Society. 



lor 



1862 Jdj 2. 

1860 Nov. 7. 
1^2 Sept. 1. 

1863 Sept. 2. 
lb63Jan. 15. 
Ib62 April 2. 

1859 Aug. 3. 

1860 June 4. 
1851June 4. 
1837 June 7. 
1847 Feb 10. 



1862 May 

1860 Feb. 

1861 June 
1835 July 

1862 Oct. 

1863 July 
1849 Sept. 
1839 Mar. 
i860 Jan. 
1825 Mar. 
1837 Feb. 

1862 April 

1853 April 
1^9 Sept. 
1856 Mar. 
1837 Feb. 
l^Aug. 
1860 Mar. 

1854 June 
1860 Nov. 
1856 Aug. 

1863 April 
1863 May 

1862 Mar. 

1853 Aug. 
1847 Dec. 

1863 Mar. 
1859 Sept. 
1856 Feb. 



Napier, Hon'ble Msjor-Oenl. Sir B., 

K. C. B. Calcutta. 

tNewmarch, Major C. D. F©gu. 
•NichollB, Capt. W. T., 24th Regiment 

M. N. I. Europe. 

fNorman, Capt. F. B. Lahore. 

Norman, Hon'ble J. P- Calcutta. 

Norman, Lieut.-Col. H. W., C. B. Calcutta. 

Obbard, J. Esq. Calcutta. 

tOldham, C. Esq., Geological Survey. Madras. 

Oldham, T. Esq., LL. D., F. R. S. Calcutta. 

•O'Shaughnessy, Sir W. B. Europe. 

•Ousely, Major W. R. Europe. 

Partridge, S. B. Esq., M. D. Calcutta. 

fPearse, Major Qt. G. Madras. 

tPelly, Lt.-Col. L., Bombay Army. Bushire. 

tPhayre, Lt.-Col. A. P., C. B. Rangoon. 

tPoolin Behary Sen, B&bu. Berhampore. 

tPorter, G. E. Esq., C. S. Burdwan. 

Pratapchandra Sinha Rajah, Bahadur. Calcutta. 
tPratt, Ven'ble Archdeacon J. H., M. A. N. W. Prov. 

Preonath Sett, Bdbu. Calcutta. 

•Prinsep, C. R. Esq. Europe. 

Profionno Coomar Tagore, Babu. Calcutta. 

fRaban, Major H. Chera Poonjee. 

Radha Nath Sikdar, B&bu. Calcutta. 

Rajendra Dutt, Bibu. Calcutta. 

Rajendralala M^itra, Babu. Calcutta. 

Riuninath Tagore, B4bu. Calcutta. 

Ramgopal Ghose, Babu. Calcutta. 

•Reid, H. S. Esq. Europe. 

•Riddell, H. B. Esq., B. C. S. Europe. 

tRiley, E. O. Esq., F. G. S. Bassem. 

Roberts, Hon'ble A., B. C. S. Calcmtta. 

tRobertsoD, C. Esq., C. S. Banda. 

fRobertson, H. D. Esq., C. S. Saharunpore. 
tRobinson, Capt. D. G., Bengal Engi- 



1860 July 4. 



neers. 


Dehra Dhoon. 


*Roer, Dr. E. 


Europe. 


•Rogers, Capt. T. E. 


Europe. 


B^^rs, H. M. Esq., C. S. 


Calcutta. 


tRussell, A. E. Esq., B. C. S. 


Berhampore. 


tRuasell, R. H. Esq., B. C. S. 


Midnapore. 


Sampson, A. B. Esq., B. A. 


Calcutta. 




DiglizJS by Google 



108 



Proceeding tf the Aeiaiie Society, 



[No. 1, 



•"6i«teorassron." 






1868 Nov. 


4. 


Sandeman, H. D. Esq., B. 0. S. 


Calcutta. 


1859 Feb. 


2 


fSatiscbunder Roy» Mab&rajah. 


Krishnagur. 


1856 Aug. 


6. 


Satyasbarana Gbosal, RajaJi. 


Bhookylas, 

Calcutta. 

Mysore. 


1861 Deo. 


4. 


tSaunders, C. B. Esq., B. C. S. 


1854 Dee. 


a 


tSaiton, Lt.-Col. G. H., 38tb M. N. I. 


Cuttack. 


1854 May 


2. 


ScbiUer, F. Esq. 


Calcutta. 


1860 Feb. 


1. 


•Scott, Col. E. W. S. 


Europe. 


1869 Aug. 


3. 


tScott, W. H. Esq. 


Dehra Dhoon. 


1863 Sept. 


2. 


Sbama Chum Sirkar, B^bu. 


Calcutta. 


1860 July 


4. 


tShelverton, G. Esq. 


Dehra Dhoon. 


1846 Jan. 


14. 


♦Sherwill, Lt.-Col. W. S., 66tb R^- 








ment B. N. I., F. G. S., F. R. G. S. 


Europe. 


1859 Sept. 


7. 


tSherwill, Major J. L. 


Raneegunge. 


1863 April 


1. 


tSbowers, Major C. L. 


Madras. 


1860 July 


4. 


tSimpson, Dr. B. 


Darjiling. 


1856 Feb. 


6. 


♦Smith, Col. J. F. 


Europe. 


^859 Mar. 


2. 


Smith, H. Scott, Esq., B. A. 


Calcutta. 


1862 Feb. 


5. 


tSmyth, Capt. E. 


Almorah. 


1854 Sept. 


6. 


tSpankie, R. Esq., B. C. S. 


Meerut. 


1863 Jan. 


15. 


tSquiie, J. Esq. 


Hooghly. 


1859 Mar. 


2. 


Stamforth, H. Esq. 


Calcutta. 


1860 May 


2. 


tStaunton, Major F. S., Beng. Engrs. 


Bengal. 


1843 Sept. 


4. 


•Stephen, Major J. G. 8th N. I. 


Europe. 


1863 April 


1. 


Stephenson, J. Esq., R A. 


Calcutta. 


1863 Jan. 


15. 


tStemdale, R. A. Esq. 


Seonee, Jub- 

bulpore. 

Sooree, Beer- 


1862 Oct. 


8. 


tStevens, C. C. Esq. 








bhoom. 


1863 May 


a 


tStevens, W. H. Esq. 


Sylhet. 


1863 Sept. 


2. 


Stewart, D. Esq. 


Calcutta. 


1861 Feb. 


6. 


fStewart, Lieut. W. J., Bengal Artille- 








ry, Revenue Survey. 


Bengal. 


1861 S^t 


4. 


•Stewart, Major P. 


Europe. 


1863 Kov. 


4. 


StoKczka, Dr. F. 


Calcutta. 


1848 June 


7. 


Strachey, J. Esq., B. C. S. 


Calcutta. 


1843 May 


8. 


tStrachey, Lt.-CoL R., F. R. S., P. L. S., 








F. G S. 


Simla. 


1859 Mar. 


2. 


tStubbs, Capt. F. W., Bengal Artillery 


Mean Meer. 


1861 Oct. 


2. 


tSudderuddm Moonshi. 


Pundooah. 


1858 July 


7. 


tSutherland, H. C. Esq., B. C. S. 


Pegu. 


1860 May 


2. 


tTemple, R. Esq , B. C. S. 


Nagpur. 


1859 Mar. 


2. 


tTheobald, W. Esq., Jr., Geological 








Survey. 


Thayet-Myo. 


1860 Jan. 


4. 


Thompson, Rev. J. 0. 


Calcutta. 


1860 June 


6^ 


Thompson, J. G. Esq. 


Calcutta 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1861] 



Proceedings of the Anatie Society, 



109 



1863 M^. 4. 

18S5Juiie 6. 



1853 Nov. 
1863 June 
1847 June 

1863 May 
1862 July 

1859 Nov, 

1862 Feb. 
1861 June 

1863 Mar. 

1841 Feb. 
1S63 Feb. 

1860 Mar. 

1861 Sept. 
1863 May 

1860 May 
1863 Oct. 

1861 Oct 

1861 May 
1863 Dec. 
1863 May 
1863 Oct. 
1863 Dec, 
1^2 Jan. 
1852 July 
1^9 July 

1854 July 
lb47 Nov. 

1862 Oct. 
1H61 Sq)t. 
1859 Aug. 
1862 Oct 
i859 Sept. 
l8ol May. 
1859 Mar. 
1862 Aug. 



tThompson, Capt. G. H., Bengal StaflFl 

Corps. Hazareebag. 
•Thomson, Dr. T., M. D., F. R. S., 

F. L. S., F.R.G.S. Europe. 

21, tThomhiU, C. B. Esq., B. C. S. Allahabad, 

4. tThomton, T. H. Esq. Delhi. 
2. ThuiUier, Lt-Col. H. L., F.R.G.S., 

Bengal Aitillery. Calcutta 

6. Thuillier, Lt. H. R. Calcutta. 
2. Thurlow, Hon'ble T. J. H. Calcutta. 

2. tTickell, Lt.-Col. S. R. Pegu. 

5. tTorrens, Col. H. D. Siinla. 

5. tTremlett, J. D. Esq., C. S. Jullundur. 
4. Trevelyan, Bight Hon'ble Sir C, K 

C. B. Calcutta. 

3. *Trevor, Hon'ble C. B., B. C. S. Europe. 

4. Trevor, E. T. Esq. B. C. S. Calcutta. 

7. tTurnbuU, Lt.-Col. A. D. Roorkee. 
4 Tween, A. Esq., Geological Survey. Calcutta. 

6. tTyler, Dr. J. Etah. 



fVanrenen, Capt. A. D., late 7l8t B. 
N. I., R. Survey. 
Waheedoon Nubbee, Maulavi, Khan 
Bahadoor. 
2. Walagohur Mohammad, Sahebzadah. 

1. •Walker, Major X T., Bombay Engrs. 

2. Walker, A G. Esq. 

6. WaU, P. W. Esq., C. S 

7. Waller, Dr. W. K. 
2. Walters, Rev. M. D. C. 

15. Ward, G. E. Esq. B.C.S. 

7. •Ward, J. J. Esq., B C. S. 
6. tWarrand, R. H. M. Esq B. C. S 
5. *Watson, J. Esq., B. C. S. 
3 •Waugh, Major-Genefal Sir A. S., C. B., 

i F. R. S., F. R. G. S. 

8. Wheeler, J T. Esq. 
4. tWiUiams, Dr. C, H. M.'s 68th Regt. 
3 tWilmot, C. W. Esq. 
8.'tWilson, R. H. Esq. 
7.ltWm&on, W. L. Esq. 



1855 April 4. 

1856 July 2 



Woodrow, H. Esq , M A. 
•Wortl^y, Major A. H. P, 
Wyllie, J. W. Esq., Bcmxbay C. S. 

•Young, Lt.-Col. C. B. 
•Yule, Lt.-Col. H. 



Saugor. 

Calcutta. 

Calcutta. 

Europe. 

Calcutta. 

Calcutta. 

Calcutta. 

Calcutta. 

Sahorunpore. 

Europe. 

Cawnpore. 

Europe. 

Europe. 

Calcutta. 

Mandelay. 

Nya Doomka. 

Chittagong. 

Beerbhoom. 

Calcutta. 

Europe. 

Calcutta. 

Europe. 
Europe. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



110 



JProeeedinfs of the Asiaiie Society. 
LIST OF HONORARY MEMBERS. 



[No. 1, 



Date of Election. 






1825 Mar. 


9. 


M. Garcin de Tassy, Membre de 1' Instit. 


Paris. 


1826 „ 


1 


Sir Jobn Phillippart. 


London. 


1829 July 


1. 


Count De Noe. 


Paris. 


1831 Sept. 


7. 


Prof. Francis Bopp, Memb. de TAca- 








demie. 


Berlin. 


1831 „ 


7. 


Prof. C. Lassen. 


Bonn. 


1834 Nov. 


5. 


Sir J. F. W. Herschel, F. R. S. 


London. 


1834 „ 


5 


Col. W H. Sykes, P. B. S. 


London. 


1835 May 


6 


Prof, Lea. 


Philadelpbiat 


1840 Mar. 


4. 


M. Reiraud, Memb. de V Instit., Prof. 








de r Arabe. 


Paris. 


1842 Feb. 


4. 


Dr. Ewald. 


Gottingen. 


1842 „ 


4 


Right Hon'ble Sir Edward Ryan, Kt. 


London. 


1843 Mar. 


30 


Prof. Jules Mohl, Memb. de V Instit. 


Paris. 


1847 May 


5. 


His Highness Hekekyan Bey. 


Egypt. 
London. 


1847 Sept. 


1. 


Col. W. Munro. 


1847 Nov. 


3. 


His Highnees the Nawab Nazim of 
Bengal, 








Moorshedabad. 


1848 Feb. 


2. 


Dr. J. D. Hooker, R. N., F. R. S. 


London. 


1848 Mar. 


8. 


Prof. Henry. 


United States. 


1853 April 


6. 


Major-Gen. Sir H. C. Rawlinson, K. C. 








B., F. R. S., D. C. L. 


London. 


1854 Aug. 


2 


Col. Sir Proby T. Cautley, K. C. B., 








F. R. S. 


London. 


1855 Mar. 


7. 


Rdj^ Rddhdkfinta Deva, B^h^Hur. 


Calcutta, 


1858 July 


6. 


B. H. Hodgson, Esquire. 


Europe. 


1858 „ 


6. 


Dr. H. Falconer, F. R. S., B. M. S. 


Europe. 


1859 Mar. 


2 


Hon'ble Sir J. W. Colvile, Kt. 


Europe. 


1860 „ 


7. 


Prof. Max Miiller. 


Oxford. 


1860 Nov. 


7. 


Mons. Stanislas Julien. 


Paris. 


1860 „ 


7 


Col. Sir George Everest, Kt., F. R. S. 


London. 


1860 „ 


7. 


Dr. Robert Wight. 


London. 


1860 „ 


7. 


Edward Thomas, Esquire. 


London. 


1860 „ 


7 


Dr. Aloys Sprenger. 


Germany. 


1860 „ 


7. 


Dr. Albrecht Weber. 


Berlin. 



LIST OF CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 


1844 Oct. 2. 
1856 June 4. 
1856 „ 4. 
1856 „ 4. 
1856 „ 4. 
1866 „ 4 


MacGowan, Dr. J. 
Kremer, Mons. A Von. 
Porter, Rev. J. 
Schlagintweit, Herr H. 
Smith, Dr. E. 
Tailor, J., Esquire. 


Europe. 

Alexandria. 

Damascus. 

Berlin. 

Beyrout. 

Bussorah. 




Digitized by V. 


jOOgle 



1861] 



ProeeeiingM of the Anatie Society. 



Ill 



IMeofElectioii. 



1856 „ 

1557 Mar. 

1558 „ 

1559 Nov. 
18^ May 
1860 Feb, 
1860 „ 

1860 April 

1861 July 

1862 Mar. 
lS63Jaii. 

1863 July, 



4. 
4. 
3. 
2. 
4. 
1. 
1. 
4. 
3 
6. 
15. 
4. 



Wilson, Dr. Bombay. 

Neitner, J , Esquue. Ceylon. 

Schlagintweit, Herr K. Berlin. 

Frederick, Dr H. Batavia 

Bleeker, I>r. P. Batavia. 

Baker, Eev. H. E. Malabar. 
Swinhoe, B., Esquire, H. M.'s Consulate, Amoy. 

Haug, Dr. M. Poonali. 

Gosdie, Dr. E. Berlin. 

Murray, A , Esquire. London. 

Goldstiicker, Dr. T. London. 

Barnes, R. H. Esquire. Ceylon. 



LIST OF ASSOCIATE MEMBERS. 

1835 Oct 7. Stephenson, J., Esquire. 
1838 Feb. 7. Keramut AH, Saied. 
1843 Dec. 6. Long, Rev. J. 

18^ Jan. 14. Blyth, E., Esquire. 



Europe. 
Hooghly. 
Europe. 
Europe. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



112 



Frooeedingt of the Asiatic Sooiety, 



[Nq. 1, 



ELECTIONS n^r 1868. 
Ordinary Members, 

F. Fedden, Esq., Geological Survey. Bangoon. 
M. S. Howell, Esq., C. S. Rohilkund. 
Hon'ble H. S. Maine. Calcutta. 

„ J. P. NonnaiL Ditto. 

B. A. Sterndale, Esq. Jubbu^pore. 
J. Squire, Esq. Hooghly. 
The Hon'ble Bajah Deo Narain Singh. Benares. 

E. T. Trevor, Esq., C. S. Calcutta. 

Hon'ble A. Eden. Bhootan. 

B&bu Haridoss Dutt. Calcutta. 

H. M. Bogers, Esq., C. S. Ditto. 

The Bight Hon'ble Sir C. Trevelvan, K. C. B. Ditto. 
Capt. G. H. Thompson, Bengal Staff Corps, B. Survey. Hazareebaug. 

C. Bobertson, Esq. C. S. Banda. 
Capt. D. MacDonald, B. Survey. Dept. Darjiling. 
Dr. H. Cleghoro. Lahore. 
Major C. L. Showers. Madras. 
Hon'ble B. S. Ellis, C. S., C. B. Calcutta. 
J. Stephenson, Esq., B. A. Calcutta. 
W. Edgar, Esq., B. C. S. Dacca. 
Lieut. H. B, Thuillier, Boyl. Engrs. Calcutta. 
Hon'ble E. P. Levinge. Ditto. 

P W. Wall, Esq., C. E. Ditto. 

Dr. J. Tyler. Etah. 

H. D. Bobertson, Esq., C. S. Saharunpore. 

W. H. Stevens, Esq. Sylhet. 

Hon'ble G. Campbell. Calcutta. 

Bajah Chunder Sekur Boy. Julpigori. 

Capt. G. C. Depree, Boyal Artillery. Chota Nagpur. 

E. W. Clementson, Esq Bassein. 

T. D. Forsyth, Esq., C. B. Lahore. 

Col. G. W. Hamilton. DelhL 

T. H. Thornton, Esq. Ditto. 

C. Home, Esq., C. S. Benares. 
H. S. Kane, Esq., M. D., Geol(^cal Survey. Calcutta. 

G. E. Porter, Esq., C. S. Burdwan. 
Bdbu Bimkim Chunder Chatterjea, B. A. Khoolneah. 
Coomar Chunder Nath Boy. Nattore. 
Babu Shama Chum Sirkar. Calcutta. 
T. B. Lane, Esq., B. C. S. Ditto. 
Capt. F. B. Norman, Lahoro. 

D. Stewart, Esq. Calcutta. 
Major A. D. Dickens. Ditto. 
Dr. W. K. Waller. Ditto. 
T. Martin, Esq. Ditto. 



Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1^.1 



Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, 



113 



Br. J. Ewart, Prof. Physiology, Medl. College. 

ManUvi Waheedoon Nubbee Khan Bahadur. 

W. P. l>nff, Esq. 

Major J. Qr. Go wan. 

R T. Martin, Esq. 

Dr. J. McClelland. 

Babu Modhoosoodun Doss. 

H. D. Sandeman, Esq. 

Dr. F. Stoliczka. 

J. Forsvtb, Esq. 

A G. Walker, Esq. 

T. Dickens, Esq. 

Rev. M. D. C. Walters. 



Dr T. Goldstucker. 
B. H. Barnes, Esq. 



Corresponding Members. 



Calcutta. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Saugor. 

Calcutta. 

Ditto. 

Dacca. 

Calcutta. 

Ditto. 



Calcutta. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 



London. 
Ceylon. 



LOSS DP MEMBERS DURING THE YEAR 1863. 



By retirement. 
W. Grapel, Esq. 
B£bii Rajkissen Roy. 
H Braddon, Esq. 
Rer. T. H. Bum. 
J. J. Grey, Esq. 
D. Fitzpatrick, Esq. 
Hon'ble Sir Mordaunt Wells. 
Lieut.-CoL H, C. James. 
S, Waachope, Esq., C. B. B. C. S. 
Sanders, J. Esq. 
Fitzgnald, Major C. M. 
Dr. G. Gordon. 

By Death. 
Balm Snmbfaoo Chimder Roy. 
Maharajah Narendra Narain Bhupa. 
ft". J. Browne. 



Calcutta. 

Berhampore. 

Calcutta. 

Ditto. 

Shahabad 

Dhurmsala. 

Europe. 

Calcutta 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Rungpore. 
Cooch Bchar. 
Calcutta. 



DigitizedQyCiOOglC 



114 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. 1, 



t 
Foe Febbtjabt, 1864. 

The monthly general meeting of the Asiatic Society was held on 
the Sri instant. 

A. Grote, Esq., senior member, in the chair. 

The proceedings of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The Chairman informed the Society that the accounts not having 
been returned by the auditors, it would be necessary to defer their 
submission to the Society's meeting for another month. 

Presentations were received — 

1. From H. M. Smith, Esq., a dead chicken with four legs. 

2. From Lieutenant B. C. Beavan, specimens of an Albatross and 
a Tern from the South Seas. 

3. From H. L. Haughton, Esq., specimens of four sea snakes from 
Hidgelli ; also a white-breasted bat. 

4. From Lieutenant-Colonel Tytler, four large slabs of wood carved 
with figures of Hindoo idols, from the palace of the Kaiser Bagh, 
Lueknow ; also a box containing the skeleton of a mule. 

The following extract from a letter which accompanied the presenta- 
tion was read : — 

" I got these slabs in the palace of the Kaiser Bagh, Lueknow, 
after the siege. They form a square, and all hook together. The 
only history I could gather about them was that it was a sort of 
portable place of pilgrimage representing the holy shrines in the 
Himalayas for the old, weak, and infirm, who could not undertake the 
pilgrimage to the real place ; so they had to ascend the steps on this 
model and offer their offerings at each shrine, &c., presented in the 
carvings. I have also told Mr. Lazarus to give you for the Museum 
an old box containing a lot of old bones : it is the skeleton of a mule, 
Equus onager, I hope you will find him pretty perfect," 

5. From Lieutenant Waterhouse, several photographs of archaeolo- 
gical remains in Central India, to replace imperfect prints in the set 
presented to the Society some months ago. 

The Chairman proposed, on the part of the Council, that the Bight 
Hon*ble Sir John Lawrence shoidd be requested to become the patron 
of the Society. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1864.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. IIS 

Letters from Messrs. H. M. Rogers, J. Stephenson, and D. H. 
Macfarlane, announcing their withdrawal from the Society, were re- 
eorded. 

The following gentlemen duly proposed at the last meeting were 
balloted for and elected ordinary members : — 

HoD*ble Sumbhoo Nath Pundit, Baboo Kaliprosonno Dutt, H. Leeds, 
Esq., A. M. Verchere, Esq., M. D., and Lieutenant A. Pullan. 

The following gentlemen werd named for ballot as ordinary members 
«fc the next meeting : — 

H. R. Spearman, Esq , proposed by Mr. W. Theobald, Jr., seconded 
bj- Mr. Grote. 

C. J. Wilkinson, Esq., barrister-at-law, proposed by Mr. H. F. 
Bbmford, seconded by Mr. W. L, Heeley. 

F. H. Pellew, Esq., C, S., proposed by Mr. Heeley, seconded by Mr. 
H. F. Blanford. 

Baboo Jugodanund Mookeijee, proposed by Captain W. N. Lees, 
nccnded by Baboo Rajendralal Mitra. 

Lieutenant £. A. Trevor, H. M.'s Bengal Engineers, proposed by 
Mr. Grote, seconded by Mr. H. F. Blanford. 

Br. W. J. Palmer, proposed by Dr. Partridge, seconded by Dr. 
Piyrer. 

Lieutenant G. M. Bowie, Madras Staff Corps, proposed by Mr. 
6eogh^;an, seconded by Mr. Blanford. 

The Council reported that they had appointed the following sub- 
committees for 1864 ;— 

FIITANCB. 

Lieutenant-Colonel H. Hyde and Baboo Rajendralal Mitra. 

PHILOLOGT. 

A. Grote, Esq., Captain W. N. Lees ; Baboo Rajendralal Mitra, 
aid E. B. Cowell, Esq. 

LIBKABT. 

Captain W. N. Lees ; Baboo Rajendralal Mitra ; H. B. Medlicott, 
H; Dr. T. Andei-son ; H. Scott Smith, Esq. ; E. B. Cowell, Esq. ; 
T. Oldham, Esq. ; A, Grote, Esq. ; and Hon'ble L. S. Jackson. 

KATTKAL HI8T0BT. 

I>r. T. Anderson ; A. Grote, Esq. ; Dr. A. C. Macrae ; Dr. J. 
^ajTO ; Dr. T. C. Jerdon ; T. Oldham, Esq. ; W. S. Atkinson, Esq. ; 

Dig^^ize^dbyLjOOgle 



116 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [No. t, 

W. Theobald, Esq., Jr. ; Dr. S. B. Partridge ; H. B. Medlicott, 
Esq. ; and Dr. F. Stoliezka, 

METEOBOLOQT AlTD PHYSICAL SCIENCK. 

The Ven'ble J. H. Pratt ; T. Oldham, Esq. ; J. Obbard, Esq. ; 
Colonel B. Strachey ; Lieutenant-Colonel J. E. Gastrell ; Lieutenant- 
Colonel J. T. Walker; Captain T. G. Montgomerie ; H. Leonard, 
Esq. ; and H. Scott Smith, Esq. 

COIK COMMITTEE. 

A. Orote, Esq. ; Captain W. N. Lees ; and Baboo Bajendralal 
Mitra. 

COMMITTEE OP PAPEES. 

Colonel E. Strachey ; A. Grote, Esq. ; and E. B. Cowell, Esq. 

The Secretary read the following letter from Mr. Bowring forward- 
ing copy of an inscription foimd in the hands of some Brahmins of 
Anantpore, a village in Mysore : — 

" I send you a copy of a sashana or inscription on copper, which I 
found in the hands of some Brahmins of a village in the jungles of 
Anantpore about four miles N. E. of the Kusba. I copied the first 
bit myself, and lefb the sashana with the tehseeldar, with a view to his 
getting the rest copied, which he did ; but 1 cannot say whether it is 
quite correct, as I did not see the copier and was obliged to leave 
before he made his appearance. Tlie deed may be of interest. 

'* I have seen a vast number of inscriptions on stone slabs, but I 
believe the whole of these were cojiied by Walter Elliot. They are 
all in old Canarese, and I have not seen one in Sanskrit, except one 
illegible inscription at Banawasi." 

Communications were received — 

1. From Baboo Gopeenauth Sen, abstracts of the Results of the 
Hourly Meteorological Observations taken at the Surveyor General's 
Of&ce in November last. 

2. From Baboo Bajendralal Mitra, a paper on the Buddhist 
remains of Sultangunge. 

Mr. Blanford read extracts from a paper by W. Theobald, Jr., Esq., 
entitled " Notes on the variation of some Indian and Burmese Heli- 
cidse," and made some remarks on the subject of it. 

Mr. Heeley also read extracts from a paper by Dr. J. E. T. Aitchi- 
son, on " The Vegetation of the Jhelum District of the Punjab." 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1S64."1 JProceedingg of the Asiatic Society. 117 

The paper liaving been read, a discussion ensued, in which Dr. 
Bnmdis, Colonel Strachey, and Mr. Heeley took part. The papers 
viU appear in the Journal in due course. 
The Librarian submitted his report of the accessions to the lihrary 

BDoe the meeting held in October. 

LiBSABY. 

The undermentioned books have been added to the Library since 
the meeting held in October last. 

Presented. 
The Annual Report of the Geological Survey of India, for 1862- 

63. — ^By THB BEKGAIi GOVEBNMEKT. 

The Annual Report on the operations of the Post Office of India, 
for 1862-63.--BY the Same. 

Annual Beport on the Administration of the Bengal Presidency, 
for 1862-63.— By the Same. 

Annfiii.1 Report on the Administration of the Punjab Territories, 
for 1862-63.— By the Same. 

Annual Report on the Administration of the Province of Oudh, for 
the year 1862-63.— By the Same. 

Annnal Report on the Administration of the Central Provinces for 
the year 1862-63.— By the Same, 

Annnal Report on the Administration of the Straits Settlement, 
for 1862-63.— By THE Same. 

Annnol Report of the Branch of the Marine Department, under 
control of the Gt)vt. of India, for 1862-63.— By the Same. 

Beretning sundhedstilstanden og medicinal forholdene i Norge, I 
Aaret, 1859. — By the Chbistiania Univebsity. 

Bombay Magnetical and Meteorological Observations for 1862. — 
Br the Bombay Gotebnment. 

Bijdragen tot de Taal-Land-en Yolkenkunde van Nederlandsch 
Indie, VoL VI. Stuk 7, and Vol. VII. Stuk 1.— By the Copenhaoek 
Society. 

Boeck's Recherches sur la Syphilis. — By the Ghbistiai7IA Uni- 

TKB8ITY. 

The Calcutta Cbristian Observer for October, November, December 
and January. — By the £ditou. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



118 Proceedings cf the Asiatic Soeictff, [No. 1, 

Cole's Manual of the Mohammedan Civil Law. — By the T&Aif bjla.- 

TOE. 

ForhandlingerVidenskabs — Selskabet i Chnstiaoia Aar 1861. — ^Bt 
THE Chbistiakia Univbesity. 

Fay*s om Indvirkungen af Forskjellje. — ^By the Same. 

On the Formation and Institution of the Caste system in India, — 
the Aryan polity. — By Babu Gaitendeo Mohun Tagoee. 

Qeologiske Undersogelser Bergens Omegu. — By the Cheistiakia 

UWITEESITY. 

Generalberetning Fra Ghtnstad, 1861. — ^By the Same. 

Holmboe om den Nordisk. — By the Same. 

Ditto om Oprindelsen af det Skandinaviske Ycegtsystem i Middel- 
alderen. — By the Same. 

Hardy's Sacred books of the Buddhists compared with History and 
Modem Science. — By Eev. J. Nicholson. 

Journal of the Chemical Society of London, 2nd Series, Vol. I. 
Nos. 7 to 9. — By the Society. 

Journal, of Sacred Literature and Biblical Record, New Series, 
No. 7. — By the Editoes. 

Beise der No vara um die Erde. Nautisch-physical Theil. II. Abth. 
— ^By the Teieste Academy. 

Ethnographic Map of Finmark Nos. 1 to 5, with an explanatory- 
table.— By the Cheistiania Univeesity. 

Map of Kafiristan. — By the Sueyeyoe Qsi^EfiAL of India. 

Index Map to Trigonometrical Survey Maps. — By the Same. 

Mahdbhirata, Adi and Sabhi parvas text and Bengali translation. — 
By the MahIeajah of Buedwak. 

Memoirs of the G^logical Survey of India, Vol. Ill Parts 1 and 
2. — By the Goveenment of India. 

Pitto ditto Vol. III. Part 2. — By the Supbeintendeft of thb 
Geological Suevey of India. 

Meteorologische Beobachtungen auf Christiania*s Observatorium 
for 1842-47. — By the Cheistiakia Untveesity. 

Memoires de la Societe Imperiales des Sciences Naturelles de Cher- 
bourgb, Vol. VI. — By the Societe^ de Cheeboveoh. 

Murdoch's Indian Year-Book for 1862. — By the Compilbb. 

Narrative of the Course of Legislation for 1862-63 — ^By the Ben- 
gal GOYEENMENT. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



1%L] Proeeedinffs of the Asiatic Soeietj/. 119 

Oriental Baptist for August 1863, Vol. XVII. No. 200.— Bt the 
Editos. 

ftweedings of the Bojal Geographical Society of London, VoL VII. 
Nos. 4 and 5. — Bt the Society. 

Report of the Committee of the Bengal Chamber of Commerce from 
Ist May to Slat October, 1863. — ^Br the Chambeb op Comhebce. 

Annual Eeport on the Adnunistration of British Burmah, for J862- 
®-— By the Beitoax* GovEwniENT. 

Report on the PoHce of the Town of Calcutta and its Suburbs for 
18)02-63.— By the Saks. 

Report on the Administration of the Madras Presidency during tha 
Tear 1862-63.— By the Same. 

Revue Orientale et Americaine, No 47. — By the Faeis Ethno- 
6»AFHiCAL Society. 

Report on the Administration of the N. W. Provinces, for 1862-63. 
^By the Bengal GovEKyMENT. 

Report on the Hyderabad Assigned Districts for 1862-63.— By 
THE Sake. 

Report on the Trade and Besources of the countries on the North 
West boundary of British India, with a Minute by Sir Robert Mont- 
gomery. — ^By THE GoVSENHEirT OP LmiA. 

Reisen im Suden Von Ost-Sibirien, Band I. — By the Socib'te' 
GEoo&APHiQrE Ihpe'eiale be Eussie. 

Rahasya Sandarbha, Vol. I. Nos. 7 to 9. — ^By the School Book 
Society. 

Selections from the Records of the Government, N. W. Provinces, 
Ko. 3». — ^By the Government, N. W. P. 

Ditto ditto Bengal Government, No. 40.— By the Bengal Go- 
ternkent. 

Statement of the weekly Metl. Returns in the districts of the 
K. W. Provinces from 1st June, 1862, to 3l8t May, 1863.— By the 
Govt. N. W. Pbovinces. 

A Manual of JaQ Discipline and £conomy. — By S. Clark, Esq. — 
By the Same. 

Stray Leaves ; or Essays, Poems and Tales. — By Shoshee Chunder 
Dtttt — ^By the Author. 

Schubeler's Synopsis of the vegetable products of Norway, translated 
into English by Bev. M. B. Bamard.-^BY the Christlanli Univer- 

■^'' Digitized by LjOOgle 



120 Froceedings of the Asiafie Society. [No. 1, 

Sar's Beskrivelse over Lophogaster Typicug. — By the SiiME. 
Schubeler's Die Oultupflunzcn Norwegens. — By the Same- 
Selections from the Records of the Madras Qovemment, Nos. 73 

to 76. — ^Bt the Madbas Govebnmebt. 

Ditto ditto Nos. 73 and 74 — By thk Bengal Govbenm ext 
Treaties, Engagements and Sunnuds, India, Vol. III. — By thk 

Bengal Govebio£ENT. 

Tabeller over de spedalske i Norge, I Aaret, 1860. —By the Chbis- 

TIANLA. UnIVEESITT. 

Tabeller vedkommende Norges Handel og skibsfart, I, Aaret, 1860. 
— ^Bt the Same. 

VivMa Chintdmani. — By Babu Pbosonno Coomab Tagobe. 

Wood's Statistics of the Trade of the Port of Calcutta, 1863.— By 
the Comfileb. 

Zeitschrifb der Deutschen Morgcnlandischen Gcsellschafb, Vol. 
XVII. Part 3. — By the Academy. 

Sdiswi and Punhii, a Sindi poem with a metrical Translation into 
English. — ^By the Bombay Govebnment. 

Aitareya Brahmana, Vols. I. and II. — By the Same. 

Natural History of New York, — Paleontology, by James Hall, with 
plates. — By the Eegents op the New Yobk Sta.te Libraby. 

Ditto ditto— Agriculture by Emmas. — By the Same. 

Annaler for Nordisk Oldkyndighed. — By the Copenhagen Anti- 
QTJABiAN Society. 

Antiquarisk Tidsskrift. — By the Same. 

Solar Eclipse of July 18th, 1860, by W. de la Rue, Esq.—BY the 
Royal Society of London. 

Address to the Natives of Hindoostan on Education, by Syud Ah- 
mad Khan. — By the Ghazeepobe Scientific Society. 

Bye-Laws for the Scientific Society of Ghazeepore. — By the Same. 

Proceedings No. I. of the Scientific Society, Ghazeepore. — ^By the 
Same. 

Address of the President of the Linnean Society, May 24ith, 1862. 
— By the Society. 

List of the Linnean Society for 1862.— By the Same, 

Annals of Indian Administration, Vol. VII. Part 4. — By the 
Bengal Govebnment. 

Wolw's Indische Studien, Vol. VII. Parts 1 and 2.— By the Em- 

TOB. Digitized by LjOOgle 



1804.] JProceedtnffi ef tie Asiatic Society. 121 

Quarterly Jotxmal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. XIX. 
Part 4. — ^Bt the Society 

Jonnud of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. XXVI. Part 3. — 
Bt thb Socibty. 

Jovirnal of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of* India, 
ToL XIII. Part 1. — ^Bt the Society. 

Jahrbuch der K. K. Geol. Reichsanstalt, Vol. XIII. No. 2;— By 
THE Society. 

Journal Asiatique, Sixieme Series, Vol. L No.. 3. — By the Pabis 
Society. 

Proceedings of the Boyal Society of London, Vol. XIII. No. 57.—* 
By the Society. 

Beport of the Astronomer Royal to the Board of Visitors of the 
Boyal Observatory, Greenwich, from 14th May, 1862 to 17th May, 
1863. — ^By the Royal Observatoey. 

Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, Vol. XXIII. Parts 

1 to 3, and Vol. XXIV. Part 1. — By the Lutneait Society. 
Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society — Zoology, Vol. 

VI. No. 24, Vol. VII. Nos. 25 and 26 ;— Botany, Vol. VI. No. 24, Vol. 

VII. Nos. 25 and 26.— By the Same. 

Sitxungsberichte der* Mathematisch Naturwissenchafbliche dasse, 
Vol XLV. Abth. I. Parts 3 to 5, Abth. II. Part 5 and Vol. XLVI. 
Parts 1 and 2 ; — Philosophisch Historisohe ciasse, Vol XXXIX. Parts 

2 to 5 and VoL XL. Parts 1 and 2 — By the K. Akademie deb 

WlSSSVSCHAFTEir, WlKW. 

Sitzungsberichte der K. Bayer. Akademie Zu Munchen, Vol. I. 
Ptots 2 to 4 and V«l. II. Part J. — By the KoiriOL. Bayeb. Aka- 
DSicis deb Mukchek. 

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, VoL 
CLII. Parts 1 and 2. — By the Societt* 

list of the Fellows of the Royal Society, London, 1st Dec. 1862. — 
Bt the Sake. 

Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, New ' 
Series, VoL V. Part 2. — Br the Philadelphiait Academy. 

Denkschriften der K. Akademie der YTissenschaflen, Phil.-Histo* 
lucha ciasse, VoL XII. — Bt the K. Akademie deb Wissenschafteit. 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 
Kos. 7 to 12 of 1862. — ^By the PniLADELPHiAiir Academy. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



122 JProe&editiyg if ike AtUHe Sonetf. No. 1^ 

Aonual Report of the Begeate of the Univenitj of the State of New 
York, Seventy-fifth Annual Report. — Br thb Rbgsntb. 
. Fifteenth AdbuaI Report of the Regents of the UmT^rsitj of the 
State of New-Tork, on the condition of the State Cahinet of Natural 
History. — ^By the Sahx. 

Forty-fourth Annual Report of the TruBteea of the New TorV 
State Library. — ^Bt the TsvaTSSS. 

Eaekanged. 

The Athenteum for August, September and October. 
The London Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine, Yol^ 
XXVI. Nos. 178 to J76. 

Furchaud. 

Genesis und Exodus^ Vols. 1 and 2. — Bt J. DtEKSB. 

The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Srd Series, Vol. 
XII. Nos. 69, 70 and 71. 

Oomptes Rendus, Yol. LYII. Nos. 4 to 8 and 18 to 10. 

Hie Edinburgh Review, Vol. CXVllL No. 242. 
. The Numismatic CSironide and Journal of the Numismatio Society 
of London, New Series, No. II. 

Journal des Savants for August, September aad October, 1863, 

Westminster Review for October, 1868. 

Quarterly Review, VoL CXIV. No. 228. 

Revue des Deux Mondes, for 15th Augt., Sept., Oct. aad 1st Novr. 

Revue et Magasin de Zool<^e, 2nd Series, VoL XV. Nos. 7, 8 
^d9. 

Reeve's Conchologia Iconica^ Parts 280 aad 281. 

Bopp's Kritische Grammatik der Sanskrita Sprache, Bart 8. 
. Bohtlingk's Indische Spruche, Sanskrit und Deutsch Part 1. ^ — ar. 

Bleeker's Atlas Ichthyologique des lades Orientalas Neerlandaises, 
Part 10. 

M. J. De Goge's Liber Expugnationis Regionum, auctore al-Bd^d* 
son, Part 1. 

Hewitsoa's Exotic Butterflies, Part 48. 

The Natural History Review for October. 
, Johaentgea's Qesetzbuch des Manu. 

Juliea's les Deux Clousiaes, Vols. L and II. 

Kasaye^d. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Proeeedinjii qf the Anatie Society. 123 

Stimmer's Chinese Repoeitoiy, Vol. I. Nos. 1 to 3. 
Plath's Religion des Chinesen. 

The American Journal of Science and Arts, Vol. XXXVI. No. 107. 
Sekoider Nameh, Pamphlet, 

Ma^oud's Les Prairies D'or ; texte et traduction par G. Barbier de 
Majoard et Pavet de Courteiile. Tome II. 
Litres Historiqnes snr la M^ecine chez les Indous, par G. Li^tarJ. 

LALeOPiL DUTT. 

dn^JUrvory, 1864. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Meteorological Observation*. 1 

Jhiraci of the ReMultM of the Hourly Meteorological Observaiious 
taken at ike Surveyor OeneraVs Office^ Calcutta^ 
in the month of August^ 1863. 

LnUtiide 22* 88' 1" North. Longilade 88* 20' 84" Eait. 

Feet. 

Bcif^bt of the Cistern of the SUndard Barometer above the Sea-IeTel, 18.11. 

Daily Meane, Ste, of the ObierTationt and of the Hygrometrical elementa 

dependent thereon. 





V. &. 


















Hi 


Range 


of the Barometer 




Range of the Tem|iera* 




during the day. 


m g 

a ^ 


ture during the 


day. 


• 














2 


85^ 


Max. 


Mio. 


Diff. 


8h 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 


Q 


S 








S 










Inebee. 


inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 





o 


o 


o 


1 


29.559 


29.601 


29.524 


0.077 


83.4 


89.6 


8C.0 


9.6 


2 


Sunday, 
















Z 


.490 


.546 


.434 


.112 


81.5 


84.7 


78.4 


6.3 


4 


.483 


.521 


.448 


.078 


81.8 


83.8 


80.0 


3.8 


5 


.534 


.574 


.490 


.084 


82.4 


86.8 


78.8 


8.0 


6 


.548 


.589 


.498 


.091 


82.7 


85.4 


79.8 


5.6 


7 


.529 


.564 


.465 


.099 


84,8 


90.2 


80.0 


10.2 


8 


.528 


.578 


.464 


.114 


85.4 


90.3 


82.2 


8.1 


9 


SuTuioy. 
















10 


-487 


.531 


.402 


.129 


83.7 


89 6 


81.0 


86 


11 


.458 


.515 


.388 


.127 


82.7 


86.5 


80.2 


6.3 


12 


.442 


.490 


.392 


.098 


82.9 


87.8 


81.0 


6.3 


13 


.482 


.553 


.436 


.117 


83.1 


87.8 


80.0 


7.8 


U 


.523 


.575 


.459 


.116 


84.0 


89.6 


80.0 


96 


15 


.488 


.550 


.417 


.133 


84.9 


90.6 


80.8 


9.8 


16 


Swulcf. 
















17 


.407 


.467 


.350 


.117 


81.4 


85.2 


79.8 


5.4 


18 


.500 


.591 


.439 


.162 


80.5 


84.4 


78.2 


6.2 


19 


.593 


.647 


.550 


.097 


82.1 


87.4 


79.6 


7.8 


80 


.601 


.648 


.539 


.109 


84.5 


88.8 


81.6 


7.2 


81 


.564 


.608 


.601 


.102 


84.1 


86.8 


81.9 


4.9 


22 


.549 


.596 


.491 


.105 


81.5 


85.8 


78.2 


7.6 


23 


Smmdaf. 
















24 


.631 


.699 


.568 


.136 


82.4 


88.8 


79.7 


9.1 


25 


.665 


.713 


.618 


.095 


80.7 


86.2 


75.4 


10.8 


26 


.678 


.728 


.641 


.087 


81.4 


8i.d 


78.0 


6.3 


27 


.704 


.746 


.659 


.087 


814 


86.8 


78.8 


8.0 


28 


.678 


.735 


.598 


.137 


83.2 


88.6 


786 


10.0 


29 


1 .649 


.707 


.587 


.120 


83.2 


87.8 


80.8 


7.0 


30 


; Sunday. 
















91 


' .634 


.687 


577 


.110 


82.8 


87.0 


81.3 


6.7 



The Jlean Heiirht of tl»e Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
'^•nwmeter Mttin- «ro dcriTed from the hourly ObserTations made during 

the day. ^ Digitized by LjOOgle 



Meteorological Obxervaiions, 



Ab9iraet of the Eesults of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor QeneraVg Office^ Caleutta, 

in the month of August, 1863. 

Daily Meant, &c. of the ObserTstions and of the Hvgrometrical elements 

dependent thereon. — fContiniiedJ. 




o 

79.4 

Sunday. 

78.7 
79.2 
79.3 
79.7 
80.6 
80.7 
Sunday. 



31 



80.3 



4.0 



2.6 





g 


'S 


ki 


^i 1 


, 


Q 




S-3 


^ 2 , 




5 


s 


t of Vi 
foot of 


eight 
ed for 
tion. 


& 



a 

o 




•IS 

s . 

o 

■J 


lean Weigh 
in a Cubic 


dditional W 
pour requir 
pIcte ealura 


O 


Q 


I^ 


0^ 


< 


o 


o 


TnrheB. 


T.pr. 


T.«r. 


76.6 


6.8 


0.899 


9.63 


2.33 


76.7 


4.8 


.902 


.70 


161 


77.4 


4.4 


.922 


.93 


.47 


77.1 


5.3 


.913 


.82 


.79 


77.6 


5.1 


.928 


.97 


.75 


77.8 


6.5 


.934 


.99 


2.29 


77.4 


8.0 


.922 


.85 


.83 


77.6 


6.1 


.928 


.95 


.12 


77.1 


5.6 


.913 


.80 


1.92 


77.1 


5.8 


.913 


.80 


.99 


77.8 


5.3 


.934 


10.03 


.83 


77.7 


63 


.931 


9.98 


2.19 


77.9 


7.0 


.937 


10.02 


.47 


77.3 


4.1 


.919 


9.90 


1.37 


77.1 


3.4 


.913 


.86 


.12 


78.0 


4.1 


.940 


10.11 


.40 


78.4 


6.1 


.952 


.19 


2.16 


78.1 


6.0 


.943 


.10 


.11 


76.7 


4.8 


.902 


9.70 


1.61 


77.3 


6.1 


.919 


.88 


.73 


76.1 


4.6 


.885 


.53 


.51 


76.8 


4.6 


.905 


.78 


.54 


77.3 


4.1 


.919 


.90 


.37 


78.3 


4.9 


.949 


10.18 


.71 


78.9 


4.3 


.967 


.39 


.50 


78.5 


4.3 


.955 


.27 


.48 



JS .a 
12 d 
B.2 



s- . 

t3 a. d 
e g ba 

S8.S 



0.81 



.86 
.87 
.85 
.85 
.81 
.78 



.82 
.84 
.83 
.85 
.82 
.80 



.88 
.90 
.88 
.83 
.83 
.86 



.85 
.86 
.86 
.88 
.86 
.87 



.87 



All the Hyfjrometrical elements are corapnteo by the Qreenwich Conatants. 
From the Ist Jannary, 1863, the Greenwich Now Fack)ra^4wA been used 
for computing Dew-point. Digitized by VaUUg i 



Meteorological Observalions. 



Ill 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor QeneraVs Office^ Calcutta^ 

in the month of August, 1863. 

Hoarly MeiiDi, &c. of the ObMrvations niid of the Hygrometrieal elementa 
dependent tbereoo. 



Hour. 


o2 

--2- 


lUni^e of the Barometer for 

each boor during the 

montb. 


^5 
Qg 


Range of the Tempera- 

ture for each bour 

during^ the 

montb. 


















Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 


§^ 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 




s 








S 








1 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Incbet. 


Inches. 














Mid. 
ugl.t.| 


29.565 


29.715 


29.415 


0.300 


81.3 


83.6 


79.2 


4.4 


.551 


.712 


.887 


.825 


81.0 


82.8 


78.4 


4.4 


2 


.541 


.706 


.362 


.344 


80.9 


83.0 


78.6 


4.4 


3 


.536 


.688 


.354 


.334 


80.7 


83.2 


78.4 


4.8 


4 


.540 


.679 


.424 


.255 


80.7 


82.8 


780 


4.8 


6 


.535 


.688 


.350 


.338 


80.5 


82.3 


75.4 


6.9 


6 


.553 


.698 


.366 


.332 


80.6 


82.2 


76.0 


6.2 


1 


' .667 


.723 


.382 


.341 


80.9 


826 


76.0 


6.6 


8 


.590 


.729 


.458 


.271 


82.2 


84.4 


76.7 


7.7 


9 


.594 


.741 


.407 


.334 


83.2 


86.2 


77.2 


9.0 


10 


.594 


.746 


.418 


.328 


8t.2 


87.2 


78.1 


8,8 


11 


.589 


.743 


.423 


.320 


85.0 


88.8 


79.4 


9.4 


Noon. 


.578 


.730 


.424 


.306 


85.6 


89.6 


79.8 


9.8 


1 


.560 


.719 


.432 


.287 


85.7 


89.6 


80.6 


9.0 


2 


.537 


.697 


.401 


.296 


85.3 


90.3 


79.8 


10.5 


3 


.518 


.674 


.396 


.278 


85.1 


90.6 


80.6 


10.0 


4 


.504 


.659 


.378 


.281 


849 


90.0 


80.3 


9.7 


6 


i .511 


.669 


.392 


.277 


84.5 


88.2 


81.2 


7.0 


6 


.518 


.694 


.390 


.304 


83.5 


86.8 


80.6 


6.2 


7 


.535 


.681 


.418 


.263 


82.6 


85.6 


78.2 


7.4 


8 


.555 


.691 


.439 


.252 


82.2 


85.0 


78.4 


6.6 


9 


1 .571 


.719 


.454 


.265 


82.1 


84.8 


79.0 


5.8 


lO 


.583 


.724 


.464 


.260 


81.9 


84.0 


78.8 


52 


11 


.581 

1 


.721 


.454 


.267 


81.6 


84.6 


78.8 


5.8 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
Thermometer l^teaus are derived from the Observations made at the several hours 
during the mouth. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



IV 



Meteorological OhnervalionM. 



AhMiraef of the ResuUs of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor QeneraVs Office^ Calcutta, 

in the month of August, 1863. 



Hourly Means, ^. of the ObserTationt and of the Hygrometrical elementt 
dependent thereon. — (CotUinuedJ, 



Hour. 


i 

ll 


1 

1 


a 

2 

1 

§ 


Q 

s 
•s 

H 


«2 


ean Weight of Va- 
pour in a Cubic 
foot of air. 


iditional Weight of 
Vapour required 
for complete satu- 
ration. 


ean degree of Hu- 
midity, complete 
laturation being 
anity. 




s 


a 


V 


Q 


^ 


S 


< 


S 




o 


o 


o 





Inches. 


Troy grs. 


Troy grs. 




Mid. 
night. 


79.1 


2.2 


77.6 


8.7 


0.928 


9.99 


1.25 


0.89 




78,9 


3.1 


77.4 


3.6 


.922 


.93 


.21 


.89 


2 


78.8 


2.1 


77,3 


8.6 


.919 


.90 


.20 


.89 


8 


78.7 


2.0 


77.8 


8.4 


.919 


.9? 


.12 


.90 


4 


78,8 


1.9 


77.6 


8.2 


.925 


.98 


.06 


.90 


5 


78.6 


2.0 


77.1 


3.4 


•9X3 


.86 


.12 


.90 


6 


78.6 


2.0 


77.2 


3.4 


.916 


.89 


.12 


.90 


7 


78.9 


2.0 


775 


3.4 


.925 


.98 


.12 


.90 


8 


79.3 


2.9 


77.3 


4.9 


.919 


.88 


.66 


.86 


9 


79.7 


3.5 


77.2 


6.0 


.916 


.83 


2.06 


.83 


10 


80.3 


3.9 


77.6 


6.6 


.928 


.93 


.31 


.81 


11 


80.6 


4.4 


77.5 


7.6 


.925 


.88 


.66 


.79 


I«?pon. 


80.6 


5.0 


77.J 


8.6 


.918 


.74 


8.02 


.70 


1 


80.9 


4.8 


77.5 


8.2 


.925 


.88 


2.92 


.77 


2 


80,6 


4.7 


77.3 


8.0 


.919 


.82 


.82 


.78 


8 


80.7 


4.4 


77 6 


7.5 


.928 


.91 


.66 


.79 


4 


80.7 


4.2 


77.8 


7.1 


.934 


.99 


.50 


.80 


6 


80.5 


4.0 


77.7 


6.8 


.931 


.96 


.39 


.81 


6 


80.3 


3.2 


78.1 


6.4 


.943 


10.12 


1.88 


.84 


7 


79.9 


2.7 


78.0 


4.6 


.940 


.09 


.69 


.86 


8 


79.7 


2.5 


77.9 


4.3 


.937 


.08 


.46 


.87 


9 


79.6 


2.5 


77.8 


43 


.934 


.05 


.46 


.87 


10 


79.4 


2,5 


77.6 


4.3 


.9?8 


9.99 


.45 


.87 


11 


79.2 


2.4 


77:5 


4.1 


.925 


.96 


.38 


.88 



All the Hygromerrirftl elements are computed by the Greenwich Constanta. 
Prom the Ist January, 1863, the Greenwich New Factors have been used 
for Computing Dew-point. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Bestilts of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor OeneraVs Office^ Calcuttay 

in the month of August, 1863. 

Solar BadiatioD, Weather, &o. 



P 

1 

S 
S 

4 

t 

6 
8 



as 



•§Js 



131J0 



Inches. 
0.14 



1^ 

0.76 
0.08 



1260 



123.2 



» ... 
10| 119.0 

U 
12 

n ii5i) 



14 



122.4 



\Si 124.0 



16 
17 

l»l 



0.86 
0.17 
0.50 
0.50 



0.09 



1«43 
1«93 



Preyailing direction 
of the Wind. 



S. W. & 8. E. 

Swiday. 
W. & S. W. 

S. & 8. W. 

8. & £• 

8. A 8. E. 

8. E. & 8. 



8. 


&8.E. 


8.E, 


E. 


&8.E. 


E. 


AN.E. 


E. 





£. & 8. E. 



E. 



8v/nday, 

8. 

8. & 8. E. 



General Aspect of the Sky. 



3i 



If 



Glondj ; also drizzling from 4 to 8 P. M. ; 
and alflo at 11 p. m. 

Glondj ; also inoessantly raining from 

1 A. M. to Noon. 
Clondj also slightly drizzling between 

8 & 10 ▲. u. and at 3 & 4 p. h. 
Clondy till 7 p. k. cloudless afterwards ; 

also raining fi:t)m 1 to 3 a. M. and 

between 10 and 11 a. m. 
Cloudless till 5 A. M. ; cloudy till 6 p. h. 

doudless afterwards; also drizzling 

occasionally from 6 a. m. to 1 p. m. 
Cloudless till 4 a. M. cloudy afterwards ; 

also slightly drizzling at 8 a. m. 

Noon, and 9 P. M. 
Cloudy till 10 A. M. Scatd. ^i till 7 p. M. ; 

doudless afterwards. 

Cloudy; also very slightly drizzling 

after intervals. 
Cloudless till 6 A. V. cloudy afterwards ; 

and thundering at 2 P. M. ; also drizz* 

ling at Noon & between 1 & 2 p. M.f 
Cloudy ; and thundering at 1 p. M.; also 

raining between 10 & 11 a. M. ; & at 

I & 5 p. M. 

Cloudless till 5 a. v.; cloudy till 4 p. m. 
cloudless afterwards ; & thundering 
at Noon, also raining between 10 i 

II A. M. and at 3 & 4 p. M. 
Cloudless till 6 a. k. Scatd. >-i till 11 

A. M. Scatd. clouds till 8 p. m. cloud- 
less afterwards; also thundering at 
Noon. 
Cloudless till 5 a. h. Scatd. ^i till 7 
p. M. cloudless afterwards ; also 
drizzling between 3 & 4 a. M. & 11 
& Noon & 5 & 6 p. H. 

Cloudy ; also raining after intervals. 
Cloudy till 8 p. m. ; cloudless aflop" 
wards ; also incessantly raining from 
1 A. M. to Noon. 



Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



vi Meteorological Ob^ervaiions. 

Abt tract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observatiom 

taken at the Surveyor QeneraVe Office, Calcutta^ 

in the month of August, 1863. 

Solar Radiation, Weather, &c. 





51 


3 O 




^ 






l| 


^!1 


Freralling direction 


o 


General Aspect of the Sky, 


5 


1^ 


.S| § 


of the Wind. 


Ph 




09 
P 


rtScS 




a 






o 


Inches 






19 




0.30 


S. h S. £. 


21 


Clondlesfl till 3 A. H. cloudy till 7 P. v.; 
cloudless afterwards, also raining at 
4,5, 7, «, All A.M. 


20 


122.0 




S. & S. E. 


H 


Cloudless till 6 a. m. Scatd. N-i A -^i till 
1 p. M. cloudy afterwards; with thun- 
der at 6 P. M. also slightly drizzling 
at 7 p. M. 


21 


... 


... 


S.&W. 


1 


Cloudy ; with thunder A lightning at 
Midnight ; also drizzling at 1 a. k. 
and from 9 P. M. to 11 p m. 


22 




3.50 


W. AS. 


3i 


Cloudy ; also constantly drizzling and 
raining. 


23 


... 


•*• 


Sunday. 


U 




24 


... 


0.24, 


S. £. & Cahn. 


3i 


Cloudy ; also raining from 2 P. U. to 
4 p.m. 


25 




0.41 


S. E. & S. 


2i 


Cloudy ; also raining from 5 to 10 a. m. 


26 




0.12 


S. A S. B. 


li Cloudy, also drizzling between 5 A 6 












A. m. at 9 A 10 A. M. A between 2 A 












3 p.m. 


27 




0.19 


S. 


4 


Scatd. >-i till 8 a. m. cloudy till 7 P. M. 
Scatd. ^-i afterwards ; also drizzling 
from 11 A. H. to 3 P. M. 


28 


128.0 




S. & S. E. 


2i 


Scatd. clouds. 


29 




0.74 


S. & S. E. & S. W. 


u 


Scatd. ^-i till 7 A. M. cloudy till 7 P. m. 
between 10 A 11 a. m. at 1, 3 A 4 p. m. 


30 






Hunday. 


14 




31 




0.24 


S. AE. 


li 


Cloudy, also drizzling at 7 a. m. and 
from 1 to 3 p. M. 



\i Cirri, >-i Cirro strati, -^i Cumuli, ^i Cuaiulo strati, >^i Nimbi, — i Strati, 
V\i Cirro cumuli. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Meteorological Observafionit, 



Ahiiraet of the JStemlts of the Sourly Meteorological Ohxervations 
taken at the Surveyor OeneraVs Office^ Calcutta^ 
in the month of August y 1863. 

Monthly Eesults. 

Inches 

Mean height of the Barometer for the month, .. .. 29.655 

Mix. height of the Barometer occurred at 10 A. V. on the 27th, . . 29.746 

Vbu height of the Barometer occurred at 5 ▲. M. on the 17 th, .. 29.350 

grfrpif range of the Barometer during the month, • . • . 0.396 

Mean of the daily Max. Pressures, . . . . . . 29.606 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, .. .. .. 29.497 

ICroa diUlg range of the Barometer during the montli, . • . , 0.109 



UeaB Dry Bulh Thermometer for the month, 
Kaz. Temperature occurred at 3 p. if. on the 15th, 
JGiu Temperatare occurred at 5 ▲. x. on the 25th, 
^tremte range of the Temperature during the mouth, . • 
Xean of the daily Max. Temperature, 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto. 
Mean daily range of the Temperature during the month, 



o 

82.8 
90.6 
75.4 
15.2 
87.3 
79.8 

7.5 



Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer for the month, .. ., 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer abore Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer,. . 
Gbmputed Mean Dew-point for the month, . . . , 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed Mean Dew-point, . • 

Hem Elastic force of Vapour for the montli, . • . , . , 



o 

79.7 

3.1 

77.6 

5.3 

Inches 

0.925 



Troy grains 
Xean Weight of Vapour for the month, .. .. «. 9.94 

Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete saturation, . • 1.81 

Vean dbgree of humidity for the montli, complete saturation being unity, 0.85 



Rained 24 days. Max. fall of rain during 24 hours. 
Total imoont of rain daring the month, 
^nniSng direction of the Wind, 



Inches 

3.50 

14.10 

S. 4 S. E. & E. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



via 



Meteorological Ohtervations, 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor OeneraVs Office, Calcutta^ 

in the month of August , 1863. 

Monthly Uesults. 

Table showing the number of days on which at a given hour nny particular wind 

blew, together with the number of days on which at the tame hour, 

when any particular wind was blowing, it rained. 



Hour. 



N. 



Midnight. 

1 

2 

8 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 



Noon. 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 






S.E. 



No. of days. 



4 
5 
5 
5| 

6 
8 1 
71 1 
6 3 



S. 



10 

9 3 



7 

8 

10 

ft 

8 
9 



7 
5 

*-^ 

9 
12 
J3 
11 
11 
10 
10 
11 



^ 



w. 



1 1 

1 1 

i 1 

:;| 2 

21 I 

G t 
i 
6' 



31 1 

■i 

2' 

1 

2 1 
I 1 
! 1 
I 
1. 1 



Digitized by 



4 



tjogr 



Jfeteorologieal Ohaeroaliotu. 



IX 



AUtrmii of the RcmuUs of the Hourly Meteorological Ohservatiotif 

taken at the Surveyor GeneraVs Office, Calcutta^ 

in the month of September, 1863. 

Latitude 22« 33' V North. Longitude SS"" 20' 34" Bast. 

Feet. 
Heifht of the Cistern of the Standard Barometer above the Sea-leTel, 18.11 

Daily Means, &c. of the ObserTations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. 



1 


:!|= 


Range of the Barometer 




Range of the Tempera* 




?|2 


daring the day. 


ture during the day. 




= «?. 








a 8 






Date. . 
















Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 


1^" 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 




zz 








S 










Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


O 





o 


o 


1 


29.606 


29.662 


29.530 


0.132 


83.3 


87.6 


80.2 


7.3 


2 ' 


.625 


.682 


.572 


.110 


83.9 


86.0 


80.6 


5.4 


8 


.677 


.736 


.624 


.112 


83.8 


89.0 


78 8 


10.2 


4 


.669 


.750 


.583 


.167 


84.7 


906 


80.8 


9.8 


5 


.&i8 


.690 


.593 


.097 


82.2 


88.6 


78.4 


10.2 


6 


Sunday. 
















7 


.691 


.754 


.619 


.135 


835 


89.6 


79.8 


9.8 


8 


.704 


.769 


.632 


.137 


84.3 


90.3 


80.2 


10.1 


9 


.677 


.746 


.698 


.148 


83.5 


88.5 


806 


7.9 


10 


.638 


.702 


.664 


.138 


82.9 


86.6 


80.2 


6.4 


11 


.652 


.713 


.587 


.126 


82.3 


87.5 


80.0 


7.5 


12 


.693 


.758 


.618 


.110 


80.9 


85.2 


79.0 


6.2 


13 


Sunday 
















14 


.616 


.701 


.636 


.165 


81.7 


85.1 


77.8 


7.3 


15 


.546 


.596 


.4S2 


.114 


83.7 


88.1 


80.2 


8.2 


16 


.544 


.590 


M2 


.108 


83.5 


87.8 


80.6 


7.2 


17 


.597 


.653 


.652 


.101 


83 


86.8 


80.4 


6.4 


18 


.671 


.729 


.611 


.118 


83.1 


87.2 


80.6 


6,6 


19 


.707 


.778 


.655 


.123 


83.3 


88.7 


80.0 


8.7 


20 


Sumday. 
















21 


.640 


.694 


.657 


.137 


81.9 


89.3 


78.7 


10.6 


22 


.619 


.674 


.654 


.120 


80.8 


86.6 


78.4 


8.2 


23 


.626 


.669 


.658 


.111 


80.3 


82.2 


78.3 


3.9 


24 


.616 


.666 


.650 


.116 


80.0 


82.7 


78.8 


8.9 


25 


.607 


.670 


.650 


.120 


80.1 


82.6 


79.0 


3.6 


26 


.659 


.732 


.699 


.133 


83.3 


88.5 


79.5 


9.0 


27 


' Sumd(^. 
















28 


.686 


.750 


.616 


.132 


84.4 


89.0 


80.2 


8.8 


29 


.667 


.718 


.692 


.126 


846 


88.8 


81.6 


7.2 


90 


.648 


.698 


.699 


.099 


82.7 


85.3 


78.0 7.3 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb Thep- 
fflometer Means iire derived from the hourly Observations ma(^. d|im^ if56t5V IC 



Meteorologieal Obtervationt. 



Abstract of the Besults of the Hourly Meteorological Observatioiu 

taken at the Surveyor QeneraVs Office, Calcutta^ 

in the month of September^ 1863. 

Daily Means, 5bC. of the Observations and of tlie Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — f Continued) , 



Date. 


1 

eon Wet Bulb Ther , 
mometer. I 

- i 


i 

1 

"a 


.2 

£ 

Q 

I 

a 


Q 






ill 

Hi 
III 


n 


1 


^- 1 


Q 


o 


Q 


s 


^ 


< 


3S 




o 


o 


o 


o 


Inches. 


T.gr. 


T.gr. 




1 


80.1 


8.2 


77.9 


6.4 


0.937 


10.06 


1.87 


0.84 


2 


79.8 


3.1 


77.6 


53 


.928 


9.97 


.82 


.85 


8 


79.8 


4.0 


77.0 


6.8 


.910 


.75 


2.35 


.81 


4 


802 


4.5 


77.0 


7.7 


.910 


.73 


.69 


.78 


5 


78.9 


8.3 


76.6 


5.6 


.899 


.65 


1.89 


.84 


6 


Sunday, 
















7 


79.8 


3.7 


77.2 


6.3 


.916 


.83 


2.17 


.82 


8 


803 


4.0 


77.5 


6.8 


.925 


.90 


.38 


.81 


9 


79.9 


3.6 


77.4 


6.1 


.922 


.89 


.11 


.82 


10 


79.6 


33 


77.3 


5.6 


.919 


.86 


1.93 


.84 


11 


79.4 


2.9 


77.4 


4.9 


.922 


.91 


.67 


.86 


12 


78.9 


2.0 


77.5 


3.4 


.925 


.98 


.12 


.90 


13 


Sunday. 
















14 


79.6 


2.1 


78.1 


36 


.943 


10.14 


.23 


.89 


15 


80.5 


3.2 


78.3 


5,4 


.949 


.18 


.89 


.84 


16 


80.6 


2.9 


78.6 


49 


.958 


.28 


.72 


.86 


17 


80.1 


2.9 


78.1 


4-9 


.943 


.12 


.70 


.86 


18 


80 


8.1 


77.8 


5.3 


.934 


.03 


.83 


.85 


19 


80,1 


3.2 


77.9 


54 


.937 


.06 


.87 


.84 


20 


Sundajf. 
















21 


78.9 


8.0 


76.8 


5.1 


.905 


9.73 


.71 


.85 


22 


78.3 


2.5 


76.5 


4.3 


.896 


.67 


.40 


.87 


23 


77.6 


2.7 


75 7 


4.6 


.873 


.41 


.60 


.86 


24 


77.9 


21 


76.4 


3.6 


.893 


.64 


.17 


.89 


25 


78.3 


1.8 


77.0 


3.1 


.910 


.83 


.01 


.91 


26 


79.6 


3.7 


77.0 


6.3 


.910 


.77 


2.16 


.82 


27 


1 Sundaif. 
















28 


80 6 


3.8 


77.9 


6.5 


.937 


10.02 


.29 


.81 


29 


81.1 


3.5 


78.6 


6.0 


.958 


.26 


.13 


.83 


30 


80.3 


2.4 


78.6 


4.1 


.958 


.30 


1.42 


.88 



All the Hygrometrical elements are computed bj the Greenwich Coustanta. 
From the Ist January, 1863, the Greenwich New Factors have been used for 
computing Dew-pointe. Digitized by LjOOg le 



Mffteorohgieal Oh9ervationi, 



XI 



Jhrnimd 0f the RbmuUm of the Sourly Meteorological Oheervalione 
imkem at the Surveyor QeneraVe Office^ OeAvuttm^ 
Ml the month of September, 1868. 

Hofu-Ij Meant, &c. of tbe ObterTations and of the Hygrometrical elemeuto 
dependent thereon. 





^2 . 


Range of tlie Barometer 


fs 


Rang 


B of tbe Temnernture 




^fi^ 


for each honr during 


fc»o 


for each hour during 




-S Sfe 


the month 






the month. 


Hoar. 


sc3§. 






og 
















) 




§1^ 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 


§^ 


Max. 


Min. 


DiflT. 




s 








s 








1 


Inches. 


Inchea. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


o 


o 





o 


Mid- 
niffht. 


29.654 


29.721 


29.558 


0.163 


S1.2 


83.0 


79.0 


4.0 


n^^ 


.644 


.714 


.552 


.162 


81.0 


82.8 


78.8 


4^0 


2 


.683 


.711 


.539 


.172 


80.7 


82.6 


78.8 


3.8 


3 


.621 


.702 


.531 


.171 


8o.e 


82.4 


78.2 


4.2 


4 


.620 


.687 


.522 


.165 


80.3 


81.8 


77.8 


4.0 


5 


.629 


.701 


.520 


.181 


80.2 


82.8 


78.4 


4.4 


6 


.644 


.722 


.530 


.192 


80.2 


82.8 


78.3 


4.5 


7 


.660 


.743 


.539 


.204 


80.9 


83.4 


79 4 


4.0 


8 


.683 


.758 


.573 


.185 


82.9 


84,5 


79.9 


4.6 


9 


.695 


.778 


.590 


.188 


83.8 


85.8 


80.6 


5.2 


lO 


.696 


.772 


.688 


.189 


85.0 


87.6 


80.4 


7.2 


11 


.685 


.754 


.576 


.178 


86.0 


88.4 


80.8 


7.a 


Voon. 


.667 


.736 


.561 


.174 


86.2 


89.3 


80.7 


8.6 


1 


.638 


.720 


.628 


a92 


85.4 


89.6 


79.1 


10.5 


2 


.614 


.688 


.506 


.182 


85.1 


90.6 


78.7 


11.9 


S 


.694 


.688 


.482 


.201 


84.9 


90.3 


78.4 


11.9 


4 


.682 


.676 


.482 


.194 


84.8 


89.5 


79.6 


9.9 


6 


.690 


.663 


.488 


.175 


83.6 


87.4 


79.9 


7.5 


6 


.602 


.669 


.482 


.187 


82.9 


86.2 


79.4 


6.8 


7 


.623 


.689 


.534 


.156 


82.4 


85.4 


79.6 


6.S 


8 


.647 


.708 


.552 


.166 


82.0 


84.8 


79.2 


6.6 


9 


.664 


.729 


.565 


.164 


81.8 


84.2 


79.4 


4.8 


10 


.670 


.729 


.570 


.159 


81.4 


83.8 


78 6 


6.2 


11 


.664 


.727 


.562 


.165 


81.2 


83.6 


78.0 


6.6 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb Thar- 
Boinet«r Means are derived from the Observations made at the several hours 
during the month. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



xii 



Meteorological Observations. 



Ahftraet of the Results of the ffourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor QeneraVs Office^ Galeutta, 

in the month of Septetiibery 1863. 

Hourly Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hjgrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued,) 



''^ 


^ 


*2 


^ 


» 


"5 


i O 


"5 S d 


ar s 




'a 




& 


(3 


1 






2 2l? 
o « '3 


Honr. 


S 1 


> 

o 

-3 


1 

1 


1 






Isl 






S a 


CO 

o 


1 




1^^ 




:ls.|- 
1^1 


















Inches. 


Troy grs. 


Troy grs. 




Mid- 
night. 


79.1 


2.1 


77.6 


8.6 


0.928 


9.99 


1.22 


0.89 


79.0 


2.0 


77.6 


8.4 


.928 


10.01 


.13 


.90 


2 


78.8 


1.9 


77.5 


3.2 


.925 


9.98 


.06 


.90 


8 


78.7 


1.9 


77.4 


3.2 


.922 


.95 


.06 


.90 


4 


78.6 


1.7 


77.4 


2.9 


.922 


.95 


0.96 


.91 


6 


78-6 


1.6 


77.5 


27 


.925 


.98 


.90 


.92 


6 


78.6 


1.6 


77.5 


2.7 


.925 


.98 


.90 


.92 


7 


79.1 


1.8 


77.8 


3.1 


.934 


10.07 


1.03 


.91 


8 


79.9 


3.0 


77.8 


5.1 


.934 


.03 


.76 


.85 


9 


80.8 


36 


77.8 


6.0 


.934 


.01 


2.09 


.83 


10 


80.6 


4.4 


77.5 


7.5 


.926 


9.88 


.65 


.79 


11 


80.7 


6.3 


77.0 


9.0 


.910 


.71 


8.20 


.75 


Koon. 


80.7 


5.5 


76.8 


9.4 


.906 


.65 


.34 


.74 


1 


80.4 


6.0 


76.9 


8.5 


.908 


.68 


.00 


.76 


2 


80.2 


4.9 


76.8 


8.3 


.905 


.67 


2.90 


.77 


8 


80.3 


4.6 


77.1 


7.8 


.913 


.76 


.73 


.78 


4 


80.3 


4.5 


77.1 


7.7 


.918 


.76 


.70 


.78 


5 


79.9 


3.7 


77 3 


6.3 


.919 


.86 


.17 


.82 


6 


79.8 


3.1 


77.6 


6.3 


.928 


.97 


1.82 


.85 


7 


79.7 


2.7 


77.8 


4.6 


.934 


1003 


.58 


.86 


8 


79.5 


2.5 


77.7 


4.3 


.931 


.02 


.45 


.87 


9 


79.4 


2.4 


77.7 


4.1 


.931 


.02 


.88 


.88 


10 


79.1 


23 


77.5 


3.9 


.926 


9.96 


.31 


.88 


11 


79.1 


2.1 


77.6 


3.6 


.928 


.99 


.22 


.89 



All fche Hygrometrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 
From the Ist January, 1863, the Greenwich New Factors have been used for 
computing Dew-point8. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Meteorological Oheervatiom, 



Atiraet of the HesuUs of the Hourly Meteorological Observation* 
taken at the Surveyor GeneraVs Office^ Calcutta^ 
in the month of September, 1863. 
Solar Badiation, Weather, &c. 



ii't 



oil 



! o 



S 127.8 

^ 135.5 
S 120.0 



6' ... 
7 130.0 



Inches 



0.19 



0.10 



O.30 



0.32 
0.46 



135.5 
9 129.5 



10 ... 

I 

I 

11 ... 

12 ... 

13 ... 
U ... 



0.54 



0.21 
0.57 
0.28 



15 ... 

16 135.0; 0.55 



17 

18 



0.42 
O.IO 



Prevailing direction 
of the Wind. 



^ 



1^ 



S. 

S. & S. £. 

8. A S. E. & S. W. 

S. & S. £. 

S. £. ft E. ft S. 



Sunday. 
S. ft S. £. 



£. ft S. E. ft S. 
S. ft S. E. ft E. 



E. ftS. 



S. E. ft S. 

S. E. 

Sunday. 

8. 



S 21 

S.B.ftS.W.ftCalmlf 

S. U 

E. ft S. E* '8 



General Aspect of the Skj-. 



Scatd: >-i till 4 a. it. ; clondy till 6 
p. M. ; clondless afterwards. 

Cloudy till 6 A. If. ; Scatd. >-i till 10 
A. M. ; cloudy till 4 p. m. Scatd. ^-i 
afterwards ; also raining between 
Noon ft 1 p. H. 

Scatd. N-i ft '^i till 2 p. m. cloudy after- 
wards ; also raining between 4 ft 5 

A. M. 

Cloudy till 2 a. m. Scatd. >-i ft ^i till 

2 p. M. ; Scatd. clouds afterwards. 
Scatd. clouds till 8 a. m. ; cloudy till 

3 p. M. ; cloudless aftierwards; also 
raining between 1 and 2 p. m, and at 
8 p. M. 

Cloudless till 7 A. If. Scatd. "^i ft '^i 
till 2 p. m., ; cloudy afterwards ; also 
occasionlly raining from 2 to 7 P. u. 

Cloudless tiU 5 a. h. Scatd. ^— i and 
'^i till 6 P. H. cloudless afterwards. 

Cloudless till 6 A. M. Scatd. >-i ft '^i 
till 5 P. u. cloudless afterwards ; also 
raining at 2 ft 3 P. M. 

Cloudless till 5 a. m. cloudy till 6 p. m. 
cloudless aft;erwards; also very slight- 
ly drizzling between noon ft 1 p. H . 

Cloudless till 2 a. m. cloudy aftier- 
wards ; also drizzling at 6 A. u. 

Cloudy ; also constantly drizzling. 

Cloudy till 4 P. K. ; cloudless aft^r- 
wa^ds ; also drizzling from midnight 
to 4 A. M. 

Cloudy till 5 P. K. cloudless afterwards. 

Cloudy ; also raining at 5 a. m. and be- 
tween 9 ft 10 A. M. ; and thundering 
and lightning between 10 ft 11 P. m. 

Cloudy ; also raining at 3 A. M. ft from 

4 P. M. to 6 p. If. 

Cloudy till 6 p. M. ; cloudless after- 
wa^s ; also drizzling between lift 
noon, at 2 p. m. ft between 3 & 4 p. m. 



Digitized byLjOOQlC 



xir 



Meteorological Ohservetwm. 



Abstract of the Remits of the Sourly Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor GeneraVs Office, Calcutta^ 
in the month of September , 1863. 

Solar Radiation, Weather, &c 





li 


e6 .pfd 




^ 
*« 




, 


QQ!d 


RainG 
5 feet a 
Grount 


Preyailing direction 


o 


General Afqpeot of the Sky. 


"i 


al 


of the Wind. 


^ 




^ 


s 2 




» 






o 


Inobes. 




ft 




19 


130.0 


0.88 


S. E. k N. W. 


2i 


Clondlees till 7 ▲. H.; Scatd. clonda 
afterwards; also raining between 
noon and 1 p. M . ; at 5 P. m. and 
between 8 and 9 p. K. 


20 


••• 


•.. 


Sfuwdoy. 


2i 




21 


134.9 


1.10 


S. E. 


10 


Cloudy ; also raining from 1 to 3 p. v. 


22 


••• 


0.74 


S. k N. E, 


4 


Scatd. ^i tiU 7 A. M. ; doady after- 


23 


... 




N. E. k E. 


21 


Clondy; also drizzling at 3 a, M. and 
at 2 & 3 p. M. 


24 


••• 


0.40 


E. & N. E & S. E. 


5 


Cloudy ; also drizzling ckmstantly. 


25 


... 


0.44 


E. & S. B. 


8i 


Cloudy I also drizzling nearly the whole 

day. 
Scatd. clouds tiU 7 A. M.; Seatd. W& 


26 


130.2 


... 


S. E. k S. 


8 












'^i till 4 p. M. cloudless afterwards. 


27 


.*• 


0.61 


Suinday, 


2 




28 


138.6 


... 


E. & 8. E. 


2 


Scatd. ^i k >-i^ 


29 


127.2 




E. ik Variable. 


2 


Cloudy; also slightly drizzling at 8 P, M. 


30 




2.12 


N. W. k S. E. 


8 


Cloudy; also raining between 11 and 
noon, and from 4 to 10 p. x. 



"^i Cirri, ^— i Cirro strati, '^i Cumuli, '^i Cumulo strati, Vwi Kimbi, — i Strati, 
V% i Cirro cumuli. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Meiearological ObMervatiotu, 



Jk$traei of the ResulU of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor QeneraVs Office, Galeutta, 

in the month of September^ 1863. 



MOKTHLT BSSVLTB. 

I height of the Barometer for the month, • • 
Max. height of the Barometer oocuired at 9 a. V. on tho 19th, 
Hio. height of the Barometer occurred at 3 & 4 p. M. on the 16th, 
tsh^me rtmge of the Barometer dnring the month, 
Mevi of the Daily Max. FressureB, . • • • • • 

Bitto ditto Hin. ditto, •• 
JCma daily ramge of the Barometer daring the month, •• 



Mean Drf Bulb Thennometer for the month, •• •• 

liaz. Temperature occurred at 2 P. x. on the 4th, •• 

IGn. Temperature occurred at 4 a. ic. on the 14th, 
Xsimme ran^s ot the Temperature during the month, • • 
Mean of the daily Max. Temperature, •• •• 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, .. •• •• 

Mmm daUjf rangB of the Temperature during the month, • • 
Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer for the month, .. 
Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer, 
Computed Mean Dew-point for the month, •» •• 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer abore computed Mean Dew-point, 



Ekatio foroe of Vapour for the month, •• 



Inches 
29.643 
29.778 
29.482 

0.296 
29.703 
29.579 

0.124 



o 
82.7 
90.6 
77.8 
12.8 
87.2 
79.6 

7.6 
79.6 

3.1 
77.4 

6.3 



Inches 
0.922 



Mean Weight of Vaponr for the month, •• •• 

Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete saturation. 

Mean degree of humidity for the month, complete saturation being unity. 



Satoed 23 daya, Max. fall of rain during 24 hours. 
Total anoont of rain daring the month, •• 

PnTatliogdiiection of the Wind, .• •• 



Troy grains 
.. 9.91 


• • 


1.81 


{unity. 


0.85 




Inches 


•• 


2.12 


• • 


10.38 


L k S. £. 


&£. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



xvi Meteorological Observations. 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Ohservationt 
taken at the Surveyor GeneraVs Office, Calcutta^ 
in the month of September, 1863. 

Monthly Essults. 



Table sltowing the number of days on which at a given hoar any particular wind 

blew, together with the number of days on which at the same hour, 

when any particular wind was blowing, it rained. 



Hour. 



Midnight. 
1 
2 
3 
4 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 



Noon. 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 



N. 



E. 



N). of days, 



5 
6 

4i 
3< 
3 

»! 

4 

6' 

10, 

il 

9 



S. cS 



^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Meieorolo^ieal Obiervattom. xvii 

JJUirmei of the Hesulis of the Hourly Meteorologioal ObservatioM 

taken at the Surveyoi* QenernVs Qffiee, Calouttay 

in the month of October, 1863. 

Latitude 22* 88' 1" North. Longitade 88* 20' 84" East. 

Feet. 

Height of the Cistern of the Standard Barometer above the Sea-lerel, 18.11. 

Daalj Meane, &e. of the Observations and of the Hygroroetrical elements 

dependent thereon. 





lu 


Range 


of the Barometer ' 


;3 "^ 


Range of the Tempera- 






daring the day. 


Sh 


ture daring the day. 


3- 


Max. 


Min. 


DIff. 


Max. 


Min. 


Oiff. 


Q 


s 








s 










Inelaes. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 





o 


o 


o 


1 


29.646 


29.713 


29.588 


0.125 


81.1 


86.1 


76.8 


9.3 


2 


.668 


.725 


.602 


.123 


81.8 


86.1 


79.2 


6.9 


S 


.678 


.729 


.617 


.112 


81.6 


88.0 


79.0 


9.0 


4 


Sunday. 
















S 


.621 


.678 


•549 


.124 


80.0 


82.4 


78.6 


3.8 


6 


.662 


.730 


.605 


.125 


79.9 


84.5 


78.0 


6.5 


7 


.751 


.807 


.702 


.105 


81.5 


86.0 


77.4 


8.6 


8 


.828 


.895 


.766 


.129 


82.2 


88.0 


77.4 


10.6 


9 


.844 


.923 


.791 


.132 


82.5 


88.5 


78.2 


10.3 


10 


.841 


.917 


.773 


.144 


83.1 


88.2 


77.8 


10.4 


11 


Sunday. 
















12 


JMl 


.915 


.803 


.112 


84.2 


90.0 


79.1 


10.9 


13 


358 


.917 


.797 


.120 


86.1 


90.4 


80.4 


10.0 


14 


.842 


.917 


.783 


.134 


85.2 


90.3 


81.6 


8.7 


15 


.849 


.911 


.791 


.120 


84.7 


89.8 


80.8 


9.0 


16 


.874 


•946 


.822 


.124 


84.2 


89.6 


80.0 


9.6 


17 


.834 


.907 


.774 


.133 


80.1 


84.2 


77.2 


7.0 


18 


SwuUy. 
















19 


.922 


.981 


.868 


.118 


81.1 


86.8 


76.2 


10.6 


20 


.948 


30.003 


.904 


.099 


789 


83.6 


74.4 


92 


21 


.949 


.029 


.892 


.137 


79.3 


85.9 


74.0 


11.9 


22 


.908 


29.976 


.839 


.137 


79.4 


86.6 


73.2 


13.4 


28 


.895 


.981 


.830 


.151 


79.3 


86.6 


72.2 


14.4 


24 


.876 


.945 


.832 


.113 


79.8 


86.9 


72.4 


14.5 


25 


SmuU,. 
















26 


.797 


.872 


.723 


.149 


79.8 


86.6 


74.2 


12.4 


27 


.739 


.796 


.667 


.129 


81.2 


88.0 


76.4 


12.6 


28 


.767 


.820 


.722 


.098 


80.3 


84.6 


78.6 


6.0 


29 


.813 


.870 


.749 


.121 


81.0 


86.6 


76.8 


9.8 


80 .860 
$1 j M2 


.928 


812 


.116 


79.9 


84.7 


76.0 


8.7 


.931 


.804 


.127 


77.9 


83.4 


73.2 


10.2 



2^ Hean Height of the barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb 
Ihi/jkiuiffCirr M^'^^f ftra dmrtd, from th« hourly Obserratioas made during 

i^def* Digitized by LjOOQIC 



ZTIU 



Metearologieal Observaiionu. 



JUiraet of the TtesulU of the Hourly Meteorological Obiervations 

taken at the Surveyor OeneraVs Office, Calcutta^ 

in the month of October, 1863. 

DNily Meant, &c. of the ObaervatioiiB and of the Hygrometrical elementi 

dependent thereon. — CConiinuedJ, 





^ 






k 


*s 


a 


^ S 


f»^ 




g 






« 


o 


S »-' 


> o 


.:£ jo 




ja 


•8 


B 


o 


a 


n 




3 a 

a 5 




5 


O 

^ 


» 


•s 


o 


*.£ 




o » 




n 

a V 
8S 


1 

JO 

'a 




1 
a 




1. 

o 


•5,.S3 


iditional W 
pour requii 
piete satara 


2 ■ 

tj a. 


P 


S 


O 


3 


o 


s 


^ 


< 


s 




o 





o 





Inches. 


T.gr. 


T.irr. 




1 


78.1 


3.0 


76.0 


6.1 


0.882 


9.50 


1.67 


0.85 


2 


79.3 


2.5 


77.5 


4.3 


.925 


.96 


.44 


.87 


3 


78.9 


2.7 


77.0 


4.6 


.910 


.79 


.65 


.86 


4 


Sunday, 
















5 


78.0 


2.0 


76.6 


3.4 


..899 


.71 


.10 


.9C 


6 


78.0 


1.9 


76.7 


3.2 


,902 


.74 


.04 


.90 


7 


78.4 


3.1 


76.2 


6.3 


.887 


.56 


.75 


.85 


8 


78.0 


4.2 


75.1 


7.1 


.857 


.21 


2.83 


.80 


9 


78.0 


4,6 


74.8 


7.7 


.849 


.11 


.63 


.78 


10 


78.1 


6.0 


74.6 


8.5 


.813 


.03 


.83 


.76 


11 


Sunday, 
















12 


79.5 


4.7 


76.2 


8.0 


.887 


.51 


.73 


.78 


13 


80.4 


4.7 


77.1 


8.0 


' .913 


.76 


.81 


.78 


14 


80.6 


4.6 


77.4 


7.8 


.922 


.85 


.76 


.78 


15 


79.8 


4.9 


76.4 


8.3 


.893 


.56 


.86 


.77 


16 


78.1 


6.1 


73.8 


10.4 


.822 


8.80 


3.44 


.72 


17 


76.8 


3.3 


74.5 


6.6 


.840 


9.07 


1.77 


.84 


18 


Sundanf. 
















19 


75.1 


6.0 


70.9 


10.2 


.748 


8.07 


3.10 


.72 


20 


73.1 


6.8 


69.0 


9.9 


.704 


7.60 


2.87 


.73 


21 


730 


6.3 


68.6 


10.7 


.695 


.50 


3.09 


.71 


22 


72.9 


6.5 


68.3 


ll.l 


.688 


.43 


.19 


.70 


23 


71.8 


76 


66.5 


12.8 


.618 


.00 


.69 


.66 


24 


73.0 


6.8 


68.2 


11.6 


.686 


.40 


.35 


.69 


25 


Sunday. 
















26 


74.4 


6.4 


70.6 


9.2 


.741 


8.00 


275 


.74 


27 


76.2 


6.0 


72.7 


8.6 


.792 


.62 


.69 


.76 


28 


77.4 


2.9 


75.4 


4.9 


.865 


9.34 


1.57 


.86 


29 


76.1 


4.9 


72.7 


8.3 


.792 


8.54 


2.60 


.77 


80 


73.7 


6.2 


69.4 


10.6 


.713 


7.69 


3.09 


.71 


81 


69.6 


8.3 


63.8 


14.1 


.593 


6.42 


.74 


.63 



All the H7gromi»t.rica1 elements are eompnted by the Qreenirioh Gonetants. 
From the Ist January, 1863, the Greenwich Now Faotors hare been luod 
for computing Dew-point. digitized by L^OOg IC 



Meteorological Oh$ervation9. 



XIX 



ALslract of the Beiults of the Hourly Meteorological Observalione 

taken at the Surveyor OeneraVs OJlce^ Calcutta, 

in the vwnth of October, 1863. 

Hoarlj Means, See. of the Obiervationi and of the Hjrgrometrical «lemeiiU 
dependent thereon. 





o o 


Ranise of the Barometer for 

each hour daring the 

month. 


J3 J 


Raiige of the Tempera- 
ture for each hour 
duruig the 


Hoar. 


.5 « « 








OS 

1} 


month. 


















Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 


1^. 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 




S 








s 










Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 








o 


o 


Mid. 

»«sht. 


29.819 


29.949 


29.688 


0.811 


78.9 


82.6 


75.0 


7.6 


1 


.803 


.942 


.617 


.825 


78.5 


82.4 


74.2 


8.2 


2 


.795 


.928 


.609 


.319 


78.2 


82.8 


74.4 


8.4 


8 


.791 


.926 


.596 


.330 


78.0 


82.4 


74.4 


8.0 


4 


.785 


.934 


.588 


.846 


77.2 


82.2 


72.6 


9.6 


5 


.786 


.920 


.596 


.324 


77.9 


82.0 


72.2 


9.8 


6 


.820 


.965 


.608 


.857 


77.2 


81.6 


72.4 


9.2 


7 


.839 


.982 


.633 


.849 


78.0 


82.6 


72.4 


10.2 


8 


.862 


30.015 


.661 


.854 


80.3 


84.6 


76.3 


8.3 


9 


.875 


.029 


.660 


.369 


81.8 


86.4 


77.6 


83 


10 


.875 


.027 


.673 


.354 


83.1 


87.4 


79.4 


8.0 


11 


.8^ 


29.998 


.661 


.847 


84.3 


88.4 


79.0 


9.4 


1 


.834 


.980 


.627 


•353 


85.3 


89.6 


79.9 


9.7 


1 


.805 


.956 


.606 


.350 


85.5 


90.3 


80.4 


9.9 


2 


.781 


.933 


.575 


.860 


85.4 


90.4 


78.8 


11.6 


3 


.765 


.919 


.553 


.866 


85.8 


90.1 


79.0 


11.1 


4 


.766 


.904 


.549 


.355 


85.4 


90.3 


79.4 


10.9 


5 


.768 


.922 


.563 


.859 


83.9 


88.8 


79.8 


9.0 


« 


.779 


.928 


.586 


.342 


82.6 


87.0 


78.8 


8.2 


7 


.797 


.950 


.610 


.340 


81.5 


86.3 


77.4 


8.9 


8 


.815 


.961 


.635 


.826 


80.8 


84.8 


76.2 


8.6 


9 ' 


.830 


.961 


.645 


.316 


80.2 


84.4 


75.0 


9.4 


10 


.836 


.963 


.651 


.312 


79.7 


83.8 


74.2 


9.6 


11 


.8^ 


.956 


.646 


.810 


79.5 


83.2 


75.7 


7.5 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry aud Wei Bulb 
Thermooieter Means are deriTed from the Observations made at the seTeral hours 
during tbe mouth. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



zx 



Meteorological Obtei^vatiotti. 



Absiraef of the BeiulU of the Hourly Meteorological Ohgervations 

taken at the Surveyor QeneraVe Office^ Calcutta^ 

in the month of October^ 1863. 



Hourly Means, Ac. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued), 



Hour. 


hi 


1 

1 


1 


5 
o 

1 


<3 


ight of Va- 
Q a Cubic 
sir. 


I Weight of 

required 

plete satn- 


ree of iiu> 

complete 

on beiiig 




ft 

6 o 

S a 




1 

1 


tP4 


¥ 


ill 


Jditional 
Vapour 
for com 
ration. 


S8S S 




S 


Q 


o 


Q 


S 


S 


< 


S 
















Inches. 


Troy grs. 


Troy grs. 




Mid. 
night. 


76.2 


2.7 


74.8 


4.6 


0.835 


9.08 


1.44 


0.86 


1 


75.9 


2.6 


74.1 


'4.4 


.880 


.00 


.35 


.87 


2 


76.8 


2.4 


74.1 


4.1 


.880 


,00 


.25 


.88 


8 


75.5 


2.5 


73.7 


4.3 


.846 


8.89 


.30 


.87 


4 


74.6 


2.6 


72.8 


4.4 


.795 


.64 


.31 


.87 


6 


75.6 


2.3 


74.0 


8.9 


.827 


.97 


.19 


.88 


6 


74.9 


2.3 


73.3 


8.9 


.809 


.77 


.18 


.87 


7 


76.4 


2.6 


73.6 


4.4 


.817 


.86 


.33 


.87 


8 


76.2 


4.1 


73.3 


7.0 


.809 


.72 


2.19 


.80 


9 


76.5 


6.3 


72.8 


9.0 


.795 


.55 


.85 


.75 


10 


76.7 


6.4 


72.2 


10.9 


.781 


.36 


8.60 


.71 


11 


77.0 


7.3 


71.9 


12.4 


.773 


.28 


4.00 


.67 


Noon. 


77.3 


8.0 


71.7 


18.6 


.768 


.19 


.45 


.6S 


1 


77.3 


8.2 


71.6 


13.9 


.766 


.16 


.66 


.64 


^ 


77.4 


8.0 


71.8 


13.6 


.771 


.21 


.47 


.63 


8 


77.6 


8.2 


71.9 


13.9 


.773 


.24 


.69 


.64 


4 


77.5 


7.9 


72.0 


13.4 


.776 


.28 


.40 


.65 


6 


77.2 


6,7 


72.5 


11.4 


.787 


.44 


8.69 


.70 


6 


77.5 


6.1 


73.9 


8.7 


.824 


.85 


2.83 


.76 


7 


77.2 


4.3 


74.2 


7.3 


.832 


.96 


.85 


.79 


8 


76.9 


8.9 


74.2 


6.6 


.832 • 


.96 


.11 


.81 


9 


76.8 


8.4 


74.4 


5.8 


.838 


9.04 


1.84 


.83 


10 


76.4 


8.3 


74.1 


5.6 


.830 


8.96 


.76 


.84 


11 


76.6 


2.9 


74.6 


4.9 


.843 


9.11 


.65 


.86 



All the Hysrroinetrical elements are compnted by the Greenwich Constanta. 
From the Ist Jamxary, 1868, the Greenwich New Factors have been vaeti 
for oompating Dew-point. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



Meteorological Observations, 



zxi 



Attract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor OeneraVs Office^ Calcutta^ 

in the month of October, 1863. 

Solar Radiation, Weather, &o. 



S| i 


so. 




^ 




i 11 


m 


Prevailing direction 


"Z 


General Aspect of the Skj. 


.2 J 2 


of the Wind. 


^ 




c):^ 


j2.oO 








1 • 


Inches. 






li 190.0 

1 


0.15 


8. E. ft E. & S. 


3 


Cloudy idll 10 A. M. Scatd. /^i ft V-itiU 
6 p. M. olondleas afterwarda ; also 
drizzling incessantly from 1 to 10 a.m. 


2 128.5 


0.18 


S. E. ft E. 


2i 


Cloudless tiU 6 a. m. Scatd. \-i tiU 11 












A. M. cloudy till 6 p. x. Scatd. ^-i 












afterwards ; also drizzling from Noon 












to 3 p. M. 


Z 132.0 


0.58 


N. ft K. E. ft S. E. 


3 


Scatd. >--i till 7 A. M. Scatd. -i tiU 






• 






Noon, cloudy till 8 p. m. cloudless 
afterwards ; also drizzling at 1, 3 ft 
5 p. M. ft thundering at 1 ft 2 p. x. 


4 ... 


... 


8un^^. 


3 




B» ... 


0.52 


£. ft S. E. 


2 


Cloudy till 7 P. M. cloudless afterwards ; 
also drizzling from 5 to 11 a. M. ft 
at 5 p. M. 


6 127.0 


0.87 


S. £. ft E. 


3 


Cloudy ; also raining at 8 ft 9 a. K. ft 
from 1 to 4 p. M. 


7 ... 


0.10 


S. ft E. ft S. E. 


3i 


Cloudy till 6 A. M. Scatd. '>i ft >-i till 
6 p. M. cloudless afterwards ; also 












raining at 2 ft 3 a. K. 


8 


139.8 


... 


S. 


2J 


Cloudless till 4 A. M. Scatd. >-i ft r\i 
till 6 p. M. cloudless afterwards. 


9 


143.0 


.«. 


S. ft s. w. 


2i 


Cloudless till 8 a. k. Scatd. /^i till 6 
p. M. cloudless afterwards. 


K) 


144.0 


... 


S. W. ft s. 


2J 


Cloudless till 7 a. m. Scatd. /^i till 4 
p. M. cloudless afterwards. 


11 






Swiday. 


2i 




U] 144.0 




S. W. ft variable. 


2i 


Cloudless till 6 a. m. Scatd. M ft >~i 












tiU 9 A. X. Scatd. '^i till 5 p. M. cloud- 












less afterwards. 


13 


139.7 


... 


N. E. ft W. 


2i 


Cloudless till 8 a. k. Scatd. >^i ft /^i 
till 4 p. M. cloudless afterwards. 


U' 137.2 


... 


N. E. ft S. 

• 


2 


Cloudless till 4 a. m. Scatd. v-i till 10 
A. M. cloudy till 2 p. m. Scatd. >--i ft 
^i till 6 p. M. cloudless afterwards. 


1^143.0 


••• 


W.ftS. 


2i 


Soatd. >^i ft '^i till 3 p. x. oloudlesa 
afterwards. 


16^144.0 




S. ft N. E. 


2i 


Cloudless. 


17 ... 


... 


8. 


2 


Cloudy till 6 p. V. cloudless afterwards ; 
also drizzling from 8 to 11 a. m. 


18 ... 




8v/ndaAf, 


2i 




19 14a6 




N. B. ft 8. E. 


2i 


Cloudless tiU 10 a. m. Scatd. ^i ft /M 




1 








till 6 p. M. cloudless afterwards. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XXll 



Meteorological Oheervationi. 



Abntrael of the Re$ult9 of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor OeneraVe Office^ Calcutta^ 

in the month of October, 1863. 

Solar Badiation, Weather, &c. 





u 


Kain Grange 
5 feet above 
Ground. 












Prerailing direction 
of the Wind. 


o 


General Aspect of the Sky, 




o 


Inches 






20 


124.0 


... 


N. & N. W. 


If 1 Clondless till 10 a. m. Scatd. donds tiU 












3 p. M. clondless afterwards. 


21 


139.0 


... 


N. & N. E. 


U 


Scatd. \i & N-i till 9 a. m. Scatd. >-i & 
^i till 8 p. M. cloudless afterwards. 


22 


143.0 




N. & N. W. 


U 


Cloudless. 


23 


142.0 


... 


N. W. & N. & K. E. 


1^ 


Cloudless till 6 P. K. Scatd. Ni A V-i 
afterwards. 


21 


144.0 


... 


N. & N. E. 


If 


Cloudless till 1 P. M. Scatd. clouds till 
5 p. M. cloudless afterwards. 


25 


... 


... 


Sunday. 


2i 




26 


139.7 




N. & N. E. & calm. 


U 


Cloudless till 8 a. v. Scatd. ^i tall 5 
p. M. cloudless afterwards. 


27 


136.0 


... 


N. & E. & N. E. 


U 


Scatd. clouds till 3 p. u. cloudy aflor- 
wards; also slightly drizzling at 7 

P. M. 


28 


129.0 


1.08 


W.&S. 


U 


Scatd. clouds till 11 a. m. cloudy tUl 
5 p. M. Scatd. >-i aaerwards ; alno 
raining at 2 & 3 p. m. 


29 


135.4 


... 


N. 


2i 


Scatd. v-i till 3 a. m. Scatd. clouds till 
1 P. M. Scatd, M till 8 p. if. clondlc?88 
afterwards. 


80 


135.2 




N. & N. W. 


2i 


Clondless till 8 a. v. Scatd. clouds till 
7 P. M. cloudless afterwards. 


31 


139.1 




N. W. & N. 


U 


Scatd. ^-i till 2 p. M. cloudless aflor- 
wards* 



\i Cirri, ^— i Cirro strati, r\i Cumuli, '^i Cumulo strati, ^^i Nimbi, — i Strati^ 
V\l Cirro cumuli. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



Msteorologieal Ohgervatiam. 



Ahitraei of the Results of the Sourlif HFeteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor OeneraVs Office, Calcutta^ 
in the month of October, 1863. 



MOITTHLY ESSULTS. 

Vean height of the Barometer for the month, 
ICix. height of the Barometer occurred at 9 a. u. on the 2l8t, 
)GiL height of the Barometer occurred at 4 p. k. on the 5th, 
"ixtreme range of the Barometer daring the month, • . 
Mean of the daily Max. Pressures, 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, •• 

l&os daily range of the Barometer during the month, . . 



Inches 
29.8U 
30.029 
29.549 

0.4«0 
29.880 
29.756 

0.124 



Kan Dry Bulb Thermometer for the month, • • 

Vax. Temperature occurred at 2 p. M. on the 13th, 
Mm. Temperature occurred at 5 A. M. on the 23rdy 
Xr/mM range of the Temperature during the mouth, • • 
Hesa of the daily Max. Temperature, 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, 
ifiws dai^ range of the Temperature during the month. 



