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Cornell University Library 
G106 .B62 1887 

Geographical etymology : a dictionary of 


3 1924 029 820 556 



















THE Introduction, by which the present work is ushered 
into public notice, renders any lengthened Preface on 
my part quite unnecessary. Yet I wish to say a few 
words with regard to the design and plan of this little 

The subject, though no doubt possessing a peculiar 
interest to the general reader, and especially to tourists 
in these travelling days, falls naturally under the head 
of historical and geographical instruction in schools ; 
and for such use the book is, in the first place, specially 

When I was myself one of a class in this city where 
Geography and History were taught, no information 
connected with etymology was imparted to us. We 
learned, with more or less trouble and edification, the 
names of countries, towns, etc., by rote ; but our teacher 
did not ask us who gave the names to these places, 
nor were we expected to inquire or to know if there 
was any connection between their names and their 


histories. Things are changed now ; and I believe 
the first stimulus to an awakening interest in Geo- 
graphical Etymology was given by the publication of 
the Rev. Isaac Taylor's popular work, Words and 
Places. About ten years ago, I found that the best 
teachers in the English schools of Edinburgh did ask 
questions on this subject, and I discovered, at the same 
time, that a book specially bearing upon it was a 
desideratum in school literature. As no one better 
qualified came forward, I was induced to make the 
attempt ; and I hope the following pages, the result of 
much research and in the face of no small discourage- 
ment, may prove useful to teachers, as well as to their 

The Index at the end of the volume, although it 
contains many names not included in the body of the 
work, does by no means include all that I have given 
there. This did not seem necessary, because, the root 
words being alphabetically arranged, an intelligent 
teacher or pupil will easily find the key to the explana- 
tion of any special name by referring to the head under 
which it is naturally classed. I must, however, premise 
that, with regard to names derived from the Celtic 
languages, the root word is generally placed at the 
beginning of the name — that is, if it contain more than 
one syllable. This is the case with such vocables as 
pen, ben, dun, lis, rath, strath, etc. ; e.g. Lismore, Ben- 
more, Dungarvan, Strath-Allan. On the other hand, 


in names derived from the Teutonic or Scandinavian 
languages, the root word comes last, as will be found 
with regard to ton, dale, burg, berg, stadt, dorf, ford, 

The index, therefore, may be expected to include 
principally such names as, either through corruption or 
abbreviation, have materially changed their form, such 
as are formed from the simple root, like Fiirth, Ennis, 
Delft, or such as contain more than one, as in Portrush, 
it being uncertain under which head I may have placed 
such names. Along with the root words, called by the 
Germans Grundwbrter, I have given a number of 
defining words (Bestimmungsworter) — such adjectives 
as express variety in colour, form, size, etc. 

It is to be regretted that many names have neces- 
sarily been omitted from ignorance or uncertainty with 
regard to their derivation. This is the case, unfortu- 
nately, with several well-known and important towns — 
Glasgow, Berlin, Berne, Madrid, Paisley, etc. With 
regard to these and many others, I shall be glad to 
receive reliable information. 

And now it only remains for me to express my 
obligations to the gentlemen who have kindly assisted 
me in this work, premising that, in the departments 
which they have revised, the credit of success is due 
mainly to them ; while I reserve to myself any blame 
which may be deservedly attached to failures or omis- 
sions. The Celtic portion of my proof-sheets has been 


revised by Dr. Skene, the well-known Celtic scholar of 
this city, and by Dr. Joyce, author of Irish Names of 
Places. I have also to thank the Rev. Isaac Taylor, 
author of Words and Places, for the help and encour- 
agement which he has given me from time to time ; 
and Mr. Paterson, author of the Magyars, for valuable 
information which I received from him regarding the 
topography of Hungary. I appreciate the assistance 
given me by these gentlemen the more, that it did not 
proceed from personal friendship, as I was an entire 
stranger to all of them. It was the kindness and 
courtesy of the stronger and more learned to one weaker 
and less gifted than themselves ; and I beg they may 
receive my grateful thanks, along with the little volume 
which has been so much their debtor. 

C. B. 

Edinburgh, July 1887. 