6 

81.3 
90.4 
72.2 

18.2 

86.8 

77.0 

9.8 



KetQ Wet Bulb Thermometer for the month. 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer,. • 

Gsmputed Mean Devr-point for the month, 

Mttn Dry Bulb Thermometer aboTe computed Mean Dew-point, . . 

MeuL Elastic force of Yapoor for the month, . • 



o 

76.5 

4.8 

73.1 

8.2 

Inches 

0.803 



Troj grains 
^tnn Weight of Vapour for the month, • . . • • . 8.65 

^tional Weight of Yapour required for complete saturation, . • 2.59 

Hem degree of humidity for the month, complete saturation being unity, 0.77 



l^ttned 9 days. Max. fall of rain during 24 hours, 
*ot»l tmoont of rain during the month, 
^mailing direction of the Wind, 



Inches 

1.08 

3.48 

N. & S. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



XXIV 



Meteorological Oh$ervation$. 



Ahstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor Qend'aVs Office, Calcutta^ 
in the month of October, 1863. 

Monthly Hesults. 



Table showini; the number of days on which at a given hour any particalar wind 

bleW| together with the number of days on which at the same hour, 

when any particular wind was blowing, it rained. 



Hoar. 




e 




c 




c 




e 




s 




e 




c 




c 




fl 








o 




o 




o 




o 




o 


• 


o 




o 


• 


o 


. 


o 


"2 






a 


H ' 5 




c 




_c 




c 


^_ 


e 




c 


^ 


c 


6 


a 


g 




N. 




2 


A 


E. 


1 


S.E. 




s. 


1 


«} 


c2 


W. 


^ 


15 


cS 


"« 
y 


1 


a 












pro 


of 


diiyK 




1 




















Midnight. 


5 




2 




B 


3 




& 












2 




2 




2 


1 


6 




2 




s; 1 


3 




5 












2 




2 




1 


2 


5 




3 




G 2 


3 




5 








1 




1 




2 






8 


5 




3 




4i :i! 


2 




4 








9 




1 




2 




3 


4 


6 




2 




^ 1 


S 




3 








^ 




2 








6 


6 


6 




2 


1 


2 1 


3 




fi 








o 




1 








4 


6 


8 




2 


i 


2, 1 


4 




6 








2 




2 










7 


8 




4 




5 1 


4 




4 








I 














8 


6 




5 




i 2 


& 1 


4 








1 




1 










9 


6 




8 




3 i: 


*?! 


5 


1 










2 1 








10 


6 




6 




4 l| 


4 




& 


1 


2 








f 










11 


8 




4 




3 


1 


& 




2 




3 


1 


1 




1 










Noon. 


4 




8 








R 








4 


1 


1 




2 










1 


5, 


8 








6 


1 


3 


1 






3 




2 


1 








2 


7 




6 




1 




3 


1 




2 




4 


I 


3 










3 


6 


1 


5 




1 




41 1 


2 




2 


1 


3 


X 


4 










4 


6 




4 




2 




2: 1 


3 




3 


I 


3 


\ 


8 








1 


5 


9 


1 


3 




1 


1 


1 




4 




1 ^ 




3 




8 








1 


6 


9 




2 




2 




i? 




4 




2 




2 




3 




1 






7 


8 


1 


2 




i> 




2| 


6 








2 




4 




1 






8 


6 




3 




1: 


2l 


6 








2 




5 




1 






9 


6 




2 




3 




1 


6 








S 




6 








1 


10 


4 




2 




4 




1 


6 








2 




5 




1 




I 


11 


5 




2 




4 




1 


fi 








2 


^^ 


4 


s_ 


1 




1 


























Jtgtf 




SZ3^ 


^ 


5^ 









Metearologieal Observations. 



XXV 



Ahfrtei cf the BesulU of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor QeneraVs OMce^ Calcutta^ 
in the month of November y 1863. 

lAtitude ZZ'^ 33' V North. Longitude 88^ 20' 34" East. 

Fccf, 
Height of the Cistern of the Standard Barometer above the Sea-level, 18.11 

Daily Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. 







Rani^e 


of the Barometer 


1-^ 

^1 


Range of the Tempera- 






du 


ring the d 


ay. 


ture during the day. 


Date. 


= ffl^ 








qs 














1 




S5- 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 


sg 


Max. 


Min. 


Diflr. 




^ 








:ss 










Inches. 


laches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


o 


o 


o 





1 


Sunday. 
















1 


29.845 


29.921 


29.784 


0.137 


77.2 


84.8 


70.2 


14.6 


S 


.866 


.934 


.804 


.130 


78.6 


86.3 


71.2 


15.1 


4 


.851 


.925 


.786 


.139 


77.9 


85.5 


71.0 


14.5 


g 


.822 


.893 


.770 


.123 


76.7 


84.7 


70.6 


14.1 


6 


.824 


.892 


.778 


.114 


76.6 


84.9 


68.4 


16.5 


7 


.847 


.910 


.802 


.108 


75.9 


82.6 


69.4 


13.2 


8 


Sunday. 
















» 


.862 


.923 


.816 


.107 


76.6 


85.1 


688 


16.3 


10 


.909 


.969 


.861 


.108 


77.9 


85.0 


69.8 


15.2 


11 


.964 


30.018 


.912 


.106 


76.7 


85.7 


74.4 


11.3 


12 


.978 


.065 


.920 


.135 


76.2 


81.4 


72.2 


9.2 


13 


.968 


.015 


.921 


.094 


76.4 


81.4 


73.8 


7.6 


14 


.966 


.037 


.916 


a2i 


78.0 


84.9 


73.9 


11.0 


IS 


Sunday. 
















16 


.929 


29.995 


.870 


.125 


79.6 


85.8 


75.0 


10.8 


17 


.930 


30.008 


.880 


.128 


77.8 


83.8 


73.4 


10.4 


IB 


.973 


.046 


.899 


.147 


74.3 


81.8 


67.8 


14.0 


19 


30.019 


.083 


.961 


.122 


72.7 


80.6 


65.0 


15.6 


20 


.024 


.101 


.970 


.131 


70.9 


79.4 


64.7 


14.7 


a 


.000 


.078 


.935 


.145 


72.6 


803 


65.8 


16.0 


^ 


Sunday. 
















9 


.047 


.122 


.996 


.126 


73.3 


81.6 


66.7 


149 


u 


.035 


.113 


.983 


.130 


73.1 


81.6 


66.0 


15.6 


25 


.019 


.095 


.951 


.144 


72.7 


81.6 


65.4 


16.1 


28 


29.989 


.074 


.920 


.154 


73.3 


81.2 


66.4 


14.8 


n 


.974 


.036 


.930 


.106 


73.4 


81.4 


67.0 


14.4 


2S 


80.041 


.109 


.970 


.189 


71.2 


80.0 


61.8 


15.2 


28 


Sutkiajf, 
















ae 


.040 


.110 


.985 


.125 


68.5 


77.4 


61.6 


15.8 



^Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bnlb Ther- 
'hosier MeaoB are der&Ted from the hourly Observations made during the A^f^^^^]^ 

' Digitized by vIjOOQIc 



xxn 



Meteorological Obiervationi. 



Abstract of the Besulte of the Hourly Meteorological Ob$ervation9 

taken at the Survet/oi' QeneraVe Office^ Oalcuttay 

in the month of November, 1863. 

Daily Meant, &c. of the ObserTations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon . — fCot^iinued) . 



Date. 


la 

1 

fl o 


I 
•s 


a 

I 
t 

o 

i 


1 
1 

ii 


•5 


1' 


ional Weight of Va- 
>ur required for com- 
ete saturation. 


1 ■ 

li.s 




S a 


T: 


i 


t& 


z> 


J-- 


'^^-^ 


t'-^S 




IS 


Q 


s 


Q 


s 


S 


5 


s 







o 





o 


Inches. 


T.gr. 


T.gr. 




1 


Swnday, 
















S 


70.6 


6.6 


66.0 


11.2 


0.638 


6.92 


3.08 


70 


8 


71.2 


. 7.4 


66.0 


12.6 


.638 


.90 


.48 


.67 


4 


70.8 


7.1 


65.8 


12.1 


.634 


.87 


.29 


.68 


6 


69.5 


7.2 


64.6 


12.2 


.607 


.60 


.20 


.67 


6 


68.5 


8.1 


62.8 


13.8 


.674 


.23 


.54 


.64 


7 


68.9 


7.0 


64.0 


11.9 


.597 


•49 


.08 


.68 


8 


Sunday. 
















9 


69.5 


7.1 


645 


12.1 


.607 


.60 


.17 


.68 


10 


70.4 


7.5 


65.1 


12.8 


.619 


.71 


.46 


.66 


11 


72.4 


4.3 


69.4 


7.3 


.713 


7.76 


2.06 


.79 


12 


72.8 


8.4 


70.4 


5.8 


.736 


8.00 


1.66 


.sa 


13 


73.2 


3.2 


71.0 


6.4 


.751 


.17 


.66 


.84 


14 


78.5 


4.6 


70.3 


7.7 


.734 


7.95 


2.24 


.78 


16 


Sunday. 
















16 


74.9 


4.7 


71.6 


8.0 


.766 


8.27 


.42 


.77 


17 


71.4 


6.4 


669 


10.9 


.657 


7.12 


3.01 


.7a 


18 


66.9 


7.4 


61.7 


12 6 


.564 


6.03 


.09 


.66 


19 


64.7 


8.0 


58.3 


14.4 


.494 


6.40 


.28 


.62 


20 


642 


6.7 


58.8 


12.1 


.503 


.61 


2.72 


.67 


21 


66.0 


6.6 


60.7 


11.9 


.536 


.86 


.80 


.6a 


22 


Sunday. 
















23 


67.2 


6.1 


62.3 


11.0 


.565 


6.17 


.67 


.70 


24 


66.4 


6.7 


61.0 


12.1 


.541 


5.91 


.88 


.67 


25 


66.9 


5.8 


62.3 


10.4 


.666 


618 


.50 


.71 


26 


67.4 


5,9 


62.7 


10.6 


.572 


.25 


.59 


.71 


27 


68.1 


5.3 


63.9 


9.5 


.695 


.60 


.37 


.7a 


28 


63.7 


7.6 


57.7 


13.5 


.486 


6.31 


.99 


.64 


29 


Sunday. 
















80 


61.9 


6.6 

1 


56.6 


11.9 


.467 


.16 


.60 


.67 



All tlie Hygrometrical elements are coraputed by the Ghreenwich Constanta. 
From the 1st January, 1863, the Greenwich New Factors have been used £bc 
computing Dew-pointe. Digitized by LjOOg IC 



Metearologieal Observatiom. 



xxvu 



Abtiraei of the BesuUs of the Hourly Meteorological Ohiervations 

taken at the Sarveyor OeneraVa Office^ Calcutta^ 

in the month of November, 1863. 

Hourly Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elementa 
dependent thereon. 





-55 . 


Ranges 


)f the Barometer 


JO tl 


Range of the Temperature 




^e^ 


for each hour during 


n g 
to 
Q 1 


for each hour during 


Hew* 




the month. 




the month. 


















Mean 
the 
at 2 


Max. 


Min. 


Diflf. 




Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 




Inehae. 


laclieB. 


Inches. 


Inohes. 


o 


o 





o 


Mid. 


29.946 


30.046 


29.807 


0238 


72.2 


77.7 


62.9 


14.8 




.937 


.037 


.800 


.237 


71.6 


76.9 


62.8 


14.1 




.931 


.029 


.791 


.288 


71.0 


76.0 


62.8 


13.2 




.913 


.023 


.790 


.233 


71.2 


75.6 


65.7 


9.9 




.921 


.021 


.794 


.227 


69.5 


75.4 


62.9 


12.5 




.940 


.082 


.815 


.217 


69.7 


75.4 


62.0 


13.4 




.957 


.046 


.827 


.219 


69.1 


75.4 


61.6 


13.8 




.977 


.077 


.839 


.238 


69.4 


75.2 


62.2 


13.0 




.997 


.110 


.860 


.250 


72.6 


77.8 


64.5 


13.3 




30.013 


.116 


.888 


.228 


75.0 


80.0 


66.6 


13.4 




.015 


.122 


.892 


.230 


77.1 


81.8 


70.2 


11.6 




29.995 


.104 


.855 


.249 


79.1 


83.3 


72.6 


10.7 


VOOB. 


.969 


.070 


.837 


.233 


80.8 


85.7 


75.2 


10.5 




.938 


.042 


.809 


.233 


81.9 


85.2 


76.4 


8.8 




.912 


.021 


.780 


.241 


82.2 


85.8 


76.6 


9.2 




.900 


.014 


.771 


.243 


82.1 


86.3 


75.9 


10.4 




.894 


29.996 


.770 


.226 


80.8 


85.3 


75.2 


10.1 




.908 


30.020 


.775 


.245 


78.6 


84.0 


73.8 


10.2 




.917 


.028 


.779 1 .249 1 


76.9 


81.8 


71.6 


10.2 




.935 


.050 


.785 


.265 


75.8 


81.2 


70.2 


11.0 


8 


.960 


.068 


.794 


.274 


74.7 


80.6 


68.0 


12.6 


9 


.960 


.079 


.806 


.273 


73.9 


79.8 


66.8 


13.0 


10 


.963 


.087 


.820 


.267 


73.3 


78.8 


66.0 


12.8 


11 


.958 


.082 


.828 


.254 


72.7 


78.2 


65.5 


12.7 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb Ther- 
■Moneter Means are derired from the Obserrations made at the several houni 
dnbg tbe month. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



ixviii 



Meteorological Observations, 



Abstract of the Besutts of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor OeneraVs Office^ Calcutta^ 

in the month of November, 1863. 

Hourly Means, &c. of the Obaervations and of the Hygrometrical elementa 
dependent thereon. — (Continued,) 



^*~ 


Xi 


*: 


*z 


V 


o 


i o 


•S S c 


SI s 




'a 




1 


V 




>3 


in 


2ss 


Hoar. 


^1 


1 


1 




• 






^ e c 




§1 


CQ 


1 






^u 


lit 


lis 

2 ^tf 




H 


i 


i 


a*" 




IK 


^ « i 
;5> S 


Hi 













o 


Inches. 


Troy grs. 


Troy gw. 




llid. 

n iff lit 


68.1 


4.1 


64.8 


7.4 


0.618 


6.78 


1.82 


0.79 


Jlff^Ulr. 


67.8 


3.8 


64.8 


6.8 


.613 


.73 


.67 


.80 


2 


67.4 


3.6 


64.6 


6.5 


.607 


.67 


.58 


.81 


8 


67.6 


3.6 


64.7 


6.5 


.611 


.70 


.60 


.81 


4 


66.0 


3.5 


63.2 


6.3 


.582 


.41 


.47 


.81 


6 


66.3 


3.4 


63.6 


61 


.590 


.49 


.44 


.82 


6 


65.9 


3.2 


63.3 


5.8 


.584 


.43 


.35 


.83 


7 


66.1 


3.3 


63.5 


5.9 


.588 


.47 


.89 


.82 


8 


67.7 


4.9 


63.8 


8.8 


.593 


.49 


2.17 


.75 


9 


68.3 


6.7 


63.6 


11.4 


.590 


.43 


.88 


.69 


10 


69.0 


8.1 


63.3 


18.8 


.58i 


.33 


3.59 


.64 


11 


69.7 


9.4 


63.1 


16.0 


.580 


.26 


4.27 


.59 


Noon. 


70.3 


10.5 


62.9 


17.9 


.576 


.20 


.87 


.56 


1 


70.7 


11.2 


62.9 


19.0 


.576 


.19 


5.25 


.64 


2 


70.8 


11.4 


62.8 


19.4 


.574 


.17 


.37 


.54 


3 


70.7 


11.4 


62.7 


19.4 


.572 


.15 


.36 


.53 


4 


70.8 


10.0 


63.8 


17.0 


.593 


.39 


4.68 


.58 


6 


70.8 


7.8 


65 3 


13.3 


.623 


.75 


3.63 


.65 


6 


71.0 


5.9 


66.9 


10.0 


.657 


7.13 


2.73 


.72 


7 


70.3 


5.5 


66.4 


9.4 


.646 


.04 


.50 


.74 


8 


69.9 


4.8 


66.5 


82 


.648 


.07 


.16 


.77 


9 


69.3 


4.6 


66.1 


7.8 


.640 


6.99 


.02 


.78 


10 


68.8 


4.5 


66.2 


8.1 


.621 


.80 


.04 


.77 


11 


68.5 


4.2 


65.1 


7.6 


.619 


.78 


1.90 


.78 



All the Hypvometrical elements are computed by the Green wioli Constanta. 
From the Ist January, 1863, the Greenwich New Factors have been used for 
computing Dow-points. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



Meteorological Ohservationi. 



XXlX 



Ilniraei of the Reeulte of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor OeneraVs Office, Calcutta^ 
in the month of November, 1863. 
Solar Badiation, Weather, &c. 



.'II 










^ * § 


Preyailing direction 


o 


General Aspect of the Skj. 


1 s| I 


"a *** Jfc 


of the Wind. | 


pi 




t^ i 


«-=>^ 


1 


;4 




o • 


Inches 




H>s 




1 ... 




Sunday, 


2i 




2 139.5 


... 


N. AW. 


2i 


Cloudless. 


3 142.2 


... 


N. 


U 


Clondless. 


4 141.2 


... 


N. 


2 


Glondlesfl. 


h 140.9 


••• 


N. 


2 


Clondless. 


6 145.0 




N. 


li 


Cloudless. 


7 126.4 

1 


... 


N. 


1 


Cloudless till 9 A. X. ; Scatd. clouds 
afterwards. 


•' ... 


... 


Sunday. 


u 




91 146.6 


••• 


N. 


u 


Cloudless. 


10 143.0 


... 


N. 


If 


Cloudless till 9 A. M. cloudy after- 
wards. 


n\ 140.2 

1 


1.04 


N. k S. E. 


2i 


Cloudless till 5 a. k. cloudy after- 
wards ; also raining at 2 ft 8 F. M. ft 
drizzling at 6 ft 7 P. M. 


» ... 


... 


S. E. A N. & N. B. 


u 


Cloudy ; also very slightly drizzling at 
9 a.m. 


131 ... 


0.22 


N. E. A E. 


1 


Cloudy ; also drizzling occasionally. 


14 136.0 


... 


B. 


21 


Cloudy till Noon ; Scatd. >^i till 7 P. M. 
cloudless aftenmrds. 


15 ... 


••• 


Swnday. 


l\ 




16 141.8 




S. W. & N. 


u 


Scatd. >-i till 11 A. M.; Scatd. ^i till 
4 p. M. cloudless afterwards. 


17 146.0 


... 


N. W. A W, 


u 


Cloudless. 


IS 1U.6 

1 


••• 


N. & N. W. &. W. 


1 


Cloudless ; also slightly foggy from 8 
to 10 p. M. 


19 137.7 


••• 


Variable. 


u 


Cloudless. 


» 134.4 




W. k N. W. k N. 


1 


Cloudless. 


& 142.0 


... 


w. 


1 


Cloudless tfll 8 p. m. Scatd. >-i till 7 
V, M. cloudless afterwards. 


22 ... 


... 


Sunday. 


1 




23 139.0 


*.. 


N. W. k N. 


1 


Cloudless till 11 a. m. Scatd. -^i till 3 
p. M. cloudless afterwards. 


21 141.6 


... 


N. & N. W. 


1 


Cloudless. 


n 140.2 




N. ft N. B. 


i 


Cloudless. 


&5 1.38.5 


«.• 


N. ft N. W. 


1 


Cloudless. 


ft 139.8 


... 


N.&S. 


1 


Cloudless. 


a 141.2 


... 


N. ft N. E.. 


1 


Scatd. '^i till 10 a. m. cloudless after- 
wards. 


»' ... 


... 


Sunday, 


li 




«0 137.2 

i 




N, ^. ft N. W. ft N. 


1 


Cloudless. 



M Cirri, N— i Cirro strati, '^i Cumuli, M Cumulo strati, Vuj Nimbi, — ^i Strati, 
^ i Cirro cumiili. 

Digitized by VjrOOQLC 



sxx Meteorological ObMrvationt. 

Abstract of the Results of the Sourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor QeneraVs Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of November, 1863. 

Monthly Besults. 

Meanlieightof the Barometer for the month, •• 
Max. height of the Barometer occurred at 10 A. K. on the 23rd9 
Min. height of the Barometer occurred at 4 F. M. on the 5th, 
Satrtme range of the Barometer during the month, . • 

Mean of the Dailj Max. PressureSi . • • • • • 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, .. .. •• 

Mean daily range of the Barometer during the month, •• 



Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer for the month, •• •• 

Max. Temperature occurred at 3 p. ic on the 3rd, 
Min. Temperature occurred at 6 a. u. on the 80th, 
Extreme range of the Temperature during the month, • • 
Mean of the daily Max. Temperature, •• •• 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, .. •• •• 

Mean daily range of the Temperature during the month, • • 
Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer for the month, .. 
Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer, 
Computed Mean Dew-point for the month, .. •• 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed Mean Dew-point, 



Mean Elastic force of Tapour for the month, 



Mean Weight of Vapour for the month, • • 

Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete saturation. 

Mean degree of humidity for the month, complete saturation being unity, 



Bained 3 days, Max. &11 of rain during 24 hours, 
Total amount of rain during the month, • • 

Prey ailing direction of the Windf •• •• 





Inches 


• • 


29.948 


• • 


30.122 


• • 


29.770 


• • 


0.352 


• • 


80.018 


• • 


29.898 


• • 


0.I2S 







•• 


75.2 


• • 


86.3 


• • 


61.6 


• • 


24.7 


• • 


82.8 


• • 


68.9 


• • 


13.9 


• • 


68.9 


• • 


6.3 


• • 


64.5 


•• 


10.7 




Inches 


• • 


0.607 


Troy grains 
.. 6.61 


• • 


2.76 


ty. 


0.71 




Inches 


• • 


1.04 


• • 


1.26 


• • 


N. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Meteorological Observations. xxxi 

dktrut of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor OeneraVs Office, Calcutta, 
in the month of November, 1863. 

Monthly Eesults. 



TtUethowinf the nnmber of days on which at a given hoar any particalar wind 
blew, together with the number of days on which at the same hour, 
when any particalar wind was blowing, it rained. 



Hour. 


N. 


c 

o 

o 

1 




s 
o 

a 

I 


E. 


a 

o 

'S 


00 


§ 

s 

1 


s. 


§ 

a 


CO 


c 

o 
e 
'5 

OS 


^ 


§ 

c 


^ 
% 


c 
o 
c 

1 


a 


c 
o 


1 


Midnight. 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 

Koon. 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 


16 
15 
14 
15 
IS 
11 
13 
13 
14 
13 
12 
12 

10 
11 
11 
13 
9 
12 
11 
11 
U 
11 
11 
11 


1 
1 


2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
3 
4 
3 
4 
5 
4 

7 

\ 

1 
3 
2 

2 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 


1 

1 

1 


No. 

3 
2 
2 

2 
2 
2 
2 
1 
2 
3 
3 
3 
3 
2 
2 


of 

1 

1 

1 


d.] 

1 

1 

2 
2 

i 

2 
3 
1 

1 
1 


1 

1 


2 
2 
2 

1 




1 

1 
1 
2 
3 

1 

1 
1 

1 




2 

] 

'/ 
1 
] 
1 
1 
2 


1 


4 
5 
5 
2 

2 
4 
5 
1 
2 
8 
3 

2 

1 
3 
3 
2 
3 
5 
5 
5 
4 
4 


1 
1 
1 


— 


1 
3 
5 
4 

1 

1 

1 
1 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Meteorological Obiter cations. xxxiii 

Ahitraet of the Besults of the Hourly Meteorologienl Obtervationt 

taken at the Surveyor QeneraVs Office, Calcutta^ 

in the month of December, 1863. 

Latitude 22<' 33' V North. Longitude 88" 20' 34" East. 

F««t. 
Hcifbt of the Cittern of the Standard Barometer above the Sea-level, 18.1 1 

Dailj Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. 



Date. 






e ««^ 



Inches. 

30.U24 
.063 
.050 
.016 
.028 

Sunday. 

29.970 
.996 

30.035 
.024 

29.994 

30.035 
Sunday, 

.046 
.043 
.024 
.002 
.052 
.076 
Sumday. 

.065 
.021 
.034 
.062 
.054 
.044 



Range of the Barometer 
during the duy. 



1 
2 
S 

4 
5 
6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 

14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 

21 
23 
23 
24 
25 
26 

27 ' Sunday. 

28 I .060 

29 j .028 
80 I .014 
31 29.997 



Max. 


Min. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


30.092 


29.966 


.136 


30.011 


.140 


29.980 


.092 


.950 


.118 


.971 


.045 


.914 


.052 


.952 1 


.110 


.968 ' 


.100 


.955 i 


.051 


.943 


.118 


.976 1 


.117 


j 
.997 ' 


.115 


.988 ' 


.092 


.963 ' 


.065 


.934 


.124 


.973 , 


.153 


30.015 ' 

1 


.140 


29.998 


.099 


.953 


.108 


.976 


.139 


30.006 


.141 


29.987 


.119 


.996 



.136 


1 
30.016 


.095 


29 975 


.0^2 


.918 


.077 


.928 



Diff. 



Inches. 
0.126 
.125 
.160 
.142 
.147 



.131 
.100 
.142 
.145 
.108 



.142 ' 
.146 
.132 ! 
.133 I 
.154 ' 
.123 , 

i 
.120 ; 

.120 
.134 I 
.149 1 



S3 2 

m § 

bi 
Q a 



o 
67.5 
6rv9 
66.0 
66.2 
67.1 



67.3 
67.9 
67.8 
68.0 
69.6 



Range of the Tempera- 
ture during the day, 



142 


6S.3 1 

1 


120 


1 
65.4 


127 


65.2 


129 


64.7 


131 


65.5 


151 
J38 


66 5 
66.5 



66.1 
67.6 
69.3 
66.8 
65.1 
65.0 



65.6 1 

66.6 j 

67.1 i 

65.8 I 



I I 

Max. ; Min. DiflT. 



o 
75.3 
77.2 
76.0 
76.7 
76.9 



76.6 
77.4 
77.2 
77.8 
79.7 
78.4 



75.4 
75.8 
75.5 
75.6 
76.2 
76.2 



76.6 
78.8 
78.0 
75.2 
75.2 
76.4 



75.4 

76.5 
77.0 
75.8 



61.4 
59.0 
59.0 
57.6 
59.0 



59.6 
59.2 
59.6 
59.6 
61.8 
61.0 



57.2 
57.4 
56.4 
56.6 
57.8 
67.4 



57.4 
58.4 
626 
59.4 
57.6 
56.8 



56.8 
59.4 
61.0 
57.2 



o 
13.9 

18.2 
17.0 
19.1 
17.9 



17.0 
18.2 
17.6 
18.2 
17.9 
17.4 



18.2 
18.4 
19.1 
19.0 
18.4 
18.8 



19.2 
20.4 
15.4 
15.8 
17.6 
19.6 



18.6 
17 1 
160 
18.6 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as like wise the Dry and Wet Bnlb Tlier- 
■ooieter Means are derived from tlie liourij ObseiTatioua made during the day. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 



XXXIV 



Mete<yrologieal Ohtervationi, 



Abiftracf of the EetulU of the Hourly Meteorological Obtervatiotu 

taken at the Surveyor QeneraVs Office^ Calcutta^ 

in the month of December^ 1868. 

Daily Means, &e. of the Observ atioiis and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — fContinuedJ, 





« 

S 

^ 


** 


i 




2 


it 






Date. 


-3 

PQ 


o 

•8 

m 


1 
1 

p. 


o 

■s 

h 


.2 


-fi .2 
g.2 


-3 £ S 

g i: S 

•s 5 « 


III 




IS 


Q 


^ 


Q 


:s 


:g 


^ 


:g 




o 





o 


o 


Inches. 


T.gr. 


T.gr. 




1 


61.0 


6.5 


55.8 


11.7 


0.455 


5.03 


2.39 


068 


2 


60.4 


6.5 


55.2 


11-7 


.445 


4.93 


.35 


.68 


8 


59.5 


6.5 


54.3 


11.7 


.432 


.79 


.29 


.68 


4 


59.6 


6.6 


543 


11.9 


.432 


.79 


.33 


.67 


5 


61.1 


6.0 


56.3 


10.8 


.462 


6.11 


.21 


.70 


6 


8unda/y. 
















7 


61.3 


6.0 


56.5 


10.8 


•465 


.14 


.23 


.70 


8 


62.0 


5.9 


57.3 


10.6 


.478 


.27 


.24 


.70 


9 


62.2 


5.6 


57.7 


10.1 


.485 


.35 


.13 


.72 


10 


62.1 


5.9 


57.4 


10.6 


.480 


.29 


.24 


.70 


11 


68.2 


6.4 


58.1 


11.5 


.491 


.40 


.50 


.68 


12 


61.6 


6.7 


56.2 


12.1 


.461 


.08 


.52 


.67 


13 


Sunday. 
















14 


59.0 


6.4 


63.9 


11.5 


.426 


4.73 


.22 


.68 


15 


69.3 


5,9 


54.6 


10.6 


.437 


.85 


.06 


.70 


16 


59.0 


5.7 


54.4 


10.3 


.43 i 


.82 


1.98 


.71 


17 


60.1 


5.4 


55.8 


9.7 


.455 


6.05 


.93 


.72 


18 


60.9 


5.6 


56.4 


10.1 


.404 


.14 


2 05 


.72 


19 


60.0 


6.5 


54.8 


11.7 


.440 


4.86 


.33 


.68 


20 


Sunday. 
















21 


60.2 


6.9 


55.6 


10.6 


.450 


.99 


.11 


.70 


22 


62.0 


6.6 


57.5 


10.1 


.481 


6.32 


.12 


.72 


23 


635 


6.8 


58.9 


10.4 


.504 


.56 


.27 


.71 


24 


60.5 


6.3 


55.5 


11.3 


.450 


4 99 


.27 


.69 


25 


59.3 


5.8 


54.7 


10.4 


.438 


.87 


.02 


.71 


26 


59.2 


6.8 


54.6 


10.4 


.437 


.86 


.01 


.71 


27 


Sunday* 
















28 


59.5 


6.1 


54.6 


11.0 


.437 


.85 


.15 


.69 


29 


61.1 


5.5 


56.7 


9.9 


.469 


5.18 


.03 


.72 


80 


62.0 


5.1 


57.9 


9.2 


.488 


.39 


1.93 


.74 


31 


59.3 


6.5 


f 54.1 


11.7 


.429 


4.76 


2.28 


.68 



All the Hygrometrical elements are compnted by the (Greenwich Constants. 
From the'lst January, 1863, the Greenwich New Factors have been nsed for 
oomputiug Dew-points. •^ 



Meteorologieal Ohservationt. 



XXXV 



Mfirmei of the Results of the Hourly MeteoroUgieal OhserpatioM 

taken at the Surveyor OeneraVt Office, Calcutta^ 

in the month of December, 1863. 

Howlj Means, &e. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 









dependent thereon. 










^1-- 


Range of the Barometer 


^i 


Rang 


e of the Temperature 




iS-g 


for each hour during 


"i 


for each hour during 


Homr. 


xnS. 


the month. 




the month. 










1 




c © « 

s^;; 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 


§^ 


Max. 


Mlu. 


Diff. 




:s 








S 










Inehee. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 








o 





Kid- 
Bight. 


30.035 


30.097 


29.948 


0.149 


62.4 


65.8 


59.4 


6.4 


1 


.027 


.096 


.939 


.157 


61.8 


65.2 


58 8 


6.4 


8 


.019 


.081 


.936 


.145 


61.1 


64.8 


58.4 


6.4 


» 


.014 


.073 


.954 


.119 


60.4 


64.0 


67.8 


6.2 


4 


.005 


.067 


.934 


.133 


69.9 


63.4 


57.6 


5.8 


6 


.015 


.055 


.945 


.110 


69.6 


62.7 


56.8 


5.9 


6 


.035 


.092 


.965 


.127 


69.0 


62.7 


56.4 


6.3 


7 


.054 


.100 


.991 


.109 


58.9 


62.8 


66.4 


6.4 


8 


.080 


.126 


30.014 


.111 


62.8 


65.8 


59.0 


6.8 


9 


.099 


.140 


.045 


.095 


65.6 


69.8 


62.4 


7.4 


10 


.105 


.153 


.045 


.108 


68.5 


72.4 


66.0 


6.4 


11 


.088 


.129 


.030 


.099 


71.6 


75.0 


68.8 


6.2 


Koon. 


.060 


.108 


29.999 


.109 


73.9 


77.3 


71.4 


5.9 


1 


.022 


.064 


.968 


.096 


75.5 


78.5 


73.0 


5.5 


2 1 


29.998 


.040 


.939 


.101 


76.5 


79.7 


74.0 


5.7 




.9S1 


.030 


.929 


.101 


76.3 


78.6 


748 


3.8 




.975 


.C30 


.914 


.116 


74.8 


77.2 


73.2 


4.0 




.983 


.044 


.923 


.121 


72.3 


75.0 


69.6 


54 




.993 


.058 


.937 


.121 


69.8 


72.2 


68.2 


4.0 




30.011 


.076 .960 


.116 


67.7 


71.0 


66.0 


5.0 


8 


.027 


•089 .975 


.114 


66.4 


69.4 


64.6 


4,8 


9 


.039 


.104 


.979 


.125 


65.2 1 


686 


63.4 


5.2 


10 


.016 


.113 


.986 


.127 


64.1 


67.9 


62.3 


5.6 


11 

1 


.040 


.104 


.983 


.121 


63.4 ' 


67.2 


61.3 


5.9 



TheMofOk Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet BnlhTher- 
Doim»ter Means Arc derived irom the Observations made at the acveral lioum 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC ____ 



XXXVl 



Meteorological Observations, 



Ahstraet of the Besults of the Hourly Meteorological Ohservations 

taken at the Surveyor QeneraVs Office, Calcutta^ 

in the month of Decemher, 1863. 

Hourly Means, &c. of tlie Obser? Mtions and of the Hygrometrical elementi 
dependent thereon. — (Continued.) 





^ 


*i 


.J 




*© 


A o 


'Sfe B 


3 3 - 




'5 


^ 
o 






o 




gbt 

redf 
ratio 


W 2 pi 

o2| 


Hour. 


m Wet 
ometer. 


> 
o 




1 

as 
=5 C 


•1. 


Weight ( 
in a Cab 


onal Wei 
nr requi 
lete satu 


8t§ 




H 


PQ 


&4 






Mean 
pour 
of ail 


5 E.I* 


Meai 
midity 
ration 




o 











Inclies. 


Troy gw. 


Troy grs. 




Mid- 


59.2 


3.2 


56.3 


6.1 


0.462 


5.17 


1.16 


0.82 


njght. 


















1 


58.8 


3.0 


56.1 


5.7 


.459 


.14 


.07 


.83 


2 


58.2 


2.9 


55.6 


6.5 


.452 


.06 


.02 


.83 


8 


57.5 


2.9 


54.9 


5.6 


.441 


4.94 


.01 


.83 


4 


57.1 


2.8 


54.6 


5.3 


.437 


.91 


0.94 


.84 


6 


56.7 


2.8 


54.2 


5.3 


.431 


.84 


.94 


.84 


6 


56.3 


2.7 


53 9 


5.1 


.426 


.80 


.89 


.84 


7 


56.1 


2.8 


53.6 


5.3 


.422 


.75 


.92 


.84 


8 


58.3 


4.5 


54.2 


8.6 


.431 


.80 


1.61 


.75 


9 


59.8 


5.8 


55.2 


10.4 


.4i5 


.95 


2.05 


.71 


10 


61.6 


6.9 


56.1 


12.4 


.459 


6.08 


.57 


.66 


11 


63.0 


8.6 


56.1 


15.5 


.4^9 


.03 


8.37 


.60 


Noon. 


68.5 


10.4 


56.2 


17.7 


,461 


.02 


.99 


.56 


1 


63.9 


11.6 


55.8 


19.7 


.455 


4.94 


4.52 


.52 


2 


64.2 


12.3 


55.6 


20.9 


.452 


.90 


.85 


.50 


8 


6^.0 


12.3 


65.4 


20.9 


.449 


.87 


.82 


.50 


4 


63.6 


11.3 


55.6 


19.2 


.452 


.93 


.33 


.53 


5 


63.8 


8.5 


57.0 


15.3 


.473 


5.18 


3.40 


.60 


6 


63.4 


6.4 


58.3 


11.5 


.494 


.43 


2.62 


.68 


7 


62.7 


5.0 


58.7 


9.0 


.601 


.64 


1.92 


.74 


8 


61.9 


4.5 


58 3 


8.1 


.494 


.47 


.70 


.76 


9 


61.1 


4.1 


57.8 


7.4 


.486 


.40 


.51 


.78 


10 


60.5 


36 


57.3 


6.8 


.478 


.31 


.36 


.80 


11 


60.0 


3.4 


56.9 


6.5 


.472 


.25 


.28 


.80 



All fihe Hygrometriral elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 
From the Ist January, 1863, the Greenwich New Factors have been used for 
computing Dew -points. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



/ 



Meteorological Ohtervationt. 



xxxvu 



AhMiraei of the Hesulte of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor QeneraVs Office, Calcutta, 
in the month of December, 1863. 
Solar Badiation, Weather, &c. 



!^§ ' 


3 O . 




^ 




0-2 


«8-2t3 




<H 




•• ":-s 1 


o5§ 


Preyailing direction 


O 


General Aspect of the Sky. 


1 Si : 


i^M 


of the Wind. 


Pk 




ft s*- 


m^^ 




S 




o 


Inches 




lbs 




1 122.0 

1 


... 


N. 




Soatd. clonds till 9 a.m., Scatd.Ni &^i 
till 6 p. M. cloudless afterwards. 


2 136.0 

1 


... 


N. 


li 


Cloudless till 6 A. M. Scatd. ^i till 3 
V. M. Soatd. "^i till 6 p. m. cloud- 
less aflerwards. 


» 139.0 

1 1 


... 


N. A N. W. 




Cloudless till 8 a. m. Scatd. N~i till 
Noon ; cloudless aflerwards also foggy 
at 9 P. M. 


I * 136.2 




N. & N. W. 




Cloudless. 


& 135.0 


... 


N. 




Cloudless. 


6 ... 




Sunday. 






7 139.0 


... 


W. & N. W. 




Cloudless. 


8 137.5 


... 


N. W. & E. 




Cloudless. 


9 136.5 




N. A N. W. 




Cloudless. 


10 138,0 


... 


N. W. 




Cloudless. 


11 137.0 

1 


... 


S. W. & N. 




Cloudless tai 6 a. m. Scatd. Ni A N-i 
* till 6 p. M. cloudless afterwards. 


12 138.6 


... 


N. W. & W. 


1^ 


Cloudless till 8 a. m. Scatd. \i A >-i 
till 6 p. M. cloudless afterwards. 


13 ... 


>•• 


Sunday. 






14 135.0 


1 ••• 


N. 




Cloudless. 


15 135.0 


' 


N. A N. W. 




Cloudless. 


Iti 135.5 


... 


N. & N. W. 




Cloudless. 


17 135.0 


... 


N. & N. W. 




Cloudless ; also slightly foggy from 9 
to 11 p. M. 


IS 137.2 


... 


N. 




Cloudless. 


hf 135.8 


... 


N. 


li 


Cloudless ; also slightly foggy at 9 A 

10 P. H. 


1 
»> ... 




Sunday. 






21 138.0 


••• 


N. 




Cloudless; also foggy from 8 to 11 


22 189.7 


• a* 


S.AW. 




P. M. 

Cloudless. 


23 134.0 


••■ 


N. & W. A S. 




Cloudless. 


24 135.0 




N. 




Cloudless. 


2o 186.0 




N. 


5 


Cloudless. 


26 139.0 


... 


N. A N. W. 


f 


Cloudless, 



27 



Sunday, 



\ Cirri ^— i Cirro strati, -^i Cumuli, M Cumulo strati, V\-i Nimbi, — i Strati 

V> i Cirro cumuli. r^r^nlo 

Digitized by vaOOy Ic 



XXXVlll 



Meteorohgieal OhservtUions, 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 
taken at the Surveyor Gen^raVs Office, Calcutta, 
in the month of December, 1863. 

Solar Radiation, Weather, &o. 





'o g 


&! 










CO '3 


■s 3 


Prevailing direction 


u 


General Aspect of the Sky. 


■^ 




•§^l 


of the Wind. 


^ 




^ 


S^o 




^ 






o 


Inches. 




ib 




28 


128.0 


••• 


N.AW. 


i 


Soatd. V-i till 3 p. m. cloudy tfllS P. M. 
cloudless afterwards also foggy be- 
tween 9 A 11 p. M. 


29 


124.8 


... 


W. A N. A S. W. 


i 


Scatd. M A N— i till 4 p. m. cloudless 
afterwards. 


80 


134.0 




N. 


i 


Cloudless. 


31 


137.0 




N. A W. A N. B. 


i 


Cloudless ; also slightly foggy at 11 

p. M. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Meteorological Oheervatiom. 



xxxix 



Ahitraei of the Reeulte of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor OeneraVs Office, Calcutta^ 

in the month of December , 1868. 



MOHTHLT £B8ULT8. 

Mean height of the Bftrometer for the month, • • 
Max. height of the Barometer occurred at 10 A. v. on the 19th, 
Min. littight of the Barometer occurred at 4 P. H. on the 7th, 
Xxbmu range of the Barometer during the month, 
Mean of the Daily Max. FresBures, . • • • • • 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, «. 
"Mian dailg ramge of the Barometer during the month, • • 



MesD Dry Bulb Thermometer for the month, .. 
Max. Temperature occurred at 2 p. v. on the 11th, 
Min. Temperature occurred at 6 & 7 a. K. on the 16th, 
Extreme raimge of the Temperature during the month, 
Mean of the daily Max. Temperature, 
Ditto ditto Min. ditto, .. 
JCroa daily range of the Temperature during the month, 



Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer for the month, • • 
Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer, 
Computed Mean Dew-point for the month, .. •• 

Mean Dry Bulb Tliermometer aboye computed Mean Dew-point, 
Mean Blastio force of Vapour for the month, • • • . 



Inches 
80.032 
30.153 
29.914 

0.239 
80.106 
29.972 

0.134 



o 
66.7 

79.7 
56.4 
23.3 
76.6 
58.7 
17.9 



Inohea 

60.7 

6.0 

55.9 

10.8 

0.456 



Troy grains 
Mean Weight of Vapour for the month, •• •• .. 5.05 

Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete saturation, . • 2.18 

Mean degree of humidity for the month, complete saturation being unity, 0.70 



Bained No days, Max. fall of rain during 24 hours, 
Total amount of rain during the month, • • 

^rerailing direction of the Wind, ., 



Inches 

•• Nil, 

Nil. 

..N.ANW 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



xl 



Meteorological Observations, 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor QeneraVs Office^ Calcutta, 

in the month of December, 1863. 

Monthly Results. 

Table showing the number of days on which at a given hour any particular wind 

blew, together with the number of days on which at the same hour, 

when any particular wind was blowing, it rained. 





























Hour. 




a 
o 












e 






h^ 








B 


E^ = 




= 


u 


c 


c 


^ J 




N. 


"S 


:i 




E. 


s 


OQ 


d 


.^^ 


Cfi 














No. 


Qf 


l]»J 


r"- 


1 






Midxuglttt 


17 




1 


















I 


18 




1 














1| 


% 


1.3^ 


1 














ll 

1 


S 


t8l 


1 


















4 


17 






















fi 


13 




I 


















« 


19 
















1; 


2i 


? 


17 




1 




1 












3; 


« 


20l 1 


3 




1 












2 


9 


16 




4 




2 












s 


' 


1$ 


14 




i 




a 












2 




U 


U 




3 




3 




1 




, 




1 




Noon. 


16 




2 








1 




1 




-t 




I 


U 




2 












ii 






2 


181 


1 












1 


1 




S 


I5i 


I 












1 




Ii 


4 


!■* 


I 
















1 




6 


13 


















1 




fi 


isl 






















f 


13 




















1 




§ 


la 
















1 








» 


14, 
















1' 






10 


13 
















ii 






11 


la 
















1 









t^ i£ 









Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



JOURNAL 



OV TH9 



ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



No. II. 1864. 



^n Account cf Upper I^dsh-kdr, and Ohitrdly or Lower ^aBh-Jf^ar^ 
together vnth the ind^endent Afyhdn State of J^anj-korah^ include 
iMg TU-^h* 

Most modem travellers have either not mentioned the two first-p 
Darned countries at all in their works, or have, from ignorance of 
oriental languages, or carelessness in writing names, so confounded 
them with a province of Chinese Tdrkistan, that their very existence 
W been called into question, and even totally denied, by many 
ftuthors. 

Mr. Elphinstone, in his excellent work — " Tlie Kingdom of Caubul," 
remarks on this very subject in the following manner : — " The resem- 
blance of the names led us into great mistakes when we first arrived 
it Peshdwar. We bought tea, which we were told was brought from 
Kausbkaur (Cashgar), and the first people whom we asked respecting 
the distance told us we imght easily go to Kaushkaur, and return 
within a fortnight. In time, however, we obtained more precise in^ 
fonnation.*' These doubts and mistake's have been solely occasioned 
by not taking proper account of the mode of writing, and the pronun- 
nation of the names of the two countries ; that of Chinese Tartary 
king written jh^\i (kAsh-ghar), whilst that of which I intend giving 
wme account, is written Jkm\j (kdsh-kdr)^ a very different sound to 
that of the former. 

The native land of all the chimeras ^f Bdkhtro Indian origin, con- 
tained in the mythological system of the ancient Persians, as indicated 

• Being the continuation to " 'Styles on Kafrist'in" in No. 4 of the Jonmal 
for 1859. 



DigitizSdbyLjOOglC 



326 An Acootmf of Upper Kdnh-kdr. ' [No. 2, 

from the ruins of Persepolis, is the range of mountainous country 
which separates Bdkhtrianah from Hindiistdn hnd China, bounded on 
the east and north by the desert of Kobi ; and, as we gather from the 
first chapter of the Zand-awestah, is included in the country therein 
called Eeriene — the supposed abode of the old Medo-Persian race. It 
was celebrated for its gold and gems, and other precious productions, 
which it continues to yield, in some dcgi-Qe, up to the present tune. 
It is also the legendary abode of the traditionary monsters, celebrated 
in Oriental poetry and fable, now become familiar to the natives of the 
west. 

In this mountainous range lies ^ash-Var, or ChitrAl, as the lower 
portion of the valley is also named ; it is what has been sometimes 
called the country of Shfih Kator. It is included in the valley of the 
uj)per sources of the river best knoAvn as the JCamah, and the Kunar.* 

^[ash-^Hr (concerning which, probably, less is known than of any 
other part of Central Asia, not including even Kdfiristin), is bounded 
on the north by the high land of Pamir ; south by the Las-piir range 
of momitains, bounding the Afghan district of Panj-korah to the 
north ; north-east by the momitainous region to the west of the Yir- 
kand river, known to the people of these regions as Bilauristan or the 
" Region of Crystal,"t from the quantity of that substance with 
which it abounds ; south-east by Gilgi^t &nd Little Tliibet ; and west 
by the hills of Wakh6n, bordering tlie left bank ol the river Oxus, 
and separating Chitral, or Lower ^dsh-^dr, from Badakhshan and the 
eastern frontier of Kaiiristdii, running parallel to the right or northern 
bank of the Chitril or ^ash-k&r river. It is a long valley into 
which a series of smaller valleys and defiles open out, which, in the 
northern part, act as water-courses to draiA Pamir, It is oblong in 
form, ^nd runs almost in a north-east and pouth-west direction. It 
resembles Kdfiristdn in physical appearance and coldness of climate ; 

• On looking? over tho paper on KifirisUn, I find the name of this river has 
boon printed ** Kunir" and " Kuner." Tliia spoiling, however, is not right : 
** Knnar" is the correct orthography. In the same paper also, ** B^jawer" 
appears instead of " Bijiwry." 

t ** There aro certain other monntainB called BiloT (Bilatkr) in the oonntry of 
the tribe of Tarks deuominatod Hamilan, In two days' jonmey yon arrive at 
another part of Turkistan whore the Bhotyas and Dyan dwell. Their king ia 
Bhot Shah, and their cities are Gilgitt, As^rah (Astor p), Solas (Chilas P), etc., 
and their language is Tiirki." Sir H, M. Elliot's Index to Muhammadan His- 
torians, page 31, vol. I. See also tho extract from Khuahit^al Khan's Pus'hto 
poem, in the " Accouni of Suwat j"- Journal for 1862, page 278. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



15^4.] An Account of Upper l^dsh-k^, 127 

iynt it lies somewliat higher, and althoiif>;h rough and difficult in many 
places, it contains a greater portion of plateaux, and a greater number 
of level and open valleys. In some parts, also, it is well sheltered ; 
•nd the soil, generally, is rich and fertile, producing much grain, and 
•ereral descriptions of fruit. 

It is divided into two states — ]^^h>kdr-i-Bd*li, or Upper ^iuh-kdr, 
and Kash-kiu*-i-P6-in,* or Lower JfC^h-^dr — both of which are ruled 
by separate ehie&, entirely independent of each other ; but, at the 
Bsme time, on the most firiendly terras. 

The former princlpahty is less known than the latter ; hence the 
two have often been coafounded together, and called the country of 
8hih Kator. Both rulers are absolute over their subjects, and have 
the reputation of selling them into slavery without the slightest 
compunction. The people are designated among themselves by the 
general name of ChitrAr. 

Lower KXsh-kab. 

Lower ^foh-Wr, or Chitrfil, is the real country of Shdh Kator, and 
18 the most westerly of the two states. It lies immediately under the 
southern slopes of the mountains of Hindd Kush, which separate it 
from Badakhshan ; and through the centre of this state, as well as of 
Upper K^h-kir, the river, here named afber the country fertilized by 
its waters, flows to the south-west, and joins the Kdmah at Cheghin* 
nrie.f 

The chief town or capital of Lower ^Cash-kiir isDrish, the residence 
of Tajammul Shah, the son and successor of Sh6h Kafor, who appears 

* For the information of '* Comparative Fhilologpsts," I beg to say that the 
words Dd-ld and Pd-in are Persian. 

t " The orijainal ct>untry of the (Thasas seoms to havo boon tho proaont conn- 
try of Oa«hcar to the N. £. of Cabnl ; for the C'hasas, in tho institntos of Menn, 
aro mentioned with the Daradaa, who are obviously tho Dard<B of Pfcolomy, 
who0e conntry now called Barad by the natives, and Daimtrd by tho Persian 
aatfaora, is to tho X. W. of Cashmir ; and extends towards the Indus : henoe 
Ptolemy, with great propriety, asserts, that the mountains to the north-east of 
Cabal, are the real Caacasos. The country of Cashcar is situated in a beautiful 
TaUey, watered by a large river, which, after passing close to Chaga iScray, 
Cooner, and Noorgul, joins the Lnndy sindh, or little Sindh, below Jclal^bad, 
in the small dis^ct of Cameh (for there is no town of that name), and fix)m 
this circumstance the little Sindh is often callo<l the river Cameh. ••»• Cashoar 
is also Cashtwar, which denomination is generally distorted into K^twer and 
Cnttor by Persian authors and travellers. The town and district of Kotwer, 
mentioned in the lifo of Amir Timur, is difierent from this ; and lies about 
fifteen miJoe to tho N. W. of Cbiiga Seray, on a pretty largo rivor, which comes 
from Vahf Galamb : it is generally pronounced Catowr." Wilford : On Mount 
CaucfWiw;- Asiatic Researches, Vol. VI. pp. 137-8. 

Digitizes b?LjOOgle 



128 An Account of Upjp&r fM-kdr, [No. 2, 

to have been a good ruler, and deservedly popular. He was, howeva*, 
a soldier of fortune originally, and dethroned the rightful sovereign^ a 
grandson of whom Yinge met with, living under the protection of the 
kind-hearted and hospitable Ahmad Shah, the Gylfo or prince of Little 
Thibet. The town is situated in the centre of the valley on a rising 
ground, on the eastern, or left, or southern bank of the river previous- 
ly referred to, and over which there is a large and well built wooden 
bridge, considered by the natives a somewhat 'Wonderful object. The 
town is said to contain about two thousand houses, and between nine 
and ten thousand inhabitants. All the chief men of the country have 
dwellings of considerable, size in the capital, where they are expected 
chiefly to reside. Persons engaged in trade to any extent, together 
with artizans and mechanics, also dwell almost exclusively at Drush. 

The other considerable towns are, — Lds-pdr (giving name to the 
mountains so called) to the east of Drush and north of Drdl ;* Pu- 
ritt to the north of Drdsh and south of Ash-rit ; Ash-rit north of Puritt 
and east of Drdsh ; Bedlurf to the northward of Drdsh and south of 
Hich-gun. 

The country lying to the south of the capital is thinly peopled ; 
but towards the north-east and west, it is very populous. The 
inhabitants are Muhammadans professing the Shi-ah doctrine, the 
same as followed by the Persians of the present day. 

All complaints of importance, and cases of litigation, are investi- 
gated and determined at Dnish by the ruler himself ; indeed, all com- 
plainants residing within four days* journey, are required to appear 
before the supreme authorities in all cases. Persons dwelling at a 
greater distance are permitted to appear before the subordinate chiefs, 
who are empowered to hear and decide matters of minor importance, 
subject to appeal to the Shdh. 

Tajammul Shiih can collect, upon occacion, a force of 12,000 match- 
lock-men, who are not paid in money for their services, but in kind. 
The whole of the people are well provided with fire-arms with rests ; 
indeed, there are few persons without arms. Those match-locks are 
long and heavy, similar to those of Tdrkistdn (from whence, most 
likely, they are obtained) and carry a baU along distance. The i^^sh- 

* A valley containing several small hamlets, belonging to Pa^j-korah* Seo 
page 23. 
t Bilaor (ciystal) ? 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



J864.] An Account of Upper KdsK-fcAr, 129 

kirfr are excellent marksmen ; and powder and lead being exceedingly 
expensiYe, when they do dischai^ their pieces, it is generally with 
effect ; and no shots are thrown away. 

About 10,000 Sfah-posh Kdfirs,* of the Kdmdz tribe, who inhabit 
the upper, or northern part of the valley of the ^iLsh-kfir or Chitr&l 
rirer, lying nearest to the valley of the Kok-ch£h river of Badakh- 
shin, and north of the country held by the Katt&r and Kampar tribes 
of Sf ^-posh, are subject to the Shah, to whom they pay a small 
tribate. Their religion is not interfered with ; and they are, upon the 
whole, very obedient subjects, and are unlike the generality of moun* 
tain tribes, inasmuch as they do not rob. The AskCn K&iirs, a great 
portion of whom have embraced Muhammadanism, as well as the 
Ashpins, are also subjects of the ruler of Lower i^^ish-lf:^, as already 
mentioned in my account of that people. 

Uppeb KlsH-i^iB. 

This is the territory of Gauhar Am^ Shdh, sumamed Ch&l, son 
and successor of Malik Am&n, the former ruler. The people are 
8ht4h Muhammadans — ^that is to say, if a person should ask them 
what religion they profess, they will answer that they are Musalm^s 
and Shidhs ; but if he enquire of them what is meant by the word 
Sfai^, they will probably say they do not know. In the other state 
of Chitrdl, or Lower ^^h-lf ar, the people, as far as prayers, fasts, and 
other exterior observances go, are Muhammadans ; but there are few 
agns of it in Upper ^.is^A^ix. 

The chief town is Mis-t6ch, or Mas-toj, lying about three stages 
or wuMziU of 25 coss, or 37 to 38 miles each, N. N. W. from 
Gilgifti but it is a place of no great size, containing only four 
hundred houses, and about 2,000 inhabitants. It lies in the same 
vaUey as Lower ^iish-kir ; and also stands on the right or western 
bank of the Chitral or |j[a8h-kdr river, but nearer its source. The 
town is protected by a small fortress ; and the main routes followed 
by the caravans of merchants from Pes'hdwar, Badakhshdo, and 
Tarkand, meet here. Gauhar Am^, the ruler, resided a good 
deal at Tasin, which is a still smaller place than Mds-tuch, but 
it is more conveniently situated, being nearer towards Dar-band, the 
fortified pass leading into the country, towards the west. There are 
nomerous ancient ruins in this neighbourhood. Drdsh, the capital of 

• See *^ Notes cm Kdjiristdn" in the Jonrnal for 1859. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



180 An Account of Upper E:d9h-kkr, [No. 2, 

Lower J^^sh-V^ or Chitr6l, lies to the south-west of Mte-t^ch. To 
the east of the latter place is Hieh-gdn, to the soath of which again 
is Shotai. 

The elevated plateau of Upper J^f^dsh-kar is inclosed by towering 
hills surrounding it on all sides, except towards the south-west, in 
which direction the ^f ash-k&p or Chitrdl river, so often referred to, 
flows. At the same time, however, it must be remembered, that the 
whole of ^^sh-kar, both Upper and Lower, is crossed by several 
smaller ranges of hills, and by numerous narrow valleys, some of 
which are of considerable length. 

Several passes lead into the two KAsh-kdrs, the chief of which is the 
Kotal Lahori, or Lahori Pass leading into Panj-korah through the 
Lasptir mountains, dividing the latter from the former state. By this 
route Mlus-ttich may be reached &om Drush, which is distant three 
manzils or sta£;e3, occupying two nights and a day, in the summer 
months. The Si'ih-^osh Kdfirs infest the Pass at times, and plunder 
travellers. The road is also somewhat difficult between Panj-korah 
and Drdsh ; but beyond, it is very good ; and the country is like a 
vast plain, gradually sloping upwards towards the high land of Pfimir, 
to the north and east. The roads throughout Lower K^h-k^r or 
Chitrdl, and Upper ^dsh-kdr, are generally prood, and clear of much 
obstruction ; consequently, there woidd be no difficulty for the passa^ 
of light artillery. 

The nearest road from Chitrfil or Lower Kash-kfir to Badakhshfo 
lies across the range of Hindd Kush — called the Badakhshfin Ridge 
by Macartney* — on the northern ulope of which a small river rises, 
and after flowing about twenty-five miles, enters the Panj, or Upper 
branch of the Oxus, at Ishtarak in the latter countiy. The path lies 
along the banks of this stream, and is only practicable in the sum- 
mer months, and then only Tor persons on foot, who can thus reach 
Chitral in three days. 

Another route into Badakhsh^n, practicable for beasts of burden^ 
and that pursued by caravans of merchants and traders, is by the 
Mas-tdch Pass — so called from the town of that name — and by de- 
scending from thence, along the banks of another small stream, rising 
on the northern slope of the mountains bounding Lower ^ish-Vnr to 
the north-east, which falls into the Panj at IssAr (His-ir?) in the 
* £Ipluu3tone's Caabul : Vol. 2ad, Appendix D. pp. 45S. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1804.] An Account of Upper Kash-hir, 181 

ca&ton of Wikhin.* This is the m^ road between Badakhshan and 
GOgitt to Kashmir. The Ydrkand road branches off from Issar to 
the north, through the darah or valley of lake Sir-i kolf over the 
teble land of P6mir. 

Farther west there is another Pass into Badakhshan, called '^ Kotah 
uXukghif* or the '* Defile of Mischief." This road winds along the 
face of tremendous precipices, and through frightful defiles, by which 
the hamlet of Gdo-khdnah (signifying " Cow-house" in Persian,) 
Irisg in a plain, may be reached in two or three days. Further north 
is Kabat, (' Kobat' of Wood) on the Wardoj river. A route into 
Kafiristdn joins the above road amongst the defiles of Hiuuu Kush, 
bj which the districts held by the Kamuz, Aflkfr, and Ashpin tribes 
of Si'ah-posh K&firs may be reached in from three to four days, with- 
out much difficulty, in the summer months. 

To the north-east of Upper ^^dsh-^dr (which some also term Shagh- 
oan), is Sh^lgat, distant five manziU or stages. It is also called ^ash- 
Mr, 80 I am informed ; but the people are different in their mamiers 
and customs, and are under a different ruler. 

The river of Chitrid or Jj^dsh-^^, also known as the Cheghdn-sarie, 
fenu the small town of that name, near which it Mis into the K^unah^ 
OT Kimar, as it flows south to join the river of Kabul, appears — as I 
We already pointed out at page 8 — to have been long confounded 
vith the Kamah or Kunar, of which it is only a feeder. The Chitral 
river rises at the " Talab-i-Nfl," or " Cerulean Lake."! This lake 
must not be mistaken for lake Sir-i-kQl,§ firom which the Panj, or 

* " At lasar 10,000 feet, on the terminatioii of the main valley of the Ozns, 
^ road divides into two, which when beyond Killah Panj bore respectively K. 
^ 8^ and N. 40'' £. The former conducted to Chitral, Gilgit, and Kashmir, 
*Dd the latter across the table-land of Pamir to Tarkand/' Wood. 

t ** There is a Pass called Mnstodj, or Mastuoh, which joins the valley of 
]^*fam (Wakhan). I suppose that the name may be extended to the mountains- 
^|<iQ<)iiig Chitral on the eastward, as I was told that after crossing the Mastuoh 
'^ the traveller descends with a stream for several days until he reaches 
CiiitnJ, the ooontrv of Shah Kator." Yigne: *<TraTela in Kashmir:" Vol. 
ILp.309. 

. i ** An individual who had seen the region between Wakhan and Kashmir 
itfonned me that the Kunir (Chitral) river had its principal source in a lake 
Aaembling that in which the Oxus has its rise, and that the whole of this 
^^^tiy, comprehending the districts of Gilghit, Gunjit, and Chitral, is a series 
Q^Qumntaiii defiles that act as water courses to drain Panir." " Wood's Journey 

/|*Jliere is said to bo a lake in Shaghnan, half a day's journey in circum- 
^f^!'^ which drains the country on the left bank of tho Panj, as tho Oxus ia 
««> ailed." Ibid. 

§ ^ in Persian siguifios tho head, top, summit ; great, highest, etc. ; and 
>*h in tho Muoc lauguago moons a pond, a vo8ur>'oir, a lako, auU i5u forth. 

Digitized by VaOOQlC 



132 An Accoufit of Upper Kdsh-kar. [No. 2, 

main branch of the Oxus takes its rise ; for the TalSb-i-Nil lies much 
further to the south. The river of ^ash-kdr flows from it, and having 
passed M^tdch on the west, flows towards the south and south-west, 
through the two states of K^sh k&r, and joins the Kdmah or Kunar 
at Cheghdn-sarde, as before stated. The existence of this lake was 
mentioned to Lieut. Wood by natives of Badakhshdn, and it is also 
corroborated by the account of Moorcroft and Trebeck,* who call the 
lake by the name of Hamd-sar ; but which, if it is a Persian name, as 
it appears to be, would rather seem to refer to that of '^ Sir-i«kol," the 
source of the Oxus, and then, interpreted, would signify the *^ Head 
or Source of the Ham6," which latter word, in all probability, is more 
correctly AmCl, ( j^t ) the name by which the Oxus is known to the 
natives of these regions. 

North of M^s-tdch all the streams take a northerly course towards 
the Oxus and the river of Yarkand ; whilst those south of Mds-tdch 
run towards the south, and are, ultimately, absorbed into the Indus. 

From Upper Kdshkir, the road to Gilgitt lies to the south, souths 
east ; and that place is seven stages distant. From thence, pursuing 
a westerly route. Little Thibet is reached in another seven stages. 
The Ejifihmfr route lies to the south of Thibet, and is distant about 
eight stages. 

The dress of the people of Upper and Lower ](CSsh-kdr, from the 
severe nature of the climate of the country, consists of a number of 
garments worn one over the other. They are made with immense 
sleeves ; and, when on, lie in a number of folds or rolls. The dresses 
of the women are made longer and more loose than those of the men, 
and assimilate, in some measure, to the dress worn by the females of 
Kashmir. 

The men are tall and well made ; and the females are remarkable for 
their beauty ,t which is said to surpass that of the Si'dh-posh women, 

• « Westward from Gilgit is Chitril, distingoished as Upper and Lower. The 
latter, which is nearest to the Hindu Knsh, is situated on a river flowing from a 
lake called Hamd-sar, and ultimately falling into the river of Kabul." — Moor- 
croft AND Trebeck. 

f ** Close to Gand'ham^dana, along the banks of the Apara Gandica, or 
western Gandici, is the country of the Cetu-miila, 34,000 Yojanas in length, 
and 32,000 broad. The Cetu-m£laa are miglity in doods, strong, and powerful, 
the women bright like the Lotus jlawer : and whoever sees them, falls in love 
with them." — Wilford, on the Sacrod Isles of the West : Asiatic Reskabches 
Vol. VII., page 35y. 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



1S64.] An Acenwnt of Upper Kdah-iAr. 138 

vim are io much celebrated for their good looks. A great many 
|Mq>le aro yearly aold into slavery ; and a boy or a girl can, generally, 
be porehaaed for one hundred mpeee. The more comely of the females 
fistek high prices, Tarying from five hundred to one thousand rupees. 
Tvo or three hundred slftyes are sent annually into T^rkistin, by the 
Darwin Pass of Badakhshin, and constitute one of the chief exports 
from khtt country. 

The imports consist of salt, which is very expensive ; chintzes and 
other piece-goods of low price and coarse texture from Yarkand^ 
PesHiftwar, and Badakhshdn, together with boots and shoes, metals, 
and a few pearls and precious stones from the latter country ; tea, 
sugar, and horses from the former state ; sundries, consisting of nee- 
dles, thread, scissors, knives, combs, Ac , of rough workmanship, from 
Kashmir, and Pea'h&war ; iron from Panjkorah ; gur or coarse sugar, 
qneea, medicines, matchlocks, swords, ammtmition, and copper cook- 
ing utensils. 

The other exports besides slaves, are unbleached silk, the produce 
of the coontry, and known amoilgst the traders of K4bul and other 
parts of Central Asia, as kordh^ Jfdsh^fidrt; shawls also the peculiar 
manufacture of the country, the woof of which, termed (d^) pud, is 
sometimes of a coarse description of silk called pa(tf by the JfJush" 
tfiris, and sometimes of cotton, and the warp called (jO) tdr, of pure 
silk. These are rather expensive, ranging in price from twenty ru« 
pees ; but a cheaper description is manufactured, the woof of which 
is of wool, and the warp of cotton, and which can be procured as low 
aa two rupees each ; ehofMhiy or cloaks with sleeves, the cloth of which 
is woven trcmpashmy a species of wool or fur, of three different colours, 
with which all animals, even dogs, are provided, in this cold region, 
but mare particularly goats. It is called shawl*wooL These garments 
vary in price from one to twenty rupees. 

The peculiar method of weaving these mantles or l|$[ash-k6ri shawls 
brings to mind a passage in Pliny with regard to the fabric frt)m 
vbieh the Coan vests, so much esteemed by the Greeks and Romans, 
were made. Heeren in his *' Asiatic Nations," also refers to the subject 
in the following terms. *' The first Grecian author who has made 
mention of the silk-worm, and described its metamorphosis, is Aris« 

* In Hindi ni w^ff '* unbleached" or " raw." 

t The terms j^ and jQ are Persian. The Sanskrit for sUk ij ^^^ pa^fi. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



184 An Account of Upper JS^M-kdr. [No. 2, 

totle in his Natural History. His account, however, does not tally 
with the silk-worm known in Europe ; and it is probahle that he had 
another species in view, though his commentators ate by no means 
agreed on this point. He tells us that the web of this insect was 
wound off by women, and afterwards woven ; and names a certain 
Pamphyle, of Cos, as the inventress of this art. Whence then was 
the raw material derived ? The Grecian philosopher does not express* 
ly inform us, but Pliny,* who has translated his works, and perhaps 
had a more accurate copy before him than we possess, speaks of 
AssyriaUyt that is, Asiatic silk, and interprets in thi» manner the 
obscure expressions of Aristotle. The Grecian women,^ he says, 
* unravel the silken stuffs imported from Asia, and then weave them 
anew ; whence that fine tissue, of which firequent mention is made by 
the Boman poets under the name of Coan vests.* A celebrated scholar 
understands this passage as implying that all the Asiatic garments, 
described as silken, were in fact onl^ half composed of silk^ and sup** 
poses that the Grecian women separated the two materials of which 
they consisted, and that the cotton woof having been withdrawn^ the 
texture was filled up with silk alone,*'X 

^ash-^ is, by no means, a poor country ; in many places it is well 
sheltered ; and the climate, on the whole, is temperate, but, in winter, 
it is severe. The soil is rich and fertile, producing much grain, in- 
eluding great quantities of rice. European fruits, such as apples, pears, 
apricots, plums, peaches, etc., are produced in great qiumtities, as well 
as excellent grapes, from which vast quantities of wine are made ; for 
the J^lush-Varis, although professing Muhammadanism, are, like their 
neighbours, the Si'iih-posh K&firs, and the people of Gilgitt, notorious 
for their wine^bibbing propensities. 

The herds and flocks, particularly the latter, constitute the chief 
wealth of the inhabitants of ^ash-kir and the neighbouring petty 
states, and for which they have been celebrated from remote anti- 
quity.§ 



. • Flint, XI. O. 82 and S8. 

t Bakhtrft and tbe regions betnireen ike Indian Cancastui and the Indus wen 
included in the Assyrian empire. 
. X Foster, De Bysso Antiq. p. 16. 

§ ** In the mountains also of northern India, the district of Belnr (Bflaoria- 
ULn), or vicinity of Gashmire, were found then, as at present, large flocks of 
■heep which oonatitnted the wealth of the inhabitants." CnsiAS : XIII, 22^ 



Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1864.] An AeeoufU of Upper KasK-kdr, 136 

There is no fixed rate of taxation in either of the two stateo ; some- 
times a fifth or a fourth of the produce is levied ; but, at times, as 
much as one half has been collected. 

Trade is chiefly carried on by means of barter, money being very 



The language of both Upper and Lower £[&ih-V^r contains a great 
proportion of Persian words. This, however, is no matter of surprise, 
when we consider that these countries formed a portion of the exten- 
sive empire of the Persians. The people are said to express themselves 
with much circumlocution. 

The Venetian traveller, Marco Polo, appears to have visited J^^h- 
kir, which he thus briefly describes. ^ At length you reach a place 
called Slish-l^iir. The province is extensive, and contains many towns 
and castles, of which jj^&ah-l^dr is the largest and most important*** 
Besides the Muhammadans, there are amongst the inhabitants several 
Nestorian Christians.*' The matter of the Nestorians is a somewhat 
difficult one to solve. The Si'^-posh tribes, inhabiting a portion of 
the valley of the I^Ash-l^dr river, may probably be the people he refer- 
red to ; and whom, differing widely in manners and customs from the 
Muhammadans of those parts, he, without due inquiry, and chiefly, 
if not solely, on native report, may have fondly ooncluded to be 
Christiaiis. 



IlTDSPEVBEVT AfGhIiT StaTES. 

The petty states at present held by the powerful and numerous 
Afghin tribe of Yiisufzi, the most turbulent, and the most independ* 
ent of the Afgh^ dans, who have reduced the <»iginal inhabitants of 
these countries to a state of vassalage since their exodus from K6bul 
in the reign of Mirsd Ulagh Beg, grandson of Tlmdr (the account of 
Herodotus and the ILucrvcs of the Pes'hiiwar oracle notwithstanding) 
in which they themselves reign in feudal turbulency — consist of Panj- 
korah, including that part of the *' 8ama^h* — ^above the junction of 
the Panj-korah river with the river of Suwit, called the district of 
Talash ; 8uw^ ; Buner ; and Chumlah ; the whole lying to the north 
of the British possessions, part of which includes the south«>westem 
portion of the Samali, lying nearest to the left bank of the Lan<)4aBy 
or Panj-korah river. I have given a description of the valley of 
* A PiiB*hto word signifTing " a plain," 

Digiti^d 3/ Google 



186 An Account of Upper Kdsk-k^. [No. 2, 

Suw&t, in a late number of the Journal. The other two diatrictB are, 
oomparatively, little known. 

PAlfJ-KOSAH. 

Panj*korah, a oomponnd word, signifying ^ five houses or dans," 
from the Persian " panj;' " live," and the Pus*hto, " kor," « a house, 
elan, tribe, etc.," is so called from the five cbms of the Mali*zi sab* 
diyision of the great Afjghan tribe of Tdsuf-zi, which originally peopled 
it, afber the conquest of those parts, north of the Kibul river, by th» 
Afghans about the beginning of the sixteenth century. Those clana 
were, Pil*fndah Khel, Poshah Ehel, Sarandi Khel, Sulf^ Khel, and 
Pft'i Khel. At present there is a slight difference^ from the f«et <^ 
other clans having sprung up, during the ooune of so many years. 

Panj-korah is the most important, and most considerable of theae 
minor independent Afgh^ states, lying almost immediately under th« 
southern slopes of Hindu Kush. It runs in a north-east and south* 
west direction ; is of oblong form, being about ninety-five miles in 
length, from north to south ; and forty-eight ftom east to west* It is 
* 'bounded, north by the two ^^sh-Vars; south by Tal*&sh, and the 
Pes'hiwar district ; north-*east by Bilauxistan, Qilgitt* and other little 
known principalities towards the upper sources of the Indus ; south* 
east by the Suw^t valley ; west by Kafiristftn ; and south-west by 
Baj-^wf-f , a district belonging to the Tar«koldni tribe of Afs^idmL It 
is surrounded on all sides, and ia crossed in various directions, by lofty 
hills, inclosing as many valleys throng which the principal rivers 
flow, fed by numerous smaller mountain streama. The hills are dothed 
with dense forests of fir, pine, oak, wild olive, and other trees indige« 
nous to these alpine regions. 

The principal rivers, that intersect Panj-korah like the ramificationf 
of a leaf, are, the Lahori — ^also called the IMr river (rising on the 
southern face of the Lis-piir mountains separating it from ^ish-^, 
and giving name to the pass leading into the latter eoimtry, the road 
winding along its banks) which flows nearly due south, passing the 
to>\-n of IMr, the residence of the ruler, for about twenty miles. It ia 
then joined by the Tal from the north*east, which takes its rise in 
the hills bounding Yaain to the west. This stream has the. longest 
course, and its Pus'hto name, signifying " always,*' ** ever," " per- 
petually,*' etc., may refer to the fact of its never becoming dry, aa 
some of the smaller nvors are liable to become in the winter months 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1861] An Aeeamt of Upper ^h^kdr. 137 

The other stareams in sacoeasioD are, the U-sheri, whose voliUBe is the 
most considerable of the Panj«korah rivers, and the Ktoih, both of 
idiieh mn in an almost parallel direction to tlie Tal, with interrals of 
from twehre to twenty miles from each other ; and the Birikh-wol firom 
tilie Dorth-weai, whose source is in the lofty hilis held by the 8i'^-poah 
Eifizs, separating the valley of the ]^&idk-kir or Chegh&n-sar6e river 
from the Panj-korah district. All these (except the Birdh-wol) nnita 
near the village of Babdt, and after flowing south for about another 
iventy milea, under the names of Fionj-korah, Usheri, and Mslizi 
nver, receives the small rivets of Bib4 Elarah, Jand^wal^ and Bdj* 
iwiT from, the north-west, which, alter watering the small valleya 
l«aring ihoee names^ unite with the Bir^-wol river before they fall 
into Uie main stream in the district of T&l^ush. About twenty-six 
miks farther south, the Panj-korah river receives, near the village of 
Kkwadarzf, the river of Suwtt — ^the supposed Suastus of the aneienta 
~a stream of great n^idity in many places, and of considerable 
kngth and volume — ^firom the north-east. It rises in the hills bound* 
ing GHlgitt on. the west, and runs, for some distance, nearly parallek 
to the other streams on the same side.* The united waters now 
beeome a dear, deep, and rapid river, known as the '* Laadjaey Bind,*' 
in Pus'hto signifying '* The Little" or " Lesser Biver" (in reference 
to the Lidos, which is called the " Ab6 Sind," or <' Father of Bivers," 
ia this part of its course), which, lower down, near the village of Abi- 
si, teparatea into several braaches, which at Hasht-nagar, in the Do* 
ibah of the Pes'hiwar district, again unite, and, at length, disem- 
bogoes into the river of K4bul, near the village of Noh-satah, about 
forty-five xnilea from its junction with the Suw&t. The Panj-korah or 
Laa^^^ey river is supposed to be the Guxsbus of the daasical authors^ 
sod is the most considerable river of these regions after the K Aul. 

The Panj-korah district slopes down considerably from north to 
wath ; hence the rapidity of the rivers, the main streams of which, 
in the summer months, increase so much in volume and rapidity on 
tile melting of the snows, as to beeome impassable altogether, except 
by means of rafts, and even then, with considerable difficulty and 
danger. The Lahori, or Dir, becomes dry in the winter months ; and 
tiks other lesser rivers, or hhwufpt^ as they are termed in the Afgk^ 

• See my *• Aooonnt of Suwit," in the Journal for 1862, page 227, in which 
•n acoonnt of the upper sources of the 8awit river will be found. 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



138 An Account of Upper Kdsh-^, [No. 2, 

tongue, viz. the Bir&hwol, the Tal, the K^bah, and the 6i]-6wrr river 
and its feeders, are generally fordable at that season. 

The whole of these streams give names to as many darahg — ^long, 
narrow, fertile, and pleasant valleys, inclosed by ranges of lofty hills 
running in a parallel direction to each other, which are again inter- 
sected, in opposite directions, by hills less lofty, and valleys still 
smaller, each of which has its own little stream, acting aa a feeder to 
the larger ones, and generally its village or small hamlet. 

In the winter months, the hills are covered with snow half way 
down their sides ; and in the valleys also, as far soath as Dir, snow 
falls in considerable quantities, and Hes on the ground for many days, 
and sometimes even, for weeks together. Lower down, they have 
copious showers of rain in the winter season. 

The whole of these valleys, as well as the extensive level tract 
known as the *' Sama'h," (except some parts of the latter, which ap« 
proach the Merra% or Desert) are fertile, and the land is carefully 
cultivated. It produces an abundance of grain, chiefly wheat and 
barley ; but ju^dr (Holcus sorgum), and hdjrd (Holcus spicatus), are 
produced in smaller quantities. 

The other principal productions are, cotton to a small extent, suf- 
ficient for home consumption ; tobacco, and suga^-cane, which are 
grown in the more southerly parts. Most agricultural produce is 
exceedingly cheap, and is calculated to be eight times more so than 
at K6buL When at the dearest, eight K&bul tirs of wheat— equal to 
about 88 lbs. English — sell for one r^ee or two shillings. 

Many European fruits are also produced in considerable quantities 
and some wild, but of no great variety. The former consist, chiefly, 
of apples, pears, and a sort of plum. The hills and valleys, in many 
places, are also clothed with several sorts of wild flowers, indigenous 
to theise northern climates. 

The land, in the more elevated parts, depends solely on rain for 
moisture ; but in the valleys, the irrigation is artificial wherever the 
water of the numerous streams can be conducted. The chief harvest 
is the hhwrifox autumn ; and but little com is sown m the spring 
months. 

The northern part of Panj-korah, where the climate is severe, is 
somewhat thinly inhabited; but towards the south the country is 
densely populated. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1864.] An AeeoutU of Upper Kdah-kdr. 139 

The people, who depend chiefly upon tilla^ for fluhsistenoe, also 
pooD c o a nmnerou9 herds of cows and oxen, goatg, and hnf&ioes. Sheep 
are met with in great numbers, and never reach a higher price than 
three rupee*, or six shillings. Lately, I find, they haye been brought 
to Pes'hdwar for sale, in considerable numbers. A good bafBcJo can 
be purchased for from twelve to twenty rttpees ; but cows constitute 
their chief wealth. Loads are mostly carried on the backs of oxen 
and asses. Notwithstanding that fodder is abundant, horses and mules 
are by no means common ; but some few of the former animals are 
kept for military purposes. Camels are seldom seen in the country. 

One-tenth of the agricultural produce is received by the ruler. 
Cattle are not subject to any tax ; but a capitation, or house tax is 
levied on each house at the yearly rate of three rttpees. 

The rupee in general currency throughout the country peopled by 
the Tdsufzis, is the old Herdt coin, worth about twenty-five per cent 
leas than the East India Company's rupee^ which is also in drculationy 
since the annexation of the Panjab, to a limited extent. 

From the bounds of the village of Panj-korah to that of ITshfrf, 
grain is sold by weight \ but beyond, a measure, called oo-gaH in 
PosHito, is used instead. The dr of Panj-korah is one-fifth less in 
weight than that of Kabul \ and the ao-gaH is equal to three quarters 
of the Panj-korah sir. 

The present* prices for articles of general consumption are at the 
following rates: — ^Wheat, seven Panj-korah eirs the rupee; barley 
eight mres shali or unhusked rice, eight eirs ; ju^dr, seven etre; 
salt, brought from Pes'hawar, six drs ; roglum or clarified butter, one 
^ ; ^v**) coarse sugar, brought from Pes'hawar and Jelilabdd, one evr 
and quarter ; honey, one eir and a quarter ; cotton, five-eighths of a 
dr — about eighteen ounces English ; iron three eirs ; kddi—i^e 
eoarsest description of cotton doth — eight Lam-ghdn yards. 

A few articles, the produce of Hinddstdn, are imported ; but the 
chief imports, which consist of articles of apparel and clothing of 
various descriptions, and a little indigo, are brought from Pes'hawar 
by the traders of that city and district, numbers of whom visit the 
country, and take back in exchange, iron, honey, and roghan or clari^ 
fied butter. 

* Thia paper was written a few yoan since : the prices may have therefoi^ 
Altered, and allowanoe for any erron must be made accordingly. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



140 An Aeamtd of Upper Kdtk-hi&r. [No. 2, 

There are a number of iron mines throughout Panj-korah, from 
which all the neighbouring coimtries are supplied. Some are situated 
in the Las-ptir mountains, and in the neighbouring hills of Birfth-wol, 
but the most extensive mines are in the Aw-shfri and lSJkn)i darah*. 
In fact the whole of the Panj-korah district teems with iron and 
galena (called mMrmah or black antimony by the Afghans), and there 
is no doubt but that it contains other even more valuable minerals. 

Great quantities of yellow soap are made from the fat of sheep and 
goats, at the village of GKina-tir, where all the houses, with but few 
exceptions, are provided with oil-presses and machines for boiling the 
soap, which sells at the rate of five sirn the rupee. This village sup* 
plies the whole of the surrounding hill countries with this necessary. 
It is held in great estimation as being free from adulteration with 
jd^ar flour and the like ; and is pure £Kt and potash* 

There is a considerable trade carried on between the districts to the 
south-east and west, as well as with Badakhshiin, ]g[^sh-V^, Yfirkand, 
and other places in Chinese Tdrkistto, by menns of kdfilahi or cara^ 
vans. The route to the latter countries is through the Lahori Pass, 
near the town of D(r, where the chief of Panj-korah resides ; and 
where he imposes a small tax or transit duty on merchandize. Tra- 
▼ellen and traders are treated with great kindness and hospitality 
throughout the Panj-korah district ; and with the exception of the 
independent tribes of the Sf'^-posh K&firs (who are not subject to 
the ruler of Lower Ij^^sh-^) who, at times, infest the Lahorf Passy 
the roads are safe, and the honesty of the people is so great, that the 
trader may generally penetrate into the remotest valleys, and in the 
hilly tracts, without danger of being molested by thieves or robbers. 

The darahs, or valleys to the east of the main stream of the Panj' 
korah river, which divides the district from north to souths together 
with the names of the villages, clans occupying them, and names of 
their Kad-khtddt or head-men, are as follow. 

Shakolact Dasah. 



raiage. 


Clan. 


Chieft or Head-men 


Karah, 


Shdhf-Khel, 


Zardid Khin. 


Deh Hardn, 


Shahi-Khel, 


Masesiim Kh^. 


Eot-kiy 


Shahi-Khel, 


Hyder Khin* 

Digitized by Google 



1864.] An Account of Upper ^h-kdr. 141 



r%a»ge. 


Clan. 


(7Attf/» iw Kead-mm. 


Kari, 


P£-indah-Ehel, 


SaaBd-ullah Khin, brother 
of the Chief of Panj- 
korah. 


Shakolaey, 


Nfiiah-Khel, 


Aiydb Khfin. 




T{udB-EALA.H DA.BA.H. 


Tim4ir kalah. 


Ntirah-Khd, 


Sirdfc- Kh4n. 


Ehdn Koh, 


W » 


MohBan, and Ghafflir* 


Dan-wah, 


Akhtind Kheli 




Char-pirah, 


Naai^ud-Din Khel, 


Muhammad Ehdn. 


Shahr, 


»» W )l 


Sarwar Mi-dn. 



MUn-mindah S^ib-zddahs, or descendants of some holy man. 

BABiT^-I-MuHAMlCAD EhaIT DaBAH. 

Sun-H, Pd-indah Khel, Qui Kh&n. 

Bab&t, Nasr-ud-din Ehel, Mahabbat Kh&a. 

Kinj-Iah, Mi-dn Khel, Aka S^ib. 

Klw-Ni Dabah. 
This dmrdk containB only one Tillage, napted Dilkhih, but there is a 
number of small hdn^aht or hamlets, some of which do not contain 
more than a few £Eimilie8. This valley contains altogether about a 
tiionsand houses. The people are Fa-fndah Khels, and the. headman 
fixr the whole is nominated by Ghazan Khan, the chief of Panj-korah. 

MAI/AH-SA2!rD DaSAH. 

This darah is held by people of different clans. The hamlets are 
rery small, and the whole darah may contain about eleven hundred 
houses. 

TdBMANG DaBAH. 

Akhkrtoi, Fa-£ndah Khel, 8uyed Bahmin. 

Biid-ba, „ „ Sher JEaU Khin. 

There are also several other smaller villages or hamlets containing 
a few families. 

KXbt$ Dabah. 

This darah is inhabited chiefly by families descended from the ori- 
ginal inhabitants of the country, who live in a state of vassalage to 
their Afghan conquerors. Tliere are also a few Yiisufzfs residing in it, 
belonging to the clans already mentioned. 

* Arabic for a caravansar&e. 

Digitized¥y Google 



142 



Village. 



An Account of Upper Kdsh-kdr, [No. 2, 

Chiefs or Meai-mm. 





Na-hIk Dabah. 


NaMk, 


Pa-indah Khel, 


Chirfigh Sbdb. 


Wto^ey, 


»> n 


Bizde. 


Izgh&ncb, 


Gudaey Khel, 


AUab Y& Kbfo. 


Ddrojnah, 


Sult^ Kbel, 


Suyed Amir. 




IT-SHEBf Dabah. 


IT-shen, 


Sultfin Khel, 


K&s(, iQabd-ur-Babm6D. 


Jabar, 


>i »> 


99 99 


Kandi-kdr, 


Mi-fin Khel, 


Saiyid Adam. 


Kdzan, 


» » 


99 99 


Bibi Yawarah, 


Pii-indah Khel, 


JEabd-ullab Kb6n. 


MlrAl-mds, 


» » 


Zarif Kh6n. 


Tar-pah-tar, 


» W 


Hajtim Kh&n. 




BaE (UpPEE) U-SHEEf Daeah. 


Bar U-sheri, 


PA-fndah Khel, 


Anwar Shdh Khin. 


Danriahzir, 


19 » 


Ahmad Khdn. 


Paldm, 


» » 


Fazal Sh^. 


Sam-kott, 


99 9) 


Sher-i-Zam£n. 


Bdtil, 


Mi-^ Khel, or de- 


Khair-nllah Mi-&i. 


Bar-kand, 


scendants of 


Karim Ddd, a direct de* 




Akhund Darwe- 


scendant of the celebrat-' 




zah,andhisfamilj, 


ed Akhtind Darwezah, 
author of the Makhaaa 
Pufl'bto.* 


Kor-koaey, 


99 >9 '^ 


1 


N^ht-dmal, 


1 

99 99 j 


\ Mi-in Nazim. 


HaWbi. 


1 
99 99 ^ 


) 


Kaman-gar, 


Nurab Khel, 


Haslb. 



This last mentioned village derives its name, signifying, in the 
Persian language, " Bow-maker," from the fact of the first inhabitants 
having been makers of that weapon, for which their descendants are 
still celebrated, 

Zaeah-Khel Daeah. 

This valley contains a number of small hamlets having but few 
inhabitants. The head-man is appointed by Ghazan Kh£n, the chief. 

* For aooonnt of his writmgs, see my Pns'hto Grammar. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1861 An Account of Upper Kdgh-lk&r. 14Q 

DbIl Dasah. 

This valley is very secluded^ being inclosed on all sides by lofty 
hills ; and the hamlets are very small. The people pay a small tax to 
Ghazan Khan. 

The following darahs and villages are situated to the west of the 
Panj-korah river. 

HiRAK0 Darah. 

This valley contains a number of small hamlets, many of which are 
now in ruins and deserted. The zidrat or shrine of a saint, named 
Ghiizi Sahib, is situated in this darah, 

Sh^e Dabah. 

The river of Bijiwyi*, which rises in the hills to the west of Panj- 
korah, flows through this darah from west to east ; and after receiving 
the Jandawul and B&ba Karah rivers, from the valleys bearing those 
names, joins the BirahwoL The darah of Birahwol, through which 
the last named river flows, before entering the darah of Shiih, lies 
higher up, and will be noticed in its proper place. 

There are numerous small villages on both sides of the river, in this 
valley, the whole of which have numerous gardens aDd orchards. 
Ghazan Khan of Dir, the chief, appoints the head-man. 

BahI Kabah Dabah. 
This valley contains small hamlets only. The people were formerly 
independent, and were under a chief or head-man of their own, named 
Aslam Khim ; but several years since it became dependent on Ghazan 
Khto, who appoints a head-man of his own. 

BibXhwol Dabah. 
The chief place in this valley is Birihwol, hence its name, and that 
of its river. It is the residence of a petty independent chief, named 
Mohammad ^alf Khdn, of the Afgh&n tribe of Tarkoldnl, which 
possesses B^jawfi* ; and, therefore, although included in Panj-korah, it 
can scarcely be deemed a dependency of it, as the chief pays no tri- 
bute to Ghazan Khfin. There are several iron mines in this valley, 
which have been worked for centuries past. There are also several 
hamlets, but they are small in size. 

MaIdak Dabah. 
The only village of any size, contained in this darah^ is Khemah, 
inhabited by Shihi Khels, of whom Birdn is the head-man. There 

u 2 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



144 An Aceomt of Upper l^dsk-kdr. [No. 2, 

are, however, numeroug small hamlets. The people have the name of 
heing the only rohbers in the district of P«ij-k;orah, which may be 
accounted for, in some measure, from the fact of this valley being the 
most difficult of access in the whole district. 

Panj-koeah Dabah. 

Bar (upper) Panj-korah, Sult^ Khel, Sher ^ali. 

Kiiz (lower) Panj-korah^ „ „ Pagul. 

Vi^-iWj n „ Mardiln. 

Dir, the residence of the chief. 

Dir, the capital of the Panj-korah district, contains about two hundred 
houses, not including the citadel, and some twelve hundred inhabit- 
ants. It is protected by a considerable fortress or citadel, situated on 
a high mound or eminence, a spur from the Lds-ptir mountams. The 
walls, which are substantially built of mud and stone, are about four 
hundred yards long, three hundred in breadth, and twelve yards in 
height; and are flanked by four towers or bastions. Within the 
citadel, which is kept in excellent repair, there is a large mosque, 
besides several other buildings, including the residence of the chief 
Ghazan Khin, and his numerous family, together with his inmiediate 
followers, constituting his standing army, the whole of whom, with 
their families, amount to aboub two thousand five hundred people.* 

There are, in this, as in the other valleys, numerous small hamlets. 

SHAMds-GAB Dabah. 

Shamiir-gar, Pa-indah BIhel, 

Khir, „ „ Allah Ydr Kh6n. 

Amldk-nir, The people are the descendants of the aboriginal 

Jabalak, inhabitants of the country, and called by the 

Ytisufzid rtuByaU (vassals) and fakirs (villains). 

The two nnaller darahs of TAjaliSKi and Ddnsi are contiguoiis to 
this vaUey, and open into it. They contain a few hamlets. 

The other chief places in the Panj-korah Darah, are Ghundi,t 
Chakyfi-tan, Arottah Sin, and Panah-kut. 

* BXbaa oalls this place Panj-korah, probably as it was the capital of the 
district. He notices it as follows. " Fanj-korah lies a little above the middle 
of the slope of the hill. It ia necessary, for nearly a hos, to dimb np, laying 
hold of the ground." Mimoibs, pp. 250. 

t Bignifyiog^ in Pus'hto, a detached hill. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



1804^.] An Account of Upper S:dsh'k6r. 145 

The chief bdedr, or market towns, or marts of trade in the district 
are, I)ir, Bir6h-wol, Sam*-khdl, and LVarrt-khdl. 

There are three other dardhs dependent on Dir, or the Panj-korah 
Darah, tIz. IBlXsH-KiBf, so called from leading into J^dsh-k&r hj the 
Lahori Pass ; Do-BTTirDf , hy the other Pass through which l^^h-k^r 
may be reached in two stages ; and KahIb. They all three contain 
some small hamlets at considerable distances from each other. 

From the Maidan Darah towards the west, there is a route leading 
into Bajawn* ; and another from the Bir&h-wol Darah, in the same 
direction. There are also two principal routes into Suwdt from the 
Panj-korah district ; one through the U-sheri, and the other through 
the Karu Darah. Proceeding south from the villages of Timtir-kalah 
and Kat^kalah, and passing through the small district of Taldsh (a 
short account of which will be found further on), the main road leads 
hy Hashtnagar to Pes'hdwar. It is good, and clear of obstruction, 
and is the only one by which guns could be taken into Panj-korah. 
8uitan Muhammad Khan, Barakzi, the brother of Dost Muhammad 
Khan of Kabul (a person who is likely to cause us some trouble ere 
long, when the Dost shall have been gathered to his fathers), entered 
tiie Panj-korah district by this road, several times, whilst he was in 
possession of Pes'hdwar. 

Ghazan Kh&n of Panj-korah is the most powerful chief amongst 
the whole of the Yusufzis, whether Ytkuf or Mandar ; and by his 
great abilities and foresight, has rendered himself, for many years past, 
respected by all the other princes and chieftains of these parts. He 
is on friendly terms with the chief of Bdjdwrf ; and is in alliance 
with the rulers of Chitr&l and Upper KiLsh-k&r. He is the son of 
^ibim Khin, mentioned by Elphinstone in his account of the kingdom 
of Kabul, son of Zafar Kh&n, son of Ghulam Khan, son of Akhtiud 
Ilyas ; and belongs to, and is the chief of, the Pa-indah Khel branch 
of the YAsufzi tribe, which is also known as the " Akhimd JSTor," 
lignifying, in the Pus'hto language, " The Teacher's family or house.'* 
At the time these notes were made, three years since, Ghazan Khdn 
was about seventy years of l^^e, and has since probably died ; but I 
have not heard of his decease. 

The following tradition concerning the foundation of the family of 



• Sam, level, flat. 

t li* warr> high, lofty, etc. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



14G An Account of Upper ^Ash-kdr. [No. 2, 

Akhtind Iljas, who lived in the reign of the Mughal Emperor 
Aurangzeb, is related by the people of those parts : — Akhtind Hy^s, a 
Darwesh and God-fearing man, was blessed with two sons — ^Aiytib and 
Ismteil. The former who was the elder brother, had- occasion, one 
day, to give some admonition to the younger, which the latter was not 
inclined to listen to in future, so he left the paternal roof in disgust, 
and proceeded to Kabul ; and although of tender years only, he suc- 
ceeded in obtaining service with the Governor of that province. Here 
his cleverness and great talents attracted his master's notice ; and he 
was advanced from one post to another, imtil, such was the confidence 
placed in him, he was admitted within the Haram-sarde, — ^the moat 
private apartments. 

One day, the Governor, who appears to have been, himself, under 
petticoat-government, had a dispute with his wife, which ended in her 
beating the ruler of the province with one of her slippers. AiyCib 
happened to be present on that occasion ; and it tended, in no small 
degree, to add to the shame of his master, consequent on such an 
exposure. In order to comfort the Governor, if possible, and soothe 
his irritated feelings, Aiydb remarked, that the women of all countries 
are naturally violent in temper, as well as tyrannical in disposition ; 
and, that in his own country they were more violent still, and had 
even been known to take the lives of their husbands. He therefore 
begged his master to take no further notice of his wife's behaviour, 
but to serve her after the same fashion in future, should she indulge 
in such fits of violence. 

After this untoward occurrence, however, the Governor, fearing, no 
doubt, lest the matter might leak out, and that he should, conse- 
quently, become a laughing-stock amongst the people, took care to 
treat Aiytib with great consideration, and never to be angry with him ; 
in fact, he let him have his own way entirely. He accordingly rose 
in his master's favour more than ever, particidarly when, after inqui- 
ries, he found that Aiytib had faithfully kept his secret. 

Aiydb at length became desirous of revisiting his home and friends ; 
and he was dismissed by the Governor of £4bul, with great honour, 
and loaded with presents, both in money and goods. 

There bemg no mechanics or artizans in his own country, Aiydb 
obtained permission from the Governor to take along with him from 
Kfibul, a carpenter, a mason, a goldsmith, and a huntsman, togeth^ 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



186^.] An AeeourU ^rf Upper Kdsk-kdr. 147 

vitii ih^ families, who settled in Panj-korah. Their children followed 
the Docupations of their fathers, and their descendants are now a con- 
siderable community, much respected in the country. These people 
are known as fakirs, a name also home by the aboriginals of those 
parts, subject to the Yiisufzi Afghans. 

Aiydb was also attended by a number of other followers; and 
shortly after he reached home, Akhdnd Ilyds, his father, who was still 
alire, called his two sons into his presence and said mito them : ** Out 
of the goods of this world, I have but two things to bequeath — my 
sword, and my kachkoT^ (a wooden bowl, or a gourd, in which a Dar- 
wesh receives alms) : '^ take your choice of them." Ism^aeil, the elder 
brother, chose the kaehkol, and Aiytib the sword; and soon after, 
Akhdnd lljis, who had attained a great age, was gathered to his 
fathers. The children of Ismiisil practise austerity ; and are seekers 
after " the truth"* unto this day. They have the credit of being very 
learned* Aiyflb, who kept up a small number of soldiers, at length, 
obtained the title of Kh^ amongst his countrymen, and acquired 
oonsiderable power, which increased Irom generation to generation, up 
to the time ot f^asim Khan, father of Ghazan Khdn, the present chief, 
whose rule extended over twelve thousand families of the Yusufzi tribe. 

K^im Kh^ was the father of three sons — ^Azad, Ghazan, and 
SasBd-ullah — ^by three several Ydsufzi mothers, each of different clans. 
AsMf the eldest, by some untoward and unfortunate chance, became 
the slayer of his father ; and some time subsequently, was, in like 
manner, slain by the youngest brother Sased-ullah, in retaliation. 
These events occurred during the short and stormy reign of Sh4h 
Mahmdd, (son of Timdr Shdh, and consequently brother of the unfor- 
tunates, Shdh-i-Zaman and Sh6h Shdj^ls&-ul-mulk), over the kingdom 
of Kabul, about the commencement of the present century. 

Ghazan Kh&n was possessed of prudence and foresight in no small 
d^^ree. He also had great wealth ; and succeeded, by degrees, in 
gaining over the people to his side ; and with the support and assist- 
ance of the late Shldi Kafor of Chitrdl, or Lower Kdsh-lfi&r, he was 
acknowledged as the chief of his tribe, aod ruler of the whole country 
of Panj-korah. The former friendship with the late, has been con- 
tinued with the present, ruler of Chitrfl — ^Tajammul Sh^ son of 
Shah Kafor. Ghazan Khto, however, is at enmity with his younger 
• SttlT-ism : see my ** Selections r&OM the Poetry or the AroiiiNS." 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



148 An Account of Upper K6sh-kAr. [No. 2, 

brother Sased-ullah, who still continues at the head of some four thoa«> 
sand families. In the month of Muharram^ in the year 1839, during 
our occupation of Afgh&nistin, some cause of dispute having arisen 
between them, they assembled their followers, and Ghazan Khan 
advanced against his brother ; but the forces separated afber a slight 
skirmish, in which from twenty to thirty of their people were killed 
and wounded. 

The Panj-korah chieftain was on friendly terms with the late 
Government of Lahore, during the time of Maharaj4 Banjft and 
Maharaja Sher Singh ; and they were in the frequent habit of sending 
presents to each other. In 1839, when it was the policy of the late 
Bai^ft Singh to conciliate the Panj-korah chief, he sent him amongst 
other valuable presents, a fine elephant ; in return for which Ghazan 
Kh^ sent the Mah^r£jd several fine Kohistdni horses, and some other 
rarities, through Sultan Muhammad Kh&n, Btoikzi, who then held 
Pes'hawar of the Seikh ruler. During the time that liie Neapolitan 
Avitabile was Governor of Pes'hdv^ar for the Lahore Government, 
the chief of Panj-korah used to send him Chitrdl slave-girls for 
his seraglio, besides male slaves, from the hill countries in his 
neighbourhood. 

The regular paid troops of Ghazan E[h&n do not exceed two hun- 
dred men ; but the Uliisi or militia, or feudal retainers, amount to 
above ten thousand matchlock men \ and they can be assembled on 
very short warning. 

The chief subordinates of Ghaflutn Ehin, or his ministers as they 
are termed, are, his son B6hmat-ullah Ehfin, Suyed M(r ^alim, '^ixi 
^abd-m'-Bahm&n, of the P6-fndah Khel, aud ^abd-ul-Kidir, who 
was formerly a slave, but has now become the N6zir of income and 
expenditure. 

It now remains to say a few words respecting the BcumfoU or 
Faktrs, who are much more numerous than the Yusufzis themselves. 
The greater part of them are the descendants of the aboriginal inha- 
bitants whom the Afghans found there when they conquered those 
parts at the end of the and beginning of the fifteenth century. They 
are also called Suwiltis, and Dcg^s ; and are, with the Shalm&nis and 
other tribes, such as Hindkis, Awins, Par^chahs and others, the 
original people of these parts. It is strange that those who say so 
much about Herodotus, and the Hoictvcs, who they contend are the 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1864.] Au Account of Upper Kdsh-kdr. 149 

Afghans, do not first provide for these people, who were in those 
GOimtries when the Afghans conquered them, and had heen there cen- 
tniies previously. As I said before, the greater part of those people. 
now to be found in the country held by the Yiisufzis, are called Suwa- 
tis» and are the descendants of those who remained in their cduntry* 
after it was conquered ; a goodly number of Degans ; some Hindkis, 
who have emigrated from the Panjab ; a few Kashmiris, and Hindii?, 
who are attracted by the desire of gain ; and some members of other 
A£ghin tribes who have been obliged to fly from their own people, and 
who thereby have become degraded to the rank of the Fakirs and 
JBa^pyaU, The Fakirs cannot hold land, and are not considered equal 
to their conquerors, who live like Spartans among Helots ; and they 
are not allowed to be present at Jirgdhs or assemblies of the clans. 
They are subject to the person on whose land they dwell, who is styled 
the Khdwind or master. Tliey pay him a small tax and are obliged to 
work for him gratis, for certain periods, like the villains iti our own 
country in days gone by. The master can beat, or even take the life 
of his Raatfots or Fakirs, without being questioned for it. But, at 
the same time, they are sure of every protection from their Khdwind, 
who would not, at the risk of his life, permit any other person to 
injure them. They may pursue any trade, work as labourers for their 
own advantage, or rent Land as a Bazgar, and their master would have 
no demand upon them but for the iixed rent, a few taxes, and a certain 
share of their labour, as already mentioned ; and, altogether, they are 
mildly treated. The Khdwind is deterred from ill-treating his Fakirs 
from the disgrace attached to oppression by the Ydsufzis, as well as 
the other A%han tribes ; and, moreover, a Fakir or Baagat, if op- 
pressed can remove to the lands of another Afghan, who would gladly 
receive, and g^ve him protection, for there is a great competition f«ir 
them. The number of clans and independent communities among the 
Afghans are a great protection to these people ; and should one of 
them receive any deadly injury requiring retaliation, he could revenge 
himself on his oppressor, and afterwards fly to another clan, or inde- 
pendent community, and demand protection, which would always be 
freely granted. 

The Khdwind is not permitted to extort money from his Fakir ; 
but he is allowed to levy a few fines, such as, on the settlement of a 
* I ihaU return to the 8abjec£ of the Snwitis in a future paper. 

Digitized b^GoOgle 



160 An Account of Ujoper ^dah-kAr. [No. 2, 

Fakir upon his land, on a marriage among them, and on account of 
crimes, hoth of minor and more serious consequence. The amomit of 
these fines are fixed by custom, and any attempt to extort more would 
be oonndered gross oppression. They are not forbidden to carry arms, 
but rarely do so. 

Most of these people work as husbandmen, but some feed herds of 
cattle on the mountains, and some amass money by the profits of their 
labours as artizans ; for an Afghan considers any handicraft trade a 
disgrace. 

TiLlSH. 

Before brining this paper to a close, I must give some account of 
th» small district of Tdl&h, which is also held by the Ydsufzis, and is 
considered as a part of Panj-korah, of which it forms the southern 
portion. It consists of the oblong strip of land through which the 
river of Panj-korah flows, afber its junction with the river of BAj-Awix, 
as far as its junction with the Suwit. It is consequently bounded on 
the west by B^j-^wn*) and to the south by the hills held by the 
TJtmdn Eiiel, an independent tribe of Afgh^. Tildsh is well 
watered, and is, therefore, exceedingly fruitful, well cultivated, and 
very populous for its extent. It exports a good deal of grain to 
Pes'h^war, the main road between which, and Panj-korah, Badakh- 
shiin, and the two l^&sh-kirs, lies through it. 

The chief towns, or large villages of T&l&sh, with the names of the 
clans to which their inhabitants belong, and their head-men, are as 
follow. 

Village or Town. Clan. Chief or Head-man. 

B%h, Shahl Fhel, Ghuldm Shdh. 

Shamsi Khin, „ „ Afzal Khdn. 

Kambatta'f, „ „ „ „ 

Amliik Darah, Baaeyats or Fakirs, 

Mucho, Ntirah Khel, Ohazan EhAa. 

BAiord, fShfihi Khel and Sher Sh«i, and 

^ I Ndrah Khel, Afzal Kh^. 

The village of KamiLn-gar, the people of which are bow-makers by 
trade — ^hence the name of their village — is, sometimes, considered as 
belonging to the T&Ush district, but it is, properly speaking, in the 
U-sheri Darah of Panj-korah. It has been, therefore, mentioned among 
the villages of the Bar (upper) U-sheri Darah, already noticed. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



FlaUI. 



^ING FIGURE. 




Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Id64.^ JPi^ures of Deities and other Beligiaua D/woinffS, 151 

There are numerous small hamlets in T^sh, inhabited by people of 
the N6rah Khd, who constitute the most considerable number of its 
inhabitants. 

The district of Tfldsh is very rioh in monuments of antiquity, con- 
sisting of domes or cupolas, on the face of one of which, I am inform- 
ed, there are several tablets, half a yard long, and inscribed in an 
unknown character, said to be Yiin^ or Greek, but probably Pali. 
If Greek, the examination oi these ancient monuments would, no 
doubt, throw an extensive, and clearer, light on the proceedings of the 
Greeks in these quarters, which are so mixed up with nonsensical 
fables, as to furnish ready tools in the hands of those ignorant of 
the antecedents of the Afgh^ nation, for working out their own 
theories. 



On the Sjfstem employed in Outlining the Mgures of Deities and 
other Beligioua Drawings ^ as practised in Ladaky Zaskary Sfe, 

(Commimicafcnd by Gapt H. H. Godwin Austen, F. R. G. S., 2nd Akdst. G. T. 

Survey of India.) 

As I believe no notice has hitherto been tsdcen of the above subject, 
and as I only accidentally discovered its existence when in Zaskar 
hut summer (1862) I have been led to write a few lines regarding it ; 
trusting that they may prove of interest to some, and add to our 
knowledge of the history and customs connected with the ancient 
religion of the Buddhists. 1 do not claim any new discovery in this 
paper, as others may have observed the method of drawing long since. 
It has a resemblance to that adopted by ourselves in teaching Figure 
Drawing, and it was when shewing this to a native draftsman of 
Shilar, a viUage near Fadum, that he produced a sketch of a figure 
outlined as shewn in the accompanying plates, as also that of the 
•* Churtun" or " Offertory Temple." 

Tbe system of the first shews a great amount of ingenuity in its 
details, but is far more intricate than our simple way, where more is 
left to the talent of the artist. 

The Deity thus given as a specimen is Sakya Thubba, or Bhuddha. 

The first line laid down is the perpendicular AB, to which a line 
(No. 20) is drawn at right angles, and on either side of AB on this 
line are laid off from a scale proportions equal to 12, 4, 2, 8, and lines 
pwallel to AB drawn through these points. On the two outer lines, 

X 2 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



152 Figwre$ of Deities and other Beligiow Drawings, [No. 2, 

commencing «t the 20th, parts equal to 4, 4, 4, 12, 4, 12, 4, 8, 4, 4, 4, .^^ 
4, 4, 4, are laid off in the above succession, and the points connected • 
by lines which will be all parallel to the 1st (No. 20). The square 
for the face is similarlj formed by kying off irom the same scale parts 
6 and 2 on either side of X, the outer part 2 delineating the breadth 
of ears, and a part equal to 2 laid off on either side of Y defines that 
of the nose and mouth by lines drawn to X from those points. 

The mouth is placed half-way between 14 and 15, and its width, as 
well as that of the nose, is defined by the lines XEa and XFg. The 
arc of a circle described with a radius from centre of mouth to Ea or 
Ft defines the chin. The part between the lines 15 and 16 within the 
square DCEF is divided into four parts by horizontal lines, the 
lowest part (1) gives marking of nostrils, the third defines the eyes, 
the outer and inner comers of which are determined by lines drawn as 
in the accompanying plan. 

The eye-brows lie on 16, as also the top of the ear, the long lobe of 
which reaches to 14 on a level with the chin. A curve from Hs G% 
rising to J 8 defines the crown of the head ; the circular glory RST round 
which is described from O as a centre, between the eye-brows. A second 
glory (as it may be termed,) RK and LT is described round the body 
from the point P on line 7. These glories are in the paintings coloured 
differently. Lines from the intersection of I and 14, J and 14 to 
B form a triangle, and on 4, 5, 6 give the sides of the alms dish, rest- 
ing on the palm of the left hand. Another triangle being made with 
its angles at Y and the points on the line KL where the perpendiculars 
through J and 1 intersect it, the nipples of the breast lie on its two 
sides where they are intersected by line 10. A third triangle, apex at 
ABi7 to Ls Ks gives the slope of the thighs in a sitting posture, while 
again lines Is to J on KL, and Js to I on KL give direction of shin 
and instep to points of the great toes. On reference to the plates it 
will be seen that many other parts of the body are made to fall on the 
intersections of the different lines. 

These figures are seen in every monastery painted on both canvass 
and silk, the latter being generally brought from Llassa ; they are ofleu 
remarkable both for their richness of colouring and sharpness of outline. 
Many similar figures scratched on fiat stones are put as offerings on 
the Mani Walls and are to be seen all over the country, more espe- 
cially in Zaskar. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



r 



. 




[ 





























































^ 




"■ 




"■ 


"" 


T' 














































— 


1 




































" 






= 


t« 




± 


J 


_ 




_ 


- 


E 















LiA V^ K.M SnriA. S-anr- Geiui Offttf C^lmiia r»pril l8fl4- 



^-- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



r 



'Tmk0 



PLAN 
/rd?7rt Tiotu^i drimm^ of 

CHOORTUN, 

from XASKAR LADAKH. 




Litli \h ffM Smith. Surr Genii Offuf Cftlfoitanpril iBfi* 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 




3 



O 



< 
< 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



1864.] Figures of Deities and other Beligious Drawings. 153 

The similarity of their proportions and cast of countenances is 
striking, and most be attributable to the above described mechanical 
mode of laying out the figure, which may probably be used all over 
Thibet. 

I was unable to obtain copies of their many other deities, such as 
Chamba, Chandazik Grolma, (female), Chooshong, &c., but I imagine 
there is a like rule for drawing each ; I shall try and obtain further 
information regarding them next season. 

The drawing of the Chdrtiin (PI. III.) which I send is also taken 
from a native plan on which the measurements are given. I have 
entered the names of the different parts, which I find are not given 
in Cunningham's work on Ladak. The part called ' Chuksum' or 
' Chugsum Kolor' always has, as its name implies, 13 discs, Chugsum 
meaning thirteen ; — ^there is perhaps some reason lor it, for when I 
shewed Cunningham's XXVlllth Plate of a churtun to the Lhamas, 
they at onoe counted the number of discs and informed me that three 
had been left out. The letter in the centre is the syllable '* Hun*' 
which is brought into all the mantras repeated by the people. 

These Churtuus are picturesque buildings, and reminded me much 
of the Pagodas in Burmah on a small scale, for in Ladak they are 
rarely over 40 feet in height, and are generally very much smaller. 
The sides of the lower portion are often adorned by cleverly modelled 
work in relief, representing some imaginary animal, between a man 
and bird, or a sort of griffin, with a border of scroll-work. The 
upper portion, " Thoodkeb,'* in the better kind of churtun is made of 
metal, and I was told that in former times gilt churtuns were to be 
met with in the neighbourhood of the large monasteries or Qt)npahs, 
The churtun close under the palace at Leh is a good specimen and its 
name " Stunzin Nimi-gyal" is well known all over Ladak, so much so 
that a song has been written about it. At the monastery of Himis 
there is also a very pretty model, coloured white and ornamented with 
good gilt scroU-work, and inlaid with rough turquoises, carbuncles, 
agates, &e. There are a few more good ones in the same neighbour- 
hood, but during the Dogra conquest of the country, many of the best 
religious bmldings were destroyed, or more or less injured. 

When surveying in the neighbourhood of Padum in Zaskar, I dis- 
covered in a field near the monastery of Seni, several stone figures as 
shewn in the aecompunyiiig rough sketch (PI. IV.) They had been set 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



154 Figures of Deities and other Eeligiotts Drawings. [No. 2, 

up on a slight curve, and the highest standing in the centre was 
ahout 7\ it. high. Several had evidently disappeared, and with the 
exception of the two given on a larger scale (PL V.) they were very much 
worn and the features quite obliterated. I could obtain no information 
at the time as to what they were caUed. The Lhama with me from the 
monastery close by, called them Dekoo, said they were very very old 
and that no one knew who had made them. The head-dress was pecu- 
liar, nor have I seen it worn by any in that country at the present 
day. The smaller figure holds the Dorge or Sceptre, which points out 
that they are of Buddhist origin. They are probably very early, dating 
from when that religion was first introduced into Zaskar ; the rudeness 
and bad proportion of the figures display the handiwork of a people 
far behind the present race, who to all their drawings and modellings 
give a finish and exactness not usual even in the plains of India. I 
could discover no signs whatever of any inscription having been cut 
on either of the images, — ^the very worn state of the stone m\ist have 
obliterated it, had there ever been any. Their age I must leave to be 
settled by those who are versed in the history of the early Bhuddists, 
and who may have noticed the curious ends projecting on either side 
of the head in other sculptures of the same period. 



Note on a tank Section at Sealdah, Calcutta. — JB^f H. F. Blakfo&d, 
A, B. S. Jf., F. G. S. 

I am indebted to Mr. H. Leonard the Qovemment Superintending 
Engineer, and a member of this Society, for drawing my attention 
to a section exposed in the large tank now in course of excavation at 
Sealdah, and which seems to me of sufiicient interest to be recorded 
in the pages of the Society's Journal. The tank is situated to the 
East of the Circular Boad, between the termini of the Eastern 
Bengal and Mutlah Eailways, and has been excavated to a depth of 
30 feet below the normal surface of the ground, which is at that 
spot 14i feet above the level of the low spring tides in the neigh- 
bouring canal, and 17 feet above that of the lowest spring tides of 
the dry season in the Hoogly river.* The bottom of the tank is 
therefore 15i feet below the former, and 13 feet below ^the latter level, 

* These levels arc quoted from those given in the Report of the Municipal 
Engineer on the Main Drainage of Calcutta. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



tv 










Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



154 

up i 

abou 

exce] 

worn 

atth 

mon« 

and 1 

liar, 

day. 

that 

from . 

and 1 

far b( 

give: 

could 

on ei 

oblite 

settle 

and V 

oftht 



Note 

la 

Engii 
to a 8 
Sealdi 
in the 
Eafit 
'Bengi 
30 fe< 
spot 1 
bourir 
the d 
therefi 

Engine 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Plate. 1. 







Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



1864.] 



Note on a tank Section at Sealdah, 



155 



a point of some ioterest with reference to the evidence of former 
land surfaces which the section has disclosed. 
Sealdah, Calcutta. 



'Fine sand. 




a 
20 ft. 



b 
lit. 



Loam passing into hlue clay. 



Peat with tree stumps. 



irk A ) Clay with some sand and tree 
^^^'< stumps. 



15 ft. 



fXowest trees seen. 



Blue clvmch claj, with roots of 
trees. 



Black carbonaceous sand. 



Fig. 1. 

The section is illustrated in the accompanying wood cut, Fig. 1. 
The uppers feet (more or less) consists of vegetable mould and made 
earth, and rests on the irregular surface of bed a, the upper part of 
which consists of fine loam, much like the soil of paddy fields, but 
variable in different parts of the excavation. Thus in some places 
it consists of fine sandy silt, minutely laminated, and crumbling 
under the slightest pressure : elsewhere it is more argillaceous, and in 
general it is very full of fragmentary vegetable remains, too imperfect 
however to be recc^ised specifically. This bed becomes more argil- 
laceous towards the lower part and near the base is a tolerably 
tenacious clay. Its total thickness averages 17 feet, the bottom 
being at 20 feet below the actual surface. 

Bed ^, is 1 foot in thickness, and consists of an impure peat, too 
earthy to boniy when dry. In it several stumps of Sundri trees are 
standing, the roots penetrating the bed immediately below. This 
bed is continuous all round the tank, and appears to extend f0^^ir> 



166 Noteon a tank Section at Sealdah. [No. 2, 

where beneath Calcutta, and also on the Howrah side of the river,* 
although its depth is not everywhere uniform. Thus it is exposed in 
the bed of the river below Garden Beach, (at very low tides,) and also 
in the river bank at the Botanic Gardens. At these places its absolute 
depth is about 6 feet less than at Sealdah. In three borings in Fort 
William, on the other hand, it was met with at a depth of 51 feet, 
which, allowing for a difference of 3 feet between the actual surface 
levels of the Fort and Sealdah, would indicate a level 28 feet lower 
than that at Sealdah, and not less than 34 feet lower than at the 
Botanic Gardens. The correspondence of this part of the two sections 
is however such, that notwithstanding this great difference in level I 
cannot but think that the bed is either continuous or approximately so. 

The peat bed rests upon a thick deposit of clay, c, sandy in the upper 
part, but passing downwards into a stiff blue clunch, which contains 
the stools of Sundri trees in situ at various levels, at least as far 
down as 30 feet from the surface, or 10 feet below the peat. Two very 
perfect specimens of these projected from the bottom of the tank at 
the time of my visit. Their roots penetrated the clay beneath^ and 
I saw in the sides of a little well which had been sunk 4 feet lower, 
that the clay beneath was pierced in every direction by the roots of 
similar trees. These trees must therefore have grown at a level 
actually 15^ feet below the lowest water level of the canal, and 13 
feet below that of the Hoogly. 

No deeper excavation was open at the time of my visit, but I was 
informed by Mr. Leonard, that a deeper well sunk in the bed of the 
tank and subsequently filled up, had shewn that the clay bed extended 
to a depth of 15 feet below the tank bottom, and rested on a stratum 
of very loose black sand, fetid from tlie amount of vegetable matter 
which it contained. According to this, the total thickness of the bed 
is 25 feet below* the peat, which corresponds very closely to that of 
the fort section, where the peat bed rests upon blue clay with wood 
and kunkur, and yellow clay, of a total thickness of 21 to 24 feet ; 
and this on a stratum of wet reddish sand. 

The point of chief interest in the Sealdah section b the occurrence 
of tree stumps in situ at the depth of 30 feet, and the evidence 

* I am informed by Dr. Anderson, that the natives have a tradition to the 
effect that the Hooghly formerly passed from Cossipore some miles to the West 
of Howrah, its present conrse being that of an old native canal, into which the 
rivei* burst its way aboat 150 years since, deserting its old channel. Thus the 
beds on the two banks of the actnal river were formerly continuous. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1864.] Note on a tank Section at Sealdah. 157 

afforded thereby of a general depression of the delta.* The trees In 
question, specimens of which I submitted to Dr. Anderson, were 
pronounced by him to be Simdri, a species, the range of which, as 
regards level, is restricted to from 2 to about 10 feet below high 
water nuirk. It grows only on mud, or where the surface is too 
frequently flooded to allow of the growth of grass, but at the same 
time it requires that its roots be exposed to the air for at least 
several hours of each tide. It is evident therefore that the trees at 
Sealdah could not have grown at the level f^t which they are now 
found, but that imless low water level in the Hoogly be 18 or 20 
feet above that of the outer Soonderbuns, (where the Sundri now 
grows,) there must have been a depression of the land surface to a 
depth of several feet since they grew. I have not been able to obtain 
any data showing the relative low- water levels of the Hoogly and 
the outer Soonderbuns,t but Mr. Leonard informs me that there is but 
very little diflierence between the levels of the Hoogly and the Mutlah 
at Canning town, and this is not many miles above the actual geo- 
grs^hical range of the Simdri, while the channel is so broad and deep 
as to forbid the assumption that there should be any material elevation 
of the low tide level of the former. 

I think therefore we may safely infer, remembering the range of 
the Sundri, and that it never grows to within 6 or 8 feet of the lowest; 
tide levels, that there must have been a depression of land to not less 
than 18 or 20 feet, since the trees grew, the stumps of which are now 
found at the bottom of the Sealdah tank. 

If at the Fort, the wood found abov6 and below the peat bed be, 
in situ, as I think most probable, there must have been a depression 
at this spot to a depth of not less than 46 to 48 feet ; but whether 
the two land surfaces thus indicated were contemporaneous, and the 
relative depression, consequently, unequal to the extent indicated by 
these figures, the evidence before us, is I think, insufficient to establish. 

* Or rather, additional evidenoe, for Beveral proofs of snbsidenoe were 
•ilbrded fay the section of the Fort boring. 

*t Since the above paper was read before the Society, I have obtained from 
CoL Gartrell and cnbeequently from Major Walker^s Report of the operations of 
the G. T. Survey the aocnrate height of the sea level at Eidjiri with refe- 
rence to Calcutta. 

The mean height of sea level above the Galontta datum line of Kydd's dock 
mil is 9,063 feet : the mean height of neap low tide levels above the same datum 
line, 5,61 feet. The height of the ground surface at Sealdah above the datum 
line is 22 feet, and therefore 16,49 feet above low tide level at Ei^iri. 

Hence the tree stems at the bottom of the Sealdah tank are (80—16,49)=: 
13^51 feet bek>w the mean level of neap low tides. ^^.^.^^^ ^^ LjOOQ IC 



158 



18 ft. 



25 ft. 



Note on a tank Section at Sealdah. [No. 2, 

Kulnahj Jessore. 

4 ft. 4 ina. Loam. 

3 ft. Sand. 

J ( q /^ o ( Argillaceous sand passing into 
\ stiff blue clay with shells. 

1 ft. 7 ins. Peat >nth tree stumps. 
6 ins. stiff blue clay. 

2 ins. Peat. 4 ins. clay. 10 ins. Peat. 

5 ft. 3 ins. Stiff grey clay. 
Lowest tree met with. 

? 14 ft. 3 ins. Sandy clay. 



39 ft. t 




] Sand. 



Fig. 2. 

The depression was I think very extensive, if unequal ; thus I am 
informed by Mr. Leonard that the peat bed occurs at a depth of 20 
feet at Canning town on the Mutlah, the actual land level of which 
place is certainly several feet below that of Sealdah, and a section of 
a tank near Khulnah in Jessore, for which I am indebted to the 
kindness of Col. Gkstrell, shews a peat bed at a depth of J 6 ft. 6 ins. 
to 20 feet, and trunks of trees with roots attached at various levels 
from 18 to 24 feet. This very interesting section is shewn in the 
accompanying wood cut, Fig. 2. 

From these facts, I infer an average depression of the Gangetio 
delta of 18 or 20 feet since the land surface existed, which is marked 
by the Sundri trees in situ. It is noteworthy that the trees, in all 
the sections I am acquainted with, are restricted to a vertical thickness 
of from 8 to iO feet, and that the strata above, though frequently 
full of fragmentary plant remains and sometimes fresh water shells? 
shew no indications of former land surfaces. This indicates not only 
the uniformity of the depression, but also that it was everywhere more 
rapid than would be couipensated for by the deposition of sediment. 

^pigitized by LjOOQIC 



1864.^ Memorandum on the life-nzed Statues at Delhi, 159 



Memorandum on the life-sized Statues lately exhumed inside the 
Falace of Delhi,— By C. Campbell, Esq., G. E. 

Delhi, June 5M, 1863. 

1. We have now collected together and sorted all the fragments, 
and find that they comprise, apparently, portions of no less than 3 
groups, all imperfect, as folio mts. 

Elephants Feet, 11 fragments. 

„ Legs* IB Ditto. 

„ Trunk, 21 Ditto. 

„ Head, 4 Ditto. 

^^^^ \ 63 Ditto. 
„ Howdah, ) 

And in addition several hundred fragments that cannot now be 
identified. 

Of human figures, there are 3 portions of a body, 4 fragments of 
anns, and one complete head. 

These are in a very rude style of art ; one of the hands is compara- 
tirely perfect and has the thumb on the exterior, i. e, where the little 
finger ought to be, and Tiee vers^. An attempt has been made at 
aome former period to repair these groups ; this is evident from many 
of the fractures having been cut square, and new pieces of stone fitted 
in, whilst from the fact of these new pieces having remained uncarved, 
it is clear that the attempt was soon abandoned. 

2. There can be no doubt that these are the identical figures seen 
and described by Bemier, who visited Delhi at the commencement of 
of Aurungzebe's reign. His description is as follows. 

" The entrance of the fortress (pahice) presents nothing remarkable 
besides two large elephants of stone, placed at either side of one of 
the principal gates : on one of the elephants is seated the statue of 
Jemel, the renowned Rajah of Chittore ; on the other is the statue of 
Polta his brother. These are the brave heroes, who, with their still 
braver mother, immortalized their names by the extraordinary 
resistance which they opposed to the celebrated Akbar ; who defended 
the towers besieged by that great Emperor with unshaken resolution ; 
and who, at length reduced to extremity, devoted themselves to their 
country, and choae rather to perish with their mother in sallies 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



160 Memorandum on the life-sized Statues at Delhi. [No. 2, 

against the enemy, than submit to an insolent invader. It is owing 
to this extraordinary devotion on their part, that their enemies have 
thought them deserving of the statues here erected to thifir memory. 
These two large elephants, mounted by the two heroes, have an air of 
grandeur, and inspire me with an awe and respect which I cannot 
describe." 

Of their removal from this position nothing is known ; from the 
state of the remains it was evidently attended with violence, and 
is probably therefore due to the iconoclastic tendencies shewn by 
Aurungzebe, in the latter part of his life. The attempt at restoration 
would be made during the reign of one of his successors, when it may- 
have been proposed to complete the group, by the addition of a third 
elephant, bearing the fs&gj of the heroic mother of the two Hindoo 
princes. 

On the abandonment of the design, the fragments would be left to 
lie neglected and uncared for ; many would be stolen or employed 
in the decoration of new buildings, until what was left was buried in 
the ruins of the house where they lay, and from the debris of whiok 
they have just been recovered. 

3. The question now arises ; are the statues lately exhumed the 
same as those described by General Cunningham as existing at 
Gwalior P That they are independent works by Mahommadan artiste 
*8 very unlikely, although it is of coxoBe pogsih'le that they may have 
been made by order of the Emperor Shah Jehan when the new city 
and palace were designed by him ; but why, in this case, should the 
effigies of princes of a hostile race and faith have been selected as 
subjects ? and how account for the absence of any mention of them 
in the records that have descended to us ? It is much more probable 
that they were the work of Hindoo artists, brought frx>m a conquered 
city for the adornment of the new palace of Shah Jehan ; if so, did 
they come from Chittore ? I think not, for, had they existed there 
for any time, they must have been as well known as the Gwalior ones, 
which does not seem to have been the case. 

4, It must be borne in mind that they are not statuary portraiis 
like those executed by European artists, but mere effigies like " Gog 
and Magog" in the London Guildhall, and they probably bore ab 
much resemblance to Jemel and Polta as to Maun Sing, or any other 
Hindoo chief — ^Bemier's statement is no proof of their being actually 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1S64.] Memorandum on the life-sized Statues at Delhi. 161 

meant as likenesses of the two brothers, and merely shows that at the 
time of his visit, they were popularly known by general repute as 
representing the two Chittore princes, but leaves untouched the 
assomption that they may have been in existence for centuries, may 
have been known at Gwalior as memorials of the popular hero there, 
— ^Raja Maun Sing — and on their removal to Delhi, may have been 
re-named by Shah Jehan, in memory of some incident in his early 
youth, connected with the fall of Chittore. 

5. In his memorandum. General Cunningham has shewn that 
the art of sculpture had long flourished at Gwalior, and that more 
than one statue of a life-size existed there. Of the most famous of 
these, he has traced the history down to the rdgn of Shah Jehan, and 
proves that it had disappeared from Gwalior in the next reign. 
Its disappearance he connects with the iconoclasm of Aurungzebe, 
bat if that Emperor destroyed it at Otoalior, how came the fragments 
to find their way to Delhi? Their removal must have occurred 
during the troubled reigns of the successors of Aurungzebe, who had 
bot little leisure or inclination for adorning their capital with 
expensive restorations of ruined statues, brought &om so great a 
distance. 

6u The history of the Gwalior statues then, ends abruptly in the 
litter part of Shah Jehan's reign ; that of the Delhi ones commences 
11 abruptly about the same time : what is more probable than that the 
two groups are identical, and that they were removed from Gwalior 
bj Shah Jehan, who would gladly avail himself of this opportunity 
of transferring to his new palace and capital, works of art so cele- 
bfited ? the only ones of their kind, apparently, that existed in his 
dominions, and the removal of which, in their uninjured state, would 
k a comparatively easy task ; how the change of nomenclature may 
ha?e arisen, I have abeady pointed out. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



162 Memoranda relative to three Andamaneee. [No. 2, 

Memoranda relative to three Andamanese in the charge of Major 
Tiekell, when Deputy Commiesioner of Amherit, Tenaeeerini^ in 
1861.—% Got S. R. TiCKELL. 

In May, 1861, three Andainanese, who had been captured near 
Port Blair some time previously, and sent over to Rangoon by the 
Superintendent, Colonel (then Major) Haughton, for educational 
purposes, were placed in my charge by Colonel Phayre, at that time 
Commissioner of Pegu. 

Hitherto they had been attended to by one of the men of the Naval 
Brigade at Port Blair, to whom they seemed much attached ; but they 
were parted from their keeper at Rangoon, and sent over to Maul« 
mein imder the care of one of the Officers of the Steamer, who 
forwarded them to me on their arrival. 

They were dressed, when I first saw them, in light sailor's costume, 
slops and jumpers of white duck, and straw hats, boimd with broad 
black ribbon, bearing the ship's name to which their former guardian 
had belonged. They could not speak a single word intelligible to a 
by-stander, and looked so frightened and miserable amongst new 
faces, that after many attempts at coaxing and cheering them up, I 
considered the best plan to take them back to the steamer, and 
re-ship them for Rangoon. One of the small hack palankeen carriages 
that ply in Maulmein was therefore procured, into which they got 
with alacrity, fancying I suppose they were to be immediately driven 
to Port Blair, and off they started for the steamer But I had hardly 
re-entered the house and commenced a letter to Colonel Phayre about 
them, when back they came, walking hand-in-hand with a Burman, 
amid a crowd of people, and appearing as excited and joyful as they 
were before dejected. On enquiring the reason of their return, I was 
told that as the carriage was proceeding up the road, they had espied 
a Burman whom they had known at Port Blair, and overjoyed at the 
sight of a familiar face, one of them had opened the door, and before 
the vehicle could be stopped, got out, (thereby receiving a rough fall 
on the ground,) and embraced his old friend, whom they all three 
accompanied back to my house, in great glee, laughing, patting him 
on the breast, and putting their arms round his neck. That same 
evening I engaged his services to take the immediate charge of the 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1S64.'] Memoranda relative to three Andamanese. 163 

Andamaneee, «nd for the rest of their stay at Maulmem, they lived 
under bis roof. The arrangement was particularly convenient, as the 
Burman " Moung Shway Hman" speaks English, which it was 
proposed to teach the Andamanese, and is a man of steady habits and 
good character. 

The photograph which accompanied Colonel Fytche's paper in the 
J. A. S. No III. 1862 will give a better idea of the physiognomy of 
these people than the most laboured description. Mr. Bly th, Curator of 
the Asiatic Society's Museum, and a remarkably accurate observer, was 
at Maulmein for some time with these Andamanese, and pointed out 
the leading peculiarities of their configuration, and as his remarks have 
been embodied in the report, which Colonel Fytche, Conmiissioner 
of Tenasserim, sent to the Journal of the Asiatic Society, it would be 
superfluous to dwell on this part of the subject ; but I would take this 
opportunity of observing that I cannot agree with an opinion which 
has been more than once published, that the Andamanese have no 
affinity to the African race. They appear to me on the contrary, to 
be veiy closely allied. The small ear and the less gross lips are not, 
in my opinion, sufficient data on which to found a fifbh, to the long 
established four grand divisions of mankind. From the few remarks 
to be gathered on the subject, in Bowring^s account of the Philippines, 
it seems probable that the people of the interior, called Nigrettoes, who 
have so long withstood all attempts at civilization and communication 
with the Europeans and Eurasians of the coast, are the same race 
as the Andamanese. And further South, the ferocious savages of the 
interior of Sumatra, from whose hands Madame Pfieffer had so 
providential an escape, are also probably the same, but she has not 
given a sufficiAtly detailed description of them to allow of certainty 
on this point. How this so-called Papuan tribe came to be so 
separated from the strongly defined geographical limits of the African 
race, and spread throughout the Eastern Archipelago, will perhaps 
ever remain a matter of conjecture : but their distribution throughout 
that space, from the Andamans to Sumatra, (if not further,) may be 
accounted for by the propinquity of those islands to each other. 

Our three friends were named at Port Blair, Crusoe, Jumbo, and 
Friday, and labelled accordingly ; each name being stamped on a 
tin medal worn round its owner's neck. The necessity for such aa 
S>parently whimsical arrangement may be understood, when it is 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



164 Memoranda relative to three Andamaneie. [No. 2, 

explained that this singular people have ' (as far as close observation 
allowed us to observe)* no proper namee for each other^ and readily 
leant to adopt those by which they were ticketed. 

On their arrival at Maulmein all three had bad coughs, and Cmsoe 
and Jumbo evidcDt phthisical symptoms. Crusoe's health improved 
after some time : but Jumbo gradually grew worse, and his malady 
was greatly increased from exposure during inclement weather, in an 
attempt to escape, which he and his companious made one stormy 
night. They made their way in a native canoe towards the mouth 
of the Maulmein river : but were glad, in three or four days, to return 
under the guidance of the village police to Maulmein. Jumbo never 
rallied from the eifects of this excursion, and in spite of all that 
medical assistance could do, died in the jail hospital on the 12th Jtme, 
nearly one month after his arrival His comrades repaired to the 
hospital and showed signs of genuine grief at his death. They also 
performed some singular ceremonies over the body, which 1 wished to 
have witnessed repeated the next morning : but owing to some rather 
precipitate measures, taken without the slightest reference to myself, 
to prepare a skeleton of the deceased for presentation to the Asiatic 
Society's Museum, I was unable to do so. 

Of the three, Crusoe, the oldest, (apparently about 35 years of age,) 
was the only one who showed any moroseness of disposition. Jumbo 
was of a cheerful gentle nature, and Friday the youngest, whuse age 
might be 18 to 20, was at times very lively, good tempered, and fond 
of his immediate overseer Shway Hman, and of myself. They came 
frequently to my house, and were allowed free access to every part of 
Maulmein. Their curiosity at every new object was great, but 
evanescent. They soon tired of everything, and wften left alone, 
relapsed into dejection, making unintelligible speeches with lament- 
able signs, evidently about a return to their own country. 

Some time after Jumbo's death, Crusoe showed consumptive symp- 
toms, to a degree which made me despair of ever getting him alive 
back amongst his countrymen : but he fortunately rallied during the 
heavy rains, and left Maulmein for Port Blair comparatively well. 
Friday, after getting over a cough that at first troubled him, continued 
in robust health to the time of his departure. It is an extraordinary 
fact that savages, accustomed from birth to go naked, or nearly so, 
contract pulmonary diseases if forced to wear clothing. This has 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1864.3 Memoranda relative to three Andamaneee. 185 

been remarked amongst the aborigines of Australia and the South Sea 

islands. Crusoe's height is 5' W I'hat of Friday 4' 9^' The former 

is of rather a spare frame, which may be partly attributed to 

pneamonia. Friday is square, muscular, and deep chested. Both 

have small hands and feet ; which, with their foreheads, are cicatrised 

all OTer with scratches inflicted on themselves as a cure for all manner 

of pains and aches ; and the feet of both had a constant adematous 

appearance, with small feeble toes wide apart, as if they were never 

much used to pedestrian exercise. Both of them occasionally com* 

plained of headache, and would then smell with avidity at salts, stuff 

their nostrils with leaves freshly plucked, or as a last resource, score 

Hieir foreheads with a knife or a piece of broken glass, till, they bled 

pretty freely. They were much averse to taking our medicines, and 

Crusoe on one occasion threatened his Burman keeper with a knife^ 

for trying to administer some nauseous dose. Neither of them would 

take to learning English. They repeated like parrots the words we 

endeavoured to make them understand, and at last grew so averse to 

their schooling, that at any attempt to commence it, they would feign 

£d%Qe or sickness as readily as any truant schoolboy. They were in 

&ci too old to learn, and although Friday was smart and intelligent, 

he showed it more by his extraordinary powers of mimicry than by 

learning anything useful. This persistence in imitating every gesture 

and every sound of the voice, made it particularly difficult to obtain 

bwn. him the Andamanese name of even any visible object. Those 

entered in the annexed vocabulary, have been elicited with no small 

kboor and patience, by myself and their keeper Shway Hman. I 

saeeeeded ia obtaining the names of a variety of fishes, (common to 

the bay of Bengal,) by showing coloured drawings of them : but of 

4|Qadrapeds they appeared perfectly ignorant, the only mammal they 

teemed to know was a pig, '^ Bogo," and this name they applied in- 

££Eierently to cattle, ponies, elephants, deer, and monkeys. They 

sppearcd also to have very few names for birds, and when shewn the 

pictiires of some which I knew to be found in the Andamans, merely 

attempted to imitate the notes of any species they might have had 

m their minds at the time. 

To judge by Crusoe and Friday, the Andamanese are not a timid 
laoe. They mingled unconcernedly amongst crowds of people, and 
at fint used to help themselves to any thing they took a fancy to, off 

Digitized?yLjOOgle 



106 Memanmda reloHve to three Andtmrnteee. [No. % 

the stalls in the bazar. When teazed with the numbers looking at 
them, Crusoe would stride towards the thjong, waging them off and 
calling out in Burmese *' 4^1oong thwa" (go ! all !) They took great 
pleasure in the pways or Burmese dances, and learnt to imitate the 
performances with marvellous exactness, to the great delight of the 
Burmese, who crowded to see them. Sometimes thej exhibited their 
own national dance, which appears to consist solely in lifting their 
clenched fists above the head, and kicking the ground rapidly and 
forcibly with their beds. It has a peculiarly savage effect ; but having 
apparently excited great mirth amongst the spectators, Crusoe and 
Friday took offence at such notice, and latterly never repeated their 
exhibitions. With the little hack carriages which ply in Mwilmein 
they soon became familiar, and were treated to rides almost evezy 
day : and they would walk up to a pony, and hug it, though once 
or twice narrowly escaping a bite. When first taken to see some steam 
saw-mills where elephants were employed stacking timber, they 
showed no alarm at the huge animals, although the first they had 
ever seen, and Friday was about to walk up to and pat a lai^ tusker, 
when the bystanders restrained him. Of fire arms or of anything 
explosive however, they seem to have some dread. Latterly they 
kamt veiy well the use of money, and any cash in their possession 
was usually spent in the purchase of pork or other meat at the 
Chinamen's shops. Fruit (except plantains) or sweets, they cared 
little for ; but were veiy fond of tea prepared in the iEnglish way. 
Fish they were indifferent to, also to rice : but they ate a great deal 
of meat and yams, making three hearty meab a day. I generally gave 
them a fowl when they visited me, and for which they took care to 
ask by calling out ^ kookroo koo" and imitating the cries of poultry. 
They killed the fowl by pressing the chest and neck, and swinging it 
round and round. They would then pluck, dean, and boil it, their 
usual mode of cooking anything. Occasionally they broiled meat on 
the fire : but never eat animal substance raw. But thej never set 
about cooking for themselves if they could induce their keeper's wife 
*«Ma 8hway*' to save them the trouble. At my house they were 
often allowed to sit at the breakfast table, where they behayed with 
decorum, but quite at their ease: lolling ba<^ in their chairs, and 
pointing towards anything they wanted. They learnt to use a spoon, 
knife, and fork readily. 



Digitized by 



Google 



I8G4.] Memoranda relative to three Andamaneee. 107 

In their vintfi to me J lued to remark that Crusoe on fint arriving 
woold ahont out something in his loud harsh voice. It occurred so 
often, that I am induced to think the act analogous to a custom in 
tome parts of Ireland amongst the peasantry, where a man on entering 
a eottage calls out *' Qood luck to all here" — ^I have never heen able 
to ascertain what it was that Crusoe said on these occasions. 

As I before remarked, these people i^peared to have no proper 

namea. When one called the other, it was with a shout of '' Hy*' 

BkoA as is used in hailing a cabstand. But occasionally they named 

each other Crusoe and Friday, and invariably spoke of their country 

as Blair. They leamt my name, but usually addressed me as " Msrey, 

(Oh man) ; nevertheless it is difficult to conceive how any community 

ean carry on intercourse without the aid of proper names both to 

persona and places, and I am not aware that such a strange deficiency 

has been observed in the language of any other tribe, however savage. 

Although most pertinacious beggars, and glad to take anything 

olfeied them, their cupidity was chiefly shown for iron, of which they 

Uxk with them from Maulmein, a large quantity in the shape of knives, 

ibrks, dis, or Burmese choppers, nails, scissors, hammers, and needles. 

They frequently sat for hours watching the blacksmiths at work, and 

also leamt to ply the needle with some skill and to use scissors. As 

they acquired a strong liking for clothing, it is possible they will not 

wiSingiy return to their old habits of nudity, and so will find their 

suiorial accomplishments of advantage. Although I procured them 

a quantity of the coarse kind of tackle used for sea-angling, they took 

no interest in its use ; which is the more singular, as in their native 

itate they are most expert fishermen, especially in spearing fish. 

Friday procured a bow and some arrows, with which I met him 
one day armed, marching up the street at the head of a posse of idle 
boys: b«t I never had an opportunity of witnessing his skill in 
archery. He had seen guns fired but never attempted using one 
iamself. They were both expert swimmers, their mode of progression 
bebg with the arms and legs alternately, the former under water : 
aot striking out like an Englishman, nor throwing one arm out afber 
another like the generality of continental Europeans. They coold 
manage a Burmese canoe with ease : but never occupied themselves 
wUh paddling about lor amusement. They evinced great pleasure 
in making short trips into the interior with their conductor, visiting 

Digitize? b^OOgle 



168 Memoranda relative to three Andamanese. [No. 2, 

the numerous orchards and yillages in the vicinity of Mauknein. And 
as the arrival of the mail steamer invariably renewed their hankering* 
after their own com)try, I used latterly to send them away during 
the stay of the vessel in the port, and having found out their name 
for the moon " Chookleyro" I was able generally to soothe them when 
much dejected, by repeating the word, and " Blair kad6 " (go to Blair) ^ 
and holding up as many iingers as I supposed might mark the number 
of months they were likely to stay. 

They were fond of tobacco, and of such snuff as was procurable 
in the bazar, but owing to the state of Crusoe's lungs, smoking was 
not allowed to him latterly. They seemed to take pleasure in having 
the scanty frizzly wool of their heads shaved off, an operation which 
was several times performed on them. They were very docile in 
learning habits of cleanliness: bathing every day, using soap, and 
getting their clothes washed, cleaning their plates alter meals, sweeping 
the floor, &c. To " Ngapee," a strong smelling condiment made of 
dried and powdered fish, in universal use amongst the Burmans, they 
could never be reconciled. Besides the phlebotomising operation 
already described, they used, when in pain, and also when feeling chilly, 
to apply heated stones to the afflicted part ; and on such occasions 
would huddle together close to the fire. They showed great pleasure- 
at the sight of English children, and would kiss and fondle them if 
the little folks permitted it. To Burmese children also they evinced 
great partiality, and frequently caressed Shway Hman's daughter, a 
child of 5 years of age. Their grief at the death of their comrade 
Jumbo, was great, but not lasting. 

When the time came for these poor creatures to return to their own 
country, and it was explained to them they were to go, which was 
chiefly done by patting them on the back with a smiling coimtenanee, 
and repeating the words " Blair ka-do," without the ominous fingers 
indicating the moons yet intervening, their delight is not to be de- 
scribed. For the two nights previous to their departure for Amherst, 
where they were to embark on board the " Tubal Cain," they lay 
awake and singing, and had all their property carefully packed and 
put under their pillows. But at the moment of departure, they showed 
unwillingness to leave Shway Hman's wife behind, and when on board 
the ship, were disconsolate at their Burman friend himself not accom- 
panying them. Fortunately they met there Lieut. Hellard I. N., 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1864.] Men»aranda relative to three Andamanese. 169 

whom they knew, and also a sailor of the Naval brigade at Port 
Blair, who had formerly charge of them, and to whom they were 
much attached, and under the care of these kind friends they reached 
their native country safely, and were, with all their traps, put on 
ihore at a spot on the beach they pointed out, and quickly vanished 
into the jungle ! 

From that time to ' the present, I have heard no more of my 
quondam proteg^ : I cannot indeed distinctly ascertain whether either 
of them ever made his appearance again at Port Blair. An apprehen- 
sion existed for a long time, that they had been murdered by their 
conntzymen for the sake of the precious iron articles they had with 
them, and I know not whether such a conjecture has been refuted. 

The experiment of civilizing these two, by weaning them from their 
wild habits and creating artificial wants, to supply which should 
involve the necessity of frequent visits to the settlement, and thus 
form as it were the nucleus of increasing intercourse with a superior 
noe, has certainly so far failed. With younger subjects we might 
have succeeded better, particularly in teaching them English: but 
probably so at the expensi) of their own language and of their own 
habits to such a degree, that as interpreters or channels of comimuni- 
eation with the natives, they would have been as useless as Crusoe or 
Friday. It remains to be seen what effects will by and bye arise 
from the repeated interviews between the aborigines and our people. 
Unfortunately these are frequently of anything but an amicable 
nature, and tend rather to widen than to bridge over the gulph 
between them. Indeed if the inference be correct, that the inhabi- 
tants are of the same race as the Nigrettoes of the Philippines, who 
to this day keep entirely aloof from the settlers on the coast, we may 
■ormise that the colonisation of the Andaman islands, when its 
ipread begins to interfere with the aborigines, will tend rather to the 
extermination of the latter, than to any amelioration in their condi- 
tion. It is to be regretted that since the days of Colonel Haughton, 
very little information is published regarding our relations with this 
truly savage people. 
Mangoon, July 28M, 1863. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



170 Memoranda relative to three Andamanese. [No. 2, 

Vocabulary of Andamanese words, as ascertained from Cbusob 
and Fbidat. 

Nouns. 

Fish, .,..^ Do. 

Man, Ma. 

Woman, Ghana. 

Water, 1 _, 

Rain, j P«^o- 

Moon, Chookleyro. 

Yam, Chatee. 

Plantains, Eng-ngeyra. 

Kope, Ailik (Bengali?) aUt. 

Cocoanut, Jayda. 

Rice (unboiled,) Anakit. 

A stick, Erreybat. 

Spit, Moochee. 

A pot, T<5k. 

String, Garrik. 

Cock (poultry,) Kookroo (Beng.) 

Plate or dish, Wyda. 

Hat, cover, Seytey tdk. 

A carriage, Raik(?) 

Sii^id, } K«>^ 

Pig, pwk, Rogo. 

Noon or Sun? „, Aleybuidnu 

A Sore, Angoonchoon. 

Fire, ,. Chaukay. 

Kre-wood, Chapa. 

Meat,) 

Flesh,) Rekdama. 

Bread, Ochata. 

Boiled rice, Chata. 

A cheroot, D&kanapo. 

A saake, Wangida. 

A Bow, Earama. 

Broken bits of glass, Beramato. 

Needles, Arrow-head? Bitsof iron, T6\h6t, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1861.] Memoranda relative to three Andamaneee. 171 

Smoke, Moralitorkay. 

Maize, Oodala. 

A Sat, Itnachamma. 

BoneB, Tato. 

Sugar Cai^e, Teeree. 

Sweet things, J6ng. 

Little girl, Cbanjibal. 

Little boy, Mdjibal. 

Flower, Gheyda. 

Ship, Cheyley. 

A spider, Nyonada. 

Amusquito, Tayla. 

Tongue, Eytala. 

A tooth, Tokadoobda. 

A knee, Lo. 

Blood, Pay. 

Hair, Eppee. 

Afoot, Onkono. 

A nose, Ichardnga. 

A ear, Pogo. 

A eye, Edala. 

A hand, Gk)go. 

Bits of cloth, EoUo. 

Agon, Beerma (?) 

A star, Chittooree. 

A stone,. Tylee. 

. Wax, Pyda. 

The head, Pyleeda. 

To-morrow, Gkura? 

Adjectitsb OB Pabticiples. 

Cold (asmeat,) Mauriwada. 

Chipped • Lokkamen, 

Lost or concealed P Eytalaya? 

Cold (as weather,) Tatay. 

Spilt, Kaapilay, 

Unripe, Potowyk. 

Hot, Deggaralak. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



172 Memoranda relative to three Andamaneee. [No. 2, 

Itching, « Dowkodoblak. 

Good, Ooba. 

Bad, Ookaooba. 

Tired Odoola. 

Dead, Awalay. 

Veebs. 

To sit, Deedo. 

To sleep, Mamee. 

To take Nya. 

Togo, : Kad6. 

To come, Kameeka. 

To bring, ^ Taw. 

To walk, Dikleer. 

To dance, Tykpa. 

To throw away, Apay. 

To vomit, Dadway. 

To bathe, Darcha. 

To cut, Kauppa. 

To give, Jay. 

To broil, -) 

To roast, j P^^^*' 

Advesbs. 

Much, T4d. 

No, ,. Yabadfi. 

PHBiJSES. 

Sitalittle, Tara deedo. 

Much fish, Y&ddo. 

Stomach full, Tek bo. 

Don't go, A kuddo. 

Rainfalls, Pano lappa. 

Put it down, Gulla loongdakey. 

I will remain here, Do palee. 

Take it (from another,) Nyey ree. 

Let it be : Put it down, Tota da. 

I will not give, Oochinda. 

Let it alone, .•• Kookapa. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



o-f the ri»in« n.t 

BUDDH/k Qk\ k , 



"oj 













Hf-- 





a 



b- d 



TTTME 



E 



a l>^crway 



■ Ttrr^cc< 

C.C j:em#v 



REFERENCES. 



6 Trf^u>h. shemrmy Hfts pfinlh of the. Te^ipi* 

Mite* Trmple^ N*3 h4ju «, Itvr^c tc^U<i /i'^sti-^ m m 



1864.] On the Buim of BtMha Gay6. 178 

I will drink, Oowel lee. 

There is hone, Tappee. 

I want to deep a little, Tautai^ mameekaj. 

Stomach aches, Udda mookdoo. 

I don't wish to stay, OopadopaJee. 

Boats are racing or rowing, . . . Arra choro. 

I have some, i 

^ . \ Gada. 

There is some, J 

It is lost, or I can't find it. Ky'ta laya. 

NqU. — Some of these phrases are only inferentially derived, that is 

from their constant recurrence under like circumstances. When Crusoe 

or Friday were hunting about for anything and could not find it, they 

used to say in a vexed tone " Kyta laya." If offered anything, they 

would when refusing it in an affirmative manner, say *' Gada" as if 

they had it already, and so on. It is very possible then that many of 

these phrases are not literally rendered. — S. B. T. 



On the Buins of Buddha Oayd. — By Bdhu RIjeitdbala'la Mitba. 

Having had lately an opportunity of devoting a short time to the 
examination of the Buddhist remains at Buddha Gay4, I believe a 
hnef account of the excavations now being carried on at that place 
will not be unacceptable to the Society. Accordingly I do myself the 
pleasure of submitting to the meeting this note along with a drawing 
(done from memory) of the ground plan of the ruins, as also a sketch 
of the nuling round the great temple at that place. They have been 
worked out from notes taken while on my travels, and may be relied 
i^n as generally correct. I had no instrument with me for taking 
accurate measurements, and as Capt. Mead, the able officer who is 
now superintending the excavations, will, ere long, submit to €K)vem« 
ment a detailed report of his proceedings and discoveries illustrated by 
etrefuUy prepared drawings, and as my object was simply to see what 
was in progress, I did not think it necessary or proper to take any 
measurement or anticipate the work of that gentleman. 

Bu*ldha Gay& is one of the most celebrated places in the annals of 
Buddhism. There it was that S'^ya devoted six long years in deep 
meditation to purify his mind from the dross of carnality, by abstain* 
^ alU^iether from food, and subjecting his body to the most unheard- 

Digit2edAjyLjOOgle 



174 On the Bum of Buddha GayL [No. % 

of liardships ; there he repeatedly overcame the genius of sensuality — 
Mdra, who assailed him with his inviucihle host of pleasures and 
enjoyments to lead him ^tray from his great resolve ; and at that 
place he attained to that perfection which enabled him to assume the 
rank of a Buddha, the teacher of man and gods and dispenser of 
salvation. The exact spot where these protracted meditations and 
austerities were carried on, is said to have been the foot of a pipul 
tree, and hence that spot is held in the highest veneration by the 
followers of the Saugata reformer. It was believed to be the holiest 
{>iace on earth ; temples and monasteries were erected roimd it even 
during the life time of S'ikya, and as long as Buddhism flourished ia 
India, it was the resort of innumerable hosts of pilgrims from all 
parts of the Buddhist world. With the downfall of Buddhism the 
place lost its grandeur, and at the end of the tenth century was, 
according 'to an inscription published in the Asiatic Besearches^ (Vol. L 
p. 284) by WDkins, ** a wild and dreadful forest," " flourishing witk 
trees of sweet scented flowers," and abounding in " fruits and roots," 
but " infested with lions and tigers, and destitute of human society.** 
A magnificent temple, however, still stands, and around it vestiges 
abound to attest to its former greatness. General Cunningham has 
«ven recognised the identical flag of stone upon which on one occaaioa 
Buddha, while a roving mendicant, sat and ate some rice presented t^ 
him by two maidens. 

The tree, however, uader which Buddha sat, and which was the 
greatest object of veneration, has long since disappeared, and its place 
is now occupied by one which, though decayed and dying, is scares 
two hundred years old. It stands on a masonry basement of two stepa 
about six feet high, and built on a large terrace of concrete and 
stucco. Its immediate predecessor probably stood on a level with the 
first step which seems to have been raised long before the second. The 
third predecessor, according to this idea, was on a level with the 
terrace, and as that terrace stands about five and twenty feet above 
the level of the surrounding couniiy, and as Capt. Mead, in course of his 
excavations, has found traces of two terraces, one very distinct, at inteiv 
]ne<£ate depths, it is to be presumed that several trees must have from 
time to time occupied the spot where stood the original Boddhidruma, 
or "Tree of Knowledge," unter which Buddha attained to perfection. 
It is no doubt possibly that as eartl) and rubbish accumulated lound 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



Oft the Buim of Buddha Oayi. 17S 

ilie oiignnl tree, people from time to time built raised terraces and 
eovered up ite roots, so that the tree in a maimer rose with the rise of 
the grouiid4evel^ and that every new terrace or step was not neoes- 
sarilj aa evidence in favour of a new tree ; but the fact of the tree that 
aow exists being a modern one, warrants the presumption of its having 
had Eeveral predecessors at different times. Moreover, as the plan of 
»newing the tree was evidently not by cutting down the old and 
planting anew one in its place,, but by dropping a seedling in the axilla 
sr a decayed spot of the old tree, so as to lead to the supposition that 
it was only a new shoot of the parent stem and not a stranger brought 
fimn a distance, it was found necessary to cover up the root of the 
Aew oomer imder guise of putting fresh mould on the root of the old 
me, to prevent the imposition being discovered. Hence it is that the 
pesent terrace ia much higher than the tops of the surrounding heaps 
ef mbbislu 

Close by thetree^ on the north side^ is placed the Burmese inscrip* 
iioa noticed by CoL Bumey in the last volume of the Agiatic Be*- 
marches. And immediately to the east of it stands the great temple 
•f the place, a monument rising to the height of 160 feet from the 
lefd of the plain. Its pinnacle is broken ; when entire it must have 
added at least twenty feet to the altitude of this cyclopean structure. 
General Cunningham^ in his Archieological Survey Report for lS6i-62,* 
has given a full description of this edifice ; but there is one point of 
importanee in it which escaped his notice, and to it, therefore,. I wish 
to dnw particular attention r I allude to the existence of three com- 
plete arches on the eastern face of the building. The doorway is wide 
imt low, and is formed of granite side-posts with a hyperthyrion of the 
Mme materiaL That was, however, supposed to be unequal to the 
weight of the great mass of masonry rising to the height of near 150 
fcet, which rested on it, and three Saracenic or pointed arches vrera 
aooordingly thrown across to remove the weight from the hyperthyrioB. 
to the side abutments. Two of these arches have fallen in, breaking 
exactly where an over-weighted arch would break, namely, at the points 
where the Hne of resistance cuts the intrados. The third is entire. It 
is pointed at the top, but is formed, exactly as an arch would be in the 
present day, of roussoirs or arch-stones placed wedgewise, the first and 
hat of which are sustained on the abutments, while the intermediate 
♦ Ante Vol. XXXII. p. vii. r- T 

c^itiigda/CiOogle 



m On the Suins of Buddha GayA. [No. 1, 

ones are held together in their position by their mutual pressure, hf 
the adhesion of the cement interposed between their surfeces ; and by 
the resistance of the keystone. Such a structure in an Indian build- 
ing more than two thousand years old, struck me as a remarkable proof 
of the Hindus having had a knowledge of the principle of the arch at 
a very early period, though the credit of it has been denied them by 
all our Anglo-Indian antiquaries. Fergusson, in his Hand Book of 
Architecture, concedes to the Jains a knowledge of the horizontal 
or projecting arch, but adverting to the radiating or true arch, 
says, (Vol. I. p. 78) " In the first place no tope shows internally 
the smallest trace of a chamber so constructed (i. e, with a true 
dome) — ^nor do any of the adjacent buildings incline to such a 
mode of construction which must have ere now been detected had it 
ever existed." Elsewhere he observes (p. 254) " The Indian archi- 
tects have fallen into the other extreme, refusing to use the arck 
under any circumstances, and preferring the smallest dimensions and 
the most crowded interiors, rather than adopt what they considered 
BO destructive an expedient." Adverting to the Kotub, he says, 
^'all the openings possess pointed arches which the Hindus never 
used" p. 418). Again, "the Hindus however up to this time (i.e. 
of the Pathans) had never built arches, nor indeed did they for 
centuries afterwards" (p. 424). These remarks do not, it is true, 
directly mean that the Indians had no knowledge of the arch, but 
they imply it. Elphinstone is more positive. In his remarks on 
Hindu bridges, he says, " Nor does it appear that the early Hindda 
knew the arch, or could construct vaults or domes, otherwise than by 
layers of stone, projecting beyond those beneath, as in the Treasury 
of Atreus in MycensB." (Hist, of India, p. 163.) Depending on 
the testimony of these distinguished antiquarians one may very 
reasonably assign to the Buddha Gayd temple a much later age than 
it claims, but the fact of its having been visited by Fa Hian and 
subsequently by Hiouen Thsang long before the advent of the Maho- 
medans in this country, inevitably leads to the inference of its having 
existed at a pre-mahomedan era, while the position the arches occupy, 
is so natural and integral that it leaves no room for the hypothesis that 
they were subsequent additions. I brought the fact to the notice 
t>f Capt. Mead, who had kindly undertaken to shew the ruins to me, 
and he readily acknowledged that the builders of the temple, whoever 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



1864.1 On ihe Ruins of Buddha Oayd. 177 

tliej were, certainly knew the art of constructing an arch, and the one 
before us was a very good specimen of it. The entrance gate to the 
eoortyard of the temple has a similar arch over it, though there it 
has no superstructure to sustain, and peems to have been built more 
as an ornament than otherwise. It may not be amiss here to observe 
that by the selection of the pointed, instead of the semicircular, afch» 
the builder has displayed a correct appreciation of the superiority of 
the former in r^ard to its weight-bearing capabilities. 

In a line with the gate, and to its north , there formerly stood a range of 
small temples, which have since fallen in, and been entirely buried under 
rubbish. Capt. Mead has laid bare five of these, and in one of them I saw 
a colossal figure of Buddha seated on a lotus throne, with the hands 
resting one upon the other on the lap. This position is called the 
DhyAna Mudrd or the " meditative position,'' and it was thus that 
S'akya passed his years of mental abstraction under the great pipul 
tree There is an inscription on the throne which records the dedi- 
cation of the figure by one Boddhikhsana of the village of Dattagalla, 
the writer being Upavy^yapurva an inhabitant of Masavfigra. The 
character of the writing is the Gupta of the 4th century. The letters 
have been carefully cut and well preserved.* 

Beyond these temples Capt. Mead has excavated a trench from east 
to west, laying bare a line of stone railing which formerly enclosed the 
eoortyard of the great temple, running close along the base of the 
terrace around the sacred tree. It was formed of square granite pillars, 

* The inscription oomprises three slokas in the fascile octosyllabio annsh^p, and 
mat as follows. 

iiftr^fir ftifiwr ^nrJniPrinf%%: i 

TmndaJbUm. " Salutation to (Bnddha) whose mind is ever directed towards 
the control of his passions, and who is kind to all created objects, and this 
with a view to oyeroome the resonroes of H&ra lodged in blissful gardens of 
unlimited expanse. (?) 

Bodhikahana, the pnre-hearted, of the village of Dattagalla having his mind 
devoted to the dispensation of Bnddha, dedicated this (statue) for the removal 
of bU kinds of bondage from his parents and relatives. Upavyajapdrva of the 
vfllage of MaaavBgptt wrote this." The author could not condense in the verse the 
word "wrote," so he haa given it in initial after it. The third and fourth feet 
€f the lint verae are not intelligible. , r^r^r^ i r> 

Digitized by VaOOQ Ic 



178 On the Buiiu of Buddha Gayl £S6. 3^ 

each having three medallions on the front and three mortises on each 
side for the tenons of as many cross bars. On the top was a copings 
stone rounded above, but flat beneath. The pillars were seated on a 
square base with mouldings on each side. The falling in of the monas- 
tery which stood immediately to the north of it, broke and buried the 
railing, and the only parts now found in ntu^ are the stumps of the 
pillars and the basement. Fragments of bars and pillars are met with 
in plenty within the rubbish, but a great nimiber of the bars had^ 
evidently, been removed before the rest were buried. 

To the west of the terrace a deep trench, cut through the rubbishy, 
has brought to light the continuation of the railing on that side, but 
in a comparatively better state of preservation. In the middle of the- 
line right opposite to the sacred tree there was a gate having the side 
pillars highly ornamented. Probably similar gates originally existed, 
at the four cardinal points, but their traces are no longer visible. 

In style, ornament, and material the railing bears a close resemblance* 
to those of Buddhist remains in other parts of India. General Cunning* 
ham, adverting to those at Bhilsa, observes, " the style is evidently- 
characteristic and conventional, as it is found wherever the Buddha 
religion prevails. It is in fact so peculiar to Buddhists that I have 
ventured to name it the ' Buddhist railing/ This peculiar railing 
is still standing around the principal topes of Sanchi and Andher, and 
some pillars and other fragments are still lying around the great topes, 
at Sonari and Satdhard. The same railing was placed around the^ 
holy Bodhi trees and the pillars dedicated to Buddha* The balconiea 
of the city gates and the king's palace were enclosed by it. It formed 
the bulwarks of the state barge. It was used as an ornament for the 
capitals of columns as on the northern pillar at Sanchi, and generally 
for every plain band of architectural moulding. At Sanchi it is 
found in many places as an ornament on the horizontal bars which 
separate the bas-reliefs from each other, Bhilsa Topes, (p. 187)." 

The trench opened on the south of the great temple, has been ma 
«lose to its base with a view to expose the basement mouldings and 
the tiers of niches holding figures of Buddha, which were the prevail- 
ing ornament of the temple. Oapt. Mead has in contemplation to run 
another trench parallel to the last, but at the same distance from the 
temple as the trench on the north is. This will most probably bring 
to light the third side of the railing. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1864.] On the Buins ofJBuddka Oayd. 179 

Two or three tarenches have beea run through the extensive mass of 
Tubbiah to the north of the great temple, leading to the discovery of 
Bothing beyond a few cells for resident monks, a great numbw of whom 
most have found their Hving in the neighbourhood of this once sacred 
apot. 

Within the courtyard and opposite to the entrance, stands a small 
«peii temple formed of four granite pillars covered over by a heavy 
stone roofing. In the middle of this there is a large block of basalt, 
the material so largely used by Buddhist sculptors in the manufacture 
of their statuary, bearing on its upper surface the carving of two hu- 
sum feet, and a Sanskrit inscription on one side. On the centre of 
each foot are engraved, within a circle, the figures of a conch, a flag, a 
lotus, a WHutika or magic figure of prosperity, a fish, and a few other 
objects which I could not well recognise. 

The name by which this stone is commonly known is Buddhapad, 
or "^ Buddha's feet." It is remarkable, however, that the inscription 
on it does not at all allude to Buddha. It begins with the usual 
B^rahminic invocation of *' Om," gives the date in S'aka 1230, and 
records the names of H&vataji and Baladevaji as the dedicators of a tem- 
ple. The letters are rather smudgy, and the facsimile prepared by me 
is peculiarly so, it is possible therefore that my interpretation of the 
monument may be questioned, but the great test of the creed of an 
iviental document is the salutation at the beginning, and that salutation 
in the record under notice, being the mystic " Om," which is common 
both to the Hindn and the Buddhist, it is impossible to determine to 
which of the two rival creeds the stone is to be assigned. Nor are the 
emblems engraved on the feet favourable to an easy solution of the 
question. They conform to no known canons of palmistry Hindu or 
Buddhist, regarding auspicious marks on the sole of the feet^ 

The Lalita Yistura, (Chapter 7) in giving an account of the peculiar 
marks oxi, and the charact^ of, S'akya's feet, says " He has expanded 
hands and feet, soft fresh hands and feet, swift and agile hands and feet 
^like those of a snake-catcher), with long and slender fingers and toes. 
On the soles of the feet of the great king and prince (Mah^aji 
Kumfok) Sarv&rtha-siddha are two white wheels, beautifully coloured, 
bright and refulgent, and having a thousand spokes, a nave, and an 
aile-hole. His feet sit evenly on the ground." Such a wheel we 
look for in vain on the foot-marks at Buddha Gaya. Again in the 
tf Qseum of th^ Society there 99 a large flag of white ma^b]^e 



;180 On the JRuina of Buddha Qayi. [No. 2, 

the figure of a huinaQ foot surrounded by two drains. It was 
brought from a temple in Burmah where it used to be worshipped as 
a representation of Buddha's foot. It is 7? fb. long by 3 fb. 6 inches in. 
breadth, and has on it a great number of mystical marks. On the 
centre of each toe there is a figure of a conch-shell and a concentric 
line under it. A conch occurs also at the heel. On the centre of the 
sole, there is a circular figure with innumerable radii, standing evident- 
ly for the wheel with a thousand spokes described above. Around 
this wheel are arranged, in three tiers, one hundred and eight com- 
partments bearing representations of temples, houses, forests, riversy 
men in different attitudes, birds and beasts of various kinds — mostly 
imaginary, leaves and flowers, magical figures and other objeets unin- 
telligible to me. But I do not find the counterparts of these objects 
in the foot-marks at Buddha Gayd. There the figures are, it is true 
included within a circle, but it has no wheel of a thousand spokes. 
Its prevailing emblems are more Hindu than Buddhistical. The lotus, 
the 8wasiikaj the fish and the discus are identically what has been assign- 
ed to Yishnu's feet in the Brahminical shistras. Thus in the Skanda 
Pur&na I find the marks on Yishnu's feet are enumerated at 19, in- 
cluding, 1 a crescent, 2 a water jar, 3 a triangle, 4 a bow, 5 the sky, 
6 the foot-mark of cattle, 7 a fish, 8 a conch, 9 an octagon, 10 a 
swastika, 11 an umbrella, 12 a discus, 13 a grain of barley, 14 an 
elephant goad (ankus,) 15 a flag, 16 a thunderbolt, 17 a jambu fruit, 
18 an upright line, and 19 a lotus, of which the first eight belong to 
the left and the rest to the right foot.* Biswandtha Chakravarttf, in 
his gloss on the Bh&gavat Pnr^oa (10th book), has given the marks 
appropriate to the foot of lUdha which include, 1 an umbrella, 2 a wheel, 
8 a flag, 4 a creeper, 5 a flower, 6 a bracelet, 7 a lotus, 8 an upright 
line, 9 an elephant goad, (ankus) 10 a crescent, 11 a grain of barley, 
12 a javelin, 13 a dub, 14 a car, 15 an altar, 16 an earring, 17 a fish, 
18 a hill, and 19 a conch.t The first eleven of these belong to the 

fWTf ^t^ Wuft h % \ ^^if^hn^ii vm i 
iitTnitfw^yrPiwfinniTiwNini:^;,^^IGoogle • 



ISek] On the JStuins of Buddha Gayd, iSl 

left, and the rest to the right foot. The fichoUast has pointed out at. 
fangUi the different places which these marks should occupy and the 
ebjects they suhserve at those places. His opinion has been ques- 
tioned, and Yais&ava writers of eminence have distributed these marka 
in rery different ways. None has, however, to my knowledge, brought 
them together within a circle on the centre of the sole, as we find 
them at Buddha Gays. 

The date of the inscription on the Buddhapad is S'aka 1230 = A. D. 
1308, and the characters are the nearest remoTe from the modern Deva- 
aagari. The inscription must have been engraved immediately after 
the completion of the sculpture of the feet, for it is not likely that 
the pio&ne hands of an engraver would be allowed to touch a stone^ 
which had been, for any length of time, sanctified by the adoration 
of thousands, while the Hindu character of the emblems does not 
pennit the supposition of the stone having existed at Buddha Gay6 
during the supranacy of the Buddhists. They suggest the idea that 
the foot-nuurks in question are of Hindu origin, and were put up by 
Hindus to reduce the place and its old associations to the service of. 
their creed. Such adoption, whether insidious or avowed, of the holy 
places as well as the rites and ceremonial observances of one sect by 
ancther, has been common enough in the history of religion. We 
■leet with it everywhere, and no where more prominently than in 
India among the Hindus and the Buddhists. There is scarcely one 
Hindu temple in ten of any great age in which is not to be seen some 
lelic of Buddhism borrowed by the Brahminists. The great temple 
d Poori, which every year draws together pilgrims by hundreds 
ef thousands from all parts of India, most of whom are prepared to lay 
down their lives for the truth and sanctity of the holy idol Jagaunatha, 
is a Buddhist edifice built on the plan, and very much in the style, of 
the sacred monument at Buddha Cbtyi,* and the idol itself is no other 
than an emblem of Dharma^ the second member of the Buddhist triad, 
represented by the old Pali letters y. r. v. h s. ; while tradition 
still preserves the memory of its Buddhist origin and calls Jaggan- 
aitha the incarnation of Buddha, (Buddhdoatdra).f It is not too much 

* A doeer parallel la met with in the temple of Barrolli near the fall of the 
ChimbaL The domioal Btmctnre on its top and that of the Poori monament 
ii not however met with at Bnddha Gayi. 

t Cnnningham's Bhilaa Topes, p..858 and Laidlay's Fa Hiaoi, p. 21—261. There 
IB an inscription on the temple of Jagannitha which assigns, the temple to Ananga 

Digiae«)yLjOOgle 



162 On tie Suins of Buddha Gagi. [No. 2; 

then to assume that on the suppression of Buddhism in the 10th 
and 11th centuries, attempts were made and suocessfuUy carried out, 
of converting Buddhist temples to Hindu usage, and that the foot« 
mariu at Buddha Gbiya are the result of one of those attempts. 

We have, however, more than a priori arguments to establish the fact. 
In an inscription of the 10th century to which reference has already 
b^en made above, it is distinctly stated that a Buddhapad or Buddha's 
foot was set up at Buddha Gayi expressly for the purpose of perform- 
ing thereon the Hindu rite of srdddha, Now as the liturgy of the 
Buddhists does not recc^^nise that ritual, it must follow as a matter of 
course that the inscription is a Hindu one, and since its date is 
posterior to the downfall of Buddhism, it must be taken for granted 
that those who put it up, desired to reduce Buddha Guy^ to the service 
of Hinduism by, what is commonly called, *' a pious fraud." 

The inscription itself is no longer traceable at Buddha Gayd. But 
its translation in the 1st volume of the Anatio Sesearches, coming 
from the pen of Sir Chiles Wilkins, may be taken as its exact 
counterpart. It starts by saying that '' in the midst of a wild forest 
resided Buddha the author of happiness and a portion of Niriyana. 
He was an incarnation of the deity Hari, and worthy of every adora» 
tion." The illustrious Amara Deva accidentally coming to the forest 
discovered the place of Buddha and with a view to make the divinity 
propitious, performed acts of severe mortification for the space of 
twelve years. The deity pleased with this devotion appeared to Amara 
in a vision and offered him any boon that he wanted, and on Amara'a 
insisting upon a visitation, recommended him to satisfy vicariously his 
desire for a sight of the deity by. an image. An image was accord- 
ingly made, and Amara eulogised it by calling it Brahmi, ViahQu, 
Mahes'a, D&modara, and by attributing to it all the great deeds per^ 
formed by Vishnu in his various incarnations. ** Having thus worship^ 
ped the guardian of mankind, he became like one of the just. He 
joyfully caused a holy temple to be built of a wonderful construction, 
and there were set up the divine foot of Vishnu for ever purifier of 
the sins of mankind, the images of the Pandoos, and of the descenta 
of Vishnu, in like manner of Brahm£ and the rest of the divinities. 

Bhima D^va of the Gangi Yanaa Dynasty (A. D. 1196,) bat he is said to 
have only rebnilt or repaired what had existed for many centuries before his 
tixne and been sul^eotecl to many vioissitades. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



lW4t.] On the Buins of Buddha Gayd. 188 

This place is renowned ; and it is celebrated by the name of Buddha- 
Gmy£. The forefathers of him who shall perform the ceremony of the 
Sraddha at this place shall obtain salvation. The great virtue of the 
Briddha performed here is to be found in the book called Vdyu j^urdna ; 
an epitome of which hath by me been engraved upon stone." The 
inscription writer then goes on to say that Y ikramiditya was certain, 
ly a renowned king ; that there lived in his court nine learned men who 
were celebrated as the '' nine jewels ;" that one of them was Amara 
Deva, and it certainly was he who built the holy temple. The con* 
eluding pan^rapb states that " in order that it may be known to learned 
men that he (Amara) verily erected the house of Buddha,*' the writer 
** recorded upon stone the authority of the place as a self-evident testi- 
mony/' on Friday the 14th of the wane in the month of Chaitra in 
the year 1005 of Yikram^tya^A. D. 948. 

The writer leaves his readers entirely in the dark as to who he was ; he 
does not even deign to give his name, and he talks of things which hap- 
pened a thousand years before him. Such testimony can have no claim to 
any confidence. The value of an inscription depends upon its authenticity 
and contemporaneousness — upon being a record of circumstances that 
happened in the time of the writer, who must be a trustworthy person. 
But here we have none of those conditions fulfilled. We have a tradi- 
tion a thousand years old, if any such tradition then existed, served up by 
SQ anonymous writer on the testimony of so unveracious a witness as 
the Yaya Pur^va. The tradition itself bears the stamp of fabrication 
CD its very face. Buddha Gayi, whatever it was in the time of the 
writer, could not have been ^' a dreadful forest" " infested by tigers 
and destitute of human society" in the first century before Christ, 
when Buddhism in India was in the zenith of its splendour, and when 
the place of Buddha's apotheosis was held the most sacred spot on 
earth. Nor could Amara Sinha of the Court of Yikrama who was 
known to have been a staunch Buddhist* and a clever scholar, be so far 

* General Cnzuiingli&n] calls Amara a br^hmana. Bnt in the inyocaiion at tbe 
beginning of his Dictionary the great lexicographer has given no reason to his 
leaden to describe him as each. The invocation itself is as follows : 

''To him who is an ocean of wisdom and meroj, who is anfathomable, and 
whow aUribotes are Tioeless, even to him, O intelligent men, offer ye your 
adoratioiis for tbe sake of prosperity and immortality." 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



184 On tie Suing of Buddha Oayd. [Ko. 2^ 

ibrgetful of his reli^on as to glorify his god by calling him Hari, 
Vishnu, Brahm^, the destroyer of the demon Keshi, the deceitful 
Vam&na who cheated the giant Bali of his dominion, at a littlo 
shepherd tied to a post with a rope round his waist for stealing butter 
from the house of his neighbours. Such stories belong exclusively to 
the Fur^^as and can never be expected in a Buddhist writing. Thei^ 
the Amara of Vikramaditya's court and author of the Dictionary 
was a K^tha, and his surname was Sinha.* I have nowhere seen 
him addressed as a Deva, which title formerly belonged exclusively to 
Brahmans and kings, though of late years the rule hsw been considerably- 
relaxed. The story of the dream i^ of course a fiction, and the state* 



Here the deity inyoked is not named ; and tlie eomiaentaton having ivied to 
the utmost their mgenuity to apply the verse to most of the leading Hinda 
divinities, but finding it inapplicable, have one and all taken it to imply Bnddha^ 

Mallinatha, the most distingnished among the sehoUasts and the anthor of at 
least twenty different oommcntajies, explains the verse thns. '* O intelligent men, 
for the sake of " prosperity," i, e. wealth, of " immortality," i. e. salvation, adore 
Baddha, whose virtues, whose charities, whose forbearance, ^. Ac. 

^li1^ii*<l<i| TJfi\^ y ^S. As. Soo, Lib : No. 188, p. 6>. 

■ Baghunitha, anotheic commentator of some eminenoe, says : " intelligent men. 
Let that Buddha be adored, that is by you. Here, though Buddha is not openly 
named still it is evident from the epithets used that he is meant. Thi»i8 called the 
^hctorio ofprasdda. Thereof it has been said by Kanthibharaaa, where the object ia 
evident from the meaning such a figure of speech is.ealled prasada, thus (the verse) 
** here rises the breaker of the sleep of the lotus,* without alluding to the dispersion 
^f darkness or the assuaging of the sorrow of the brahmini goose, evidently means 
the sun." i|nj^ % 4\^; ^ ^^: ^f^j ^TcT^F^: T^^lft J^T fti^%- 

(As. Soc. MS. No. 443, p. 2). N^rayana, another commentator, in the Padirtha 
Kaumudi has reproduced the words quoted abovo without a remark. (As. Soo* 
MS. No. 438, p. 1). Bam^natha Ghakravarti, after ex];^aining the verse a» 
applicable to Buddha, accounts for the name of Buddha not being openly given in 
l^he invocation notwithstanding the epitheta used being peculiarly his, by saying 
** that to conciliate those who are not Buddhists the name of Buddha has not 

been used." ^^ft^ftng T^ftr ^t»lH(M( ^^ ^ «?! I (As. Soo. MS. 

No. 443, p. 1, second series of pagination). This remark has been quoted 
verbatim by Bagun&tha Chakravarti in his commontaiy on tha Amarakoeha. 
(As. Soo. MS. No. 173, p. 1). 

* I have no better authority for saying this than the author of the Kdyastha 
Kaustuhha^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



IB64.] On t%€ Hums ofBuidka &ayi, \^ 

meni of a temple built for Buddha baving for its chief penates the 
image of Yisb^u's feet, those of the five Pandu brothers and of the 
several incamations of Vishnu, is equally so. 

It was not expected that a distinguished scholar like Oeneral Cunnings 
kim with his thorough knowledge of Indian antiquities, should accept the 
figments of this inscription as true. He has however taken for granted 
that the great temple was built by Amara Sinha, and, as that individual 
was a contemporary of TarAha Mihira and Kalidasa who, according to 
Bentley and others, lived in the 5th century, uiferred that the temple 
must have been built in A. D. 500. His arguments are, first the non« 
existence of any temple in A. D. 400 when Fa Hian visited the place ; 
second, the recorded erection of a large one by Amara Deva about A. D« 
500 ; and third the exact agreement in size as well as in material and 
ernamenlation between the existing temple and that described by 
Hioueii Thsang between A. D. 629 and 642. 

Of these, the most important ai^ument is the first, in which it i9 
said that there was no large temple in existence at Buddha Gay& when 
Fa Hian visited the place between A. D. 899 and 414. It would at 
eoee establish the fact of the great temple of Buddha Gay^ being 
subsequent to the date of Fa Hian's pilgrimage. But on referring to* 
the itinerary of that traveller, I find that instead of his saying that 
there was no temple^ he reiterates the fact that there were several 
temples in Buddha Gay& at his time, and that the temple near the 
Bodhi tree was one of them. The account of his travels is unfor- 
tunately very meagre. It is a simple recital of names of places and 
Uieir distances, with a superabundance of legends, but with no topogram 
phical details. Still it is very precise as to the existence of temples near 
the Bodhi tree. Thus in the 31st Chapter (p. 277) we find it stated 
that at the place where Foe obtained the law L e. near the holy pepul 
tree, ** there are three Sang hia Ian, and hard by are establishments for 
the clergy who are there very numerous. The people supply them 
with abundance, so that they lack nothing." In another place in 
the same chapta*. Fa Hian, describing the approach and residence 
of S'ikya at Buddha ChiyS, says : " The Fhou$a rose, and when 
he was at the distance of thirty paces firom the tree, a god gave him 
%he grow {>/ happy omen: the JPhousa took it and advanced fifteen 
paces &rther. Five hundred blue birds came and fluttered three 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



186 On the Buins uf Buddha Qayd. [No. 2, 

times around him, and then flew away. The Bhouia advanced 
towards the tree BtOOy held out the grass of happy omen towards the 
east, and sat down. Then the king of the demons sent three beautiful 
girls who came from the north to tempt him, amd himself came with 
the same purpose. The JPhouaa then struck the ground with his toes, 
and the bands of the demon recoiled and dispersed themselves ; the 
three girls were transformed into old women. During six years he 
imposed upon himself the greatest mortificaticns. In all these places 
people of subsequent times have built towers and prepared images 
which exist to this day." Lest this be supposed too general, Fa Hoan 
again observes " The four great towers erected in commemoration of 
all the holy acts that Foe performed while in the world, are preserved 
to this moment since the m houan of Foe. These four great towers are 
(1st) at the place where Foe was bom, (2nd) at the place where he 
obtained the law, (3rd) at that where he turned the wheel of the law, 
and (4ith) at that where he entered into ni houan" Here we have 
the positive testimony of the very traveller whom Greneral Gunning- 
ham has quoted that a great tower, one of the four largest, existed in 
his time at Buddha Gay& at the end of the 4th century. But had this 
evidence been wanting the fiict of one of the minor temples at that 
place having a statue inscribed with the Gupta character of the 4th 
century, would fully warrant the assumption of the main temple, whose 
reflected sanctity the Httle ones sought to imbibe, being considerably 
older. If we add to this the Buddhist belief reported by Hiouen 
Thsang and the Ceylonese cluronicles, of Asoka having raised a lofty tem- 
ple at Buddha Oay^, we have ample grounds to assign to the existing 
temple an age dating from the third century before Christ, and under 
any circumstance one considerably anterior to the 4th century A. D. of 
the Christian era. 

The second argument of General Ctmningham is founded upon the 
authenticity of the inscription translated by^Sir Charles Wilkins, and 
the deduction of K^idisa, Yar&ha Mihira and Atnara Sinha having 
been contemporaries in the 6th century. But as I have, I hope, satis- 
factorily shewn that that inscription is " not historically true," " the 
claims of reason," to quote the language of Niebuhr, " must be assert- 
ed, and we must not take anything as historical which cannot be 
historicaL" 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



1661.] On tie Buins of Buddha Oayd. 187 

As regards the argument founded on the exact agreement in size as 
wdl as in material and ornamentation between the existing temple 
and that described bj Hiouen Thsang, it establishes only the fact of 
the present temple having existed in the beginning of the 7th century, 
bat does not bar the probability of its also having existed many 
eentories before the advent of that traveller. 

Both Hiouen Thsang and the writer of the Burmese inscription of 
CoL Bumey, state that the temple was originally built by As'oka, and 
we see no reason to doubt their assertion. Bearing in mind how lavish 
As'oka was in his expenditure for the erection of towers and monu- 
ments in all parts of India, it is but natural to suppose that he had 
selected the spot where the founder of his religion attained to per- 
fection as the most appropriate place for the largest and loftiest of his 
monuments. That such a monument should have lasted for six hundred 
years when Buddhism was still on the ascendant, so as to be visible in 
the time of Fa Hian, is not in the least improbable. No doubt the 
structure had had several repairs, and it is to these probably that the 
Burmese inscription, and Hiouen Thsang refer when they allude to the 
legend of the dream and the consequent '' rebuilding" of the monu- 
ment, but they do not controvert the position of its having been in 
the first instance erected by As'oka. 



P. S. Since writing the above I have read Montgomery Martin's 
notice of the temple at Buddha Gay& (Eastern India, I. p. 23) and 
Bachanan Hamilton's description of the ruins at that place (Transact. 
BL As. Soc. II. p. 41). Both allude to the tradition about Asoka's 
bsTing erected the temple, and express doubts regarding the authentic 
city of Amara's inscription. Hamilton describes a two-storied room 
soir the temple which I did not see« 



^^>VWWWVWWW^^^^^«M«AAAAMMMMMMMM^^IM 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



188 Description of a new species of Paradoanirus, [No. 2, 



Description of a new species of Paradoxurus from the Andaman 
Islands. — By Col. Tytleb. 

As the mammalia found on these Islands mnst be of interest, I beg 
to send jou the following, description of a stev Paradoxurus which I 
hare named after myself, 

Paeaboxfeits Tytleeh. 

Length from tip of snout to end of tail 3 feet and 6 inches, of which 
the tail alone measures 1 foot and 8 inches, and the head about 6 inches, 
height at shoulder 8 inches, general colour, dark bister brown, thickly 
mixed with longer light hairs of an Isabeline colour, giving the animal 
a changeable colour from dark to light according to circumstances ; the 
entire under surface is of a pale Isabeline hue ; feet, muzzle, and ears 
dark, eyes hazel ; whiskers white, mixed with a few black habs ; nails 
nearly white ; teeth strong ; cheeks dark ; light down the nose, and 
about the eyes j very vulpine in appearance j tail round not prehensile* 
Naked area or glandular fold between the anus and the genitab ; large 
feet of moderate size ; fur very thick and of a moderate length. The 
above was taken from an adult male. In habits they are very nocturnal, 
and appear to feed almost entirely on fruit and vegetables. I had two 
males caught with a great deal of difficulty alive, but they soon died 
in captivity : I have preserved their skins and skeletons. Their call is 
rather cat-like, and they appear rather inoffensive in their habits, 
Botrrithstanding that at times they fought slightly with each othen 
I trust this brief account may be acceptable, and if so, should you 
desire it, I shall be happy when opportunities offer, to send you 
fiirther notes from these distant islands. 

I ought to mention that the Paradoxurus I have described is not 
very common ; the two I obtained were both from Viper Island where 
they do great havoc amongst pine apples : they are great tree climbers, 
nocturnal in their habits, and living during the day in holes. 

^th June, 1868. 



^<»<VW»<W»»MWMV><WWW«»^<^<V<»W^«^»^»<^<»<S^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1801.] Mxtracifrcm Journal of a Trip to Bhamo. 189 



Extract from Journal of a Trip to Bhamo. — B^ Dr, C. Williams. 

Fehruary 2rd» — ^At about midday reached the neighbourhood of 
Tagoang. The rirer here runs between a portion of the Mingwoon 
range of hills, which, covered with forest, slope to the water's edge of 
the right hank, — and a steep bank of sandstone with a fringe of sand- 
banks on the left. Its course is from N. to S. About a mile below 
Tagoung I went on shore with a Burman who professed to know all 
about the old city. Along the bank on which we walked and which was 
formed of debris from the sandstone of the steep true bank, we proceeded 
ajout half a mile, when we entered a lane to the right, having on our 
left the old city wall of Tagoung, and on our right a stony and brick 
strewn rise that appeared to be also a ruined wall : we continued thus 
due east for about a quarter of a mile, when the wall on our left turned 
tofvards the N. E. and the rise on the right continued its easterly 
direction. On the north side of this latter the ground was on a level 
with the top of the rise. My guide declared it to be the north wall 
of Pagan ; I rather thought it the run of an aneieut counterscarp ta 
the south wall of Tagoung. 

I ascended the Tagoui^ wall with great difficulty, for the junglo,. 
which is thicker and higher on the wall than elsewhere, contained 
many of the tearing and scratching species of plants that so frequently 
defy intrusion on a Burman jungle. Its brick structure was every- 
where plain, and 1 should guess its outside height at the south and 
south-east sides, to be twenty feet. I tried to keep along the bw ground 
close to the wall, but was obliged to submit to be guided round by a 
path, that after a circuit in the east, brought us to an eastern gateway. 
The brick work was here very hard and the backing of earth equally 
so- Just within the gateway were two decayed gate posts smaller than 
the gate posts of a good-sized Burman compound, but of the same kind, 
evidently a reUc only of the latest period at which the modern village 
needed or was worth the protection of a gate. The wall here appeared 
to run due N. and S. Passing into the old city, a jungle path to the 
North West brought us to the present village of Tagoung, containing 
by the Thoogyce's account about one hundred houses, which is apparent- 
ly correct. I called on this official, and found him civil and willing to 
give me all the information he could, which was not much. At my 

ogtiz^byLjOOgle 



190 JSxtraetJrom Journal of a Trip to Bhamo, [No, 2> 

request be drew a plan of the two cities on a parabeit. He confessed^ 
however, that he had not seen the greater part of the wall, and especially 
did not appear at all certain about old Pagan. On the authority of 
** they say" however, he drew outlines like the following. (PL I.) 

As my subsequent inspection rathor confirmed this sketch, I give 
it to serve as a plan for reference. 

The Thoogjee with the help of some of the numerous viators 1 
had attracted to hia house, told me that anciently the two ciides were 
surrounded by the river, an arm of which embraced the east sides 
and rejoined the main stream {a the south of Pagan. The re-» 
mains of this branch of th& river he declared to be evident in the 
ereek to the north of Tagoung, and in th& fact that during the freshes 
of the rainy season, the two cities are actually surrounded by running 
water. 

The walls of Tagoung he said followed the water-course, and those 
of Pagan too were only at a short distance from it. " In the rains, in 
fact» the two oitiea form tho only dry ground in the neighbourhood.*' 
To the eastward a series of jheels and tanks are scattered through the 
jungle tiU, at the distance of a deing (two miles) or more^ a small lake 
is met with, extending eight miles from N. to S. and six from E. to W. 
Seyond this lake is jungle> tiU the hills that run. down from Momest 
are met about another deing further east. 

All united in saying that Pagan is older than Tagoung, and all 
declared themselves ignorant of its history. *' Its chronicles are all 
burnt," said one : another more intelligently remarked ;. — " It is not 
hundreds, nor even a thousand years that the city has ceased to be a 
capital : before religion came to the coimtry it was the Burman capital, 
and what old man can tell us of its history ?" On my enquiring afber 
any stone inscriptions or other relics of antiquity^ they said none 
have been found except a few small Budh images stamped in relief 
on bricks with an inscription beneath, that X might perhaps be able 
to read, but that they could not. They told me that these are all 
found on the ground within old Pagan, and nothing of the kind has 
been met with within the walls of Tagoung. 

The Thoogyee sent for some pieces, and on examination the cha-» 
racter proved to be Nagari, which I recognised, but cannot read when 
distinct, and this insciiption was far from legible. 

Taking temporary leave of the Thoogyee, I went through a wide 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1864.] Sxiraet/rom Journal of a Trip to BJutmo. 191 

gap in the north wall, which seemed mosilj levelled with the ground of 
the dty, though its site is plainly marked hj the hrickwork, and fomid 
mjadf on the steep bank of the creek mentioned by the Thoogyee. 
Tiooking northwards, a long stretch of graduailj narrowing water 
appears at last to end in a cul-de-sac amidst dense jungle. This is 
evidently an old passage, and at present an open one in the rainy season. 
To the right, close along the wall of the city, stretched a piece of low 
jungly ground, through which a small stream of water issued into the 
main creek. I went along this north wall till jungle and approach- 
ing darkness stopped me. The line of brickwork was plain enough, 
and close outside it, the ground sloped to the low swampy jungle 
which the natives said is covered with deep water every summer. 

The present village, I should explain, is situated on the north-west 
oomer of the old city : one or two old pagodas are near and several 
modem ones. The chief object of reverence to fear, however, is a Nat, 
which is said to possess great power for evil as well as good, and espe- 
dally inflicts the stomach-ache on any offender. The material repre- 
sentative of this spirit is a rude head on a post, the whole of wood, 
about four feet high, with a tapering head-dress, half globes for eyes, 
a well formed nose and no mouth, but rather big ears. This dreaded 
image is lodged in a wooden shed like a Zayat, a portion of which, 
6Qf?ered by an extra roof, is boarded off into a chamber about six feet 
square : within this stood the ugly post, amidst earthen vases and little 
pans in which flowers and lamps had been offered to it. As sketched 
from memory the outiine of the thing was as below. (Fig. 1.) 

I have heard of this terrible nat at Mandalay, and have been 
consulted by a former Thoogya for an incurable stomach-ache and 
asthma inflicted by it while he was in office here. The nat bears 
a bad reputation for vindictiveness and being easily offended. The 
origin of this particular worship at this spot, I will enquire forther 
into before I make any guesses. In the evening I witnessed a strik- 
ing example of the reverence the nat exacts from all comers to his 
neighbourhood. My Burman servants had evinced some fear in the 
day and revised to accompany me in a close inspection of his devil- 
ship. At the puey given by the Thoogya in the evening, the 
actors in which were a company of players from Mtmtshobo^ I noticed 
these latter always making a shiko to somebody I could not see, before 

2 c 2 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



lt)2 



Extract from Journal of a Trip to Bhamo, [No. 2, 




Fig. 1. 
they made the customary one to the entertainer himself. On the 
constant repetition of this I asked " Who is it they shiko to ?" and was 
told by the Thoogya, " to the Lord nat/' and then recollected that 
the nat shed stood in the direction of the obeisance which had 
puszled me. 

The inhabitants even dared to tell me that the nat was ''teg 
aothe," very wicked, but in a confidential manner, as if they would 
not at all like the nat to know they said so. 

The next morning, February 4(th, was so foggy that I could sea 
nothing. After despatching some letters, by a chance but sale oppor- 
tunity to Mandalay for posting, I went on shore about 10 ▲. H., de- 
taining the canoe, and sending on the large boat. I went to the 
Thoogya who had collected half a dozen of the brick reliefs, all that 
the village possessed, from which I selected three, and with the ready 
<x>nsent of the Thoogya brought them away. I then started for 
Pagan, and tiie Thoogya determined to accompany me. We passed 
out by a gateway in the east wall, north of that by which I had 
entered yesterday — where the direction of the wall was N. E. and 
S. W.| and after walking through jungle in a southerly direction 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



1S64.] Extract from Journal of a Trip to Bhamo. 193 

for mbout half or a third of a mile, entered old Pagan by a pathway 
passing over a low ill-defined ridge, which the quantity of brickwork 
in^the 'eoil, as well as the assertions of the Thoogyee and followers, 
made evident as the north wall of old Pagan. To the west and east 
the same ridge conld be seen to extend, but could not be followed 
Ux more than a few yards on account of the thick and prickly jungle. 
Aboat sixty yards to the south, we came on a mass of brickwork, ap- 
parently an old pagoda, on which was a rude Budh protected by a 
modem though dilapidated shed, and with its back against the remains 
of the original Dzedi. There was nothing peculiar about it, but by 
the image were several of the brick casts above mentioned, but of a 
different stamp from those the Thoc^ee had shown me at his house. 
The inscription was here more distinct, and, like the others, in the 
Nagari chiracter. The Thoogyee permitted me to take the two most 
perfect. Continuing south for about 600 yards through dense jungle, 
the narrow path led us to a round pile of bricks overgrown with brush- 
irood and grass, the ruin of a conical pagoda called by the people the 
" Mwy Zeegoon Phra." We climbed its almost perpendicular side by 
a path already worn, and from the top, could see how utterly the site 
of both cities was converted into forest and jungle. The walls could 
not be traced even in the faintest manner. The low ground to the 
east, however, was plainly outside the city. Several spots within had 
been used for " Toungya" cultivation : none had been otherwise made 
use of. Returning by the same path, for further progress southwards 
was barred, I got the best of the natives to accompany me to the 
eastwards, where he said the north-east comer of the city was ap- 
parent. We must have wandered through cartways and jungle paths 
about half a mile to the eastward before we came upon the supposed 
comer. To the westward I could not trace the wall, but straight to 
the south we traced distinctly the high brickwork for fully half » 
mile. To the right was impenetrable jungle the whole way, to the left 
few ground with occasional patches of forest, and much of the long 
feathery grass, which only grows in places well watered. This low 
bmd, the man said, is covered by water in the summer, and at. that 
time there is a current all along by the wall. 

The jungle defied further progress. The guide said that the wall 
continues straight on southwards for twice the distance that we had 
come. We now passed through an ordeal of many scratches, and 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



194 Extract fram Journal of a Trip to Bhamo. [No. 2, 

struck upon a path within the walls, running south-west. Keeping this 
general course, we walked I think a mile and a half, and emerged over a 
line of brickwork on the same level with the top of the sandstone bank, 
and about a dozen yards within it. Now on the bank of the river I 
could not afford time to follow the wall line southwards, but from a 
good mark, (a large tree on the lower bank opposite the gap in the 
true bank,) I measured with a tape the distance to the apparent north- 
west comer of the city. This was 104 times 60 feet, or 6200 feet. 
From*this it appears that the natives' account is probably correct, and 
that the city of Pagan was at least two miles in length from north to 
south, and probably a mile in breadth from east to west. A thousand 
feet from the supposed north-west comer of Pagan begins the west wall 
of Tagoung. This runs directly north for 24 times 60 = 1200 feet, 
then turns with the bank of the river t9 the north-east for 600 feet, from 
which the north wall is apparently continuous along the creek in a due 
eastward direction. The west wall of Tagoung is evidently a brickwork 
capping to the natural sandstone bulwark, and thus appears to be 
parallel with, but somewhat to the west of the west wall of Pagan, 
which lies behind the natural bank. 

The whole was very probably an island in remote times, and it 
seems that insular or semi-insular positions have been favorite sites 
for Burmese capitals ; e. y. " Poukkan" or Lower Pagan on " Yunhlot" 
Island, Ava, and this the most ancient of all. 

The Thoogyee who had left me after showing the Mwy Zc^foon 
Phra, now came down to the beach, and seemed a little puzzled at my 
measuring the old walls. His face bore a queer expression of doubt 
whether he had not committed a sin in allowing this perhaps dan- 
gerous proceeding. He, however, spoke very civilly, and we parted the 
best of friends, he promising me all the information procurable, on my 
return. It was now 4 o'clock, and a very cold pull it was to reach 
the boat, which I found about 8 o'clock, moored beneath the bluff of 
Tongue, about eight miles up the river. This Tongue is said to have 
been a capital before Tagoung. Again near Myadoung is a place 
" Thigine" on the west bank, called the Beloo Myo or Monsters' city, 
where the walls are of stone, and other evidences of superhuman 
handiwork are talked of. This must be of interest. 

I fancy that in former times there were several petty states in the 
upper Irrawaddi valley, and that the Burmese chroniclers have merely 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



18G^] JExtractfrom Journal of a Trip to Bhamo, 196 

■elected one at a time, and stringing backwards the genealogy of their 
modem kings, manufactured the tale of a continuous monarchy with 
a shifting capital and dating from the first inroad of Hindoo princes 
into the valley up to the present time. I understand from Hindoos 
that they have in their books some accounts of an incursion of Hindoos 
into this country. 

The ancient extent of Hindoo influence over Indo-China and 
the adjacent archipelago, I suppose to be a well-proved fact, and the 
prominence given in Burman chronicles to the advent of the Hindoo 
prince is very significant* 

I should have mentioned above,, that the great extent of pond and 
\aike, with the creeks of still water, make Tagoung a remarkably good 
fishing-place. Great quantities of fish are dried, and much made into 
*' n^pee" and great numbers also are taken alive to the capital. The 
small-fish are thrown into the boat and kept alive with frequent 
changes of the water. The larger fish are strung by the gills, or the 
nose, or the lip, and so towed down the river till the market is reached. 
At the time of my visit, the cul-de-sac creek to the north of the city 
was closed at its mouth by a bamboo netting, and the fish above were 
heing narcotised with some bark, that I am as yet unacquainted with. 
The fish above the net being all taken, the net is removed, when after 
five or six days, fish enter the creek again and the process is repeated. 
At this creek and on the river in the neighbourhood of Tagoimg, the fish- 
eating birds are particularly numerous. A few specimens I have shot 
and had skinned ; among them the Scissor-bill (Khimops nigra) and 
another very handsome web-footed bird of the size of a duck, with a 
long neck and a sharp pointed beak. It swims with only its head and 
oe€*k out of the water, but watches for its prey most generally on the 
)gw sand banks, or on some projecting piece of drift wood. Its food 
ia small fish. The Darter. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



196 N>ie on the Gibbon of Tenasscrim, Hylobatct lar. [No. 2^ 



Note on the Gibbon of Ter*as8erm, Hylobates lar. — By Lieui.-CoL 
S. R. TiCKELL } in a letter to A. Geote, Ssq. 

I send a transcript from my Mammalian collection of what I had 
recorded of Hylobates lar, at least of its wild and tame habits. Notes 
on its osteology and soft anatomy and structure, you wiU not require^ 
as you have a specimen by you, which I suppose from what you say 
of its paralysis wiU not live long. The one you liave, must have been 
about li year old when I sent it you. Doubtless captivity has 
checked its growth. I give the dimensions taken of an adult one, but 
I think I have seen them larger, and the males are larger than the 
females, (as in all monkeys). 

The Burmese and Talains never keep monkeys of any kind as pets. 
The Karens sometimes do. Of the Shans I cannot spoak, but being 
Budhisfcs they probably do not either. 

Hylobates Lab (Ogilby.) 
The Hylobates lar is foimd in great abundance in all the forests 
skirting the hills, which run from north to south through the pro- 
vince of Tenasserim. They ascend the hills tliemselves up to an 
elevation of 3,000 to 3,500 feet above sea level, but not higher, and 
are usually met with in parties of from 8 to 20, composed of indivi- 
duals of all ages. It is rare to see a solitary one ; occasionally, how- 
ever, an old male will stay apart from the flock, perched on the 
summit of some vast tree, whence his howls are heard for miles 
around. The forests which these animals inhabit, resound with tlieir 
cries from sunrise to about 9 A. m. Their usual call may be thus 
rendered. 



^vrn rt 




— -arco a — vr0O a- — vrovr OO woe / 



jiTOO a Jtroa a 

The sounds varying from the deep notes of the adults to the sharp 
treble of the young ones. During these vocal clibrts they appear to 



Digitized byLjOOQlC 




HYL0BATE5 LAR. ^. Digitized by GOOglC 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




18^4.] J^cte Oft the Gibbon of Tenaseerim, Bylobates lar, 197 

resort to the extreme summits of the loftiest trees, and to call to each 
other from distant parts of the jungle: After 9 or 10 a. m. they 
become silent and are engaged feeding on fruit, joimg leaves, huds> 
shoots and insects, for which they will occasionally come to the 
ground: When approached, if alone, they will sometimes sit close, 

doubled up in a thick tuft of foliage, or 
behind the fork of a tree near the top, so 
screened as to be quite safe from the shot 
of the sportsman. The sketch in the mar- 
gin may show how effectually a single 
gunner may be baffled in his attempts to 
secure a specimen. With a companion the 
nanceuYre of eourse is useless. But indeed when forced from its con- 
cealment and put to flight, the GKbbon is not easily shot. It swings 
from branch to branch with its long arms, shaking the boughs all 
around, flings itself from prodigious heights into denser foliage, and is 
quickly concealed from view by intervening trees. 