Among the branches of human speculation that, in 
recent times, have walked out of the misty realm of 
conjecture into the firm land of science, and from the 
silent chamber of the student into the breezy fields 
of public life, there are few more interesting than 
Etymology. For as words are the common counters, 
or coins rather, with which we mark our points in 
all the business and all the sport of life, any man 
whose curiosity has not been blunted by familiarity, 
will naturally find a pleasure in understanding what 
the image and superscription on these markers mean ; 
and amongst words there are none that so powerfully 
stimulate this curiosity as the names of persons and 
places. About these the intelligent interest of young 
persons is often prominently manifested ; and it is a 
sad thing when parents or teachers, who should be in 
a position to gratify this interest, are obliged to waive 
an eager intelligence aside, and by repeated negations 
to repel the curiosity which they ought to have en- 
couraged. Geography indeed, a subject full of interest 



to the young mind, has too often been taught in such a 
way as neither to delight the imagination with vivid 
pictures, nor to stimulate inquiry by a frequent reference 
to the history of names ; and this is an evil which, if 
found to a certain extent in all countries, is particularly 
rank in Great Britain, where the language of the country 
is composed of fragments of half a dozen languages, 
which only the learned understand, and which, to the 
ear of the many, have no more significance than if they 
were Hebrew or Coptic. The composite structure of 
our English speech, in fact, tends to conceal from us 
the natural organism of language ; so that in our case, 
it requires a special training to make us fully aware of 
the great truth announced by Home Tooke, that " in 
language there is nothing arbitrary." Nevertheless, the 
curiosity about the meaning of words, though seldom 
cherished, is not easily extinguished ; and, in this age of 
locomotion, there are few scraps of information more 
grateful to the intelligent tourist than those which 
relate to the significance of topographical names. 
When, for instance, the London holiday-maker, in his 
trip to the West Highlands, setting foot in one of Mr. 
Hutchinson's steamboats at Oban, on his way to the 
historic horrors of Glencoe, finds on his larboard side a 
long, low island, green and treeless, called Lismore, he 
will be pleased, no doubt, at first by simply hearing so 
euphonious a word in a language that he had been 
taught to believe was harsh and barbarous, but will be 
transported into an altogether different region of intel- 


ligent delight when he is made to understand that this 
island is wholly composed of a vein of limestone, found 
only here in the midst of a wide granitic region skirted 
with trap ; that, by virtue of this limestone, the island, 
though treeless, is more fertile than the surrounding 
districts ; and that for this reason it has received the 
Celtic designation of Liosmor, or the great garden. 
Connected with this etymology, not only is the topo- 
graphical name made to speak reasonably to a reason- 
able being, but it contains in its bosom a geological 
fact, and an ceconomical issue, bound together by a 
bond of association the most natural and the most 
permanent. The pleasant nature of the intelligence 
thus awakened leads us naturally to lament that, except 
to those who are born in Celtic districts and speak the 
Celtic language, the significance of so many of our most 
common topographical names in the most interesting 
districts is practically lost ; and it deserves consideration 
whether, in our English and classical schools, so much 
at least of the original speech of the country should 
not be taught as would enable the intelligent student 
to know the meaning of the local names, to whose 
parrot-like repetition he must otherwise be condemned. 
Some of the Celtic words habitually used in the 
designation of places — such as Ben, Glen, Strath, and 
Loch — have been incorporated into the common English 
tongue ; and the addition to this stock is not very large, 
which would enable an intelligent traveller to hang the 
points of his picturesque tour on a philological peg that 


would most materially insure both their distinctness and 
their permanence. Nay, more ; the germ of apprecia- 
tion thus begotten might lead a sympathetic nature 
easily into some more serious occupation with the old 
language of our country ; and this might lead to a 
discovery full of pleasant surprise, that in the domain 
of words, as of physical growth, the brown moors, when 
examined, often produce flowers of the most choice 
beauty with which the flush of the most cultivated 
gardens cannot compete, and that a venerable branch 
of the old Indo-European family of languages, generally 
ignored as rude and unlettered, is rich in a popular 
poetry, as fervid in passion, and as healthy in hue, as 
anything that Homer or Hesiod ever sang. 