If hit, there is no animal more tenacious of life, and its efforts 
when desperately wounded to cling to the branch, and drag itself into 
some fork or nook where to hitch itself and die, excite amusement and 
compassion. 

The Gibbon ^f we restrict that name to this species)^ is not nearly 
•0 light and active as its congener H. hoolack, (the "Tooboung'* 
of the Arakanese,) which latter species is not liable to vary in colour, 
hang always black, with the hands and feet concolorous, and the 
sapercilia only white, instead of a circle of that colour all round the 
&oe. The Qibbon, moreover, walks less readily on its hind legs than 
the hoolock, having frequently to prop and urge itself along by its 
knuckles on the ground. In sitting it often rests on its eibows and 
will lie readily on its back. Anger it shows by a fixed steady look, 
with the mouth held open and the lips occasionally retracted to show 
Uie canines, with which it can bite severely, but it more usually 
strikes with its long hands, which are at such times held dangling-, 
and shaken in a ridiculous manner, like a person who has suddenly 
burnt his fingers. It is, on the whole, a gentle peaceable animal, very 
timid and so wild as not to bear confinement if captured adult. The 
young ^Idom reach maturity when deprived of liberty. They ar^ 
bom generally in the early part of the cold weather, a single one at 

Di^iz^byLjOOgle 



198 ^ote on the Oibbon of Tena^serim, Hylohates lar, [No. 2, 

a birth, two being as rare as twins in the human race. The young 
one sticks to its mother's body for about seven months and then be- 
gins gradually to shift for itself. So entirely does this animal confine 
itself to its hands for locomotion about the trees, that it holds any 
thing it may have to carry by its hind hands or feet. In this way I 
have seen them scamper off with their plunder, out of a Karen plan- 
tain garden in the forest. 

I have had many of these animals while young in confinement. 
They were generally feeble, dull, and querulous, sitting huddled upon 
the ground, and seldom or never climbing trees. On the smooth sur- 
face of a matted floor they would run along on their feet and slide on 
their hands at the same time. By being fed solely on plantains, or 
on milk and rice, they were apt to lose all their for, presenting ia 
their nude state a most ridiculous appearance. Few recovered from 
this state : but a change of diet, especially allowing them to help 
themselves to insects, enabled some to come round, resuming their 
natural covering. For the most part they were devoid of those 
pranks and tricks which are exhibited by the young of the Macacus 
and InuuSy though occasionally and if not tied up, they would gambol 
nbout with cats, pups, or young monkeys. 

The tawny and the black varieties of the Gibbon appear to mix 
indiscriminately together. The Karens in the Tenasserim provinces 
consider there is a third variety which they name " Khaydo pabi," 
and the Talainft " Woot-o-padyn" (blue ape). This is probably the 
party-coloured or mottled phase of the animal, which occurs very oftea 
to the southward, in Malacca. The pale variety is more numerous iix 
the district of Amherst than the black one. 

Hylohatet lor extends southward to the Straits, and northward to 
the northerly confines of Pegoo (British Burma) : whether it is found 
throughout Burma proper or not, I cannot ascertain. To the west of 
the spur dividing British Bumm from Arakan,t <^<1 throughout the 
latter province into the mountains east of Chittagong, is found only 
E.ylohate8 hoolock. And farther northward in the forests and hilla 
of Cachar, Mimnipoor and As&m exists either a third species, (not yet 
I believe distinguished by naturalists,) or if the same species as JET. 
hoohcky so strongly modified as to be lai*ger and stouter, with a 
totally different call, and subject to vary in colour the same as if. lar 
which H, hoolock in Arakan is not« 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



J86I.] Literary Intelligence. 199 

I subjoin the dimensionB of ^i adult male specimen of Hylohatei 
l» shot near Hlyng bway, Tenasserim province ; January, 1855. 
But I believe it attains a larger size. 

Length from crown to podteriors 1' 7i" 

Humeraa 9i^, Radius 9V', Hand 6", Total 2' 1". 

Femur 7i", TiWa 7i", Foot 4*". Total 1' 7i". 

Height when standing upright about 2^ 6". 

I should not omit mentioning the peculiar manner in which this 
^Mcies drinks, and which is hy scooping up the water in itks long 
Kffrow handy and thus conveying a miserahly small quantity at a time 
to its mouth. It is to be hoped the animal is not much troubled 
vitli thirst. 

■ tlTERART lyTELLIOENCK. 

BxtraU du memoire de Mb. Holmboe simt Voriyine du systeme de 
poidg de Vancienne Scandinavie.* 

Pendant que le systeme de poids de 1* ancienne Borne, constituant 
b livre de 12 onces ^it en usage dans une grande partie de T Europe, 
^ Scandinavie se servait d'un systeme tout diffi^nt, comptant 1 
Qork (plutard dit marc) = 8 asrar (plur de eyrir, pl^tard dit ore). 

I eyris = 3 ortugar ou ertugar (plur, de ortug). 

On est frapp^ de reneontrer le m^me systeme en usage dans 
I' Inde m^ridionale modeme, ou, 

1 9er est = 8 palas. 

1 pala = 3 tolas, 
et plus frappante encore est Tegalit^ de la pesanteur des poids 
Kspectifs des deux contrees si ^loign^es Tune de I'autre. L'auteur 
<kmne doux listes de la pesanteur de Tonce (eyrir, pala) dans divers 
^tats de FEuiope et de Flnde, d' oii il r^ulte, que sa pesanteur, quoi- 
qu* un peu variante, se trouve piesqu'entre les m^me homes ici et la, 
<^ qui est aussi le cas avec I'once de plusi^urs dtate Mahometans hors 
derinde. 

II est vrai que, depuis le moyen age, le marc de 8 onces a ^te en 
wage dans la {^upart des daits Europ^ns ; mais il faut remarquer, 
que Ton n*y s'en sert que pour peser Tor, Targent et un nombre tres 
limits d' autres articles pr^ieux, pendant que la livre de 12 onces 

* Commnnicate^ in a letter to Babu Bajendra Lai Mitra. 

^ijfzl by Google 



200 Liiei^ary Intelligence. [No. 2, 

est le poidf principal pour les vivres et lee marchaDdises. Les Scan- 
<]inave8 au contraire se servent du marc, eyrir et ertag pour tout 
objet ponderable ; et la division de I'onoe en 8 unit& inf(§reures ne se 
rencontre nuUe part hors de Scandinavie et de V Inde. 

L*auteur a fait des recherches pour trouver dee traces du syst^me 
des Scandinayes dans les contr&s, quails passaient lors de leur iftni- 
gration de TAsie, et par lesquelles un chemin de commerce tr^s fre- 
qtient^ entreienait les relations entre TOrient et le Nord jusqu'il 
rinvaSion des Tartares. Le r&ultat de oes recherches se borne k 
attirer I'attention sur un grand nombre de lingote d'argent, qu 'il y a 
une trentaine d'ann^es ont 6t& desenterr^ k Riazan, presqu* an centre 
de la Bussie. Or le poids moyen de ces lingots repond de trds pres au 
poids du marc ancien des Scandinaves. Et k Bokhara on se sert 
aujourd'hui d'une once, dit Tolendak, dont le poids est presque ^gal 
i Vanden eyrir. 

Quant k Torigine de T^galit^ des poids du Nord et de Tlnde, Fau- 
teur ^met lliypoth^se, que le syst^me a ^t^ ^tabli chez les ancStres 
commons des Ariens de Flnde et des peuples du Nord. Pour sap- 
porter eet hypoth6se il cite un certain nombre d'artides de civilisation, 
qui portent les mSmes ou presque les m^mes noms en Scandinavie et 
en Inde, — articles qui d^montrent un degr^ de civilisation, qui doit 
ndcessairement avoir eu besoin d'un syst^me de poids. Les ^igr^s 
doivent done Tavoir apport^ avec eux, les uns vers le Nord, les autres 
vers le Sud. 

Translation. 

Extract from (he Memoir of M. Hohnhoe on the origin <f the %«* 
tern of Weighte in Ancient Scandinavia. 
While the system of weights of ancient Bome, comprising the- 
pound of twelve ounces was in use in a large part of Europe, Scandi- 
navia used a very different system, consisting of 

1 mork (afterwards marc) = 8 asrar (plural of eyrir, afterwards- 
called ore), 

1 eyrir = 3 ortugar or ertugar (plural of ortug). 
One is struck at meeting with the same system in use in modern 
Southern India where 

1 sir = 8 palas, 
l,pala = 3 tolahs. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



1S64.] Literary Intelligence. ' 201 

and still more striking is the equality of the respective weights, in 
two countries so far distant from each other. The author gives two 
lists of the weight of the ounce (eyrir, pala) in the different states of 
Europe and India, from which it appears, that although its weight 
Taries somewhat, the variation has almost the same limits in hoth 
quarters, which is also true of the ounce in several Mahometan states 
ezteuudto India. 

It is true that the marc of 8 ounces has heen in use in most Eu- 
ropean states since the middle ages : but it must be remarked that it 
is only employed there for the weighment of gold, silver, and a very 
limited number of other precious articles, while the pound of 12^ 
ounces is the chief weight for provisions and merchandise. The 
Scandinavians on the contrary use the marc, eyrir and erfcag, for every 
weighable object ; and the subdivision of the ounce into 3 units of 
lower value, is met with nowhere but in Scandinavia and India. 

The author has sought for traces of the Scandinavian system in 
ibe countries which that people traversed in their emigration from 
Asia, and through which passed a well-frequented commercial route, 
by which Eastern and Northern nations communicated, up to the time 
of the Tartar invasion. The result of these researches is limited to 
diawing attention to a great number of ingots of silver which were 
Axkg up at Biazan, almost in the centre of Russia ; the weight of these 
ingots corresponds very closely to that of the ancient marc of the 
Scandinavians : and at Bokhara, according to Tollendak, an ounce is 
still in use, the weight of which is almost equal to that of the ancient 
eyrir. 

As to the origin of this equality in the weights of the North and 
of India, the author suggests that the system was established by the 
common ancestors of the Arians of India and of the Northerns. In 
support of this view, he cites a certain number of articles of civiliza- 
tion which bear the same names in Scandinavia and India, — and 
which indicate a degree of civilization which must have absolutely 
required a system of weights. The emigrants then carried this with 
them ; some to the North, the others to the South. 

H. F. B. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



202 Literartf InielJigenee^ [No. 2, 



Br. E. BuHLER on Qakafdyanas Sanskrit Gh^ammar, 

I lately received through the kindness of my friend Mr. W. Stokes 
of Madras, part of a transcript of MS. 1071 (Alph. Cat. E. T. H. 
CoL) as well as the beginning and end of MSS. 1072 and 1073, 
which in the Catalogue raitonne as well as in the Gat. Alph. are 
stated to contain the ancient grammar of ^nka^^j^OkA, the predecessor 
of Tfiska, P&Qini and the author a£ the Mahibhiishya. 

On examination, MS. 1071 proves to contain a copy of the ^abdA- 
nn9lL8ana of ^akatayana with the Ohint&maQi Yritti of Yaxavannan 
(beginning on fol. 31 of the original MSS., p. 149 of my transcript)* 
The first thirty-one folios contain a compendium based on the same 
work, in the style of the Siddhluitakaiimu^. Its author and title I am 
unable to ascertain, as it is full of breaks in the beginning and in the 
end. MS. 1072 contains a work called Frakriylisamgraha by Abha- 
yacandra-siddh&nta-sibi, likewise giving s4tras from the (JJabdIinuglisana, 
but if it is commentary or an abridgment of the original I cannot 
say. MS. 1073 resembles closely MS. 1072 ; its title and author are 
not named. 

Though I only possess about li pida of the first adhyiya of the 
^abd&nu^asana I venture to give a notice of the work without waiting 
ibr the completion of the transcript, as I think it can be proved satis- 
£tM3torily, that that work really belongs to the predecessor of Panini. 
Besides, the above-mentioned compendium allows me to form a general 
idea of the whole work. 

In order to prove the correctness of the title given, I give the text 
of the introductory verses of the Chint&mani : 

Vitar%aya namah. 

^riyam kriyadvah sarvajnanajyotira na9varim. 

Vi^vam praklb9ay-aecin^imafiip(nnt^hasadhanah. (1) 

Namastama(h) prabh^vlLbhibhiitabhMyotahetave. 

Lokopak^riue 9abdabrahmaQe dv&da9atmane. (2) 

Svasti 9risakalajn&nas4mrijya, padamftptavin. 

Mahft^ramana-samghidhipatir-yah ^dkafdyanah. (3) 

Eka f^abddmbudhimbuddhimantharena pramathya yah. 

Saya^ah 9vi samuddadhre vi9vam vyHkaranamiitam. (1) 

Svalpagrantham sukhop&yam sampiirnam yadupakramam. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1S64.] Literary Intelligence. 203 

Qahddau^anam s&rvam aurharcoyk Banvatpwam. (5). 

£8htinieflht& na vaktavyam vaktayyam aiitratah prithak. 

Samkbyltam nopasamkhy&nam yasya fobddnugdsane. (6) 

TaByfttimahatim vrittim samhrityeyam laghiyasf. 

SampiirgaliuaQay{itturYaxyate yad»7t?arma»^. (7) 

Grantha-yistara-bhirtLn^m sukum^adhiylimayam. 

ya^r^hftdigaQ&n kartum ^tre samharagodyamah. (8) 

(}abddnu^d9anamfd nvarthayi^ cintdmone ridam. 

Vritter granthe pram^amtu shafsaluuram nirupitam (9) 

Indraeandrddihhi^gdbdair yaduktam 9abdalaxaoam 

Tadih&stisamaetam ca yanneh^ti na tatkvacit. (10) 

Ganadhdtupdfhayor gaoadhitu lingdnugdsane lingagatam. 

Unadikft nunddau 9e8ham ni^^eshaniatra yfittau yidyat. (11) 

B&14baUyaiiopya0y& yritter abhy^sayrittitah. 

Samastamylingmayaiii yetti yarshesaikena ni9cay&t. (12) 

With these statements we must compare the end of the first chap- 
tef , which runs as follows : 

Iti 9abdAna9a8ane cint&maniyrittaii prathamasy&dhy&yasya pra- 
tiuunah pftdah. 

Though there can be no doubt that the MS. contains the work of 
yikat^yana, still it remains to be proyed that this ^^afllyana is the 
predecessor of P^ini. For the name ^Akaf&yana is a nomen gentile 
and does not originally designate one indiyidoal only. Besides we 
know from the commentaries on the DhatupHt^a that there were two 
grunmarians of this name. 

Fortunately it is not difficult to decide this question, as P&nini 
quotes in three passages opinions of ^akat&yana, — ^p^jartham as the 
commentators say. Two of these rules are found in the fragment of 
the ^abdanufdsana, which I haye before me, the third is wanting 
because it refers to a matter treated of in one of the later books. The 
rales referred to are the following : 

Paoini teaches yiii. 4. 46. 

Aco rahabhyam dye (soil, yare yft). 

Consonants with the exception of h (and of course also of r) stand- 
ing after an r, or h, which is preceded by a yowel or diphthong, can, 
optionally, be doubled. 
And viii. 4. 47. 
Anaci ca. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



204 LUerary Intelliffence. [No. 2, 

(This doubling may also take place) if consonants except h and r, 
which are preceded by a vowel or diphthong, are followed by any 
letter except vowels, diphthongs* h or r, (or if they stand at the end 
of a word). 

In the following SAtraa> he gives excepti<Mis to these rules and says 
S. 60. 

Triprabhritishu fAkata'yanasya (na syit). 

If three or more consonants follow each other (which otherwise ful- 
fil the conditions stated above) the doubling shall' not take place 
according to the opinion of ^^at^yaaa^ e. g. 

^Akat&yana allows only the pronunciation indra, not inndra. 

In the 9&bd&nu9&sana we find the following corresponding rules : 

I. 1, 117. 

Acohrohracab, (dve v& sy&tfrm) CintftmaQi : Acah paro yo hak&ro 
repha9ca t&bhyslm parasya ahracah, hak4radreph^aca9canyasya 
varnasya sthane dve riipe bhavato vA, brahmmi brahmA, sarwah 
sarvah, dirgghah dirghah, ahraca iti kim, barhit, dahrah aham. 

Translation of the Siitra : 

Consonants except ' h' or ' r' following an ' h' or ' r/ which is pre- 
ceded by a vowel or diphthong, may optionally be doubled. 

Siitra I. 1. 118. 

A^hAt. 

Cint&mani : 

Adirghldacah parasy& hracah^sthine dve r&pe bhavato vA, daddhy- 
atra dadhyatra, patthyodanam pathyodanam, tvakk tvak, tvagg tvag, 
go-nu-ttr&tah go-nu-tratah, anvityadhikarAt (from Sfttra 115 9aronu 
dve) kutv&dau kutve dvitvam, adirgh&deka halityanuktvA na samyage 
(Septra 119) tvaciti (Siitra, 101) yogadvayarambhat, virAme pyayamA- 
de9ah ahraca iti kim sahyam, (?) varyyah, aryyah titau, adirghaditi kirn, 
siitram, pAtram, v&k. 

Transbition of the Sfttra : 

Consonants except h and r preceded by a short vowel and followed 
by any letters (except those specified in the following rules) or Virft- 
ma, may optionally be doubled. 

Sfttra I. 1. 119. 

Na samyage.* 

Cintamant. 

* MS. na samyngo. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



ISM.] LUerary Melligene^. 205 

HalooantarAli mnyagah, 8aiii3'age pare ahracah sthftne dVe r&pe na 
bhsTatah, indrah, (kptsnam.) 

Translatiaii of tlie 84tra : 

If oonacmaiits except h aad r are followed by a group of conlaoiianta^ 
the doubling does not take place. 

Tbe last S&tra apparently oontains the opinion ascribed to 9^^t^ 
yanaby Pft^ini in his rule YIIL 4. 60. At the same time it must be 
observed that Piioini says in YIII. 4. 52. 

AdSighfid&c&ry&pAm, — All the A^Aryas forbid the doubling of a 
letter preceded by a long vowel, and that 9i^kat&yuia who must be 
legardod as one of the Achiryas teaches the same thing in the S&tra 
118 just quoted. 

The second passage occurs P&n. YIII. 8. 18. After having taught 
Till. d« 17. that the Yisarga must be changed to y after a penultimate 
'a,' < r and ' o' in the words aghah, bhoh, bhagah he (YIII. 3. 18.) 
continues. 

Yyor laghaprayatnatarah Qftkat&yanasya and v and y (following 
a, 4 or in the three words mentioned) are to be pronounced with less 
tffixrt (movement of the tongue) than usually — ^acoording to the opi- 
num of y^M^yaaa. 

^ikatayana's s6tr% I. 1, 154> contains precisely the same rule. 

He teaches 1. 1.158. 

Yyoshyft gho bho bhagoh, (scil. gluk). 

CintknapL 

Avaroidagho bho bhago etyetebhya^ca parasya padftntasya vakA- 
*^ra yakdrasya cAahipare glug bhavati (gluk supplied from s^tra 
152)y vrixa hasati (?) Yfixavfi^camft cazanovrica (?) ; devi y&nti ; 
agfao hasatiy bho dad&ti, bhago dehi ; padAntaiti kim, gavyam, jayyamf 
Uavyam^ 

Translatioii, 

A final ^ y' and ' y' following a short or long * a/ or the words 
a^oh, bhoh, bhagoh, must be elided before soft sounds (vowels, diph^ 
iboBgs and soft consonants). . 

S^tra 1. 1. 154. 

Aeyaspashta^ca, (glng). 

CSnt&maai. 

AvarQAd-agho-bho*bhag6bhyafca paiyoh padAntantayorvyoraei pare 
glugaspasht^h avyaktafrati9cAsan|io bhavati, pafau pajav'^u, tau tay^^u, 

DigJfcelBbyLjOOgle 



208 Idterary Intelligence. [No. 2, 

<agho ii aghoy'^, agboatra aghoy'atra, bho atra bhoy'aba, bhago atra 
bhagoy'atra, gluci gita iti sandhipratishedhah. 

Note. — ^In the cases marked by * the MS. has y and v instead 
^f y',V. 

Translation. 
' And if tf and y (in this position) are followed by a vowel or diph- 
Uiong, then the elision is not clearly audible ; (i. e. the pronunciatioil 
of the V and y is unarticulated and the letters are hardly audible). 

I add. the explanation of the word aspashtah given in the above-* 
mentioned compendium. There we read : 

..•.aspashtah aspashta^rutih pragithila stymakaranaparispandagca ftsan* 
nah vak&ro yak&ra^ca. . . . .. 

Again it must be observed that PsLpini says VIII. 3. 22. hali sarves- 
h&m — All the (old) grammarians prescribe the loss of such av and f^ 
if it is followed by consonants ; and this rule is certainly contained ul 
9Akat&yana's Sutra, I. 1, 153. 

After this, I think, there can be hardly any doubt that the author 
of the 9abd&nu9ftsana was the predecessor of Fagini. 

But, in order to make doubly sure, I will adduce another proof for 
this relation, which seems to me to be still more conclusive. 

P&pini teaches Y. 2. 124 : v&co gmihih. 

The word v&c takes the affix gmini (in the meaning of matu). 

The Calcutta Pandits who prepajred the first edition of Panini 
understood the Siitra so, that the real form of the affix was gmin, and 
^nsequently formed the monster v&ggmin (with double g.). They 
even misled Dr. Boethlingk (see his note to the S&tra). Benfey^ 
and Aufrechtf understood the S4tra rightly and formed vligmin. The 
latter form alone occurs in literature, and is the only correct one. 
The obscurity of the S^tra is caused by Panini's negligence.. He has 
omitted to state that the letter ' g* is prefixed to min . only in order 
to indicate that the final of vde does not become nasal, as it ought,, 
according to the Saudhi rules* He has taken the S^itra, with a slight 
alteration, from y^kat&yaua's grammar, where according to the Com- 
pendium, it is read thus : vikco gmin. 

It is perfectly intelligible in ^akatayana's system, as there a pre* 
fixed ' g' constantly means '' no Sandhi." The author of the Com* 
pendhim says in commenting on the S&tra ; 
, • YoUst. Saakt. gr. aff. mm* f U^Adisiltras glossary a. v. vigmiii. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



18W.] Literary Intelligence. 207 

. GaUro«iuuiisikamv]ittyarthah« . 

The letter ' g' is put in order to forbid the nasal. 

On other occasions (^&. forms gluk ( g + luk) in order to indicate 
an elision which causes hiatus, e. g. in dey^ Ikydnti for dey&h d.y&ntii 
(See the above SAtra I. 1. 153 and the Cint&mani thereon). Here we 
have a dear instance, where a Siitra of P&nini presupposes the exist* 
ence oi the sjstem of ^Ukat&yana. 

Por an abstract of the contents of the first and second half-p&da 
of the first Adhjilya I must refer to the Joum. B. B. B. A. S. Here 
I must content myself with saying that they contain Samg^n&, Fari- 
bhishli, Sandhi rules, and the beginning of the declension. 

From a comparison of these rules with the corresponding ones of 
Pipiiki as well as other parts occurring in the Compendium, it can be 
dearly established that P&Qini*s grammar is a very much amplified 
md corrected edition of ^&k&^jsiisJ8, and by no means what we 
^uld call an independent and original work. 

A great many technical terms and names of affixes and roots he 
has directly borrowed from his predecessor : e. g. 

1. Technical terms. 

Yuvan, vriddha (which P&nini uses eometimes for gotra, upasarga, 
tryaya, taddhita, k|it, dSrgha, pluta, hrasva, nap, sup, dh&tu, pratyaya, 
ghi, ghu, etc. 

2. Affixes. 

Vatd, ^ti, 9n&, fap, 91, ngt, 4&c, evi, jhi, 9atri. 

8. Boots. 

Krin. The commentaries give the roots, as far as I have observed, 
eit/ioaye in the same forms as F4gini. The part of the text before contains 
no other roots than krin. As ^^^t^y^na's DhAtup&tha is in exists 
anoe, I hope to be able hereafter to give further details on the subject. 

4. The Ga^as resemble very closely those of P^ni. In the Com- 
pendium I find the Gana svarftdi at full length, and it is nearly the 
same as that given by the Calcutta PaQcJits in their edition of P&tunr, 
ttoept that it comprises also the gapa prftdi. Besides I find the ganas 
ftiyW and s£x&d6di mentioned in ^^^^iyana's grammar. The Gana 
pitba belonging to ^Akaf^yana's yabd^u9asana is said to be in exist> 
ence. 

Besides many entire S^trss have been borrowed by Pacini firom his 

. 2 E 2 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



208 LUerary InteUiffenee. [No. 2; 

predecessor, e. g. Tirontardhau I. 4. 7]. u^idayo bahulaiHi III. 3. 1. 
liirvigovAte, VIII. 2. 60. etc. 

One of the qoestions, oonneoted with this book, which will perhapB 
excite the greatest interest is, whether ^ikatiyana really was a Jains 
or Bauddha, as we are led to think on account of his title mahi^rari 
manasamghddhipati '^ moderator of the convenUon of the great ^n^ 
mapas.'' The word samgha — '^ convention" — ^shows, that he belonged 
either to the Bauddhas or Jainas, and his oommeutators, who are all 
Jainas, of course desire to show that he was of the latter persuasioa. 

I cannot venture to express at present any definite opinion on the 
subject. But I beUere that ^^kafiyana was fiot a Brahman, and 
should not be at all astonished, if it were established by additional 
evidence, which I hope will soon come into my hands, that he was i^ 
follower of ^ftyamunL 



Extract from a letter from L. BowBiira, Mtg.^ dated SanyaJere, 
2^nd March, 1864. 

I may take this opportunity of mentioning that the Malni^ or hill 
portion of Myscnre through which I have recently matched, possesses 
a great number of inscriptions, some of the Anagerudi dynasty, others 
of the Ka4amba Bajas, and others again of the Sk^ri House who 
ruled these wild tracts up to the time of Hyder Ali. The inscriptions 
are, with very few exceptions, in what is called Hale Kanna^a or old 
Ganarese, and are read with difficulty. They are invariably on la^ 
dabs placed upright in the ground, and generally with xio protection 
jrom the weather. A great many of these inscriptions were copied 
and sent to Bengal by Dr. Buchanan, who visited Mysore under orders 
from Government in the beginning of the century and wrote % very 
interesting account of his tour, in ihree volumes. Mr. Walter EUiot 
also, of the Madras C. 8., collected a great number of these inscrip* 
tions, but I do not know whether the results of his labours were com* 
municated to the Society at Oalcutta. I purpose some day, if I can 
secure the services of a qualified copyist, to have all that can be found 
in the country copied systematically. 

The most interesting traces of ancient time that I have seen in the 
Haln^ ai!e those of the Jain sectarians. Formerly there was a noted 
dynasty of Jain Bajas, called the Belal Bai Bajas, who ruled both above 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1864.] Literary Intelligenee. 209 

and below the gMts, their head-quarters being at Halebid where there 

is a splendidly carved temple. It is fifteen miles from Hassan. These 

Jun Rajas fell before the followers of Shankar Ach&rya and the Yais- 

iisvas about 800 years ago, the last Jain Eaja having deserted his 

fidth and become a believer in Vishnu, taking the name of Yishgu 

Yardhana. The head of the Smfirtas, the Sringagiri Swami, is now 

Bapreme in the Mabid4 country. However, Jains are still found in 

great numbed, and, in the remoter parts, the Heggades Or Potails 

are generally of that faith, so that it is not unusual to find in a 

Tillage a Jain Basti, as the eovered*in temples are called, with a large 

fltanding image of one of the twenty-four personifications. The pre- 

aent principal seat of the Jain religi<m is Srfivana Belgul, about fifty 

miles north of Mysore, where there is a colossal statue of Gomatesh- 

war hewn out of the summit of a hill, and looking northwards over 

the country. It is about forty-five feet high, and, though too broad 

in the shoulder and arms, is a fine figure. The legs are dwaifed, owing 

I presume to the figure having been undertaken on so gigantic a scale, 

that great expense would have been entailed by carving the lower 

extremities down to their full length. In the '^ Bastf," in the centre 

of which this image stands, there are seventy-two figures about three 

feet high, all of black stone, representing the different attributes of 

the divinity, each on its own vdhana or vehicle. I incline to think 

that if the history of the Jains in the western part of Mysore were 

methodically taken up and investigated, it would be an interesting 

subject of research. There are few literate men in the hills ; and the 

Brahmins are very ignorant regarding all inscriptions, as an instance 

of which I may mention, that when at Kalas, near the sources of 

the Tungabhadra river, I enquired whether there were in the Devas- 

than there any incised slabs, and was answered in the negative ; but 

on visiting it in the evening, I found twenty-six stone Shfisanas in 

Canarese (one of Saliv^han 1132), one in Devandgari and two on 

copper plates. This part of the country is, however, very wild, and; 

so far as I could ascertain, no European had been to Gangftmid (the 

Boorces of the Tungabhadra) for twenty years before my visit. There 

is a proverb that the Kalas M^gani (Taluk) is a country of 8000 

pagodas^ 0000 hills, and 12,000 devils. The scenery in it is vexy fine. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



PROCEEDINGS 

OP THE 

ASIATIC SOCIETY OP BENGAL, 

Foe Maech, 1864. 



The monthly general meeting of the Asiatic Socieiy was held 
on the 2nd instant. 

Dr. T. Anderson, Vice-President in the chair. 

The proceedings of the last meeting were read and confirmed 

The annual accounts of the Society for 1863, were submitted. 

It was proposed by Colonel Dickens, and seconded by Mr. 
Blanford, that the thanks of the Society be voted to the auditors for 
their labours in auditing the Society's accounts. The proposition 
was carried unanimously. 

Presentations were announced — 

1. From Lieutenant B. C. Beavan, a copy of "Westwood's 
Oriental Entomology." 

2. From Baboo Prosonno Coomar Tagore, two copies of the 
Ddyabhaga with six commentaries, published by himself. 

. 3. From W. T. Blanford, Esq., Deputy Superintendent of the 
Geological Survey of India for Bombay, specimens of land crabs and 
a grouse. 

4. From His Highness Hekekyan Bey, c. E., a copy of his 
treatise on Egyptian Chronology. 

Colonel Guthrie exhibited a remarkably fine pair of Wapiti 
horns. 

The Chairman announced that a deputation had waited upon the 
Bight Hon'ble Sir John Lawrence, with the following address requesting 
His Excellency to become the patron of the Society, -and that lie had 
been pleased to accept the office in the terms of the subjoined reply. 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



1864.] ProceedingBofthe Asiatic Society.' 211 

ADDRESS 

" To His Excellency the Bight Hon'ble Sib 
JoHK Laied Maie Lawrence, Babt., e. c. b., k. s. i., 
Ser Mafesty*s Vteeroy and Governor- General of India. 

'' On the part of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, we, its President 
ind Members, respectfully solicit that your Excellency will be pleased 
to accept the office of patron of the Society. 

" Founded in 1784, by Sir William Jones, the Asiatic Society has, 
ior 80 years, de7oted its labours to the advancement of Asiatic 
Kienoe, whether that science be the record of the works of man, 
^ the investigation of the phenomena and laws of nature. The 
hisliory, literature and philosophy of India, the laws and customs of 
its people, the architecture of its ancient cities, and the languages 
ttid dialects of its numerous races of past and present time, have 
^)cen largely recorded and elucidated by the labours of the many 
^DULent men whom the Society has been proud to enroll as its 
members. On the other hand, the geography and physical structure 
of India and Southern Asia, the Fauna and Flora of this and 
neighbouring countries, their climatai phenomena and the physical 
laws of nature, to a knowledge of which modem civilization is so 
Ivgely indebted, have equally been objects of the studious researches 
of the Society, and the numerous volumes of its publications, and 
the large and valuable collections in its museum, amply testify u> 
the zeal and skill with which these objects have been pursued. 

*' Furthermore in all questions bearing on the material progress of 
^ country, the Asiatic Society has ever taken an active interest, 
ttid much valuable information on the mineral resources of India, 
oa the geography and people of the frontiers, on the practicability 
^ new trade routes, and similar matters directly affecting the wealth 
^ intelligence of the country, has been amassed and recorded in the 
'^Bearches and journals of the Society* 

''To the co-operation of the Indian Government and the enlightened 
H^ptecnation and sympathy of your Excellency's predecessors, the 
^OTemors^Qeneral and Viceroys of India, the Society has been in no 
"^ degree indebted for that measure of success which has attended 
^ labours. The establishment of the geodesical, geological and 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



212 JProeeedingM ^ tie Anatie Soeidg. [No. 2^ 

hydix^praphic surveys of India, and of botanic gardens under the 
superintendence of a series of able and accomplished men of science, 
the formation of an Oriental fund for the publication and difiusion. 
of ancient Indian literature, the appointment of a Ooyemment 
archs&ologist, and the grant of pecuniary aid which the Asiatic 
Society has for many years past received from Oovemment for the 
support and extension of its museum, bear ample witness both to the 
independent and co-operative action of Government in furthering 
those objects, for the advancement of which the Society was originally 
founded. The contemplated transfer of the Society's collections to 
Oovenunent as the nucleus of an imperial museum, and the measurea 
now pending for a more general and systematic r^pigtration of 
meteorological observations, are further actual evidence of a similar 
enlightened disposition, and in your Excellency's acceptance of the 
office of its patron, the Society will receive an assurance that under 
your Excellency's rule, the advancement of science in its widest 
sense, the rescue from oblivioa of the records of the past, the obser* 
ration and orderly co-ordination of actual phenomena under the 
uifluence of human thought, and the wider diffusion of the embodied 
results of human experience for the instruction of the Aiture, will not 
less than heretofore be deemed worthy objects of an enlightened and 
progressive Gbvemment.'* 

HIS EXCELLENCY'S EEPLT. 

, ''To THE FESSmEXTT AITB MSKBE&S OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETT 

OF Bei^oal. 

' '' GEKTLEHEir, — '' I accept with pleasure the office of patron of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal ; and I can assure you of my earnest desire 
to do all that I Intimately can, for the furtherance of the importanl* 
objects which the Society has at heart. 

'' I have perused with much interest the statement embodied in the 
address just presented, regarding the results already accomplished by 
the Society, and the ends towards which it is still striving. I am 
persuaded that the Society's operations are well worthy of co- 
operation and encouragement on the part of the Government in this 
eountry, in that they foster those sdentifLc studies which practioaUy 
eonduoe to civilization, and to material progress; while on the 
other handy they effect great moral good by guarding the valuaUe 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



I8G4.] Broc^edings of tie Asiatic Society. 218 

aBsoeiations of the past ; and bj keeping alive our aympathiee with 
tiie Oriental mind and character. Thus it is, that the work of 
TOUT Society conduces both Uy European and to Native interests in 
lodii, and tendii to strengthen the bonds of union between the rulers 
ndthe people. 

** I trust, gentlemen, that we may preserve the* memories and tradi- 
tions of the gveat and good men who have adorned this Society during 
the eighty years of its existence, and that the example of their learning 
ud wisdom may animate and inspirit us in our efforts for the future. 

" I beg that you will receive the expression of my best wishes for the 
eoDtinued success and prosperity of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.** 

(Signed) *' JoHir Lawbenge.*' 
CaUmtta, ^th February , 1864. 

Letters from Messrs. H. St&inforth, A. M. Monteath, Captain J. 
Davidson and Major A. D. Dickens,, announcing their withdrawal • 
from the Sociei^ were recorded. 

The following gentlemen duly proposed at the last meeting were ' 
Uloted for and elected ordinary members : 

H. R. Spearman, Esq. ; C. J. WOkinson, Esq. ; F. A. Pellew,< 
Esq., c. B. ; Baboo Jagadanund Mookerjee; Lieutenant £. A. 
Trevor, X)r. W. J. Palmer and Lieutenant G. M. Bowie. 

The following gentlemen were named fur ballot as ordinary mem- 
ben at the next meeting : — 

J. L. Stewart, Esq., m. d.,. Assistant Surgeon, Lahore, — proposed 
by the President, and seconded by Mr. H. F. Blanford. 

Professor H. Bloohmann, — ^proposed by Captain Lees,, and seconded' 
by Mr. H. F. Blanford. 

The Bey. W. G. Cowie, Domestic Chaplain to the Bight Bev. the 
Lord Bishop of Calcutta, — proposed by the Bishop, and seconded by 
the Bev. M. D. C. Walters. 

The Hon'ble Maharaja Mirza Vijaya-rim Gajapati Baz, Munniam 
Saltan Bahadur of Yizianagram,— proposed by Bajah Sutto Shum 
Ghoeal Bahadoor, and seconded by Moulvi Abdool Luteef Khan 
Bahadoor. 
Communications were received — 

1. From B. H. Barnes, Esq., abstract of the^ meteorological 
observations taken at Gangarowa near Kandy, in Ceylon, for July 
and August, 1B63. 

Digiti^dly Google 



214 Proeeedingt of the Asiatie Society, [Ifio, % 

2. From Baboo GopeeDaoth Sen, an abstract of tbe results of 
the hourly meteorological observations taken at the Surveyor Qeneral*^ 
Office, Calcutta, for December last. 

8. From the Punjab Auxiliary Committee to the Asia^o Society, 
through Dr. A. Neil, the following papers — 

I. On the geological features, Ac., of the country in the neighbour- 
hood of Bunnoo and the sanitarium of Shaikh Boodeen. 

II. Extract &om a report by Captain H. Mackenzie on the anti* 
quities of Guzerat. 

III. Inscription on the Dharian Baolee« 
lY. Inscription on the Mugbun^ at Hailan» 

Y. Illustrated table of eoins occurring in the bazars of the 
district. 

■ 4. From Lieutenant-Colonel R C. Tytler, through Mr. Grote, 
observations on a few species of Geckos alive in his possession. 

Baboo Eajendra Lai Mitra then read his paper on the Buddhisi; 
remains of Sultangunge. 

The paper having been read, a vote of thanks was passed to the 
Baboo for his interesting remarks. 

In consequence of the lateness of the hour, the paper on the 
antiquities of Guzerat by Captain Mackenzie was not read. 

The meeting was then made special, pursuant to notice, in order 
to decide upon the proposition of the Council, relative to the transfer 
of the Society's mtiseum to Government. 

The Chairman reported to the meeting, thai in accordaoice with a 
vote passed at the ordinary monthly meeting in January last, the 
correspondence with Government on the subject of the transfer of the 
museum had been circulated to non-resident members, and their votes 
taken on the following proposition : — 

" That the Council be authorized to enter into definite and condu- 
sive arrangements with the Government of India, relative to the 
proposed transfer of the Society's museum, in accordance with the 
terms of the correspondence.^ 

The result was — 

For the proposition, 73. 

Against, 1. 

Majorii^ in &vor of transfer, 72. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1861.] Proceedings of the Asiatie Society. 215 

The propoeition was then put to the vote of the meeting hj the 
Churman, and the votes were found to be aa follows : — 

For the transfer 17. 

Against, none. 

The sum of the votes of resident and non-resident members wem 
therefore as follows : — 

For the proposition. Against it. 

Besident members, 17 

K<m>resident members, 73 1 

Total, 90 1 

And the proposition was carried. 



Fob Apbil, 1864:. 

The monthly general meeting of the Ajsiiatic Society of Bengal 
was held on thedth instant. 

A. Grote, Esq., in the chair. 

The proceedings of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Presentations were announced — 

L From his Highness Prince Gholam Mohammad, a copy of 
"Blagdon's History of India," and a copy of his revision of a work 
entitled " The History of Hyder Shah and of his Son Tippoo Sultan," 
with a framed portrait of his father, Tippoo Sultan. 

2. From the editor of the Calcutta Christian lateUiffenceTf the 
thiee first numbers of his magazine for 1864. 

3. From Captain C. Mead, Koyal Artillery, through Baboo 
Bajendra Lai Mitra, a stone sLib from Buddha Gaya bearing a San- 
icrit inscription. 

4. From Major H. Baban, ear-rings worn by a Eengmah Naga 
chk^ being made of the hair of three enefliies of the Angami Naga 
tribe, killed in fight. 

6. From CoL J. C. Brooke, specimens of minerals firom tha 
Aravalli Mountains. 

6. From Dr. Anderson, two botanical and some zoological pam* 
phleto. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



216 Froeeeding9 of tU Anatie Society. [No. 2, 

7. From J. Avdall, Esq., a copy of Victor Langloie' " le Tr&or 
des chartes d'Arm($nie ou Cartulaire de la Chancellerie Boyale des 
Roup^niens." 

The Secretary exhibited some photographs by A. 0. Crommelin, 
Esq., of the fossil lately discovered by Major Gowan, in the Maha- 
deva sandstone of Central India. He had received information from 
Mr. Camac that the fossil in question was now on its way to Calcutta, 
and it would be necessary to await its arrival before its nature could 
be confidently determined. 

Colonel Guthrie exhibited a pair of elephant tusks of unusual size. 

A letter £pom Dr. Archer intimating his desire to withdraw from 
the Society was recorded. 

The following gentlemen, duly proposed at the last meeting, were 
balloted for and elected ordinary members : — 

J. L. Stewart, Esq., m. d. ; H. Blochmann, Esq. ; the Key. W. G. 
Cowie ; and the Hon'ble Maharaja Mirza Yijaya-rim Gaji^ati Baz, 
Munniam Sultan Bahadur. 

The following gentlemen were named for baJlot as ordinary mem- 
bers at the next meeting : — 

Dr. Bird, Civil Surgeon, Howrah, — ^proposed by Mr. Blanford^ 
seconded by Dr. Anderson. 

N. S. Alexander, Esq., €. 8^ — ^proposed by Mr. W. L. Heeley, 
seconded by Mr. Blanford. 

Dr. J. B. Barry, — proposed by Mr. Blanford, seconded by Dr. 
Partridge. 

G. W. Cline, Esq., — ^proposed by Mr. H. P. Blanford, seconded 
by Mr. W. L, Heeley. 

Baboo Eamd Nath Bose, — proposed by Baboo Bajesdra Lai Mitra, 
seconded by Baboo Jadava Krishna Siiiha. 

The following letter from J. Mulheran, Esq., on the subject of 
the caves of Ajunta and Ellora, addressed to Colonel ThuiUier, was 
read: — 

" Having lately visited the Fort of Dowlatabad, and the cai^es of 
Ellora and Ajunta, and taken a number of photographs of the same, 
in compliance with the wish expressed in your letter of the 6th 
October, 1863, 1 beg prominently to notice that there is a large slab 
in one of the recesses of the Jumma Musjid of the Dowlatabad 
Fort, whidi is covered with Pali characters similar to those in cave 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1864.] JProceedingg of the Asiatic Society. 217 

No. 26 at Ajnnta. I beg to add that I have no doubt that this 
bidldiDg, althoi^h now known as the Jumma Musjid, existed long 
prior to the times of Mahomed, and that it was originally used as 
9n audience hall by the ancient kings of the country. It is upwards 
of 150 feet in length, and has three rows of remarkable stone pillars 
running along its entire length. Since its occupation by Mahome- 
dans a dome of brick has been added to the centre. 

^2. As Dowlatabad was formerly known as Deoghur, and is 
believed to have been fortified by Buddhists, I feel convinced that a 
traoslation of the characters to which I have referred, will throw 
light not only upon the date of the fort itself, but upon the dates 
cf the neighbouring caves of Ellora and Ajunta. The inscription at 
present is covered with chunam, or rather with two or three coats 
of white-wash ; but having removed a portion of these, I am able 
to state that the characters are in perfect preservation. A sketch 
accompanies [this letter] showing the position of the slab referred to, 
which is nearly 4 feet square, and has, I believe, hitherto escaped 
notice. 

" 3. Owing to the kind aid of Major Gill, who has charge of the 
Ajunta caves, I was able to take a dense negative of the interior 
of cave No. 26, and as he has already furnished the Madras govern- 
ment with Jacnmiles of the Pali inscription of the Ajunta excava- 
tions, I would resftectfolly suggest his being asked, through the 
Besident of Hydrabad, to furnish a copy of the inscription in the 
Tecess of the Dowlatabad Jumma Musjid. 

** 4. No reference having been made to the caves at Mahore in 
any work hitherto published, I beg to mention that Captain Pear- 
son accompanied me over portions of those in one of the ravines 
nnder the town of Mahore, and that they are similar in character 
to the caves of Ellora aud Ajunta. All, however, are at present 
more than half full of mud, little more than the heads and arms of 
the sculptured figures being visible. 1 beg further to notice that 
there are a number of remarkable stone temples known as Himar- 
panti, or Demon erections, scattered over the coimtry between Ellora 
and the Godavery, which the people admit to be of Buddhist origin ; 
the tradition relating to them having reference to one of the Buddliist 
kings of Ceylon of the name of Kaon, who is annually slaughtered in 
effigy by Hindoos of all denominations. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



218 Proceeditiffi of the Asiatic Society. [No. 2, 

'^ 5. I have not yet been able to obtain access to papers in the 
possession of the Jains of Berar, which would, I feel convinced, throw 
light upon much that is interesting in the habits and customs of a 
people that formerly ruled the greatest portion of India. I have, 
however, lately been informed that Dr. Haug of Poona has succeeded 
in obtaining possession of a number of Jain books in the Pali cha- 
racter, and that he intends to use them in illustration of the Jaia 
literature and history. 

" 6. If considered necessary, I will furnish photographs of some 
of the most remarkable of the Himarpanti temples, giving views of 
their interiors as well as of their elevation. The most ancient are 
sunk three or four feet below the level of the surrounding ground^ 
and are so covered in as to be barely perceptible to those ignorant 
of their locality." 

The Council submitted for the approval of the Society, the following^ 
report from the Philological Committee, which had been adopted bj 
them: — 

EEPOBT. 

The Philological Committee recommend to the Council that the 
following offers to edit works in the Bibliotheca Indica be accepted : — 

1. From Pundit Jayandr^yana Tarkapanchinana, Professor of 
Philosophy in the Sanscrit College, to edit the Ny6ya Bhdshya of 
Ydtsy&yana. 

This is a very rare work. Three MSS. are available for the text. 
It is the earliest commentary on the Ny&ya aphorisms, and is of the 
utmost importance for ascertaining the doctrines of the ancient as 
opposed to the modem Naiydyika school. It will occupy about two 
Fasciculi. 

2. Prom Dr. Mason of Tounghoo, to print a Pali Grammar 
prepared by him from a Native Grammar found in a Burmese monastery. 
Mr. Grote and Dr. Sprenger formerly reported favourably upon the 
MSS. Dr. Mason proposes printing the Grammar at the '' Tounghoo 
Karen Institute Press," and requests that he may have 100 copies. 

3. From Pundit Bdmnar&yana, to edit the Sutras of Asvaldyana 
with the Yritti. This is the authority for the sacriticial ceremonies of 
the Hotris or Priests connected with the Big Veda. It will occupy 
about six Fasciculi 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



1864.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, 219 

4. From Captain Lees, to superintend the editing by a Moulavy 
of the poem of Bamyn and Wais. The Philological Committee refer 
for an account of this most rare and valuable ancient Persian poem 
(translated from the Pehlevi) to the letter from Dr. Sprenger in the 
Journal No. II. for 1863. Only one MS. is known to be extant, and 
it 18 of great importance that a poem possessing so many claims to 
our notice should be preserved by printing from the many accidents 
incidental to MSS. in such a climate as Bengal. 

Communications were received — 

L From Lieut.-Colonel R. C. Tytler, " Observations on keeping 
salt-water fish alive for a considerable time." 

2. From H. F. Blanford, Esq., A note on the late hail-storm in 
Calcutta. 

3. From Colonel J. C. Brooke, through Captain W. N. Lees^ 
A paper descriptive of '' The Mines of Klietree in Bi^pootana.*' 

4. From Captain H. G. Raverty, " The Pushto or Afghan Lan- 
goage from an American Point of View." 

5. From Dr. A. Wise, F. B. S., A paper entitled ^* Peculiarities 
»d Uses of the Pillar Towers of the British Isbmds." 

6. From J. E. T. Aitchison, Esq., M. D., F. R. C. S., F. L. 
8- £., ^ Remarks on the Vegetation of the Islands of the Indus River.'' 

7. From Baboo Gopeenauth Sen, An Abstract of the Hourly 
Heteorological Observations taken at the Surveyor General's Office 
i& January last* 

8. From the Under-Secretary to the Government of India, Publia 
Works Department, Copies of Major-General Cunningham's Diaries 
of Occupations as Archsological Surveyor for the months of November 
and December, 1863, and January, 1864. 

The Hon'ble the Lieutenant-Governor then read to the meeting 
portioQa of letters received from the Hon'ble Ashley Eden, giving 
tn account of the principal incidents of his journey to the capital 
of Bhotan. Colonel Thuillier also exhibited maps of the route com-^ 
piled from information received from Captain H. Godwin Austen, 
Topographer to the Bhotan Expedition ; and offered some remarks 
in explanation of the circumstances under which the data for these 
mt^ had been obtained* 

The thanks of the meeting were voted to the Hon'ble the Lieut.- 
Oovemor and Colonel ThuilUer for the alove interesting communica- 

^ns. Digitized by LjOOgle 



220 PtoeeedingB of the AtioHc Sodekf. [No. 2; 

Colonel Tyt1er*s and Mr. Blanford^s papers were then read to the 
meeting, and in the discussion which ensued on the latter paper, some 
observations of interest were made by Dr. Brandis and the Hon'ble* 
Mr. Beadon, which were recorded for publication with the original 
paper. 



Fob Mat, 1864. 
Lieut.-Ck)l. J. E. Gastrell, in the chair. 
The proceedings of the last Meeting were read and confirmed. 
Presentations were received — 

1. From Col. H. L. Thuillier, a copy of the Instructions for 
taking Meteorolo^cal Observations with tables^ By Sir H. James, 
B. E. 

2. From KongL Norske Frederiks Universitets Secretariat, several 
works published by the University, and other Norwegian works. 

3. From Professor C. A. Holmboe, 4 pamphlets. 

4. From Syud Keramat Ali, Hooghly, a copy of his work entitled 
Byan Makhza 'Alum. 

5. From the Hon'ble L. S. Jackson, a copy of an Inscription on a 
brick-built mosque at Bagha, in Bajshahye. 

6. From W. S. Atkinson, Esq., specimens of Streptaulm Blanfordi 
and Claudlia Id$ from Darjeeling. 

7. From Lieutenant-Colonel B. C. Tytler, a collection of fishes, 
mammalia and minerals. 

8. From the same, through A. Grute, Esq., specimens of Andamanese 
Geckos, in spirit. 

9. From the Hon'ble Ashley Eden, a collection of bird skins and 
a Pteromys, collected during the Bhotan expedition. 

liCtters from B. H. Wilson, Esq., F. L. Beaufort, Esq.* and the 
Hon'ble E. P. Levinge, intimating their desire to withdraw from the 
Society were recorded. 

The following gentlemen, duly proposed at the last meeting, were 
balloted for and elected ordinary members : 

Dr. B. Bird, Civil Surgeon, Howrah: Dr. J. B. Barry; N. S. 
Alexander, Esq., c. b. ; G. W. Cline, Esq. and Baboo Kam< Nath 
Boee. 

* Annoanoed in orror. See Proo. for June. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



186i] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, 221 

The following gentlemen were named for ballot as ordinaiy mem- 
bere at the next meeting : — 

Brigadier-General H. G. D. Showers, — proposed by Mr. Grote 
fleconded by Colonel Thuillier. 

B. £. Goolden, Esq., — ^proposed by Dr. Partridge, seconded by Mr. 
Blanford. 

J. 0/ B. Sannderg, Esq., — ^proposed by Captain W. N. Lees, se^ 
«onded by Mr. Blanford. 

Moulvi Moula Bukhsh Khan Bahadoor of Patna, — ^proposed by 
Monlvi Abdool Luteef Khan Bahadoor, seconded by Mr. Blanford. 

Baboo Jadu Xath Mookeijee, of Eajshahye, — proposed by Mr« 
Heeley, seconded by Mr. H. F. Blanford. 

As a corresponding member, E. Blyth, Esq., Associate Member of 
the Society, — proposed by Dr. Jcrdon. 

A discnssion arose on this nomination, Mr. Blyth being abeady an 
Associate Member of the Society, and it appearing doubtful, whether 
any additional distinction would be conferred, by his election as a 
eonespending member ; it was, therefore, proposed by Dr. Brandis, 
that as Mr. Blyth is now an Associate Member of the Society, the 
nomination be referred to the Council for a report ; whicb proposi- 
tion beiQg put to the vote was adopted by the meeting. 

The Council reported that they had elected Colonel H. L. Thuillier 
and H. Scott Smith, Esq., as members of the Couneil, in pkce of Messrs. 
Cowell, and H, Leonard, who had left for Europe. 

Communications were received — 

1. From Reverend M. A. Sherring%, L. L. B., and €. Home, 
Esq. C. S^ a paper entitled ''Description of the Buddhist Ruins at 
Bakariya Kund, Benares,*' with illustrations of plans and photographs. 

2. From the TJnder-Secretaty to the Government of India, Publie 
Works Department, a copy of a report on the proceedings of the Ar- 
chasol<^;ieal Surveyor to the Government of India, for 1862-68. 

3. From Baboo Gopeenauth Sen, an abstract of the Hourly Me- 
teorological Observations taken at the Surveyor General's office in 
February last. 

The paper of Colonel Brooke on the mines of Khetree, in Rajpootana, 
and that of the Reverend M. A. Sherrings, L. L. B., and C. Home, 
Esq. C. S., descriUng the Buddhist ruins at Bakariya Kund, Benares, 
were read. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Meteorological Obeervationt, 



Ahtlract of ihe Resulle of the Hourly Meteorological Ohseroationt 

taken at the Surveyor QeneraVs Office^ Calcutta^ 

in the month of January, 1864>. 

Latitude 22« 33' 1" North. Longitude 88* 20' 84" Eaat. 

Feet. 

Reicbt of the Cistern of the Standard Barometer aboTe the Sea-lerel, 18.11. 

Daily Means, &c. of the Observations snd of the Hygrometrical elements 

dependent thereon. 





t of 
eter 
kt. 


Range 


of the Bfirometer 


1 - 


Range of the Tempera- 






during the day. 


pi 


ture during the day. 


2 


eau 1 
the E 
at 32 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 


J 


S 








sg 










Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


o 


o 


o 


o 


1 


29.969 


30.051 


29.903 


148 


65.8 


76.2 


57.0 


19.2 


2 


.965 


.030 


.912 


.118 


67.2 


76.4 


59.8 


16.6 


S 


8unda/y. 
















4 


30.033 


.130 


.969 


.161 


65.1 


74.4 


56.4 


18.0 


6 


.001 


.066 


.948 


.118 


65.5 


75.8 


57.2 


18.6 


6 


.021 


.093 


.967 


.126 


65.8 


75.0 


58.4 


16.6 


7 


.068 


.154 


30.018 


.136 


64.2 


73.6 


56.4 


17.2 


8 


.076 


.157 


.020 


.137 


63.2 


73.0 


55.0 


18.0 


9 


.089 


.177 


.027 


.150 


64.3 


75.0 


55.6 


19.4 


10 


Sunday. 
















11 


.033 


.111 


29.965 


.146 


65.6 


77.4 


57.4 


20.0 


12 


.038 


.123 


.991 


.132 


66.9 


77.0 


58.6 


18.4 


IS 


.044 


.129 


.992 


.137 


65.5 


76.4 


56.0 


20.4 


14 


29.995 


.090 


.923 


.167 


64.8 


74.8 


56.0 


18 8 


15 


.954 


.042 


.876 


.166 


65.7 


76.7 


56.0 


20.7 


16 


.884 


29.933 


.836 


.097 


65.8 


71.9 


58.0 


13.9 


17 


Sunday. 








» 








18 


.913 


80.025 


.883 


.142 


64.5 


73.2 


56.4 


16.8 


19 


.951 


.040 


.894 


.146 


651 


74.7 


56.6 


18.1 


20 


.974 


.051 


.922 


.129 


61.8 


75.9 


55.0 


20.9 


21 


30.002 


.087 


.945 


.142 


64.3 


74.8 


55.4 


19.4 


22 


29.969 


.059 


.912 


.147 


65.8 


77.3 


54.8 


22.5 


23 


.898 


29.980 


.828 


.152 


69.7 


82.2 


59.6 


22.6 


24 


Sunday. 
















» , .979 


30.051 


.930 


.121 


62.4 


73.1 


52.8 


20.8 


M , .990 


.070 


.935 


.135 


62.8 


74.0 


52.8 


21.2 


« i .967 


.039 


.924 


.115 


64.0 


76.2 


54.0 


23.2 


28 1 .960 


.023 


.917 


.106 


64.5 


75.8 


56.0 


19.8 


29 30.000 


.080 


959 


.121 


64.7 


76.2 


55.4 


20.8 


JO > .000 


.086 


.933 


.153 


63.3 


74.7 


54.2 


20.5 


*1 1 SuTulay. 

















The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Drj and Wet Bulb 
''J^^wometer Means are derived from the hourly Obaervatioui made daring 

^^h Digitized by LjOOgle 



ii Meteorological Ob$orvaiiani. 

Abttraet of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Ohservaiioni 
taken at the Surveyor OeneraVe Office^ Calcutta^ 
in the month of January, 1864. 

Dally Means, &c. of the ObserTHtions nnd of the Hygrometrical elemenU 
dependent thereon. — fConiinu^dJ* 



w- 


1 






6 


*S 


9 •- 


^i 


§k 




J3 


t 


i 


1 




n 

o 2 




3 a 
8.2 




d 


t 


t 


-s 


,o 


^ o 


:s 1 -S 


^^ 


s 

& 


IS 
Is 


1 

OQ 

Q 


1 

t 

B 

o 


'3 . 

a- 


1 . 


•a.2 

e " 


Additional W 
pour requii 
plete sacura 


Mean desrreet 
complete s 
ing unity. 




o 


o 





o 


Inches. 


T. pr. 


T.gr. 




1 


60.0 


5.8 


55.4 


10.4 


0.449 


4.98 


2.06 


0.71 


2 


61.7 


5.5 


573 


9.9 


.478 


5.28 


.07 


.72 


3 


Swnday. 
















4 


58.1 


7.0 


52.5 


12.6 


.407 


4.52 


.37 


.66 


& 


59.0 


6.5 


53.8 


11.7 


.425 


.71 


.27 


.68 


6 


58.4 


7.4 


52.5 


13.3 


.407 


.62 


.52 


.64 


7 


67.5 


6.7 


51.5 


12.7 


.393 


.37 


.32 


.65 


8 


56.4 


6.8 


50.3 


12.9 


.377 


.21 


.28 


.65 


9 


57.1 


7.2 


50.6 


13.7 


.381 


.24 


.48 


.63 


10 


Sunday^ 
















11 


59.2 


6.4 


54.1 


11.5 


.429 


.76 


.24 


.68 


. 12 


59.8 


7.1 


54.1 


12.8 


.429 


.75 


.53 


.65 


13 


59 


6.5 


53.8 


11.7 


.425 


.71 


.27 


.68 


14 


58.8 


6.0 


54.0 


10.8 


.428 


.75 


.08 


.70 


15 


59.7 


6.0 


64.9 


10.8 


.441 


.89 


.18 


.70 


16 


60.5 


4.8 


66.7 


8.6 


.469 


5.19 


1.74 


.75 


17 


Sunday. 
















18 


68.7 


5.8 


54.1 


10.4 


.429 


4.78 


.98 


.71 


19 


58.2 


6.9 


52.7 


12.4 


.409 


.56 


2.83 


.66 


20 


57.6 


7.2 


51.8 


13.0 


.897 


.41 


.42 


.65 


21 


67.1 


7.2 


50.6 


13.7 


.381 


.24 


.48 


.63 


22 


58.6 


7.2 


52.8 


13.0 


.411 


.56 


.48 


.65 


23 


62.6 


7.1 


66.9 


12.8 


.472 


6.18 


.75 


.65 


84 


Sunday. 
















^5 


53.7 


8.7 


45.9 


16.5 


.324 


3.62 


.71 


.57 


26 


54.1 


8.7 


463 


16.5 


.329 


.67 


.74 


.57 


27 


55.7 


8.3 


48.2 


15.8 


.351 


.91 


.74 


.59 


28 


56.8 


7.7 


50,6 


13.9 


.381 


4.24 


.52 


.63 


29 


55.4 


9.3 


48.0 


16.7 


.349 


8.87 


.93 


.57 


80 


5?,.3 


8.0 


48.1 


15.2 


.350 


.90 


.61 


.60 


81 


Sundtvy, 

















AU the H^rgroinetrioal elements are computed bj t^^.g|^wioh Oonstantfc 



Meieorolopeal Observations. 



m 



Abstrset of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Ohseroaiious 

taken at the Surveyor QeneraVs Office, Calcutta^ 

in the month of January, 1864b. 

Hoarly Meana, &c. of the 'Observations and of the Hygrometrioal elementa 
dependent tbereon. 



Hoar. 


Height of 
Barometer 
2» Faht. 


Ranee of the Barometer for 

each hour daring the 

month. 


Dry Bulb 
rmometer. 


Range^uf the Tempeia- 

tare for each hoar 

daring the 

mouth. 
















Ul 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 


§^ 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 




:s 








S 










Incbea. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


o 


o 


o 


o 


Mid. 

Bight. 


30.003 


30.096 


29.933 


0.163 


60.5 


63.4 


57.0 


6.4 




29.989 


.090 


.895 


.195 


59.9 


62.8 


56.2 


6.6 




.981 


.090 


.874 


.216 


59.3 


62.6 


55.2 


7.4 




.972 


.081 


.869 


.212 


58.6 


62.4 


54.8 


7.6 




.967 


.073 


.862 


.211 


57.9 


62.3 


54.2 


8.1 




.982 


.080 


.859 


.221 


57.0 


61.0 


53.4 


7.6 




.992 


.090 


.877 


.213 


56.9 


60.2 


53.2 


7.0 




30.013 


.114 


.900 


.214 


56.2 


59.8 


52.8 


7.0 




.041 


.160 


.908 


.252 


60.2 


64.0 


56.8 


7.2 




.063 


.177 


.909 


.268 


63.2 


65.6 


60.0 


5.6 




.071 


.174 


.933 


.241 


66.6 


70.8 


64.0 


6.8 




.053 


.153 


.912 


.241 


69.5 


74.9 


66.0 


8.9 


Noon. 


.022 


.117 


.901 


.216 


72.2 


78.0 


69.4 


8.6 


1 


29 989 


.r.70 


.869 


.201 


73.9 


80.2 


71.4 


8.8 


2 


.963 


.046 


.846 


.200 


75.1 


82.2 


71.0 


11.2 


3 


.944 


.038 


.836 


.202 


75.3 


82.1 


71.6 


10.5 


4 


.937 


.027 


.828 


.199 


73.9 


80.0 


70.8 


9.2 


5 


.941 


.032 


.836 


.196 


71.8 


77.6 


67.2 


10.4 


6 


.949 


.038 


.837 


.201 


68.9 


73.6 


65.6 


8.0 


7 


.968 


.068 


.848 


.220 


66.5 


70.4 


62.8 


7.6 


8 


.985 


.095 


865 


.230 


64.9 


68.2 


61.6 


6.6 


9 


30.001 


.110 


.921 


.189 


63.5 


66.6 


60.0 


6.6 


10 


.000 


.118 


.875 


.243 


62.7 


67.6 


••58.8 


8.8 


11 


29.995 


.084 


.871 


.213 


61.7 


67.2 


57.0 


10.2 



ilie Mean Heiglit of tiio Barometer, as liliawiao the Dry and Wet Balb 
Thermometer Means are deriTed from the Obsorrations made at the sereral Itoora 
daring the mouth. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



IV 



Meteorological Oh$ervatums. 



Abttmet of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Ohservations 

taken at the Surveyor OeneraVs Office, Calcutta^ 

in the month of January, 1864. 

Hoarly Keans, &c. of the Obaervations and of the HTgroraetrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued) . 





i 


15 


d 


0) 


s 


i.S 


o-Si 


9 *■* e. 


Hour. 




% 
-s 


is 


Q 

o 




'SO 

Id-i 


ill 


T JJ -5 






CQ 
►« 

Q 


I 

a 
.5 


U3 . 

Q . 


si 


ill 


« is E . 

nil 

< 


be «'S 

£ a S S 







o 


o 


o 


Inches. 


Troj grs. 


Troy grs. 




Mid- 
night. 

1 


56.3 


4.2 


52.5 


8.0 


0.407 


4.57 


1.40 


0.77 


56.1 


3.8 


52.7 


7.2 


.409 


.60 


.25 


.79 


2 


55.6 


3.7 


52.3 


7.0 


.404 


.55 


.19 


.79 


8 


55.2 


3.4 


52.1 


6.5 


.401 


.52 


.10 


.80 


4 


54.7 


3.2 


51.8 


6.1 


.397 


.48 


.01 


.82 


6 


54.0 


3.0 


51.3 


5.7 


.390 


.41 


0.93 


.83 


6 


53.9 


3.0 


51.2 


5.7 


.389 


.40 


.92 


.83 


7 


53.2 


3.0 


50.2 


6.0 


.376 


.26 


.95 


.82 


8 


55.2 


5.0 


50.7 


9.5 


.382 


.29 


1.62 


.73 


9 


56.7 


6.5 


50.8 


12.4 


.383 


.28 


2.21 


.66 


10 


58.2 


8.4 


51.5 


151 


.393 


.36 


.85 


.61 


11 


59.4 


10.1 


51.3 


18.2 


.390 


.30 


3.58 


.55 


Noon. 


60.4 


11.8 


61.0 


212 


.386 


.23 


4.32 


.50 


1 


60.9 


13.0 


51.8 


22.1 


.397 


.33 


.68 


.48 


2 


61.6 


13.5 


52.1 


23.0 


.401 


.37 


.97 


.47 


8 


61.6 


13.7 


52 


23.3 


.400 


.35 


5.06 


.46 


4 


61.0 


12.9 


52.0 


21.9 


.41.0 


.36 


4.65 


.48 


6 


61.3 


10.5 


52.9 


18.9 


.412 


.52 


3.93 


.64 


6 


61.3 


7.6 


55.2 


13.7 


.445 


.91 


2.83 


.63 


7 


60.5 


6.0 


55.7 


10.8 


.453 


5.02 


.17 


.70 


8 


59.6 


5.3 


55.4 


9.5 


.449 


4.98 


1.87 


.73 


9 


58.6 


4.9 


54.2 


9.3 


.431 


.80 


.75 


.73 


10 


58.1 


4.6 


54.0 


8.7 


.428 


.77 


.62 


.75 


11 


57.5 


4.2 


53.7 


8.0 


.423 


.74 


.45 


.77 



All the Hygroinetrical eleinentB are computed by the Qreenwich ConstAnts. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



Meteorologieal Observations, 



Abstract of t%e Itesults of the Hoitrly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor OeneraVs Office, Calcutta, 

in the month of January, 1864. 

Solar Radiation, Weather, &c. 



si 


3 . 




^ 




o*-3 


«S U3 tS 




^ 




. ^1 


^1 = 


Prevailing direction 


c 


General Aspect of the Sky. 


^ g1 


|J2 


of the Wind. 


piH 




a s 


Inches. 




&8 













1 


132.4 


... 


K. 




Clondless; also slightly foggy from 
2 to B A. M. 


2 


129.7 


... 


N. & N. W. 




Scatd. clouds till 1 p.m.; cloudless 
afterwards. 


3 






SurnJ/iy. 






4! 146.8 




N. & N. W. 




Cloudless. 


B; 137.4 




N. & N. W. 




Cloudless till 5 A. M. ; Scatd. M tiU 












Noon ; cloudless afterwards. 


6 


127.5 




N. W. A N. 




Cloudless. 


7 


136.0 




N. & N. W. 




Cloudless. 


8 


131.8 




N. W. & N. 




Cloudless. 


9 


133.2 




N. 




Cloudless. 


10 






5ufu2€M/. 






11 


130.0 




N. 




Cloudless. [p. M. 


12 


133.8 




N. 




Cloudless i also foggy between 8 A 11 


13 


136.0 




N. 




Cloudless. 


14 


128.0 




N. 




Cloudless till 1 p. M.j Scatd. clouds till 
8 P. M. ; cloudless afterwards also 
slightly foggy at 11 P. M. 


15' 131.2 




S. E. A N. 




Cloudless. 


16 124uO 

17! ... 




N. AS. 




Cloudless till 1 P. M. ; Scatd. clouds 
till 5 p. M. J cloudless afterwards. 






SfuTwiay. 






18 


131.2 




N.&W. 


li 


Cloudless tiU 1 p. m. j Scatd. '^i A >-i 
till 6 P. M. ; cloudless afterwards, 
also slightly foggy from 9 to 11 P. M. 


19 


132.0 




N. W. & W. 




Cloudless. 


2(i 


137.5 




W. & N. W. 




Cloudless ; also foggy from 8 to 11 p. M. 


21 


134.6 




N. W. & W. 




Cloudless ; also slightly foggy from 8 
to 11 p. M. 


22 


136 




N. W. & S. A S. W. 




Cloudless. 


23 


142.8 




s. 




Cloudless ; also slightly foggy between 


' 








3 A 7 A. M. 


24 ... 




Sunday. 






25 136.0 




W. AN. 




Cloudless ; also foggy at 8 P. M. 


26 132.0 




W. A N. W. A N. 




Cloudless. 


27, 136.0 


... 


N. AS. 




Cloudless. 


28 133.0 


... 


N. A W. A S. 


li 


Cloudless, also foggy at 5 a. m. and 












between 9 A 11 p. M. 


29 


137.0 


... 


W.AN. 




Cloudless. 


30 


131.0 


... 


N. AW. 




Cloudless. 


81 


... 


... 


Sunday, 


i 





^l Cirri, ^— i Cirro strati, '^i Cumuli, '^-i Cuuiulo strati, V^E)i|^u»jbiiy WxBlzli^C 
^ i Cirro comuU. 



vi Meteorological Ob»er9aiion9^ 



Abstract of the Besultt of the Sourly Meteorological Ohaervatione 

taken at the Survegor GeneraVe Office, Calcutta^ 

in the month of January, 1864. 

Monthly Bbsults. 

Inchei 

Mean height, of the Barometer for the month, • . . • 29.992 

Has. height of the Barometer ooourred at 9 ▲. x. on the 9th, .. 80.177 

Min. height of the Barometer occurred at 4 p. M. on the 23rd, •• 29.828 

Sxtreme range of the Barometer during the month, •• •• 0.349 

Mean of the daily Max. Pressures, .. •• •• 80.072 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, .. .. .. 29.936 

Mean daily range of the Barometer daring the month, • • . • 0.136 



o 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer for the month, •• •• 66.0 

Max. Temperature occurred at 2 p* ic. on the 23rd, .. •• 82.2 

Min. Temperature occurred at 7 ▲. ic. on the 25th & 26th, . • 52.8 

JExtreme range of the Temperature during the mouths • • • • 29.4 

Mean of the daily Max. Temperature, .. •• «. 75.5 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, .. •• .. 56.2 

Mean daily range of the Temperature during the month, •• 19.3 



o 
Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer for the month, . . • . 58.0 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer aboTe Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer,. . 7.0 

Computed Mean Devr-point for the mouth, .. •• 52.4 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer aboTe computed Mean Dew-point, •• 12.6 

Inches 

Mean Elastic force of Vapour for the month, . • • • . . 0.405 



Troy grains 
Mean Weight of Vapour for the month, .. .. •• *-^ 

Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete saturation, •• 2.37 

Mean degree of humidity for the month, complete saturation being unity, ^'^ 



Inches 



Rained no days, Max. fall of rain during 24 hours, •• 

Total amount of rain during the month, .. •• •• ^ 

Preraiiing direction of the Wind, •• •• N. & N. W. A ^' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Meteorological Observatiom. 



Vll 



AhHraet of the BeiuUi of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor GeneraVs Office, Calcutta^ 

in the month of January , 1864. 

Monthly Results. 



Table ihowtng the number of days on which at a given hoar hhy particular wind 

blew, together with the number of days on which at the same hour, 

when any particular wind was blowing, it rained. 



Hoot. 




e 

o 




e 
o 








o 




E 















■5 













a 


^ 


a 
'3 




ff 




_= 


c 


^ 


= 




1= 


^ £| 


S 


a 


1 




N. 


It 


:5* 


« 


E, 


1 


S.E. 


2; 


S- 1:5 


«- 


as 


W. 




ii 


i 


a 


1 


i4 












No 


.ol 


d*y» 
























Midnight. 


nj 












3 






3 


2 








4 




^^ 








1 




2 






5 


3 












14 










1 




1 2, 






5 


4 












It! 










1 




2 








4 




4 








1 




U 












1 




2 








3 




5 








1 




14 
















1 








G 




2 








4 




12 
















2 




2 




5 




1 








4 




15 














3 




2 




5 




1 












ir> 


1 












2 




3 




3 




1 








1 




14 




3 




1 








3 




1 




2 




2 












11 




3 




2 1 






2 




2 




% 




2 












11 




2 




2 




1 




2 




1 




6 




y 










Noon. 


10 




1 




2 




1 












8 




4 












61 1 


1 




1 








1 




2 




4 




n 












7 
















1 




2 




8 




8 












7 












1 




1 




2 




4 




11 












101 












I 




1 








4 




10 












9 












1 




% 








5 




9 












11 












1 




3 








4 




7 












11 












1 




3 








5 




s; 










11 












1 




3 








6 




6 










11 












I 




2 








5i 


6 








1 




9 












1 




3 








5 




7 








1 




10 




" 








I 




3 








5 


t5Tg 


e 


X 


^ 


a 


1 




""~" 






























i^ 




< 


5*^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Meteorological Observations, 



IX 



Ahttraet of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological ObservatiosH 

taken at the Surveyor QeneraVs Office^ Calcutta^ 

in the month of February, 1864. 

liAtitnde 22'> 33' I'' North. Longitude Q&^ 20' 34" Bast. 

Ffet. * 
Height of the Cistern of the Standard Barometer above the Sea-level, 18.11 

Dail J Meanly &e, of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. 



Date. 



1 
2 

8 

4 
5 
6 
7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 

15 
16 
17 
IS 
19 
20 
21 

22 

23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 



^1 • 
8:3 :S 



Inches. 

30.074 
.111 
.120 
.132 
.136 
.108 

Sunday. 

.034 

.029 

.014 

29.996 

80.015 

29.958 

Sunday- 

.822 
.776 
.734 
.847 
.839 
.867 
Sunday, 

.965 
.868 
.799 
.791 
.824 
.806 
Smtday. 

Ml 



Range of the Barometer 
during the day. 



Max. 



Inches. 

80.155 
.183 
.193 
.218 
.234 
J90 



.121 
.119 
.085 
.062 
.082 
.048 



29.899 
.852 
.798 
.927 
.898 
.940 



80.037 

29.953 

.879 

.884 

.911 



.900 



Min. 



Inches. 

30.015 
.060 
.055 
.072 
.057 
.027 



29.967 
.969 
.944 
.931 
.966 
.881 



.768 
.696 
.622 
.792 
.779 
.811 



.908 
.798 
.713 
.734 
.770 
.745 



.752 



Diff. 



Inches. 
0,140 
.123 
.138 
.141 
.177 
.163 



.154 
.150 
.141 
.131 
.116 
.167 



.131 
.156 
.176 
.135 
.119 
.129 



.134 
.155 
.166 
.160 
.141 
.148 



.148 



gH 



o 
68.0 
69.8 
71.8 
71.8 
68,3 
68.2 



71.7 
73.5 
74.0 
74,6 
74.7 
75.6 



76.0 
75.7 
76.0 
65.5 
67.2 
70.9 



71.3 
74.3 
76.0 
74.1 
74.5 
75.6 



78.4 



Range of the Tempera- 
ture during the day. 



Max. Min. Diff. 



o 

78.4 
78.4 
80.8 
81.2 
79.2 
80.4 



82.5 
83.4 
84.2 
85.6 
85.1 
87.8 



85.2 
83.2 
82.4 
72.2 
77.2 
80.6 



80.6 
82.2 
84.2 
81.8 
83.8 
81.2 



87.2 



o 

58.8 

63 6 

64 8 
65.2 
58.8 
57.8 



64.0 
66 
67.6 
66.3 
67.4 
68.4 



68.6 
69.6 
69.6 
61.2 
57.6 
62.6 



62.2 
68.6 
69 5 
67.6 
65.6 
69.2 



70.6 



o 
19.6 
14.8 
16.0 
16.0 
20.4 
22.6 



18.5 
17.4 
16.6 
19.3 
17.7 
19.4 



16.6 
13.6 
12.8 
11.0 
19.6 
18.0 



18.4 
13.6 
14.7 
14.2 
18.2 
15.0 



16.6 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb Ther- 
' MewB are derired from the hourly Observations made during \J*« A*^q i p 

igi ize y ^ 



Meteorological Observations, 



Abstract of the Besults of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor QeneraVs Office, Calcutta^ 

in the month of February , 1864 • 

Daily Meana, &c. of tlie ObserTationa and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — ^Continued). 



Date. 


1 


1 


a 

I 

Q 
1 


Q 


o 




ional Weight of Va- 
>ur required for com- 
ete saturation. 


D degree of H ami- 
ty, complete satura- 
OD being unity. 




V 




a 

o 




8t> 

1^ 


1^ 


< 






o 


o 


o 


o 


Inches. 


T.gr. 


T.gr. 




1 


63.6 


4.4 


60.1 


7.9 


0.525 


5.80 


1.73 


0.77 


2 


65.8 


4.0 


62.6 


7.2 


.570 


6.28 


.67 


.79 


8 


66.9 


4.9 


63.0 


8.8 


.578 


.83 


2.12 


.75 


4 


64.8 


7.0 


59.2 


12.6 


.509 


5.58 


.87 


M 


5 


60.0 


8.3 


53.4 


14.9 


.419 


4.63 


.97 


.61 


6 


59.9 


8.3 


53.3 


14.9 


.418 


.62 


.96 


.61 


7 


SundoAj, 
















8 


65.2 


6.5 


60.0 


11.7 


.523 


5.73 


.70 


.68 


9 


67.1 


6.4 


62.6 


10.9 


.570 


6.23 


.67 


.70 


10 


68.1 


6.9 


64.0 


10.0 


.597 


.52 


.52 


.72 


11 


68.0 


6.6 


63.4 


11.2 


.586 


.39 


.81 


.70 


12 


67.6 


7.1 


62.6 


12.1 


.570 


.22 


3.01 


.67 


13 


69.2 


6.4 


64.7 


10.9 


.611 


.65 


2.83 


.70 


14 


Sunday, 
















15 


69.3 


6.7 


64.6 


11.4 


.609 


.63 


.97 


.69 


16 


70.3 


5.4 


66.5 


9.2 


.648 


7.06 


.45 


.74 


17 


70.5 


5.5 


66.6 


9.4 


.651 


.08 


.52 


.74 


18 


57.3 


8.2 


50.7 


14.8 


.382 


4.25 


.73 


.61 


19 


59.8 


7.4 


53.9 


13.3 


.426 


.72 


.63 


.64 


20 


63.1 


7.8 


56.9 


14.0 


.472 


5.17 


3.06 


.63 


21 


Sunday, 
















22 


64.2 


7.1 


58.5 


12.8 


.498 


.45 


2.88 


.66 


23 


68.9 


5.4 


65.1 


9.2 


.619 


6.77 


.35 


.74 


24 


69.9 


6.1 


65.6 


10.4 


.630 


.86 


.74 


.72 


25 


65.4 


8.7 


59.3 


14.8 


.511 


6.57 


8.50 


.61 


26 


63.8 


10.7 


56.3 


18.2 


.462 


.04 


4.14 


.66 


27 


65.1 


10.4 


57.8 


17.7 


.486 


.28- 


.18 


.66 


28 


Sunday. 
















29 


71.2 


7.2 


66.2 


12.2 


.642 


6.95 


3.36 


.67 



All the Hygrometrical elementa are computed by the Greenwick Conatanto* 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



Meteorological Observations* 



XI 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor QeneraVs Office^ OalouttOy 

in the month of February, 1864. 

Hoarl J Meant, &o. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical element! 
dependent thereon. 





•S|-- 


Range of the Barometer 


9 M 


Rang 


e of the Temperature 




^§1 


for each hour during 


« 1 
fig 


for each hour during 


Hoar. 




the month. 




tiie month. 


















Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 


i^ 


Max. 


Min. DUr. 




S 








;s 




\ 




Inohes. 


Inches. 


IncheB. 


Inches. 


o 











Kid- 
night. 


29.941 


30.147 


29.760 


0.387 


68.9 


76.0 


61,8 


14.2 


^^ 


.987 


.188 


.747 


.891 


68.2 


75.7 


60,8 


14.9 


2 


.935 


.132 


.747 


.885 


67.6 


75.0 


60,0 


15.0 


3 


.925 


.127 


,728 


.899 


67.2 


74.6 


59.5 


15.1 


4 


.896 


.102 


.71« 


.384 


67.3 


74.0 


69.0 


15.0 


5 


.920 


.127 


.729 


.898 


66.1 


73.4 


68.5 


14.9 


6 


.944 


.148 


.757 


.891 


65.7 


73.6 


57.6 


16.0 


7 


.962 


.177 


.765 


.412 


65.5 


73.6 


57.6 


16,0 


8 


.991 


.209 


.785 


.424 


67.4 


74.6 


61.2 


13.4 


9 


30.008 


.228 


.798 


.430 


70.4 


76.5 


62.0 


14.5 


10 


.018 


.234 


.798 


.436 


72.9 


78.9 


63.2 


15.7 


11 


.003 


.212 


.778 


.434 


75.6 


80.6 


65.0 


15.6 


Noon. 


29.974 


.184 


.742 


.442 


78.4 


83.2 


69.0 


14.2 


1 


.941 


.138 


.716 


.422 


80.3 


85.9 


71.2 


14.7 


2 


.911 


.104 


.676 


.428 


81.4 


87.0 


71.2 


15.8 


3 


.889 


.082 


.631 


.461. 


81.8 


87.8 


71.4 


16.4 


4 


.882 


.072 


.622 


.450 


81.2 


86.8 


72.2 


14.6 


5 


.882 


.078 


.635 


.443 


79.4 


86.4 


70.0 


16.4 


6 


.888 


.083 


.645 


.438 


76.8 


83.6 


67.6 


16.0 


7 


.907 


.104 


.691 


.413 


74.6 


81.0 


66.0 


15.0 


8 


.926 


.135 


.746 


.389 


72.9 


79,6 


64.4 


15.2 


9 


.943 


.144 


.760 


.384 


71.5 


78.0 


63.0 


15.0 


10 


.950 


.163 


.773 


.380 


70.7 


77.4 


62.6 


14.8 


11 


.949 


.169 


.766 


.393 


69.9 


77.2 


62.2 


16,0 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb Theis 
mometer Means aro derived from the Observations made at the several hours 
doiiiig the month. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Xll 



Meteorological Oheertmtione. 



Jbsfraef of the Besulte of the Mourly Meteorologieal Oheertatione 

taken at the Surveyor QeneraVs Offiee^ Oaleutta^ 

in the month of FehrtMry, 1864. 

Hourly Meant, &c. of the ObierTations and of the Hygrometrical element! 
dependent thereon. — (Continued,) 









I 


S 


I 

o 


^1 

"S.2 


ght of 
red for 
ration. 


his 

O « -3 


Hoor. 


si 


•s 




1 

1^ 


^ 2 


it 




III 






O 


1 




l^ 


IS.'s 


ill- 


















Inches. 


Troy grs. 


Troy grs. 




Mid- 
night. 


64,7 


4.2 


61.8 


7.6 


0.646 


6.02 


1.72 


0.78 


1 


64.8 


8.9 


612 


7.0 


.644 


.01 


.67 


.79 


2 


64.1 


8.6 


61.3 


6.8 


.646 


.06 


.39 


.81 


8 


64.0 


3.2 


61.4 


6.8 


.648 


.07 


.28 


.83 


4 


64.3 


8.0 


61.9 


6.4 


.557 


.17 


.20 


.84 


5 


63.2 


2.9 


609 


6.2 


.539 


5.98 


.12 


.84 


6 


62.9 


2.8 


60.7 • 


5.0 


.636 


.94 


.08 


.86 


7 


62.6 


2.9 


60.3 


6.2 


.628 


.87 


.11 


.84 


8 


63.3 


4.1 


60.0. 


7.4 


.523 


.79 


.60 


.78 


9 


64.6 


5.8 


60.0 


10.4 


.523 


.75 


2.35 


.71 


10 


65.4 


7.6 


59.4 


13.5 


.513 


.60 


8.13 


.64 


11 


66.6 


9.1 


60.1 


16.6 


.526 


.70 


.78 


.60 


Koon. 


67.5 


10.9 


59.9 


18.5 


.621 


.63 


4.68 


.55 


1 


68.0 


12.8 


59.4 


20.9 


.618 


.52 


5.39 


.51 


2 


68.3 


13.1 


69.1 


22.3 


.508 


.46 


.81 


.48 


8 


68.5 


18.3 


59.2 


22.6 


.609 


.47 


.93 


.48 


4 


68.2 


18.0 


59.1 


22.1 


.508 


.46 


.75 


.49 


5 


68.2 


11.2 


60.4 


19.0 


.530 


.72 


4.90 


.54 


6 


68.2 


8.6 


62.2 


14.6 


.563 


6.10 


3.73 


.62 


7 


67.6 


7.1 


62.6 


12.1 


.568 


.20 


.00 


.67 


8 


66.7 


6.2 


617 


11.2 


.654 


,05 


2.68 


.69 


9 


66.2 


5.8 


62.0 


9.6 


.559 


.13 


.25 


.73 


10 


65.8 


4.9 


61.9 


8.8 


.557 


.12 


.06 


.76 


11 


66.6 


4.4 


62.0 


7.9 


.659 


.16 


1.88 


.77 



All (lie Hygrometrical elementB are oomputed by the Greenwich Constantt. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



Bleteorologieal Ohservationi, 



xm 



Jhitraei of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor QeneraVs Office^ Oaleutta^ 

in the month of February^ 1864. 

Solar Badiation, Weather, &c« 







Gauge 
it above 
und. 


Preyailing direction 




General Aspect of the Sky. 


1 


1^ 


Eoin 

5 fee 


of the Wind. 









Inches. 




ibB 




] 


127.3 


... 


W.&S. 


i 


Clondless till 5 a. m. Scatd. clonda 
till 5 B. K. olondless afterwanU 
also foggy from 5 to 10 a. u. 


s 


133.0 


... 


S. W. ft W. 


i 


Cloudless till 7 a. m. cloudy tUl 11 
A. M., cloudless afterwanis also 
slightly foggy at 10 & 11 a. m. 


a 


133.6 


... 


S. & S. W. A W. 


i 


Clondless till 3 a. h. Scatd. clouds 
till 7 P. M., cloudless afterwardi 
also slightly drizzling at 7 P. M. 


A 


134.0 


... 


N. & N. W. 


... 


Scatd. clouds tiU 8 a. m., oloudless 
afterwards. 


6 


185.6 


... 


N. & S. W. 


i 


Cloudless. 


6 


138.0 


... 


N. & S. & W. 


1 


Cloudless. 


7| ... 


■•• 


Hunday. 


* 




8 137.8 


... 


s. w. & s. 


i 


Cloudless tOl 4 a. m., cloudy k foggy 
till 7 A. u. cloudless afterwards. 


9 138.8 


••• 


s. &w. 


... 


Cloudless; also foggy from 3 to 7 a. ic. 


10 139.8 


... 


S.&W. 


... 


Cloudless; also foggy from 5 to 7 a. m. 


U| 144.0 


,,. 


s. w. & s. 


i 


Cloudless; also foggy from 1 to 7 a. m. 


12 141.2 


... 


s. 


i 


Cloudless till 2 a. m. cloudy & foggy 
tiU 8 A. M., cloudless afterwards. 


13 140.3 


.•• 


s. & s. w. 


1 


Cloudless; also slightly foggy be- 












tween 2 & 4 A. M. 


14 


• •* 


... 


Svmdoflf* 


1 




15 


135.8 


... 


S. 


i 


Cloudless. 


16 


133.0 


• a. 


8. 


4^ 


Scatd. >-i till 4 a. m., cloudless tiU 4 
p. M. Scatd. clouds afterwards. 


17 


124.0 


0.38 


S.&N. 


13J 


Scatd. clouds till 4 p. m., cloudy 
afterwards ; also raining at 3 a. m. 
& at 8 p. M. 


18 


... 


... 


N. & N. W. 


2 


Scatd. MA ^i till 5 a. m., cloudy 
till 6 p. M., clondless afterwards. 


19 


133.0 


... 


N. £. ft S. 


i 


Cloudless tiU 1 p. M. Scatd. >*i 
afterwards. 


20 


134.0 


... 


B. & N. E. & S. E. 


i 


Scatd. N/^i till 6 A. M. Scatd. ^-i 
afterwards. 


a 


... 


••• 


Sunday, 


n 




22 


134.0 


• 


N.&N. E.&N.'W. 


i 


Scatd. >-i till 1 p. m., cloudy after- 
wards; also slightly driz^ing at 
10 p. M 


23 131.01 


••• 


Variable. 


i 


Cloudy till 11 A. v. ; Scatd. ^i tm 6 












p. M. cloudless afterwards; also 












slightly drizzling at 1 ▲. X. 



^1 Cirri, >— i Girro strati^ ^i Cumuli, '^i Comulo strati, Vwi Nimbij — ^i Strati 
V» i Cirro cumuli . r^r^ol^ 

Digitized by VaOOv Ic 



XIV 



Meteorological Observation*. 



Ahitrsict of the Sesults of the Hourly Meteorological Ohsereations 

taken at the Surveyor QeneraVs Office, Calcutta^ 

in the month of February, 1864i. 

Solar Badiation, Weaiher, &c. 







Gauge 
t above 
and. 






General Aspect of the Sky. 


1 


al 


rtSo 


of the Wind. 




p 


a^ 




lbs 






o 


Inchee. 






24 


140.0 


0.09 


w.&a 


13i 


Cloudy tin 7 A. m., cloudless till 1 
p. M., cloudy afVerwards, also foggy 
from 5 to 8 a. K. and raining and 
lightning at 8 p. h. 


25 


132.0 


... 


s.&w. 


1 


Cloudy till 2 a. m. ; cloudless after- 
wards. 


26 


138.9 


... 


N. W. & S. & W. 


u 


Cloudless. 


27 


139.0 


... 


N. & S. & W. 


i 


Cloudy till 7 A. X. ; cloudless after- 
wards. 


28 


... 


... 


Sximday, 


i 




29 


U1.3 




S 


t 


Cloudless till 4 A. H. Scatd. olonds 
till 2 p. M . ; Scatd. ^^i till 7 p. h. 
cloudless afterwards. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Meteorological Observations, 



XT. 



Ahttract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Ohservafions 

taken at the Surveyor OeneraVs Office, Calcutta^ 

in the month of February^ 1864. 



MOKTHLT EeSULTS. 

Mean height of the Bftrometer for the month, •. 
Max. height of the Barometer occurred at 10 A. K. on the 5th, 
Min. height of the Barometer occurred at 4 P. M. on the I7tb, 
Sxtrmne range of the Barometer during the month, • • 

Mean of the Daily Max. PressureB, • .. •• 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, •. .. •• 

Mean daily rainge of the Barometer during the month, •• 



Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer for the month, .. 
Max. Temperature occurred at 8 p. n. on the 18th, 
Min. Temperature occurred at 6 & 7 a. K. on the 19th, 
Xxireme range of the Temperature during the month. 
Mean of the daUj Max. Temperature, •• 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, .. 
Mean daily range of the Temperature during the month. 



Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer for the month, .. 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer, 

Computed Mean Dew-point for the month, 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed Mean Dew-point, 

Mean Elastic force of Vapour for the month, • • • • 



Inches 
29.989 
30.284 
29.622 

0.612 
80.018 
29.873 

0.145 

o 
72.7 
87.8 
57.6 
30.2 
82.1 
65.2 
16.9 

Inches 

65.8 

6.9 

60.3 

12.4 

0.528 



Mean Weight of Vapour for the month, •• •• 

Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete saturation, «* 

Mean degree of humidity for the month, complete saturation being unity. 



Troy grains 
5.79 



2.89 
0.67 



Inches 
Rained 5 days. Max. fall of rain during 24 hours, •• •• 0.38 

Total amount of rain during the month, •• '.. •• 0.47 

Total amount of rain indicated by the gauge attached to the Anemo- 
meter during the month, •• •• •• •- 0.35 

PreTailing direction of the Wind^ ., •• •• 8. ft W. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



XVI 



Meteorological ObeervoHons. 



dhgtraot of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Ohservafions 

taken at the Surveyor OeneraVa Office, Calcutta^ 

in the month of February, lSG4i. 

MOITTHLY BeSTJLTS. 

Table showing the number of days on which at a given hour any particular wind 

blew, together with the number of days on which at the same hour, 

when any particular wind was blowing, it rained. 



Hoar. 


N. 


§ 

B 

'S 




8 

O 

a 
I 


E. 


o 
c 
'S 
a: 


CO 


s 

o 

e 


S. 


1 


CO 


B 

o 

C 

'S 

ficS 


^' 


c 
o 

s 

1 


^ 
fc 


B 
O 
B 

1 


a 


B 
O 


J 


Hidnighi. 

2 
8 
4 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 

Noon. 
1 
2 
8 
4 
6 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 


8 
3 
3 
3 

1 
4 
4 
4 
6 
8 
7 
7 

4 
2 

4 
4 
2 
1 
I 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


1 


1 
1 
1 
3 
3 

t 

3 
2 

3 
2 
8 
8 
2 
1 




No. 
1 

1 
1 
2 
2 
2 
4 

1 
2 
1 

1 

1 
2 
2 


of 


da: 

1 
1 
1 
2 
2 
8 
1 

1 

1 

1 
2 

1 

1 
1 


1 


12 

11 

10 

10 

9 

7 

8 

9 

7 

6 

7 

5 

6 

6 

3 

2 

2 

8 

11 

11 

13 

14 

16 

IB 


1 

1 

1 


1 
3 
4 
3 
3 
2 
2 
2 
3 
8 
2 
8 

4 
8 
4 
6 
7 
5 
5 
5 
4 
4 
2 
2 




8 
3 
8 
2 
2 
2 
8 
3 

1 

3 

6 

11 

9 

10 

10 

8 

4 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 




3 
3 
3 
2 

4 
5 
3 

4 
3 
2 
3 

1 

1 

2 

1 
2 
2 

1 
1 
1 


1 






1 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Meteorological Observationf. 



xvu 



Aisiraci of the JResults of the Sourly Meteorological Ohterpatione 

tuhen at the Surveyor QeneraVe Offlee^ Calcutta^ 

in the month of March, 1864<. 

Latitude 22<* 33' l" North. Longitude 88<* 20' 34'' East. 

Feet. 
Height of the Cistern of the SUndard Barometer above the Sea-level, 18.11 

Daily Means, &c. of the Observations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
. dependent thereon. 





"2 2 "S 


Range 


of the Barometer 


j3 fc: 
^1 


Range of the Tempera- 




•ail 


during the d 


ay. 


ture during the day. 




»Sl, 








Qg 






DaU. 


















Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 


l^ 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 




S 








^. 










Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


o 


o 


o 





1 


29.905 


29.975 


29.833 


0.142 


77.2 


85.3 


69.6 


15.7 


2 


.948 


30.042 


.897 


.145 


73.5 


83.6 


63.4 


20.2 


3 


.919 


29.980 


.852 


.128 


74.5 


83.7 


64.6 


19.1 


4 


.963 


30.042 


.895 


.147 


76.4 


85.6 ^ 


68.8 


16.8 


5 


30.036 


.124 


.987 


.187 


73.6 


85.1 


61.2 


23.9 


6 


Sunday, 
















7 


29.947 


.031 


.873 


.158 


76.2 


86.6 


67.9 


18.7 


8 


.896 


29.968 


.827 


.141 


77.2 


89.5 


67.4 


22.1 


9 


.918 


.960 


.861 


.119 


79.2 


88.9 


72.4 


16.5 


10 


.970 


30.052 


.914 


.138 


77.4 


84.4 


71.6 


12.8 


11 


.935 


.040 


.844 


.196 


77.5 


88.1 


70.0 


18.1 


12 


.921 


29.992 


.864 


.128 


78.3 


87.8 


69.8 


18.0 


13 


Swiday. 
















U 


.827 


.910 


.743 


.167 


79.0 


87.6 


73.0 


14.6 


15 


.813 


.874 


.763 


.111 


80.8 


90.5 


74.7 


15.8 


16 


.870 


.956 


.811 


.145 


82.7 


92.8 


74.4 


18.4 


17 


.828 


.911 


.753 


.158 


82.6 


91.7 


75.8 


15.9 


18 


.811 


^2 


.752 


.150 


80.7 


89.0 


74.2 


14.8 


19 


.870 


.955 


.809 


.146 


77.9 


88.0 


70.0 


18.0 


20 


Sunday, 
















21 


.865 


.945 


.784 


.161 


80.3 


91.6 


71.6 


20.0 


22 


.846 


.927 


.766 


.161 


81.5 


91.8 


74.0 


17.8 


23 


.816 


.897 


.731 


.166 


82.2 


91.8 


763 


15.5 


24 


.790 


.866 


.712 


.154 


81.3 


91.5 


72.8 


18.7 


26 


.814 


.882 


.753 


.129 


82.9 


92.3 


76.2 


16.1 


26 


.876 


.946 


^5 


.111 


81.9 


89.0 


76.8 


12.2 


27 


Sunday, 
















28 


.822 


.914 


.764 


.150 


79.1 


88.4 


71.1 


17.3 


29 


.826 


.896 


.768 


.128 


78.9 


88.2 


69.8 


18.4 


30 


.838 


.907 


.774 


.133 


80.5 


91.0 


712 


19 8 


31 


.841 


.929 


.757 


.172 


82.3 


91.8 


76.6 


16.2 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb Ther* 
mometer Means are demed from the hourly ObserTatious made daring the dav^o [^ 



XVlll 



Meteorological Ohservationi^ 



Abstract of the JResuhs of the Hourly Meteorological Ohservaiions 

taken at the Surveyor QeneraVt Office^ Calcutta^ 

in the month of March, 1864». 



Daily Means, S,c, of the Observation! and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — CCouiinuedJ. 



Date. 







^ 



PQ 



S 



a, 

§ 



Q 

> 



Q 



"S 


»4 U 

o - 


s 


-'S 


t 


>*. 


<s 


^ s 


1 


^•2 


•? *2 


55 


'^ o 


^o 


i^- 


;: 


S 


)& 



I fe^ 



5:8 

«4<S a 
"S § £ 

^ O 

"3 £ * 
5 ^ « 



li 

a? 

*» o 



*« ^ 



8 

4 
6 
6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 

14 

15 

16 
17 

18 
19 
20 

21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 

28 
29 
30 
31 



66.5 
61.4 
67.4 
65.8 
62.2 
Sunday. 

66.6 
68.5 
73.5 
70.5 
69.4 
69.3 
Sunday, 



o 

10.7 
12.1 
7.1 
10.6 
11.4 



9.6 
8.7 
5.7 
6.9 
8.1 
9.0 



73.8 


5.2 


74.1 


6.7 


73.2 


9.5 


74.7 


7.9 


68.5 


12.2 


65.1 


12.8 


Sunday, 




69.2 


11.1 


73.8 


7.7 


76.4 


5.8 


76.9 


5.4 


76.1 


6.8 


76.8 


5.1 


Sfwday. 




71.3 


7.8 


71.8 


7.1 


73.0 


7.5 


75.9 


6.4 



o 

59.0 
52.9 
62.4 
58.4 
54.2 



59.9 
62.4 
69.5 
65.7 
63.7 
63.0 



70.2 
69.4 
66.5 
69.2 
60.0 
56.1 



61.4 
68.4 
72.3 
72.1 
71.3 
73.2 



65.8 
66.8 
67.7 
71.4 



18.2 
20.6 
12.1 
18.0 
19.4 



16.3 
14.8 
9.7 
11.7 
13.8 
15.3 



8.8 
11.4 
16.2 
13.4 
20.7 
21.8 



18.9 

13.1 

9.9 

9.2 

11.6 

8.7 



13.3 
12.1 
12.8 
10.9 



Inches. 
0.506 
.412 
.567 
.496 
.431 



.521 
.567 
.715 
.632 
.591 
.578 



.732 
.713 
.648 
.708 
.523 
.459 



.548 
.690 
.783 
.778 
.768 
.806 



.684 
.666 
.674 
.761 



T.gr. 
5.49 
4.50 
6.18 
5.38 
4.70 



5.66 
6.14 
7.72 
6.85 
.41 
.26 



7.91 
.69 
6.96 
7.61 
5.62 
4.97 



5.91 

7.42 

8.41 

.88 

.13 

.66 



6.86 

7.09 

.27 

8.17 



T.gr. 
4.46 

.40 
3.00 
4.34 

.23 



.00 
3.81 
2.84 
3.16 

.63 
4.02 



2.59 
3.38 
4.76 

.07 
5.42 

.19 



.00 
3.89 

.13 
2.86 
3.66 
2.78 



8.67 
.38 
.71 
.41 



65 
.61 
.67 
.55 
.63 



.69 



.73 
.68 
.64 
.61 



.76 
.70 
.69 
.66 
.61 



.64 
.66 
.73 
.76 
.69 
.76 



.66 

.66 
.71 



AU the Hjgrometrical elementa are oomputed by the Q] 

T)igitized by 



Meteorological Ohservatiom. xk 

Abftraet of the Sesvlts of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor OeneraVs Office^ Galcutla, 

in the month of Marehy 1864. 

Hourly Meana, &c. of the Obserfations and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. 





^1- 


Range 


Df the Barometer 


JO tl 

"5 2 


Range of the Temperature 




lit 


for each hour during 


is 


for each hour during 


Hov. 


2 «o 


1 


the month. 




the month 


• 




















Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 


§^ 


Max. 


Min. 


Diff. 




s 








;^ 










Inchea. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


o 


o 








Mid. 
■ight. 


29.877 


30.040 


29.793 


0.247 


75.0 


80.5 


68.4 


12.1 




.868 


.013 


.776 


.237 


74.2 


80.0 


66.9 . 


13.1 




.848 


29.966 


.756 


.210 


74,0 


79,4 


66.4 


13.0 




.846 


30.008 


.752 


.256 


73.3 


79.0 


64.6 


14.4 




.846 


.016 


.765 


.251 


72.7 


78.0 


63.2 


14.8 




.863 


.029 


.781 


.248 


72.2 


77.4 


62.0 


15.4 




.881 


.043 


.792 


.251 


71.7 


76.8 


61.2 


15.6 




.904 


.074 


.824 


.250 


72.1 


77.8 


62.2 


15.6 




.931 


.099 


.850 


.249 


75.4 


79.8 


68.4 


11.4 




.950 


.118 


.866 


.252 


78.5 


83.4 


73.2 


10.2 




.953 


.124 


.861 i .263 


81.2 


85.5 


75.4 


10.1 




.943 


.102 


.843 


.259 


83.6 


87.9 


77.6 


10.3 


Boon. 


.917 


.082 


.814 


.268 


85.7 


90.2 


80.4 


9.8 




.886 


.049 


.774 


.276 


87.3 


91.7 


81.2 


10.5 




.856 


.013 


.745 


.268 


88.1 


91.8 


81.9 


9.9 




.833 


29.988 


.725 


.263 


88.5 


92.8 


83.6 


9.2 




^2 


.995 


.719 


.276 


88.0 


92.4 


82.4 


10.0 




.822 


30.012 


.718 


.294 


86.1 


90.8 


82.0 


8.8 




.828 


29.987 


.712 


.275 


82.6 


86.8 


72.8 


14.0 




.846 


.994 


.757 


.237 


80.1 


85.4 


74.2 


11.2 




.866 


30.011 


.782 


.229 


78.6 


83.0 


73.0 


10.0 




.885 


.017 


.798 .219 


77.0 


81.7 


71.2 


10.5 




.897 


.049 


.803 I .246 


76.2 


81.0 


70.0 


11.0 




.898 

1 


.052 


.795 

1 


.257 


75.1 

1 


79.8 


68.4 


11.4 



The Mean Height of the Barometer, as likewise the Dry and Wet Bulb Ther- 
mometer Means are derived from the Obserrations made at the seTeral hours 
durijig the month. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



XK 



Meteorological Oheertatiom* 



Abstract of the Beeults of the Hourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor OeneraVs Office^ Calcutta^ 

in the month of March^ 1864:. 

Huurly Meana, &c. of the Observationa and of the Hygrometrical elements 
dependent thereon. — (Continued.) 



Hoar. 


1 
J] 


1 

s 


1 
1 

1 


s 

ft 


1 

3 c 

So 


Mean Weight of Va- 
pour in a Cubic foot 
of air. 


Additional Weight of 
Vapour required for 
complete aaturation. 


Mean degree of Hu- 
midity, complete aatu- 
ration being unity. 




o 





o 


o 


Inches. 


Troy grs. 


Troy grs. 




Mid- 
night. 


70.7 


4.8 


67.7 


7.8 


0.674 


7.86 


1.95 


0.79 


1 


70.2 


4.0 


67.4 


6.8 


.668 


.29 


.80 


.80 


2 


70.3 


8.7 


67.7 


6.3 


.674 


.87 


.67 


.82 


8 


69.6 


8.7 


66.6 


6.7 


.651 


.11 


.73 


.80 


4 


69.2 


8.5 


66.4 


6.3 


.646 


.08 


.60 


.82 


6 


68.7 


8.6 


65.9 


6.3 


.636 


6.98 


.57 


.82 


6 


68.1 


8.6 


66.2 


6.6 


.621 


.81 


.62 


.81 


7 


68.1 


4.0 


64.9 


7.2 


.615 


.76 


.78 


.79 


8 


69.4 


6.0 


65.2 


10.2 


.621 


.77 


2.66 


.72 


9 


70.7 


7.8 


65.2 


18,8 


.621 


.78 


3.62 


.66 


10 


71.1 


10.1 


64.0 


17.2 


.597 


.42 


4.79 


.67 


11 


71.4 


12.2 


62.9 


20.7 


.576 


.16 


5.87 


.61 


ITpon. 


71.9 


18.8 


62.2 


28.6 


.663 


5.99 


6.81 


.47 


1 


72.0 


15.8 


62.8 


24.6 


.674 


6.10 


7.31 


.46 


2 


72,6 


16.6 


68.1 


25,0 


.580 


.16 


.57 


.45 


8 


72.8 


16.2 


62.6 


25.9 


.570 


.06 


.88 


.44 


4 


72.4 


15.6 


68.0 


25.0 


.678 


.13 


.66 


.45 


6 


72.6 


18.6 


68.0 


28.1 


.678 


.16 


6.80 


.48 


6 


72.1 


10.6 


64.7 


17.9 


.611 


.56 


6.12 


.56 


7 


71.7 


8.4 


65.8 


14.3 


.634 


.84 


4.00 


.63 


8 


71.5 


7.1 


666 


12.1 


.648 


7.02 


8.36 


.68 


9 


71.1 


5.9 


67.0 


10.0 


.669 


.16 


2.74 


.78 


10 


70.9 


58 


67.2 


9.0 


.664 


.22 


.44 


.75 


11 


70.6 


4.5 


67.4 


7.7 


.668 


.27 


.07 


.78 



^ the Hygrometrical elements are computed by the Greenwich Constants. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Meiearologieal Observations. 



XXI 



Ahtiraei of the Results of the Sourly Meteorological Observations 

taken at the Surveyor OeneraVs Office, Calcutta^ 

in the month of March, 1864. 

Solar Radiation, Weather, &c. 





II 




Preyailing direction 


Ii 


General Aspect of the Sky. 


1 


ii 


III 


of the Wind. 






o 


Inches. 




9)8 




1 


137.3 




N. & N. W. 


i 


Glondless. 


2 


136.4 


... 


N. ft N. W. 


i 


Glondless. 


8 


129.5 


... 


W. ft N. W. 


... 


Cloadless till 9 a. h., cloady tiU 7 
p. M., clondless afterwards. 


4 


138.0 


0.87 


N. ft N. W. 


i 


Cloady till 7 a. m. ; clondless after- 
wards ; also raining at 1 ft 2 a. M. 
ft foggy at 10 ft 11 p. M. 


S 


14L7 


... 


N. ft. W. 


... 


Clondless; also foggy at Midnight 
and 1 A. M. 


6 






Sunday. 


... 




7, 140.0 


... 


W. 


2} 


Clondless. 


8 


144u0 


••• 


S. ft s. w. 




Clondless; also slightly foggy at 6 

ft 6 A. K. 


9 


146.9 


••• 


s. 


2 


Cloudy till 9 A. M. J Soatd. ^i tiU 7 


1 








p. M. ; clondless afterwards. 


lo; ... 


••• 


N.W. 


4i 


Clondless till 5 a. m. clondy after- 
wards. 
Clondy till 9 a. k., Scatd. V-i till 7 


11 136.0 


0.09 


S. W. ft W. 


8 










p. M.; cloudless afterwarda alfio 










raining at 2 a. m. 


M 189.0 


... 


W.ftE. 


i 


Cloudless. 


13 ... 


0.09 


fiftttktoy. 


H 




14 136.0 


... 


S. ft s. w. 


3J 


Clondless till 5 a. v. Soatd. clouds 












afterwards, also lightning at mid- 












night ft 8 p. M. 


16 


139.0 


... 


S. ft s.^w. 


i 


Cloadless till 3 a. m., cloudy till 9 
A. M. ; cloudless till 2 p. m. Scatd. M 
till 7 P. M. cloudless afterwards. 


16 


138.5 




S.ftW. 


i 


Cloudless till 10 a. m. j Scatd. M ft 


1 








N-i till 7 P. M. cloudless afterwards. 


17j 137.4 


••• 


S.W.ftW. 


U 


Cloudless till 5 a. m. Scatd. clouds 
till 7 P. M. clondless afterwards. 


18i 137.0 

1 


•*• 


N. W. ft S. 


1* 


Cloudless till 5 a. m. Scatd. >-.i tiU 
11 A. M., cloudless afterwards. 


19, 133.0 




N. W. ft S. W. 


2i 


Cloadless till 11 a. m. Scatd. M ft 












N-i till 3 p. M . ; clondless after- 












wards. 


20 






Bvmday, 


• •• 




2i; 144.3 

! 


... 


W. ft S. W. 


... 


Clondless ; also slightly foggy at 6 

ft 7 A. M. 


22 138.8 




S. W. ft W. ft S. 


... 


Cloudless. 


23 130.0 

1 


• a. 


S. ft 8. W. 


2 


Scatd. clouds ; also thundering at 5 
p. H. ft lightning at 7 P. x. 



\i Cirri, "^ i Cirro Strati, '^i Cumuli, '^i Comulo strati, V%-i JNimbi, — i Strati, 
^ i Cirro comoli. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



XXll 



Meteorological Observations. 



Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorolopcal Observations 

taken at the Surveyor GeneraVs Office^ Cahuttay 

in the month of Marehy 1864. 

Bolar Radiation, Weather, &c. 





S H 


gj® 




£ 








^ i;^ p 


Prevailing direction 


II 


General Aspect of the Sky. 


1 


^1 


m 


of the Wind. 






o 


Inches. 






24 


132.0 


1.22 


S. & S. E. 


5 


GlondlesB tiU 5 ▲. m. ; Scatd. r^i & 
>— i till 4 P. X. clondy afterwards ; 
also thundering, lightning, raining 
with a heavy fall of hafl-stones 
at 5 <fc 6 p. H. 


25 


136.0 


... 


S.&N. 


1 


Scatd. clouds till 9 ▲. M.; clondleea 
tUl 3 p. H.» oloady afierwarda. 


26 


... 


... 


S. 


i 


Cloudless till 5 A. x. Soatd. douda 
afterwards. 


27 


... 


0.07 


Swfiday, 


16* 




28 


126.0 


*•« 


S. & S. W. 


20 < 


Cloudy till 5 A. M. ; Soatd. >-i till 
6 p. K. cloudy with thunder, and 
lightning afterwards; also slightly 
drizzling at 8 & 9 P. M. 


29 


128.0 


•»• 


S. W. A S. 


6i 


Scatd. clouds till 5 a. M. ; cloudless 
till 11 A. M. Scatxi. N^i & r^i tiU 
7 P. M. overcast afterwards. 


dO 


136.0 


... 


S. 


li 


Scatd. clouds till 3 a. M. ; olondless 
afterwards. 


81 


131.0 


••• 


s. 


1* 


Cloudless till 6 A. K.; Scatd. ^i A 
zling between 9 & 10 p. m. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Meteorological Obeerftatume. 



zxui 



JMraei of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Ohservatione 

taken at the Surveyor GeneraVe Office^ Calcutta^ 

in the tnonth of March, 1864. 



MOHTHLT EbSITLTB. 

Mean iieight of the Barometer for the month, •• •• 

Max. height of the Barometer occiirred at 10 A* V. on the 6th, 
II in. height of the Barometer oeeurred at 6 F. K. on the 24th, 
Xxinme range of the Barometer during the month, 
Mean of the Daily Max. PresBores, . • . • . • 

Ditto ditto Min. ditto, •• 
JCm« dailff ramge of the Barometer during the month, •• 



Kean Dry Bulb Thermometer for the month, .. 
Max. Temperature occurred at 3 r. k. on the 16th, 
Min. Temperature occurred at 6 a. M. on the 6th, 
Sr^mne rimge of the Temperature during the month, 
Mean of the daily Max. Temperature, 
Ditto ditto Min. ditto, .. 
Kms iaiiUf ramge of the Temperature during the month, 



Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer for the month, •• 
Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer aboTe Mean Wet Bulb Thermometer, 
Oompnted Mean Dew-point for the month, •• •• 

Mean Dry Bulb Thermometer above computed Mean Dew-point, 
Mean Elastic force of Yapour for the month, •• 



Inches 
29.878 
80.124 
29.712 

0.412 
29.957 
29.812 

0.145 

o 

79.1 
92.8 
61.2 
31.6 
88.7 
71.3 
17.4 

Inches 

70.8 

8.3 

66.0 

14.1 

0.617 



Mean Weight of Vapour for the month. 

Additional Weight of Vapour required for complete saturation, • « 

Mean degree of humidity for the month, complete saturation being unity. 



Troy grains 
6.68 



Btined 8 days. Max. fall of rain daring 24 hours, 
Total amount of rain during the month, • • 

Total amount of rain indicated by the gauge attached to the Anemo- 
meter darings the month, •• •• •• 

FkvraiJiBg direction of the Wind, .. •• •• S. A S. 



3.85 
0.63 

Inches 
1.22 
1.84 



1.65 



>V. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



xxiv Meteorological Observations, 

Abstract of the Results of the Hourly Meteorological Observations^ 

taken at the Surveyor OeneraVs Office, Calcutta^ 

in the month of March, 1864. 

Monthly Eesults. 

Table ahowing the number of days on which at a giTen hour any particular wind 

blew, together with the number of days on which at the same hoar^ 

when any particular wind was blowing, it rained. 



Hour. 



MidiugUt* 

i 
% 

i 

10 
II 



L 
2 

4 

€ 
f 

i 

10 
tl 



N.. 



E. 


1 




1 


9. 


^ 
^ 
s 

' 


05 


o 

a: 


^ 


1 


^ 
^ 


c 


J 

U 

1 
I 

1 


e 
o 


No. 

1 
1 
2 

1 

1 

1 

1 
1 
\ 
1 
I 
1 


of 


X 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 

a 
1 

I 
1 

2 
2 

4. 

3 


1 
1 

1 
1 


13 
15 
U 

li 

12 
13 

io 

9 
fl 

7 
9 
5 

7 
7 

4! 

8 

! 


I 

1 


5 
6 
7 
6 
7 
5 

e 

7 

7 
4 

7 
7 
3 
2 
3 
7 
6 
4 
4 
4 
5 
4 


1 


3 
3 
3 
2 

3 
3 
1 
2 

2 
4 
8 

G 

9 
12 
10 
7 
4 
3 
3 
2 
2 
2 


1 

1 

1 1 
1 


2 
2 
1 
2 

1; 

2 
3 

3 

I 

2 
6 

2 
4 
5 
2 
5 
6 
6 
6 
5 
4 
4 
4 



1 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



JOURNAL 

OF TRB 

ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



No. Til. 1864. 

Smarks on ike date of ike Peketoa Ineeription of Raja Bkoja,* — 
J5y Major- General A. Cunningham. 

The age of the Pehewa Inscription of Raja Bhoja has been a sub- 
ject of difference between Babu Rajendra Lai and myself, for some 
yean past. When he first published the inscription in 1858 (J. A. S. 
Bengal, p. 674) he read the date as 179 Samvat, to which I demurred 
at the time. He again referred to the subject in 1858, (J. A.. S. 
Bengal, p. 76) and his remarks lead me to believe that at that time 
be still adhered to his original reading. But in an article just now 
poblished, he has finally come roimd to my view of the subject by 
candidly admitting that the forms of the alphabetical characters may 
be *^ a good test to some extent/' and that we are fully justified in 
placing the date of the Pehewa Inscription in the 9th, 10th, or 11th 
eentniy, (see J. A. S. Bengal, 1868, pp. 100, 101). 

With this happy conclusion I shoidd have been contented to 
kt the matter drop ; but as, during the discussion, several erroneous 
statements have been put forth by the Babu, some of which affect me 
personally, I think it right, in justice to myself, to correct these 
enon at once, lest others should be misled by the Babu's authority 
to believe that they are actually my opinions. 

When the Babu first published his translation of the Pehewa 
Inscription, I objected to his placing Col. Tod's first Bhoja in the 
year 179 Samvat according to his reading of the Pehewa inscription. 
When I made this objection I knew nothing more of this inscription 
than what Rajendra had himself published. But as I knew that two 

* For Biba Bajendraliila Mitra'n reply to these Remarks vide the Proceedings 
of the Sodefy for September last (Ante, vol. XXXII. p. 487.)— £ds. 



8igiftedbyLjOOgle 



224 Tehewa Inscription ofSaja JBhoja, [No. 3, 

Bhojas had flourished at much later periods, namely in A. D. 876 and 
A. D. 1030, 1 thought it quite possible that there might have been 
some omission in the figured date, and that the true reading might 
perhaps be 1079, instead of 179. Rajendra now states that the 
actual date is 279, and that the reading of 179 was a misprint in his 
paper in one place (see J. A. S. B. 1868, p. 98.) But on this point I 
must refer the Babu to his previous article, where he will find that the 
number 179 is given twice directly, and twice indirectly, or altogether 
in no less thanybtfr places. As in the two latter instances this number is 
obtained by subtraction, I think that the Babu must have altogether for- 
gotten the remarks which accompanied his translation. At p. 674, J. A. 
6. Bengal, 1858, he gives the date of the inscription as '' S. 179 = A. C. 
122." Now if S. 179 be a misprint, even so must the equivalent date 
of A. G. 122 be a misprint. And similarly the Babu's remark that 
*^ the first Bhoja lived about three and a half centuries before the time 
assigned him by the learned historian of the Bajputs" must contain 
another mistake in the number ihree^ which is written at full length. 
For the date of Col. Tod's first Bhoja is the end of the fifth century 
(or 488 A. C. as quoted by the Babu in this very paper) from which 
deducting 350 years we obtain A. D. 133, which b within eleven years 
of A. D. J22, (the equivalent of Samvat 179) but which differs no 
less than eighty-nine years from A. D. 222, the equivalent of Samvat 
279. There can be little doubt therefore that when the Babu obtain- 
ed the date of A. B. 122, and also when he wrote at full length the 
words " three and a half centuries'* he must himself have read the 
date as 179. The number 279 occurs once only in this paper, and 
that is in the Devan&gari transcript. 

A long time afber I had made the above objection Mr. Grote kind- 
ly sent me a pencil tracing of the date made by Bajendra himself, 
together with the words Samvat and Vaiedkh Sudi. On seeing the 
few letters of these words I wrote to Mr. Grote, as printed in the 
Bengal As. Soc. Journal, that the inscription was beyond all doubt a 
middle age one, because the forms of the letters were those of the 
11th and 12th centuries, to which I added that I read the date as 
8. 1190 or A. D. 1133. 

Babu Bajendra now writes that Mr. E. Thomas entirely concurred 
in this reading, and that Professor Weber had also adopted it, but, 
adds the Babu " none of my critics thought it worth his while to look 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



1864.] Fehewa Inteription ofBaja Bhcja. 225 

to the genealogy of the prince named." He then goes on to say that 
'' it may appear strange that Col. Cunningham and Professor Weber 
should, from a mere identity of names, infer the identity of persoDs, 
and yet both of them found the name of a Bhoja in the monument 
under notice, and per idltum came to the conclusion that it was that 
of Dhte^ oyerlooking," Ac. As the most complete refutation of this 
strange statement, I need simply refer the reader to the difference of 
one whole century between the date of A. D. 1188, as suggested by 
me, and that of A. D. J080, the well-ascertained period of Baja 
Bhoja of Dhfira. 

In my proposed reading of the date I assumed that a single cypher 
had been unintentionally omitted. But this assumption the Babu 
^eelaies to be *' a guess at random which can claim no confidence,*' 
altfaougb I had most pointedly drawn his attention to a blundered 
date in one of my Kajraha inscriptions (J. A. S. B. I860, p. 896), a 
^csimile of which inscription was with the Babu when he penned the 
aboYe paragraph about a random guess. I ¥dll now further refer him 
to the Buddha Gaya inscription published by himself in J. A. S. B. 
VoL XXVII. p. 74, for an actual omission either of the final letter of 
the word Samvat, or of the initial cypher of the date, I refer also 
to this particular inscription on account of the date itself, which has 
been misread by Bajendra as 781, instead of 981. I grant that, in 
1858, before he had seen my Gwalior inscription of S. 933, in which 
the figured date is accompanied by a written one, it was only natural 
that he should have read the Buddha Gaya date as 781. But the 
case is altogether altered when m the present year he still quotes this 
same inscription as being dated in 781, and makes use of this erro- 
neous date to prove that the Kutila character had a rauge of at least 
four centuries, or from Samvat 781 = A. D. 724 to J 124. That this 
might be true no one, to my knowledge, has ever denied, and it cer- 
tainly was not likely to have been denied by me when I have had in 
my possession for many years the following dated inscriptions in slight 
varieties of the Kutila character. 

Inscription from Bavjn&th, dated Sdke 726 = 804 A. D. 



Ditto 


yy 


Gwalior, „ Samvat 933 = 876 A. D. 


Ditto 


w 


Kajraha, „ „ 1011 = 954 A. D. 


Ditto 


» 


„ 1058 = 1001 A, D. 


Ditto 


» 


Gwalior, „ „ 1161 = 1104 A D^ 

2git^e(23y Google 



It26 Pehewa iMcription ofBaja Bhoja. [No. 3^ 

As in these inscriptions we have a range of exactly three centuries, 
we may safely extend the range of the use of the Kutila character to 
at least four centuries, or say from A. D. 750 to 1150. There are of 
'Course some differences between the forms of the earlier and later let- 
ters, but the general appearance of the writing is essentially the same. 
But when an inscription in the Kutila character was seriously refer- 
red to the year 179 of the Yikramaditya Samvat, or to A. D. 122, I 
eertainly did object, and I do so still. 

With regard to the Kutila character I have to point out another 
misstatement regarding myself which has been made by Babu Bajendra 
Lai. In the article now under notice on Baja Bhoja of Dhtei (Bengal 
Journal, 1868, p. 101) the Babu says " the so-called Kutila^ or the 
* crooked' character, which according to Col. Cunningham owes its 
name to a mislection of the word Xumuda^ or the * lotus-like.' " On 
this subject I beg to refer the Babu to the Society's Journal for 1860, 
p 394, where he will find that I have made no mention of the word 
Kutila at all ; I simply corrected the word Kakuda, or " bad," which 
was most absurdly applied to the alphabetical character of one of the 
Kajrdha inscriptions, to Kwmuday or " beautiful." It is true that I 
once thought \t possible that the word Kutila of the Bareilly inscription 
might also be, what the Babu calls a *' mislection ;" but I confined my 
published opinion to the word Kakuda, and kept my thoughts regarding 
the word Kutila to myself. Since then I have examined the Kufila in- 
scription itself, and I find that the word is correctly rendered. Kufi- 
la means " crooked, or bent," and I would refer the epithet to the 
sloping or bent stroke which is attKch^ to the foot of each letter. 
Apparently the Babu did not think it ^' worth his while (I quote his 
own words, vide p. 98 of Journal for 1863) to look to" the actual state- 
ment which I had published in 1860, and, trusting to his memory, has 
unintentionally made this statement regarding me. 

Bajendra Lai has now given a facsimile of the Pehewa inscription, 
the date of which he says is '' unmi^akeably Samvat 279." (See p. 97.) 
But here I must again differ with him, for the middle figure of his 
facsimile is a 1 , and not a 7. The day of the month also has been 
misread, as the figure of the facsimile is a J, and not a 7. The first 
cypher of the date, as now given, looks certainly more like a 2 than 
any other figure, and the last cypher, according to my reading, is a 6, 
thus making the whole date 216. This might possibly refer to the 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1864.] Fehewa Inseription ofJSafa Bhoja, 221 

8ri Hanha era of 607 A. D., which would bring the date of the in- 
•criptaon down to A. D. 828. But if the middle figure is actually a 
7 (as raad by Rajendra, although his facsimile gives a 1) then the 
date would be 276, or A. D. 883 if referred to the Sri Harsha era, a 
period which would enable us to identify the Bhoja of the Pehewa 
inscription with his namesakes of Gwalior in A. D. 876, and of the 
Baja Tarangini in A D* 883 to 901. I will endeavour to examine 
the original inscription during the ensuing cold weather, as 1 have a 
sQiq»icion that the first figure of the date is not a 2, but either a 1 or 
a 9. In the pencil tracing sent to me by Mr. Grote the figure is a 1, 
and so it was read by Rajendra himself, as I have conclusively shown 
in the opening paragraphs of this paper. 

Babu Rajendra has drawn attention to another Raja Bhoja, to 
whom allusion has been made by Professor Hall in his " Vestiges of 
the royal lines of Kanoj," with the dates of 960 and 964. To this 
monument the Babu states that I probably refer (see p. 96 of his 
article) in my letter published in the Journal for 1860, p. 395. But 
here again (to use the Babu'a own words) he did not think it *' worth 
his while to look to*' my actual statement. Had he done so he would 
have found in J. A. S. B. 1860, p. 395, that 1 referred to the Gwalior 
Bhoja Deva inscription with its date of Samvat 933, " both in words 
and figures." In the same letter I added that " the form of the figure 
9 in this date is the same as that which Rajendralal has read as 7,*' 
that is, in the Buddha Gaya inscription already quoted. Notwith- 
standing this direct notice of his misreading of the figure 7, the Babu, 
in hid veiy last article on Raja Bhoja, has agun brought forward this 
erroneous date of Samvat 721 to prove that the Kutila character was 
in use as early as that time. I may add that the Babu is equally 
wrong in his statement that the inscription referred to by Professor 
Hall, was found '' at Gh^alior." It is believed to have been found 
lomewhere in the Gwalior territory, but the actual site is not known. 
It is certain, however, that it was not found *' at Gwalior.*' 

In the remarks which accompany his translation of the Bhoja Deva 
inscription of Gwalior, of which the date, Scmvat 983, is given both 
in woriM and in figures, Babu Rajendra (J. A. S. Bengal 1862, p. 
399) states that '' the date is open to question." " The first figure,*' 
be adds, " is peculiarly formed, and may be taken for a 7, which would 
cany the prince to A* C. 676 = S. 783, or within eleven years of the 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



228 Fekewa Inscription ofBaja Bhqja. [No. 3, 

second Bhoja of Colonel Tod, with whom he may be taken to be 
identical.'' Here then we have the Babu deliberately committing the 
very error, which he has erroneously attributed to me. It is Bajendra 
himself who has ''hastily jumped to a conclusion regarding the 
age of a dated inscription from the mere circumstance of the word 
Bhoja occurring in it." 

Hitherto 1 have spoken only of' Rajendra's errors of commission, 
of which I have to complain, as most of them aiFect myself personally. 
I will conclude with noticing his errors of omission, which are equally 
imfair towards me, and one of which has been the cause of error in 
others. 

In his last article on the Bhojas (J. A. S. Bengal, 1863, p. 97) 
after mentioning the names of Bhoja Baja of Dh^ and the Bhoja 
of the Baja Tarangini, Bajendra says, " The second of these princes 
I anume to have been identical with the sovereign named in an in- 
scription on a Vaishnavite temple at Gwalior. He is described as a 
lord paramount, who flourished in A. G. 876.*' In this paragraph 
the Babu assumes the identity vdthout making any reference to my 
letter, published in this Journal for 1860, p. 895, in which this identi- 
fication was first made known. 

A similar omission of my name occurs in the Babu's latest account 
of the Rohtas inscription, of which a translation was published in 
Vol. VIII. of this Journal, p. 695. In my letter, printed in this Jour- 
nal for 1860, p. 395, I first pointed out that this inscription gave the 
genealogy of the Tomara Bajas of Gwalior, and that the name of the 
fourth prince, Dungara, had been misread as Hungara. In his Ves- 
tiges of the kings of Gwalior, published only last year, the Babu 
adopts this identification of the genealogy without acknowledgment 
and adheres to the name of Hungara in the Bohtas inscription, with- 
out mentioning my opinion that it is erroneous. 

The last instance of the Babu's omissions, which I shall (notice, is 
a more serious one, namely his adoption of my reading and identifica- 
tion of the Rutishka of the Wardak and Mathura inscriptions with 
the Hushka of the Raja Tarangini, without any mention of my 
name (see his translation of the Wardak inscription in this Journal 
for 1861, p. 339). My reading of the name of Huvishka in the 
Wardak inscription, and my identification of this prince with the 
Huvishka of the Mathura inscriptions, and also with the Hushka of 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



1864.] Feheufa Inscription of Raja Bhoja. 22 9 

the Bftja Tarangini, will be found in tbis Journal for I860, pp. 400, 
401. Tbis silent adoption of my identification bas enabled Mr. Tbo- 
mas to ascribe it to Bajendra bimself (see Jonm. Royal Asiat. Soc. 
Vol. XX. p. 108 ; note 2.)* — and Mr. Tbomas's autbority, added to 
the Babu's own silence, bas induced Professor Dowson to do tbe 
same. In tbe same VoL of tbe Boyal Asiat. Soc. Journal, Mr. Dowson 
writes as follows regarding Rajendra's translation of tbe Wardak 
mscription, — ^^ Before proceeding to criticise I will perform tbe more 
grateful task of applauding tbe success be bas acbieved, etpecialUf in 
tbe reading of the name of the king and in identifying bim witb tbe 
Husbka of tbe lUja Tarangini. Tbis alone would bave been a valu- 
able gain." Here tben we see tbat tbe two points in tbe Babu*s ver- 
sion of tbe Wardak inscription, to wbicb Professor Dowson bas 
awarded special praise, are precisely tbose two wbicb tbe Babu baa 
adopted from my publisbed letter witbout any acknowledgment 
wbaterer. 



Extract from a letter from Major^General CuisnriKQHA.M. 
Dated, Nynee Tdl, 2^th Mag, 1864. 

** I bave succeeded in clearing up tbe wbole mystery of tbe date of 
B^a Bboja in tbe Peboa inscription, wbicb is written at Jull length 
in worde, as well as in figures. Tbe date is 276 — Bajendra bas mis- 
read tbe name of Bboja's fatber, wbicb is Bdmahhadra Deva, and not 
Bdmachandra Deva, as may be seen most distinctly even in bis own 
facsimile. Tbis correction is most important, as it enables us to iden- 
tify botb fatber and son witb two of tbe Bajas of Kanoj, wbose 
names are given in tbe Benares copper-plate. To tbis identification 
Bajendra will object tbat tbe genealogy of tbe Peboa inscription prior 
to Rimabbadra differs entirely from tbat of tbe Benares copper-plate ; 
and so it does differ beyond all doubt ; but tbere is no sucb genealogy 
in the Peboa inscription of Raja Bboja ! Tbe explanation of tbis 

* In the same volame, p. 99, in an article read on the 5th July, 1862, Mr. 
Thomas describee a aqnare copper coin of Epander whom he calls a ** new 
tiny*' Bnt the name of this king had abeady been made known by me in this 
Journal for 1860, p. 896, from a similar copper coin in my own possession. 
Btiioe Uien I havo obtained a hemidrachma of JSpander, in bad order, and ano- 
ther copper coin in very bad prcserTation. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



230 Fehewa Inscription ofBaja Bkoja, [No^8, 

seeming mystery is simple enough. There are two distinct inscrip* 
tions at Pehoa, which have been taken by Bajendra Lai as forming 
only one record. The first inscription of twenty-one lines which 
contains the names of Mahendra PcQa, Vajrata, Gogpga, &e., is given 
by Bajendra quite complete ; but of the second inscription he has 
given only eight lines out of sixteen and a quarter lines. It is this 
second inscription which contains the names of Baja B&mabhadra 
Deva, and Kaja Bhoja Deva, together with the date, which is writ* 
ten at full length in words, as well as in figures — thus : 

samvatsare satadwaye skadsaptatyadike (T) 

Vaisdkhamdsa sukla paksha saptasydm, 

Samvat 276 Vaisdhha sitdi 7. 

all of which may be read in Bajendra's own facsimile. 

The date of the inscription being thus conclusively settled^ it now 
remains to ascertain the era to which the date refers. This 1 believe 
to be the era of Sri Harsha of Kanoj, beginning in A. D. 607, which 
would make the date of the inscription A. D. 882r Now at this vesy 
time we know that a Baja Bhoja Deva was paramount sovereign o( 
Gwalior, as his inscription, carved on the rock itself, is dated in Sam- 
vat 933, or A. D 876. From the Baja Tarangini also we learn that 
a Baja Bhoja ecmtended with Sankara Vannma of Kashmir, who 
reigned between the years 883 — 901 A. D. I am quite satisfied that 
all these records refer to the same Prince, Bhoja Deva, who was Baja 
of Kanoj during the last quarter of the 9th century, or iroai about 
A. D. 875 to 900. 

To prove this last statement it will be sufficient to show that Bhoja 
Deva, son of B^mabhadra Deva, was Baja of Kanoj about the date 
specified. Now the genealogy of this family, consislbing of eight 
names, is given in the Benares copper-plate (Joum. As. Soc. Bengal, 
XVII. 71) in which B&mabhadra Deva and Bhoja Deva are the 4th 
and 5th names. The date of the inscription which is recorded in tife 
reign of Bhoja's great grandson, is 65, which must refer to some 
recent era, and is not therefore of any assistance in fixing the actual 
date of this copper-plate. But the name of Bhoja*s great grand- 
father, Vatsa Baja, is found in another copper-plate which is dated in 
730 of the Sake SalivaMn^ or A. D. 808. In this record it is stated 
that Faura Baja, the father of the inscriber, had conquered Faiia 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



IS64"] Pehswa Inscription of Raja Bhoja. 231 

^a^'who had become intoxicated with the wealth of the king of 
Gaur/* (see Joorn. Boyal As. Soc. V. 350) i According to this state- 
ment Paura Baja must have been reigning just one generation, or 
tweniy-five yeaars, prior to A. D. 808, or in A. D. 783. His anta- 
gonist Yatsa Baja may therefore be dated about A. D. 800, and 
YaWs great grandson. Bhoja Deva about seventy-five years later, or 
in A. D. 875. 

The result of all these concurring dates is to give us a very good 
and almost continuous outline of the history of Kanoj from the end 
of the sixth century down to the Muhammadan conquest, or for 
upwards of six centuries. The different dynasties may, according to 
my view, be dated as follows. 

I.— BAIS BAJPUTS. 

A. D. 575. FrabhUkara Yardhana. 
600. Bajya Yardhana. 
607. Harsha Vardhana, founder of the era. 
650. (Harsha's death). 

700. Banmal, invaded Sind (Joum. As. Soc. Beng. X. 188). 
715. Harchand, contemporary of Muhammad bin Kasim (Abul 

Fazl). 
730. Yaso Yarmma, conty. of Lalitaditya of Kashmir (Baj, Tar.) 

Benares copper-plate. 

775. Devasakti Deva. 

800. Yatsa Baja Deva. 

825. N&gabhatta Deva. 

850. Bdmabhadra Deva, 7 r ti u • i.* 

875. Bhoja Deva, } ^^ ^^^^ mscnption. 

900. Mahendra PMa Deva. 

920. Bhoja Deva XL 

* 930. Yinftyaka F&la Deva. 

TOMABAS. 
979. Sallakshana. 
1005. Jaya Pl^a. 
1021. Kum&ra P&la. 
1051. Anainga PMa, refounded Dilli. 

Di^izi by Google 



232 Note on the Spiti FomU. [No. 9, 

RATHOBS. 
1050. Chandra Deva. 
1080. Madana Pala. 
1115. Govinda Chandra. 
1165. Yijaya Chandra. 
1175. Jaja Chandra. * 

1193. Muhammadan conquest. 



Note on the IbseiU in the Society* s Collection reputed to he from 
BpOi.—By T. Oldham, J&^g^., J! JK. B,, Ifc, ^c. 

In the Journal of the Ajsiatic Society of Bengal for the present 
year (1863), page 124, a paper is published descriptive of some of 
the fossils collected by Dr. Gerard in the Spiti district in the North- 
Western Himalaya, which fossils had been in the Society's Museum 
for many years, having been presented by Dr. Gerard in 1881. 

The paper referred to, is said to be a ' revised copy* of one read 
before the Society in November, 1861. The original paper, of which 
a brief abstract was given in the Journal of the Society, 1861, page 
418, had been ordered for publication by the Council of the Society, 
but some delay occurred in the preparation of the plates to illustrate 
it, in consequence of the author having temporarily left India at the 
time, and it was not issued. Meanwhile changes in the author's 
views having taken place, he first desired that the paper should be 
issued as originally drawn up, with a postscript, but subsequently on 
his return to India he states that he * withdrew' the paper and * modi- 
fied' it into its present form in which the conclusions arrived at are 
in several important respects just the opposite of those originally 
announced. 

This was indeed, as the author says, " A very considerable altera- 
tion ;" but the paper in its present form never having been submitted 
either to the Council, or to the Society, having been in fact with- 
drawn, and so altered without the sanction of the Council having been 
obtained, there has been I regret to say, no opportunity, previously to 
its publication, of communicating with the author. 

It is not my intention to discuss in any way the correctness or in- 
correctness of the identification of species in the collection. This 



Digitized by LjOOQLC 



1864.] Sots on the SpiH IbtgiU. 2dS 

important question can only be taken up with advantage, when the 
whole series of the fossils from the same localities, now in other coU 
leoiionsy shall haye been examined. My present remarks are confined 
solely to the brief and general notice which Mr. Blanford has prefix- 
ed to his paper, and to the results there announced. 

The facts appear to be these. Ift 1828 Dr. Gerard collectel in the 
▼alley of ^e Spiti and in adjoining localities, a large number of fossils, 
(Gleanings in Science, Vol. I. page 109.) Of these a selection was for- 
warded to the Asiatic Society in 1831, (Gleanings in Science, Vol. III. 
p. 02.) These fossils excited great attention both from the interest 
attaching to the fact of their having been found in the very heart of 
the Himalaya, and also from the marked similarity of some of the 
species to known English forms. The collection was almost imme-* 
diately examined by the Bev. Mr. Everest, and, at his request, a por- 
tion of it was sent to England to Mr. Sowerby. On the 8th of June^ 
1881, Capt. Herbert read a paper on these organic remains, which 
was published with a plate, in September of the same year (Gleanings 
in Science, Vol. III. p. 266.) This plate was a small etching from 
tiie more finished drawings of the same fossils prepared to illustrate 
the paper by Mr. Everest published in the 18th Volume of the Asia-^ 
tic Besearches, p. 107. Both these plates and reduced etching were 
prepared by Mr. James Prinsep himself. A^ain in 1832, Captain 
Gerard on the part of his brother forwarded to the Society 164 pack-' 
ets of fossils from the Himalaya, (Joom. As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. I. 
p. 363,) and in October he forwarded the first part of his brother's 
paper on Spiti, which also appeared in the 18th Volume of Asiatic 
Researches. Meanwhile Mr. Sowerby's reply to the reference of these 
fossils to him was received, dated October 14th, 1831, confirming Mr. 
Everest's conclusions, (Joum. As. Soc. Bengal, Vol. I. p. 248.) 

From all this, it is clear that no time had been lost in taking up 
the examination of the fossils sent by Dr. Gerard ; that these fossils 
eame at once into the keeping of Mr. James Prinsep, were examined 
by Mr. Everest, and by Captain Herbert ; were carefully drawn ; that 
a portion of the collection and the figures were then submitted to 
Mr. Sowerby, and were at onee hy Mm reeognized at nmilar to others 
from the eame loealitiee whieh he had eeen with Mr. Stohee and Dr. 
Buekkmd, I conceive that the names alone of the gentlemen I have 
mentioned are abundant guarantee that no sufficient care was wanting 

^ ^gitledbyLjOOgle 



234 Nuie on the Spiti VottiiU. [No. 3, 

on their papt to prevent any admixture of foesib from any other col- 
lection with those sent by Dr. Gerard. It seems beyond a question 
that Mr. Prinsep, Capt. Herbert, Messrs. Everest and Sowerby were 
aU quite satisfied that the fossils figured on the pktes I have referred 
to, had actually come from Dr. (Gerard, and whatever confusion or 
neglect may have resulted in after yearsi the Society's collections at 
that time were certainly not in the disgraceful state of which Mr« 
Blanford so justly complains. It is then, I think, certain that these 
fossils from Dr. Gerard had not been accidentally mixed with the 
English fossils after they had come to Calcutta, and I think every 
one who reads Dr. Gerard's papers will also admit that he did not 
carry with him a collection of English Liassio fossils with which the 
Spiti collection could be ' accidentally' mixed, before its despatch to 
Calcutta. It must be borne in mind also that the plates of these fos- 
sils were published within a comparatively short time of discovery of 
them, when the error of having any admixture of English fossils 
could have been discovered. 

Of seven species of ammonites so figured by Mr. Prinsep, and de- 
scribed by Mr. Everest and Mr. Sowerby as part of Dr. Gerard's col- 
lection, the author of the paper I refer to entirely rejects as ' spurious,' 
and as being English specimens, no less than five. Others, although 
there is not nearly so nuich evidence of their being from Spiti, are at 
unhesitatingly admitted as genuine. 

M. Jacquemont visited the neighbourhood of Spiti in 1830, and 
brought away a noble collection of fossils which have umfortunately 
since remained undescribed in the Museum, Paris (with the excep- 
tion of one or two species noticed by L. Von Buch.) SubsequcDtly 
in 1860, I despatched Messrs. Theobald and Mallet, both of the 
Geological Survey of India, to Spiti, during the time when work in 
the plains of India was impracticable, with instructions to bring away 
as full a collection of fossils as the time they could devote to it would 
permit, and to make such notes and observations as would elucidate 
the Geological structure of the district. A brief account of the trip 
was given to the Society by Mr. Theobald and published in 1862, 
( Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 1862, p. 480.) The collection made by these 
gentlemen was a good one considering the brief time at their disposal, 
but could not at all be accepted as fuUy illustrating the (}eol<^ of 
the vaUey. Mr. Theobald subsequently, in the spring of 1862, when 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



1864.] y^ote an the Spiti IbssiU, 235 

putting out and examining these fossils collected by himself, and Mr. 
Mallety visited the Society's Museum to compare those species already 
named and described by Mr. Blanford. Among these he noticed 
several species of whicb no specimens had occurred to himself or to 
Mr. Mallet, and on examining these specimens more closely he no- 
ticed also a difference in the mineral character of the rock in which 
these species occurred. He at once, too hastily as I think, and with- 
out examining into the history of these fossils, but knowing well the 
neglect with which the Society's collections had been treated, came to 
the conclusion that these were not fossils from Spiti' at all, but were 
English Liassic fossils, which had got mixed up with the true Spiti 
fossils. This idea he conmiunicated at once to Mr. Blanford who at 
first rejected the notion, but subsequently, as stated by himself, adopt* 
•d it fully. 

Believing that there are no sufficient grounds for this conclusion, 
I cannot avoid noticing it. The question as regards Br. Gerard*s 
fofisils alone would be of minor importance, but this matter involves 
I principle subversive of all sound progress in our knowledge of the 
Geological distribution of organic remains. 

The grounds on which Mr. Blanford has rejected all those fossils which 
he had identified with English Liassic species are stated to be these. 

1. Mr. Theobald's belief to that effect, which belief I know to 
have been based on a consideration of a slight difference in the mine- 
nd character of the rock. 

2nd. An examination of undoubted Whitby fossils. 

8rd. An examination of Col. Strachey's collection from the Niti 
pass, north of Kumaon. 

4tL An examination of (General Hardwicke's collection from Nepal, 
and — 

5th. An examination of Jacquemont's collection from near Spiti. 

Putting out of the question for the moment Jacquemont's collec- 
tions which were from nearly the same ground as Gerard's, I can- 
iu>t see in what way the nature of the fossils found at Whitby in 
Yoikshire, of those found in Nepal some five hundred miles off, or at 
Niti more than one hundred miles off, can possibly determine the fact 
of the occurrence or non-occurrence of certain forms at Spiti, There 
is no question here as to the identity or even the similarity of the 
species, in determining which a comparison of the others would un- 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



236 Note on the S^iti FossiU. [No. 3, 

questionably be useful ; the question is simply do tbey occur, or do 
they not. I reject as useless also, in any bearing on this fact, the 
consideration of the nature of the rock in which they are found. 
Differences or resemblances in mineral character are utterly worthless 
as guides to such facts. 

The non-occurrence of the species referred to in Jacquemont's col* 
lection, and in that made by Messrs. Theobald and Mallet remains. 
Now did two persons visiting even a single quarry to collect fossils 
after an interval of time ever come away with the same species ? But 
here was not a quarry but a district stretching over some fifty miles 
of difficult country. The fact that these species did not occur to 
Jacquemont, or afterwards to Theobald and Mallet, no more disproves 
the fact they had previously occurred to Chrard than any other case 
of this kind. It might just as conclusively be argued that some of 
the beautiful fossils from the cretaceous rocks of S. India which were 
originally collected by Messrs. Kaye and Cunliffe and described by 
£. Forbes, were not from that district at all, but from some other 
and far distant locality, and had been * accidentally mixed* up with 
their genuine collections, because the same species were not met with 
by Mr. Blanford himself in his subsequent and much more detailed 
examination of the same area. 

But there is still another and to my mind a conclusive proof that 
the specimens rejected by Mr. Blanford did really belong to (Gerard's 
collections, a proof which I should have been glad to communicate to 
Mr. Blanford had there been an opportunity. A reference to Mr. 
Sowerby's letter which I noticed above, will show that similar fossils 
are said to have been in the possession of Dr. Buckland. To that 
Geologist, then one of the most zealous pabeontologists in England, 
a fine series of these Spiti fossils were sent by Dr. Gerard himself. This 
collection still exists among the other treasures of the Okford Mu- 
seum, and I had the pleasure of going over it carefully with Prof. 
Phillips last year, having visited Oxford for the purpose. It cannot 
be supposed that in this series also Whitby or English fossils had got 
mixed either * accidentally* or otherwise. The care with which the 
collections at Oxford have been kept is sufficient to render this idea 
untenable for a moment. But in this (Gerard's) collection at Oxford 
are several specimens of several of the species* noticed by Mr. Blan- 

• I may mention noteably Ammonites hifronSf Am, comnw/nis^ both of which 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



1864.] Note an the Spiti FosnU. 237 

ford, and by him rejected as spurious Spiti fossils. I think this fact 
quite conclusive, and that all the specimens so hastily rejected as 
Spiti foeeib by Mr. Blanford must be restored to their proper place in 
this interesting and valuable collection. 

I said before that I had only to deal with the facts, what the con- 
olusions derived from those facts may be is not now under discussion, 
aod whether there be in the Spiti district Liassic beds ot whether 
these Liaflsic species* occur in the same beds with others, supposed to 
belong to different periods are questions which must await future 
•olntion. I regret that the circumstances I have mentioned above, 
(viz., that this paper by Mr. Blanford in its present state never had 
come before the Society or Council) prevented my having an oppor- 
tunity of making the author acquainted with the fact, that in another 
portioa of Dr. Gerard's Spiti collections, several specimens existed of the 
Teiy species which, on such insufficient grounds, he has rejected here. 

I OKDnot, however, conclude without again directing serious atten- 
fen to the very great mischief arising from dealing with questions of 
iaet in this way. If the fact of the occurrence of certain forma 
in certain places is to be thus questioned, and fancy or some supposed 
minraral resemblance is to be accepted as negativing the deliberate 
rttttementa of those who had collected the fossils, supported by the 
evidence of oureful investigators who had examined these fossils al« 
most immediately after their discovery, (and not thirty years after), 
tfaoe can be no progress. It would be infinitely better, and infinitely 
safer, to leave such specimens, as they are said to have been found, 
without labels, or even to throw them out, than to falsify all the land- 
maiks of sdenoe by exhibiting them with localities attached which 
iie only imaginative. The specimens referred to are now (September 
18tb, 1868,) put out in the Society's Museum (by whose authority 
I know not) mounted and carefully named and marked. Upper Lias, 
Wkitiyt England^ without any note of doubt, and without any refer- 
ence whatever to the fact that they had ever been even supposed to 
come fipom Spiti. Collections thus treated are worse than useless, they 
are misehievous. 

oocizr in the Society's oolloction ; also Am. crass^ts, Phillips, a true Liassic species 
bui of whioh spedmeos do not occur in tho Society's cabinet. 

* Ceratite* Himalayanits, Blanford, is exhibited in the Society's collection as 
from the Upper Lias, Spiti vaUey. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



238 Notes on some Indian and Burmese Helieida. [No. 3, 

Notes on the variation of some Indian and Burmese Helicida, with 
an attempt at their re-arrangement, together toith descriptions of 
new Burmese Gasteropoda. — Bg W. Theobald, Esq.^ Junior. 

Since my paper on the distribution of our Indian terrestrial SCoUub- 
ea was read at the February meeting of the Asiatic Society, several' 
new species have accumulated on my hands, which I propose to de- 
scribe in the present paper, and at the same time, to offer some remarks 
on certain nearly allied forms, which a careful examination compels 
me to consider, sb merely well marked and persistent types of one 
species, connected as they are by intermediate forms, whose number is 
constantly on the increase. 

The question of where variation ends and specific separation is called 
for, is of course not easily settled by any precise rule, and has always 
been regarded as depending more or less on the peculiar views or 
idiosyncracy of the individual naturalist, and has resulted in the 
manufacture of an erroneous number of new species, ostensibly of 
equal value, but many of them in reality entitled to no higher rank 
than varieties. I myself have offendedvin this way ; but whilst depre- 
cating for the future the creation of species, in the unqualified manner 
hitherto too common, I prefer a specific (or sub-specific) name for all 
well marked local forms, to the method advocated by some, of indicat- 
ing such shells by a letter of the alphabet, as var A or var B of the 
type, or first described individual, however little it may merit such 
distinction save on the ground of mere priority. 

My friend Mr. H. P. Blanford, has already done good service by 
decimating the ranks of shadowy species ranged under the genus 
Tanalia, in his paper in Volume XXIII. of the Linnsean Transactions, 
wherein he reduces the twentg-sis recorded species of the genus to twoy 
Tanalia violacea, Layard, and H aeuleataj Gmel. which last shell 
exults in no less than twenty-four synonyms, (twelve contributed by 
Reeve, nine by Dohrn and three by Layard). 

This genus (Tanalia) well illustrates in my opinion the advantage 
of retaining a distinctive name for well marked types of what, 
critically viewed, is but one species, for a considerable amount of 
obscurity, quite unredeemed by superior brevity, results from the use 
of simple letters, rather than well chosen and distinctive epithets for 
well marked local types, many of which have hithertO; though erro- 

Digitized by LjOOQ LC 



1864.] Jfotes on some Indian and Burmese Selieida. 289 

neoufllj, stood as distinct species. Whilst therefore concurrijig in the 
results of Mr. Blanford's examination of the genus Tanalia, I would 
prefer retaining the known designations of such well madked types as 
T. TmnerUiit T. nerUoides, and the like, to recording them all as 11 
aenieatOj Geml. var. A or var, B. 

The alphabetical or numerical method of discriminating varietieSy 
would certainly possess considerable advantages if all the varieties of 
a species could be arranged in an unbroken right line, instead of one 
very much given to ramification, but even in that case the type species 
by priority would often have to be set aside, as falling naturally into 
some other position, than at the head of the series ; I therefore shall 
retain, in this paper, many names which I now regard as of merely 
sub-specific value instead of discarding them m toto as soon as their 
identity, if critically considered, with some previous species is estabiish- 
ed ; and shall on the same principle, bestow distinctive names on those 
whicb of the shells herein described I regard as merely local races. 

It might at first be imagined that strong support was derivable, 
from tiie enormous variation of form of some widely spread species, 
for the Darwiniui view of the gradual extension by migration of all 
spedes in space, and the simultaneous change undergone by them, to 
meet dianged conditions of existence, resulting in local types, and 
ultimately by the decay of intermediate forms, in so called distinct 
species ; but this idea is speedily negatived by the consideration, that 
though some spetaes exhibit an amount of variation, which might be 
plausibly accounted for by the Darwinian theory, yet others not less 
widely spread, either as to time or place, exhibit little or no such ten- 
dency, which seems rather a peculiarity (of temperament so to say,} 
marking certun species, than the result of a general law regulating 
the development of alL A notable example of this is afforded by the 
little Helix labyrinthiea. Say, which has remained unchanged during 
the eons which have elapsed since the Eocene period, occurring fossil 
in the Headon beds on the Isle of Wight, and living at the present day 
in Alabama. Bulimus punetatus and Bulimus puttuSy Gray, may also 
be quoted, the first species inhabiting, imchanged to any perceptible 
extent, the plains of India and the shores of Mozambique, whilst the 
last ranges widely through India and some of the neighbouring coun- 
tries, (Burma and even the shores of the Rod Sea,) and occurs fossil in 
the alluvial deposits m the Ne]:budda valley, where individuals, undis- 

DigitizJbA^OOgle 



240 Notes on some Indian and Burmese Selicida. [No. 3, 

tiuguisbable from recent specimens, accompany the extinct fauna 
which embraced the Hexaprotodon and its congeners : (vide Memoirs 
of the Geological Survey, Vol. II.) 

Of species subject to considerable local variation, Helix Suttoni 
may be selected, if, as I am inclined to thmk, it may be regarded as 
specifically identical with JST. rotatoria V. dem Busch ; and the highly 
variable JST. mmilaris, Fer., with respect to which it may here be re- 
marked, that its most variable and dissimilar forms, are not those most 
widely dissociated in space, as might be surmised from the Darwinian 
explanation for such variations, as its local Indian forms more widely 
differ from the type and from one another, than individuals from the 
far QJpT Mauritius and the Brazils. 
Helix bimilabis, Fer. 

At the head of the varieties, as I regard them, of this species, I 
place H, scalpturitay B. This form inhabits the Irawadi valley above 
the British frontier, and is a stout well marked shell passing by de- 
grees into H. Zoroaster J Th., though in this case as in others, the 
intermediate forms are usually scarcer individually and more variable 
than the types they tend to unite. Allied to some extent, but not 
very closely, is H. Feguensis, B., from I believe, the Eastern parts of 
Pegu. S. Zoroaster which is intimately related to H, scalpturita on 
the one hand and H. similaris on the other, occurs in tolerable num- 
ber about Thaiet mio and the neighbourhood, and passes gradually 
into the type form of S, similaris. S. pilidion^ B., is a thin-keeled 
shell related to H, similarisy from probably the same locality as jET. 
Peffuensis, and last comes the rotund, globiilar shell conmion about 
Thaiet mio, Prome, &c., described by Benson as S, bolus. Several 
intermediate gradations occur between S. Zoroaster y S. bolus and the 
type H. similariSy but not sufficiently marked to require special enu- 
meration ; the whole may thus naturally be arranged as below, those 
marked- thus * being aberrant, the forms required to connect them 
more closely, having probably to be discovered. 

H. scalpturita, B. Ava. 

H. Feffuensis, B.* 

H. Zoroaster, Th. Thaiet mio, Prome, &c. 

H. },ilidion, B."* 

H. similaris. Fir. Thaiet mio, Bengal, Mauiitius. 

H. bolus, B. Thaiet mio, Prome, &c. 

S.ce,tus,B* Kl.a«i lulls. ,,„,,, ,^GoOgle 



186:1.] Note9 on some Indian and Burmese Helieida, 21:1 

Of -fir. cestu8 I have but three individuals, but they seem to form 
merely a well marked local type of the species under consideration. 
They occur v^nth or without the band ; the two varieties differing 
slightly in other respects as well ; somewhat as JET. FeguensU does 
from H. Bcalpturita, the bandless variety of which it much resembles, 
H. IKOTATOBIA, V. dem Busch. 

This species, though affording strongly marked varieties, is not a 
variable one individually. We have in Burma the larger and more 
common form of seventeen millemeters, which varies very slightly, 
and a smaller form (JST. AraJcanensiSy Th.) of only thirteen millemeters, 
with a higher spire, which also varies very little ; and evidently con- 
nects the species with H. Huitani, the largest specimen of which 
from India in my possession is abo thirteen mills, but with a flatter 
spire than the small var. of S. rotatoria. There is also the very vari- 
able race of H. AJcowhtongenM, Th,, with its usually flattened spire, 
holding a place between the large and small forms of H, rotatoria. 

H, tapeina and H: Phayreiy Th. also claim a place near the type of 
the species, the first nearly equalling a large H. rotatoria in size, whilst 
closely resembling a small one in form, and the second differing from 
tiie type rotatoria^ in its narrower umbilicus, and more strongly mark- 
ed sculpture. The little Indian R, Huttoni follows, chiefly differing 
10 its small size, which may be averaged at eleven mills. 

Most aberrant of all comes H, Oldhamiy B. with its depressed spire, 
but it hardly differs more widely (save in one extra whorl), from a 
large rotatoria in form, than specimens of S. Akowktongensis^ Th. do 
from one another. Intermediate forms are, however, requisite to con* 
nect JJ. Oldhami, B. as closely as the rest are. 

ff, rotatoria, V. d, Busch, Irawadi valley, below the frontier. 

H, tapeina, B. Khasi Hills. 

H. Fhayrei, Th, Irawadi valley, above the frontier. 

H. Arakanensis, Th. Arakan hills and Irawadi valley. 

JJ. Akowktongensis, Th, Irawadi valley. 

JT. Huttoni, B, Himalayfis, Southern India. 

JJ. Oldhami, B,* Irawadi valley, above the Irontior. 

Helix fali.aciosa, Fer., is another variable shell, presenting three 

distinct types, as Jff. aspcrella, Pt*. and its allied forms IT. NagporensiSj 

Pfr.and H.propinqua, Pfr. JI. fallaciosa, F<$r.,with its varieties and ally 

M, Hel/erip B. and H. ruyinosa, Fdr. with its ally II. crassicostafa, B, 

Dig?iz/db?LjOOgle 



24£^ Notei on 9ome Indian and Burmese Selicida. [No. 3^ 

The whole are so closely united as to be separable only one from 
another by the most arbitrary divimon. They may naturally be ranged 
thus: — 

S. UToffporeneis, Pfr. Central India. 

S. wnieinetay B. (H.propmquay Bfr, Central India, Bombay. 

S, atperellay Ffr, Central India, 

g ^ JT. fattaeiaaa, Fir. Ceylon, South India. 

JST ru^$uosay Mr, Southern India. 

K. crameoitatay B. Salem (P). 

JS^. Selferiy B. Andamans. 

H. CLiiCAGTEItiOA, B. No one on first examining a typeHspecimen 
of this shell of twenty-one mills, in diameter, would imagine there 
was any Indian shell very closely connected with it, but on examin- 
ation of the small yariety of from thirteen to fifteen mills., (for which 
I propose the term H. geitony " ycmny") a close relation is perceptible 
Jbetween it and H. panaUy B. on the one side and H, omatUdma on 
"the other. The type form of K. clUnaeteriea \a yery peculiar, and is 
seen also in the smaller JS. geitany but in this last it is more subject 
to Variation, so that some specimens are not much more keeled 
than S.paneat B. whilst others unite this extreme form with the type. 
The tiiain distinotioii Veema to be, a more closed umbilicus in JET. 
elmacterieay than is observable in the others ; a stouter shell more 
strongly keeled and more deeply sculptured. H. omatiesima whilst 
closely resembling the typo as regards sculpture, departs from it in 
being less keeled, and in its umbilieud being more open, whilst S.panMy 
B. IB usually far less strongly sculptured than the type and thinner, but 
is more keeled and has a closer umbilicus than S, amoHmma. H, 
anoplewrU^ B. is merely a stout handsome H. omaHsnma, on a large 
scale, ranging from fifteen to twenty-one mills, in diameter, my largest 
JET. JmrMHtMma being but sixteen mills. Intermediate forma there 
doubtless are,^but the natural arrangement seems to be thus — 

JET. clvmactericay B. Khasi Hills. 

M. geitm^ Th. Khasi Hills, (a dwarf eUmacterica). 

H. pansa^ JB.* Irawadi valley. 

H. ornmtistimaj B, Daijiling. 

S. imopleurU, B. Hills North of Tirhoot (Soomeysur hill). 

S. tubmUsay B.* Ditto ditto. 

An equal amount of variation in the keel may be often remarked 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



1864] Notes on some Indian and Burmese Helicida. 243 

in H, textrinaj B. some specimens of which in mv possession are 
strongly keeled, whilst in others this character is nearly obsolete. 
Whatever may be thought however of my uniting such dissimilar 
shells as some of the above, better grounds exist for the union of some 
which now follow. 

H. infrendensy Gould. Farm caves near Maiilmein. 

22. eapeseens, B, Ditto. 

JBT. TiekelU, Th. Ditto. 

S, eastra, B» India, Birma. 

f . sanie, B. Andamans. 

which is I think merely a large depressed variety of H. eastra of 
fifteen mills. 

JET. eapitium, B. Tributary Mehals of Katak. 

£r. hariola, B. Pegu. 

I agree with Mr. W. T. Blanford in being unable to find any dif- 
ference between the Katak shell and the keeled variety of H, hariola 
from P6gn, save a trifling superiority of size in the former. 
j^ rS. l^ranquebartea^ Ibb, Southern India. 






J7* semirugata^ Beck, Ditto. 

jr. iigulatay FSr.* Upper Bengal. 

H. ffUeUina, Pfh. Central India. 

S. hullata, Sutton. Ditto. 

Of these shells, the two first are perhaps the least defined, and the 
whole have a tendency to pass into each other. H, ligulata is the 
well marked depressed form found in Bengal and H, hullata, H. of 
only nineteen mills, in diameter, I have from Mhow. I shall now 
describe a few novelties which have lately occurred to me. 

Familt Okcibiasjb. 

YAennxLVS BnocAiricus, H. 

Corpore elongato, Iffivi, ante et pone eleganter rotundato, coloro . 
fiisoo, minutissime flavo maculato, subter albescente. Pede transversim 
rogosoy totios corporis longitudinis, sed vix ad quartam partem latitu- 
dinis attingente. Tentacnlis quatuor ; binis suporioribus fuscis, ocu- 
lifietis ; inferioribns minus elongatis quamquam robustis, et papiUam 
retraciikm, sensu acatissimo prssditam, subter gerentibus. 

Habitat in locis homidis apud Bangooo, Pcgu^ Thaiet-mio, <&c. 

LongitudinC; 50 mills. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



244 Notes on some Indian and Burmese Helicidw, [No. 3, 

This slug is pretty common at Rangoon and is found harbouring 
under potsherds, bricks and rubbish in moist spots. 

Family Limacid^. 

LiHAX TIBIDIS, Th. 

Gorporo expanso, pone acuminato, flavo cinereo. PalLio magno, lasto 
colorato viridi-flayo limonis. Tentaculis superioribus, longis, pallidis, 
oculos parvos nigros gerentibus ; et line4 pallide smaragdin^ ad basin 
notatis. Tentaculis inferioribus minutissimis. 

Habitat inter folia in dumetis marinis ** mangrove'* dictis apud 
littus Peguense, prope fines provinoio) Arracan. 

This elegant little Umax is very active and creeps about briskly oo 
the green foliage of the salt swamps, which (i. e, the leaves) it 
resembles in colour. 

In my last paper I included two limaces, Z. Memnon and Z. Ben- 
galensis of which I unfortunately have no descriptions. The first is 
a hu^ black slug from Hoshungabad, the other a small grey slug 
frx)m Dinajpur. 

HOFLITES. 

This genus is formed for the reception of some large slugs, common 
at Teria Ghat near Sylhet. I have unfortunately no notes, but the 
animal is like Yitrina and closer perhaps to that group than to the 
slugs. It has a tough membranous plate on the centre of the back, 
conspicuous in the living animal, but no shelly plate. Its total length 
is about two inches. 

FaKILT HSLIOIDiB. 
VlTEDTA PBaUKKSIS, Th. 

Animale pallide lutescente anteriori parte corporis viresccnte ; 
posteriori tamen luteo-flavescente. Tentaculis superioribus longis et 
cum cervice virescentibus : inferioribus parvulis ; Pallio granulato> 
cutis anserinae modo ; fusco, testam omnino fere obtegente. Caudali 
papiM nulUL Longitudine 80 mills. 

Testft elongate, halitoideA, politft, Rubdiaphan& ; margine tenui, 
virescente; reliqua parte flaveseente, et juxta apicem solidissimam 
albescente. Long. 15. Lat. 9. Alt. 4 mills. Habitat in humidis locis 
prope Pegu. This species belongs to the same section as V. Gigas, B. 
which it resembles in miniature and is remarkable for its very solid 
cslumella aud apex. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



1864.] Notes an some Indian and Burmese Helicida, 245 

VrraurA Chbistianje, Th. 

Testa sub-globosa, tenui, polite, diaphan4, nitid4, supra costulate 
striata, inira planiore. Colore succineo. Apice pallido, vix elevatius- 
calo. Periphery^ rotiindata. Apertura parum obliqulL. Anfractibiis 
3^ lente crescentibus. Long. 13. Lat. 11. Alt. 3 mills. 

Habitat in insulis Andamanicis. 

I have much pleasure in naming this shell after the lady of the 
present Governor of the settlement, Lieut.-Col. Tytler, as a mark of 
esteem and in pleasing remembrance of my sojourn at Port Blair in 
his hospitable mansion. It is of the same type as V, Bensoni, P&. but 
is at once distinguished from all species I am acquainted with by its 
rich brown colour. 

Helix kxitl, Th. 

Testa auguste umbilicatft, dcpresso conoidea, laevi, tenui, striatuhl, 
concolore fusdL Apice obtuso. Anfractibus sex, tarde crescentibus, 
oonvexiuscidis, ultimo non desoendente. Apertura obliqu^Peristomate 
recto, tenui, juxta umbilicum leviter reflexo. Long. 16.5, Lat. 15, Alt. 
8.5 milk. Habitat iu insulis Andamanicis. This shell seems a Nanina 
and somewhat recalls HT. semifusea, Dh. but is a more tumid species. 

Stbeptaxis Blakvobdi, Th. 

TestA perforata, depress^, ovali-oblong&, oblique costulat&, striatft, 
tnnsluoente ; spird. obtuse conoide^. Anfractibus sesqui-quinque non 
aogidatis. Aperture obliqu&, subquadrato-oblongi : lamella parietali 
VDk et dente singulo in medid. parte superioris marginis. Peristomate 
expanao, juxta umbilicum reflexiusculo, marginibus callo tenui inter- 
dom junctia. Yarietas reperitur dente carens. Long. 7.5 Lat. 5.0 
Alt. 4.0 miUs. Habitat montibus Arakanensibus provincia Pegu. S, 
Andamameay B. perafiinis, sed ditfert dente marginali, apertura, et 
ombilioo parum apertiore. Ab S. Birmanica, Bl. differt forma minus 
globos&y aperturft et minore magnitudine. 

SntETTAXis BiBKAincA. W. Blanford, (in MSS.). 

Testa perforata, ovali-oblongft, depresse-globos&, kevi, flavescente, 
diaphanl^ spirft obtuse conoideft. Anfractibus sex convexiusculis, levi- 
ter costulate atriatis ; ultimo subter laevigato, et circum umbilicum 
comprease-angulato. Sutur& profundi. Apertur& pcrobliqufi, sub- 
triangalari-quadratA. Dente parietali unico, magno, alteroque par- 
vqIo, in parte anterior! marginis superioris posito. Peristomate 
expanso, reflexiusculo. Long. 9.0. Lat. G.5. Alt. 5.0 mills. Yarietas 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



I^oies on some Indian and Burmese Helieida. [No. B» 

minor invenitur dente marginali carens. Long. 8 milk. Habitat, 
Pegu. Var minor prope fontes fluminis, Pegu dicti. 

A single specimen of this shell was received by me from Mr. W. T. 
Blanford, and I subsequently found two specimens of the smaller variety. 
It very closely approaches S. Blanrfordi, Th. and 8. Andamamea^ but 
is not so depressed in form, and it differs from 8. JPetiH chiefly in its 
more triangularly quadrate mouth, marginal tooth and smaller size, 
(my largest, average, and smallest specimens of 8. PetiH measuring^ 
in length respectively, 14.11 and 9 mills.). 

The distinction however between these shells is only sufflcisnt to 
constitute a well marked race. 8^ Blanfordiy Th. ranging with S. 
Andamanica, and 8. Birmanieay Bl. with its ally 8. JPetiH. 

Glausilia Masohi, Th. 

Testft afcuato-rimatft, fusiform!, tenui, costulate-striat^, pallide Cas- 
tanet. Apice intacto. Suturi excavatft. Anfractibus decern, sub-phi* 
natis, ultimo augustiore, supra apertoram fortiter striato, juxtaque 
suturam foss^, lamin» interioris cursum monstrante, notato. Lunelle 
distinst^ ; interdum nom TiamftlliB quinque, duabus parietalibus te* 
nuibus, distinctis, intus oonniventibus ; reliquorum binis fortibus ad 
aperturam divergentibus ; tertiH post lunellan valde tenui, incon- 
spicuft. Aperturft rotundato-auriformi-solutL Peristomate expanso, 
reflexiusculo. Longitudinis 21 ad 29 mills. Latitudinis 4 ad 6 mills. 

Habitat prope Tonghoo in montibus inter Provincias P^^ et Mar- 
taban. 

This specia varies somewhat in size and some speoimena have 
a more slender spire than others. I have named it in compliment 
to the Rev. F. Mason, D.D., who kindly supplied me with speci- 
mens, and whose success, among the wild Karen tribes, will ever cause 
his name and that of his talented and energetic wife, to be enrolled 
in the foremost rank of missionary labourers in the East. 

Family CrcLosTOMiDiB. 

OyCLOPHOBUS ABTHBiriCTTS, Th. 

Testft umbilicttt&, turbinate, solidissimi^, striata, lineisque spindibus 
flexuosis obscure decussatfil; sublsevi, non polita, fusceote castanei 
fascia IsU, alb& mediant, interdum circumdatL Interdum colore om> 
nino albd, spira pallide castaneft, et fascia parvA castane& suborn ediana 
ornatft. Anfractibus quinque convexis, baud tarde crescentibus ; ulti- 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



>86#.] Notes on some Indian a/nd' Burmese Meliciim. 247 

jno Talde capad, rotundato. Apertura ciiculari. Perigtomate expanso, 
nflexiiisculo, valde incrassato, continuo, intus flavo, interdum ca^rar 
Jescente. Apice pallide purpnrascente-rubicundola^. 

LoDg. 52, Lat. 39, Alt. 87 mills. Apertura 29 milh. 

Habitat in collibus nemorosis circum fonteB fluminis Pegu dicii. 
A veiy solid shell with the surface rarely in good coodition and rather 
spanselj distributed. It is barely so globose as G, flavildbris^ B. to 
which it is nearly allied^ and from which it differs in sculpture, form 
and greater solidity. 

With respect to C, paienSyJBh I find mysdf unable to regard it as a 
distinct species or even race, but merely as an individual variety of O. 
fulgwratusj Pf. as I have no where observed it sufficiently numerous 
to be viewed in any other light. Another marked variety of C fuU 
puratus also occurs with, a large thin shell and white or csBrulescent 
peristome, in some places not rarely : but it is clearly an individual 
variety of the predominant form. Both these varieties are good illustra- 
tions of how races originate, and [become ?] eventually what most 
systematurte would regard as distinct species ; not as some would argue, 
by change eifected by migration, or enforced to meet changed condi- 
tions of good climate or the like, but by individual aberration, and 
the cotemporaneous up-growth of aberrant individuals into races and 
eventually species, as the Darwinian most correctly asserts : but not 
as far as I can see by any pressure of physical conditions co-relatively, 
as the Darwinian theory no loss incorrectly argues. Some other prin- 
ciple, than of mere dependance on physical conditions, has yet to be 
discovered, before the problem of what governs variation, or in othec 
words the ^ origin qfspecies^^ can be regarded as satisfactorily solved. 

PupiKA Blawfobdi, Th. 

Testd pupinssforroi, politissimd, flavescente-come&. Anfractibus 
quinque. Peristomate albo, non expanso. Canahbus albis. Long. 
6, Diam 3.5 mills. Habitat, Pegu. 

This species was forwarded to me by Mr. W. T. Blanford as a pos- 
sible variety of P. Pegtiensis^ B. It is intermediate in its characters 
and aspect, between P. Feffuensis, B. and P. artaia^ B., to the latter of 
which it more closely approaches in the shape and unreflected form of 
its peristome. Whilst in fact P. Blanfordi ranks naturally as a near 
ally of P. artata, B., P. FeguensiSy B. holds a similar relation to P* 
anUa, B, and it is questionable if all foui' species will not prove to ba 

Dig^eft)yLjOOgle 



2d^ Notes on some Indian €tnd Burmefc Relicid^B, [No. 9^. 

equally connected ; P. Feguensu coming between P. artata and P. 
arula. 

P.Arula,B. F. Fe^iuefisis^B! P, Artata, B. F. Blanfordi, Th. 

PoMATiAS Pegitekse, Th. 

Testft auguste sive obteote nmbilieatA, tnrritft, costulate striatft, 
translucente, flavescente-corneft. Apiee obtuBo, lievi. AnfractibuB sep- 
tern Bive octo, tumidis, lente erescentibuis. Aperturft Bub-circulari. 
Perifitomate duplici, extra breviBBime expaoBo, intuB continuo, crassoy. 
juxta suturam leviter inciBa Op^^ulo tenui conieo. 

Long. 10. Lat. 8.5 millB. Apertnra 2.5 mills. 

Habitat in monte marmoreo^ cav^noBO^ baud procul a Gwa, pago 
littore Peguensi. 

This PomatiaB is accompanied at the Limestone bill near Gwa by the 
following Bhells which I gire to illuBtrate the range of s^me of them. 
Helix delibrata, B, Cyduphorus Theobaldianus, BL 

H. textrina^ B. Leptopoma aspirans, B. 

H. honeBta, Gould. Pupina artata, B. 

H. castra, B. AlycwuB soepticuB, BL 

H. rotatoria, V. d. BuBch. (small). Hydrocena pyxis, B. 
H. bascunda, B. var. Diplommatina. 

H. gratulans, Bl. Helicina. 

Plectopylis plectostoma, B. Pomatias Peguense» Tlu 

BulimuB putuB, B. (slender var.) 
B. gracilis, Hutton. 
CryptoBoma prsestans, Gould. 
Streptaxis Burmanica, Th. 

The Diplommatina I have not made out, as I got no good speci* 
mens. The Helicina is very variable, and is I have no doubt H, 
Aniamanicay B. but two distinct varieties occur, differing chiefly in 
size, and both smaller than the type, (as I regard it) from Port Blair, 
but as some of these shells may have been described before, I refrain 
from naming them. They are respectively five and six nulls, diameter 
whilst the type measures eight mills. From the Andamans, however, 
I have a single small Helicina, smaller than either of those from the 
mainland, and I believe all four forms are merely races, all merging 
into each other, but my sole specimen has gone home to Mr. Benson, 
who, from its vast discrepancy in size from the type he is acquainted 
with, will probably regard it as a distinct species. JIaud ego^ 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1864.] Noteg an tome Indian and Burmese Helicidte. 2li9 

I cannot conclude this paper without oifering a few remarks on the 
arrangement proposed by my friend, Mr. W. T. Blanford, for the 
Helicidous groups in the Annals and Magazine.of Natural History for 
February, 1863. The division of the whole, into two great gboups or 
SBCTioirs, — A marked, by having the mucous pore at the truncated 
extremity with a superimpending lobe, and — B. having the mucous 
pore in the elongated non-truncate extremity, devoid of an overhanging 
lobe, — is a natural and probably well marked one, but I think a still 
farther restriction of the term Nanina, than that Mr. Blanford has 
adopted, is called for in any natural classification. 

We there find (loe. eit.) shells of two very naturally divided types 
all ranged together under l^LSVSk or its subgenus Macbochlakys, 
B. illustrated respectively by the species, Vitrinoides, luhrica and 
peianu on the one hand, and pansa and similar unpolished shells on 
the other. A more natural arrangement would surely be to restrict 
the term Nanina to those shells of the great Section A possessing a 
polished epidermis, of which N. vitrinoides may be regarded as the 
type, indicatory as such a condition of the surface usually is, of either 
hibricatory tentacular processes attached to the mouth, as in the type^ 
or of cloee relations to the more typical species so provided. 

This separation effected, the remainder form a natural group of 
which ptmsa may serve as a type, but want of vH books of reference, 
prevents n^y offering any generic name, which a little research will 
soon supply. In this Section A, it may be remarked that Mr. Blan- 
ford includes JET. ligulata, whilst H, Tranquebarica and its allies he 
ranges under Section B. 

In the present paper I have included them, from a mere study of 
the shells, under one group, (Galaxias), which I should not have ven- 
tured to do in opposition to Mr. Blauford's observations, but for his 
remark on ff. Ugulaia, which " shows a passage into the other Sec- 
tion." It is therefore probably aberrant to some extent from Tran* 
guebarieOf but not more so perhaps than from the group with which 
Mr. Blanford has associated it. Mr. Blanford*s remark on the simi- 
larity of the animals of JST. viitata, Fer. and H. fallaeiosa. F^r. is inter- 
esting, aa a shell given to me by Mr. H. F. Blanford* tends to connect 



• Tf, prwnmay F^. Besides the diffepenc© in form H. jyroj^ima has a white 
interior. H, vittata invariably brown or brownish bhick when adult. H. F. Jl. 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



'250 JSfotei on some Indian and Burmese Helicida. [No. 3, 

these seeming dissimilar species. S. vUtata is a very variable shell 
as the followrng measurements of specimens in my cabinet show. 

A. 28 X 22 milk. 

B. 24 X 18 „ 

C. 20 X 18 „ E. S.faUaciosa 14 X 6 miUs. 

D. 24 X 11 „ 

Specimens A, B and C of H. vittata are all from Ceylon.* 
A being a very elevated var, B a depressed var, and C the ordinary 
«mall var. D is the shell received from Mr. H. F. Blanford, and 
though white and more of the form of H.fallaeiosa than of jET. vi^ 
iatay yet it must, I think, be classed as a variety or local race of the 
•last. Numerically reduced the proportions are nearly thus — 
A. = 16 B. = 10 C. = 6 D. = 6 E. = 2 
So that if allowance is made for a better series of specimens from 
which measurements might be made, we see that individuals of the 
type shell A andO differ nearly as much from each other, as specimen 
E {H, fallaeiosa) does from C. But this method of stating the rela- 
tion, very inadequately represents it, D having the aspect and size of 
S. wttata^ with the precise depressed form of J?, falladosay with 
whose colourless varieties it may be compared, as unlike mttata, it is 
colourless and white. It would be very curious if intermediate forms 
should eventually be discovered more closely connecting these at first 
sight utterly dissimilar species M. vUtata and S.fallaciosa. 
Tkaiet Mo, October, 1863. 

* I may add to this fist the extreme meaanrements of speoimeiiB in my own 
ooUection shewing still greater variability. 
a h c 

Diam. 17 m.m. 17 m.m. 29 m.m. 
Alt. 18 m.m. 19 m.m. 22 m.m. 
Bpecimen a is of uniform chestnnt brown, 6 white with faint brown bands 
and violet apex, c white with flesh colored apex. H. F. B. 





Errata in Mr, 


Theohald*s paper, 


in m. 4 of 1863 


. 


Page 


Une 


for 


read 


Page 


Une 


for 


read 


864^ 


2, 


leaning 


bearing. 


870, 


12, 


Borilisa 


Bonti». 


S56, 


26. 


living 


tiny. 


875, 


14, 


Bensoni 


Bamiana. 


868. 


7, 


fooal 


wild. 


876, 


28, 


After B add 


sp. 


867, 


82, 


bora 


vara. 


881, 


10, 


etnilla 


nitella. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



186*.] On Ancient Indian WeigUs. 251 



On Ancient Indian Weights. — Bif £. Thoma.8, iE^q, 

[The subjoined article was sketched, with a view to the limited 
illustration of the subject announced in its title, for insertion in the 
l^amismatic Chronicle : but so large a proportion of its contents have 
proved in the progress of the enquiry to relate to questions beyond 
the legitimate scope of that Journal, while they would seem well 
adapted for the pages of the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 
that I have revised and added to the original paper, in the design of 
its simultaneous publication in England and in India. I am the 
more anxious that it should appear in the latter country, as there alone 
can its higher aims be suitably discussed ; thence also must we seek 
a due definition of the indigenous plants upon whose products these 
weights are based, and a determination, by actual comparison of grow- 
ing seeds, of the initiatory scheme of Indian Metrology. From that 
continent must come the further ethnological and philological evi- 
dence, which is to determine many of the questions I have ventured to 
rase. Wherever the final decision may be pronounced, it is clear the 
witnesses are still mainly in the land whose past history is under 
investigation. — Edwabd Thoma.8]. 

The attention of archaeologists has recently been attracted to the 
weights and measures of ancient nations, by the elaborate work of M. 
Qoeipoy^ and the less voluminous, but more directly interesting article 
of Mr. R. S. Poole, on the Babylonian and other early metrologies.* 
At the present day, when ethnological inquiries engross such an un- 
precedented share of public notice, any parallel study that may con-* 
tribute by material and tangible evidence to check erroneous, or 
smtably aid and uphold sound theories, should be fi*eely welcomed, 
however much its details may threaten to prove tedious, or the locality 
whence its data are drawn may be removed beyond the more favoured 
cirdes of research. 

The system of Indian weights, in its local development, though 
necessarily possessing a minor claim upon the consideration of the 
European world, may well maintain a leading position in the general 

1. "Eflsai snr les Systdmes V^triqaes et Mon^taires deB Anciens Penples," 
par Don V. Qneipo, 8 voIb. 8vo., Paris, 1669. See also a review of the 8ame» 
JoicnMa de$ SavamU^ 1861, p. 229. 

2. Article <* Weights/' Smith's <' Dictionary of the Bible," London^ 1863» 



Digitized by LjOOQIC 



252 On Ancient Indian Weighfi. [No. 3, 

investigation, on the ground of its primitive and independent organisa- 
tion, and the very ancient date at which its terms were embodied and 
defined in writing ; while to numismatists it offers the exceptional 
interest of possessing extant equivalents of the specified weights given 
in the archaic documentary record which Sanskrit literature, under the 
regained faculty of interpretation acquired by Western scholars, proves 
to have preserved in the text of the original code of Hindu law ; as 
professedly expounded by Manu, and incorporated in the '^ Manava 
Dharma Sdstra." The positive epoch of this work is imdetermined : 
but it confessedly represents, in its precepts, a state of society consi* . 
derably anterior to the ultimate date of their collection and committal 
to writing "? while the body of the compilation is assigned, on specu- 
lative^ grounds, to from b. c. 1280 to b. c. 880. 

It is a singular and highly suggestive fact that numismatic testi- 
mony should have already taught us to look for the site of the chief 
seat of ancient civilisation in northern India, to the westward of the 
upper Jumna — a tract, for ages past, relatively impoverished. For such 
a deduction we have now indirect, but not the less valuable, historical 
authority, derived in parallel coincidence from the comparative geo- 
graphy of the Yedic period, and from, the verbatim text of Manu, the 
Integrity of which seems, for the major part, to have been scrupulous- 
ly preserved. 

3. I trust that Enropean scholars will not imagine that I desire to ignore 
Megasthenea' statement, that the Indians had " no written laws." (Stmbo, 
zv. c. i. § 53.) ThiB is, indeed, precisely the testimony^ seeing the souroe from 
Whence it was derived — ^we should expect from what we novo know of Brahmani* 
cal policy. As to the addition " who are ignorant even of writing," this ridi- 
cnloos assertion hod prevloaaly been nnllified by the more accarate information 
of Nearchns (Strabo, xv. c. i. § 67), and is ftirther oonolosively refnted by the 
incidental evidence contained in the remarkable passage in the same work, where 
it is stated, *' At the beginning of the now year all the philosophers repair to tho 
king at the gate, and anything nsefnl which they have committed to %oriting^ 
or observed tending to improve the productions of the earth, &o. &jo, &o., is then 
publicly declared." (rv c. L § 39). 

4. Max Muller's ** Sanskrit Literature," pp. 61, 62. <<The code of Mann is 
almost the only work in Sanskrit literature which has as yet not been assailed 
by those who doubt the antiquity of everything Indian." 

Professor H. H. Wilson, though hesitating to admit the high antiqnity of tho 
entire bulk of the composition, was fuUy prepared to assign many passages to a 
date « at least" as early as 800 B.C.— Prinsep's «< Essays," i., note, p. 222. See 
also Professor Wilson's translation of the <* Big Yeda Sanhita," i. p. xlvii. 
' M. Vivien de St. Martin places Manu under " la p6riode des iem/ps hSro^iqueSt" 
\, 0., between the twelfth and thirteenth centuries B. c, and the Buddhist epoch 
B c, 543. —*' E'tude sur la G^ogpvphie et los Populations primitives de \* Inde," 
Paris, 1859. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



J8«J On Ancient Indian Weights, 26S 

The most prolific field aiuon^ the favoured resorts of our native 
coin-collectors, in olden time, chanced to be the exact section of the 
country constituting the Brahm&vaHa of the Hindu lawgiver ; and 
TkaneBwar — since so celebrated in the annals of the land, as tlie 
battle -field of successive contending hosts — contiributed, at its local 
lairB, man J of the choicest specimens of the inceptive currencies. In 
Ibis region the Aryans appear to havB almost lost their separate 
identity, and to h&ve commenced the transitional process of merging 
their ethnic individuality amid the resident population, though still 
asserting religious and incidentally political supremacy. Such a state 
of things seems vividly shadowed forth in the ethnological definitions 
preserved in Manu ; and it may possibly prove to be more than a 
mere ccunddence, that the geographical distribution of the limits of 
^ Brakmarthij as distinguished from Brahmdvarta" in the same pas* 
sage, should so nearly be identical with the general boundaries I have 
already traced^ from independent sources, for the spread of the Bactrim 
an alphabet in its Southern course. 

I reproduce my latest observations on this subject. 

"The Bactrian, Arian, or Arianian alphabet, unlike its Boathem oontem* 
poraiy, the Indian Pali, has no pretension whatever to an indigenous origina. 
tion ; it would seem to have aooompanied or followed, in its arohaio and imper- 
fect form, the Aryan immigration from Hedia, based as it manifestly is upon 
ID alphabet cognate with the Phcenician. We are unable to traoe its progres- 
sive adaptation from the scanty literal signs of early Semitic writing ; as we 
first find it, in an advanced stage of maturation, in an inscription on the 
Kapardigiri rock in the Peshiwar valley (lat ^° 2(y, long. 72^ 12'), whero it 
embodies the substance of the edicts of Asoka, whose corresponding mani- 
festoes in the Indian-Pali character are so largely distributed over the continent 
of India,* and the general date of whose incision may bo approzimatively fixed 
at 246 B.C.*. How much further south this character may have penetrated at 
this period we have no direct evidence to show, but it is to be remarked that 
the same king Asoka simultaneously retains the Indian proper alphabet in hirt 
monumental inscriptions at Khizrabad' and at Khalsi,' near the ddbauchenumt 

5. Bock Inscriptions : — 1. Oimir, in Ouzerat. 2. Khalsi, on the' Upper Jumna. 
S. Dhauli, in Cuttack. 4. Nanganm, in Ganjam. 5. Hhabro, in Jaipur. 

Uunolithic inscriptions : — 1. Khizrabad, on the Upper Jumna. 2. Mconit 
(both moved to Delhi). 3. Allahabiid. 4. lUdhia, in S4run. 5. Mattiah, in 
the same locality. 

fl. ** Joom. Royal Asiatic Soo," xx. 101 ; ** Prinsep^s Essays," ii. 15, et scq, 

7. '* Prinspp's Gssays/' ii. 324. 

U. f* Jonm. As. Soc. Bengal," 1862, p. 99. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



251 On Ancient Indian Weights. [No. 3, 

of the Jamna fi*oin the Himalaya range ; while the employment of the latter 
oharaoter by Agathooles and Fantaleon would imply its currency within, or 
proximately south of the provinoe of Arachosia. Then again, certain coins of a 
kingdom on the Upper Jumna^ pertaining to a native dynasty of indeterminate 
date,* but whose epoch may not be very distantly removed from the period 
under review, are found to be inscribed with the Arian character on the ons 
surface, with a oorrespoading legend in Indian-Pali on the reverse. In this 
instance alaoj the internal evidence woidd seem to show that the latter was the 
alphabet of the mint artificers, while the former may reasonably be supposed 
to have constituted the official vnriting of the ruling classes. Under this view^ 
it may be coxijectured that the Arian paleeography encroached upon and inter- 
mingled with the indigenous system of letters as the dominant Northern races 
extended thoir dominions, in successive waves, further into Hindustan, till the 
intrusive alphabet reached Mathura, (lat- 27^ SCy, long. 77° 45'), which is the 
lowest point at which any indications of its progress are to be found.*** Whence i 
however, it was speedily to be thrown back, and very shortly superseded and 
extinguished by its more flexible and congruous associate of indigenous growth." 
(Numismatic Chronicle, 1863, p. 230.^ ') 

As I have claimed for the Pre- Aryan Indians the- independent de-- 
velopment of an alphabet specially contrived for, and adapted to, their 



9. " Coins of Knnanda, " Ariana Antiqua," pi. xv. fig. 23 ; " Prinsep*s Essays,* 
i. pi. iv. fig. 1 p. 203 ; D>id., ii. p. Ixiz. fig. 16. 

10. Mathura Inscrvption, dated in Bactrian figures, " Joum. As. Soc. Bengal," 
1861, p. 427 ; CoiiiSy Prinsep's Essays," ii. 197. 

11. I recapitulate the leading insoriptions in this alphabet : — 1. Hidda (No. 
13), near Jellalabad, in Afghanistan. An earthen jar,, having an Arian inscrip- 
tion, written vn ink, and dated in the year 8. <* Ariana Antiqua," p. Ill, and 
plate, p. 262. 2. A steatite vase from Bimir&n (Jellalabad), with a legend 
scratched on its surface, undated. << Ariana Antiqua," pp. 52, 70, pi. ii. fig. 1 ; 
•* Prinsep's Essays," i. 107, pi. vi. 3. The Wardak (30 miles W. of Kabul). 
Brass Vase, now in the India Museum, Inscribed with dotted letters, dated in 
the year &1, and recording the name of Hnshka, the OOUPKI of tho coins; 
Bee**Ai'iana Antiqua," p. 118; " Prinaep," i. 104, pi. x; **Jouni. As. Soo» 
Bengal," No. iv. of 1861 ; '* Joum, Eoyal As. Soc," xx. 37. The Taxila Plato, 
dated 78, records the name of " Moga," identified with the Moa of tho coins ; 
** Num. Chron.," Bactrian List, No xxv. 5. Manikyala Stone Slab (now in the 
Biblioth^ue Imperiale, Paris), dated in tho year 18, contains the designation o£ 
Kanishka ; " Prinsep's Essays, i. pi. ix. ; " Joum. Royal As. Soc." xx. 251. 
From the same site was obtained the Brass Cylinder now in the British Muse- 
um ; " Prinsep," pi. vi. To these may be added two inscriptions from tlie 
Yusafzai country, one dated 60; "Joum. As. Soc. Bengal," 1854, p. 705; 
'* Prinsep," i. pi. ix. : and the bi-literal inscription at Kangra (Arian and Indo% 
Pdli), " Prinsep," i. 159, pi. ix. 

[Tho mention of OOHPKI reminds me, that Gen, Cunningham has complained 
in our Journal, of my having given the credit of the identification of that name 
with Uushka, to another. 1 have already taken the very earliest opportunity of 
con*ecting this unintentional error (Journal Asiatique. Octobre 1863. p. 387.) 
1 availed myself of tho same occ«i(W», to express my regret that I, myself, had 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1864.] On Ancient Indian Weights. 255 

own lingual requirements,^^ gimilarlj it can be shown, from as valid 
internal indications, that they originated, altogether on their own soil* 
that which has so often proved a nation's una:isailable heritage of its 
indigenous civilisation — a system of weights and measures, which 
retained its primitive identity in the presence of the dominant exotic 
nationality. It is indisputable that the intrusive Aryans, at whatever 
period their advent is to be placed, met and encountered a people, 
already dwelling in the land, of far higher domestic civilisation and 
material culture than themselves. Whether their eventual supremacy 
was due to undiminished northern energy, animal physique, or mental 
subtlety, does not concern us at present; but independent of the 
inner-life evidences to that effect, a parallel inference might be drawn 
from the indirect data of the contrasted tenor of the hymns of the 
Rig Yeda,^ which while indicating a crude social condition, refer 
almost exclusively to the country of the Seven Rivers ; whereas Manu, 
at a date but moderately subsequent,^^ associates the far higher pro- 
gress manifested in the body of the work with a more easterly seat of 
authority, and while asserting no community with things or people 
beyond or to the westward of the Saraswati, arrogates for the existing 
representatives of the Aryans a dominance over kindred kingdoms 
extending, in the opposite direction, down the Ganges to Kanauj 
Bat, in demanding credence for the simple gift of invention arising 
out of manifest wants among the already thrice commixed, and in so 



failed to do homage for a rectifioation of his, to which, he, I uadeniand, attaches 
somewhat of nndae importance, that is to say, the subatitation of an M. in the 
place of Prinsep's P, as the third consonant in the name of Toramana (J. A. S. 
B. Til. 633). It might have been necessary, in early days, to reclaim titles to 
discoveries made by Lieut. A. Cunningham, (J. A. S. B. 1854, p. 714.) bat sorely 
the ' Bays' of the Archsdological Surveyor to the Govt, of India can afford to 
lose a faded leaf with scant damage to the gpreen circlet !] 

12. Prinsep's " Essays," London, 1858, ii. 43 j Num. Chron., 1863, p. 226. 

13. Wilson, •* Eig Veda Sanhita," iii. pp. xviii. xir., London, 1857 ; Vivien St. 
Uartin, ** E'tade sur la G^raphie • • • d'apr^s lea Hymns Vediques," Paris, 
1859, p. 89. 

14. " Journal As. Soc. Bengal," 1862, p. 49 ; Max Miiller's *' Eig Veda," pre- 
face to text, iv. pp. XXV. — ^xxxiv. " The traditional position of the solstitial 
points, as recorded in the Jyotisha," is calculated by Archdeacon Pnitt to refer 
to 1181 B.C., and by the Eev. E. Main to 1186 B.C. See also p. Ixxxvii. on the 
sobject of Bontle/s date, 1424—5 B.C. 

For specniative dates concerning the Vedas, see also Max Miillor, " Sanskrit 
LiL" pp. 244, 300, Ac. ; WUson, " Rig Veda," i. 47, ii. 1 ; St. Martin, p. xix. ; 
M. Barthelemy St. Hilairo, Journal des Savants, 1861, p. 53 ; Dr. Maitin Uaug, 
"Aitart^ya Biahmana," Bombay, 1863} GolUstuckcr, " Piniui," p. 72, Ac. 

2 L 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



256 On Ancient Indian Weigfitr. fNb. 5, 

far improved^s local inhabitants, as opposed to the Aryan assumption 
of the introduction of all knowledge, I am by no means prepared to 
contend that the domiciled races gained nothing in return. The rery 
contact of independently- wrought civilisations, to whatever point each 
had progressed, could not faU mutually to advantage both one and the 
other ; the question to be ajsked is, which of the two was best pre- 
pared to receive new lights, and to utilise and incorporate the inci-^ 
dental advantages within their own body politic ? The obvious result 
in this case, though denoting the surrender by one nation of all their 
marked individuality, by no means implies that they did not carry 
with them their influence, and a powerful one moreover, and affect 
materially the character of the people among whom, at the end of 
their wanderings, they introduced a priestly absolutism, which has 
progressively grown and increased rather than lost power tiD very 
recently over all India. 

But here again a most important query forces itself upon our con- 
sideration. The Aryans are acknowledged to have been in a very bar-r 
barous state on their first entry into the land of the Sapta Sindhu.^^ 
It is not known liow long a period they consumed in traversing six 
out of the seven streams, or what opportunities may have been 
afforded for social improvement during the movement ; but even by 
their own showing in the sacred hymns of the Hig Veda, the Aryans, 
when they had reached the banks of the Saraswati, were still but very 
imperfectly civilised. The Dasyus^ or indigenous races, with whom 
they came in contact in the Funjaub, may well also have been in a 
comparatively undeveloped stage of national progress ; while the in- 
habitants of the kingdoms on the Jumna seem to have been far ad- 
yanced in civil and political refinement.i^ Is it not, therefore, possible. 



15. *' We have therefore, according to the vie^g just snmmarilj expounded, four 
separate strata, bo to spenk, of the population in India : — 1. The forest tribofi 
. . . . who may have entered India from the north- oast. 2. The Dravidians, 
who entered India from the north-west .... 3. The race of Scythian 
or non-Arian immigrants from the north-west, whose language afterwards miited 
with the Sanskrit to form the Prakrit dialects of Northern India. 4. The Arian 
invaders." . . . .— Hair's " Sanskrit Texts," ii. p. 487. See also Caldwell's 
" Dr&vidian Grammar." 

16. St. Martin, p. 91. 

17. Professor Wilson while speaking of the ultimate self-development of the 
Aryans in the Pnnjab, remarks, " It [is] indisputable that the Hindus of the 
Yaidik era had attained to an advanced stage of civilisation, littlOi if at al), dif- 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



18G4.] On Ancient Indian WeigMs. 257 

if not probable, tbat when the Aryan flint, at the end of its t-ourse, 
atnick against the Indian steel, sparks were emitted that flashed 
brigfatij on the cultivated intellects of a fixed and now thoroughly 
organised and homogeneous nation^ whose leading spirits quickly saw 
and appreciated the opportunity afforded in the suggestion of a new 
religion, that was capable of being evolved, by judicious treatment, out 
of the rude elemental worship, aided forcibly by the mystification of 
the exotic and clearly superior language of the Aryans, which came 
so opportunely in company ?18 The narrow geographical strip, to 
which the promoters of this creed confined the already arrogant priest- 
ly element) intervening between the two nationalities, would seem to 
savour more of an esoteric intention than of any natural result of 
conquest or of progressive power, achieved by the settlement of an 
intellectually higher class. That the Aryans should be able so com- 
pletely to divest themselves of their national entity and leave no trace 
behind them, would be singular in itself ; but the concentration of all 
god-like properties on a mere boundary line, so much insisted upon an 
Brahmanism grew and pushed its forces downwards into the richer 
eountiies of Hindustan, while it ignored both the land of the nativity 
of its votaries and the site of their later more advanti^eous domestica- 
iion, forms a fair subject for present speculation and future deliberate 
investigation. But this in itself is a matter only incidental to my 
special subject, and I return to the question, that if the Aryans were 
80 far instructed on their first immigration as to bring with them, or 
subsequently to import and amplify, the Phoenician alphabet, and 
dmilarlj to secure its transmission, even as a secondary system of 



fermg finom that in which they were fonnd by the Greeks at Alexandei^s inva- 
sion, although no doubt they had not spread so far to the cast, and were located 
chiefly in the Punjab and along the Indus." — " Rig. Veda," ii. p* xvii« I am 
inclined to question this latter inference ; I do not think the civilisation evi- 
denoed in the text of the " Kig Veda" by any means equal to that discovered at 
the advent of the Greeks ; indeed, it would be an anomaly that the Aryans* 
while occupied in pressing their way onwards, in constant hostility with tho 
local tribes, should have made a pix^portionately' greater progress in national 
culture than they did in the subsequent six or seven centuries of fiLxed residence 
in their new home within the five rivers. 

18- A late writer in the Westmiimterr Review 1864, p. 154, has justly remarked 
that the 1026 incoherent hymns of the " Rig Veda" oonRtitutcd but a poor stock 
in trade whereon to found a new religion. Nor do the Soma '* inspired" Rishis 
by whom they were " seen" appear, from the internal evidence of their crnds 
chants, to have possessed mental qualifications such as should have been equal 
to the origination of the higher iutelloctual structure of Brahmanism. 



D^itiAd^ Google 



258 On Ancient Indian Weights. [No. 3, 

writing, over all tho country of the Brahmarshis, it would be rash to 
attempt to place a limit on the amount of Chaldjean or other western 
sciences that may have accompanied these cursive letters,^* which, 
either directly or indirectly, travelled eastward from the borders of 
Mesopotamia to the banks of the Ganges. And clearly, if the gram- 
marian TaninVa age has been rightly determined by his special 
modem commentator,*^ Bactrian writing, or YavanAni-lipif^ must 
have been freely current at Taxila at and before B.C. 543, even as it 
subsequently became the ruling alphabet in those parts, so as to 
appear as the Inscription character under Asoka (b.c. 246) in the 
Peshawar valley, and to hold its own as the official method of expres- 
sion in concurrence with the local P^i as low down as Matbura up to 
a much later period. Under these evidences of the spread of Aryan 
civilisation in India, there will be little or no difficulty in admitting 
that much of what has hitherto been esteemed as purely indigenous 
knowledge, may, even thus early, have been improved and matured by 
the waifs and strays of the discoveries of very distant nations, without 
in any way detracting from or depreciating the independent origin- 
ality of local thought, or the true marvels IncHa achieved unaided by 
foreign teaching. 

In illustration of the preceding remarks, and as the necessary 
definition of the boundaries of the kingdom to which our initial series 
of coins refer, I transcribe in full a translation of the original passage 
from Manu. 

Mann, ii., 17. •■ ** Between the two divine rivers, Saraswati and Dbishad- 
WATi [Chitang], lies the tract of land which the sages have named Brahma'vabta, 



19. We have indirect evidence to show that this style of writing was in very 
early cnrrency in association with the monumental cuneiform, I assume that 
wherever, in the ancient sculptures, we see two scribes employed — the one using 
a style and marking a clay tablet, the other writing upon a flexible sobstance — 
the latter is using cursive Babylonian, or what has since been convention- 
ally recognised as Phcenician. M. £. Renan considers it is satisfactorily esta- 
blished, that the Jews used " phenico-babylonien" letters, at their coming out of 
Egypt, now placed in b. c. 1312. Bonan, * Langues S^mitiques,' pp. 108, 216, 
fto> Prinsep's Essays, iL 115. 

20. Goldstiicker, " Pdnini, his place in Sanskrit Literature," London, 1861, pp. 
12, 227; so also Alwis,'«Pali Grammar," Colombo, 1863, p. xli.; and Colo- 
brooke's " Misc. Essays," ii. p. 4. 

21. Max Miiller, " Sanskrit Lit.," London, 1859, p. 521 ; and preface to text of 
** Rig Veda," London, 1862, vol. iv. p. bcxiv. 

22. Sir W. Jones's works, London, 1799, vol. iii. j Haughton, " Hindu Law," 
p. 22. 



Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1S64.] On Ancient Indian Weights. 259 

beccMse it wctt frequented by gods." 18. The cnstom presenred by immemorial 
tradition in that ooontry, among the four pure classes, and among those which are 
mixed, is called approved usage. 19. Kurukshetka [modem Dehli], Matsta 
[on the Jumna], Pancua'la [^Kanyakuhja^ KaTiauj]^ and Sueasbna [or Mathuri], 
form the region called Brahmakshi, distinguished from Brahma 'yarta. 20. 
From a Brdhman who was bom in that country, let all men on earth learn their 
•ereral usages. 21. That country which lies between Himawat and Yindhta, 
to the east of Vutasana [whore the Sarasvati disappears in the desert'^] and 
to the west of Prata'oa [Allahabad], is celebrated by the title of Madhtadesa 
[or the central region]' 22. As far as the eastern and as far as the western 
oceans, between the two mountains just mentioned, lies the tract which the wise 
hare named Arya'varta [or inhabited by respectable men'], 23. That land on 
which the black antelope naturally grazes is held fit for the performance of sacri- 
fices ; bnt the land of Mlechbas [or those who speak boff'harorisly] differs widely 
from it. 24. Let the three first classes inyariably dwell in those before-men- 
tknied ooimtries; but a Si/dba, diBtressed for subsistence, may sojourn wher- 
ever he chooses."" 