In the realm of etymology, as everybody now knows, 
before Bopp and Grimm, and other great scholars, laid 
the sure' foundation of comparative philology on the prin- 
ciples of a philosophy, as all true philosophy is, at once 
inductive and deductive, the license of conjecture played 
a mad part — a part, it is only too evident, not yet fully 
played out — and specially raised such a glamour of 
illusion about topographical etymology, that the theme 
became disgusting to all sober-minded thinkers, or 
ludicrous, as the humour might be. We must, there- 
fore, approach this subject with a more than common 
degree of caution, anxious rather to be instructed in 
what is solid, than to be amazed with what is ingenious. 
It shall be our endeavour to proceed step by step in 
this matter — patiently, as with the knowledge that our 


foot is on the brink of boggy ground, starting from 
obvious principles given by the constitution of the 
human mind, and confirmed by a large induction of 
unquestioned facts. 

The most natural and obvious reason for naming a 
place so-and-so would be to express the nature of the 
situation by its most striking features, with the double 
view of impressing its character on the memory, and 
conveying to persons who had not seen it an idea of 
its peculiarity ; i.e. the most obvious and natural 
topographical names are such as contain condensed 
descriptions or rude verbal pictures of the object. Thus 
the notion of the highest mountain in a district may 
be broadly conveyed by simply calling it the big mount, 
or, according to the order of words current in the 
Celtic languages, mount big ; which is exactly what 
we find in Benmore, from mor, big, the name of 
several of the highest mountains in the Highlands of 
Scotland, specially of one in the south of Perthshire, 
near Killin, of another in Mull, the highest trap moun- 
tain in Scotland, and a third in Assynt. Again, to 
mark the very prominent feature of mountains elevated 
considerably above the normal height, that they are 
covered with snow all the year round, we find Lebanon, 
in the north of Palestine, named from the Hebrew 
leban, white ; Mont BLANC, in Switzerland, in the 
same way from an old Teutonic word signifying the 
same thing, which found its way into Italian and the 
other Romanesque languages, fairly ousting the Latin 


albus ; OLYMPUS, from the Greek Xdfnrofiat, to shine ; 
the SCHNEEKOPPE, in Silesia, from schnee, snow, and 
koppe, what we call kip in the Lowland topography of 
Scotland, i.e. a pointed hill, the same radically as the 
Latin caput, the head. In the same fashion one of 
the modern names of the ancient Mount Hermon is 
Jebel-eth-Thelj, the snowy mountain, just as the Hima- 
layas receive their names from the Sanscrit haima = 
Greek %eiyu.a, winter. 

The most obvious characteristic of any place, whether 
mountain or plain or valley, would be its shape and 
size, its relative situation high or low, behind or in the 
front, its colour, the kind of rock or soil of which it is 
composed, the climate which it enjoys, the vegetation 
in which it abounds, and the animals by which it is 
frequented. Let us take a few familiar examples of 
each of these cases ; and, if we deal more largely in 
illustrations from the Scottish Highlands than from 
other parts of the world, it is for three sufficient reasons 
— because these regions are annually visited by the 
greatest number of tourists ; because, from the general 
neglect of the Celtic languages, they stand most in need 
of interpretation ; and because they are most familiar 
— not from book -knowledge only, but by actual in- 
spection — to the present writer. In the matter of size, 
the tourist will find at Glenelg (from sealg, to hunt), 
in Inverness-shire, opposite Skye, where there are two 
well-preserved circular forts, the twin designations of 
GLENMORE and Glenbeg ; that is, Glenbig and Glen- 