It is reasonable to infer that, as a general rule, all schemes of 
weights among an islblated people, initiating their own social laws, 
should preferably be based upon some obviotzs imit of universal access, 
rather than upon any higher measure of weight, which might natur- 
ally result, under authoritative legislation, from progressive increments 
on the lower basis. So that, in testing the intentional ratios of early 
times by the extant money designed in accordance with the contem- 
poraneous tables, it will be safer to proceed from the lowest tangible 
limit of the scale, in preference to accepting any superior denomina- 
tion as a standard whence to reduce, by division, the component ele- 
ments involved. The intuitive unit of weight, among an imperfectly 
formed agricultural community, would naturally be the most generally 



23. For the comparative geography of this tract, see Journal As. Soc. Bengal, 
li. 106. Major Colvin, vii. 752. ix. 688. Lt Baker, zlii. 297. Hi^or Mackeson. 
Elliot's Glossary of Indian Terms, p. 78. 

24. Muir, ** Sanskrit Texts," ii. pp. 415 — 418. Wilson, Big Veda SanhitA iii. 
pp. xviii. — ^xix. St. Martin pp. 15, 78. 

25. Mr. Muir has gi^en us a new translation of this celebrated passage, which, 
18 it dififers from the abore in the introductory portion, I annex in a separate 
note. 

" The tract, fashioned by the gods, which lies between the two divine rivers, 
SarasvatC and DrisbadvatS, is called Brahmivartta. The usage relating to castos 
sod mixed csBtes, which has been traditionally received in that countiy, is called 
the pure usage. The country of Knmkshetra (in the region of modem Delhi), 
and of the Matsyas (on the Junma), Panchalas (in the vicinity of modem Ka- 
nauj,) and Sdraeenas (in the district of Mathura), which adjoins Brahm&vartta, 
{•the land of the Brohmarshis (divine Rishis)."— '* Sanskrit Texts," ii. p. 417. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



260 On Ancient Indian Weiylifg. [No. 3, 

available and comparatively equable product of nature ; in the form 
ef seeds of cultivated or other indigenous plants; and in the Indian 
instan':e we find, after some definitions of inappreciable lower quanti- 
ties, the scale commencing with a minute poppy seed, passing on to 
tlie several varieties of black and white mustard seed, barley-corns, 
and centering in that peculiarly Indian product, the Bati, or seed of 
the wild Gunja creeper, Abjms precatorius [Sanskrit, Krishnala or 
Raktika], which forms the basis of ail local weights, and whose repre* 
sentatives of modern growth still retain their position as adjuncts to 
every goldsmith's and money-changer's scales. Next to the rati in 
ascending order corner; the Mdska, which in its universal acceptance 
has almost achieved the title to be considered as a second unit or 
ponderable standard, and, as such, its name now primarily signifies 
" an elementary weight ;"^ but on reverting to its earlier equivalent 
meanings it would seem that the term, in its original static sense, like 
the whole of the weights hitherto quoted, referred to another of 
Nature's gifts, the seed of the Indian -bean (Fhaseolus radiatus^ 
^»i^A^^U),27 which, like the rati, claims especially an Indian habitat 
as an extensively cultivated plant ; and, to complete their associate 
identities, the bean as at present raised would seem to correspond with 
the weight assigned to it nearly 3,000 years ago, and to average about 
the amount of five ratis. The next advance upon the m^ha is, in the 
gold table, a suvama, a word meaning gold itself, and which probably 
implies in this case the particular divisional quantity of that metal 
which in earlier times constituted the conventional piece or lump 
current in commerce. While the silver increment on the m^ha is 
designated by the optional title of purdna, or old, which may be 
supposed to allude to the, even then, recognition of this measure of 
value as emanating from high antiquity ; and it is precisely the re- 
quired amount in corresponding ratis of silver incorporated in the 
earliest extant prototype of coins I am now about to exhibit.^ The 



26. Wilson's " Glossary of Indian Terms," " Masha.. .. an elementary weight 
in tlie system of goldsmiths' and jewellers' weights thronghout India, and the 
basis of the weight of the current silver coin." 

27. Wilson's " Sanskrit Dictionary," Calcutta, 1832, svh voce, « Masha." 

28. J. A. S. B. iv. Plate xxxv. figs. 26—29. Prinsep's Essays, PI. nc. figs. 26—29 
and vol. i. pp. 63, 209, 211. Madras Journal of Lit. and Science, 1858, p. 220. 
Mr. W. Elliot. These pieces of metal, or " punch coins" as Prinsep named them, 
averago about 62 grains. I have met with one as high as 64 gr. and Mr. W. Elliot 
gives one at 51*2 gr. Supposing an original Mint issue at 56 grains, the authorized 



Digitized byLjOOQlC 



18G4.] On Ancient Indian Weights, 261 

higher denomination of the silver Safamdna^ is also derived from the 
vegetable kingdom, hut unlike the lower divisions, which are defined 
bj single grains, this weight is produced by one hundred seeds of the 
Aloeeuia Indica. When the precise plant, which furnished the M^na 
seed for the early standard, is satisfactorily determined, the result 
will doubtless prove the near equivalent of 100 Mdnas to 320 Batis — 
which, it will be seen, comprised the identical amount required for the 
weight of the gold Nishka^ whose minor constituents are, however, 
fonned upon a different gradational scale, though equally emanating 
from the conventional Bati unit. I need not follow the nomenclature 
of the lai^er divisions of weights in the joint tables, but before closing 
the inquiry I would revert for a moment to the leading point I desire 
to establish, that the Indians were not indebted to the Aryans for 
tiieir ^stem of weights ; the latter, in liact, when tried by the test of 
fte hymns of the " Rig Veda," would seem to have been very ill versed 
in the Flora Indica, an extensive knowledge of which was clearly 
necessary for, and is evidenced in, the formation of the scale of propor- 
tiona. Indeed, although the Vedic Aryans often invoked their gods 
to aid their agriculture, the result so little availed them that their 
efforts at cultivation were apparently confined to barley, in the raising 
of which even they do not seem to have been always successful.^ 

The next question to be examined is the distribution of the arith- 
metical numbers whereby the process of multiplication was conducted. 
Hr. Poole has laid it down as a law for Mesopotamian metrology that, 
" all the older systems are divisible by either 6,000 or 3,600. The 
6,000th or 3,600th part of the talent is a divisor of all higher weights 
and coins, and a multiple of all lower weights and coins, except 
its ird8."M 

T^ti of Kanaka time, would range at 1.71875 grains or allowing 66 grains for 
the standard, the retom of the rati weight would be 56-r-32=1.76 ; an amount I 
am inclined to adopt upon other grounds. We must not be misled by the more 
modem weight the rati eventually attained, as it rose, in acoount, with the 
rise of mdslias and tolas. 

29. H?r VPT, Wilson makes it, v?r 100, in^ measure, See, however, B. 
Mt^ 8. iTPTW ** Arum Indicum" Carey, Hort. Ben. pp. 66. 66. Asiatic Res. x, 
19. •* Mdn Kachu" Dr. Thomson has sent me a seed of the wild Ahcasia fallojc, 
from Khama, which itself weighs 2^ grains. 

80, Nishka occnra in second Ashtaka of the Rig Veda. Wilson, ii. p. 17. 

31. Wilson's ** Rig Veda," i. pp. xli., Ivii., and iii. p. xi. 

32, Mr. Poole has favoured mc with the subjoined rovisod list of ancient metric 
l^stcms i^* 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



262 



On Ancient Indian Weights. 



[No. 3, 



The sixes and sixties of the banks of the Euphrates^ find no coun- 
terpart to the southward of the Sewalik range beyond the inevitable 
ten and the included five. The system, like all else pertaining to it, 
had its own independently devised multiple, theybi*r. Whether the 
first suggestion of this favourite number was derived from the four 
fingers of the hand, four-footed beasts, or the higher flight of the four 
elements, we need not pause to inquire, but the Indians have at all times 
displayed an unprecedented faculty for figures, and were from the first 
able to manipulate complicated arithmetical problems, and especially 
delighted in fabulous totab ; but jvith all this they have ever evinced 
their all^iance to the old 4, which we find in its place of honour 
in the earliest extant writings and inscriptions. As the nations of the 
West, to meet their own wants, speedily produced a separate symbol 
for Jlve,^ and abbreviated the five perpendicular strokes of the Phoeni- 
cian into < . The Indians, apart from their indigenous Pali signs for 4, 
simplified the tedious repetition of the four lines the Bactrian writing 
had brought with it from Mesopotamia into a cross like a Eoman 
X, which was doubled to form eight, while they left the five utterly 
uncared for, to follow in a measure the original Phoenician method of 



Hebrew Gold (double) 

„ Silver 

Babylonian (fall) 



Grains. Divisional 

1,320,000 -r- 100- 

660,000 -T- 8000 - 

959,040 -t- 60 - 

or -5- 60 



„ lesser 

Persian Gold 

Egyptian „ 

^ginetan, 

Attic (commercial), ... 

„ (lowered), 

„ (Solonian), 

„ (ditto double), ... 

„ (ditto lowered), 
Eobolo, 



660,000 
698,800 
658,900 



430,260 [-i- 120 

860,520 -r- 60 

405,000 -5- 60 

387,000 [H-6000 



120 = 
60 = 
479,520 -r- 60 -r- 60 = 
399,600 -T- 3000 
840,000 -s- 600 



-i- 60 
-^- 60 
-r- 60 



Antbori- 
tative Practical Unit. 
Scale. Unit. Coins. 

100 = 132 gr. 

= 220 220 sbekel. 
133-2 [126-7] 84-5 siglos. 
266-4 
133*2 

133 2 129 Dane. 
10 = 140 140 Ke T. 

100 = 110 110 
100= 99.8 
100= 931 92-3 
100= 71-7] 67-5 
100= 71-7 717 
100= 67-5 

= 64-5] 57-0 denarius. 



Hebrew Copper. 250 gr.= i 

J26 „ = i 

83-3 „ = i 



Egyptian Copper. A. 1400 gr.= 1 Men. 

B. 700 „= 5 Ket. 

C. 280 „= 2 „ 

D. 140 „ = 1 „ 

E. 70 „ = i „ 

33. Sir H. Rawlinson, " Journal Royal Asiatic Society," xv. p. 217. 

34. Gesenins, p. 88 ; M. Pihan, " Signes dc Numeration usites choz les Peuploe 
Oricntaux," Paris, 1860, p. 167. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



1864.] On Ancient Indian Weiffht9. 263 

IX, or 4 plus 1 = 5.** Of course the Indian table of weights had in 
practice to have its lower proportionate atoms accommodated to the 
weights actually pertaining to the seeds in each instance, but the 
higher gradations are uniformly groimded upon fours and tens ; and 
to show how distinctly the idea of working by fours was fixed in the 
minds of men, we find the gradational system of fines in Manu (viii- 
837) progressively stated as " 8, 16, 32, 64." So much for the anti- 
quarian evidences, and to prove the custom at the other extreme of 
the chain of testimony and its survival within a nation of almost 
Chinese fixity, it may be asserted that the whole vulgar arithmetic is 
primarily reckoned by gandas = " fours," and in the modem bazars 
of India the unlettered cultivator may frequently be seen having a 
complicated account demonstrated to him by the aid of a series of 
fowrty represented, as the case may be, by cowrie-shells, or grains of 
pulse. I pass by other elements of calculation, such as the fieivourite 
84 (7 >c 1 2)*^ which might bring me into contest with the astrono- 
mers, and content myself with resting this portion of my case on the 
coincidences already cited, as I conclude the most ardent upholder 
of Aryan supremacy can hardly arrogate for that ethnic division of 
the human race any speciality in f ours. ^ 

I now proceed to quote the passage from Manu defining the author^ 
ised weights and equivalents of gold and silver, which I have cast into 
a tabular form as more readily explanatory of the text, and as simpli- 
fying the reference to relative scales of proportion. 

viiL 181. '' Those names of copper, silver, and gold [weights] 
which are commonly used among men for the purpose of worldly 
business, I will now comprehensively explain. 132. The very small 
mote which may be discerned in a sunbeam passing through a lattice 
is the first of quantities, and men call it a trasarenu. 133. Eight of 
those ^asarenus are supposed equal in weight to one minute |K)ppy- 
seed (likhyd) three of those seeds are equal to one black mustard- 
seed (raja sarshapa), and three of these last to a white mustard-seed 
{^aura-sarsliapa). 134. Six white mustai*d-seeds are equal to a 

85. " Jonmal Boyal Asiatic Society," zix. p. 12. 

36. See an admirable essay on this nnmber, under the head of « Chonrasee,'' 
in Sir H. M. Elliot's " Glossary of Indian Terms," Agra, 1845. 

37. M . Pictet, who has so laboriously oollected all and everything pertaining 
lo the Aryans, in his ** Faleontologie Lingaistiqne/' does not even notice the 
mimber ! — *' Les Origines Indoenropeennes," Paris, 1863, p. 565. 

Digittlec?SyLjOOgle 



2G4 On Ancinit JmUan Weights. [No. 3, 

Tniddle-Bized barley-corn (t/ava), three such barley-corns to one 
krUhfMla [raktika], five krishnalas of gold are one mdshay and six« 
teen such mdahas one suvama. 135. Four suvamas make Apala, 
ten paUu a dharana, but two krishnalas weighed together are consi- 
dered as one silver mftshaka. 136. Sixteen of those mishakas are a 
silver dharanUy or purdna, but a copper kdrsha is known to be a pana 
or kdrshdpana. 137. Ten dharanas of silver are known by the name 
of a satamdna, and the weight of four suvamas has also the appellation 
of9knishkar» 

Ancient Indian System of Weights (from Mann, cap. viiL § 134). 
81LVEB. 
2 rails = 1 



09 _ iA _ J 1 dharana, 

32 „ _ lb „ _ -j^ crpuriina 



or purana. 

820 „ = 160 „ = 10 „ 1 satamana. 

Gold. 
5 ratis = 1 misha. 
80 „ = 16 „ = 1 siivama. 

320 .. = 64 „ = 4 ., = ;iP|^-.or 

3200 „ = 640 „ = 40 „ = 10 „ =1 dharana. 

C0PPKR.39 
Kirsbapana. 
As there are some obscurities in the detail of the weights given in 
Manu, I have referred to the next succeeding authority on Hindu 
law, the Dharma-Sastra of Y^jnavalkya, whose date is variously attri- 
buted &om a period shortly before VikramWitya, or B.C. 57 to 50 a.d.** 
His tables are nearly identical with those already quoted,^^ one un« 

38. "Hindu Law, or the Ordinances of Mann," by G. C. Hangbton, London, 
1825, and works of Sir W. Jones, London, 1799, vol. iii. Hanghton's transla- 
tion has been modified as above by my friend, Mr. J. Muir. 

39. Mr. Mnir haa ooinmnnicated to me the following note on the copper weight. 
** KuUuka Bhatta (the Sanskrit Commentator on Mann) explains that lexicogra- 
phers declare a Kdrahika or Kdrsha to be the fourth of a palaj* But 6 Krishna^ 
las or Raktikas being equal to a Vdsha and 16 miishas = 1 suvama, and 4 
Buvamas = 1 pala ; a pala will equal 5 % 16 % 4 = 320 krishnalas, and a karsha 
being i of a pala, will equal * j^ = 80 krishnalas. 

40. Lassen, " Ind. Alt.," ii. 374, 470, 510. Dr. Roer, " Yijnavalkya," Calcutta, 
1859, p. 11 ; M. Muller, ** Sanskrit Lit.," 330 ; Stentiler (2nd Cent, a.d.) 

41. Sec. 632. Five krisnala berries = 1 masha, 16 mishas = 1 suvama. Sec. 
863. A pala is 4 or 5 suvamas. Two krishnalas are a silver masha ; 16 of the 
latter a dharana. Sec. 364. A satamana and a pala are each equal to 10 dha- 
ranas ; a nishka is 4 suvamas." • • Note. In the oorrosponding slokasd 
Manu, 10 palas are said to be equivalent to 1 dharana. We can only reconcile 
this by supposing Manu to refer to a gold pala, and Y^jnavalkya to a silver pa- 
la. The Sanskrit commentator adds, under Coppct-, 4 karshas = pala, 1 pw>* 
= kirsha, i, e. i pala. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



J864.] On Ancient Indian WeiyJits. 265 

important but reasonable variant being the aasignment of three white 
mustard seeds instead of six to the barley-corn. There are some ap- 
parent contradictions and complications regarding palas and suvamas, 
and no additional information respecting the weight of the copper- 
measure of value, which is described in Dr. Boer's translation as 
vaguely as in Manu, " a copper pana is of the weight of a k&rsha/' 
and 80 the English commentator justly observes, the tables " by no 
means satisfactorily define the intrinsic weight and signification of the 
Pana, which as the measure of pecuniary penalty" would naturally be 
of the greatest importance. It is to be remarked that neither Manu 
nor Yajnavalkya refer in any way to the Cowrie shell currency, which 
was clearly in these days a seaboard circulation ; nor is any mention 
made of the tola, which subsequently plays so leading a part in Indian 
metrology. So much for the weights and their relative proportions 
ifUer s€. I shall defer any examination of the corresponding equiva- 
lents in the English standard till I can apply the results to the extant 
coins of the period. 

Before taking leave of this division of the subject, I am anxious to 
nbeet, in anticipation, an objection which may possibly strike philologists 
as hostile to the general position I have sought to maintain in this 
paper ; inasmuch as it may be held that the fact of the several divi- 
sions of the static tables being expressed in Sanskrit words, should, 
primd facie, imply that the Sanskrit-speaking " Aryans*' originated 
the system upon which the gradational scales were based. But it must 
be remembered that the entire work from whence these data are de^ 
rived is written in the Sanskrit language, its very exotic character 
justifying the inference that it was so embodied, not with a view to 
vulgar use, but for the purposes of a su|>eriorly e4ucated or, more 
probably, of an exclusive class. Moreover, it is to be borne in mind 
that the speech itself, though foreign, had for many centuries been par- 
tially introduced into the land, and constituted the chosen means of 
expression of the dominant religious and occasional temporal authority. 
But apart from these considerations there remains to me the more 
comprehensive question as to how inuch of the Sanskrit tongue of our 
modem dictionaries,at this time undergoing the process of formation and 
maturation on Indian soil, was indebted to the local speech P It can be 
shown from sound palaeographic, as well as from pliilological testimony, 
that the intermingling Aryans borrowed Drividian letters to improve 

Di^tizMb^oogie 



266 On Ancient Indian Weights. [No. 3, 

I 

their th^n imperfect alphabet,^^^ adopted Drividian words till lately 
classed as Aryan,^ and as we have seen, by the inherent evidence of the 
Bactrian character, appropriated a very large amount of Indian P41i 
design in the xhechanical construction of the vocalic and other portions 
of their needfully amplified Semitic writing.^ 

I had written thus far, with growing doubts about the universality 
of the Indo-Germanic speech in India, when it occurred to me to in« 
quire if Drdvidian roots might not throw light upon the clearly 
misunderstood meaning of the passage in Manu, defining the value of 
a copper k&rsh&pana. The result has more than answered my expect* 
ations, as I find the Tamil kdsu,"^ corruptly ^* cash,** described as 
** coin, money in general," and among tUb details it is mentioned that 
ponakisu, vennikasu, and pettalaikdtu still exist as the vernacular 
terms severally for gold, silver, and copper eovns^ while the corre* 
spending^ verb kdsadikka primarily means " to coin." With these 
hints a new and intelligible translation of the verse ^ijm^fff f^Y^- 
^rrfvv? ^nfilW: ^^} may be proposed, to the effect that a " kdrshd^ 
pana is to be understood (to be) a com^ copper |>ana." If this in-* 
terpretation will stand criticism, we have indeed the new phase of the 
Indian monetary system, that the earliest Sanskrit authority on such 
subjects extent, dating between 1280 and 880 B.C., recognises as an 
ordinary faot the institution of coined money, while the context proves 
bow much of Dr^vidian civilisation still remained in the Upper Pro* 
yinces, and how little competent subsequent Sanskrit commentators 
on Manu's text were to appreciate anything beyond their own con-» 
fined views and conventional teachii^gs. 



42. Noma, R. A. 8., xv. p. 19. " The Scythio Version of the Behistun In, 
scription of Darias,'' Caldwell, ** Dravidian Grammar," pp. 43, 107, 111 ; Priny 
3ep*8 " EsBays," ii. 151, 

43. Caldwell, p. 438 ; Muir, " Sanskrit Texts," ii. p. 440. 

44. Nam. Chron., 1863, p. 232 ; Prinaep's " Essays," ii. 146, 

45. Wilson, '* Glossary of Indian Terins," sitb voce. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



186*.] On the Language of the SWih-po^'h. Kafirs, 267 

On ike Language of the Si-dh-po^'h Kafirs, with a short list of words ; 
to which are added specimens of the Kohist/mi, and other dialects 
spoken on the northern border of Afghdnistdn, Sfc, — By Captain 
H. G. Eatebty, ^rd Regiment, Bombay N. L 

In the beginning of the year 1859, some time after my paper en- 
titled ^ Notes on KiriBiSTlN" had been submitted to the Society, 
but previous to its appearance in the Journal,* the Eev. Dr. E. 
Trompp, of the Church Missionary Society, residing, at that time, 
within the cantonment of Pes*hiwar, was allowed to examine, through 
the Commissioner of that district, three men, said to have been of the 
Kafir race — that is to say, what we call the Si'ah-po«*A Kdfirs — ^who 
had been brought to the district &om Panj-korah or its neighbouring 
hilly tracts, for the purpose of being enlisted into the British service^ 

These three men remained at Pes'h&war for " a few days," during 
" three or four hours*' of which Dr. Trumpp examined them, through 
a man named Muhammad Basdl, a Kohistanf of '' Panjkore'* as the 
Doctor terms it, but correctly, Panj-korah.f This man, who was not 
an Afghan, since the Doctor calls him a " Kdhistdni," '' spoke Pushta 
and a little Persian," and acted as interpreter between the Missionary 
and the so-called Kafirs ; and from this short and round-about con- 
ferenoe, a short grammar of the language has been made, and a list of 
serenty-seTen K4fir words appended. 

It is not my object to criticise the former at present, but to give a 
lirt of Kiifir words, which I collected some years since, and which I 
intended to have given with my " Notes on E&firistin." To these 
words, for the sake of facilitating comparison, I have also added some 
KohistimS words, which I collected about the same time, together with 
a few in the Pashai, B&rakai, JS^^A-l^i or ChitriU, and Beldchki lan- 
guages. I would have given the Pus'hto equivalents of these had 
space permitted, but they may be easily found in my Dictionary of 
the language, together with the other words, of which there are often 
more than one, bearing the same signification. 

Prom what is stated respecting the appearance of these three men, 

that '* they were in all respects like the natives of the upper provinces 

of India, of a swarthy colour, with dark hair and dark eyes," I should 

• No. 4 of 1869. 

t Stso my paper on Panj-korah in the laflt number of the Journal. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



2(58 On the Langnage of the Si-nh-jyosh Kafirs. [No. 3, 

hardly think they were real Kdfirs ; and should consider that, in all 
probability, they were nimchahs /Aa:^^) or " half-breeds," as those 
people are designated who have sprung from the mixture of Afghans 
with the aborigines of the parts to the north of the Kdbul river ; 
viz. the Kafirs, Lamghdnis, Shalmdnfs, Deggauns, Gdjars, Suwdtis, 
Ac, and with each other ; for the Afghans, as we know from their 
histories, as well as from the accounts of Persian and Hinddstdnf 
writers, have been in the habit of applying the Arabic term " K^fir," 
or " Infidel" very indiscriminately, particularly to the aboriginal people 
of Afgh^ist&n bordering upon the Kdbul river and its tributaries, 
and the people of the Alpine Panjdb nearest the Indus. Hence, with 
them, the term Kafir might as well refer to the Lamghinfs, or Shal- 
mdnfs, before conversion to their own faith, as to the people whom 
we know by the name of Si-4h-po»'A Kafirs. Lieut. Wood, when on his 
journey to the source of the Oxus, passed close to their frontier, and 
he, moreover, saw and conversed with Si-dh-po«'A Kdfirs (for they are 
friendly with the people of Badakhshdn), and he describes them as 
being very different to the " swarthy coloured people of the upper pro- 
vinces of India, with dark hair and dark eyes," such as Dr. Trumpp 
speaks of.* What makes me think that these three men could not 
have been real Si-ah-po«'A Kafirs, is the fact of their having come to 
Pes'hdwar otherwise than as slaves. Both males and females — the 
latter in particular, on account of their fair complexions and beauty — 
are to be found in the dwellings of the Afghdns of the better class, in 
the Samdh of the Tdsufzis, but they are always slaves ; and some 
will be found in the Pes'hdwar district also ; but they are very dif- 
ferent to those the Missionary describes. The Si-dh-po«*A Kdfirs, are 
too hostile to, and hate the Afghdns and other Muhammadans of 
those parts too much (except perhaps the people of Badakhshdn, as 
already mentioned), to meet them, or to enter their boimdaries, save 
as enemies, or when, as slaves, they are compelled to do so. If these 
men were not actually Nimchahs or Kohistdnis, of which, I have little 
doubt, they may possibly have been Bdrfs — ^a certain class or tribe 
among the 8i-dh-po«'A, who are held in the light of Pdriahs. An ac- 
count of these will be found at page 86 of my " Notes on Kfifiristdn*' 
already referred to ; but if the Kohistdnf words I have given be exa« 

* Dr. Bellew also met Kafirs when in AfghdnisUn in 1857. See his excel •• 
lent work. • 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



18W ] On the Language of the Si-dh-pa^'h Kdjin. 269 

mintid, and compared with the short list given by the Missionary, 
it will be found that what he terms E4fir, are the same words 
as my Kohistdnf, with but slight exception; whilst what I term 
Kafir agree with the list (as far as it goes) given by Sir A. Bumes 
in the Society's Journal for April 1838, and are synonymous with 
those given by Mr. Norris (the Honorary Secretary of the Royal 
Asiatic Society) as an appendix to Dr. Trumpp*s paper,* which were 
procured at Teheran from a K&fir woman residing in that city. 

The Doctor says he " was very desirous to know by what name 
they called their own country, as Kafiristan is a mere . Muhammadan 
appellation ;" and that " the name they gave for their country was 
W&wuuthany a word, as I found, known to the Edhistanis too, who 
designated it by what is called in Persian Kdhistin, or the highlands.^^f 
He then proceeds to give, or rather to tnake out a signification for 
the word, and applies it to the whole tract forming the culminating 
' ndges of Hindti Kush, as far west as B41kh, in as plausible a man- 
ner as the " SeydiddUdiddlethecatinth^fiddle'^ inscription is edited 
and translated in one of the early numbers of Eraser's Magazine 
for the present year. He will find, however, that there is a tribe 
of Sl-fih-po«'i Kafirs called by the name of Wdmah, and one of their 
villages is so named. An accoimt of them and their district will be 
found in my paper. 

Dr. Trumpp states, at pages 5—7 of his article, that the Kdfir 
language, like the Pus'hto, has a short indistinct (?) vowel sound 
approaching the English u in hut, or the German u ; and that '' it is 
not given in my Pus'hto Grammar (1st Ed.) though well known and 
even marked out by the natives themselves." He then goes on to 
say, a few paragraphs further on, that he '^ first mistook this sound 
for a short », but soon found that it was a peculiar swift a, or in fact 
an indistinct vowel between short a and short i ." He then states, 
that " the sound of Kdfir a can only be compared to the peculiar in- 

distinct sound in Pus'hto J ^ yt^ijm »0j' (mas.) and *«**• %^^ (fem.), 
which can only be learnt by hearing." To what sound in these four 

* •* On the Langnoge of the so-oalled Kiflrs of the Indian Gaucasiifl.— By the 
Bev. Ernest Tmmpp, D. Phil., Missionary of the Chnroh Missionaiy Society." 
Joomal of Boyal AJnatio Society, Vol. XIX. for 1861. 

t The word ** Kohistin" is applied to all moantnin tracts by the people of 
these ports^-there is the Kohistan of Kabul, the Kohistan to the worth of the 
Suwat rirer, &c., and not to "Kooucr" only, as the Doctor calls it {KnuW ho 

*^'^'^>- Digitized by L^OOgle 



270 ' On the Lan^mge of tie Si-^-pas'li Kqfin, [No. 3, 

words does he refer ? to the first word, or the second ; to the begin- 
ning, middle, or termination of these words P The explanation he 
gives will, I am sure, be perfectly unintelligible to all who do not hap- 
pen to understand Pus'hto thoroughly ; I think I can clear up the point. 
The Missionary refers, no doubt, to the adjective %^S which takes a 
different sound before the final consonant for masculine and feminine 
nouns ; and this peculiar vowel sound only occurs, either in the case of 
nouns, adjectives, and verbs, before the final consonant of a word. It 
will be found fully explained in my Grammar, in the declensions of nouns, 
in the word ^i ^^ ghaV^ a thief; in the word .dijyi**' *^ skhwandar" a 
steer, in the fifth variety of nouns of the 6th Declension ; in the ter- 
minations of adjectives of the same class ; and in the terminations of 
some verbs. I have always written it, in the second editicm of my 
Grammar, as explained by the Afghan author of the " iBjAiB-UL- 
Lvqhat"* gives it ; viz,, as a compound sound of short a and t. Thus 
in the example which Dr. Trumpp gives (which, m fact, is no example 
at all, since he places the short vowel point (^) — " a" — over both the 

adjectives he uses), the first should be written %^^] (^dah) (mas.) 

and the second sj^t u-dah (fem.). In the work just quoted, the 
author states, — *' The word Aii)^ is an example of this peculiar sound* 
When written with simple r, 4, quiescent gh, I with the short vowel 
a, and unaspirated A, or ** hd-i-khaft,'* it is the third person feminine 
singular — " she goes ; " and when written with simple r, d, quiescent 
ghy /, with a short vowel approaching y to a and i slightly sounded^ and 
imaspirated A, it is the third person masculine plural." These are the 
exact words of the author as I have given them in my Grammar. The 
vowel (J) (fat'hah) with (;') (hamzAh) combined — ^' z=(a) give an 
equivalent sound, as near as possible, which I have therefore adopted. 
It will be found written thus in the same manner in my Pus'hto 
Dictionary, in scores of words. The Afghans, of course, mark it in 
speaking ; but in writing they do not mark it : it is supposed, that a 
person acquainted with the rules of the language will read and under- 
stand it accordingly. 

I may mention, that the Doctor has made some considerable errors 
with regard to the Pus'hto examples he has given. In the words 

v<Cl t^)^ *«d *«^ ^^^^ ^or example. By the word ^^y ^^ evi- 
dently means a man ; but if so, the letter • is not correct : it should 
• beo my Grammar, Introduction, pages 34 and 84. ^OOg IC 



IS&L] On the Langunge of the Si'dh-pas'h Kafirn. 271 

be Afghdn \c=iy^^ The word for woman should be with Afghan ij, 
not with Persian ^ and with fat^ha'h (^) not with kasr&k Q — 

isrTj not la:^^ The pronunciation according to the Doctor's ac- 

count would be shidzah, whilst the Afghan pronunciation is, k'hsJzsL*h. 
hy the Eastern^ and «'Aa^a'h by the Western tribes, the peculiar 
A%han letter i^ being widely different from Persian i. 

He considers the Kafir language to be *^ &pttre PrAkrit dialect :^^ 
yet, a few pages further on, he says : — " Note. — I have not been able 
to come to any conclusion in regard to the gender ofnatMS, I doubt 
greatly if any gender be distinguished, as I have not been able to find 
out any trace of it. So much is clear, that adjectives are not subject 
to any change, either in regard to gender or case,''^ If such be the 
fact, how can the Kdfir language possibly be a "pwe Frdkrit dialect ? " 

With reference to the Pashai and Barakai words which follow, I 
inay mention, that the Pashai language is spoken by the people of 
that name, who inhabit some of the small districts of the hilly country 
bordering K&firist^ on the south-west, and on the left, or northern 
btnk of the K^bul river, between JelUlibad and Kabul. The Pash- 
«is are counted among the aboriginal people of the country^ which the 
Afghans are not. 

The Bdrakais, who are not Afghans, are included among the people 
termed Tijiks (supposed to be of Arab descent,) dwell at, and round 
about Kdnigoram, as we generally find it written in English, but 
prt^ierly, K£ni-grdm, and about Bdrak in the province of Loghar, and 
But-Kh£k on the route between Jell4Ubdd and Kdbul, south of the 
river of that name. 

I shall say nothing here about comparison of the words which fol- 
low, although I recognize a great many. It would be unfair towai*ds 
that class of philosophers called '^ Comparative Philologists/' who, if 
they set to work, may discover something wonderful among them, 
which none but themselves can understand. 

It is necessary to say a few words respecting the orthography. The 
system is the same as used in my Pus'hto works ; viz. that known as 
Sir William Jones's. The only difference is for the peculiar sounds 
similar to the Afgliin letters, viz ; 44 for ^^ rr for ^ and a 'A and k'h 
for^ 

. Digitized by VjOOQ iC 

2 w *^ 



372 



On the Language of (he Sl-ih-posi'h Kafin. 



[No. 8, 



I 



t\ 



I 
II 



I 



1 

3 






la^llllllli 



^ g 151 




I 







I 



.s 






I -St. slit 

•a 



Ives ^««l 



^. 



J, 






s.*^^ 



Ill 



^^ 



I 



^ t I III 



I 

QQ 






1^ 



i^ 



^^MiMm 



ilij_L 






IP 

P4 



I 






fells 



s 

Digitized by 



% 




t.db^V^ 



1864.] 



On the Language of the Si-ah-po^'h. Kqfirs, 



278 



.4 









ii 






I 



llll 



;>a^ 



B JS 



3 



11 



21 



1 111 



Ifllf 






I 



111. 




:l-flJ| ll 



ll-g-lll 



filiikliikdIliiffliJljMi 







ii 
11 









■e # 



■ •a 



i 
llllll 



Digitized by VaOOQlC 



274 



On the Language oftlie Si-ih-pos'h Kafin. [No. 3> 



I 
t 






I 

V 




<8l 



iv 






i 






1 



*a 






4 



1 i 



I 



C3 



II 








'•^ai^ecffly^i^Sgle 



1864.] On the language of the Si-dh-poa'h Kafin. 



275 



O CO 












.1 



^ 



IS 



li i, 



"a 






g 8. 



Is r 



1 



ll 




ia-i 



•Isg 



i|: 



I 










J 






k3. 



SI'S g 



J 



J I'lllllxll 



Digitized byLjOOQlC 



276 



On tJie Language of the Si'^h-pas'h Kqfirs, [No. 3, 






E 






m 



1 



9 i 



Jl 



III 



I 



I 



'3 

I 












8 .tl^ •& 



•:§ 



II' 



«iii 



I SS 



If 



iS 



•s 
i 



3^ ill 



1 



S" 



illllUilliifllMil 



5 



I 



llllllill-lll; 




Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1864.] 



On the Language of tie Si-dh-poa'h Kdfirt. 
•e.4, 



277 









s 






a mX 



■g 

a 






I 



1 1^ 



lilt 



lllal 




Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



278 



On the Language of the Sudh-pa&'h Kafirs. [No. 3, 



English. 


Si•»h-po«'^. 


KishALiri. 


KohiBtani. 


Sword 


tar-wili 


kongor 




Iron 






chsLtnun 


Axe 


chA'wi 




watti 


Shield 


karai 


hnri 




Soldier 


as-tah 






Chief 


sal-mana^/i 






Troop 


kat.kai 






Wall 


bar-kin 






Matchlock 






to-biJk^i 



Some Persian Inscriptions found in Srinagar, Kashmir, — By the late 

BeV, I. LOEWENTHAL. 

I. The Mosque of Shahi HamadXit. 

As the traveller glides up the placid Jelum from B&ramula, and 
passes under the cedam bridges of Srinagar^ wondering at the tall^ 
gable-roofed, many-storied houses on the banks, with their unoriental 
profusion of windows, his attention is arrested by a curious building 
on the right bank between the Fateh Kadal and the Zaina Kadal 
(bridges), which, if he enters Kashmir from the west, he will not 
readily guess to be a mosque, having probably passed by unnoticed 
similar buildings at Sh&darra and Bdramula. The pyramidal roof, 
broken into three equal portions, ending in a most curious steeple 
resembling a belfry, with gilt bell and heart-shaped ornaments at the 
top, the four comers of the roof adorned by wood tassels, the projec- 
tion of the roof beyond the walls of the building ; — all this reminds 
one more of a Chinese pagoda than of a Mohamedan place of prayer. 
The impression one receives from the structure leads to the idea that 
the period of the erection of the building may have been one in which 
an older form of building, that of the Hindu temple peculiar to the 
valley, was still influencing the architects to whom Mohamedanism 
was as yet comparatively new. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



1864.] Some Fernan Ifueriptiomfaufid iii Srinagor. 279 

The building may be said to be constructed entirely of wood. 
Maasiye beams of the indestructible Himalayan oedar placed upon 
one aaotheTy the interstices being fOled up by small brioks, form a solid 
square whose sides are relieved by well-proportioned balconies in the 
upper story, the floors and roofs of which are supported by light and 
graceful carved wooden pillars. 

Curious as is the appearance of the building, its history seems 
as curious. At every turn in Kashmir one meets with evidences 
of the policy of the Mohamedans to turn idol-temples into mosques, 
tombs, and shrines. This place is an instance. There was on that 
ipot a fiunous spring sacred to KW with (probably) buildings over 
and around it. Sikandar called Butshikan (idol-breaker), the grand- 
son of the first Mohamedan king of Kashmir, built the present 
structure with the rich property belonging to the Hindu temple, as a 
sUbldL for the numerous Sayids who are said to have come into the 
ooantry with SlUUii Hanmdin, and who were adopting a monastio 
fann of life. After the death of Shihi Hamadin, a shrine in his 
memory was erected over the very spot where formerly the sacred 
^ring welled up. It is not uninteresting to compare with this the 
pnu^ce of other countries, such as the tradition which existed in 
Borne concerning the sacred well under the Capitol, and that under 
the temple of Apollo at Delphi ; o( the fact that in the time of 
TTiiHriAn a temple of Jupiter-Serapis was erected on the place of 
the crucifixion, and one sacred to Venus- Astarte over the real Holy 
Sepulchre. 

For five centuries now have the Mohamedans of Kashmir been in 
possession of this spot consecrated to the memory of the Hamadfa 
Sayid. Shall any one dispute their right to hold it now P Yes. The 
Hindus of SZashmir — they are almost all Brahmans — whatever else 
they have forgotten of the history of their coimtry, have not forgotten 
this spring of Kili. The Dharm Bdj — ^the rule of a Hindu long — ^has 
been restored to them ; the present ruler moreover is a devout Hindu; 
and they are claiming their sacred spring. Twice already have the 
Mohamedans had to redeem their shrine, but this has not saved them 
from a great indignity. On the wall fronting the river, which wall 
really belongs to the mosque, the Brahmans have put a laige red 
ochre mark as the symbol of Kili, and Hindus may be seen rubbing 
their foreheads and employing the forms of idolatry but a step or two 

Digi2e<)Dy boogie 



SSO &me Persian IfueripHonM found in Srinagar. [Ko. 9, 

from the spot where the Mohamedan is now only allowed to whisper : 
'« God 10 great!" 

The newB that a Mohamedan had usurped the throne of Eaahmir 
reaching the oonntries to the West caused a large influx of Sayids and 
other holy characters into Ei^hmir. M(r Sayid All Hamadimif 
■uhsequently known as Shahi Hamad^n, came to Kashmir a nwmber 
ef times. This consideration reconciles the discrepant statements of 
l^e native historians that he came from Bokhara, that he came direct 
from HamadUn in Persia, and that he came firom Baghdad. Bfrhar 
PaQdit EAchni states that he came to Kashmir in 782 H. (A. D. 1380) 
for the third time. This date appears to he more correct than that 
giyen hy Captain Newall in the Journal for 1854, p, 414. He men- 
tions, on native authority, the year 700 H. (1388) as the date of his 
Jtni aniTal apparently. This cannot he true, if the inscription over 
Utie door of the mosque Shdhi Hamadin is correct, which gives as the 
date of his death the year 786 H. (1384). There is, however, great 
eonfusion in all the dates of Kashmirian history. Thus, Captain 
Newall, on the authority of Kashmiri historians, places the &r8t usurpa* 
l^on by a Mohamedan of legal power in Kashmir in 1341, whilst 
Baron Hugel, following Abul Fazl, mentions 1311 as the year of 
Slutmsuddfn's accession to the throne. Haidar Malik Chadwaria 
gives the titles of two books, the rm\xx^ £«Jt and the ^^a^Lw ^ Jt, 
which the Sayid wrote at the request of Sikandar Butshikan. He 
died, during one of his journeys, in Pakli, a beautiful valley now be- 
longing to the British district of Hazdra. There is a mysterious- 
looking structure about halfway between Abbottabad and M6nsihra, 
which we may, in default of any information concerning it, fix upon 
as the tomb of Shdhi Hamadan. 

The readiness with which a people forcibly severed from idolatry 
passes over to hagiolatry, may be seen from three inscriptions- at the 
entrance of the mosque of Shahi Hamaddn, copies of which are sub*" 
joined. 

1. Large letters on a ground of gold. 

*^***l oV^ J^J^ *^'*»JJ ^ u^ j^ 

«A«w| ^j}^ sUJ^ aCL ^;|«>^ sU 

it^f ^yUfj Vi^^A ^ lArfO \Jj» sS^ u"! 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



J864.] Some Fertitm InHripiions founi in Sfinagat. 28t 

Tranikaicn. 
fi?ery adyaatage existing before either world 
b o1>tained hj the followers of Hasrat Shdh of Hamadin ; 
6h6h (kiBg) of Hamadin, or rather ShAhanshih (emperor) of the worll* 
A curse on the eje which looks on with doubt and suspicion i 
2. In Arabic characters on a ground of gold. 

Translation, 
Date of his death. 

In the year 786 from the time of Ahmad, the seal of religion (that 
is) from the Hijra, there went from the transitory to the eternal 
world the prince of both worlds, the descendant of Yfisfn. 

Kote. " The descendant of Ydsin," ^^ l» Jj, a curious expression 
to denote the descendants of the prophet. Td Sin ^J*mI^ is the name 
of the thirty-sixth Sura of the Koran, which is so called from the fact 
ihat these two letters mysteriously stand at its head. Their meaning 
tt uncertain. The Sura itself is considered particularly sacred by the 
Hohamedans, and is read by them over dying persons : they say that 
Hohamed called it ^' the heart of the Koran.*' 

8. Inscription in crimson characters. 

Tfamslation, 
Oh heart, if thou desirest the benefit of both worlds, 
Oo, it 19 at the gate of the emperor SlUUi of Hamadim. 
At his gate prayer obtains an answer ; 
His gate is the heavenly pavilion ; nay, the pavilion is a type of it, 

II. The Tomb of ZMsrsh'iBiDis, 

Some little distance from the Shflii Hamad^n mosque down the 
bank of the river there are some remarkable massive remains of the 
outer wall of a Hindu temple — mentioned by Col. Cunningham in his 
Essay on the Aryan Style of Architecture — with its trefoil arches and 
sculptured Hindu divinities. The temple itself disappeared before the 
fioatical zeal of the early Mohamedan kings, and the inner space was 

2 o 2edbyLjOOgle 



1982 Some Pereum InicrvpUmi found in Srinagar. [No. 3, 

oonverted into a graveyard for royalty. There is only one large tomb 
(or rather the ruins of one) in this indosure, and this is said to be the 
tomb of Zainnl'&bidin, called Jaina*laba-^Una in the Sanskrit history 
o¥ Kashmir which forms the sequel to the Baja Tarangini. The tomb 
somewhat resembles in its general outlines, though on a much smaller 
scale, that of AnfckaU at Labor. It is now used as a Government 
granary. It is surrounded by. a large number of smaller tombs. Over 
a postern gate there is the following inscription : 

^ V t*^ 4ylfcLi ^^ ^\^\ ^S^jj ^jhj j^ 

TVansloHon, 

On visiting the sepulchre of bis forefathers, Sult&n Habib 

Saw it and said : This royal place will soon become too narrow. 

He erected another dais and door by its side, 

So that no king might fail of the blessing of this Sepulchre. 

At the time of erecting the new buildinf I heard by inspiration 

The yearof its date: ''The second sepulchre of Sult&n Habib"-— 981. 

Nate. This date also evinces the uncertainty of the dates in Kash- 
mirian history ; for according, to Captain Newall (A Sketch of. the 
Mohammedan History of Cashmere, J. A. S. 1854, p. 426.) Habfl> 
was killed long before this date, in A D. 1557. The native historians, 
at all events, put his deposition nearly tweniy years before the date of 
the inscription. Narayan Kol states that Habfb Khin became king of 
Kashmir in H. 960. In 961 he committed great mistakes in the ad- 
ministration of justice, so that the pillars of the state became ashamed 
of him. Hence All Khan put the crown on the head of Obdzi Khan, 
his brother (both being uncles of Habib by his mother's side) ; this 
was the beginning of the Chak dynaty. Hiigel gives Ghak as an 
abbreviation of Chaghatai. 'Azam, another historian of Kashmir, puts 
the beginning of the Chak dynasty in the year H. 962 ; he calls 
Habib the son of Ismail ShiLh, whilst Narayan Kol gives Shamsuddia 
(Ismail's brother) as the name of his father. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1864.] Same Ternan Imery^tione found in Srinagar. 28S 

In a corner of this same gnye yard there is a hirge slab with an 
inscription which is remarkable as being connected with the first re- 
corded visit of an Indian Officer to the yaUej of Kashmir. 

Inscription. 
sJujKm AJU J ^\j}\j^jCi 1 •« ^V>*^^^ J^ Jt>*^^ ^J U/^* «^^ 

jb Ic^JjuM ^ ire axm, 4yLuuA jUji ^^i^ j^) ^j^ j!>-^!>*J^^^ 
d*? !ir4* «J^li o.>lt-i <j»^'l ^^^ o«»^J| tUi 1AV &iu« 4^fc5bai jf 

Mirzi Haidar Gtirg^, the son of Mirz& Mohamed Husain Giirgdn 
and grandson of Ytina Khan (who was bom in the house of Baber 
the king), and brother-in-law to Abd Sa*id Khan, king of Tirkand 
and Moghidistin, the son of Sult^ Ahmad Khan, the son of the 
above-mentioned Tdnas Khan, of the progeny of Toghldq Taimdr 
Khan, of the race of Chaghatai, the son of Changiz Khan. The 
Hirza was bom in the time of Mahmdd, in the year 905, in the city 
of OrAtapa. After various vicissitudes he, at the command of Abd 
8a*id Khan, made an incursion from Yarkand. After subduing Tibet 
he conquered S^ashmir with 4f000 horse, in the same year, on the 4th 
Sba'Mui 985. He then gave it back to Mohamed Shah, who was the 
king of Kashmir, and went to AbA Sa'id Khan, who had remained in 
Tibet, The Khan ordered him to Lisa. He himself having set out 
for T<rkandy died on the road. As there appeared to be general dis- 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



^84 Borne Penian Ifucriptiont found in Srinofar. [No. 3, 

cord, the Mirza went to BadakhBh^n, and then to Hindustan. He 
oame to the Emperor Hum^yun as the latter having been defeated 
was proceeding to Iran. The Mirza went on another expedition witk 
450 horse from Lahor, took Kashmir again on the 22nd Rajah 974 
and ruled Kashmir for ten years. He was accidentally killed by 
gome man in the year 987. The Mirza had seen the cities of Tdr^, 
Moghulistan, and India, and been engaged in the service of the greKfc. 
He was skilled in most sciences, eloquent, brave, and wise in counsel. 
The TWkhi Rashidi was composed by him. By the order of Mr. 
William Moorcroft, Vety. Surgeon under the British Government, 
Sayid Izzat Ullah Khan compiled from records an account of the events 
to the year 3238. The preface was written on the 11th JamddussAii 
1238 Yiint I'l. 

2^ote 1. The expression " Yunt II" denotes the seventh year of the 
cycle of twelve, current in the chronology of the Arabians, the Persians, 
and the Turks (or Moghuls), though each nation has its own denomina- 
tions for the different years. The Ayini Akbari gives a full account 
of these cycles, which were employed for the adjustment of intercalary 
periods necessitated by the disagreement between lunar aad soUir 
years. The Turki cycle was also called I'ghdri (Oighur is the Bhs- 
sian spelling of the word). The names of the different years are tbe 
names of certain animals. They are as follows : 

1. Sijqfin — ^a mouse. 2. U'd — a cow. 

8. Pdras— a panther. 4. Tawishqdn-— a har«. 

6. L\ii — a crocodile. 6. Yilan — a snake. 

7. Ydnt — a horse. 8. Qd — a sheep. 

9. Bich— a monkey. 10. TakhAqd— a fowl, 
n. rt— adog. 12. Tankuz— ahog. 

To each of these names the word PZ was added, which denotes 
** year." In Kashmir and Afghanistan, though this calendar is now 
obsolete, the memorial verses containing these twelve names, are still 
remembered. The presMit year is Tankdz. The verses are as follows : 

e)IJI .iAf JJ »A^f ^^J3la? ^ 0^ ^ 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1864.] Some Persian Inscriptions found in Srinagar. 285 

Note 2. The dates of this inscription also do not agree with those 
given by the native historians. The inscription places Haidar's first inva- 
sian in the year 935. Birbar gives as the date 989, though he agrees 
witli the inscription in the number of horse^ 4000 ; Captain Newall 
gives the less probable amount of 14,000 cavalry. Hugsl (following 
principdUy Abul Eaal) gives 980 (A. D. J523) as the year of the 
iavasion, and 10,000 as the size of the army. It is possible to re- 
concile these statements by assuming that the army of invasion con- 
sisted of 10,000 foot and 4,000 horse. The second Invanon the 
inscription places in 974 ; Captain Newall (who does not seem to 
recognise the invader as the Mirza Haidar of the former invasion 
from the north) gives its date as 947, which is in general agreement 
with the above-mentioned Pandit, and with Hligel, both of whom give 
948 (1541); the latter, however, speaks of "a considerable force.** 
The statement of the inscription must probably be understood to 
mean that he set out from Labor with 450 hone ; he probably gather- 
ed an army of adventurers and malcontents as he proceeded. The 
confusion is very great in that part of the histories of Kashmir, 
which relates to the decade of Haidar's rule^ — it does not seem to 
have been reign — ^principally because he who was at one time Haidar's 
nominal sovereign, was soon afberwards his nominal oppon^it. The 
name of this individual, evidently a puppet, so common in all Asiatic 
histories, was doubtless {J^j U but whether this should be read Tdrih 
8hih, as Birbar reads, or Ndztk Shfih, as Hugel reads, appears untier- 
tain; Captain Newall gives the name Tarkh Shah, which is un- 
doubtedly wrong. In this period also falls the first recorded attempt 
on the part of the Moghul emperors to take possession of the valley. 
For Haiiar, much harassed by the rising Chak family, offered the 
sovereignty of the country to Humdyun, when it was really no longer 
in his power to offer it. The Mirza's embassy found HunULyon en- 
camped at Atok, on his return from Persia to Hindustan. Humaydn 
wt out immediately for Kashmir ; but the expedition failed, as the 
army mutinied at or near Mozufferabad. Haidar*s death the inscrip- 
tion places in 987, Birbar in 959. The latter relates that during his 
war with Tirik Shah, Haidar went alone into the fort of Avantipdr ; 
a butcher asked him who he was ; he oould not reply in Kashmiri, 
whereupon the buteher killed him with the axe which he happened to 
have in his hand. Newall sayg that his death took place (in 1551 

Digitized by LjOOQ LC 



Some Persian Inscriptions found in Srinagar, [No. 3, 

A. D.) as he had issued from the fori of Indrakoul to reconnoitre 
the enemy's position. 

Note 3. A question remains whether Moorcrofb had this inscrip- 
tion cut, as appears most probable, and if so, why. The reply has 
been suggested that, he did it in order to put on record the feasibility 
of an invasion of Kashmir by cavalry from the north as well as &om 
the south. It is not unworthy of remark that many a tourist, mis- 
led by the name of William Moorcrofb upon the tombstone, luui 
stated, in print and out of it, that Srinagar contains the grave of the 
enterpnzing traveller. 

III. Inscriptions on and near the Great Mosque. 
Opposite the principal entrance of the Jami Masjid, a building 
most remarkable for its numerous tail cedar pillars^ there is a hauli 
with the following inscription : 

vsi^>» c^ J«> ^>AiM) A^b sS J\ ^^ ex^ ^^/ jJU. ^fii 
\:)kj^ LW (ji^ (^y i^ i:^^^ j^ ^Jj ^j d^ 

tti^^y or*** *fi*^l* ^rt^i is^j^ i>j^^Jjlj^ (^^yt 
45,Uij p^JA.y ^\ ^^G ^ sS \ sSij jijij ^{j j^ 

The fountain of Gt>d's favour came forth through the laudable efforts 

of a handfid of humble men. 
By the grace of God MahmAd began this work, and the difficult 

became easy. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



r 



1864.] Same Persian Inscriptions found in Srinagar, 287 

Tbe fond for its constniction wae purity of intention and sincerity of 

mcLj with earnest hearts. 
Of worldly and religious glory this is enough that every Musulman 

may wash his fiioe in it. 
iVom this fountain he (the huilder) looks for that in which the record 

of transgression finds cleansiiig. 
People's sin is washed away by this water whose source is the sea 

of knowledge. 
Let the amount of the rent of the shops be for the repairs of the 

tank flowing with blessing. 
Oh God, with thine own hand give graciously to its builder the 

ennobling faith. 
For this, the teacher's verse, has its own task ; he takes refuge with 

weeping eye (and says) : 
As thou at the beginning hast given me the name of Mahmud, oh 

God, make it Mahmdd in the goal ! 
Into the sea of thought the Intelligent Man (i. e, the composer of 

the inscription) went for the date of this auspicious building. 
Khizt said, Let my favour flow on ; write this date, oh poet : 
Oh God, pardon its builder and his father, — Oh Pardoner! — 1056. 

At the entrance of the Great Mosque itself, there is the following 
decree of the Emperor Shdh Jehftn : 

(jyli »lA0G ^l^ »l^ 
^j/& (£>ty \^iaLc ^^ uA*^ 0/<A^ c;^ C1>^(a4« mU;i Jfli 
io\d\y^ {:HJ^ ^UX^Ht *-*-^ trt^l t^ i>/o^fixJi-«| ftSMb w;Uj ^ 

^Uj ^j «SajUOv«0J ss}^y^ ^jkf*' V^J«> ^2)lx^yiJaJ k-*ili^| 4lJl^j^^yx| 

• AXib ojt2> ^J^ i^y.jkiisji^ 

^j^Uj Ou«f^pi. «A*AAli;^ Opa*«j sSjy^^ Osit»Jflj ^£*^ ^^O ^{^ 
S^ aA^^ jbi>i| Ai^jljf C*ftU J^M ji^^ AhA.j4> *S j^i^^^^ 

isf^Af^ ksJj sS cu«Jf ^ cuUjiJf AUft^ji <>jJ^(j «ijiy ^ M^y^y 
%jy^\ vLJ«i vSU> iJU^^ AJijAiyj d^y^j ^ ^^yi^ sJi^Ski bc^j^ dj^j 

*^\d ^Aj^ A^Ure ^^ te^lj «)JiSj ^^«..5j JUtfl 4£)l^3 ^<)^«.AJiC «r 
jl^Urf ^^ Af:*!, OJ^OJ ^^1; \j^| *ii.U 4^1; J; ttl!;^.>>« *i^t 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



288 Some Pei^tian Inscriptions found in Srinagar, [Ko. 3, 

j.iji;l^ jyLL^»iip| dUj^ Air *^/^ fy^ oi** ^f^^o tr^^j'jr*- j-*rf 

OwaJ» ixiAMiyTyk^^^M^ ^JJimjS {S^ ^y^ KS^'T^ ^0>^^ Aih^ ^U. jlftLcf^ 

^^ aaI^U 1^4*^^ r^j!;^ ^^ J^ *^*t^ eri3' ci^ sxij^ J^ cA^J 

9dJ^ Ut/* ir» JL^ </^ir^ WAa.L) ^bf j^ 41,1^. ^laiiJl ^^ «>J;(^ oU-o 

*^ri^C'^^j oli^ JU ,>;>i^ «t>*^^ »!>^j tt)t^ «L^ cr^^^/^.^^ 

(•!,> «.>;'^i> C5:/ii J^y j^f.i C*.A^ ^^>a. ^^^ SS ic^ji 4j,| ^Ai J^i^j 
CL* e)f ^LoiAiJ 4)JJ(^ diJ^y. «^ ttl^ d^^t SS^6J AXm\^ Jj*^ 

4j)f AT «)Jt «^^ j^ 4j^ j;^^ 4j,Ur oJf AiJvid ^yUf dT ^^j^ j^ ar 
^ ^^ ciT u;bA.U A^ «)j| aLw| jXa«j^ oJul^ «i^*lAJ(A?^ l^T ^'^jT^ !; S^ 

«)..^;x^ *ijUa?*b (sj^yjl *^ j^ji ojyi iJ^^-aI^ \j $^i ^*f^b 

jj^^ Ij^Ua/o ^y^al. ^^141^1 ^;*«-Sk^Ai^ jUflL«ljjUi. J'^p^ ^U^ s5*jU^ 
!; iM^Jj^ ^ dC^^ ixiubJJ slj 42;T «>^!^ (Jf«H^ ^/i^ oiJi^ C5<^J 

Translation. 

6oD 18 Great. 

£%<iAt JaAa;! ^A« Xtn^, Defender of the Faith. 

Copy of the auspicious orcTer of his Majesty who occupies the plate 
of Solomon, the Lord of the Conjunction, the Second, which was re- 
corded on the 7th of Isfanddrmuz (February), according to Akbar*s 
calendar, on account of the petition of the least of slaves (may Ood 
be gracious to him who is known by the name of Zafar Khan), with 
reference to the removal of the oppressions which were practised in 
the time of former Subad&rs in the beautiful city of Kashmir^ aod 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



IS64.] Some Persian In$eriptian9 found in SrUtagar, 289 

were ttie cause of the ruin of the suLjects and inhabitaDts of thes^ 
Degions. 

jffiffndn^ 
Since all o\a exalted desire is turned and bent on the contentednesff 
of the people, hence we gave the order for the repeal of some acts: 
which in the beautiful country of Kashmir became a cause of distress^ 
to the inhabitants of the land. Of the number of those matters one 
is this that,, at the time of collecting the saffiron, men used to be im- 
pressed for this work without any wages except a Uttle salt, and 
hence the people are suffering much distress. We ordered that no 
man should by any means be molested as to gathering the saffron ; 
and as to saflfron grown on crown-lands,, the labourers must be satis^ 
fied and receive proper wages ; and whatever grows on lands granted 
in jagir, let the whole safiron in kind be delivered to tiie j%lrd&r that 
he may gather it as he pleases. Another grievance is this that in the 
time of some of the SClbadars of Kashmir they used to levy two d6m 
for wood on each JOiarw&r (about 180 pounds) of rice^ and during 
the government of I*tiqdd Khan four dam for the same purpose were, 
levied on each Kharw^. Since on this account also the people were 
much distressed, hence we ruled that the people should be entirely 
relieved of this tax, and nothing should be taken on account of wood. 
Another grievance is this, that a village whose rental was more than 
400 Kharw^ of rice, was obliged to furnish to the rulers of the place 
two sheep annually. I'tiqdd Khan, during his rule, took 66 dam in 
the pUce of each sheep. Since on this account also the people were 
mnch annoyed^ we gave a strict order that it should cease ; neither 
should the sheep be taken nor money in their place ; the people shall 
be held excused from paying this impost. Moreover, I'tiq^ Khaii, 
daring his incumbency, levied a summary poll-tax of 75 d6m on each 
boatman, whether a young, or an old man, or a boy, whilst it was the 
established custom formerly to levy 60 dam on a young man, 12 on 
an old man, and 86 on a boy. We ordered that the former custom 
should be re-established, that the oppression of I'tiq^ Khan be 
stopped, and that people should not act in accordance with it. Ano- 
ther grievance is this that the Subad^rs, in the fruit season, placed 
th^ own men in each garden, large and small, which appeared to 
contain good finiit, to watch the finit for themselves and did not allow 
the owners of those gardens to use the fruit ; hence much annoyance 

2 f 2 



A V A 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



290 On the Vegetaiion of the Jhelum District [Na- B, ~ 

was canged to these people, so that some of these men have destroyed 
the frait trees. We ordered that no Subadir shoidd lay an embargo 
on the fruit of the orchard or garden of any one. It is proper that 
noble governors and useful collectors and the tax^atherers of this 
and future times in the province of Kashmir shoidd consider these 
orders as lasting and eternal, nor should they admit any change or 
alteration in these regulations. Whoever admits any change or altera* 
tion, will fall under the curse of God, and the anger of the king« 
Written on the 26th Adar (March) according to Akbar's calendar. 



On the Vegetatitm of the Jhelwn District of the Punjab. — JBy 
J. E. TiEENET AiTOHiBOir, M. 2>., F. E. O. S., F. L. 8^ 
Assistant Surgeon Bengal Army, SfCy ifc^ Sfc. 

To systematise a description of the vegetation, it will be as well to 
divide the district into several portions, giving a leading and particu- 
larised description of what may be considered th'e principal divisions^ 
and then, comparing the other divisions with those already described, 
pointing out any characteristic features that may belong exclusively 
to that under our immediate notice. 

For the ready comprehension of the several divisions or tracts, the 
accompan3ring diagrammatic map is attached, shewing the district to 
be divided into 

The Jhelum Tract, 

The Jelallpore Tract, 

The Salt Phdns, 

Plains upon the Salt Range, 

The Tract of the low ranges of Hills^ 

The Tract of Ravines, 

Hills of the Salt Range, 

Tract of Mount Tilla* 

The JflELtJM Tbact. 

The town of Jhelum, consisting of about 500 houses, is the heaA 
quarters of the Civil Station, and hence is looked upon as the chief town, 
although it is in truth but the fourth or fifth as regards number of 
inhabitants^ trade, &xi,y in comparison with the other towns of this 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



'^ 



I 



1 

-I 

\ 






Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1 

i 
< 
1 
i 
< 

9 
t 

1 



d 

h 
a: 

P 
t< 

ai 
b. 



..v^* 

^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



WUU camnuffu. 
Enntbtr rart'. 



ft 




iLlti Tali 



D I ACR AM ATI C 

•f TMt 

JHBLUM B: 

tothbSukrcu 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



I 5 



d 
It 

a: 

P 
ix 

a« 
b 



5 



al 
in 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




tV. 






II AT 1 C 



SECTION 



LUM DISTRICT 

• dxju^ rwrth. iAratiffh Jfha^anwaZlcu 
^ to^u^ JtcBnne^ OnuUry. 
copied/ /h?TrtyFUmbt^J 



Digitized byLjOOQlC 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1864J On the Vegettdiyn of the Jhelum DUtrict, 29t 

digtrici It is situated in Lat. 32* 66' N. Long. TS** 47' E. (A. K. 
Johnston, 1855) and is about 67^ feet above tbe sea leveL It may be 
considered as occupying the CQi^tre of tbe Jhelum Tract. Nearly a 
mile to the west of this \d situated the Military cantonment, once 
occupied by a large force of native troops, but since the mutiny, all 
bat left to ruin. 

The Jhelum Tract is the plain country enclosed within the £[hari- 
an and Ratian ranges of hills, with the Jhelum river running in the 
midst. It commences at the fort of Mungla, and ends some miles 
above Jelallpore, where the Kharian range and Surafur hills close in 
upon the rivar. It consists on the whole of a beautiful plain, which, 
near the bases of these hills, is cut up into ravines, but affcerwards 
opens out into richly cultivated flat land. This, on the Jhelum side, 
is divided into three parts, by the wide sandy beds of the Kuhan 
(or Bukrala) and Boonah nullas. 

The geological formation of this tract consists of — 

Jst. Recent tertiary, close to the river, which, in some places, as 
at Doolial and Cyngoee, is made up of a rich mould yielding profuse 
wid good successive crops. 

2nd. Pleistocene tertiary ; this lies below the recent tertiary, but 
the latter disappears as we go inland, and the Pleistocene crops out 
4ipon the surface, containing beds of kunkur at the river, of some 
valae, with a tolerable amount of surface soil. 

3rd. As we approach the base of these ranges of hills, viz., the 
Ratian, &c., we enter upon a Miocene tertiary country, characterised 
by deep water- courses or ravines full of huge boulders, shingle and 
aand. From this the hills suddenly rise up, consisting of clay, marl, 
conglomerates, and sandstone, the last containing fossils similar to 
those found in the Sewalik range of hills, of which the geology of 
these hills is supposed to be the counterpart. 

V Water is obtained in this tract at little cost and labour, from 
wells about 20 feet deep, which yield a plentiful supply, fresh and 
sweet. A well is to be met with, attached to every village, and 
.to many there are several, aU worked vrith the Persian wheel. Their 
water is not used for irrigation, excepting for tobacco and small 
patches of cotton, but chiefly for gardens : the former of these 
crops indeed may be regarded as garden produce. Water is not 
raised from the river for irrigation. One stream of fresh water, the 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



292 On the VegetattM cfihe Jhelim Dutrict ["So. S^ 

Kuhan nulla^ runs through tiiis tract. Its water is not used for 
irrigation, hut where this stream passes through the range of hids at 
Bhotas, its power tA used to drive three or four flour mills. The^ 
remains of a canal of the old Seikh time are to be traoed from neai^ 
Doolial, in a direct line, to a Uttle above the Civil Lines at Jh^um, 
across that portion of the country, where the river takes a rapid turn 
&om a southerly to a westerly course. 

AemcuLTUBij^ pbodtjcit. 

Two crops are generally produced during the year, viar., the Babbee* 
and Khureef. For the Bubbee crop the Zemindars begin to sow about 
the end of October ; and collect the harvest during April. The 
Khureef crop*is sown in June, and is collected about the end of Sep* 
tember or during October. The hot weather extends from the middle 
of April to the middle of October ; the cold weather over the rest of 
the year. The chief falls of rain occur about the end of August or 
during September. Heavy rains also fall in March uid April. The 
crops generally throughout the Jhelum district ar& depoidant for 
iheir maturity upon these special falls of rain. 

The chief products of the Rubbee crop are, Wheat ** Gfehun," TrM^ 
cum mtivum^ var. ; Barley, " Jhow," Sordewn hexoiHchon. Granv 
" Chuuna," Oicer arietknum ; Bape, '^ Surson,*' Brauieaeampeitrit and 
Urucaii. ; Linseed, "Ulsee," Linum ueitatunmum; Safflower, ''Ku- 
isoomba," Carthamus Hnetoria ; with a great variety of the Melon tribe. 

Those of the Khureef crop are — 

Millet, var. '* Bajree,*' FenicUlaria tpieata. Millet, var. ** Jowar,*^ 
Andrcpojfon Sorghum; Cotton, ^'Kupas," OoMj/pium herbaeewm. 
Indian com, " Makee," Zea Mdyg, Sugarcane, " Gimnah,*' Saccharuum 
effieinamm; Oil seed, ''Til," Seaamum Indieum^ Indian hemp^ 
*' Sunn," Orotalareajwncea, 

Where irrigation may be resorted to throughout the year, tobaod^ 
and rape are raised during the whole hot season, as in the Goojerat 
district. 

Wheat. Of this the bearded white variety is that which is chiefly 
grown, althou^ the red is not uncommon ; both are of average quality. 
A large exportation of this takes place ; chiefly towards Mooltan. 

Barley. The six rowed variety is produced of a very superior quality 
and is largely cultivated ; the greatest part of this crop being also 
expoi*ted towards Mooltan. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



1864.] On the Vegetation of the Jhelum DUtnct. 293 

Gram. This is coltiTated, but in small patches in this tract — of a 
line (juality. The quantity, howeyer, is not sufficient for local con* 
tvmption, a large importation taking place from other parts of the 
district. Along with it we have the '' Massoor/' JEruum lene, cultivated^ 
«iiher mixed with the former or separately. 

A very small quantity ^f the pulses Hre cultivated in this tract, viz, 

'< Moth." Fhaeeolus aeonitifoUa, 

" Mung.*' Thaseolus mimgo (The split peas of which constitute the 
vitfieties of Dahl). Their quality is good, though the crop is scarcely 
safficient for local consumption. 

Bajree and Jowar, both excellent in their quality, are very largely 
titivated, and together with barley and wheat may be considered the 
staple Grope of the whole district. The Zemindar-class live chiefly on 
the Bajree and Jowar, consuming for their food little of either wheat or 
barley. Their cattle also are largely dependant for fodder upon the 
Boossa obtained from the crushed stalks and leaves of the two former, 
owii^ to the great want oi pasturage in this tract. There are several 
kinds of Boossa for feeding cattle, viz., that most commonly in use,' 
which is produced, as already stated, from the crushed leaves and 
stalks of the Bajree and Jowar ; that made from the straw of wheat 
tad barley ; that made from the straw and leaves of the pulses and 
gram, which last is the highest in price and by the natives given 
chiefly to their horses, as also to cattle for fattening. Lastly, Boossa 
obtained from the leaves of the ** Baer" the Zks^phue fmlgarii. 

Oil eeeds. Of these we have — 

^ Surson." The seeds of Brasnea eampesMs, and JSruca, L. which 
by simple expression yield oil called commonly ^ Surson ka tel," or 
** Thaxa meera ka tel." B» Uruea yields a darker oil than B. eampestris 
and hence, to distinguish this oil from that of the latter, it is often 
called <" kala surson ka tel" or '' kaU surson." The seed of the Til, 
Seeamum Indicum — also by simple expression, yields ^Til ka tel" 
viz. TiloiL 

The seed of the flax '^ Ulsee" yields '* TJlsee ka tel" viz. Linseed oiL 
The plants of the above are cultivated, but not in sufficiency for the 
uses of the tracts and hence their products are largely imported. 

Ckytton is grown in tolerable quantities, but as a field crop, is very 
poor in quality. Where, however, it is grown as a garden crop and 
freely watered, some of the produce is exceedingly good, both aa 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



294 Oh the Vegetatum of the Jhelum Distriet [No. 3, 

regards quantity and the quality of the fibre. The fact is, that the 
soil in general is too poor and too dry, but if this be properly 
enriched with manure, freely watered, and under shade, a good crop 
JB the usual result. 

Tobacco. "Tumbakoo," MeoUana Tabacum^ is cultivated more aa 
garden produce and undergoes free irrigation. There is not so much 
raised as is required for local use, but what is raised, is considered of 
a good quality. 

Safflower. Of this a large quantity is cultivated, good in quality 
and sufficient both for the local market and for exportation. The 
seeds are used, though not extensively, for making oil. 

Indigo. Indigofera tmctoria — "Nil," is cultivated strictly for 
home consumption, and is used for dyeing the beard of the cultivator* 
Bice. " Chaul," Oryza soHva hae been cultivated in this tract, but 
very rarely. The fact is, there is no soil sufficiently moist and loamy 
for its cultivation. 

Sugar-cane grows in this tract only as a garden product, not to 
have its juice extracted for the preparation of sugar, but to be sold 
in the bazar in the cane, and thus eaten by the natives. The cane 
is very poor, being small and exceedingly silicious. 

"Sunn," Orotalarea juneea and "Sooja Para," Hibieeue cannahinui 
^-are both grown in small patches and in stripes round fields, the firsts 
however, more commonly. The fibres of both are good, and are 
manufactured into a coarse twine by the zemindar and thus sent to 
market. They do not seem to be cultivated for exportation. 
Gabden pbobvce. 
From gardens, which are attached to nearly every village, we have 
the markets well supplied with all the vegetables that are usually* 
cultivated by natives, and which are used extensively by them in the form 
of " thurkarees." The principal vegetables are " Moolies," varieties 
of the radish — "Piaz," onions —" Baingons,'* egg-plant, Solanwm 
Mehngena; "Shalgum," varieties of the turnip — " Poluch," varieties 
of the spinach — " Gaager," varieties of carrot — ^**Bhuker-kund," species 
of Arum — " Moukha," Fartulaea oleracea — ^" Ram-turai," Hibi$cuf 
longifalius — ^besides an immense variety of the Oucurhitaeew viz. 
** Kudoo," CueurhUa Fepo ; " Keera," Oueumis saiimu ; " Khurbooza,'* 
Cuctmis Melo ; " Turbooza," Cucwtbita CUrullm: « Kukree." Cucumit 
utilissitnus, &c. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



1864.] 



On the Vegetation of the Jhelmn District. 



295 



And used as condiments we have — 

" Lal-mirch," Capsictim frutescens; " Ajwain," FtychotU Ajovoain ; 
' Sonf ;" Ibeniculum FannwiHum ; " Aneeson," Fimpinella anisum ; 
'Hchoriwn intyhus ; " Lusson," Allixtm sativum* 

The following may be considered as a rough sketch of the vegetation 
ound a village of the district. Close to the village there are gene- 
ally one or two small plots of garden ground, in the vicinity of the 
rells from which they are watered. These gardens are carefully 
tUTounded by a strong and tolerably high fence of the branches of 
be "Keekur," Acacia Arabica, Round the margin of these plots 
rineipally, and in close proximity to the wells, will be found trees of 
ie " Keekur" Acacia Arahica ; " Baer," Zizi/phus jujuha ; a few 
Lessoora," Cordia Myxa ; an occasional " Buma," Crataeva religiosa ; 
)metimes a " Sissoo" Dalbergia Sissoo ; and not imfrequontly some 
ne specimens of the Ficus Indica^ " Bore" and F, religiosa, " Pipul." 
hen come plots of ground a little larger, enclosing tobacco, cotton 
id sugarcane, the last uncommon in this tract. These several plots 
■e more or less watered from the wells, but with these exceptions no 
irther irrigation of the crops in general is carried on. 
The rest of the fields open out beyond with no divisions between 
lem, except perhaps a footpath ; wherever a hedge of any sort is met 
ith, one may be certain of the close proximity of the dwellings of 
le natives or of places for housing cattle. 

A few fruits, the produce of the district, are sold in the market, 
he chief of these are the mangoe, in a green and unripe state and 
poor quality ; the orange, sweet lime, and citron, all excellent ; also, 
uing nearly the whole year, the plantain. In the gardens of 
uropeans, however, we have a large number of English vegetables 
iltivated, with such fruits as the grape, fig, guava, apricot, peach and 
rawberry, all good of their kind. 

Teees. 

Most of the trees in the Jhelum tract have been introduced, though 

any have become naturalised ; few indeed can be said to be 

itive to it. We will therefore in writing of them, class them 

ider two heads. 

Ist. Trees which have been introduced. 

2nd. Trees which are native to the district. 

2 Q 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



296 



On the Vegetation of the Jhelum District, 



[No. 3, 



3st. — Of trees that have been introduced we have — 

Cordia Myxa, *' Budda-lessoora." The large-fruited Lessoora. This 
yields the large kind of Sebesten. It is a handsome showy evergreen 
tree, with good-sized timber, but is only found in gardens. 

Cordia Intifolia^ " Lessoora." This tree yields the small Sebesten, 
which is scarcely used. It is found in most of the gardens in 
the district. It has small timber, which is not put to any use in 
particular. 

Syzigium Jamholanum, " Groulab Jaman." Of this there are a few 
fine trees, generally near the dwellings of Fakirs. There is one tree 
on the sunmiit of Mt. Tilla, fifteen feet in circumference. 

Parkinsonia acuUata, " Velaiti Kekur." 

Sesbania jEgi/ptiaca, Pers. 

These two latter exist as tree-thrubs : both are true garden plants 
and are extending their range ; both being now occasionally met with 
near villages. 

Bauhinia variegata, " Kochnar." A garden tree, the flower buds of 
which are used largely in curries and pickles. 

Morus alba and Morus laevigata, Wall. ** Toot," are in this 
tract dwarfed from want of soil and moisture, and do not yield 
timber. 

Melia Azedarach, L. " Buchyan," Persian Lilac is attached to all 
villages. The timber is of no use : the foliage gives a good shade and 
the ripe fruit is greedily seized upon by goats and sheep. 

Moinnga pterggosperma, " Sohounja," or horse-radish tree, in this 
tract is a garden product ; its fruit is not used for oil making, nor 
is its timber applied to any purpose. It affords, however, a good 
shade. 

Populus Uuphratica and P. dilafata, Don. " Safaida" are both the 
products of the gardens of Europeans. 

Acacia Serissay Roxb. " Seriss," grows to a very handsome tree, 
generally near European dwellings. 

Cedrela Toona, " Toon," has been introduced but lately. It both 
flowers and fruits. 

Bombax heptaphgllum, L., " Sembul." 

Cassia JUtuloy L. " Amultas," the Indian Laburnum grows near 
dwellings, not common \ produces good fruit and flowers generally 
twice during the year. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



164] On the Vegetation of the Jhelum District. 297 

Salix Babyhnica, frequently met with near bunees, tanks, and damp 
Cities. 

Fiem reliposa, " Pipul," and F. Indiea, " Bore, Burgot," Banyan 
«. Fine specimens of these are found throughout the district. It 
a matter of opinion as to whether their origin here be due to natural 
ises or to their having been introduced. If the former, they must 
upon the confines of their northern limits. 
2nd. — Trees native to the district. 

Cratava religiom, " Buma." This seems to have been at one time 
iommon tree in this tract, more especially upon the alluvial soil near 
5 river, where there are still a number of very large trees which give 
Bplendid shade and form large timber. The fruit is used to mix 
th mortar for making a strong cement. 

Tamarix IndicUy Oallica, L. " Furas." In this tract the only trees 
I have of this, have been planted, but in some other tracts we 
d it is prolific. It produces a miserably poor brittle wood, used 
iefly for the fire. This tree resembles a fir and indeed by most 
ople it is generally mistaken for such. 

Acacia Arabica, " Kekur, Babool." Of this we have two varieties, 
:. : A, A, var. epina, albida, and A. A. var. cypress. This latter is 
s most elegant but the least common in this tract. They are both 
■ge handsome trees yielding good shade, give excellent, useful timber, 
d grow rapidly and well, over the whole district. Their wood is 
ed largely for ploughs, well wheels and tent pegs ; their branches for 
)ding sheep, goats, camels and cattle in general, as also for making 
dges. The b<irk is used for tanning and making country spirits, 
sides yielding not unfrequently a large supply of gum, " Gondh." 
Acacia modesta, Wall " Phulai.*' In good alluvial soil and where 
ere is drainage this becomes a fine timber tree. Otherwise, as where 
grows on the hills and ravines of the district, it is but a poor twisted, 
iinted shrub, fit only for firewood, but for this purpose it is excellent . 
mels, goats, &c. feed in Spring on its young leaves and flowers. Its 
nber is very hard and used greatly for wheels, especially when these 
e to be exposed to wetting. The heart wood becomes quite black 
td is as hard aa iron. 

Dalhergia Sieeoo, " Sheshum." Of this, which produces the most 
duable timber, we have but little, and what trees there are, have 
>parcntly been planted during the rule of the English Government in 

2 <J 2 Digitized by Google 



20S 



On the Vegetation of the Jhclum IHstrici. 



[No. 3, 



the Punjaub. A few trees, however, of Seikh times still exist near 
wells, and shew splendid timber. Tlie natives of the district would 
induce one to believe that this had formerly been a common tree and 
that during the Punjaub campaign it had been cut down. I believe it 
has been introduced since our conquest of the country, with the 
exception of the specimens near Tullagung. 

Zizt/phus jujubay " Baer," is a good, rapid growing tree, produces 
excellent wood, highly valued by the zemindars, and requires no 
care or trouble to rear ; its fruit and leaves yield good fodder to goats, 
sheep, <bc. and its branches make excellent hedges. 

The " Baer" and the " Kekur" are the staple woods of the whole 
district, from which all the woodwork required by the agricultural popu- 
lation is made. They spring up naturally from their seeds, whethw 
distributed by mnds, men or animals. They require no care in their 
youth, and both grow freely without water, (or at least imder very 
straitened cirrcumstances for it,) so long as they have some soil to 
grow in. On stony, sandy land they do not grow, but on clay they 
spring up readily. At present there are few or no old trees in the 
Jhelum tract and decidedly not many in any of the other tracts ; that 
is to say, trees fit for timber. This is due solely to carelessness and 
jiegligence on the part of the zemindars to substitute young trees for 
those cut down ; hei>ce there is at present a scarcity of timber, vhich 
in a few years, if the present state of things goes on, will end in a 
nullity of local produce. It appears to me that (Jovemment should 
tak3 up this subject in earnest, and only permit trees of above a certain 
^e to be cut dovm, making it an established rule, that for every 
tree cut down, a proportionate number of young trees be planted. 
The greater the age of the tree cut down, the lai^r should be the 
number of young trees required to be substituted for that one re- 
moved: and thus, instead of a scarcity of timber, in a few years, 
a cheap supply of wood grown on the locality would be the result, 
besides the benefit that would otherwise accrue to a country at present 
all but destitute of trees. In replacing trees cut down, it is strongly to 
be recommendel that the Baer and Kekur be preferred to any others : 
not even excepting the Sissoo, which, although a valuable timber tree, 
takes too long a time to become useful and is too tender, requiring 
too much nursing in its youth, to be of real paying benefit. The 
y?ipid growth of the Baer and Kekur and their non-liability to injury 



Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1864.] On the Vegetation of the Jhelum District, 299 

from want of care, besides their great durability, more especially during 
exposnie to heat and moisture, are characters which render them of 
immense value to the zemindar, who uses their wood for ploughs and 
well- wheels where it is continuously exposed to the extremes of moisture 
and dry heat ; besides which, he gets a quick return for the labour and 
trouble expended in rearing the trees, which are grown on the spot 
where their wood is required for consumption. Thus he is put to no 
expense for carriage, while the branches of both trees are of great 
▼alue to him for fences for his fields, and the leaves, blossom and fruit 
as fodder for his cattle. 

CHAaACTEBISTIC PlAJTTS. 

The characteristic plants of the Jhelum tract may be classed as 
those met with — 

1st. On the Islands and banks of the river, 

2nd. On the moist marshy soil left by the receding of the river, 

3rd. In wells, 

4ith. As weeds in gardens, 

5th. As weeds in fields. 

6th. The remainder are met with on roads, waysides, fields aud 
gardens, in short are not confined to any particular locality. 

1st. The characteristic plants met with on the islands and banks 
of the river Jhelum are : — 

Tamarix diaica, Boxb. Called in the vernacular generally " Pilchee," 
** Jhao,*' and frequently " Furas" (the latter name, however, is more 
generally applied to the tree T, Indica), This with Saccharum tpon- 
taneum covers the 'slands (balaa's) during the hot weather, with a 
dense low jungle. Both are considered of some value for thatching ; 
the former is also used largely for all kinds of rough basket work. 
From the great abundance of both, and their cheapness, they are 
used to consolidate the soil laid upon the Grand Trunk Road. By 
the end of October, the islands are cleared completely of this jungle, 
and nothing but the roots and stumps of the plants are lefb, which 
begin again to send up fresh shoots in March and April. The 
fresh shoots of the latter are at this time fed on by cattle. Cattle 
will not, however, feed on the full grown grass, which is too coarse 
and rough for them. On some of the Balaa's, but chiefly on the banks 
of the river on the Qoojerat side, the Saccharum Munja " Moonj," is to 
l)e met with in large quantities; forming a much higher and thicker 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



300 On the Vegetation of the Jhelum District [No. 3, 

jungle than that of the S. spontaneum. Its value is much greater, 
being used for rope-making. The cause of its high price is, that 
ropes made from it are able to withstand the effects of moisture 
combined with strain, much longer than any other rope made from 
materials as readily obtained. It is largely used by boatmen on the 
river, afl well as for the anchorage of the boats that form the bridges 
on moat of the Punjaub rivers. In 1861, the Moonj harvest was a 
failure, and in its place large quantities of the leaves of the Chamtprops 
HUchiana, *^ Puttha" from the Attock district, were imported to the 
rest of the Punjaub to supply the bridges with moorage rope. The 
ropes are made by steeping the leaves in water for a certain number 
of days, then tearing them into ribbon-like strips, which are plaited 
together upon the principle of the watchguard plait, and then two or 
three of the plaits are twisted into one rope of the required thickness. 
The Moonj is said to bear a heavier strain and last longer than the 
other, when both are exposed to moisture. 

The Anatherum muricatum '' IChus Khus," is met with in some 
quantity, chiefly on the river's bank, both cultivated and in a wild state, 
near Eussool ; also a few miles above Jelallpore. It is of value to the 
zemindars who sell it for being made into tatties, &c. 

2nd. The characteristic plants met with in moist marshy ground 
lefb by the receding of the river, &c., are : — 

Machltfs hemispharica, D. C. 

Mazu8 rugo9U8y Lour. 

Mimulus graeilisj B. Br. 

Veronica anagallis, L. 

Polygonum Fersicaria, L. 

Itumex acuttMy Boxb. 

Fotentilla gttpina. 

Zeuxine sulcata. The only orchid obtained in the whole district 
and this only on the banks of the remains of an old canal below the 
Government garden at Jhelum. 

Alisma FlantagOy L. This flowers early in April, and its presence 
in this part of the Jhelum district, seems to be due to the river bring- 
ing down the seeds from a higher elevation ; these v^etate in the 
pools of water left by the receding of the river. The seeds of the 
Singhai-a, Trapa bispinosa are also brought down by the river floods 
in large quantities, but I have never seen them vegetate* 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



3864.] On the Vegetation of the Jhelum District, 301 

Fotanogeton erispw, L. 
Juneus hufoniu9^ L. 
Eleoeharis palustris. 
Jmlepes barhata, K. Br. 
Scirpus maritimus. 
Cypertts rotundas, L. 
Cyperus niveus. 
C^perus haspan. 
Banunculus seeleratus, L. 

3rd. In the wells of the district we meet with — 
Adiantum capillm-Veneris, 

4th. Afl weeds of gardens. Garden weeds are in much greater 
variety than one would at first be apt to suppose. This is simply 
due to the presence of a moister and richer soil than that of the 
surrounding country. 

Fumaria partiflora, 

MaleoUnia Afincaniay B. Br. 

Sisymbrium Sophia, L. 

Sisymhrium Irto, L. 

CapseUa hursa-pastoris, R. Br. 

Lepidium sativum, L. ? 

Goldbachia hmgata, D. C. 

OUgomeris glaueescens^ Camb. 

Viola tricolor. Cult. ? 

SUene conica. 

SiUne rubella, L. 

Arenaria serpyllifolia, L. 

Fortulaea oleraeea. 

Medicago dentieulata. 

Trigonella ineisa. 

Indigofera Senegalensis, D. C. 

Vieia sativa, L. and other species. 

Centaurea eyanus, L. 

Anehusa hispida, Forsk. 

Nonnea JPulla, D. C. 

Antirrhinum rronfium, L. 

Veronica agrestiSf L. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



302 On the Vegetation of the Jhelum District, [No. 3, 

6th. The characteristic plants met ^vith as weeds in fields. 

Early in March Oxalis eorniculata, Anagallia arvensis, Laihyrus 
aphaca, L., and Asphodelua fistulo9U» are seen springing up in im- 
mense quantities over the whole of the fields^ along -with the spring 
crops. Tlie former are not very injurious, and hence are not weeded 
out, but the last if allowed to proceed in its growth would undoubtedly 
choke, at all events, wheat and barley. In some fields that have been 
sown late and in which none of the com crop is as yet up, the 
Asphodelus at a very little distance may be easily mistaken for the 
com crop. This therefore, when it is large enough to be grasped by 
the fingers, is carefully weeded out from the cultivated ground. 

Seshania aculeata is very common throughout the fields, and during 
the months of August and September, it may be seen overtopping the 
Bajree or other autumnal crops. . 

Celosia argentea^ L. grows amongst the Bajree and Jowar, and \a 
found as a weed from a few inches in height to a shrub of fully seven 
feet, covered with a profusion of lovely pink flowers. The natives, 
upon cutting down the crop, curiously enough always seem to leave 
the plants of this, which remain conspicuous over the reaped fields. 

Baliospermum polyan&rum. This seems to be one of the most 
difficult shrubs to eradicate, from the large quantity of seeds that 
one plant bears, and its readiness to germinate. It is not very 
noticeable until the autumnal crop is cut. Immediately afber this, 
the plant* rapidly produces a dark green foliage with flower and fruit, 
assimiing the characteristics of a shrub. It occupies a belt of land 
half way between the Jhelum and the Katian range of hills, from 
which it does not seem to deviate. 

6th. Characteristic plants, met with on roads, &c., <&c., &c. 

Calotropis procera, R. Br., " Ak Madar." This is to be found in 
every part of the district, from the sandy wastes to the most cultivated 
soil, from the plains of the Jhelum to the heights of the salt range 
and Mt. Tilla. It is a rank weed, but being easily eradicated, does not 
give the cultivator much trouble, except on the edges of the fields, 
where carelessness permits of its growth. 

Adhatoda vasica, Nees, " Bansa and Bakoor." This also is a 
disagreeable neighbour to cultivation, but is easily kept at a proper 
distance. It is to be found at an altitude of from 700 to 8,200 ft. 
and on the Eatian range of hills forms a belt of vegetation pecu- 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



38GI.] On the Vegetation of the Jhelum District, 303 

liar to the boulders that form a portion of that range. In the ra- 
rine country it grows as a la^e spreading bush. 

Feganum Harmala^ " Hurmool," forms a thick dense bush about a 
root in height and although met with on the low ranges of hills, &c., 
i is not so flourishing as in the plains, round the edges of fields and 
>n roadsides. 

Tephrosia purpurea, Pers. covers the plain country wherever it is 
flowed to grow, and exists bb a rank weed especially where there is 
10 vegetation of higher growth than itself: it is easily choked, 
t>ut where grass like the Doob and similar creeping plants, with 
Vimpinella crinita, Boiss, and Trichogyne cauliflora, D. C. cover the 
wil, BB on the parade ground, the plant quickly spreads itself in great 
luxuriance. 

Tribului terrestrie, is met with, creeping close to the ground in great 
quantity over the whole district, with Malva parviflora^ L. 

Centaurea ealcitrapa, L. 

Microrhynchus nudicaulis, 

Boerhaavia diffusa, L. 

Cfonvohmlus arvensis, L. 

Chnvolvulus pluricaulis, Choisy. 

Heliotropium undulatum, Vahl. 

Seliotropium Uuropoeum, L. 

Solanum Jacquini Willd " Kuthelee Kunth." 

WUhania somnifera, Dun. 

Chenopodium album, L, 

Crozophora iinctoria, Juss. 

Lathyrus aphaca, L. 

Alysicarpus nummularifoKus, D. C» 

Alhagi maurorum, 

Nomismia aurea, W. & A. 

JDmthium strumania, L. 

Artemisia scoparia, W. & K» 

Echinops echinatus, Boxb. 

IpomoM sessilfflora, Both. 

TSrichodesma Indica, B. Br, 

Solanum nigrum, L. 

Qiesekia linearifolia, Moq. 
Euphorbia dracunculoides, Lam. 

2 B 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



30:1 On the Vegetation of the Jhelum Distriet, [No, 3, 

Viola cinerea, Boiss. 
Poli/oarpaa corymhosti , Lam. 

HEBBA.OB FOB CaTTLE. 

Of grass especially cultivated or allowed to grow for the purposes 
of pasturage, there is none in the Jhelum tract, for all land 
capable of producing grass is at once placed under some kind of 
com crop. All kinds of cattle are chiefly sent to feed upon the 
low hill ranges, or upon certain tracts of land covered with the 
Baer, (from a low thorny shrub to a tree of good size, Ziziphus 
nummulariay Mulla, and Z, jujuba) the cattle feeding on the leaves 
and fruit. Of such Baer jungles there are several in the Jhelum 
tract, made up chiefly of the Baer, but also partly of the " Kureel" 
and " Bakoor," witli an occasional " Kekur" and perhaps rarely a few 
bushes of the Qrewia hetulifolia. Camels manage to pick up their 
fodder, (which must necessarily chiefly consist of the Saoeharum 
epontaneum,) from the islands on the river. This, howevar, except 
in a young state, seems to be too hard ^ grass for cattle generally. 
Green corn is even cut for horse fodder, and should a cavahry raiment 
be stationed at Jhelum, the grass-cutters of the regiment have to 
go down the river as far as Kussool, (which is situated flfbeen miles 
further down, on the opposite bank of the river,) for the purpose of 
obtaining grass. 

The grass-cutters of the usual inhabitants get what grass they can 
along the roadsides, between the edges of fields, or footpath, 4&c. and 
that which is chiefly collected is the Boob, C^nodon Daetyhn^ P^rs, 

JPennUettMn oinchroides, 

Aristida depressa, Betz, 

JHgitaria sangvmalis. 

Fanicvm Fetiverii, Trin. 

Fanioum proeumhensy Nees. 

Fanicum antidotahy Betz, 

Aristida mwrinay Cav. 

Lappago h^flora. 

JEragroatia PoaoideSy Beauv. 

Dactyloctenium JEyyptiacum. 

Koeleria phleoides, Pers. This may be called the cdd weather grass, 
as it flowers as early as February, and if cultivated, might be of great 
use as fodder daring the cold weather months. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



18G4.] 



On the Vegetation of the Jhelwn District, 



805 



Many other grasses are met with, but the above are the only kinds 
foond generally in the tract. The others in damp and shaded 
localities, exist rather as botanic specimens than as herbage for cattle. 

7th. Of Parasitical plants, the only one met with as yet, has been 
CuKuta reflssay " Akas-bel," which is in this tract supported by the 
" Baer," on Mt. Tilla by the " Bakoor," and at Choya-siden-sha by 
the " Angeer." {Ficus earicoides, Rox.) 

The Tbact of the low Hill banqes. 

Under this head are included the Bukrala, Ratian, Surafur and 
Kharian ranges of hills. Their geology, physical characteristics and 
vegetation are similar, and their average height may be considered 
to be from 1,000 to 1,200 feet above the sea level. Mori Peak, the 
highest of the Kharian range, is 1,400 feet, and is situated in the 
centre of that range. Mt. Tilla the most westerly of the Ratian range, 
is 3,200 feet. The botany of the latter, will, however, be considered 
by itself hereafter. 

These hills are more or less covered with a jungle of low trees and 
shrubs, besides a few grasses and other herbs. On the whole, how- 
ever, they present a barren aspect, being covered with a dried- 
up clay and stony soil, lying chiefly upon sandstone, but here and 
there upon boulders, and broken up extensively by deep ravines with 
sandy bottoms. However, in some little solitary shaded nooks, where 
loamy soil has accumulated, and where there is moisture from somd 
spring, we come upon a herbage of a luxuriance only to be met with 
in a tropical climate. 

The vegetation upon these hills affords pasturage for immense 
flocks of goats and sheep chiefly, but also of many camels and 
cattle, which feed upon the blossoms and tender shoots of the shrubs 
rather than upon the grass, the latter being very scarce in proportion 
to the former. 

This jungle, besides yielding fodder for the cattle, supplies the main 
part of the firewood for the surrounding population. 

The chief sources of firewood in the Jhelum tract, are — 

1st. Wood obtained from the river Jhelum by women wading 
into its shallows, and picking up the wood that has been brought 
down from the hills, but whioVi is so dense with the amount of 
vater that it contains, that it sinks to the bottom. The women 

2 R 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



306 



On the Vegetation of the Jhelum District. 



[No. 3, 



\ 



wade out in large numbers at a tiine, and feeling with their toes for 
the bits of wood, pick them up and raise them with their toes. The 
wood is then placed in baskets and afterwards dried in the sun. This 
is the cheapest kind of firewood. 

2nd, The large roots of trees chiefly of the "Cheer," Finns 
longifolia^ carried down with the floods of the river, but not soaked 
with water. 

3rd. That obtained from the jungles on the low ranges of hills. 

The jungle of the low ranges of hills is made up of — 

Stunted shrubs of the Acacia modestay Wall. " Phulai." Capparis 
aphylla, " Kureel." Carissa diffusa, Koxb. " Karounda." Sageretia 
Braiidrethiana,* " Kohare.'* Gymnosporia spinosa, " Putaker." Ehere- 
tia asperoj " Chumroor" and " Kookhun." 

Qrewia hetulifolia, 

Coceulus leaba, 

Feriploea aphylla. 

Asparagus, several species. 

Tavemiera nummularea, D. C. 

Dodonaa Burmanniana. 

These constitute the main part of it, but in some portions it may 
be made up of the Zizyphus jujuba and Acacia Arabica, both very 
stunted, with Adhatoda vasica, Nees, and the " Dhak," Butea Jrondo- 
sa, the last chiefly in broken ground, where also we meet with Tecoma 
undulata, " Loora." On the higher localities on the ridges of Mt. Tilla, 
we may pick up shrubs of Olea Europea, Cow. 

The under-shrubs and herbs growing with the above jungle are ; 

Salvia pumila, Benth. which in many places covers the ground like 
a grass and is much sought afber by sheep. 

Boucerosia aucheri, " Choonya," a very characteristic plant, spring- 
ing up from the roots and among the stems of the larger shrubs. 
The natives collect it and use it largely as a bitter tonic. 

Solanum gracilipes, Jacq. 

lAnaria ramosissima, Wall. 

Commelgna communis, L. 

Commelyna BengalcTtsis, L. 

Polygala arvensis, Willd. 

• Sageretia Branda-ethiana, called aftor Arthur Brandreth, Esq., Bengal 
Civil Service. ** 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



18W.] On the Vegetation of the Jhelum BUtriet. 807 

Tolifgala Tahliana, D. C. 

Attrafalus multiceps, Wall. 

Pupalea lappacca, D. C. 

Dipter acanthus prostratus J Neos. 

Mruajavanieay Juss. 

Battota limbata, Benth. 

Allium ruhellumy Bieb. 

Cleome linearis^ Stocks. 

Abutilon Indicum. 

Sidarhombifoliay L. 

Triumfetia an^lata, Lam. 

Besides the above, we have several grasses : — 

Cynodon daetylon, '* Doob.*' 

Melanoeenchris Royleana^ Nees. 

JPennieetum Oinchroides. 

Arittida depressa, Retz. 

Eragrostis C^ncsuroides. 

Dactyloctenium .^Sgyptiacttm. 

In some ravines Saccharum Munja and 8. sponfaneum and not un- 
commonly also Nerium odorum are to be mefc with. The last plant 
is, however, more common where these ravines open out into the 
nullahs. It is not to be found on the banks of the river, in its whole 
course from the fort of Mongla to Shapore, but seems to prefer 
the hills, as no sooner does one get into the hilly country above 
Hungla, than it is met with in large quantities on the river bank. 

Except during the rainy season, water is not obtainable in these low 
ranges of hills, unless it be from Bunnees, which are reservoirs of 
water formed more or less artificially in connection with springs. To 
these all the cattle are brought from miles round, as the Bunnees are 
few in number and generally at some distance from each other. 
The inhabitants of this tract always use their water in preference to 
any other. In nearly all these Bunnees we have a form of aquatic 
vegetation peculiar to them. In those of some depth we have 
Nelumbium 9peeio9wm, the fruit of which is greatly relished by 
the natives. In most of them, we have Ngmphaa eceruleay alba I 
tokdpubeseens, with Polygonum barbatum, L. and Persicaria, besides — 

Sagittaria cordifolia, Boxb. 

Marrilea quadrifolia. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



308 On the Vegetation of the Jhelum District. [No. 3, 

PotafMgeton erispusy L. 
Juncus hufonius, L. 
CeUia Coromandeliana, Vahl. 
Bumex acutus. 

In their vicinity, the vegetation is osually of much greater luxuri- 
ance than that of the surrounding country. 

Tbact of Ravines, 

This constitutes that portion of the country between the Ratian 
and Bukrala ranges ; as also that to the north of the Bukrala and Salt 
ranges. It consists of plain ground broken here and there by low 
elevations, and cut up in every direction by ravines. The average alti- 
tude of these plains about Chuckowal and Tullagung is 1000 feet 
above the sea level. Their geological formation is chiefly tertiary mio- 
cene, with little or no surface soil. The vegetation is much poorer than 
that met with in the Jhelum tract. The agricultural products are 
chiefly Bajree and Jo war, which are usually very fine, bearing heavy 
crops if there has been a good rainy season. Wheat is poor, and cotton 
also, except where cultivated in the courses of the nullahs or ravines in 
which alluvium has been deposited : the small garden plots, for they 
appear little or nothing more, are then watered from wells sunk at 
a little distance from the bank of the nullah : this kind of culti^ 
vation is well illustrated, at Doomun ; where seven or eight wells, 
with their garden plots of cotton and tobacco ate seen, on th« 
margin of the nullah at the base of the fortress. Except near wellfl 
01^ bunnees or tanks, trees other than the Baer and Kekur are scarcely 
to be met with, and these are uncommon. From Chuckowal west- 
wards, large and fine crops of gram, Cicer arietinumy with varieties oi 
Fhaseolus are raised, this country supplying much of the gram to the 
rest of the Punjaub. 

To the west of Chuckowal the land spreads out into much mon 
extensive plains, and is much less cut up by small ravines than thai 
to the east of it, although traversed by many lai^e nullahs, upon the 
banks of which good fodder is obtainable, and where we find the Dai' 
hergia Sissoo, Sheshum, growing in its natural soil and producing tim- 
ber by no means to be despised : especially near Tullagung. 

Herbage is not procurable for cattle except on the low ranges ol 
hills, and in the ravines that run through this tract, or on the banks 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



4.] On the Vegetation of the Jhelum District. 



309 



be nuUahg already spoken of, where Saecharum tpontaneum is fre- 
itlj to be found growing in great luxuriance, vying with Nerium 

uring the hot weather the cattle of the zemindars suffer greatly 
i the want of good water, and their owners have recourse to build- 
mud tanks for collecting water during the rains : to these, as 
aming says, '* Men and animab go for drink indiscriminately." 
U not fed by springs have, apparently for this reason, no vegeta- 
in them, unless it be species of Fistia. 

he uncultivated land of this tract has a vegetation very similar 
lat described as existing upon the low range of hills ; with this 
ption, that in the ravines and beds of nullahs, we meet with the 
lak** Butea frondosa^ in much greater quantity, in some spots 
constituting a jungle, as at Booroo jungle on the Bukrala nullah. 
be piece of land, however, on which this jungle grew, has been to 
^t extent, reclaimed. Near Tullagung are hedges of the Cactus 
ca growing in great luxuriance. 

le Colocynth, Oucumis Coloeynthia, " Indraun,'* covers the hard 
baked ground throughout the whole of the hot weather : Limewn 
nM» is very common. 

The Jelalipobe Tsact 

)nstitutea that portion of the district that lies between the river 
am and the Salt range, from where the Surafur hills come down 
I the river, to the town of Pind-dadun-Khan. This tract con- 
of an extensive plain, spreading from the base of the salt hills 
le river, with but a very slight incline towards the latter. The 
L consists of a rich alluvial deposit, except at the base of the hiUs, 
e it is made up of a mass of boulders, shingle and debris, 
rspersed throughout it are tracts of soil impregnated largely 
saline matters : the last increasing in amount as we approach 
i-dadun-Khan. In some places torrents from a higher level than 
of the salt, deposit loam upon certain lands close under the salt 
e, making them the richest in the whole district. To facilitate 
deposition of the loam, as well as to prevent its being carried 
)y rains after its deposit, ridges of earth of about eighteen inches 
sight are thrown up round the fields, 
ver this tract wells are very plentiful, with a large supply of water 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



310 On the Vegetation of the Jheltm District. [Ko. 3, 

at a little depth, but the water except in close proximity to the river 
is saline, and decidedly more so the further west we go. 