little — a contrast constantly occurring in the Highlands ; 
the word beag, pronounced vulgarly in Argyleshire peek, 
signifying little, evidently the same as /jmc in the Greek 
/it«/3os. As to relative situation, the root ard, in Latin 
arduus, frequently occurs ; not, however, to express 
any very high mountain, but either a bluff fronting the 
sea, as in ARDNAMORCHUAN (the rise of the great 
ocean, cuan, perhaps from wiceavcx;), or more frequently 
a slight elevation on the shore of a lake, what they 
call in England a rise, as in Ardlui, near the head 
of Loch Lomond, Ardvoirlich, and many others. 
The word lui, Gaelic laogh — the gh being silent, as in 
the English sigh — -signifies a calf or a fawn, and gives 
name to the lofty mountain which the tourist sees on 
his right hand as he winds up where the railway is 
now being constructed from Dalmally to Tyndrum. 
Another frequent root to mark relative situation is CUL, 
behind, Latin cuius, French cul, a word which gives 
name to a whole parish in Aberdeenshire, to the 
famous historical site of Culross, the reputed birthplace 
of St. Kentigern, and many others. This word means 
simply behind the headland, as does also CULCHENZIE 
(from ceann, the head), at the entrance to Loch Leven 
and Glencoe, which the tourist looks on with interest, 
as for two years the summer residence of the noble- 
minded Celtic evangelist Dr. Norman Macleod. But 
the most common root, marking relative situation, which 
the wanderer through Celtic countries encounters is 
inver, meaning below, or the bottom of a stream, of 


which aber is only a syncopated form, a variation 
which, small as it appears, has given rise to large con- 
troversy and no small shedding of ink among bellicose 
antiquarians. For it required only a superficial glance 
to observe that while Abers are scattered freely over 
Wales, they appear scantly in Scotland, and there with 
special prevalence only in the east and south-east of 
the Grampians — as in Aberdeen, Aberdour, Aber- 
lemno in Fife, and others. On this the eager genius 
of archaeological discovery, ever ready to poise a 
pyramid on its apex, forthwith raised the theory, that 
the district of Scotland where the Abers prevailed had 
been originally peopled by Celts of the Cymric or 
Welsh type, while the region of Invers marked out the 
ancient seats of the pure Caledonian Celts. But this 
theory, which gave great offence to some fervid High- 
landers, so far as it stood on this argument, fell to the 
ground the moment that some more cool observer put 
his finger on half a dozen or a whole dozen of Invers, 
in perfect agreement hobnobbing with the Abers, not far 
south of Aberdeen ; while, on the other hand, a zealous 
Highland colonel, now departed to a more peaceful 
sphere, pointed out several Abers straggling far west 
and north-west into the region of the Caledonian Canal 
and beyond it. But these slippery points are wisely 
avoided ; and there can be no doubt, on the general 
principle, that relative situation has everywhere played a 
prominent part in the terminology of districts. North- 
umberland and Sutherland, and Cape Deas or Cape 


South, in Cantire, are familiar illustrations of this 
principle of nomenclature. In such cases the name, 
of course, always indicates by what parties it was 
imposed ; Sutherland, or Southern-land, having received 
this appellation from the Orkney men, who lived to the 
north of the Pentland Firth. 

The next element that claims mention is Colour. 
In this domain the most striking contrasts are black 
and white. In ancient Greece, a common name for 
rivers was Melas, or Black-water ; one of which, that 
which flows into the Malaic Gulf, has translated itself 
into modern Greek as Mauro-NERO, pavpo in the 
popular dialect having supplanted the classical fiekas ; 
and vepo, as old, no doubt, as Nereus and the Nereids, 
having come into its pre-Homeric rights and driven out 
the usurping vBcop. In the Scottish Highlands, dubk, 
black or dark, plays, as might be expected, a great 
figure in topographical nomenclature ; of this let Ben- 
MUIC Dubh, or the mount of the black sow, familiar to 
many a Braemar deer-stalker, serve as an example ; 
while CAIRNGORM, the cradle of many a golden-gleaming 
gem, stands with its dark blue (gorm) cap immediately 
opposite, and recalls to the classical fancy its etymo- 
logical congeners in the Cyanean rocks, so famous 
in early Greek fable. Of the contrasted epithet white, 
LEUCADIA (\evic6<;), where the poetess Sappho is famed 
to have made her erotic leap, is a familiar example. 
In the Highlands, ban (fair), or geal (white), is much 
less familiar in topographical nomenclature than dubh ; 


BuiDHE, on the other hand (yellow), corresponding to 
the %avdo<; of the Greeks, is extremely common, as in 
Lochbuie at the south-east corner of Mull, one of the 
few remaining scattered links of the possessions of the 
Macleans, once so mighty and latterly so foolish, in 
those parts. Among other colours, glas (gray) is very 
common ; so is dearg (red), from the colour of the 
rock, as in one of those splendid peaks that shoot up 
behind the slate quarries at the west end of Glencoe. 
Breac, also (spotted or brindled), is by no means un- 
common, as in Ben Vrackie, prominent behind Pit- 
lochrie, in Perthshire, in which word the initial b has 
been softened into a v by the law of aspiration peculiar 
to the Celtic languages. 

There remain the two points of climate and vegeta- 
tion, of which a few examples will suffice. In Sicily, 
the town of Selinus, whose magnificence remains pre- 
served in indelible traces upon the soil, took its name 
from the wild parsley, creXtvov, which grew plentifully 
on the ground, and which appears on the coins of the 
city. In the Scottish Highlands, no local name is more 
common than that which is familiarly known as the 
designation of one of the most genuine of the old Celtic 
chiefs, the head of the clan Macpherson — we mean the 
word CLUNY (Gaelic cluain ; possibly only a variety of 
grim, green), which signifies simply a green meadow, a 
vision often very delightful to a pedestrian after a long 
day's tramp across brown brae and gray fell in those 
parts. The abundance of oak in ancient Celtic regions, 


where it is not so common now, is indicated by the 
frequency of the termination darach (from which Derry, 
in Ireland, is corrupted ; Greek Spv? and Bopv), as in 
the designation of one of the Campbells in Argyle, 
Auchin-DARROCH, i.e. oak-field. The pine, giubkas, 
appears in KINGUSSIE, pine-end, in the midst of that 
breezy open space which spreads out to the north-west 
of the Braemar Grampians. In Beith and Aultbea 
(birch-brook) we have beath, Latin betula, a birch-tree ; 
elm and ash are rare ; heather, fraoch, especially in the 
designation of islands, as Eileanfraoch, in Loch Awe, 
and another in the Sound of Kerrera, close by Oban. 
Of climate we find traces in AUCHNASHEEN [sian), on 
the open blasty road between Dingwall and Janetown, 
signifying the field of wind and rain ; in Mealfour- 
VONIE, the broad hill of the frosty moor, composed of 
the three roots maol (broad and bald), fuar (cold), and 
mhonaid (upland) ; in Balfour (cold town), and in the 
remarkable mountain in Assynt called CANISP, which 
appears to be a corruption of Ceann-uisge, or Rainy- 

Lastly, of animals : madadh, a fox, appears in 
Lochmaddy and ARDMADDY; coin, of a dog, in Achna- 
CHOIN, or Dog's-field, one of the three bloody spots 
that mark the butchery of the false Campbell in Glen- 
coe ; and, throwing our glance back two thousand 
years, in CYNOSCEPHAL^E, or the Dog's-head, in Thes- 
saly, where the sturdy Macedonian power at last bowed 
in submission before the proud swoop of the Roman 


eagles ; the familiar cow {baa, Lat. bos) gives its name 
to that fair loch, which sleeps so quietly in the bosom 
of beautiful Mull ; while the goat, famous also in the sad 
history of Athenian decline at AlGOSPOTAMl, or the 
Goat's-river, gives its name to the steepy heights of 
Ardgour (from gobhar, Lat. caper), a fragment of the 
old inheritance of the Macleans, which rise up before 
the traveller so majestically as he steams northward 
from Ballachulish to Fort William and Banavie. 

In a country composed almost entirely of mountain 
ridges, with intervening hollows of various kinds, it 
is only natural that the variety in the scenery, produced 
by the various slopes and aspects of the elevated 
ground, should give rise to a descriptive nomenclature 
of corresponding variety. This is especially remarkable 
in Gaelic ; and the tourist in the Scottish Highlands 
will not travel far without meeting, in addition to the 
Ben and Ard already mentioned, the following specific 
designations : — 

Drum — a ridge. 

Scour — a jagged ridge or peak. 

Cruach — a conical mountain. 

Mam — a slowly rising hill. 

Maol — a broad, flat, bald mountain. 

Monagh — an upland moor. 

Tulloch or Tilly — a little hill, a knoll. 

Tom — a hillock, a mound. 

Tor — a hillock, a mound. 