Where the well water is not greatly ohai^;ed vrith saline matter, it is 
largely used for irrigation, and where the river presents a high bank 
its water is also raised for the same purpose. At Baghanwalla a small 
stream from the hills is nearly used up for irrigation. 

The chief crops irrigated are, — sugar-cane, rape and cotton. 

The crops are the same as those in the Jhelum tract, but the cotton 
on the whole, is very much finer and the produce much greater. 

Sugar-cane is cultivated as a field product and is of fine quality. 

Rape " Surson." Of this, large quantities are cultivated and ex- 
ported, as also of Til, Sesamum Indieum. 

Rice is occasionally raised on the islands on the river and on land 
that is frequently flooded. 

Indigo is occasionally grown and brought into the market. 

Of Trees, the '' Kekur," and in greater numbers, its variety the 
cypress, grow in much greater luxuriance than elsewhere, as also do 
the " Bore*' and Pipul, JFictM Indica and F. religioea. In this tract 
we meet for the first time with 8alvadora oUoideSy " Pelu." It is 
confined, however, in the most easterly part of this tract, to the imme- 
diate base of the hills. 

Also close to the base of the Hills, growing in its natural state, as 
well as introduced into some of the fields near Jelallpore, we have 
Moringa pterygospertna^ Sohounja. 

The barren soil alluded to as occurring amidst the cultivated 
land, is covered with a low, shrubby jungle consisting of Caroxyhn 
foBtidwm, Moq, Anabasis muUiflara^ Moq, Suada fruticosa^ L., the 
first of which chiefly alone, but not unfrequently with the two latter, 
is largely burnt to yield Sugee-muttee, a coarse carbonate of soda and 
potash. In this tract, however, but little is made in proportion to 
that produced in the tract we shall next speak of, or that of the 
district of Shapore. Except near the river's bank we have scarcely 
any of the grasses met with in the Jhelum tract, their place being now 
occupied by JSluropus repens^ and Oressa creHoa, 

At Pind-dadun-khan which may be considered the end of the 
Jelallpore tract, we have very rich alluvial soil supporting some fine 
trees of Tamarindus Indica " Imlee Umlai." 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



8W.] On the Vegetation of the Jhelum Dietrict. 311 

Si/zygium Jiambolanum, *' Jaman.'* 
PhyllanthtM Umblica, " Howla— Aowla." 
Feronia elephantum^ " IQiair," which bears fruit. 
Mangofera Indica, Mango, highly cultivated in some of the gardens. 
Phafnis daetylifera, " Khujjoor," which, although we meet with 
icasional specimens on the river's bank between Jhelum and this 
ace, only here occurs as naturalised, producing fruit in some quantity, 
id tolerable in quality. 

Ouilandina BonduceHa^ " Kut-karounja," apparently naturalised, is 
und in profusion near gardens. 

Besides the trees mentioned, we have all the others enumerated 
occurring in the Jhelum tract, and all, without exception, having 
far finer appearance : this is due no doubt to the depth and rich- 
S88 of the alluvial soil, with a sufficiency of moisture. 
From this point passing westwards we enter upon the tract of the 
It plains, viz. the plains that lie between the river and the salt range 
the west of Pind-dadun-khan for about 30 to 40 miles, that being 
K)ut the extent of the Jhelum district. 

Tbact op the Salt Plains. 
In this division we have a tract of country all but a dead level, and 
which the cultivation is restricted mainly to the margin of the river, 
le remainder being near the base of the hills, while between the two, 
le land is a jungly waste, ovring to the excessive impregnation of the 
il with saline matter. Through the whole tract, except close to the 
irer's bank, the well water is so bad, that for water for their own 
16 and for their cattle, the inhabitants are dependant on that collected 
mud tanks ; and for the watering of their crops on rain ; except 
here, as at Keutha, a stream of fresh water comes down from the 
lis ; and in that case it is necessarily used for irrigation. Hence 
poor and scanty crop of Bajree and Jowar with a little cottoii 
ay be considered the chief products of this tract. Along the banks 
' the river, however, wheat and barley, with the above, and the oil- 
eds are largely cultivated, and yield good crops. 
On alluvial soil, as on the banks of the river, or where cultivation 
carried on, the Cypress variety of the Kekur, the Baer and the Datei 
Jm may be considered the characteristic trees. 
On the land incapable of cultivation wo have a jungle consisting of 
unted trees, bushes and shrubs, viz. — 

2 s 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



812 On the Vegetation of the Jhelum Dktrict. [No. 3, 

Tamarix Indica, " Puras." 

Salvadora oleoidee, " Pelu," 

Frosopis spicigera^ " Jand.'* 

Acacia modesta, " PhulaL" 

Capparis aphiflla, " Kureel/' with Acacia Arabiea and its variety 
Cuprestus. 

Siueda Jruticosay L. 

Anabasis multiflora, Moq. 

jFarsetia Jacquemontii^ Hf and T. 

Saccharum spontaneum with Aeluropus repens. 

Immense herds of cattle are pastured in this jungle, and their fodder 
seems to consist of the ahovementioned shruhs and hushes more than of 
either of the grasses : the former when in full growth heing apparently 
too hard for them, while the latter only springs up in any quantity 
during the rains, or as long as moisture lasts in the soil. 

During the month of May and when the fruit of the " Pelu*' is ho- 
coming ripe, whole villages of people go out and stop in the jungles, 
living solely upon it. This occurs more especially in the Shapore 
district, where a much greater extent of the jungle exists which is 
ihere called the Baer. Hen and animals suffer in these jungles ex- 
tremely from the want of good water, for what they drink is solely 
that collected from falls of rain. 

The fruit of the '^ Jand" Frosopis spicigera is largely used hy the 
natives as a vegetable diet, especially before it reaches maturity, 
and is considered highly nutritious. 

From the *' Furas," Tamarix Indtca^ both galls and manna are said 
to be obtained ; the galls are very poor ; of the manna none was met 
with by myself on this tree. 

Where the gorges of the salt range open out from the hills into 
the plains, and shingle, sand and a little soil with a large amount of 
BsJine deposit, occupy the intervals between the boulders, we come upon 
Mhazya strictay Deca, forming a shrubby jungle in itself. It spreads 
also beyond, to soil that is capable of producing other plants. 

On the beds of the saline streams that make their exit through 
these gorges, Bumea: vesicarius grows in great abundance. 

From the gorges just mentioned, we naturally enough pass on to 
the salt range, of which we will now treat. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



18G4.] On the Vegetation of the Jhelum District. 813 

Hills of the Salt Baitoe. 

In aacending through the gorges, on the red marl of the salt 
strata, we meet with two species (undescribed) of Fluehea growing in 
great magnificence and presenting the characters of tree shrubs. These 
are particularly characteristic plants of the marl. 

As we rise still higher, passing above the salt strata, we come upon 
the " Pupper," Bttxus eempervirens, occurring in great quantity, more 
particularly at the head of the gorge at Keutha, and producing wood 
of good quality which, however, is not used for any particular purpose 
by the inhabitants. The branches are, however, largely used for 
thatching, for which purpose the durability of the leaves renders 
them well fitted. 

On the summit of the range, which averages 2000 feet above 
the plains on the south, we come upon a jungle very similar to that 
existing on the low ranges of hills, but consisting largely of the Olive, 
Cow. with Prosopis spieigera and an occasional Acacia JEbumea, in 
addition to the plants common in the latter. There is, however, none 
of the A. Arabica, Besides these, characteristic of the range, we have 
Dodofuea Burmaniana in great quantity. 

ForskSlea tenacissima. 

Astragalus leuco-cephalue, Benth. 

Barleria cristata, 

Lindenbergia polgatUha^ Boyle, with Allium rubellum and several 
species of Asparagus, viz., racemosuSf eurillus, Ac. 

On the southern aspect of the range, from its base to its top, pass- 
ing up the gorges, we have Salvadara oleoides forming a large por- 
tion of the jungle. But the moment we rise to the actual summit, 
and bend our way northwards, not a single plant of it is to be seen, its 
distribution being limited to the west of the Surafur hills and the 
south of the salt range. 

These jungles supply large quantities of fire-wood but no timber 
whatever. 

The Plaiks oir the Salt Bakge. 

These are alluvial plains occurring interspersed throughout the 
hills, many of them consisting of a limestone formation, and having 
occasionally streams of fresh water running through them. These 
streams in general make for the river Jhelum, and entering the salt 
strata, become impregnated with saline matter, which they deposit on 

Digle®db?LjOOgle 



BU 



On the Vegetation of the Jheltm District. [No. 3, 



the salt plains beyond. Through these they are not able to cut theii 
way, but are absorbed by the soil long before they reach the river 
and thus instead of aiding in its irrigation, render it incapable ol 
producing a vegetation useful to man. 

The plains upon the salt range yield splendid crops of wheat an<J 
barley, especially the former, as also all the other crops of the Jhelum 
tract, except sugar-cane. In addition to these we have in the fields, 
as at Kulakahar and Choya-siden-sha, opium largely cultivated, as alsc 
the rose ; from the latter an immense quantity of rose water is distilledj 
its manufacture being lucrative. 

Irrigation is not common, but where streams supply water, the 
cultivation is laid out in terraces, walled round, to aid in a 
free distribution of water and to prevent the washing away o( 
the soiL 

Where these streams do not exist, water is scarce, wells being 
sunk generally through rock and to some depth. Hence the fields 
are solely dependant upon rain, and should a dry season occur, a com- 
plete failure of the crops is inevitable. 

On the alluvial soil bordering the streams above mentioned, we 
have Mortu alba, forming fine timber, especially at Kulakahar ; also 
Bhus integerrima, Wall. ; " Kuker*" in great magnificence both at the 
last place and at Choya; as also Acacia modesta, ''Phulai," at- 
taining its greatest girth, with Vitia vinifera (naturalised) trailled 
to the top of the highest trees. The Sissoo is rare, although the 
largest tree of the sort I have ever seen, is at Kutas. 

Besides the above — 

Salix Bahyhnica, 

Zizgphus vulgaris, " Jujuba." 

Fieus Indica and religiosa with Melia Azaderach are common. 

As shrubs on the hilly ground, we have generally those met with 
on the low range of hills, mixed, however, largely with the Olive and 
Dodonaa, and not unfrequently Qardinia tetrasperma, Roxb. 

As weeds in the fields, the most characteristic are — 

Salvia Moorcroftiana, Wall. " Kalather," met with over all the 
fields. 



• Called also Kuker-singa, becanse of the horn-like profcuberanoes that are 
developod opon its branches. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



1864.] On the Vegetation of the Jhelim District. 815 

Edwardna^ new* sp. " Koon," said to be poisonous to cows — ^in 
great quantity at Choya. 

Uremostachtfe Vicaryi, Benth. not common. 

Qypeophila Vaceariay L. is very common in the com«fields at this 
elevation, growing along with the corn-crop. 

Lithoepermum arverue, 

Fsaralea corylifoliay L. 

Cfnaphalium luteo-alhum^ 

Avenajatua, L. 

Lepidium draha. 

Neslia panieulata, 

Alhagi Maitrorum. 

In moist damp soil near fresh water, we have — 

Merpeetie tnonniera, 

Stachye parviflora, Benth. 

Samolue Valerandi, L. 

Cjfperus mueronatus, Koth. 

Apium graveolenSy L. with 

Cynodan dactylon^ in great profusion. 

Some fine grazing for cattle is to be had along most of the fresh 
water streams. 

Mount Tilla. 

The most westerly of the Batian range of hills, is situated 17 miles 
due west from the town of Jhelum. Its height is 8,277 feet above 
the sea leveL On its Eastern and Southern aspects it presents a 
scarped face with a direct ascent of nearly 1500 feet. The usual 
route to its summit is by the western side from near the village of 
Bagree. 

It is covered with a low shrubby jungle at its base, corresponding 
to that met with on the low ranges of hills, but as we ascend to about 
1,200 feet above the sea level, the vegetation gradually assumes a 
character not found in any other part of the district, and in no way 
analagous to that at a similar height in the salt range. Tliis is owing 
to the total absence of the salt rock^ which in this hill does not 
present itself upon the surface. — ^A saline stream makes its escape 
from the west side of the hill near the village of Bagree. 
• Edwardsia Bydagpica, (Edgw.). 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



816 On the Vegetation of the Jhelum Digtriet. [No. 8, 

None of the characteristic plants of the salt marl have as yet been 
discovered on this hill, nor a single specimen of the Salvadora 
oleoides. 

The first change that we notice in the vegetation as we ascend the 
hilly is that Acacia arahica in the form of stunted bushes gradually 
disappears, so that it is quite absent at about 1,200 feet. Secondly, 
grasses become more numerous and present a greater amount of ver- 
dure than we have as yet seen, except upon the plains on the salt 
range. 

These grasses are — 

AnthistiHa anathera^ Nees. 

Cymhopogon Twarancusa, Boxb. 

Andropogon annulatugy Forsk. 

Heteropogon contortus, 

Crygopogon serrulatus, 

Apluda aristata, Boxb. 

JPanieum Fetiveriiy Trur. 

Fenniaetwm cinohroides, 

JPanieum antidotale, Betz. 

Aristida depressaj Betz. 

Aristida fnurina^ Gav. 

Jjappago hiftora. 

Cynodon daetylony Pen. 

Digitaria sanguinalie. 

JEragrostiapoaoidee. 

Daetyloctenitnn JEgyptiacum, 

Melanoeenchrii JEtoyleanay Nees. 

The first six are the characteristic grasses of Mount Tilla, and cover 
it with a splendid herbage for cattle, from its base to its summit. 
This hill with its lower ridges may be considered as affording the best 
runs for cattle in the whole district. 

Fhaseolue trilolmfy Ait., exists in profusion at the base of the 
escarpment on the east side of the hill, creeping through the long 
grass and matting it together. 

Lantana alba, commences about an altitude of ],000 feet, be- 
coming more conmion the higher we ascend, and characterising the 
vegetation of the hill with its lovely white inflorescence. 

Dalbergia Sissoo, ** Sheshum" occurs upon the northwest slopes in 

Digitized by LjOOQ LC 



1864.] On the Vegetation oftJie Jhelum District. 817 

one or two places, as young trees of from 4 to 5 years' growth : here 
and in some ravines of the Surafur hills it seems to be rapidly becoming 
naturalised. 

Dodonaa Burmaniana^'' ^yn9^'' covers the hill from base to 
summit on its western slope, forming a remarkably characteristic 
jungle, (of which there is the analogue in the higher parts of the salt 
range), and along with it on the same slope, choosing as it were a 
aimilar locality, the « Khujjoor"* Fhcenix Sylvestris which produces 
firuit in abundance. 

Bambusa arundinacea^ " Bansa" — growing in great luxuriance in a 
Talley that looks to the south, closed in on its other three aspects by 
the high ridges of Mt. Tilla. Here the sun seems to have but little 
effect and abundance of moisture exists. Along with it, we meet, for 
tte first time, with Ehus integerrima, Wall. " Kuker," presenting 
some fine trees and fair timber ; be also Moringa Pterygofperma^ and 
Bamhax heptaphyllum, L. " Sembul," the last shewing magnificent 
inflorescence during March. Of this last, there are some fine trees in 
the valley half way up Mt. TiUa, on the usual road from Bagiee. 

At 1,200 feet we meet with Phgsorgnchua Brahuicusy Stocks, in 
profusion. On the low range of hills it is rarely to be found. 

Pleetranthfts rvgosus^ Benth. conunences about the same height and 
forms a dense massi through which it is nearly impossible to make 
one's way, and affording excellent cover for chuckoa ; it is greedily fed 
on by cattle and sheep. 

JPlumhago Zeglanica, begins now to shew its fine white blossoms, and 
Qridea tomentosay ** Tawa" in the deils of the rocks, presents an 
inflorescence only equalled in splendour of colour by that of the Bambax 
or the Butea. This is only to be met with, however, on the eastern 
face of the hill. 

Olea Ewropea, Cow. may be said to commence at 1,500 feet, although 
found occasionally below this altitude ; it is in this latter case but a 
very small shrub. Indeed at the height abovementioned it is but a 
shrub, assuming however rapidly the characteristics of a tree. It 
does not attain its maximum growth under 8,000 feet. On the top of 
Mt. Tilla there are some very fine trees of it growing through the 
building of the fakir's temple. 

• Tho true date palm and tho P. 8%jlvc9iris are both called Khujjoor by the 
nativcfl. 



Digitized by LjOOQIC _ 



818 On the VegetiUion of the Jhelum District. [No. 

At the same height, species of Orewia viz. G. oppositifolia, villo 
and Bottii, begin to appear as shrubs, bat as we ascend, they put < 
their true tree form. 

We now come upon great tnfbs of grass, as it were, hanging fro 
the crevices of the rocks and covering the steeper sides of the hiJ 
viz. Eriophorum eomosumf * Babila," highly valued for rope-makin 
the rope made from it is chiefly used for tying the earthen dishes up 
the Persian wheels. Exposed to continuous wet and in constant u 
a rope, the thickness of two fingers, will last during a whole year, 
properly twisted. 

We now have, at 2000 feet. Mimosa rubieaulis, in some quantil 
All the good timber of this tree seems to have been cut down by t 
villagers and shepherds. They have no name for it except " Kekur. 

Mhamnus Fersiea, is not uncommon on this hill, but is m< 
common on one of the ridges of the hill to the south-west. 

Rottlera tinctorial Boxb. " Rooin, Rolee, Kamela"— exists in gn 
quantity in the narrow valleys leading down from the main hill. J 
seed vessels are highly valued as a vermifuge, and are also used 
prepare a red dye. 

Here also, but in one locality only, viz. on the northern ridge of t 
hiU, we have Forskolea tenacissima, a characteristic salt range pia 
found on strata much saperior to that of the salt. And very comm 
over the whole hill is Melhania abutiloides, Am. 

Sibiscus Qibsoniiy Stocks, occurring in some quantity in the vail 
through which the road leads, between the southern escarpment ai 
the main hiU. 

Soerhaavia repanda, Willd., in great luxuriance along the sumn 
of the face of the eastern escarpment. 

Vitis eamosa^ Wall., with Cissampelos Pariera are to be met wi 
all over the hill. The latter, however, prefers the western aspect. 

Colebrookia oppositifolia, Sm., at about 2,500 feet of elevatio 
forms a bushy thicket ; mixed with it, Hwmiltama suaveolens. Bos 
is very common. Barleria eristata begins to shew its lovely pi 
flowers, gradually spreading over the whole hill. 

Tetranthera Boxburghii, Nees, — ^not imfrequently met with at 
tree shrub. 

Kydia calycina, Roxb., chiefly as a shrub, but one or two good in 
exist .upon the hill. From the number of stumps to be found s« 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



186i.] On the Vegetation of the Jhelim District. 819 

tend oTer the hill, it would seem that this tree has formerly existed 
in large namhers. It is very characteristic, more especially during the 
winter, when en<Hrmous hunches of dried flowers are seen hanging from 
it, the tree itself heing deprived of ail its foliage. 

Ditmia extenea^ B. Br. and Oardinia tetrasperma are not unfrequent- 
ly to he met with over the cMs. 

Asplenium Dalhousiw is very common in the nooks and comers of 
the rocks where moisture collects and affords a damp soil. 

Ahove 2|500 feet we come for the first time upon a species of the 
genus Arum^ most likely l\/phonium (?) 

Although at 1,500 feet on the rock ahove the fort at Mungla, 
Amphieoma Emodij Boyle, is to he found in great luxuriance, I 
have not obtained it on Tilla under 2,500 feet. 

We now see the eastern face of the main hill covered with a shrub 
producing enormous palmate foliage, but as I obtained neither its fruit 
nor flower, I can only say that it is most likely to be a Sterculia (?) 

A single specimen of Cordia veetita (?) Hf and T. occurs upon tlie 
margin of the tank on the southern shoulder of the hill. From its 
situation by the tank and its being the only specimen of fts kind, it 
has most likely been introduced. 

Adiantum eaudatum occurs now, in great abundance in damp loca« 
lities. 

Celtie Caueasica as a small tree is here common, shewing tolerably 
good sized timber. 

At 8,000 feet we come upon the Convolvulaeea in great luxuriance, 
viz., JPkarbitie nilj Jjpotncea murieata, Boxb., and. /. pilosa^ Choisy, 
with Campanula eaneseens ; the last only in damp localities, where also 
we obtain that beautiful grass Balratherum molle, Nees. 

Oalium aparine with Cheilanthee farinoea, in the recesses and 
clefts of the rocks. 

On the very summit we have Oeranium rotundifolia and G, lucida f 
being the first of this genus as yet obtained, with Galium aparine^ 
which indicate a great altitude ; besides Fhgllanthue niruri^ Clematis 
Oourianay Jasmmum grandiflora and Vitex negundo, L. 

On the simmiit of the hill we have a tolerably level piece of ground^ 
partly cultivated by the fakirs, with a miserable attempt at a garden 
planted by Government ; the remainder consists of a mass of jungle. 
Here we have a temple belonging to the fakirs, with their burying places 

Digitized byi^JBpOQlC 



820 On the Vegetation of the Jhelum DiHrict. [No. 3, 

scattered over the top of the hill ; a Bmall house helonging to Govern- 
ment for the benefit of travellers ; and lastly a magnificent tank fed 
by numerous channels running towards it, from every direction. Ex- 
cept from rain, neither on the summit nor indeed on any other part 
of the hill, is water to be had, (except from the tank abeady mentioned 
on the southern shoulder of the hill). But I have no doubt that if 
a well were sunk in the valley between the eastern escarpment and the 
main hiH, water would be found at no great depth. 

The vegetation on the summit is curiously varied. A splendid 
specimen of the Pinus lon^folia, " Cheer," bearing fruit, was introduc- 
ed 30 years ago by the Fakirs, The olive occurs in great luxuriance ; 
the "Blujjoor," Phodnix st/lvestris, yielding fruit, aod the Fieue 
Indica, " Bore." The co-existence of the above four kinds of trees all 
in full vigour tells us that we must be in a most genial climate ; 
one in which neither the severity of the hot weather nor the dry- 
ness of the atmosphere, is too great for the Pinus hngifolia. Nor does 
it seem that the intensity of the cold in the cold weather is so ex- 
treme that the Ficus Indiea should not but rival some of tiie finest 
specimens of its kind to be met with in the Jhelum district. Together 
with these two forms we have the " B[hujjoor," Phosnix syU>estris^ 
in its native luxuriance, with the olive and the pomegranate, Puniea 
granatum. 

For further information relative to the district of Jhelum, see — 

Asiatic Society's Journal for 1848. The camp and battle field of 
Alexander and Poms, by Captain James Abbott, Bengal Artillery. 

In ditto for 1849, Diary of a trip to Pind-dadun-Khan and the 
salt range. By Andrew Fleming, M. D., Asst. Sui^on, 7th N. I. 

In ditto for 1850, Descriptive notice of the Jhelum district by L. 
Bowring, Bengal Civil Service. 

In ditto for 1853. Eeport on the Geological structure and mineral 
wealth of the salt range in the Punjaub, v&c. Sec. <&o., by Andrew 
Fleming, M. D., Edin., Asst. Surgeon, 7th N. I. 

Survey of the Jhelum Biver by Charles Foster, Lt. I. N. in the 
Punjaub Govt. Reports, No. VI. for 1861, published by Govt, 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 




*f 




-/ 



o 






Digitized by 



Go 



1^ 



J86I.] OnaLand-QrmtofMahendrapdiaDevaofKanmy, 321 

On a Zand' Grant of Mahendrapdla Deva of Kanauj. — By Bdhu 
BijEiTDBALALA MiTBA, Corresponding Member of the 

German Oriental Society, 

In 1848 Mr. J. W\ Laidlay, then editor of the Journal, published 
a translation, by me, of a Sanskrita inscription incised on a large slab 
»f copper which had been presented to the Society by the late Col. 
J. C. Stacy. It was the record of a gifb of land by a pidnce of the 
rayal house of Mahodaya (Kanauj), and remarkable for being sur- 
mounted by a figure of Bhagavati and the genealogy of the princes 
oamed, cast in rdief on a taMet of brass. A counterpart of that 
loeument has lately been found in tiie village of Dighwa Doobaneshar, 
B the Pergunnah of Manghee, Zillah Sarun. Mr. P. Peppe, to whom 
[ am indebted for a transcript of the record, was informed that '* it 
rag dug out of a field some years ago by a Dighwaet Brahman of 
!Mapr&h ;" but Mr. James Cosserat of Motihdri, who has favoured the 
iociety with a carefully prepared facsimile of the monument, learnt on 
nquiry of the owners that " their ancestors found it in a temple in a 
uined Musalman fort in that village, but it was so long ago that 
hey did not seem to have any distinct tradition about it, nor to be 
ble to give any authentic information on the subject." The weight of 
be plate, according to him, is thirty seers. The surmoimting tablet 
e says ^' is a casting apparently of iron with a mixture of copper, and 
be letters raised. It appears of older date than the lower portion of 
opper engraved. There is a small figure of an idol at the smnmit ; 
[le part lefb uncopied is a cornice and the idol itself (very indistinct) 
'hich I have found it beyond the power of the natives here to take an 
npression of. The whole of the inscription, however, has been got- 
lie upper portion has been roughly but securely joined to the lower 
r larger and engraved part. The plate has suifered from fire, the traces 
f which appear in the indistinctness of parts of the impression.'* 
The size of the' monument, the style of tiie character incised on it, 
Qd the tablet and the figure of Bhagavati which surmount it, bear 
) close a resemblance to those of the Stacy plate that the two 
ocuments seem to have been prepared by the same artist, and inscrib- 
1 by the same engraver. The genealogy of both begins with the 
ime prince, Devas'akti Deva, but while the Dighwa plate ends with 
^e sixth descendant MahendrapaU Deva, the Stacy record carries it 

2 T 2 Digitized by Google 



On a Land'OratU of Mahendrapdla Deva ofKanauj. [No. 8 

down to Yin&yakap^la, brother and successor of Bhoja Deva wlio was 
the inunediate heir of Mahendra. 

The subject of the grant in the Stacy plate is the village of Tik* 
karika, in the district of Benares, that of the Dighwa record the village 
of Pimayaka, in the subdivision of Talayik^, of the district of Srdvasti. 

The date of the Dighwa grant is ^* the 7th of the waxing moon in 
the month of Magha, Samvatsara 389," the last figure being open to 
question. In my first reading of the Stacy plate I took its date to 
be " the 6th day of the dark half of the moon in the solar month of 
Fhdlguna Samvatsara 65;" the word "solar" being deduced from 
an indistinct letter which I took for Vi\ " light" or the " sun." In the 
redecipherment* of the record published in the XXXI. Vol. of this 
Journal (p. 15) Professor F. E. Hall has dismissed the figures by 
stating that afber the word Samvatsara "follow two unrecognized 
numerals, denoting a dynastic year, and an indistinct compound cha- 
racter of unknown significance. Farther on the day of the semilunar 
tion is expressed by a single numeral. It is the same as the first of 
the two just spoken of." On re-examining the document with the 
light of the Dighwa plate, I feel disposed to take the first figure for 
an ancient 4, being somewhat similar to the same figure in the West- 
em caves and on coins. The second is an imperfect or partially 
efiaced cypher, or possibly an 8, but in that case very unlike the same 
figure in the Dighwa plate ; and the indistinct letter after it, which 
looks very much like a hhra and no figure, having the perpendicular 
line of the long vowel afber it, a 0. The figure for the semilunation, being 
the counterpart of the first figure of the year, must of course be read 
as 4, making the date " the 4th of the wane in the month of Phdlgu* 
na, Samvatsara 409." This would bring the record 19 years afber the 
Dighwa plate, which would be in no way too much for the latter 
portion of the reign of Mahendrapida, the whole of that of Bhoja and 
the beginning of that of Yindyakap^la. The last figures, however, 
being in both the documents very doubtful if we take them for initials 

* It is remarkable that in this so-called " redecyphermenf the only emenda- 
tion of any yalae is the relationship of Vinfyaka Pila to Mahendra. The learned 
Professor makes him a son, whereas my reading made him a grandson. For the 
rest the new reading adds little to onr knowledge of the document beyond 
the fact of there being some obvious inaccuracies of spelling in the original 
which in my reading I had corrected without note, and a few mis-printa in my 
transcript which had escaped my eyes. The " redecjpherment" did not^ eT«n in 
the opinion of the Professor, render a re-tranBlatioD neoessaiy. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



1864.] On a iMnd'Grant of Mahenirapdla JDeva of Kanat^, 828 

of Bome now unknown words the dates would read 88 and 40, 45 or 
48 as we accepted the second figure of the Stacy plate to be a cypher 
a 5, or an 8, giving an interval of 2, 7 or 10 years between Mahendra 
and Yiniyaka. I annex facsimiles of the two dates, in order that 
others may be enabled to solve them more successfully than I have 
been able to do. 

The word samvatsara means simply a year and not an era, it is 
impossible therefore to ascertain to what particular era allusion has 
been made by the two plates. Had the era of Vikrama been meant, 
the word samvixt would have been preferred ; besides the character 
of the plates is too modem to entitle them to a place in the 4th 
oentury of Vikrama. If the Ballabhi samvat be assumed the date of 
the Dighwa document would be carried back to (818 + 389 = 707) 
the beginning of the 8th century, which would lead to the anachronism 
of making Devas'akti and his successor contemporaries of Harshavar- 
dhana and co-sovereigns in Kanauj in the beginning of the 8th century ; 
even if it could be shewn that the Ballabhi samvat had extended so 
fxt to the north-east of Guzerat — the place of its origin — ^as Kanauj. 
Again, if the Harsha era be assumed, — a very likely era being a 
purely Kanauj one — the date of Mahendra would be brought to the 
end of the 10th century, when Kanauj was for certain under the 
Tomaras. Under these circumstances I am compelled to take the 
era of the records to be a local or family one, the ssero of which it ia 
impossible now to determine. This does not prevent us, however, from 
ascertainiiig the probable period when the princes under notice flourish- 
ed in India. Govindaraja, sovereign of Bishtrakdta in the south 
Harhatta country, in a donative inscription dated S'aka 780 = A. D. 
808, states that his father Paura had once entered Mdrwar at the 
head of a hostile army, and " conquered Yatsardja, who had been 
intoxicated with the wealth of the king of Gau^a, which he had 
seized." This Yatsardja was, we suppose, the second potentate of 
our list and not a prinoe of Marwar which he is nowhere said to have 
been, though he was defeated in that country. There is ample testi- 
mony to shew that Marwar and a good part of Malwa was, at the 
end of the 8th and the beginning of the 9th centuries, under the soVe* 
Kigi^ty of the Kanaujites, and it is more probable that a Kanauj 
king, in the zenith of his power, should extend his arms as far as 
Gau^a on the one side and Malwa on the other^ than that a prinoe 

Digitized by LjOOQ LC 



324 On a Zand- Orani of Mahendra^dla Deva of Kanan^. [No. 3, 

of Marwar should cross the territories of the Kanauj kings in quest of 
" the wealth of Gauda", which could not have been at any time so 
great as that of Kanauj, notwithstanding the martial successes of 
some of the Pila rfij^ of Bengal, who at one time extended their con« 
quests as far as Benares. It is to be admitted that the name Vatsa has 
been borne by several kings, and that according to Mallindtha and 
Somadeva, a country, a town, and even a race of men have borne the 
same title, but the inscription under notice distinctly alludes to a king 
Tatsaraja who conquered Gau<}a and not to a " king Vatsa" (Vatsa 
r&ja) — and it is evident that at the time when the said VatsadLja 
lived, the conquest of Gau^a from the west could be possible only to a 
Kanauj king, and therefore we may in this instance from the identity 
of name assume the identity of person. If this assumption be admitted 
Vai»ardja must have lived about the end of the eighth and the begin- 
ning of the ninth century, at the usual average period of eighteen 
years to a reign, from 796 to 814, his predecessor Devas'akti, the founder 
of the dynasty, commencing his reign from 775-76. According to this 
calculation the several princes will stand as follow : — 

Devas'akti A. D. 776-776.* 

Vatsar^ja, son of D., 796. 

Nfigabhatta, son of V., 814. 

B^Unabhadra, son of N., 832. 

Bhoja I., son of B., 850. 

Mahendrapdla, son of B., 868. 

Bhoja II., son of M., 886. 

Vinfiyakap4la, son of M., brother of B. II., 900. 

This table, however, has to be adjusted with reference to the date of 
the Stacy plate, which places an interval of, at the outside, only 19 
years between Mahendrapala and Vindyaka. And if we provide for it 
by reducing the reign of Bhoja II. to eight years, we shall bring him to 
the middle of the eighth decade of the 9th century and make him 
synchronous with the Bhoja of Gwalior, with whom he was most 
probably identical. 

The Tomaras assumed the sovereignty of Kanauj about the end of 
the 10th or the beginning of the 11th century, we have therefore a 
gap of about 80 to 100 years to bridge over to complete the list of 

* In the Cjuotation of this date in my paper on the Bhqjas (ante XXXII. p^ 
96), a misprint has converted the 776 into 779. , ^ ^ ^ i ^ 

Digitized by VaOOy LC 



1864] On a iMmd-Orant of Mahendrap&la Beva nf Kanat^. 825 

Kanaaj kings from Devas'akti to the end of the 12th century when the 
Mahomedans finally conquered the country. To fill up this gap, as far 
as our knowledge at present extends, we have only two names, those of 
8dhasanka and Yira Sinha. The latter was the contemporary of Adistira 
king of Bengal who obtained from him five learned Brahmans to in- 
struct his people in certain Vedic ceremonies*.* This happened accord- 
ing to the genealogical tables and the memorial verses (Kulapanjis 
and Kuldchdrya Kdriki^s) of the Bengal Ghatakas in the S'aka 
year 994 = A. D. 1072. The Khiti* sdvansdvali Charita places the 
event in the year 1078, and Ritter's Geography, in 1068 A. D. These 
dates, however, are all evidently incorrect, as they bring us to the 
time of Balldla Sena who lived several generations afber Adis'dra. I 
depend therefore on the genealogical tables for the date of the latter. 
Of the five K&yasthas who came to Bengal on the invitation of Adi- 
s'dra three, viz., Makaranda Ghosa, Dasaratha Basu and Kalidtfsa 
Hitra, acknowledged service to the Brahmans and were ennobled by 
the king as the highest patricians (Kulinas) of his land. The other two, 
Dasaratha Guha and Purusottama Datta, repudiated the right of the 
Brahmans to call them their servants and declined to assume the 
servile title IMsa. Purusottam with noble pride exclaimed " A Datta 
was never a servant.*' (Datta Jedro hhritya naya,) This temerity 
deprived them of court favour and brought on degradation to the ranks 
of the plebean or Maulika. The Kulina K&yasthas as well as the proud 
Datta have carefully preserved their genealogy. They hold periodical 
meetings (ekajftyis) at which all the family heralds or ghataks assemble 
and record the names of every succeeding generation. The last meeting 
of this kind was held several years ago at the house of Raj& Radhdkanta 
Deva when the names of the 24th generation of kulinds were duly 
recorded. The writer of this note is himself one of the 24th in descent 
from K^disa Mitra. In some families the 26th, the 27th and even the 
28th descent have already appeared, but no where later. Taking the 
average at 27 generations, we have at three generations to a centnrir 
just nine hundred years from this date, or A. D. 964, for the time of 



* The Khiti'sorVCMidmaU^TuiHta says, to officiate at the performance of a oeraa 
mony for obyiating the evil effects of the fall of a valture on the house top which 
the Brahmins of Bengal knew not how to porform. The Ghatak kdrika quoted by 
Riya Badhftkiinta Deva makes the ignorance more general, but does not advert 
to the expiation for the fall of a vulture. 



Digitized by LjOOQLC 



826 On a Land- Orant of Mahendrapdla Beva of Kanauj, [No. 3, 

the first advent of the Kdjasthas in Bengal, and of the period of 
Yira Sinha's reign. 

Of the BrahmanB who came to the court of Adis'iira the most renown** 
ed was Bhatta Ndr^jacia. He wrote the Venia&nMra and presented it to 
Adis'tira, on his reception hy that monarch at his palace in Bdmapala. 
He also wrote a treatise on religious ceremonies entitled Prayogaratna 
which is still extant. He purchased five villages from Adis'lira which 
in the time of one of his descendants Bhahdnanda Majumadara form- 
ed the nucleus of a large principalitj, that of the Nadia Bhj&b, who are 
his immediate descendants. Next to him was S'riharsha of the 
clan (gotra) of Bharadw&ja whose descendants form the present 
Mookerjea familyof the Kulina Brahmans.* No work of any note 
as far as we know, has heen attributed to him. It seems probable, 
however, that he is the same with the author of the Naishada Charita. 
That work was written by a poet of Kanauj, for he prides himself at 
the end of his poem for having been honoured with a betel leaf by his 
sovereign. He also acknowledges himself to be the author of nine dif- 
ferent works including among others a '' history of the kings of Gaudia" 
(GaudorvUhakulaprM'asti)^ *' a description of the ocean^' (Arnava var- 
nana) and a refutation of some of the leading philosophical systems 
of the Hindus (Khandana khanda hhddya). Now Bengal has al- 
ways been described as the Bceotia of India ; its name occurs but rare- 
ly in Sanskrit literature, and it is generally called in derision a coun- 
try to which the Pdndavas never came even for a marauding excursion, 
Fdltdava varjita deft a ; while its kings, with the exception of some of 
the Pdlas, were poor, insignificant and unknown. It is not likely 
therefore that either Bengal or its kings should have been thought of 
as a fit subject of praise for a royal poet like S riharsha of Kashmir, or 
to a laureate of the proud court of Kanauj in the 7th century to 
whom the Naishada CharUa and, by implication, the GaudorvMa* 
kula-pras'asti have at different times been attributed. The " descrip- 
tion of the ocean" too is not a work of that kind which is likely to 
proceed from men in the vale of Kashmir or the inland town of 
Gddhipura. To the former the snows of the Himalaya would offer 
a more appropriate theme for song than the distant and briny ocean. 
These objections do not apply to the S'riharsha of Bengal. He was 

• The nasnoB of the other three Brahmans were Dakaha, Vedagarbha and 
Chhindafa. 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



1864.] On a Zand Chant of Mdhendrapdla Deva ofFanauf. 827 

born and brought up in Kanauj, and as a court poet of that kingdom ho 
could well pride himself on the favours he received from his sove- 
xeign. He came then to Gau^a and, to propitiate his new master, 
thought proper to strike his lyre in praise of his family. In Bengal 
he must have seen the sea, for it is on record that the five Brahmans 
came to Chmgisiigara, and that offered to him a novel and majes- 
tic theme for his descriptive powers, while to display his versatility 
he took up the philosophical treatbe Khandana Khanda^ which is com- 
mon enough in Bengal but is scarcely known in Kashmir. This 
assiunption, however, probable as it may appear, is, it must be admitted, 
founded entirely upon presimiptive evidence, and must await future 
more satisfiictory research for confirmation. At present it is opposed 
to the opinions of the late Professor Wilson and of Dr. F. E. HalL 

With regard to SUiasafika I have little to say beyond what is al- 
ready known to Indian antiquarians. There were evidently two 
princes of that name in Kanauj, one a predecessor of Harshavardhana 
in the 6th century and the other a distant successor in the 10th, 
probably a contemporary of the author of the Niushada who is said to 
have recorded his biography, although that work is not now extant, 
and it is impossible to say to whom it referred. Its name, which is 
all that is left to us, is remarkable ; it is Naivatdhaianka charita which 
may mean " a new biography of S^asanka,*' in contradistinction to 
an old one ; or '' a biography of the new Sahasanka," to distinguish the 
hero of the work from a former potentate of the same name who rivalled 
him in glory, or, as suggested by Professor Hall, " the biography 
of the nine Sfihasankas," who, like the nine Nandas of Pit^putra, 
reigned successively in Kanauj. If the last be the correct inter- 
pretation we shall find in the eight princes of the Benares plate 
with a hypothetical descendant of the last of the series, just the neces- 
sazy number for our purpose. In the absence, however, of the origi* 
nal work such speculation cannot lead to any satisfactory result. 

JVmueript of a oapper-pUUe grant from Dighwa in Ohhuprdh* 

(I.) # flwfts ^^r%TC^rem^TfatrT^6 ^^ \ t ¥l^< tiq^ 
f^iqWJC HJII t iKia<< H?^r^ (II.) ^TfT^Wf ^d^ntftf . 

TTC (III.) wwjxm -^fiw^Kx^d^m^ ^V^qr^^Wt 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



328 On a Land'Orant of MahendrapAla Deva of Kanauj, [No. 
^TlI'^/td'ilTHTqii: vt gieil^^ IT (IV.) W ^TTTa 

TTCWfEiir (V.) *!W ilTT^Cra ^«ftTTiTO^d^^^ w^m^ 
ifT^ms ^liT^t!JT^(i^«W (VI.) H: Titg V^RcflW 

iTTrcT^ ^ft^Tsrrd^wr^ ^^wi^ei^i^mj ^«f)^^ (VII 
(w)f iftiriTc^^TWii^: v;Kg wr^^viw ihnTrsr ^*r%^ 
Tn^i^^j I ^^^ (VIII.) '^Wi I ^^^ ?n8^rRT:TTr1 
^Rftr«n.ftTer^^5^viT're«iJ?Tm^ (IX.) n^mpr^ ^t^ 

(X.) fia[?ixTT«^T^m^^^ 'iisri^^T'iff^fir^^ \^^^ ^ 
xiTO^^r^f^M^r) (XI.) i?mfiii^:o xTifflTfVr^re^ h\a^< 
ifrsr ^^JFf^pjfTTHp iHff'^Tft (XII.) ^xf^H^TT^gr^rf^ 
fw^^irptr '^TTOT yfir?:r%^ nfir^nf^ xftr fVf^w (XIIl 

^^ ffwT (XIV.) iTfitr Tfj ^ft^ f T^if« ira;irer w^ 

a. Not legible in the facsimile, but there is space for it. T 
transcript prepared for Mr. Peppe has it. 
h. The vowel mark is not legible. 
e. The visargah is omitted in the origioal. 

d. The vowel mark is not legible in the original 

e. In the Stacj record I took this word for pdddntahhyi 
" celebrated after the foot of another" from pddasya " of foot," m 
'^ after" khy&ta ^^ celebrated," the foot standing by a figure 
synecdoche for the predecessor, this mode of expressing respect for j 
rents and elder relatives being common in India. Accordingly we i 
the usual address on letters from a son to his father nmning, '' to t 
auspicious lotus-like feet of my respected father so and so :" Amul 
pUd'ihdkura-mahdsaya-^richarana'kamaleshu, instead of *' to my fatl 
so and so, &c." In criticising this reading of mine, Professor H 
in the XXVIIth volume of the Journal, (p. 226), observed, « T\ 
epithet would signify, if any thing * whose toes are notorious.'* * ] 
was led to the mistake by referring to his Dictionary for the co] 
pound, term p&i6nta instead x)f the separate wards fMa and an 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



S64r.] On a iMnd-OrarU of Mahendrapdla Deva of Kanauj, 829 

ommenting on the word ^dddnudhydta he says, " It appears, from 

wo examples occurring in the same inscription, that it sometimes 

idicates merely a kindred successor, or perhaps only a successor. 

niiere of two brothers, the elder and younger, the latter accedes to 

le throne in sequence to the former, the words (?) pdddnudhy&ta are, 

L the cases alluded to, used to denote their relation as consecutive 

rinces" (ante XXVIII. p. 8). Colebrooke takes the compoimd to 

ean " whose feet are revered by," and that is the correct interpret 

ition. It is used to indicate a junior blood rdation and successor 

it never a mere successor, for the expression of respect woold be 

iqaUed for in that case. 

/ The first two syllables of the name obliterated in the original 

supply them from my reading oi the Stacy plate. 

g. For parama ; param is incorrect. 

h, JBhata for bhaffa. 

f. Incorrectly engraved Tukto, 

j. The r oiprati is missing. 

k. The^'wa is curiously written. 

I, The i of ri is omitted. 

f». The r of ro is omitted, 

». The portion commencing from ^'^ Ac. is legible enough, but of 

lubtful meaning. I take it for VT|^[^r%^TO^Til. 

o. The^ of ^T is omitted. 

p, I kn6w not the meaning of the word Chandragasa. It is evi^ 

ntly intended to indicate a particular class of BrahmacharL 

J. ^re^iTT^ reete, 

r. iRTiTT in original. 

9. For HtK^ . 

t. The last word is grammatically wrong. 

Translation. 
Om ! May it prove auspicious ! Possessed, through his greatness^ 
innumerable war-boats, elephants, cars, horse and foot soldiers, and 
thorough YaisbQava from the purity of his conduct, was the Maha- 
ja S'ri Devas'akti Deva. His son and successor, bom of S'ri Bhuyikd 
Bvi, was the devout follower of Mahesvara Mahdrdja S'ri Yatsardja 
ftva ; whose son and successor, bom of S'ri Sundari Devi, was the 
vottt follower of Bhagavati Maharija S'ri Nagabhatta Deva. His 
Q and successor, bom of S'ri Mahisafi Devi, was the devout follower 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



830 On a Land-Grant of Mahendrapdla Deva ofKanam^. [No. 3^ 

of the Sun Mah^rftja S'rl Bimabhadra Deva, whose son and snccesBor 
bom of S'ri Madappd Devi, was the devout follower of Bhagavat, 
Mahardja S'ri Bhoja Deva. His son and successor, bom of S'n Chan- 
dra-bhattarikd Devf, was the devout follower of Bhagavati Maharfija 
6'ii Mahendrapdla Deva who, when in S'rdvasti, thus proclaimed to the 
assembled crowd of the inhabitants and neighbours of the village of 
Famayaka of the subdivision (niaaya) of Valayikd in the district 
(Mandala) of S'r&vasti. The aforesaid village with all its produce, ex- 
clusive of what has been already alienated as shares to divinities of the 
place, has been this day bestowed by me, for the promotion of my 
parents' virtue, after performance of ablution on the occasion of a con- 
junction of the sun with the aquarius, and to last for the period of the 
duration of the sun, the moon and the earth, upon Bhatta Padmesvara 

of SAvarna Gh)tra, a Brahmach^ of the Kauthuma ? Sdkhd of the 

Sama Veda. Knowing this, you should abide by it, and the neighbours, 
mindful of this order, should leave unmolested all the rights and pri- 
vileges (of the donee). (This is written) for the permanency of the 
Edict of his auspicious Majesty. Done on the 7th of the waxing moon 
in the month of Magha, Samvat 389. 



p, g. — I avail myself of this opportunity to acknowledge the cor- 
rectness of General Cunningham's last emendation of my reading of 
the Fehewa inscription. The name of Bhoja's father in that record is 
Simabhadra, as pointed out by the General, and not B^niachandra aa 
originally read by me. The great similarity between hha and eha in 
the medisBval Nagari and the commonness of the name B^achandra 
led me into error. 

The deduction, however, of the first Bhoja of that insoription being 
the same with the Bhoja of Gwalior is still open to question. To prove 
the identity the General has been put to the necessity of allowing 
twenty-five years to each of the eight princes of the time of Deva- 
sakti, when our antiquarians are all unanimously of opinion that the 
average period of an Indian reign has never been above eighteen 
years. The learned General himself, who holds the highest rank as an 
authority in all matters connected with Indian Archaeology, has re- 
peatedly in his former papers adopted the same average, and I do not 
see any reason to depart from it in the present instance. Had the 
Bhoja of Gwalior been acknowledged in any record as the son of 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1864.] On a Land- Grant qf Mahendrapdla Deva of Kanauj. 831 

Bimabhadra and a sovereign of Kanaaj, the case would have been 
different, but as it stands we have simply a Bhoja at Gwalior in A. D. 
876, but nothing to shew that he was in any way connected with 
Kanauj or Pehewa, and we cannot therefore at once accept him to be 
the same with the first Bhoja of Kanauj. The name Bhoja has been so 
frequently assumed by Indian princes from the time of the Big Yeda t& 
within the last two hundred years, that it cannot possibly be taken by 
itself as a guide to the identification of persons or dates. The identity 
of names in such cases can never be a proof of identity of persons. No 
doubt the Kanaujites had for a time exercised paramount power in 
GwalioT, but there is nothing to prove that Bhoja son of B&na- 
bhadra did so, nor anything to prevent Bhoja son of Mahendrapila^ 
\xang the individual named in the Gwalior inscription. 

The era of the Pehewa record may be that of Harshavardhana, 
but that of the Stapy and Dighwa plates cannot be the same, for they 
place an interval of J 18 years between Bhoja and his son Mahendra- 
pala. It is worthy of remark too, that it is odd, that the father 
and son should adopt two different eras. 

General Cunningham observes that the Pehewa record as published 
by me comprises portions of two separate inscriptions and that Imi»> 
•took them for one. In explanation of this chai^ I beg to state that I 
have never been to Pehewa myself, and that the inscription I pub- 
lished was communicated to the Asiatic Society by Mr. L. Bowring, 
C. S., who distinctly stated it to be one record, and added that it was 
** engraved on a tablet of red sandstone in the temple of a follower of 
the Gorakhnath persuasion," and not on two tablets at different 
places. On the foce of this, all I could say at the time when I noticed 
the record was, that " the document was divided into two portions, 
first of which was in verse and comprised twenty-one lines, and the 
second was in prose and included eight lines." The fiicsimile was full 
of lacunsB and blots, and, as now appears, very imperfect, the prose 
portion containing only eight out of sixteen and a quarter lines. It 
is a pity that the General who has lately visited and examined the 
record has not given more detailed description of the places which 
tiie two inscriptions occupy in the temple, nor furnished the Society 
with fresh facsimiles. The missing eight and a quarter lines of the 
prose portion is likely to throw much new light on the question at 
issue. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



689 Literary Intelligence. [No. 3> 

LiTEBAJtT IlTTELLIGEKCE. 

General A. Cunningham in a letter to Mr. Grote gives the following 
results of his late visit to the Punjab. 

During, my last season's tour through the Punjab I visited all the 
spots that I could hear of, that gave any promise of yielding remain3 
of interest, and although I have obtained but very few inscription?, 
X believe that I have ascertained the position of Taxila in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of Shah-ki-Dheri, beyond all doubt. I believe 
also that Sangla-wdla Tiba, or the hill of Sangala is the actual sitei 
of the SangSla of Alexander. It is a rocky hill rising to 215 feet 
in height above the plain, and half surrounded by a sheet of water 
during the rains, but which must have been a permanent lake or 
swamp 2,000 years ago. The site is covered with very large bricks, 
and has evidently been deserted for many centuries. The mor^ 
modem town of Cheha as described by Hwen Thsang, may I think 
be identified with the large ruined town of A^arwr which is sti}! 
inhabited. 

The point where Alexander crossed the Hydaspes may I believe be 
looked for a few miles above Jalalpur. I examined the whole 
nei^bourhood carefully, and I am myself satisfied that the Greek, 
camp must have been near JalMpur and the Indian Camp near Mong. 
The latter place I look upon as the Nikaia of Alexa^ider, and I 
believe that the name was changed to Mog or Mong by the Indo- 
Scythian king Moos, or Moga^ the reputed founder of the place. 

The ruined city near Darapiur, on the west bank of the Hydaspes, 
is now occupied and named XHldtoar. It is undoubtedly an ancient 
site, and may dispute with JalMpur the honor of being the site of the 
famous Bucephala. Jalalpur itself with its precipitous hill fort of 
Oir Jhdk, is one of the most ancient places in the Punjib. I think 
it may be identified with the Oiri-vraja of the Mahabharata* 

Mdnihydla is attributed to Baja Mamk, and I believe with good 
reason, as I found a coin of the satrap 2kionise8 son of Manigal^ 
d^>osited in a Tope, which I excavated, along with a relic box marked 
with the Arian letter J, the initial of the name of Jihaniya or Zeioni$e9» 
The relic-box itself is a perfect model of a Tope, the details of the 
mouldings, and the surrounding basement, corresponding exactly with 
those of the Great Manikyala Tope. But the sunomit is crowned by 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



18M.] Literary InteUigmee. 

a smes of four umbrellas resting on a square pedestal, and I conclude 
tbat the great Tope itself must originally have been finished in the 
same manner. I am quite satisfied that M^ikyftla is the holy site 
where Buddha was believed to have made so many sacrifices of his 
body to a starving tiger. Huta-mwrttiy which means * sacrifice, or 
oblation, of body' is foimd twice in General Court's inscription, and the 
ground, as described by Hwen Thsang, is still red with blood of the 
holy Teacher. 

Near Shah*ki-Dheri there are the remains of a very extensive city, 
with stone walls and square towers and streets at right angles, exactly 
like Taxila as described by Philostratus. There are also scattered 
around the city the remains of 80 or 40 monasteries and of not less 
than 50 Topes, of which two are somewhat larger than the Great 
MAniky&la Tope. I discovered the base of a pure Greek lonio 
column. 

The parade ground of the Rawul Pindi cantonment is another 
ancient site, which has yielded several didrachms of Azas and Hippos^ 
tratus besides one unique didrachm of AppoUodotus. 

Another ancient city exists near Hasan Abddl and close to Baoti 
^nd. It possesses several Topes all of which had been opened except 
one, on the top of a hill, in which I obtained a gold coin of about 
A. D. 400 to 500. 

I still adhere to my original position of Aomos at Nogram, as 
published in 1848. The hollow or valley on the top of the hill agreed 
exactly with the descriptions of Aomos, and the place is besides 
attributed to Baja Vara. 



Profr. Holmboe of Ohristiania draws attention to further disooveriea 
of the relations which formerly existed between Asia and Scandinavia. 
A summary of these is given in a letter from him to Babu Bajendndal 
Mitra, of which the following is a translation. 

'* In the memoir on the Ortug or Tola, I showed that the ortug of the 
inediaeval Scandinavians was identical with the tola of the Indians ; 
which is the more remarkable, as no other European nation has made 
use of a similar weight. The ortug is = i eyris = -^ of the Scandi- 
navian mark, as in Southern India the toll = \ pala ss-^ of the sir. 
Uonj of the ancient weights in the museums of Scandinavian 
countries are marked with points or circles equal in number to their 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



884 Literary Intelligence. [No. 8, 

weight in oiiugs. I have enumerated these at pages 1 — 10* and 
compared them at p. 18. I have shewn the probability that the 
above mentioned weights were used for the weighment of coins and 
precious metals, as the toli is now used in India. I have shewn \hsAi 
there was a period, when the half-mark or 12 ortugs was regard- 
ed as a superior unit, and that the ancient rouble of Russia corre* 
spends in weight to the half-mark of Scandinavia. Finally I have at 
page 24 given a list of several Swedish, Norwegian, Danish and Indian 
weights, of ancient dariks and of Sassanian gold coins, which have 
all nearly the same weight. 

A belief exists among the lower classes of Scandinavians, that a 
light sometimes appears over the sepulchral tumuli of pagan tiniest 
indicating that a treasure has been deposited in the tumulus. I have 
compared VTith this belief the traditions preserved in the life of the 
Chinese pilgrim Hwen Thsang, concerning the light which it was 
believed was seen over several Indian topes, and the efforts made by 
the Buddhist priests to imbue the people with the belief in a luminoiu 
power in the topes and dagobahsin the depths of the rock out temples. 

Previous authors have instituted a comparison between the arms of 
the gods of thunder, Thor and Indra, but have restricted themselves to 
a comparison of their form and effects. To these I have added in 
my memoir, a comparison of their consecrating power. 

The fourth pamphletf contains firstly a description of a little bronze 
hatchet, lately discovered, and secondly the inventory of a sepulchral 
tumulus which was opened eleven years ago at a spot, about twenty 
leagues south of Ghristiania. Among other things were the skeletons 
of three horses, one of which bore a saddle, the metallic parts of which 
were of gilt bronze. With this fact I have compared the customs of 
the Tartars of the I3th ceutury, spoken of by Bubruquis and Jean du 
Flan de Carpin who relate that the Tartar chiefis were buried with three 
horses, one of them saddled." 

• Om Ortag eller Tola en SkaiidinaviBk'*og indiflk Vs^gtoenliedi 
t AmtQetter og om StormsdndB Begrav^se blandt Bkandlnaver i HedeDoJd 
Qg blandt Mellemasiexui Bnddhister. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL, 

Fob June, 1864. 

— # — 

The monthly General Meeting of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 
was held on the 1st instant. 

Captain W. N. Lees, Vice-President, in the chair. 

The proceedings of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

Presentations were received — 

1. From L. Bowring, Esq., copies of Photographs of some In- 
scriptions found at Anantpur. 

2. From Babu Bamchunder Mitra, copy of a report of a meeting 
of the Bethune Society held on the 10th September, 1863, and the 
address to Dr. Duff from the Society, with his reply. 

8. From Lieutenant B. G. Beavan, specimens of schorl in quartz 
and Zoological specimens, namely, two specimens oiBungarus eandidu^y 
one of CaloteH verncohr^ a skin of FelU Jacquemontii and one of a 
species of Zepu8 ; also two Bear's skulls. 

4. From Gapt. A. K. Gomber, Deputy Commissioner of Debrooghmr 
through Major D. Briggs, the skin of an Arcttctis BifUur<mg^ from 
the Burhampooter river. 

5. From Babu Rajendra Mullick, dead specimens of Dromaiu9 
JTotw Hollandi4B and StnUhio Cameliu, 

6. From T. Tomlinson, Esq , on behalf of His Excellency the 
Governor-General, a dead Tiger from the Barrackpore Park Menagerie. 

7. From J. B. Maodonald, Esq., a leaf cloak such as is in common 
use among the K61 labourers at Hazaribagh. 

8. From Lieutenant-Colonel B. G. Tytler through A. Grote, Esq., 
a fpecimen of a new species of Varanua from the Andaman Islands. 

DiglefbyLjOOgle 



336 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, [No. 3, 

9. From Mr. G. Swaris, Taxidermist to the Society's Museum, a 
Bhotanese sword. 

10. From Lieutenant-Colonel Thuillier on the part of Mr. Mulheran 
of the Hyderabad Topographical Survey, a set of 18 Stereoscopic 
Views of the Caves of Ellora and Ajunta. 

11. From A. Carlyle, Esq., copies of his work entitled " the Tale of 
the Battle of Padmanabham/' with a Telugu translation of the same. 

12. From the Government of India, through H. B. Camac, Esq., 
a fine specimen of a fossil Amphibian from the Pachmari Hills. 

Mr. Blanford called the attention of the meeting to this very inter- 
esting specimen, which had been expected for some time past, but had 
only arrived a few days ago. " It was discovered in the early part of 
last year by Major Gowan, exposed on the face of a block of sandstone 
lying on the right bank of a small mountain stream about a mile to 
the westward of Bijori, in the Chindwarra district. The block lay at 
a spot where the stream is crossed by the cattle road passing from the 
hill plateau of Pachmari vi& the Bhori pass and Bijori to Mohtoor, 
and the fossil appears to have been well-known to the natives afl the 
^' Machli Katta," (fish bones.) The exact spot has been marked by 
Lieut. Sim (who subsequently visited the place) on Mr. Medlicott's 
geological map of Central India, and is on a tract coloured by Mr. 
Medlicott as the Mahadeva sandstone, a formation of great thickness 
forming the mass of the Pachmari Hills and resting unconformably 
upon the coal and plant-bearing groups, part of which are contempo- 
raneous with the lower part of the coal measures of the Banigunge 
field. The age of the Mahadeva sandstones is unknown, no fosul 
remains having hitherto been found in them, but they are overlaid by 
trap-rocks with intercalated fresh water deposits, the age of which has 
been lately determined by Mr. W. T. Blanford as pre-nummulitic, 
while from data afforded by the late Mr. Hislop and others there 
seems but little doubt that these fresh water deposits are not older 
than the newest deposits of the Cretaceous period. 

Major Gowan's report on the discovery of this fossil was forwarded 
to the Society by the Government of India, in May 1868, and its 
importance having been pointed out, the Chief Commissioner of the 
Central Provinces was requested to have the specimen procured and 
forwarded to Calcutta. The fossil was shortly afterwards removed 
by Lieutenant Sim, B. £., carefully packed to prevent ii\iury, and 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



186^.] Proceedings of tie Asiatic Society. 337 

Ibrwajrded to Nagpore, where it remained in the chai^ of Mr. H. R. 
Carnac, awaiting^ an opportunity of heing forwarded to Calcutta, in the 
chaige of some trustworthy person. Meanwhile photographs of the 
fossils were taken by Mr. Crommelin who had kiodly placed the 
negatives at the disposal of the Society, prints from which were 
exhibited at the April meeting of the Society. 

^ From an examination of the specimen as at present exposed, it 
appears to be allied either to the Archegosaurus or the Labyrinthodouy 
but the state of the specimen does not at present admit of its precise 
aflfinities being accurately determined. It exhibits a nearly perfect 
cast of the skull, the roof bones being wanting, and probably having 
remained attached to the matrix when the fossil was removed. The 
form of the skull and the position of the orbits are, however, distinctly 
shown ; the mandible is partly preserved, but the teeth are all broken 
through longitudinally, and so worn away that little more than their 
general form can be traced. The palatal bones and all the floor of the 
skull are probably preserved, but hidden by the hard sandstone which 
fills the cavity of the lower jaw. The base of the skull is also im 
bedded, and the existence of condyles, the presence of which would 
determine its Labyrinthodont affinities, cannot be ascertained. 

/^ When found, the position of the specimen was reversed, the ventral 
face being uppermost, and a portion of the dorsal vertebrae and ribs, 
or rather their impressions, being exposed on the surface of the stone. 

" The ribs are short, very slightly curved and flattened at their distal 
extremities ; their attachments are not seen. There is some question 
as to the centra of the vertebrs ; if, as Dr. Partridge thinks, the con- 
tinuous series of hour-glass-shaped sandstone bodies visible represent 
the centra, the notochord must have been persistent, and this character 
would place the fossil nearer to Archegosaurus than Labyrinthodon. 
Some squamose plates partially exposed on the ventral surface of the 
throat tend to bear out the idea that the present species is Ganoce* 
phaloid, but further investigation with hammer and chisel is required 
to settle the point. 

** To whichever group this fossil may eventually prove to belong, its 
geological indications are much the same. The Ganocephala have indeed 
hitherto been met with only in rocks of the carboniferous age, whereas 
Lshyrinthodonts are known to range from Carboniferous to Upper Trias 

2x2 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC ^^^ 



E38 



Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 



[No. 



or possibly the Lias, but no great stress could be laid on such a degri 
of difference in range, the remains of such ft-nimalR being everywhe: 
rare. Both groups are characteristic of the great transition £euu 
intervening between that of the Silurian and Devonian systems ai 
that of Mesozoic times. So far as one can predicate the geologic 
age of such remains from our present knowledge, we may refer tl 
fossil either to the Carboniferous, Permian or Triassic period, wit 
a preponderant probability in favour of the former. 

" Until the geology of that part of the Mahadeva hills in which tl 
fossil occurs has been re-examined by some one acquainted with tl 
ocal peculiarities of the rocks, it wiU be premature to offier an 
opinion as to the age of the Mahadeva sandstones. The belief I hai 
entertained for some years past is, that they are cretaceous, a beli< 
partly founded on Mr. Theobald's inference of their relation to th 
Bang beds, partly on their geological relations to the trap rocl 
already mentioned, and which rest conformably upon them; but 
the specimen on the table be really from the Mahadevas, this formatic 
must go back to a very much more ancient period. It should I 
mentioned as bearing on this point, that the mineral character of tl 
matrix of the fossil is a hard gray micaceous sandstone such as is vei 
characteristic of the coal-bearing rocks of India, but is very differei 
from the typical sandstones of the Mahadevas, which are sofb coan 
grits with little specks of Kaolin, and frequently ferruginous. 

" Labyrinthodont remains have twice before been discovered in Indii 
viz. at Mangali about 120 miles south of Nagpore and in the fom 
ation which oveilies the upper coal-bearing rocks of the Ranigunfi 
coal field, aijd which has been termed by Mr. W. T. Blanford, tl 
Lower Panchit Group." 

In conclusion Mr. Blanford expressed the indebtedness of the Societ 
to those gentlemen to whose exertions the Society owes this higbl 
interesting fossil, and proposed that the special thanks of the Society l 
voted to Major Gowan the original discoverer, to Mr. H. Bivett Cama( 
who had throughout taken an active part in procuring the fossil, an< 
in getting it photographed, and finally in transmitting it to Calcutta ; t 
Lieutenant Sim, B. E., who had gone to its site, expressly to obtaii 
it, and to Mr. Crommelin, who had photographed it and presented th( 
negative plates and several prints thereof to the Society. 

This proposition was unanimously acceded to by the meeting. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



1864.] 



Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 



389 



A letter from L. Bowring, Esq., relating to the copper Sashana 
^rom Mysore was read. 

The following gentlemen duly proposed at the last meeting were 
>alloted for and elected ordinary members : 

Brigadier General H. G. D. Showers ; R. E. Goolden, Esq. ; J. O'B. 
launders, Esq. ; Moulvi Moula Bukhsh Khan Bahadoor and Babu 
^ada Nath Mookerjee. 

The following gentlemen were named for ballot as ordinary mem- 
«r8 at the next meeting : 

Lieutenant H. Trotter, R. E., G. T. S., proposed by Captain 
fontgomerie, R. E., seconded by Lieutenant-Colonel Thuillier. 

J. C. Whishaw, Esq., Civil Surgeon, proposed by Captain W. N. 
jees, seconded by Mr. H. F. Blanford. 

Babu Debendra Mullick, proposed by Mr. Grote, seconded by Mr. 
L P. Blanford. 

With reference to the proposal of Dr. Jerdon that Mr. Blyth be 
lected a corresponding member of the Society, the Council reported 
bat in their opinion the proposed election would confer no additional 
istinction on Mr. Blyth, that gentleman being already an associate 
lember of the Society. 

The Chairman reported to the meeting that the announcement made 
k the last meeting that Mr. Beaufort had withdrawn from the Society 
as erroneous ; Mr. Beaufort's name had therefore been restored to the 
st of members. 
The Secretary read the following letter from Colonel Thuillier : 



To H. F. Blaitpobd, Esq. 
£AB Sib, 6ifA May, 1864. 

" Haying gone out of the Council of the Asiatic on rotation in 
rtue of a principle introduced for the benefit of the Society, I do not 
insider myself eligible for re-election at so early a period. I regret 
lerefore that it is not in my power to respond to the honor which 
le Council has been so good as to confer on me, and I must beg of 
lem to excuse me." 

Your's feithfully, 
(Sd.) H. L. THurLLiEB. 
The report of the Council appointing Mr. H. Scott Smith as a 
ember of their body in the place of Mr. H. Leonard was confirmed. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



840 



Proceedings of the Asiatic Socieiy. 



[No, 



The Council reported that they had elected Mr. H. B. Medlic 
and Mr. Oldham to the Council in the place of Colonel Dickens, ¥ 
had resigned, and Colonel Thuillier who had been elected, but 1 
declined to accept the office at present. 

They further reported that the following gentlemen had been elec 
to the Committees : 

Meteorological Committee. — Colonel H. L. Thuillier and T. Marl 
Esq. 

Natural History Committee, — Lieutenant R. C. Beavan. 

Finance Committee. — H. D. Sandeman, Esq. 

They also reported that they had appointed Mr. A. Carlyle 
Officiating Curator of the Society on a salary of Rs. 250 per mensc 
on the express understanding that the appointment should be a te 
porary one. 

Communications were received — 

1. From E. Thomas, Esq., a paper on Ancient Indian Weights. 

2. From W. Theobald, Esq., Jr., a paper entitled "Observatic 
on Certain Strictures of Mr. H. P. Blanfoi*d on my paper on the dist 
bution of Indian Gasteropoda in Journal, No. 289, Page 69.'* 

3. From Dr. A. Bastian, a copy of a translation of the old^ 
stone inscription found in Siam. 

4. From Baboo Gopinath Sen, an abstract of the Hourly Mete 
rological Observations taken at the Surveyor General's Office for t 
month of March last. 

The papers of Dr. Bastian and Mr. Theobald were read.* 
Mr. Blanford in reply to Mr. Theobald's remarks, admitted th 
Mr. Theobald had very properly corrected him on the question 
authority, and that he must therefore modify his statement somewh 
carelessly made on a former occasion that no Naturalist of any en 
nence held the view that species were of sporadic origin. He did n( 
think, however, that this correction made any material difference as 1 
the real point at issue, viz. whether there were any good groun( 
for inferring that one and the same species had commenced its ezisteiK 
at more than one centre. Mr. Blanford had not seen the work quoi€ 
by Mr. Theobald, but if Mr. Theobald's quotations fairly represente 
the arguments for sporadic origin, he thought they were quite ii 
conclusive, and the facts adduced in support offered nothing new o 
* These will appear in due oourse in the body of the JoumaL 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



1864.] Froeeedingi of the Atiatie Society, 341 

not contemplated by Mr. Blanford in his former objections to Mr. 
Theobald's deduction. The argument was that in two distinct drainage 
basinsy the majority of the species were distinct, whereas one, the 
pickerel, was common to both, and the inference drawn was that 
therefore the pickerel had commenced its existence as a species in the 
two areas independently. But similar phenomena are of common 
oocurrence, though exceptional, as compared with the general facts 
of distribution — and it did not seem that they justified the conclusion 
drawn by M. Agassiz. It would be impossible to offer more than 
soggestioii towards explaining the particular case quoted, in a manner 
reconcilable with the view that the species of pickerel had originally 
proceeded from a common centre, inasmuch as many very important 
data bearing on the ease were not at hand. He would therefore make 
some general suggestions, and illustrate them by a parallel case, with 
which he was more acquainted, being in fact that which had given 
rise to this discussion. 

When it is said that species are distinct, nothing more is as a rule 
really implied than that two series of forms shew such a degree of 
difference that it is convenient to distinguish them by different names. 
When the differences are small it is usual to call them varieties, but 
at the present day the distinction between species and varieties can be 
merely regarded as one of degree, and whether a new set of forms is 
treated as a species or variety, depends partly on the habit of the 
describer, partly on the amount of information he possesses as to . 
the existence of intermediate forms. 

The definition of Guvier, which had long been accepted by naturalists, 
that ^'A species is a coUection of individuals descended from one 
another, or from common parents, and from those which resemble 
them as much as they resemble themselves," is clearly of no use when 
the question under discussion is whether two given distinct sets of 
forms are, or may be, descended from a common stock. Actual 
degrees of resemblanoe are in most cases the only criteria at the 
command of a naturalist, and in a few cases the power of interbreeding 
and producing fertile progeny. But the inferences drawn from the 
latter are by no means always in accordance with those drawn from 
the former. The i«cent investigations of M. Oh. Naudin on the 
hybridity of plants proved that in certain cases, species which in external 
and anatomical characters were only distinguishable by great practice, 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



342 Proceedings of the Asiatic Soeiety, No. 3^ 

and which indeed ^'most Botanists fail to distin^ish*' resist all 
attempts to cross them, while others very different from each other, 
and universallj recognised as species easily give origin to fertile 
hybrids. Man is generally regarded as a single species, but M. Paul 
Broca brings forward a multitude of facts to shew that between the 
different races of mankind, the degrees to which crossing is possible 
vary greatly, and that the Australian and European do not produce, 
a permanent mixed breed. The same appears to be the case in Ceylon, 
where the Portuguese and Dutch have left scarcely any descendants 
of mixed blood, and where there is good reason, on excellent authority, 
to infer that were the English now to leave the Island, the same 
extinction of the mixed race would shortly supervene. Much mor« 
might be said on this point, and to show that hybridity is not a simple 
phenomenon, but exists in all degrees and is affected by slight changes 
of condition. 

If, then, interbreeding be taken as the criterion of species, resem- 
blance of apparent character which is in most cases the only point 
ascertained, is clearly not reliable. The Chinese and Indian pheasants 
interbreed freely although very different in plumi^, &c., and the 
mere fact of two forms differing to such an extent as to be entitled 
to receive different names is no argument that their origin is distinct 
even according to our present knowledge, and on the unproved and 
apparently improbable assumption that forms of common descent in 
all cases interbreed freely. 

In the case adduced by M. Agafisiz, we do not know how far the 
species termed by him distinct are really so on other than grounds of 
external difference, and the case therefore cannot be argued. It may 
be that at a former geological period communication existed between 
the two basins, and that there was a dispersion of species, that since 
the separation certain of these have so varied in one or both areas 
as now to be regarded as distinct, while the pickerel has not so varied. 
Again, two rivers flowing respectively north and south would afford 
conditions so different that certain forms formerly common might 
become extinct in one case or the other, whether by change of climate, 
by collision with new species of other forms of life, in short by a 
change in any one of those numerous conditions which affect existence 
and the destruction of a balance of favourable conditions previously 
existing. All these are possibilities which^ although they can be merely 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



61.] 



Froceedingi of the Asiatic Society, 



84S 



Igested, still require investigation before the inference drawn by 
Agassiz can be admitted. — To take a case better capable of argu- 
nt ; that of the Hill Mollusca of Southern India. It is an actual 
ti that while certain of the species, as Helix Castra are common to 
D or more isolated groups, others, such as the Diplommatinaa differ 
two hill groups, but are more closely allied to each other than to 
sir congeners on the Himalaya or elsewhere. This latter may be 
yarded as a case in which specific variation has supervened since 
kt commtmication of conditions existed between the hill groups, 
ieh has been inferred on geological grounds. The Streptaxea differ 
3 than the Diplommatinas, and it is questionable whether on the 
»re of difference of external characters alone they should be treated as 
scies or varieties, so that here we have gradations of difference up 
actual identity. This is certainly in accordance with the view that 
iation has supervened since separation, and is not accounted for 
ionally by the assumption that each hill group is an original centre 
specific distribution. 

Mr. Theobald has much combated and ridiculed the idea of acci- 
ital distribution by floating timber, i&c, but now apparently admits 
IS an occasional though rare phenomenon. It was never regarded 
Mr. Blanford as otherwise than exceptional, but there may be 
ler modes of distribution by transport, not yet known or fully 
predated. In a paper lately transmitted to the Linnean Society, 
r. Blanford had remarked upon certain facts of distribution of 
clonics and Faludomi which seemed to support Mr. Darwin's view 
kt birds are active unconscious agents of transport. The Melania 
1 Faludomi of marshes, tanks, estuaries, &c., which are much {re- 
futed by water fowl, are of extremely wide distribution. Those 
hill streams, which are not frequented by water fowl are of very 
tricted range, and even in small areas, as in the hill region of Ceylon, 
adjacent streams not communicating were tenanted by forms so 
Perent that they had in a great number of cases been described as 
tinct, although as Mr. Blanford had shown by the comparison of 
ge numbers taken from a great variety of localities, they were 
Qost unquestionably mere varieties, that is, that the most diverse 
ms were connected by intermediate gradations. How communication 
ginally took place can only be surmised, but the comparative 
sence or rarity of communication had here admitted of great local ^ I 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



SM Ffoeeedinfff of the uinatie Society. 

variation, which was treated as specific until a thorough investigation 
with ample materials had heen undertaken. 

The theory of common 'descent of animals and of phints must 
require centuries of investigation to establish it, but reviewing the 
whole history of Biology hitherto, Mr. Blanford could not but arrive 
ut a conclusion similar to that of the veteran Schleiden. " Wonderfully 
strange and even absurd as the thought may appear to-day to many, 
that all organisms on the earth, vegetable as well as animal, extinct 
as well as living forms, are connected with one another as a single 
great family by natural descent, a man need not be a great prophet 
to tell, that before long, this doctrine will be the currently accepted 
and unquestioned property of every man of Science. Though at 
present many intelligent and many unintelligent voices are maJdng 
themselves heard against Darwin, he has already a large number of 
powerful allies on his side, and the result cannot be doubtful." 

The chairman then read an extract from a letter from Genanl 
Cunningham to the address of Mr. Grote on the subject of the 
Pehewa inscription, which extract appears as a postscript to General 
Cunningham's paper on that subject in the present number of the 
Journal, p. 229^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Meteorological Ohservatiotu taken at Qangaroowa near Kandg^ 
Ceylon, in the month of July ^ 1863. 

Alt. 1560 ft. ; E. Long. 80* 37', N. Lat. 7* 17'. 

All the Instruments (excepting the Max. for the Air, and Mm, for 
he Grass) have been compared with standard. 

The tension of aqueous vapour, from which are deduced the pressure 
f dry air, the dew point and humidity, has been found by the formula 

^•^'~ liaT ^ "so" ^^®^ ^ ^* Brew's " Practical Meteorology," 
Ed. 1855) and the tables therein given. 

The dew is the weight in grains deposited on a square foot of 
dinary woollen cloth exposed on a board from 6 p. H. to 6 A. H^ 
' for as many hours as there is no rain. 
The rain gauge is 4^ feet above the ground. 
The ozone cage is hung about 25 feet above the ground. 
The direction of the wind given is that of the lowest current by the 
ne, and of the currentB above this by the direction in which the 
mbi and Cumulo-Strati clouds are moving. 

In this column a '' calm" signifies that the clouds are apparently 
>tionle88 : *' variable," that the clouds apparently in the same or 
urly the same stratum move in no fixed direction, but their parts 
►ve as if in vortices, or different masses of them move up froni 
Perent quarters as if into a vast vortex, this being nearly always the 
le before thunder storms. 



Entries, such as 



ws w ws w 



or 



signify that the 



NNW NNWandcahn, 
uds are evidently in strata of different altitudes, that those in the 
rest stratum move from W. S. W. those in the next higher from 
N. W. ; those in the next are apparently becalmed and so on. 
rhe velocity and distance in 24 hours are given by Eobinson'g 
emometer. 

n the column for Lightning and Thunder 
i = ^ Lightning" when the flash is near enough to be visible. 
i B = " Lightning Reflection" when the flash is so distant that 
J its reflection on the clouds or in the air is visible. 
Mom," is 6 A. M., " Even," 6 p. m. and " Night," 12 P. M. and 
ire" and " after" are prefixed to these, as ordinarily to '* Noon," 
lenote the 3 previous and 3 following hours. 

B. H. Babites. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Meteorological Observationi. 



Gajtgaroowa keab Kaitdt, Cetlok. 



CA 


Barometer 
reduced to 32*. 


PreflBnreof 
Diy Air. 


Thermometer. 


DewPoiiit. 


1 


A. M. 


p. M. 


p. M. 


A. M. 


P.M. 


p. M. 


A.H. 


p. M. 


p. H. 


A. H. 


p. H. 


p. K. 


1 


9.30 


8.30 


10.0 


9.30 


8.30 


10.0 


9.30 


3.30 


10.0 


9.80 


3.30 


10.0 


1 


28.316 


28.282 


28.332 


27.530 


27.480 


27.654 


76.4 


76.3 


72.4 


72.4 


71.0 


673 


2 


.299 


.230 


.305 


.553 


.474 


.597 


74.5 


73.2 


71.1 


70.8 


71.2 


69.2 


8 


.300 


.218 


.290 


.556 


.424 


.609 


74.0 


75.0 


72.1 


70.7 


72.7 


68.0 


4 


.306 


.262 


.349 


.545 


.632 


.666 


74.1 


72.0 


69.7 


71.4 


7oa 


68.1 


6 


.321 


.248 


.833 


.572 


.482 


.648 


73.9 


74.6 


71.1 


70.9 


71.6 


68.2 


6 


.296 


.219 


.291 


.567 


.473 


.595 


72.1 


73.5 


70.1 


70.1 


70.8 


68.6 


7 


.235 


.180 


.247 


.490 


.481 


.650 


71.9 


72.5 


71.2 


70.7 


70.9 


68.7 


8 


.243 


.164 


.259 


.511 


.400 


.645 


71.8 


73.1 


70.9 


70.2 


71.6 


69.4 


9 


.265 


.185 


.281 


.524 


.390 


.594 


72.9 


76.0 


71.2 


70.6 


72.7 


683 


10 


.274 


.201 


.295 


.494 


.437 


.695 


73.6 


75.1 


70.8 


72.2 


71.6 


68.8 


11 


.306 


.219 


.825 


.567 


.459 


.615 


74.7 


174.2 


71.0 


70.7 


71.8 


69.2 


12 


.329 


.229 


.805 


.625 


.463 


.620 


74.1 


76.0 


69.5 


69.0 


72.0 


esji 


13 


.819 


.212 


.284 


.662 


.386 


.684 


75.8 


79.1 


71.9 


71.2 


74.0 


68.8 


14 


.326 


.247 


.819 


.607 


.607 


.624 


77.0 


75.4 


71.1 


69.7 


70.6 


68.6 


15 


.830 


.238 


.819 


.622 


.404 


.619 


76.7 


79.9 


'72.2 


69.2 


74.1 


683 


16 


.346 


.250 


.857 


.576 


.465 


.675 


74.9 


77.9 70.1 


71.8 


72.4 


68.0 


17 


.339 


.254 


.844 


.574 


.489 


.636 


75.0 


75.7 71.8 


71.6 


71.6 


693 


18 


.320 


.240 


.295 


.562 


.480 


.605 


74.0 


73.5 70.0 


71.8 


71.4 


68.4 


19 


.257 


.188 


.271 


.502 


.399 


.636 


73.0 


75.2 71.5 


71.1 


72.6 


70.8 


?o 


.254 


.186 


.262 


.481 


.895 


.548 


740 


76.0l 71.9 


71.9 


72.6 


69.4 


21 


.264 


.172 


.262 


.625 


.881 


.651 


73.1 


77.0 


72.5 


70.5 


72.6 


693 


22 


.252 


.186 


.267 


.516 


.430 


.603 


73.4 


73.9 


72.1 


70.4 


71.2 


663 


23 


.252 


.175 


.247 


.515 


.411 


.542 


72.3 


73.6 


70.8 


70.i 


71.6 


69.0 


24 


.262 


.194 


♦277 


.635 


.455 


.685 


72.6 


74.1 


72.0 70.0 


70.5 


68.5 


25 


.260 


.185 


.256 


.549 


.455 


.670 


73.1 


74.6 


73.0 69.3 


70.1 


683 


26 


.284 


.211 


.284 


.562 


.494 


.618 


73.1 


75.9 


72.2 69.8 


69.5 


673 


27 


.286 


.218 


.291 


.650 


.486 


.642 


72.7 


73.1 


71.3,70.4 


70.2 


66.5 


28 


.297 


.200 


.280 


.579 


.496 


.687 


73.1 


74.4 


69.4 69.6 


69.0 


663 


29 


.814 


.230 


.808 


.696 


.429 


.637 


78.1 


75.1 


70.8 69.6 


78.0 


67.6 


80 


.325 


.234 


.835 


.606 


.491 


.693 


74.0 


76.1 


72.0 69.6 


70.7 


663 


81 


.829 


J283 


.365 


.621 


.607 


.690 


75.0 


78.7 


68.9 


69.2 


70.0 


673 




28.294 


28.214 


28.297 


27.664 


27.461 


27.609 


78.8 


75,2 


71.1 


70.6 


71.4 


68.8 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Meteorological Ohservations. 



ui 



Gangaboowa iTEAB Kandt, Cetlow. 





Humiditj, 




1 














Kaiiu 










g 
i 


4 

i 


< 

■B 


, 










A. M. 


P. M. 


p. M. 


A. M. 


p. H. 










§o 




g 


u 


i 








TotaL 


9.S0 


8.80 


10.0 


cog 


•| 


s 


•| 


i 


i 


9.30 


10.0 










A 


'^ 


1 


s 


ji 


Q 








909 


844 


862 


101.3 


67.1 


78.2 


69.5 


8.7 


73.9 





0.280 


0.001 


0.281 


887 


938 


940 


92.0 


66.4 


76.8 


70.4 


6.4 


73.6 


22 


0.006 


0.663 


0.669 


900 


930 


875 





68.1 


77.6 


70.0 


7.6 


73.8 





0.027 


0.444 


0.471 


917 


941 


948 


87.2 


66.7 75.3 


69.9 


5.4 


72.6 





0.098 


0.962 


1.060 


908 


909 


909 


95.0 


66.1 75.0 


68.3 


6.7 


71.7 





0.018 


0.241 


0.259 


986 


916 


954 


91.9 


66.2 75.0 


67.5 


7.5 


71.2 





0.191 


0.302 


0.493 


963 


950 


922 


84.9 


67.9 75.2 


69.2 


6.0 


72.2 





0.519 


0.562 


1.081 


960 


950 


954 


89.4 


67.8 75.0 


69.8 


6.2 


72.4 





0.293 


1.156 


1.449 


928 


901 


909 


125.7 


66.1' 76.8 


68.5 


8.3 


72.7 





0.152 


0.043 


0.195 


966 


892 


954 





67.4 75.8 


69.8 


6.5 


72.5 





0.079 


0.036 


0.116 


879 


918 


945 


117.1 


66.5 76.6 


69.8 


7.3 


73.0 





0.047 


0.179 


0.226 


848 


879 


958 


116.4 


65.4 76.8 


67.7 


9.1 


72.2 


82 


0.004 


0.007 


0.011 


864 


848 


905 


129.6 


64.8 80.0 


68.8 


11.2 


74.4 


82 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


790 


855 


922 


134.2 


64.1 


81.7 


68.1 


13.6 


74.9 


147 


0.000 


0.002 


0.002 


785 


881 


896 


134.7 


65.5 


81.0 


69.8 


11.7 


75.2 


176 


0.000 


0.001 


0.001 


904 


888 


935 


115.2 


63.8 


78.9 


68.9 


10.0 


73.9 


174 


0.000 


0.210 


0.210 


896 


876 


918 


109.2 


65.5 


78.0 


68.1 


9.9 


73,0 





0.007 


0.231 


0.238 


917 


934 


949 


94.6 


66.4 


76.5 


69.0 


7.5 


72.8 





0.050 


0.635 


0.686 


942 


917 


963 


103.4 


66.8 


76.2 


69.1 


7.1 


72.6 





0.287 


0.225 


0.512 


984 


897 


928 


102.6 


68.4 


77.2 


69.9 


7.3 


73.6 





0.049 


0.281 


0.280 


920 


869 


901 


105.1 


68.6 


77.2 


70.1 


7.1 


78.6 





0.088 


0.001 


0.089 


907 


917 


840 


110.6 


67.7 


76.0 


69.8 


6.2 


72.9 





0.040 


0.044 


0.084 


941 


938 


945 


86.4 


67.2 


73.8 


69.6 


4.2 


71.7 





0.235 


0.626 


0.861 


919 


891 


892 


81.5 


66.8 


74.7 


67.7 


7.0 


71.2 





0.893 


0.288 


0.681 


885 


866 


875 





67.7 


76.4 


69.6 


6.8 


73.0 





0.034 


0.000 0.034 


898 


815 


853 


122.6 


69.0 


76.8 


70.9 


5.9 


73.9 


15 


0.002 


0.000 


0.002 


928 


911 


856 


108.8 


68.2 


75.1 


70.0 


6.1 


72.5 


25 


0.121 


0.116 


0.237 


894 


841 


902 


100.8 


65.6 


75.2 


69.1 


6.1 


72.2 


40 


0.000 


0.062 


0.062 


894 


984 


900 


98.9 


64.0 


76.2 


68.5 


7.7 72.8 


74 


0.000 


0.099 


0.099 


869 


840 


827 


122.5 


64.8 


76.6 


67.8 


8.8 72.2 





0.039 


0.012 


0.051 


829 


755 


947 





63.3 


80.0 


68.1 


11.9 74.1 


40 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


900 


888 


912 


105.6 


66.4 


76.8 


69.1 


1 
7.7 73.0 


877 

1 


8.059 


7.879 


10.438 

1 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Meteorological Observations. 



GAJfGAROOWA NEAR KaKDT, CeTLOK. 



n. n. 9,30 






p 


. ir. 3.30 














1 














i 








i 


13 




1 


QQ 








1 




1 
1 


I 




i 




1 

CO 




1 


6 ' 


•^ 
i 






i 


Q 


1 


1 


■e 

^ 






i 


i 




9 




B 


1 


1 


I 




1 


1 


1 


^ 


u 


5 


Q 


u 


o , 




H 1 


b 


b 


U 


Q 


o 


S25 


&H 


1 


0.8 





0.6 








10,0 


S 





0.2 








9.6 


9,1 


2 

















10.0 


100 





t> 








0| 10.0 


10.( 


3 


0.6 














o.i 


10.0 


6.2 





0.3 





3.5 


10.( 


4 


0,6 





0.6 








8.5 


9,7 














10,0 


10.( 


5 


1,3 


i 











8.7 


10.0 








0.7 





9.0 


9.' 


6 

















10,0 


10.0 


0.5 





0.6 





8.0 


10.< 


7 

















10.0 


10,0 














10.0 


IQi 


8 

















10.0 


10.0 














10.0 


10.( 


9 








0.3 








9.7 


10,0 


0.3 





4.7 





5,0 


10< 


10 



































0| 


\ 


11 


0,4 





1.0 








8.0 


0.4 














0.3 9,7 


10.( 


12 


9,0 





ai 





0.6 





9.7 


0.7 








0.6 


5.o; 


6.; 


13 














0.4 





0.4 





4.2 








0; 0.8 


hi 


14 














1.0 





1.0 





6.6 








0.4 3.0 


10.* 


15 


9.0 








1 


0.4 





9.4 


5.0 





1.0 


0,5 


0.3 2.2 


lOJ 


IG 


0.3 





6.7 








3.0 


10.0 








0.1 





9.9 


10,( 


17 


0.2 





0,2 








94 


9.8 


0.4 











9,2 


9.^ 


19 








06 








8M 


9,4 














10.0 


10.( 


19 








0.5 








9^ 


9.7 





6,4 








1.6 


2.0 


10,< 


£0 


1,8 





0.2 








8,0 


10.0 


0,5 





8.5 





1.0 





lOj 


21 


0,1 





2,8 








7.0 


9.9 


0.6 





7.2 





1.5 





9.: 


2S 


8 














9.4 


9.4 








1.0 








9.0 


10,< 


23 

















lo.o 


10.0 


0,8 














9.2 


10,i 


24 

















10.0 


10.0 


2.8 





0.7 








6,5 


10.( 


25 


0.4 











&.6 





10.0 


OJ 





03 





8.4 





10,( 


26 








0,6 








9.4 


10.0 


2.0 





1.0 





7.0 





10.( 


27 

















9,9 


9.9 

















10.0 


10.( 


28 


08 














9.2 


10.0 


0,2 





0,5 








9.5 


lOi 


29 

















10,0 


10.0 


0.5 





7.0 








2,5 


10.( 


30 








1,0 





8.5 





9.5 


3.5 





0.5 





6,0 





10,( 


81 














ea 





6,7 


0,3 











0,6 





0.£ 




0.8 


0,0 


0.6 


0.0 


03 


6,9 


9.1 


0.8 


0,6 


1.2 


0.1 


1.1 


5.6 


%A 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Meteoroloffieal Observationg. 



Gajtqaxoowa heab Kanpt, Cstlok. 







p. 


M. 10.0 




Ozone. 


9JiOA.]C 


I 












S 




.«a 






1 




9 


1 








Direction* 


<s 




1 




1 


1 
























J 


1 


f 


1 


1 


OQ 

1 


1 


1 






Vane. 


LowerOlondB. 




o 


b 


b 


» 


o 


5Z5 


H 


CO 


CO 






> 








6.0 





4.0 





100 


8 





WbyS 


WSW 


12.67 

















10.0 


10.0 


2 


3 


WSW 


WSW 


6.46 

















10.0 


10.0 


2 


1 


W 


WSW 


7.66 








8 








10.0 


10.0 


2 


8 


W 


WSW 


8.08 


05 














9.6 


10.0 


2 


1 


WbyS 


WSW 


6.16 

















10.0 


10.0 


2 


2 


WSW 


WSW 


6.98 

















10.0 


10.0 


4 


$ 


WSW 


WSW 


7.22 

















10.0 


10.0 


2 


3 


W 


WbyS 


6.90 














6.0 





6.0 


2 


1 


WSW 


WbyS 


8.62 

















10.0 


10.0 


4 


1 




... ... 


»•• 


2.5 














7.5 


10.0 


4 


2 


WbyS 


WSW 


933 


1.4 











0.4 





1.8 


1 


1 


WbyS 


WSW 


3.96 


L8 





1.8 








c 


8.6 





1 


SW 


Variable 


6.02 

















c 


0.0 


2 


2 


w 


? 


2.38 


ai 











0.2 





0.8 


2 


1 


ssw 


SSW 


7.04 


1.0 














9.0 


10.0 





1 


WbyS 


SWbyW 


6.95 

















6.7 


6.7 


1 


1 


WbyS 


WSW 


8.36 

















10.0 


10.0 


2 


2 


WSW 


WbyS 


6a6 

















10.0 


10.0 


1 


1 


WbyS 


WSW 


1.85 





10.0 














10.0 


8 


2 


WbyS 


WbyS 


6.28 














9.8 





9.8 


1 


1 


WSW 


WSW 


3.08 














10.0 





10.0 


2 


2 


WNW 


WSW 


8.80 

















10,0 


10.0 


1 


8 


WNW 


WbyS 


8.27 














9.i 





9.4 


8 


2 


SWbyW 


WbyS 


6.16 














10.0 





10.0 


2 


1 


WSW 


WSW 


6.19 














10.0 





10.0 





1 


WSW 


WSW 


10.66 














9.9 





9.9 


1 


2 


WSW 


WSW 


12.82 


7X) 





L2 





1.2 





9.4 


1 


1 


w 


WSW 


7.83 


as 





0.7 





s 





10.0 





1 


w 


WSW 


6.81 


as 





0.4 





8.8 





9.7 


2 


1 


w 


WSW 


7.22 


ao 














8 


8.0 


1 


1 


w 


WSW 


6.60 


1,0 


OJS 


0.3 


0.0 


2.6 


4.8 


8.6 


1.9 


1.5 






6.70 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



VI 



Meteorological ObtervoHons, 



Gakoaboowa. neab Kandt, Cbtloit. 





8.80 P. M. 


i 


10.0 


p. M. 


1. 




Direofcion of wind. 


1 


Direction of wind. 


1 


•^ 


Vane. 


Lower Clonds. 


Vane. 


Lower Clouds. 


.9 


4 










»? 






? 






^ 


1 


W 


WSW 


7.89 


WSW 


WbyS 


8.62 


2 


S8W 


WSW 


8.87 


w 


WSW 


2.02 


8 


W8W 


WSW 


6.98 


w 


WSW 


0.18 


4 


WbyS 


WSW 


8.00 


s w 


WSW 


8.34 


6 


WSW 


WSW 


7.04 


ssw 


WSW 


1.23 


6 


W 


WSW 


8.46 


w 


WSW 


7.04 


7 


WSW 


WSW 


8.10 


WSW 


w 


9.15 


8 


W 


WbyS 


916 


w 


WbyS 


6.16 


9 


WSW 


WbyS 


7.89 


WbyS 


WbyS 


7.28 


10 






••• 


W 


F 


2.65 


11 


SW 


w**s'w 


4.22 


WbyS 
WNW 


P 


0.70 


12 


WbyN 


WSW 


4.84 


P 


0.88 


18 


W 


WS WCalm 


6.11 


W 


None 


1.85 


U 


E 


S W 


0.86 


WSW 


None 


6.02 


16 


WbyN 


WSW Calm 


6.69 


SSE 


P 


0.68 


16 


SW 


SWbyW 


6.16 


SWbyS 


WSW 


8.84 


17 


SWbyW 


WSW 


8.96 


SWbyW 


WSW 


8.70 


18 


WbyS 


WSW 


7.88 


WbyS 


P 


2.82 


19 


WSW 


WSW Calm 


8.80 


WSW 


P 


4.49 


20 


W 


WSWCalm&B 


4.06 


WbyS 


None 


2.20 


21 


W 


W,NNW&Calm 


10.66 


W 


SSW 


431 


22 


W 


WbyS 


7.04 


SWbyW 


WbyS 


8.62 


28 


WNW 


WbyS 


10.66 


W 


WbyS 


7.89 


24 


SW 


WSW 


7.83 


SWbyW 


WbyS 


8.64 


26 


w 


WbyS 


14.08 


WSW 


WbyS 


9.33 


26 


SWby W 


WbyS 


10.12 


WSW 


WbyS 


6.28 


27 


WSW 


WSW 


7.39 


WbyS 


WSW 


2.20 


28 


W 


WSW 


6.64 


WNW 


WSW 


2.46 


29 


WSW 


WSW 


8.10 


W^N 


None 


2.89 


80 


w 


WbyS 


7.22 


WSW 


1.82 


81 


SW 


WSW 


7.48 


NbyB 


None 


0.09 








7.11 






8.86 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Meteorological Obeervations, 



vu 



GaKGABOOWA KSAS KaKDY, CETLOlfr. 



i 

Si 
ll 



138.68 
9486 
83.35 

66.07 
72^1 
82.69 
98.58 

118.46 
116.71 
63.80 
71.73 
47.87 
49.29 
46.11 

61.07 
62.38 
68.40 
87.42 
68.84 
84.37 
88.50 

8a41 
104.87 
118.28 
181.69 
136.74 
99.88 
89.88 

65.83 

66.82 
67.94 



8199 



Lightning and Thunder. 



Th. between 6 and 6 (^dook p. k. 

Th. in afternoon, L. and Th. at 6 P. M. and later L. B. to N. E. and E* 

Th. in forenoon and afternoon. 

L. B. to E. between 7 and 8 p. m. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



viii Metearologieal Observations, 

GAITGABOOlfA BTEAB EaITDY, CeTLOW. 



t 



GENERAL BEMABKS. 



1 
2 
8 
4 
6 
6 
7 

8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 

16 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 

22 
23 

24 
25 
26 
27 
28 

29 
80 
81 



Rain at night, cloudy but fine day. 

Cloudy fine mom, heavy showers in forenoon. 

Clondy fine mom, heavy showers in afternoon. 

Very damp, heavy showers all day. 

Damp, showers all day, rather heavy in afternoon. 

Damp, showers all day, heavy in forenoon. 

Very damp, showers all day, heavy in mom, fore and after noon* 

Very damp, showers fdl day, at times heavy. 

Mild to warm, pleasant ; light showers. 

Mild to warm, pleasant ; light showers. 

Mild to warm, pleasant ; light showers. 

Mild to warm, pleasant ; a little rain at different times. 

Hot and fine ; sultry in afternoon and all even. 

Hot and fine ; a little rain at 3.16 p. m. 

Hot and fine; clondy, a little rain. in fore even. 

Mild to very warm, pleasant ; showers in afternoon and all even. 

Mild to warm, damp ; showers all day. 

Mild to warm, damp ; showers all day. 

Mild to warm, damp ; showers all day. 

Mild to warm, damp ; showers mom and forenoon. 

Mild to warm, showery and damp mom ; after fine and pleasant. 

The same ; showery and damp till afternoon, then fine and pleasant. 

Mild to rain and damp ; showers fdl day. 

Mild to rain and damp ; showers all day, 

Clondy, bnt fine and pleasant. 

Clondy, bnt fine and pleasant. 

Mild to warm and damp ; showers all day. 

Clondy, bat fine and pleasant ; shower at noon. 

Clondy, mild to warm, damp bnt pleasant ; showeiy afternoon. 
Clondy, mild to warm, j>leaBant» rain at night and forenoon. 
Fine hot and dry day. 



Solar Halo an 16th, Lunar HaloB on 28th and 29th. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Ileteorologieal Oheervattons taken at Gangaroowa near Kandy^ 
CeyloUyin the month of August, 1868. 

Alt. 1560 ft. ; E. Long. 80> 37', N. Lat. 7° 17'. 

All the Instruments (excepting the Max. for the Air, and Min. for 
the Grass) have been compared with standard. 

The tension of aqueous vapour, from which are deduced the pressure 
of dry air, the dew point and humidity, has been found by the formula 

/=/'- -gr-- X -ojv- given in Mr. Drew's." Practical Meteorology,." 

(£d. 1855) and the tables therein given. 

The dew is the weight in grains deposited on a square foot of 

ordinary woollen cloth exposed on a board from 6 f . m. to 6 A. k. 

or for as many hours as there is no rain. 

The rain gauge is 4^ feet above the ground. 

The ozone cage is hung about 25 feet above the ground. 

The direction of the wind given is that of the lowest current by the 

vane, and of the currents above this by the direction in which the 

Nimbi and Cumulo-Strati clouds are moving. 

In this column a " calm" signifies that the clouds are apparently 

motionless : " variable," that the clouds apparently in the same or 

nearly the same stratum move in no fixed direction, but their parts 

move ttB if in vortices, or different masses of them move up from 

different quarters as if into a vast vortex, this being nearly always the 

case before thunder storms. 

W S W 
Entries, such asWSWandNNWor ^, -, ^. — - — -. — signify 
' N N W and calm, ^ ^ 

that the clouds are evidently in strata of different altitudes, that those 

in the lowest stratum move from W. S. W. those in the next higher 

from N. N. W. ; those in the next are apparently becalmed, and so on. 

GThe velocity and distance in 24 hours are given by Bobinson's 
An emometer. 

In the column for Lightning and Thunder 

L = " Lightning" when the flash is near enough to be visible. 

L B = " Lightning Eeflection" when the flash is so distant that 
only its reflection on the clouds or in the air is visible. 

" Mom," is 6 A. M., " Even," 6 p- m. and " Night," 12 p. m. and 
*" fore" and " after" are prefixed to these, as ordinarily to " Noon," 
to denote the 3 previous and 3 following hours. 

B. H. BASNEa. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Meteorological Ohtervationt. 



Gangaboowa iteae Kandt, Cetlox. 



' 


Barometer 
reduced to 32'. 


Preasure of 
Diy Air. 




Dew Point. 


1 














- 




■1 


▲. H. 


p. M. 


p. K. 


A. H. 


p. M. 


p. ». 


A. M. 


p. M. 


p. M. 


A. M. 


p. X. 


p. H. 


9.80 


8.30 


10.0 


9.80 


3.30 


10.0 


9.80 


3.30 


1Q.0 


9.80 


8.30 


10.0; 


1 


28.363 


28.270 


28.376 


27.660 


27.535 


27.714 


74.5 


77.6 


69.5 


69.0 


70.8 


67.1 


. 2 


.888 


.293 


.868 


.691 


.633 


.689 


74.7 


75.8 


71.0 


68.7 


71.4 


67.» 


8 


.337 


.265 


.339 


.597 


.630 


.635 


75.0 


74.6 


70.3 


70.6 


70.3 


69.0 


4 


.341 


.250 


.323 


.642 


.637 


.691 


72.6 


75.2 


71.4 


68.8 


69.4 


66.7 


6 


.833 


.245 


.338 


.632 


.498 


.665 


75.0 


77.4 


72.5 


68.9 


70.8 


67.6 


6 


.319 


.254 


.313 


.684 


.499 


.680 


74.8 


76.0 


71.7 


70.3 


71.2 


70.S 


7 


.310 


.230 


.335 


.664 


.446 


.638 


72.8 


75.6 


71.9 


70.8 


72.8 


68.7 


8 


.829 


.248 


.360 


.564 


.458 


.679 


74.0 


76.8 


71.8 


71.6 


72.6 


67.& 


^ 9 


.341 


.251 


.346 


.591 


.472 


.692 


73.1 


75.1 


71.6 


71.0 


72.1 


66.7 


10 


.335 


.247 


.826 


.610 


.508 


.714 


73.1 


74.5 


70.2 


69.9 


70.5, 64.a 


11 


.332 


.227 


.302 


.662 


.490 


.651 


72.5 


174.3 


71.4 


67.6 


70.4.66.6 


12 


.297 


.205 


.298 


.592 


.491 


.606 


73.4 


75.0 


70.1 


69.0 


69.5 68.& 


13 


.301 


.228 


.340 


.675 


.467 


.671 


73.0 


73.1171.0 


70.0 


71.4' 67.5 


.14 


.341 


.245 


.328 


.601 


.606 


.666 


73.0 


74.1 72.0 


70.6 


70.5 


67.1 


15 


.317 


.219 


.811 


.612 


.460 


.639 


78.0 


75.0 72.0 


69.1 


71.7 


e7j& 


16 


.313 


.226 


.807 


.560 


.471 


.691 


72.8 


73.0 71.0 


71JL 


71.1 


69.& 


17 


.808 


.230 


.349 


.562 


.457 


.659 


72.1 


74.0 70.9 


70.8 


71.9 


68.4 


18 


.305 


.230 


.328 


,686 


.476 


.647 


73.0 


76.1170.2 


69.7 


71.1 


68.0 


19 


.325 


.213 


.824 


.699 


.394 


.629 


74.0 


78.7. 72.0 
78.8' 78.1 


70.0 


78.7 


68.6 


20 


.319 


.210 


.313 


.628 


.389 


.645 


76.0 


68.4 


733 


71.7 


21 


.337 


.209 


.318 


.617 


.395 


.579 


74.9 


793 


72.1 


69.7 


73.6 


70.5 


22 


.805 


.208 


.804 


.699 


.397 


.640 


75.2 


79.6 


73.5 


69.1 


73.2 


71.5 


23 


.333 


.218 


.312 


.685 


.425 


.569 


76.6 


79.3 


73.1 


70i 


72.7 


70J^ 


24 


.319 


.230 


.840 


.606 


.416 


.686 


76.6 


79.8 


74.0 


69.4 


78,6 


71.1 


?6 


.318 


. .233 


.814 


.603 


.421 


.620 


76.7 


79.3 


75.0 


69.6 


73.4 


72.7 


26 


.306 


.195 


.291 


.684 


.348 


.591 


77.0 


81.8 


71.3:69.8 


743 


683 


27 


.317 


.215 


.308 


.680 


.461 


^ .605 


77.0 


78.2 


71.6170.4 


71.6 


69.d 


28 


.313 


.198 


.295 


.681 


.434 


.638 


76.4 


76.1 


72.0 


70.2 


71.6 


67.1 


29 


.273 


.183 


.277 


.537 


.462 


.600 


76.1 


76.6 


70.0 


70.4 


70.2 


673 


ao 


.239 


.121 


.245 


.637 


.814 


.560 


75.6 


80.9 


69.8 


68.9 


78.2 


68.2 


81 


.253 


.158 


.271 


.642 


.374 


.601 


75.4 


77.0 


71.9 


69.3 


72.3 


67.5 




28.818 


28.224 


28.819 


27.596 


27.468 


27.626 


74.6 


76.7 


71.6 


69.8 


71.8 


6a5 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Hfeteorological Observations. 



11 



Oaj^gabooita neas Kaitot, Cetlob". 





Humidity^ 


■i» 


II 


< 

i 








Rain. 










1 


< 










▲. M. 


P. M. 


p. H. 




E3 


i 


1 






▲. M. 


p. M. 










S"° 


p 


1 


i 








TotaL 


9^ 


S.30 


10.0 


cc^ 


'1 


a 


•| 


{g 


i 


9.30 


10.0 












S 


s 


i^ 


ft 


^ 


Q 








S37 


794 


0L>5 





61.0 


79.4 


66.5 


13.9 


72.4 


203 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


834 


&68 


yna 


122.7 


65,2 77.0 


68.3 


8,7 


72.7 


47 


0.000 


0.063 


0.068 


mi 


S7S 


yr.Q 


lOLO 


66. 1? 76.1 


70.0 


6.1 


73.0 





0.008 


0.190 


0.198 


8S4 


830 


81i0 


112.0 


67.0, 75.8 


68.8 


7.0 


72.3 





0.298 


0.005 


0.303 


U\ 


BIO 


B54 


127.0 64.6 '78,3 


68.7 


9.6 


73.5 


21 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


mi 


S56 


1*51 


107 67.1 77.4 


69.9 


7.5 


73.7 





0.007 


0.060 


0.067 


937 


901 


Wl 


89.8: 7&.8 


70.2 


6.6 


78.0 





0.177 


0.060 


0.237 


935 


S73 


870 


96,0 fi7.5 76.9 


69.7 


7.2 


73.8 





0.124 


0.040 


0.164 


a^3 


9^>9 


>:>nrj 


98.5! 65.9 75.8 


69.6 


6.2 


72.7 





0.088 


0.494 


0.682 


a()2 


879 


m7 


99.1' 67.5 75.1 


69.4 


5.7 


72.2 





0.017 


0.014 


0.031 


800 


88S 


a-i6 


96.3 65.2 76.2 


68,8 


7.4 


72.6 





0.010 


0.058 


0.068 


868 


838 


919 


118.6 G5 76.7 


68.5 


8.2 


72.6 





0.079 


0.126 


0.205 


907 


917 


HiU 


91,5 65.3 75,6 


67.6 


8.0 


71.6 





0.419 


0.890 


0.809 


»2i 


801 


85^ 


108.3 66,3,75.0 

1 


68.8 


6.2 


71.9 





0.120 


0.141 


0.261 


«^1 


900 


8^5 


lOS.oi 67.4 75,9 


69.5 


6.4 


72.7 


136 


0.000 


0.009 


0.009 


&i6 


942 


954 


86.9 67.5 74.6 


69.3 


5.3 


72.0 





0.145 


0.876 


1.021 


959 


934 


yi;2 


03.5 


69.4] 74,5 


69.3 


52 


71.9 


1.178 


0.220 


1.398 


89S 1 


879 


931 


118.9 


rv42 75 8 


68.2 


7.6 


72.0 


54 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


879 ' 


852 


»^vm 


VUXi 


66.6! "y 9 


69.0 


9.9' 73.9 


145 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


W^ 


852 


9:5 


134.0, 


61.8! 79.9 


66.1 


13.8 73.0 


350 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


&t6 


ai9 


960 


134.2 


64.1 W),3 


68.2 


12.1 


74.3 





0.007 


0.000 


0.007 


8»I 


818 


9a s 


135.8 


62,5 81.7 


66.8 


14.9 


74.2 


816 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


832 


sio 


ys4 


134,0 


63.9|81.6 


68.7 


12.9 


75.2 


271 


0.000 


000 


0.000 


^93 


819 


91a 


134.3 


63,1 Hl.l 


67.5 


13.6 


74.8 


201 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


7lNi 


a£9 


9ao 


134,5 


63.3I yao 


67.8 


14.2 


74.9 





0.011 


0.000 


0.011 


7^i 


799 


923 


13S.3 


6S.4!hi.8 


68.9 


12.9 


75.3 





0.004 


0.017 


0.021 


SLO 


sna 


91:^ 


133.8 


63.2 


Ml, 8 


67.4 


14.4 


74.6 


337 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


a^ 


8S4 


853 


135.1 


66.1 


81.3 


70.2 


11.1 75.8 





0.009 


0.034 


0.043 


ssn 


813 


931 





65.8 


7«,6 


69.8 


9.3' 73.9 





0.008 


0.009 


0.017 


80fi 


778 


9J9 


140.8 


63.0 


81.1 


67.2 


13.9 74.2 


242 


0.000 


0.065 


0.065 


&28 


aea 


86€ 


116.0 





77.4 


68-6 


8.8 73.0 

! 





0.003 


0.000 


0.003 


B61 


8S6 

■ 


905 


116.1 


efi.2 


78.0 


68,6 


9.5 73.3 

1 


23S3 


2.712 


2.871 


6.683 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



xu 



Meteorological Ohservaiions. 



GiLKGAEOOWA NEAB KaNDT, CfiTLOlf* 







A. M 


.9.30 






p. 


M. 3.30 




1 


J 


1 

OQ 

i 

b 


1 

p 
o 


5 


1 

QQ 

1 

a 

p 
o 


GO 

1 


H 


b 


s 

1 

CQ 

i 

3 


i 
1 

s 

5 


1 


9 

1 

1 

1 

g 


1 
1 


1 


1 


2.0 





4.0 





4.0 





10.0 


1.6 





0.2 





7.8 





9.6 


2 














9.7 





9.7 

















9.5 


9.6 


S 


1.0 





0.4 








8.5 


9.9 

















10.0 


10.0 


4 








8.3 








1.7 


10.0 


0.3 





4.4 





5.3 





10.0 


6 


8.0 











1.0 





9.0 


1.0 











7.0 





8.0 


6 








0.3 





96 





9.9 


0.1 





0.3 





8.6 





9.0 


7 

















10.0 


10.0 





7.2 


S 





2.5 





9.7 


8 


0.3 














9.7 


10.0 


S 














9.3 


9.3 


9 


0.1 














9.9 


10.0 








8.0 








6.0 


9.0 


10 


0.4 





0.2 








9.3 


9.9 


1.5 





0.4 








7.5 


9.4 


U 








0.5 





0.5 


9.0 


10.0 


1.0 














8.5 


9.6 


12 


0.2 














9.4 


9.6 


1.5 














8.5 


10.0 


13 


0.1 





0,3 








9.6 


10.0 

















10.0 


10.0 


14 


0.3 





1.2 








8.5 


10.0 


4.0 





0.5 








6.5 


10.0 


16 

















10.0 


10.0 


2.5 














7.5 


10.0 


16 


0.1 





0.2 








9.7 


10.0 








0.2 








9.8 


10.0 


17 

















10.0 


10.0 


0.3 














9.3 


9.6 


18 








0.5 








0.' 


10.0 


1.6 





6.4 





2.0 


^ 


9.9 


19 








4.7 





4.7 


{! 


9.4 


0" 5.0 


0.4 





2.6 


S 


8.0 


20 


0.5 











s 


(' 


0.5 























21 


9.0 





0.8 





0.2 


V 


10.0 


8.8 











1.0 





9.8 


22 


10.0 














11 


10.0 





9.3 





0.4 


0.3 





10.0 


23 


0.4 











4.0 


11 


4.4 





6.9 








3.0 





9.9 


24 


10.0 











s 


*J 


1 10.0 





3.5 


0.6 





6.0 





10.0 


25 


10.0 











s 





10.0 


0.4 


7.8 








1.5 





9.7 


26 


10.0 











8 


i; 


10.0 





6.0 











4.0 


10.0 


27 


05 





0.6 





8.3 


ii 


4.4 


0.6 


6.9 











2.5 


10.0 


28 


0.4 











9.3 





9.7 





7,9 


0.3 








1.8 


10.0 


29 


C 














i) 


1 

























80 


0.2 





1.6 











1 1.7 





6.2 





0.1 





8.5 


9.8 


31 





5.7 


2.0 





2.0 


D 


9.7 




0.8 



2J 


9.5 

0.9 




0.0 


0.5 
1.7 



3.9 


10.0 


2.1 


OJ 


0.8 


0.0 


1.6 


1 
4^ 


8.9 


9.6 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



Meteorological Observations. 



zui 



Gangaboowa near Kandy, Ceylok. 





p 


3i. 10.0 










I 










Ozone. 


9.30 


A.M. 












1 








1 


i 

1 




3 

1 






Direction of wind. 


1 






QQ 












.g 


1 


1 


1 


GQ 

1 


•<3 

1 


1 






Vane. 


Lower Clonds. 


^p 


o 


3 


o 


o 


o 


525 


H 


«o 


;o 






> 


9.9 











0.1 





10 


1 





S W 


S W 


7.30 








0.1 








9.91 


10.0 


2 


2 


WS W 


WSW 


4.84 

















10.0 


10.0 


2 


3 


ws w 


WSW 


7.04 


7.0 





3.0 











10.0 


1 


2 


wsw 


WSW 


5.28 














9.0 





9.0 


7 


1 


ws w 


S W 


12.58 

















10.0 


10.0 


1 


2 


wsw 


WSW 


6.16 

















10.0 


10.0 


2 





s w 


WSW 


3.87 

















9.8 


9.8 


3 


2 


WbyS 


WSW 


5.28 


4.0 











6.0 





10.0 


3 


2 


WN W 


WSW 


4.84 








10.0 











10.0 


2 


1 


WbyS 


wsw 


10.66 














10.0 


10.0 





1 


WSW 


wsw 


6.69 














0, 10.0 


10.0 


2 





WSW 


WbyS 


9.68 

















10.0 


10.0 


3 


3 


WbyS 


WbyS 


8.27 

















10.0 


10.0 


1 


1 


S W 


WbyS 


7.04 

















10.0 


10.0 


1 


2 


WbyS 


WbyS 


5.90 

















10.0 


10.0 


2 


2 


WSW 


WbyS 


5.28 














9.6 





9.6 


3 


2 


S Wby W 


WSW 


5.72 


«.o 











2.0 





10.0 


1 


1 


WSW 


WSW 


6.78 














9.0 





9.0 








WSW 


WSW 


4.58 














10.0 





10.0 


1 





s 


None 


0.62 


ao 

















8.0 


2 


1 


ss w 


WSW 


4.05 





8.7 


0.8 





1.0 





10.0 


1 


1 


w 


None 


8.52 





9.2 














9.2 


2 


1 


WbvN 


S W 


7.83 





0.2 





1 


9.8 


10.0 


1 


1 


W 


None 


2.90 














10.0 





10.0 


1 





WbyS 


None 


2.02 








10.0 











10.0 


1 





S 


None 


4.40 


8.5 





3.5 





s 





7.0 








S W ])y W 


SS W 


5.54 


«.o 








0. 


6.7 





9.7 


2 





W 


WSW 


4.58 


5.0 











5.0 





10.0 


1 


1 























10.0 


10.0 


1 


1 


"w* 


None 


1.86 








10.0 





S 





10.0 


1 





8 


SS W 


4.05 


1.6 


ae 


1.2 


0.0 


2.1 


4.2 


9.7 


1.6 


1.1 







6.64 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



XIV 



Meteorological Observations. 



GANOAROOWiL HEAR KaNDT, CkTLOK. 





8.80 P. M. 


I 


lao 


P. M. 


1. 


. 


Direction of wind. 


1 


Direction of wind. 


1 


s 










.s 


rH 












TJ 


"« 


Van©. 


Lower Clouds. 


-1 


Vane. 


Lower Clouds. 


■II 


^ 






> 






t> 


1 


W 


WSW 


6.95 


N WbyN 


S W 


3,78 


2 


SW 


WSW 


6.34 


W 


WSW 


4.40 


8 


w 


Wby S 


6.98 


WSW 


WSW 


1.76 


4 


W8W 


WSW 


5.63 


WNW 


None 


1.94 


6 


W 


WSW 


9.33 


WbyS 


Variable 


2.46 


6 


W 


WSW 


4.22 


8 W • 


? 


2.02 


7 


WSW 


S Wby W 


6.16 


WSW 


WSW(?) 


6.60 


8 


WbyN 


WSW 


5.46 


S W 


WSW 


0.18 


9 


W^N 


WSW 


11.26 


WbyS 


WSW 


6.25 


10 


WSW 


9.33 


W 


None 


3 34 


11 


w 


WSW 


8.98 


WbyN 


WbyS 


6.16 


12 


w 


WbyS 


9.77 


Wby S 


WbyS 


3.34 


13 


SWbyW 


WSW 


2.11 


WSW 


WbyS 


5.28 


14 


WbyN 


W 


5.81 


WSW 


W(?) 


4.84 


15 


W 


WbvS 


4.81 


WSW 


? 


0.97 


16 


w 


ws'w 


3.17 


WbyS 


? 


0.79 


17 


s w 


WbyS 


7.13 


WSW 


WSW 


2.99 


18 


WbyS 


s w 


8.18 


WNW 


SSW 


0.70 


19 


WN W 


W S W & Calm 


5.54 


W 


? 


0.18 


20 


W 


Calm. 


1.23 


NWbyN 


Calm? 


2.64 


21 


WbyN 


W S W A Calm 


6.11 


W 


None 


0.09 


22 


WbyN 


W S W A Calm 


4.66 


WNW 


? 


2.11 


23 


WNW 


Calm 


3.96 


N Wby W 


None 


0.26 


24 


W 


N B 


5.02 


SE 


Calm 


0.00 


25 


W 


W N W & Calm 


0.35 


W 


W 


1,06 


26 


WNW 


Calm 


2.29 


Calm 


None 


0.00 


27 


WbyN 


S S W 


5.54 


N W 


None 


2.83 


28 


WSW 


SW 


6.42 


WbyN 


• 8 W 


2.29 


29 








WNW 


WSW 


0.09 


SO 


WbyN 


Calm 


8.96 


N 


Calm 


1.67 


81 


NWbyW 


SSW (?) 


5.37 


WbyN 


None 


0.00 








5.65 






2.29 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Metearologieal Ohservations, 



!&AKejLBOOWA sulsl Kahdy, Ceylok. 



I 

Is 



66.56 
67.01 
82.71 
102^5 
78.62 
71.28 
62 60 

83.46 
85.75 
108.61 
113.03 
128.42 
117.36 
106.74 

88.81 
34.64 
67.67 
77.36 
60.04 
83.93 
41.97 

41«92 
62.74 
48.38 
32.91 
33.03 
61.90 
49.10 

62.55 
40.50 
60.23 



67.97 



Lightniog and Tkuzider. 



L. B. to N. S. in after even. 



L. B. to 17. E. in after even. 

Th. in fore even, L. B. to N. B. in after even. 

Th. in.fore even. L. B. to N. E. & S. £. in after eyen. 

Th. in afternoon. L. & L. B. A Th. to N— N. E. A L. B. to B. A S. % 
L. B. to N. N. E— N. E. A E. & 8. E. in after even. [in after even* 
Th. in afternoon . L. B. to N. by fi. & L. & Th. to S. E. in after even. 
Th.in afternoon. 
Th. in afternoon. 
Th. in afternoon. 
Th. in afternoon. 

L. A Th. a few Bliles distant in after even. [ter even. 

Th. in afternoon, fore and after even -, L. A L. B. & Th. to N. £. in a^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



XVI 



Meteorological Ohservaiions. 



Oangabooita keab Kaitdt, Cetloit. 



If 

& 

p 



GENERAL BEMABKS. 



1 
2 
8 

4 
6 
6 
7 

8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 

16 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 

22 
23 
24 
26 
26 
27 
28 

29 
30 
81 



Cloudy, bnt fine, fresh and dry. 

Fine till 11 o'clock. Showery after. 

Mild to warm and damp, showery all day. 

Bain daring the night ; cloady bat pleasant day. 

Fine, dry and pleasant day. 

Cloady, mild to warm, pleasant, light showers. 

Damp and showery till 3 P. m., then fine and pleasant* 

Damp and showery till 8 P. h., then fine and pleasant. 
Showers till 3.30 p. h., cloady and damp all day. 
Mild to warm and pleasant, cloady, a little rain. 
Mild to warm and pleasant, cloady, light showers. 
Mild to warm and pleasant, cloady, light showers. 
Damp, rather heavy showers all day. 
Mild to warm and pleasant ; cloady, showers. 

Mild to warm and pleasant ; cloady, a little rain. 

Damp, showers thronghoat the day. 

Very damp ; heavy rain in mom, showers after. 

Cloady, fine pleasant day. 

Fine, clear mom and forenoon, cloady, hot and soltry after. 

Fine, clear mom and forenoon, cloady, hot and saltry after. 

Fine, clear mom and forenoon, cloady, hot and saltry after. 

Fine, clear mom and forenoon, cloady, hot and saltry after. 

Fine, clear mom and forenoon, cloady, hot and saltry after. 

Cloady all day ; fresh mom, hot and saltry at noon and after. 

Cloady, fresh mom and forenoon ; hot and very saltry after. 

Cloady, fresh mom, very hot and saltry after. 

Cloudy, fresh mom, very hot and saltry after. [and pleasani 

Cloady, fresh mom, hot forenoon, a little rain in afternoon and then mil 

Bain at night and in even, cloady, fine day. 

Fine fresh mom, hot noon & very saltiy after heavy olonds & rain in evei 

Cloady bat fine pleasant day. 



Solar Halo on 1st, 12th, 22nd, Lanar Halo on 1st, 29th. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



JOURNAL 

OF THJI 

ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



No. IV. 1864. 

On the application of the Characters of the Boman Alphabet to 
Oriental Languages. — By Capt. W. Nassau Lees. 

I cannot call the paper I am about to read to you this Evening 
a " scientific paper," and perhaps I owe this meeting some apology 
for reading it within these walls : but the name of our illustrious 
founder is so often associated with the question which £ have discuss- 
ed, and the subject is so intimately connected with the labours of such 
distinguished members of our Society as James Prinsep, H H. Wil- 
son, £. Thomas, E. C. Bayley, General Cunningham, Babu Rajendra 
Lall Mitra &c., that I have thought it would not prove wholly 
uninteresting to you. 



The substitution of the Roman for Oriental alphabets is a question 
that about some thirty years ago occupied the attention of educa- 
tionists and others in India. It did not make mueh progress at first, 
nor find favour outside missionary circles ; and for a long time the 
subject would seem to have slumbered. Within the past few years, 
however, it has occupied the attention of certain distinguished mem- 
bers of the German school of OrientalistB ; Sanskrit books have been 
printed in it; and Dr. Sprenger, an eminent Arabic scholar, well 
known in India, has written two able and interesting articles in the 
Augshurgh OazettSt which within the last few weeks have been re- 
published in Calcutta, advocating the change, as one necessary to 
enable the languages of the East to become the vehicles of conveying 
western ideas to the people of this country. As long as the discus- 

DgtiziabyLjOOgLe 



34G Application of the Boman Alphahet. [No, 4, 

sion regarding the introduction of the Roman alphabet, into India, 
was confined to missionaries, it was not necessary for us to meddle 
with it ; but when it is taken up by such high authorities, as those 
who are now interested in it — and has been removed, as it were, from 
the arena of controversy, considering the important bearing it has on 
the intellectual progress of an empire containing very many millions 
of souls, it is one that ought not to be treated lightly ; but in a sober 
an^ philosophic spirit, such indeed as that adopted by my esteemed 
friend Dr. Sprenger, in his paper alluded to. 

In considering every question, however, in which a variety of inter- 
ests are involved, or which is peculiarly liable to be acted upon by 
circumstances outside and foreign to the end ultimately to be arrived 
at, it ought to be a sine qua non, that prior to its discussion, that 
end should be so fixed and determined, that we shall know exactly 
what we desire to accomplish, and that during its discussion the ail- 
ments used shall tend solely to that finite point where proof of the 
proposition or theorem proposed for demonstration can be found. 

Now in the discussions on the subject of romanizing the Oriental 
alphabets carried on many years ago, the parties engaged in them 
had far too much of the character of partizans to arrive at any sound 
condusbn. Dr. Sprenger has fallen into error in supposing that Dr. 
Tytler, the two Prinseps, and Sir Charles Trevelyan, were in accord in 
these discussions. They were wholly opposed ; but their opposition 
may be traced, I think in a great measure to partizanship. In those 
days there were two schools of educationists in India — ^the orientalists 
and the anglicists* The former, in these discussions, was represented 
by James and Thoby Prinsep and Dr. Tytler. The latter by Messrs. 
Macaulay and Trevelyan, Dr. Duff and other missionaries. The ques- 
tion they fought, though nominally the battle of the alphabets, was 
quite as much a battle of languages, and this question has perhapa 
also been too much mixed up with the real one by Dr. Spr^iger. 

Missionaries again, — and I do not suppose they make any secret of 
it, — advocate the adoption of the Eoman alphabet, rather because they 
believe it will aid them in the work of conversion, than from a con* 
viction of its greater suitableness for the purposes of writing 
oriental languages, and from that source, therefore, we can hardly look 
for wholly unbiassed conclusions. 

A third class would adopc the Soman in preference to the Oriental 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



1864.] Application of the Boman Alphabet SV^ 

characterB, because books printed in them could be sold cheaper, and 
to this school belong, I believe, all German orientalists who are in 
favour of the cb.ange, except perhaps Dr. Sprenger himself. The Ger- 
mans, it is an admitted fact, are the best Oriental scholars in the 
world. Indeed, it is almost impossible to find a Sanscrit scholar now, 
who is not a German ; and it is a grave disgrace to England and to 
India that such should be the case. They buy a very great number of 
Oriental books, and they would naturally like that the price of these 
books should suit their purses. I would not, however, be understood 
to allude to the learned Lepsius. His papers deal chiefly with 
unlettered languages. Nowhere would cheap books be of greater 
advantage than in India, but admitting the fact, we must admit also 
that that is not the whole, nor yet the main part of the question we 
have to decide. Every one will readily grant that it would be an 
immense convenience, and an immense advantage, to have a universal 
alphabet — ^if to the difficulty of learning a new language, we had not 
to add the difficulty of learning a new and perhaps complicated sys- 
tem of letters, bristling with hooks and points. In short, since tho 
general introduction of steam navigation and rail-roads, &c., the idea 
of a universal alphabet seems quite natural. Nay, since almost all 
civilized xuitions, though thousands of miles apart, can now communi- 
cate with each other, by means of electricity, it seems strange that 
we should not ere this have had, — ^not a universal alphabet ; but a 
universal language, — so strange that were Julius CsBsar to rise from his 
ashes, and to ask why all the world were not speaking and writing 
Latin, we should be somewhat puzzled for a ready reply. In regard to 
language, the curse of Babel would be a convenient if not a sufficient 
answer ; bub in the matter of the alphabets we could not unfortunate- 
ly excuse ourselves so easily. It will not be a waste of time then to 
inquire why such has not taken place ; and first I will state that I 
propose to look at the question, not as a theological, a philosophical, 
or an educational question — ^nor a question of expediency, nor of 
policy, nor yet one of price ; but one simply of sounds and symbols : 
and viewing it as such, it does not appear difficult to assign reasons 
why the Boman alphabet could not take the place of all the alphabets 
which are now us;^d in India with advantage to the languages them- 
selves or the people who read and write them. 

Br. Sprenger, in his article, has given us illustrations from the 

^gitSecf?)yLjOOgle 



848 Application of the JRoman Alphabet, [No. 4, 

Arabic alphabet ; but though he has dealt only with this one charac-> 
ter, his proposal seems to be more comprehensive. In India, how- 
ever, though we have a great many alphabets, all are off-shoots of 
two parent sterns^ or possibly in the remotest antiquity of only one. 
These two great progenitors of the large family of alphabets and 
modifications of alphabets with which medals and inscriptions have 
furnished us, are the Paliy or the true primitive alphabet of India, and 
the PhcBnicmn, or Phoenico -Babylonian alphabets. Beading briefly 
the historic records of these alphabets, so far as they go, we find, 
that though the limits of the Fali language and its alphabets are 
not very accurately known, from the widely extended range over 
which Idt and rock-cut inscriptions in this character have been found, 
we must concede to them an extensive domain. These inscriptions 
are chiefly to be found in the central belt and northern part of the 
Peninsula, and they cany us back 2,400 years, or to about 550 B. C. 
though probably the characters of this alphabet may have been in 
use at a much earlier period. The pure Sanskrit element would 
not seem to have made its appearance in India for several centuries 
later, or rather I should say, we have no roek-cut record of it. 
Coexistent with the I^ali alphabet, which occupied the central 
division of India, for at least 250 years B. C, were the Bactrian 
alphabet of the North- Western, and the Dravidian languages, (ap- 
parently without any written characters) of the southern division of 
the Peninsula, the limits of the former extending almost to the confines 
of Persia, and those of the latter from the Yindian hills and the 
river Narbudda, to Cape Commorin. The early history of the I>ra- 
vidian colony and their languages, is somewhat obscure ; but there is 
internal evidence in the structure of some of their languages, viz. 
Tamil and Telugu, to prove that, though they have occupied the South 
of India from very remote ages, they were of Scythian origin, and it is 
assumed that they entered India by the same route as the Sanskrit- 
speaking people. Their languages then, though at present not wholly 
unallied to the Indo- Aryan family, are not of them ; but their alphabets 
would seem to have been remotely derived from the same models, though 
how they came to differ in their existing forms so widely is not dear. 
That they are more modem does not admit of a doubt, but for the 
rest the matter is involved in much uncertainty. The points regarding 
which we are left in thedark are — When did tbeSanskrit speaking colony 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



18&I.] Application of the Soman Alphabet. Bid 

come, and when they did come, whom did they find in India ? Was it 
the original tribes of the country, and did they exterminate them so 
completely as to leave not a trace of their language —or was it an 
earlier emigration of Scythian colonists, and did they drive them 
southward before them so effectually as to leave no land-marks of 
their occupation behind them ? These are questions admitting of much 
argument ; but which I must leave to be discussed by those whom 
they concern — the students of language and ethnology, and turn 
again to our alphabets. 

The Baetrian alphabet, on the contrary, owes nothing to the Indian 
modeL It has been satisfactorily established that it is one of the 
many off-shoots from the Phoenician parent tree. 

Now the Phoenico-Babylonic alphabet is the most ancient of which 
we have any historic record. Monsieur Benan in his Mietoire 
genirale des langues Semitiquety (probably following Gesenius who 
some twenty-five years previously had expressed a similar opinion,) 
thinks there is evidence sufficient to shew that the Hebrews wrote in 
this alphabet on going up out of Egypt. I cannot say any thing for 
or agunst this surmise ; but be it as it may, there is little doubt 
that modifications of this alphabet were in spontaneous use from the 
banks of the Indus to the^traits of Oibralter, by the people of the 
whole world as it was known to the ancients, about the eighth 
century before Christ. From it the Greek alphabet was modelled ; 
firom it the Aramaic, the Syriac, the Hebrew, the Arabic and the 
many modifications of these alphabets have sprung ; and from it, also, 
we have the Soman alphabet. 

It would be impossible in a brief, hurried, and imperfect memoran- 
dum, such as this, to give even a cursory outline of the history of the 
progressive development of these alphabets, even if I had full materials 
for the purpose ; which is not the case. For a long time we had no 
better guide than Gesenius' work, published now some thirty years 
ago ; but Dr. Levy's Fhonizieche Studi^, and the due de Luynes' valu- 
able tables printed by Mr. E. Thomas, and since published inscrip* 
tionsy have added much to the world's knowledge on this subject, 
which is at once so interesting and instructive to the palseographer, 
the philologer, and the historian. But still light is required, — ^more 
light, — and it is satisfactory to know that able scholars are deeply 
engaged in investigating the comparative palseography, as well as its 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



850 Application of the Roman Alphabet, [No. 4;, 

cognate subject, the comparative philology of Eastern languages. The 
East it is now acknowledged must be the starting point with all who 
would study the history of man as well as the science of language, 
and the art of writing. The last mail received from England, brought 
the announcement of the publication of no less than two books 
which promise to be of great value to all who are interested in these 
subjects, Levyi*s Fhoniziohes Worterhueh^ or a sequel to his Studien, 
and SpiegeVs JEran das Land Zwischen der Indus und Tigris^ and our 
German oriental students work with such a will in the fields of oriental 
research, that we may confidently expect each year to increase our 
store of information. Whether they will succeed in finding Abraham, 
Zarathustra, and the leader of the Aryan colony which overran India, 
sitting under the same fig-tree, framing languages and alphabets for 
the whole world, is a question yet admitting of very great doubts, but 
there is no doubt that if ever they have done so, and left any traces 
behind them, our friends will find them. 

Assuming the correctness of the facts above stated, it will be seen 
that excluding the immediate consideration of the Pahlawi and Zend 
alphabets, we have two primitive alphabets to deal with — ^the Indian 
and the Phoenician; and from these two alone the very numerous 
alphabets of almost of all the written languages of Europe, Africa, 
America, and half of Asia have been drawn. 

We have the very best evidence moreover, viz. clearly written in- 
scriptions on tablets, coins, and rocks, — ^to prove that many of these 
derivative alphabets are of very great antiquity, and this of itself, 
though not a practical objection to the substitution of a good for a 
bad, or a perfect for an imperfect alphabet, must nevertheless always 
present a very serious difficulty to the engrafting of new alphabets on 
old languages. Most nations take an intense pride in the antiquity 
of every thing belonging to them ; and no nations possess this cha- 
racteristic in a greater degree than Oriental nations. This difficulty, 
of course, is much heightened if the character in which the language 
is written, as well as the language itself, is sacred, which is the case 
with the two classical languages of India, It is almost superfluous 
to mention that the Brahmanas are of divine origin ; that the Ian* 
guage of the Vedas is the langui^e of the gods ; and as for their 
alphabet, its designation, the Deva Nagari^ renders it unnecessary 
to say whence it has been derived. As if to give weight again to 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



1864.] Application of the Bman Alphabet, 351 

their ideas regarding the antiquity of the Hindu era, its cycles have 
been elaborated into a system of yugaSy which carry us back to ages 
quite sufficiently remote iib satisfy the most ardent votary of the 
geologic theory. 

Nor if we pursue the enquiry in the opposite direction, do we find 
greater encouragement for the reception of a change of alphabets. 
We cannot trace the Koran to its origin, for it was not created. The 
doctrine is one of the most noted heresies of Islamism. The Koran 
is co-existent and co-eternal with the Supreme Being, written in the 
Arabic characters on the lawh i Mahfdz^ or sacred tablet, which is 
guarded by the angel Gabriel. As regards the Koran, moreover, an 
especial virtue is inherent not only in the words of the text ; but in 
the actual letters in which they are written, for the htH>h would not 
be the Koran, if transcribed in any others. 

To obtain sympathy or support, then, from the learned in India, for 
any system that proposes the general substitution of a foreign alpha- 
bet for those they have been led to consider as sacred, I look upon as 
impossible. But were it possible, the difficulty of inducing any peo- 
ple to accept a new alphabet for the purposes of ordinary reading and 
writing, when they have one which they have used for centuries, 
which is already familiar to them, and which they find to answer all the 
purposes of life, is of itself of sufficient magnitude, to render it unwise 
in the advocates for so great a revolution, to encounter any obstacles 
that might be avoided. As an illustration of this minor difficulty, I 
may instance the Greek, the G^erman, and the Russian alphabets, all 
of which stiU exist in certain portions of Europe, to the exclusion of 
the Soman alphabet, which has been adopted in all other countries. 
Some years ago indeed it was proposed to the Greeks to adopt the 
Soman characters ; but the patriarchs rejected the idea with scorn. 
In Grermany it has frequently, I believe, been attempted to introduce 
the Soman letter's more generally, but except in books intended for 
exportation, the change does not appear to have found favour, and it is 
a singularly apt illustration of this difficulty, that the very articles in 
which Dr. Sprenger has so ably advocated the universal adaptation of 
Soman alphabet to Oriental languages, are printed in the old and 
familiar German type. Now the difference between the German and the 
Soman characters is comparatively trifling, and as the powers of the 
letters are precisely the same, for all practical purposes, the one alphabet 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



352 Application of the Roman Alphabet. [No. 4, 

may be considered as good as the other. That the old alphabet then 
retains its hold on the Germans, furnishes us, in my opinion, with a 
strong proof of the very great tenacity wiih which a people will cling 
to an alphabet, when it has been so widely adopted as to have become 
familiar to their whole nation. Indeed, if experience is a guide, it 
would appear easier to change a language, than to change an alphabet. 
These difficulties, however, it may be urged are, more or less, con- 
nected with the weaknesses of human nature, and may be traced to 
bigotry, vanity, prejudice, force of habit, false ideas of nationality, 
&c., all of which might be overcome by a ruling power occupying the 
position of the English in India ; and this is in a great measure true ; 
but admitting its truth, the most important part of the enquiry — 
indeed, I may say, the whole of the enquiry, >nll still remain, viz. the 
suitability of the characters of the Roman alphabet, to represent the 
sounds to be expressed in all the languages, both living and dead, 
which are in use in India. I have read a great deal that has been 
written on the subject, and I must confess that I have never seen this 
portion of it thoroughly well investigated. Indeed it is far more often 
settled in a very summary and off-hand manner, by a reference to 
some system which has already been adopted, and which has been 
used, it is advanced, with great success. Yet it is of the essence of 
the enquiry, and until it is satisfactorily disposed of, it is quite need* 
less to refer to the many advantages that would result from the adop- 
tion of a universal alphabet, a point which I assume nobody will care 
to deny. Nor does the fact of a certain currency being obtained for 
books printed in a particular type prove what is wanting. Many 
people thought that putting pantaloons on Hindustanis would make 
English soldiers of sepoys ; but it did not do so, a fact which the 
English discovered to their cost in 1857. After wearing them, father, 
son, and grandson for a whole century, on the very first favourable 
opportunity, they tore them off, and cast them away. And why, may 
I ask, did they do so ? Because they found them not so suitable to 
their habits and customs, and the climate of their country, as the 
dhotis they had been in the habit of wearing for agies. The educated 
Bengalis have for a quarter of a century been fanuliar not only with 
the alphabet we use, but with the language we speak. They speak it 
and write it infinitely better than they do their own language, yet we 
do not find that when they write Bengali, they use this or any other 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1864.] Application of the Boman Alphabet 853 

than the Bengali alphabet. How it would he, if the language and the 
Boman alphabet were familiarized, if I may use the expression, I can- 
not say ; a great many Bengalis now wear pantaloons, but in the 
matter of the alphabets experience, as at present available, is not cer« 
tainly encouraging to a change. 

It is surely not unnatural, that a people, after labouring for centuries 
to compass an important end, to invent and elaborate a system of 
signs and combinations of signs, and to apply them to every sound in 
their language, and having accomplished it, should be unwilling to 
resign that which had cost them so much time and trouble. The Deva 
Nagari alphabet, if it is the most elaborate, is also the most perfect 
alphabet in the world. It was modelled and improved from the 
Pali or most ancient Indian alphabet expressly for the Sanskrit 
language ; it was fashioned for this language ; it was made to fit it, and 
therefore it does fit it better than any other ; and it is a singular coin* 
cidence, that this fact attracted the attention of, and was noticed by 
the very remarkable Chinese traveller, Houen-thsang, upwards of 1000 
years ago, and from his memoires, I make the following extract : — 
'' Les caract^res de I'&^riture ont ^e inventes par le dieu Fan, ("Bra- 
mk) et, depuis I'origine, leur forme s*est transmise de siecle en si^le. 
EUe se compose de quarante-sept signes, qui s'assemblent et se com* 
binent suivant Tobj^t ou la chose qu'on veut exprimer^ Elle s'est 
r^pandue et s*est divis^e en di verses branches. Sa source s'dtant 
^lai^e par degr&, elle s'est accommod^e aux usages des pays et aux 
besoins des hommes, et n'a ^prouv^ que de l^geres modifications. En 
g^^ral, elle ne s'est pas sensiblement ^cart^e de son origine G'eat 
surtout dans Tlnde centrale qu'elle est nette et correcte." 

It is unnecessary to go into a comparative analysis of the two alpha- 
bets to establish the truth of these remarks. The coat that is made 
for a man is likely to fit him better, than the coat that is made for 
somebody else, and this, it appears to me is, if not the whole ques- 
tion, certainly the major part of it. "Yet" it will be ui^ed by 
progressists, " fashions may change, and it would be tmjust and a hard- 
ship, to condemn an ancient friend always to appear in his antique 
costume, because it had once, when in fashion, been made to fit him." 
I answer, that if it becomes him better than any other, it would be 
a far greater hardship, to make him change it to suit the taste or to 
please the eye of foreigners ; but even if he agreed to put on a new 

Digitizec^ytjOOgle 



854 ApplieaHan of tie Roman AlphabH, [No. 4^ 

coat, jotL would still be obliged to make one to fit him, and herein lies 
a very great difficulty." I consider it to be a fundamental principle 
of the art of palaeography, that the power of each symbol should be 
so determined that its euphonic value in all combinations of symbols 
shall be fixed and not variable, as is the case with the Roman alpha* 
bet, as it has been adapted to English and some other modem tongues ; 
that these values should be readily ascertainable, and that, as far as 
possible, distinct phonetic values should be represented by distinct 
symbols and combinations of symbols, and the same always by the 
same, wherever they occur. Now if we investigate the history of the 
progressive development of alphabets, we will find that while these rules 
have been steadily kept in view in the adaptation and modification of 
alphabets in the East, they have been systematically set aside in most 
modem languages of the West ; and the result is, that while an edu« 
cated Eastem gentleman, seldom or never makes a mistake in ortho- 
graphy, few Englishmen or Frenchmen can trust themselves to write 
their own language without a pocket dictionary at their elbow. There 
are again numerous letters in the Deva Nagari alphabet, iix which we 
have no corresponding signs in the Roman alphabet, and many sounds 
in the former language of which no combination of the letters of this 
alphabet will convey to the ear even an approjdmate idea. And the 
same may be said of all the alphabets and languages derived from 
this source, and also, though in a less degree, of the Arabic and Hebrew 
alphabets. All attempts to express certain letters in the Arabic 
alphabet in Roman characters have failed, and for obvious reasons all 
future attempts will fail likewise. In short, if it be proposed to 
make the alphabet of any one language the basis of an alphabet for 
another language, its capabilities and powers must first be carefully 
examined with reference to the requirements of that language, and its 
redundancies eliminated, or its deficiencies supplied, as the case may 
require. l%is was the course adopted by the Brahmans in regard to 
the primitive alphabet of India, in the second and third century B. C, 
and this was the course adopted by the learned Lepsius in the 19th 
century A. D. when propounding his scheme for a missionary alphabet. 
He did not set up the doctrine that any existing alphabet, much less 
the Roman alphabet with its twentysix letters, was perfect, in the 
tiniversal application of the term. He assumed rather the converBe, 
and the plan he adopted was as follows : — 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



3.^8^]' Applieatuyn of the Roman Alphabet. 859 

Having first arranged ali the sounds prevailing in the known lan- 
guages of the world, to these he applied the characters of the 
Roman alphahet as far as they would go, and for those sounds for 
which he could not find corresponding signs in the Roman alphabet, 
be indented on other alphabets, or invented new ones, adapting thus 
his alphabet to his languages, not vice versd. 

But if no existing alphabet is so perfect as to be made applicable 
to all existing languages, speaking generally, the alphabets of most 
languages which have received such a development as to entitle them 
to take rank as literary languages, and all those which may be dis* 
tinguished as classical, have been so far perfected in relation to these 
languages themselves, and their symbols and sounds have become so 
ckMely identified, that any attempt now to dissever the one from the 
other, especially in the ease of dead languages, would result in very 
serious consequences — ^indeed consequences so serious, in my opinion, as 
to give grounds for alarm, lest the true phonetic values of the original 
letters should soon become irremediably confused, and in the revolu-* 
tion of epochs, the languages themselves might be lost. This is a view 
of the case that will perhaps be disputed, yet it is one which will, I am 
sure, be clearly intelligible to all who have occupied themselves with 
decyphering ancient inscriptions, and are consequently aware of the 
■tumbling block those inscriptions prove to arch»ol<^^ts, and namis* 
matists, in which a language, foreign to the transcriber, has been 
tendered by the ear, in a character equally foreign to the language 
in which it is written. 

I venture to consider it proven then, that the Roman or any other 
modem alphabet, cannot be applied to any of the dead or living hm^ 
gnages of India for which an alphabet has been already perfected, 
with advantage to those languages, and that any attempt to do so, 
except in so far as the transcription may suit the convenience of 
fi>reigner8 and ripe scholars, would only lead to very great conlusion. 

It remains, however, to enquire whether, setting aside those laa* 
guages, nndpat(ri9f which have not been reduced to writing, we have no 
languages which have received a considerable development, but for which 
no written character, original or adapted, has bean perfected. And 
here our attention is at once arrested by a language which is some* 
what peculiar in its characteristic — a language which is written in many 
dbaracters, yet which has no alphabet of its own ; which has an ex* 

2 z 2 T 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



856 Application of tie Roman Alphabets \^o. 4, 

tensive vocabulary ; yet few words in that vocabulary can be said to 
belong to it ; which is at once the most widely spread, the most popu* 
lar, and the most useful of the languages of India, yet of which there ia 
-^o definite form or dialect that can properly be called a language of any 
part of India ; which cannot be developed without losing its identity, 
and yet which wanting, sa it is, in all these, the attributes of a perfect 
language, has a grammatical structure which is essentially its own, and 
which it carries with it into whatever other language it may be merged* 
The language I allude to, is that which is conunonly called HindustanL 
It is the Ivngua franoa of Hindustan, and is so universally familiar^ 
that many I dare say will say that my remarks are paradoxical, and 
some that' they are absurd. I venture to think that they are neither 
the one nor the other. But^ as few will feel disposed to accept my 
simple word for the fact, I beg to offer the foUowuig explanation. The 
Hindustani language, as now existing, can hardly be called an indepen* 
dent language, — a language which springing from an original and 
ancient source, has existed, first in a primitive and rude form, and by 
a gradual and progressive development, always preserving its original 
basis, has finally received a polish, and been imbued with an elasticity, 
such as to make it a suitable medium for the expression of complex 
ideas. It cannot be said to belong to the Aryan ; it certainly does not 
belong to the Semitic ; it does not belong to the Scythian family of 
languages. It is a language, the elements of which are drawn from all 
these sources. The basis, that is the grammatical structure of Hin- 
dustani, if ever it was Sanskrit, is now so distinct from it, as to possess 
quite a character of its own, and its vocabulary is made up from lan- 
guages both of the Aryan, Scythic, and Semitic families. It is so far 
then a composite language, but inasmuch as languages of distinct 
and separate origin will not readily mix, the moment any attempt 
at attaining a high degree of development is made, a conflict of ele-r 
ments takes place, which generally ends in the complete overthrow of 
one and the merging of what is called simple Hindustani into Ian* 
guages which, while they preserve in a great degree their Indian 
structure, indent for their vocabulary either on languages purely of 
Aryan, or purely of Semitic origin. This conflict is nudnly attribut- 
able, to the cause here assigned, the hostility of the primitive elements, 
and possibly of the raoes, but there can be little doubt that it is gn*atly 
fostered and encouraged by the maintenance of a double alphabet, and 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



1864.] Application of the Moman Alphabet r 857 

the difficulties of fusing these opposite elements, into a composite 
loDgaage, in the or4inary acceptation of the words, would be con- 
siderably diminished if an alphabet could be invented that would be 
common to both. 

The Deva Nagari alphabet is quite as unsuitable for expressing Ara- 
bic and Persian words, as the Greek alphabet is unsuitable for express- 
ing Sanskrit words pure and derivative, and the language as now 
written, presents as bizarre and outre an appearance, as if a language 
composed of English, German, and Russian words, was written in 
Hebrew characters. In most composite languages, such as English 
or the Bomance languges, the whole forms an amalgam in which 
wmetimes, the original materials can be recognized with difficulty, and 
often not at all, as all will be aware who have read Dean Trench's works 
on the English language. But in Hindustani it is different, the materials, 
particularly those of Semitic origin, remain exactly as they were, and 
it is the same with modem Persian in regard to its Arabic words, 
which Sir William Jones has well illustrated in the following pas- 
sage. '' This must appear strange to an European reader ; but he 
may form some idea of this uncommon mixture, when he is told that 
the two Asiatic languages are not always mixed like the words of 
Boman and Saxon origin in this period, ' The true law is right reason, 
conformable to the nature of things, which calls us to duty by com- 
manding, deters us from sin by forbidding ;' but as we may suppose 
the Latin and English to be connected in the following sentence : 
^ The true lea is recta ratiOy conformable natura rerum, which by 
eommanding vocet ad qffieium^ by forbidding a fraude deterreat.^* 
But the difference in the case of Persian is, that it and Arabic have a 
oommon alphabet while the two languages of which Hindustani is 
chiefly composed, have separate and distinct alphabets. 

The obstacles again to fusion under present circumstances are great* 
ly increased by distinctions of race and creed. Without entering 
into nice ethnological distinctions, it will be sufficient to consider 
that we have in India two great classes to deal with, Hindus and 
Husalmans. The former, in writing Hindustani, use the Deva* 
Nagari, or one of its derivative alphabets ; the latter generally use the 
•2Va« l}dl{q or Persian character. Neither know the characters in 
which the others write, and as the races are prevented by religious 
differences from intermixing, there is neither inducement nor necessity 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



858 



Application of the JRoman Alphabets 



[NV 



for improving their acquaintance with each other's customs in thi 

respect. When letters pass between two educated gentlemen < 

different race and creed in India, though written in what may be call 

ed the mother-tongue of both, they must be taken to the village scril 

to be read. This certainly is an anomaly — an anomaly which da 

not exist perhaps in any other part of the world. But we have nc 

yet reached the end ; we ajre introducing railways, telegraphs, and a 

kinds of mechanical power into India, and we are teaching sciena 

bristling with technical terms. A medical studait who may be ui 

able to speak a word of English, will glibly nm over half the Lati 

terms in the pharmacopoeia of medical science, and any ordinary natii 

gardener will give the Latin botanical name for every tree and flov 

er in a well-stocked garden. We have here, then, not an alphab< 

seeking for a language ; we have a language seeking for an alphabe 

It has greater natural claims perhaps on the Deva Nagari alpbab< 

than upon any other, because the language, in its ancient dialect! 

form must have been closely allied to the Sanskrit, and the presei 

Deva Nagari alphabet was formed from the Indian alphabet ; but c& 

tain portions of the Irame-work of the language are so distinct as t 

be deduced with difficulty from Sanskrit, and if English, Sanskrit 

Arabic, and Persian words are to be adopted into the language, an 

one of the three alphabets is to be selected to be a common alphabe 

for all races who use this language throughout the oountry, the bi 

lance, on many grounds, is in favour of that alphabet which is used b 

the most highly civilized people-— the ruling power. 

Certainly very great difficulty would attend the inaugural measure 

of a comprehensive change of the kind ; but these I need not discos 

here, further than to add that any attempt to accomplish so great a 

end, must be made gradually, and with much caution. 

. But besides Hindustani, it must be borne in mind, that there is 

veiy wide field that the Roman alphabet may occupy at once. 

allude to the veiy numerous dialects which we find in all parts c 

India to which the civilization of the Budhists and Brahnuns have nc 

penetrated. In the province of Assam and neighbouring districti 

we have eight different dialects which, are stated to be didtinct lac 

guages,* having no affinity with one another. 

• 1. Garow. 5, Abor. 

2. Naga. 6. Mishmee. 

7. Kamptoe. 

8. Mikir. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Booteah. 

Khassiah. 



;i864X AppUeatUmoftheHofMnAlphahei, 35d 

This is probably a mistake ; but these languages are still so distinct 
as to be a bar to intelligible inter^eommunication. In addition tg 
these, there are numerous dialects, presenting, for the most part, the 
characteristics of the central- Asia type of languages ; but all differing 
fiiom each otiber in a greater or less degree, and almost all not yet 
reduced to writing. The same remarks are applicable to Birmah 
proper, British Birmah, Pegu, the Tenasserim Provinces, Chittagong 
and Akyab. 

The great majority of the languages here alluded to, having no 
affinity with Sanskrit, the Deva Nagari alphabet cannot be said to 
have any peculiar claims on them. The Missionaries on the North East 
frontier have adopted the Boman characters in their teachings, while 
the ICisaonaries on the South East fr<mtier have adopted the Burmese 
eharacters. Now, much may be said against teaching uncivilized tribes 
a character that will not enable them to carry on business relations in 
writing with their neighbours ; but if it is ever intended to apply the 
Boman alphabets to an^ of the languages of India, the best languages 
certainly on which to experimentalice, are those to which no alphabet 
has yet been naturalized. 

The Missionaries in British Birmah are making very rapid pro- 
greaa with the instruction in Burmese and the conversion to Chris- 
tianxty of the Karens, and the Welsh Presbyterian Mission at CJhemr 
poonjee are printing some books and a dictionary in the Boman cha^ 
racters. The Education Department in Assam first adopted the books 
of the Missionaries, but have discarded them, I believe, for books 
printed in Bengali type. The question therefore ought to be authori- 
tatively settled, or we shall see, what it must be oonfessed is not un<- 
eonmioii in India, one generation taking infinite pains to do that which 
the next will take equal pains to undo. 

The conclusions then at which I have arrived are, that any attempt 
to adopt the Eoman alphabet to the classical languages of India 
would be mischievous ; and that all those languages for which an al« 
phabet has already been perfected by the people speaking them, have 
no need of such a change ; but that an attempt might be made to 
adopt this alphabet, or a modification of it, to all Indian languages 
which at present have no alphabet whidi can properly be called their 
own. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



360 On the Buddhist Bemains of SuUanganJ. [No. 4, 



On the BuddhUt Bemams of Sultdngimj. — By BAbu BAJEKDBAiilLi. 

MiTBA. 

Ascending the Ganges from Bhigalpur, the first object of interest 
which arrests the attention of the traveller is a singular mass of granite 
towering abruptly to the height of about a hundred feet from the 
bed of the river. Its natural beauty and romantic situation have 
long since dedicated it to the service of religion ; and Jangirah, the 
name of the rock in question, has been associated with many a tale of 
love and arms. It stands at a distance of about a hundred yards 
from the right bank immediately opposite to the mart of Sultinganj, 
and is surmounted by a small stone temple which is visible from a 
great distance, and serves as a beacon tower to the mariner. The pre- 
siding deity of the sanctuary is named' Gaibinatha, a form of Siva 
whose identity I cannot ascertain. Along with him are associated 
a number of statues and images whom the resident priests hold in 
such slender respect that they did not object to my scratching some 
of them with a penknife to ascertain the nature of the stones of 
which they are made. 

The temple bears no inscription, and the attendant Brahmans could 
not give me any information regarding its history. Judging, how* 
ever, from its make and appearance, I believe it cannot be more than 
two or three centuries old. Around it are situated a few low rooms 
for the accommodation of the priests. 

The face of the rock is covered by a nimiber of bassi-relievi, most 
jof which are Hindu and include representations of Ganes'a, Hanu- 
m^a, Krishna, Badha, Yamana, Ananta sleeping on a snake, S'iva 
and other Paura^ic divinities. But there are a few which are decided* 
ly of Buddhist and Jain origin. The Buddhist figures, mostly 
Buddha in the meditative posture, occupy more centrical positions 
than the Hindu ones and appear to be more worn away than the latter; 
both circumstances affording conclusive evidence of the place having 
been originally a Buddhist sanctuary which the Brahmans have ap- 
propriated to themselves since the down&dl of Buddhism. A Jain 
temple still exists on one side of the rock to which a few pilgrims 
occasionally come to offer their adoration to Paras' wan6tha the 2Sfd 
teacher of the sect. 



Digitized by 



Google 



1864] On tie BuidhiH Bemahis of SultAn^anj. 661 

There is only one place at the foot of the rock at which a hoat caa 
be pat in where there is a landing-pkce, and thence a very steep and 
winding path leads to the summit. 

According to Montgomery Martin, at the three sacred full moonc^ 
in October, Jannaiy and April, (Bengali Eirtika, M^ha and Yais^kha,) 
from twenty to thirty thousand persons attend to bathe at this 
place ; ^ but the great emoloment of the priests arises from about 
50,000 pilgrims who at various times come to carry away a load of 
water which they intend to pour on the head of various celebrated 
images in distant parts. In the south of India I have met pilgrims 
carrying their load from this place ; but by far the greater part goes 
to Devaghar in Yirabhum where it is poured on the Priapus or Lin- 
ga called Baidy andtha, to whom this water, taken from a scene of former 
pleasure, is considered as peculiarly acceptable."* 

To the east of this rock on the river bank there is another mass of 
granite having a few carvings on its western face, and a brick-built 
mosque on the top of it called the Dargak of Baishkaran. 

The village of Sultanganj stretches westward to the extent of about 
a mile from the foot of this rock. In a line with Jangirah the posi- 
tion of the village is Lat. 25° 19 20^ N. ; Long. 86* 48' 25^^ E. At 
the time of Mr. Martin's survey, forty years ago, it contained about 
250 houses, of which only two were brick-built and three tiled.' The 
number of houses has now quintupled, and the main road in front of 
the mart which gives name to this place, is lined by a good many 
pucka godowns. 

The railway station of SulUmganj stands behind this mart and at' 
a distance of about half a mile to the south of it. 

The space between the mart and the railway station forms a quad- 
rangle of 1,200 feet by 800. It seems never to have been under 
much cultivation, and is covered by the debris of old buildings, the 
foundations of which have lately been excavated for ballast for the 
railway. The trenches opened along the Ibe of the foundations are 
not continuous, and in several places have been filled up, but from 
what remains I am disposed to believe that the place was at one time 
divided into courtyards having lines of small cells or cloisters on all 
four sides. This idea has been strengthened by the discovery of a 
series of six chambers in a line at the south-western comer of the 
• Hartm'8 fiastem India, Vol. II. p, 38, 

Dig^ize^ by Google 



On the Buddhist Bemaim of SuJUngat^. [No. 4, 

qaadraBgle. These chambers form a part of the western side of a 
large courtyard on the north of which Mr. Harris, Kesident Engineer, 
East Indian Railway, under whose superintendence the excavations 
under notice have been carried on, has brought to light the founda- 
tions of two similar chambers. The southern and the eastern facades 
yet remain unexplored. But the accumulation of rubbish on those sides, 
rising to the height of 10 to 20 feet, clearly indicates that chambers 
corresponding to those on the west and north are to be met with 
under it. 

At the middle of this long ridge of rublHsh Mr. Harris has found 
the foundation and the side pillars of a large gateway which was evi- 
dently one of the principal entrances to the quadrangle. Similar 
gateways probably once existed on the other three sides, but their 
vestiges are no longer traceable. 

The accumulation of rubbish at the south-east comer is greater than 
any where else, and on it is situated the bungalow of the Resident 
Engineer. It would be well if a shaft could be run through this mound, 
as it is here that relics of iniportance are most likely to be met with. 

The chambers excavated at the south-western side are not all of the 
same dimensions. They measure within the walls from 12 x 10' 6" to 
14' X 12'. The depth from the top of the plinth to the lowest part of 
the foundation (the only portion now in situ) is 18 feet. This 
depth was found full of earth and rubbish, but divided at intervals 
of 8 or 4 feet by three distinct floors formed of concrete and stucco. 
The lowest shews no trace of plaster. The upper floors had open- 
ings or hatchways through which people descended to the bottom, and 
used the different stories as cellars or store-rooms. No valuable 
property or remains of com or other goods have, however, been traced 
in these cellars, as most probably they had been removed before the 
monastery fell into the hands of the destroyer. 

The interior of the walls had never been plastered, but the iront, 
facing the courtyard, has a thick coating of sand and stucco such as 
are to be seen in modem Indian houses. 

The bricks used in the building of these chambers measure 1^'% 
^'%2^'\ and in density, colour and appearance are similar to those 
employed in the construction of the great temple at Buddhagayl 
^t S6nohi, S&math and other old Buddhist remains, bricks of such 
Imrge size appear to have been common, and they give a pretty close 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1S64.] On the Buddhut Bemains ofSuU&nganj. 863 

idea of the era when they were most in use. The largest bricks 
known are met with in the ruins of Hastinipur, which, according 
to Mauluyi Sjad Ahmad,* measure 20 inches long, 10 broad and 2^ thick. 
If they be, as has been supposed, synchronous with the heroes of the 
Mahibhteita they are the oldest as well as the largest known. The 
next in size are those from the walls of Babylon, for which the 
clay thrown out of the trenches surrounding the city supplied the 
material ; they measure sixteen inches square, with a thickness of three 
inches. The next are those from the pyramid of HowarainEgypt. They 
measure 17i inches by 8} inches; the thickness being 5i inches. 
Next to them are those of Buddhagay^, S^ath, Sultdnganj and other 
Buddhist localities ; they vary from 13'' to 14/' by 8" to 10 inches, the 
thickness ranging from ti\ to 8^. This kind of brick, was in use for 
upwards of seven hundred years down to the fifbh or sixth century of the 
Christian era. The bricks of the Hindu Bajas of Lilput, Avangpur^ 
Luckerpoor are much of the same size, but of very different 
appearance. The early Fathans also used very large bricks, and in 
old Delhi they are very common. The later Fathans reduced the 
size of their bricks to 12 inches, and in the days of the Moguls 
they were further reduced to 10'', hence it is that in the many palatial 
buildings of Akbar, Jehangir and Shah Jehan, the greatest builden 
of the race, we find no trace of a single large brick. 

Beyond the western wall of the chambers there is the foundation 
of another and a broad one, which fprmed the boundary wall of the 
quadrangle. It runs due north and south and is joined by one which 
runs along the ridge on the southern side. Similar boundary walls, 
no doubt, once existed on the north and the east, but their traces have 
long since been effaced. 

In front of the chambers there are to be seen the remains of a hall 
or verandah which formerly formed the most important part of the 
building on this side of the quadrangle. Its floor is on a level with 
the highest floor of the chambers, and seems to have been made of con- 
crete and stucco, and painted over in fresco of a light ocherous colour. 
How it was enclosed in front has not been made out. Frobably therer 
was a range of square pillars, forming a verandah or pillared hall re-^ 
tembling a modem Bengal dalan or the choultry of Southern India^ 
The floor of the courtyard has not yet been laid bare, but judging from 
* Journal of the ArchsBological Society of Delhi> p. 50. 

[?gitl^ec^y Google 



364 On the BuddhUt Bemains of SiMtnganj. [No. 4, 

the position of a water-course formed of scooped flags of graoite which 
runs under the floor of the hall- and through one of the partition 
walls of the chambers to a drain beyond the boundary wall of the 
qoadrangle, and which was evidently intended to carry ofl* its drain- 
age I am induced to believe that it stood about 8 feet lower than the 
hall. Similar water-pipes of granite have been met with at Buddha- 
gay&y Sfimdth and elsewhere. 

Of the relics which have been collected by Mr. Harris in course of 
his excavations at this place, the most important appears to be a 
colossal figure of Buddha which was found lying on a side of the hall 
described above. It had evidently been knocked down by some 
iconoclast before the destruction of the hall, and removed severs! feet 
away from its pedestal. The latter too had been tilted over, but not 
much removed from the centre of the hall which was its original posi- 
tion. It was formed of a slab of granite 6'— IT % 3—9'' the 
thickness being &i inches. The statue was secured to this stone by 
two bolts, the remains of which are still visible. The statue is of 
copper and seems to have suffered no injury from the hands of the 
destroyer, except the mutilation of the left foot across the ankle. 

Its dimensions are — 
From the topknot on the crown of the head, along the back to 

the edge of the heel, 7 8 

IVom do. along the front to the sole of the foot under the 

instep, 7 6 

Bound the head, 2 

Topknot, O 8 

From bottom of topknot to forehead, 2i 

Length of flEhce from forehead to chin, 10 

From chin down to wais :, 2 

From waist to sole of foot, 4 

Round the breast, 6 7 

Across the shoulders, 2 4 

From shoulder-joint to elbow, 1 6 

From elbow to wrist, 1 

From wrist to end of middle Rnger, 1 

Foot from heel to end of 2nd toe, 1 i 

The above measurements were taken with a common tape without 
any reference to the principles followed by artists in the calculation 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1864.] 



On the BudikiH Bmnaint of SulUtnga/iy. 



305 



of the relative proportion of the different parte of the human figure. 
Thej disclose, however, some curious facts : thus omitting the top-knot 
formed of a collection of hair on the crown of the head, we find that 
the total length of the figure (7 feet) is to the head (12i inches,) — as 1 
to 6 and 1^9 or in the language of artists 6 heads, 8 pai*ts, 9 minutes, 
instead of the usual standard of 1 to 8, and also considerably under that 
of the antique statues. In the Hercules the Apollo and the Laocoon 
the length of the body varies from 7 heads^ 2 parts, 8 minutes to 7 
heads, 8 parts, 7 minutes. The tallest statue known is that of Mirmillo^ 
and it measures 8 heads only. The length of the fathom again, which 
in Europe is reckoned to be the same as the height, is in our statue 
My one-third more. This is owing no doubt to the belief common 
in India that the simian pecularity of the hands reaching down to the 
knees is an emblem of divinity and universal sovereignty. It is worthy 
of note, however, that in a table published by Dr. Emil Schlagin- 
tweit in his recent work on Tibetan Buddhism,* the fathom of 
Brahmans of Upper India, is represented to be greater than the 
length of their body, and the Bhots have the same peculiarity in a greater 
degree. It is remarkable also that the latter make their Buddhaa 
ttnd fiodhisatvas have shorter fathoms than their genii and dragsheds. 
The increase in the fathom is effected by an inordinate prolongation 
of the hands, leaving the arm and forearm less than their natural 
proportions as compared to those of Indian Brahmans, of Bhots, and 
of Bhotanese idols ; but somewhat longer than the European standard 
of 1 head, 2 parts and 8 minutes to the arm and ] head, 1 part and 2 
minutes to the forearm. The foot, according to modem artists, should 

* I take the following from Br. Schlagiiitweif 8 book to bring to one view 
the relative proportions of the different parts of the human fig^nre compared with 
ihose of Bhot Btataes. The second column A has been added by me. 



H^^ ... 
fSpUjr'joondthe'; 

^J^tto PtootT ... 



BaddhAflNun 
Soltsngai^. 



1.000 
0.119 
0.285 
1.342 
0.2U 
0.142 
0.14fi 
0.148 



Brahnuuui 



1.000 
0.146 
0.829 
1.026 
0.4SS 
0.1G6 
0.107 
0.144 



C. 
BhotiL 



1.000 
0.140 
0.346 
1.069 
0.461 
0.104 
0.110 
0.146 



BaddbM, 
Bodhl- 

8attTas,of 
Tibet 



I>nw»h( _ 

Geoii^anuHL 

of Tibet 



1.000 
0.166 
0J80 
1.080 
0.440 
0.149 
0.110 
0.140 



1.000 
0.160 
0.420 
1.117 
0.480 
0.156 

alio 

0.144 



Digitized byLjOOQlC 



366 On the Buddhist BematM of Sultdnganj. [No. 4, 

be one-sixth of the body, but in the statue this haa been exceeded by a 
few minutes. The torso is slightly shorter than the Grecian standard. 
On the whole, even after making ample allowancee for the fact that the 
changes which the human form undergoes from infancy to old age and 
in different nationalities and climates preclude the possibility ofliitiiting 
its measurements to any ideal standard, it must be admitted that the 
artist of the statue had a very imperfect knowledge of proportion. He 
had evidently adopted the tall North Indian and not the squat Bhot 
for his model. 

The figure is erect, standing in the attitude of delivering a lecture* 
and in this respect bears a close resemblance to the sandstone statues 
so largely found at Sarnath by General Cunningham. The right 
hand is lifbed in the act of exhortation ; the lefb holds the hem of a 
large sheet of cloth which is loosely thrown over the body. Both 
hands bear the impress of a lotus, the emblem, according to Indian 
chiromancy, of universal supremacy, and as such is always met with on 
the hands of VishQu, Brahmd and some other Hindu divinities. The 
ears are pendulous and bored, and the hair on the head disposed in 
curled buttons in the way they are usually represented on Burmese 
figures, and not very unlike the buttons on the heads of some of the 
Nineveh bas-reliefs. The lips are thin and the face, though more 
rounded than oval, is not remarkable for any prominence of the cheek 
bone. On the forehead there is a circular tilah or auspicious mark. 

The material is a very pure copper cast in two layers, the inner one 
in segments on an earthen mould, and held together by iron bands 
which were originally \ of an inch thick, but are now very much 
worn down by rust. The outer layer of the copper has also oxidissed in 
different places and become quite spongy. The casting of the face 
down to the breast, was effected in one piece ; the lower parts down to 
the knee in another, and then the legs, feet, hands and back in several 
pieces. A hole has been bored through the breast, and chips have 
been knocked off from other parts of the body since the exhumation of 
the figure, evidently with a view to ascertain if it did not contain 
hidden treasure such as is said to have been found by Mahmood in 
the belly of the famous idol of Somn&th, but it has led to the dis- 
covery of nothing beyond (ihe mould on which the figure had been cast. 
The substance of this mould looks like a friable cinder. Origin- 
ally it consisted of a mixture of sand; clay, charcoal and paddy husk^ 

Digitized by LjOOQLC 



1864r.] On the Buddhist Remains ofSuUdngmj. 367 

of the last of which traces arc still visible under the microscope. B6bu 
EinaiMU De, Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Medical College, 
who kindly undertook to analyse this black stuff for me, says that it 
consists of — 

SiKca, 73 50 

Oxide of copper, peroxide of iron, alumina, lime, and 

magnesia, 18 

Organic matter and moisture, 8 50 

100 00 
On the annexed plate, which has been drawn from a photograph, the 
■tatue is represented with two small figures on its sides. These were 
found close by it in the chapel hall. They measure I'-lOi" and l'-5* 
inches high respectively. They are carved in basalt and, in style and 
attitude, bear a very close resemblance to the copper statue ; but they 
bave each an attendant devotee kneeling before it with folded hands, 
and the Buddhist creed " Te dharmdhetu'^ Sfc, engraved in the Gupta 
character on the pedestal. The small one has the same also on the back. 
Among the other relics found I may mention — 

1. A mutilated terra cotta figure similar to the above. 

2. A large conch shell (sankh) , its animal matter nearly all destroyed. 

3. A great number of cowries not much affected by time. 

4. A piece of elephant bone — the top of the tibia sawn both 
across and longitudinally, the sawing mark most distinctly visible. 

5. A slip of ivory about a foot long and an inch broad ; fiat but 
not sharp : edged. 

6. An Iron axe destroyed by rust, but the shape is distinct. 

7. Ditto smaller. 

8. Ditto very much destroyed ; the ring broken oiff. 

9. An Iron ring about three inches in diameter with a spike on 
one side, very much destroyed by rust. 

10. A chisel with an iron handle, very rusty. 

11. A copper disk or cover destroyed by rust. 

12. Sitting figure of Buddha in copper, partially destroyed by rust. 

13. Three standing figures in do. do. ) the heads had halo which 
were found broken and detached. 

14*. The hand of a large copper figure. 

15. A number of broken bits of rusty copper domestic utensils. 

16. Lumps of copper ore, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



868 On the Buddhist S&maini of Sultimganj. [No. 4, 

J 7. A miniature copper bell. 

18. A fragment of a crucible. 

19. Lumps of clay of the same composition as the crucible. 

20. Fragments of enamelled earthenware ; black and variegated 
patterns. 

21. A miniature teapot, broken; — ^vessel about an inch and a 
quarter, with a spout. 

22. Miniature terra cotta chaityas, containing within the seals of 
the Buddhist creed, some having seals stamped on the bottom. 

28. Ditto having the figure of nine chaityas stamped on its sides 
and of seals at the base. 

24. Several of the above seals detached. 

25. Balls of earth pear-shaped and perforated. 

26. Cylinders of do. ; both probably intended for nets, to make 
them sink fast. 

27. A number of pebbles. 

28. Fragments of red ocherous rock. 

29. A number of terra cotta lamps, circular, flat-bottomed, the 
spout not very projecting. 

80. Handles of terra cotta frying-pans. 

81. Fragments of handles, spouts and covers of earthenware vessels 
much stronger than ordinary. 

82. Ditto of terra cotta basso-relievo figures, red-glazed. 

83. Head of Vishnu in baked clay, seasoned with paddy and 
glazed in red, with the seven-headed cobra over head (the only Hindu 
reUc met with). 

84. Well formed heads of swrJci cement plastered with stucco, one 
with a particularly beautiful profile. 

85. Hands and feet of do. 

86. Fragment of a tile with basso-relievo figures of palms. 

37. A bit of crystal. 

38. A round hollow piece of iron covered with copper gilt and 
stamped with the figure of a chaitya on each side. 

39. Fragments of encaustic ti}es. 

40. Fragments of white stucco coloured red in fresco from the 
floor under the great copper statue. 

41. Fragments of cylinders, red-glazed. 

42. Fragments of terra cotta ornaments. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1864.] On the Buddhist Bemains of SuMnganj. 

43. A number of bivalve shells. 

44. Lamps of stone, similar in shape to No. 29. 

The articles named above leave no doubt as to the nature of the 
building in which thej have been found. The quadrangle was evi- 
dently a large Buddhist monastery or Vihara, such as at one time 
existed at Simaih, S^chi, Buddhagayd, Manikyil& and other places 
of note, and at its four comers had four chapels for the use of the 
resident monks. Two of these which abutted on the mart have alrea- 
dy disappeared, and of the other two, that on the south-west haa 
yielded the relics noted above, and the last remains under the railway 
bungalow, a most promising field for the antiquary who could devote 
a week or two to its exploration. 

Of the history of this Yihira nothing is now traceable. From its 
extent and the style of its construction, it is evident that at one time 
it was a pUce of great repute, and the resort of innumerable pilgrims. 
But its glory set a long while ago, and even the name of the place 
where it stood is now lost in obscurity. The present appellation 
(Soltiinganj) is quite modem, not more than two or three centuries 
old, and is due to a prince of the house of Akbar. Fa Hian makes 
no mention of it, and Heuen-Thsang talks of the ruins of several 
iai^ monasteries in the neighbourhood of Bhagulpore, but gives us no 
clue to the one xuider notice. It is to be presumed therefore that it 
had been ruined and forsaken, or at least had fallen into decay, before 
the advent of the latter Chinese traveller. The inscriptions on the 
minor figures, in the Gupta character of the Srd and 4th century, shew 
that the Yihara with its chief larea and penates had been established a 
considerable period before that time, probably at the beginning of the 
Chriatian era or even earlier, for Champa (modem Bhagulpore,) was 
a place of great antiquity and the Buddhist took possession of it very 
ear]y as the capital of Eastern India, and established many Viybras 
and chaityas in and about it. Though most of these have been des- 
troyed by the ravages of time and the ruthless hands of adverse sectari* 
ans, there still stand in its vicinity two round towers, each about seventy 
feet high, the names of whose founders and the object for which they 
had been built have long since been forgotten, but which from their 
close resemblance to the pyrethra so common in Afghanistan and else- 
where, are evidently Buddhist monuments of yore. 

Though the principal i-esidents of Buddhist monasteries were priests 

Digit8edGbyLjOOgle 



870 On the Buddhist Bemai/na of Sult&nganj. [No. 4, 

who were sworn to celibacy and poverty, who shaved their heads, 
wore the simplest garments, and earned tlieir subsistence by alms, still 
the Viharas of old were not without the possession of considerable wealth, 
and the proximity of a mud fort was always deemed a desirable source 
of security. Hence it is that large mounds, the remains of former 
mud forts, are generally met with in the neighbourhood of extensive 
monasteries. At Sam&th a fort stood within five hundred yards of the 
Yihdra, at Buddhagay& one was situated within a stone's throw of the 
great temple, and at Kusia and elsewhere the like may be seen within 
very short distances. It was to be expected therefore that at Sultin- 
ganj there should be a fort within hail of the monastery, and according* 
ly we find one to the west of it at a distance of about three quarters 
of a mile — a square mound of about 4(X) yards on each side raised to 
the height of about 20 feet from the plain, and now the site of an 
indigo factory. To the south of it there is a large tank which yielded 
the earth of which the moimd was formed. 

Another peculiarity in which the Vihdra at Sultinganj bears a 
close resemblance to Buddhist monasteries in other parts of India, is 
the great abundance of the little fictile bell-shaped structures called 
ehaityas. They occur either in alto-relievos as No. 22, or in bass-reliefs 
stamped on small tiles, as No. .23. The former generally have the Bud- 
dhist creed enclosed within or stamped at bottom, and the latter the 
same stamped below the figure of the Chaitya. The type seems to 
have been conventional and common all over India. Mr. E. Thomas 
found the exact counterparts of these at Sfim^th, General Cunningham 
noticed them at Bhilsa, and I have seen some brought from the ruins of 
Brahmanabad in Guzerat and now in the possession of Lady Frere. A 
short time ago Colonel Phayre sent a few tiles to the Asiatic Society 
firom Burmah which, though shaped differently, and intended to 
hold the figure of Buddha in the centre, have the chaityas and the 
inscriptions so exactly alike that they may easily pass for relics from 
B&mdth or Sult^nganj. The inscriptions on all these are in the 
Kutila type which had a long range of four centuries from the 8th to 
the 11th ; the monuments on which they are found, must have 
therefore existed at least down to thd 7th, 8th or even the 9th or lOfch 
century. The Kufila characters, however, coidd not have been current 
in some of the countries where they are met with, such as Burmah and 
Guzerat, and must have therefore been adopted as mystic or bacred 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



J set.] On the Buddhist Brains of SuUanganj. 371 

symbols in these places. It is remarkable at the same time that whOo 
the characters remained intact the " creed" failed to withstand the 
change of climate, and underwent several alterations of reading. 

These structures are models or miniature representations of sepulchral 
monuments, and thej owe their origin to an injunction in the Bhud* 
dhist scriptures which recommends the dedication of such monuments 
as an act of great religious merit. Hence they have engaged the 
earnest attention of the followers of Gautama from an early age, and 
many are the ruins in India which now attest the lavish expenditure 
which some of its former kings and princes incurred in raising them 
in a manner worthy of their ambition. 

They were originally hemispherical in shape and of stupendous size, 
rising directly from the surface of the earth like a bubble on water, 
and typical of the evanescent character of all worldly objects.* They 
are represented by the topes of S^chi and Satdharfi, which, according 
to General Cunningham, date as early as the 6th century before 
Christ, but which certainly must have existed since the fifth. Two 
hundred years subsequently, about the time of the third synod, 
the hemispheres were raised on cylindrical plinths of small 
height as in the chaityas aroimd Bhilsa. Gradually the plinths were 
raised higher and higher, until, in the beginning of the Christian 
era, their altitude became equal to the diameter of the hemisphere, 
as at Sarndth near Benares and in the topes of Afghanistan ; and 
ultimately they merged into tail round towers surmounted by a dome, 
or bell-shaped structures with elongated pinnacles, such as the Deh- 
gopas of Burmah or the bass-reliefs on the clay figure under notice. 
These were costly edifices and could be constructed only by the wealthy. 
But as the merit of dedicating them was not dependent upon their 
size, men of moderate means satisfied their religious craving by the 
consecration of small stone models which the clergy assured them woidd 
secure to them as much merit as the lordly structures would to their 
princely donors. They added that vows to dedicate such tokens were most 
effectual in averting an impending evil or securing an expected good. 
Thus a great impulse was given to this act of devotion, and the number 
of offerings was greatly multiplied. The poor supplied the place of 
stone models by little terra-cotta figures of small value, the offering of 
which was very much encouraged by the priesthood, as their consecra- 
* Vide Cunninghain's Bhilsa Topes, p. 169. 

Qgi^e^by Google 



S72 On the Buddhist Bemains of SuUdnganf. [No. 4, 

tion afforded the latter a small liut constant source of income.* A similar 
cause in tlie present day promotes the offering of fictile models of 
horses to SaUfopir and other local saints, and hundreds of them may- 
be seen about every consecrated Banian tree in Bengal. The Buddhist 
figures were made afber yariotiB designs and in different ways, but 
generally they were either cast in moulds or stamped on plastic day. 
The basso-relievo tiles appear to be the most common. They contain 
figures of 1 to 20 or 80 chaityas impressed on them, and sometimes have 
also a figure of Buddha in the centre. In India they have preserved 
their independent character as objects of votive offering, but in 
Burmah they have been largely used in the ornamentation of temples 
and monasteries. That most if not all of them were, however, at one 
time votive offerings, is evident from the fact of many of them containing 
inscriptions recording the name of the donors. On the back of one 
of Colonel Phayre's tiles (No. 1) which was taken from the "upper 
layer of the arch of the relic chamber" of a temple at Pugin in 
Burmah, and which has the figures of 80 Buddhas and two chaityas 
impressed on it, there is a corrupt M%adhi inscription in rude Burmese 
characters, which states that the tile was dedicated by one for the good 
of his parents and of all Buddhas past and to come. The words of the 
inscription as read by Burmese scholars have already been published, 
(ante p. 57) but as no attempt has yet been made to translate them and 
the reading appears to me to be incorrect, I here supply a difierent ver- 
sion together with a tentative translation. The reading I propose is : — 

Atawisati m^ buddha 

Tinsasamm6kona saha 

Buddha iya tatta iya 

Sabb^n mitu pitu ara 

Chariya putta ra a cha 

Sabba satta hit4 picha 

Buddhi hit&ti nigateii. 
TrantHatUm^To the 28 Buddhas together with the 29th and the 
30th, for the good here and hereafter of all, of my father and mother, 
of my tutor and his son, of all living beings, as also for the good of 
all Buddhas past and to come. 

* Vide Col. Sykes' Note on the Miniatnre Chaityas, fto. in the Joomal BL As« 
Soo. VoL XVI. p. 87. 



^vvw^<www^/vwwN^v^w^w«^>w^MM^«v«MMM>v«M^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 






,f 




3 py Goo gle 



CaicutU, 



COLOSSAL COPPER STATUE OF EUOOH^ 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



186^.] Notes on tie Didunculus Strigirostris. 873 

Notes on the Didunculus Strigirostris, or Tooth-Billed Pigeon of the 

Namgator Islands — the nearest living Ally to the extinct Dodo. 

Commimioated by Sir W. DENiaoN.* 

{Received Mh Dec,, 1868.] 

Many of your readers, and especially those interested in natural 
history, will be glad to hear that the long lost tooth-billed pigeon, 
Didunculus strigirostris, is not quite extinct, as is generally supposed. 
This fact is now satisfactorily proved by a living specimen having 
heen brought up to this city [Sydney] by Mr. J. C. Williams, H. B. M. 
Consul for the Navigator Islands, from Upolo, one of that group. 

It will be needless to enlarge upon the great service thus rendered 
by Mr. Williams. Let it suffice to say that it is the only litnng 
specimen which has ever come under scientific notice, and in all pro- 
bability will remain so. Scientific societies, both in England and 
Europe, have offered large rewards for this interesting bird, but it is 
to be hoped that if our Acclimatisation Society does purchase this 
bird, it will not share the fate of other rare specimens, and be sent out 
of the colony. 

Mr. Williams has kindly allowed me to examine his specimen, which 
is still in Sydney ; and has given me the following information respect- 
ing its habits, of which nothing haa been previously made known. 

The didunculus, or gnathodon, is known by the natires of the 
Navigator's tmder the name of the mani^-mea. It was at one time 
very plentiful on those islands, and particularly upon Upolo, where 
Mr. Williams obtained his specimen ; but owing to the number of oata 
whitih, having become wild, now infest the islands, this peculiar bird 
has become almost extinct. The natives also have had a share in its 
destruction, for as long as the birds could be procured in tolerable 
numbers, they were in the habit of making annual excursions into the 
iDountainB for the sole purpose of catching and feasting upon them. 
The game was secured either with bird-lime, made by mixing the 
•^cky gum of the bread-fruit tree with oil, or by means of nets fasten- 
ed to the end of long light poles and thrown over their victims, which 
were enticed within reach by tame decoy-birds kept for this purpose. 

• These notes, apparently by Mr. Bamsay, Sir W. Denison's oorrospondenfc, 
^mpriae a printed extract from a Sydney newspaper, and a MS. desoription of 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



374 Notes on the Didunculus Stri^irostris, [No. 4, 

The manu-mea is strictly a ground pigeon, giving preference to the 
thickly wooded sides of the mountains, which, when these hirds were 
plentiful, they traversed in flocks from ten to twenty in number, feed- 
ing upon various berries, and particularly upon the mountain plantain, 
for which they had a great liking. 

When forced to take wing, they rose with a great flapping noise, 
which was so characteristic that even up to the present time, the 
saying, ^^ as noisy as a manu-mea," is common among the natives. 

The only note observed by Mr. Williams is a low plaintive cry- 
something resembling that of a chicken, but not so shrill, nor repeated 
so often. The specimen which Mr. Williams has, is now about the 
size of our common domesticated pigeon, but as it is yet quite a young 
bird, it will probably grow much larger. 

The natives still keep up the practice of pigeon feasting, and are 
using their best endeavours to exterminate the little brown grotind 
dove, peculiar to the Navigator's Group, although at present this 
species still seems to be very plentiful. 

In the photograph there is apparently a sort of cre^t on the head of 
the bird, this is caused by a gathering from the bird knocking himself 
about in its cage, it is only the feathers sticking out from the top of 
the head. * 

Didunculus Strigvrostris, 

Bill orange yellow at base, light horn colour nearing the tip, which 
is almost white with a dark line down the ridge, skin round the eye 
cere, fleshy orange very like the ordinary colour of Pigeon's feet, feet 
of colour more like the base of the bill. In the young bird the head 
and neck are dull slaty blue with a tinge of metalic green ; breast dull 
dirty brown, abdomen same colour, tail and upper tail coverts, middle 
of back deep chestnut brown ; wings brown, many feathers barred with 
red deep chestnut. The iris hazel brown ; skin round the eye, fleshy 
oi'ange. The second bird was very like the adult specimens flgored 
in Gould's works, but not so bright. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




DinUNCULUS 5[K'C-.[ HC£:R:S. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



1864.] [JEJq^iant Statues in the Delhi Palace. 375 



Memorandum on the Elephant Statues in the Delhi Palace. — Bif 
Col. J. Abbott, 

IBeceived Ziid December^ 1868.] 

In the last nuiober of the Society's Journal, No. III. of 1863, 1 have 
Tesd with interest General Cunningham's remarks upon the life size 
statues found in the Koyal citadel at Delhi. 

As I happened to be at Delhi when these statues were disinterred, 
I had opportunity of examining them and at once recognised the long 
sought statues, mentioned by Bemier in these words. 

'* The entrance of the fortress presents nothing remarkable besides 
two lai^ elephants of stone placed at either side of one of the princi- 
pal gates. On one of the elephants is seated the statue of Jemel 
(meaning no doubt Jye Mul) the renowned Eaja of Chitore. On the 
other is that of his brother Polta (Putta). These are the brave 
heroes who, ^-ith their still braver mother, immortalised their names 
by tb'^ extraordinary resistance which they opposed to the celebrated 
Acbar; defending the towns besieged by that great emperor with 
unshaken resolution and being at length reduced to extremity, devoted 
themselves to their country, and chose rather to perish with their 
mother in sallies against the enemy, than submit to an insolent inva- 
der. It is OMring to this extraordinary devotion on their part, that 
their enemies have thought them deserving of the statues here erected 
to their memory. These two large elephants, mounted by the two 
] ?roes, have an air of grandeur, and inspire me with an awe and 
n^pect which I cannot describe." 

Could I have supposed that any one visiting Delhi, would not have 
this account fresh in memory, I would earlier have troubled you with 
the reference. 

Regarding Chittore, Ferishta says that when Akbar was besieging 
Chittore, after the failure of two assaults, the emperor was so fortu- 
nate as to shoot Jugmull, whom he had observed on the ramparts 
directing the defence. On which the enemy lost heart, destroyed 
their wives and children with fire, on a funeral pile with their slain 
chief, and retiring to their temples refused quarter, but were slain, 
(apparently without resistance,) to the number of ten thousand. 
This Jugmull must be the same as the Jeiuol of Bernier. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



376 Elephant Statues in the Delhi Palace. [No. 4, 

The Hindoo account as collected by Tod from the records and tradi- 
tions of Mewar is as follows. 

'' But the names that shine brightest in this gloomy page of the 
annals of Mewar, which are still held sacred by the Bard and true 
Bajpootre and immortalised by Akbar's own pen, are Jeimul of 
Bednore and Putta of Kailwa, both of the sixteen superior yassals of 
Mewar. The names of Jeimul and Putta are as household words 
inseparable, ^. When Saloombra fell at the gate of the Sun, the 
command deyolved upon Putta of Kailwa. He was only sixteen years 
of age. His father had fallen in the last shock, and his mother had 
survived but to rear this the sole heir of their house. Like the Spartan 
mother of old, she commanded him to put on the saffron robe and to 
die for Chittore. But, surpassing the Grecian dame, she illustrated 
her precept by example, armed the young bride of her son with a lance 
and with her descended from Chittore ; whence the defenders saw the 
young bride fall fighting by the side of her Amazonian mother. 
When wives and daughters performed such deeds, the Bajpootees 
became reckless of life. They had maintained a protracted defence 
and had no thought of surrender, when a ball struck Jeimul who had 
succeeded to the command." 

The northern ramparts had been entirely destroyed by the mines of 
Akbar. The fatal Johur or sacrifice of females was awaited, and at 
its close, the gates of the fortress were thrown open, the work of de- 
struction commenced, and few survived to stain the yeUow mantle by 
inglorious surrender. Akbar entered Chittore and slew 30,000 of his 
enemies. Nine queens, five princesses, their daughters, with two infant 
princes, and the families of all the chieftains not at their estates, perished 
in the fatal Johur or in the sack. The gates were taken for the 
emperor's fortress at Agra. 

Akbar claimed the honour of Jeimul's death by his own hand. The 
conqueror of Chittore evinced the sense of the merits of his foes 
in erecting statues to the manes of Putta and Jeimul at the most 
conspicuous entrance of his palace at Delhi. 

I have shortened and simplified Tod's inflated narrative which is 
ofben sufficiently obscure. 

The origin of these statues is still matter of uncertainty. Had 
they been made by Akbar or carried from Chittore by him, we might 
expect to find them rather at Agra, his chief eapital, than at Delhi. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1861] Meplmd Statue% in the Delhi Palace. 877 

The stone of which the elephants are built is of black colour and slaty 
texture, greatly resembling that of which the Indo-Greek sculptures are 
wrought near the Indus. There is nothing of this kind at or near 
Delhi ; nor do I think it is found at Chittore : but of this I am not 
certain. Being in blocks of moderate size it may have been brought 
from afar. The statues stood at the gate of the citadel of Delhi at 
the commencement of Aurungzebe*s reign. When that monster's 
religious frenzy attained its height, they were probably pulled to 
pieces, in deference to the hatred of the orthodox for images of alt 
kinds. Bemier states, not (as quoted by Tod), that they stood at 
the principal entrance to the citadel, but that they stood at one of 
the principal entrances. This was probably the Delhi gate of the 
citadel ; so caUed as facing the original city of Delhi. They were 
found buried in old and in recent rubbish, inside the citadel, at a spot 
intermediate between the two principal gates, but nearer to the Delhi 
Gate. 

The screens to the citadel gates were built by Aurungzebe him- 
telf, and they could not perhaps have been built without removing 
these statues, which at any rate would be most suitably posted out< 
side the gate of the screen. Supposing them to have been pulled 
down accordingly, it is not to be supposed that the saintly monster 
would have had any share in reconstructing idols. 

P. S. — In Tod's narrative we are told that there were 80,000 in- 
habitants in the fortress of Chittore when it opened its gates. Yet 
he does not say that these rushed out sword in hand upon the enemy. 
And from Ferishta's accoxmt we gather that they could have made little 
or no defence, as few if any of the assailants were slidn. The spirit of 
manhood seems to have deserted the breasts of the males to centre 
in that of the women. Indeed the brutal sacrifice of the Johur whilst 
30,000 of the garrison survived, or eveu the ten thousand reckoned 
by Tod, denotes anything but the spirit of heroes. Undoubted in- 
stances of the gallantry of Rajpootres are on record. But they seem 
at times to have despaired very early in the day. Certainly no army 
of undisciplined troops could have taken Chittore if manfully defended 
by ten thousand men. 



3 p 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



87S Oeoloffieal features ofSunnoo. [No. 4, 

Observations on the OeoUgical feaiwres Sfe. of the Country in the 
neighbourhood of Bunnoo and the Sanatorium of Shaikh Boodeen. 
— By C. P. CosTELLO, Esq., Asst Surgeon^ 6th Punjab Infantry. 

Comymwnicated by the Pv/njab AvmUary Committee of the Asiatic Society. 
lEeeeived 16th February, 1864.] 

The Bunnoo Valley is surrounded by hills on every side — on the 
north by the hiUs of the Caubul Kheye Wuzeerees which are a conti- 
nuation of the Sooliman range, on the south by the Batannee range : 
on the east by the £[hattuck hills ; and on the west by the Sooliman 
range. I am not possessed of any geolo^cal information regarding 
the Caubul Eiieye hills. The Batannee hills strike off at an acuta 
angle from the Sooliman range on the west, proceed at first in a south- 
easterly direction until they reach Peyzoo ; and then run eastwards 
across the Murwut Valley ; and terminate by sloping off towards the 
Indus at the junction of this river with the Koorum below Esan 
KheyL The portion of the range next to the Sooliman hills is called 
the Peyzoo hills, which terminate at Peyzoo. The next portion is 
called Shaikh Boodeen, which is about 6 miles in length, and termi- 
nates in sand [sandstone P] hills (the highest of which is about 1200 
feet above the plain below,) which form the termination of the whole 
range. * 

The Peyzoo hills are irregular, wavy, sand [sandstone P] hills with 
two passes through them — ^the first, next the Sooliman range, being 
called the Baenderra ; the . second the Peyzoo pass. I have not 
obtained any fossils from these hills. Each pass is intersected by 
numerous nullalis. 

Shaikh Boodeen is about 4,500 feet above the level of the sea ; and 
the little hill station on its summit is the frontier Sanatorium. The 
general dip of the strata is towards the north, and their strike from east 
to west. The angle which the dip forms with the horizon is a good 
deal more than a right angle. The upper portion of the hiUs is com- 
posed chiefly of limestone, which very often is stained red and yellow 
by peroxide and bisulphuret [P] of Iron. Lower down the hill, there is 
more claystone mixed with blocks of limestone ; and at the foot of the 
hill, we meet with the low sand [sandstone ?] hills continued from the 
Peyzoo range. This lowermost portion of the hill, is in many places 
covered with the debris of the higher parts, in the form of broken rocks 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



1861] QeologiealfeaiuTei ofBwmoo, 879 

aod lime mixed with sulphur [?] ; this is most remarkable on the Agsun* 
Kheyl side. The limestone above-mentioned affords very good quick 
lime for building ; and the stone itself is also very useful for the 
same purpose. The water found in springs at the foot of the hill 
has a strong chalybeate taste. Hitherto no springy of any consequence 
have been discovered on the hill higher up; but search is being 
made for them. The principal fossils (shells) found about the summit 
of the hill are Belemnites, CardiumS) Echini, and Fectens ; also 
Turrilites, one or two specimens being in Gapt. Urmston's collection 
which he haa formed at Lahore. 

This portion of the hilL would therefore seem to belong to the 
« Upper Chalk." 

On the very lowermost portion of the southern face, I have found a 
few specimens of a Pecten resembling the Fecten JcteobtBua, The next 
portion of this rangef is composed of saodstone hills, which are disposed 
in parallel ridges running from north to south. The highest ridge is 
about the centre of this portion of the range, the ridges on each side 
sloping off, on one side, towards Shaikh Boodeen, and on the other to- 
wards the Indus. From these hills, I have obtained portions of heads^ 
teeihy tusks, vertebra, and limbs of Mammalian animals. Amongst 
these, I may mention the head and teeth of the Mammoth and other 
species of Elephant. I have forwarded a number of these to the 
Lahore Exhibition ; and as they are afterwards to be made over to 
Captain Stubbs, 0%. Sec., Funjaub Auxiliary Committee of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, I don't wish to make any special reference to 
any of them, until I know how far I have been correct in naming 
them. This terminal portion of the Batannee hills would, (on account 
of the occurrence in them of fossil species of the Elephant seem to 
belong to the Tertiary formation. 

I don't know anything about the Khattuck hills. All I know of the 
Booliman hills, is that the Wuzeeres find quantities of lignite and 
pyrites in them. 

The Bunnoo Valley appears to be composed of modem alluvium. I 

have observed several vertical sections of the soil — some of them being 

from 20 to 40 feet in depth. Li all cases, the sections have been 

formed of alternate layers of sand and conglomerate ; most of the stones 

* The northern side, 
t Batannee. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



380 Geoloffieal features ofBmnoo. [Ko. 4^ 

in the conglomerate being rounded. In these layers species of Pala- 
dina, Planorbis, Limnea, Ac. are found. The Koorum river enters 
the valley at its northern extremity through the Caubol Kheyl Wu- 
zeeree hills ; the Gombelah through the same hills, but more to the 
west. The latter unites with the former below Lukkie, and the 
. Koorum thus enlarged, finally empties itself into the Indus below 
Esau Kheyl. It is not improbable, that the Bunnoo Valley was once 
a lake ; and that the two rivers were the feeders of this lake ; which 
probably, finally became emptied by the water gradually cutting ita 
way through the pass in the Khattuck hills, through which the 
Koorum now runs to join the Indus. Between the southern face of the 
sandstone hills, (to the east of Shaikh Boodeen),and the Indus is another 
range called the Betote range ; and the intervening valley is called 
the Lftgee Valley, at the mouth of which is the village of Punnialla. 

This Betote range appears to be of the same composition as Shaikh 
Boodeen ; at its upper portion at all events. From this upper portion, 
good limestone is also procured, and fossils of the same kind as on the 
upper portions of Shaikh Boodeen are I believe, found on~it. From the 
middle and lower portions the following fossil shells have been procured 
— a good number by myself: — Inoeeramue tuleatus, Lima CardiiformU^ 
Frodueta horrida, Froducta eemiretieulata^ Spirifer striata^ Caleeola 
tandalina, Uncites ffryphue; and fossil Corals — Syringopora ramU' 
iosa, and Lithodendran irrfffulare.^ These fossils with some others, are 
among those which will be made over to Captain Stubbs, B. H. A. 

* The author is responsible for these and other identifications.— Eds. 



Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



1864.] Separi of tie Cheat Trigonometrieal Survey. 881 

Extract from Report of the Operations of the Great Trigonometrical 
Survey of India daring the gear 1862-63.—% Major J. T. 
Walkbb, E. E. Superintendent Q. T, Surveg, 
[Beeeived lOth November, 1863.] 

In aocordanoe with the sanction of Government, I proceeded^ 
in the aatumn of 1862, with the officers and assistants marginally 
detailed,* to Yizagapatam to measure a Base Line. Yizagapatam is 
titnated nearly on the same parallel of latitude as Bombay ; and is 
the point where the Bombay Longitudinal Series, when extended 
eastwards to the Madras Coast, will terminate. This series of tri- 
angles will form, with the Great Arc Meridional, the Calcutta Longi* 
tudinal, and the Coast Series, a vast quadrilateral figure, circumscribing 
the Meridional Series of triangles which are required as a basis for 
the interior topographical details. Base Lines had been measured 
several years ago, by Colonel Everest, at Beder, Seronj, and Calcutta, 
the S. W., N. W., and N. E. angles of this quadrilateral. One 
more Base Line remained to be measured, which, for considerations of 
symmetry, it was desirable to place in the vicinity of Yizagapatam. 

Captain Basevi, the officer in charge of the Coast Series, being 
located at Yizagapatam, was directed to select the site. Afber several 
trials, owing to the difficulty of carrying a straight line, several miles 
in length, so as to avoid the numerous irrigation tanks with which 
this district is studded, he eventually succeeded in finding a suitable 
line, on the undulating plain between the Military stations of Yizaga- 
patam and Yizianagram, at a distance of about fifteen miles to the 
west of the port of Bimlipatam. The ground was chosen before the 
commencement of the rainy season of 1862, when trenches were dug 
to eany away the expected rain fall during the monsoon, and every 
precaution was taken to keep the line dry. But when Captain Basevi 
took ihe field early in October, he found that the rains had been so 
heavy, that the suirounding tanks had been converted into lakes, and 
the line lay submerged under a sheet of water, in some parts as much 
as sixteen feet deep. By great exertions the water was drained off 
into adjoining rarines. A portion of the line was ready for measuring 
on my arrival in December, and the remainder had become fairly dried 
by the time it was reached, in the course of measurement. 

• Hessra. Heimessyi Taylor, Campbelli Wood^ Bui and Mitohell. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



Separt of the Great Trigonametriedl Surpef. [No. 4^ 

The apparatus employed, consisted of a set of Compensating 
Bars and Microscopes, on the principle of those designed bj Colonel 
Colby, for the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain, which had been 
constructed under the superintendence of Colonel Everest, by whom 
they were brought out to India in 1882. This apparatus has been 
employed in measuring three Base Lines on the Great Arc, two at the 
north and south extremities of the Calcutta Meridional Series, and 
two at the extremities of the Indus Series. The length of these bases 
has, in each instance, been determined in terms of ten foot Standard 
Bar A, the unit of measure of the Indian Surrey. 

At the time this Standard was constructed, it was believed that 
the length of a well made iron bar, supported by rollers at its points 
of least fiexure, might be considered invariable for any given tempera- 
ture. But, of recent years, there has been a growing tendency to 
doubt the invariabilicy which has hitherto been assumed. Series of 
comparisons made by the Ordnance Survey show there is much proba- 
bility that the texture of an iron bar changes gradually in the cotuse 
of years ; for the factors of expansion obtamed from groups of com- 
parisons made at intervals a few years apart, differ from each other by 
larger quantities than are due to errors of observation. It is prefer- 
able, therefore, to employ several Standards, constructed of different 
metals, rather than to trust to the integrity of a single bar. 

To ascertain whether our Standard has altered in length, it 
would be necessary to remeasure the whole, or part, of one of the 
Base Lines which were first measured after the arrival of the Bar 
from England. I wished to obtain some light on this subject, by 
remeasuring certain short sections of the Calcutta Base Line, the 
extremities of which were originsUy indicated by permanent marks* 
But, on examining the positions of the section markstones, I found 
that, though concealed from view, there had been a r^ular thorough* 
fare over them, for many years, of carts and elephants, as well as foot 
passengers; consequently, they must, in all probability, have been 
disturbed, and they cannot be safely referred to, to decide so delicate 
a matter as the constancy of the Standard. 

Disappomted at being baffled in my efforts to investigate this 
matter by any simpler and shorter process than the remeasurement of 
a whole Base Line, I determined to mark the intermediate section 
stations of the Yizagapatam Base as permanently as the extremities. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 



18M.] Beport of the Oreat Trigonometrical Survey. 888 

in order that any futore enquiry regarding the length of the Standard, 
at the time of the measurement of this Base Line, may be conducted 
without greater labour than the measurement of a short section. 

It has been well said, by one of the greatest living authorities 
on scientific matters, that " the ends of a base line should be guarded 
with religious veneration." In this country they are liable to be 
viewed with mingled cupidity and dread; the natives sometimes 
fancy that money is buried below, or they superstitiously fear that the 
Englishman's mark will cast a spell over the surrounding district. In 
either case, the mark is liable to be destroyed, as has abeady happened