Bruach — a steep slope (Scotch brae). 

Craig — crag, cliff. 

Cairn — a heap of stones. 


Lairg — a broad, low slope. 

Letter— the side of a hill near the water. 

Croit — a hump. 

Clach — a stone. 

Lech — a flagstone. 

In the Lowlands, pen, law, fell, bra, hope, rise, edge, 
indicate similar varieties. Among these pen, as dis- 
tinguished from the northern ben, evidently points to a 
Welsh original. Hope is a curious word, which a 
south-country gentleman once defined to me as "the 
point of the low land mounting the hill whence the 
top can be seen." Of course, if this be true, it means 
an elevation not very far removed from the level ground, 
because, as every hill-climber knows, the top of a huge 
eminence ceases to be visible the moment you get 
beyond what the Greeks call the "fore -feet" of the 

In the designation of the intervening hollows, or 
low land, the variety of expression is naturally less 
striking. Glen serves for almost all varieties of a 
narrow Highland valley. A very narrow rent or 
fissured gorge is called a glachd. The English word 
dale, in Gaelic dail, means in that language simply a 
field, or flat stretch of land at the bottom of the hills. 
It is to be noted, however, that this word is both Celtic 
and Teutonic ; but, in topographical etymology, with 
a difference distinctly indicative of a twofold origin. 
In an inland locality where the Scandinavians never 
penetrated, Dal is always prefixed to the other element 
of the designation, as in Dalwhinnie, Dalnacardoch, 


and DALNASPIDAL, the field of meeting, the field of the 
smithy, and the field of the hospital, all in succession 
within a short distance on the road between the Spey 
uplands and Blair Athol. On the other hand, a post- 
fixed dale, as in Borrowdale, Easdale, and not a 
few others, indicates a Saxon or Norse origin. The 
word den or dean, as in the Dean Bridge, Edinburgh, 
and the Den Burn, Aberdeen, is Anglo-Saxon denn, 
and appears in the English Tenterden, and some 
others. Another Celtic name for field is ach, the 
Latin ag-er, which appears in a number of Highland 
places, as in Ach-na-cloiche (stone field), in Argyle- 
shire. A hollow surrounded by mountains is called by 
the well-known name of laggan, which is properly a 
diminutive from lag, in Greek \&kko<;, in Latin lacus, 
a hollow filled with water, and in German a mere loch, 
or hole, into which a mouse might creep. A special 
kind of hollow, lying between the outstretched arms of 
a big Ben, and opening at one end into the vale below, 
is called in Gaelic coire, literally a cauldron — a word 
which the genius of Walter Scott has made a permanent 
possession of the English language. In England such 
mountain hollows are often denominated combs, as in 
Addiscombe, Ashcomb, a venerable old British word 
of uncorrupted Cornish descent, and which, so far as 
I know, does not appear in Scottish topography, unless 
it be in Cummertrees (on the shore, traigh), near 
Annan, and Cumbernauld ; but this I am not able 
to verify by local knowledge. The word cumar appears 


in O'Reilly's Irish dictionary as "the bed of a large 
river or a narrow sea, a hollow generally," but seems 
quite obsolete in the spoken Gaelic of to-day. The 
termination holm is well known both in English and 
Scotch names, and proclaims itself as characteristically 
Scandinavian, in the beautiful metropolis of the Swedes. 
In Gaelic districts a holm, that is, a low watery meadow, 
is generally called a Ion, a word which has retained 
its place in Scotch as loan — Loaning, Loanhead, 
Loanend, and is fundamentally identical with the 
English lane and lawn. The varieties of sea-coast are 
expressed by the words traigh, cladach, camus, corran, 
wick, loch, rutha, ross, caolas, stron, salen, among which, 
in passing, we may specially note camus, from the root 
cam, Greek KafiTrrm, to bend : hence MORECAMBE 
Bay, near Lancaster, signifies the great bend ; corran, 
a scythe, evidently allied to the Latin curvus, and used 
in the Highlands to denote any crescent-shaped shore, 
as at Corranferry, Ardgour, in Lochfinne ; wick, a 
familiar Scandinavian word signifying a bay, and which, 
with the Gaelic article prefixed, seems to have blundered 
itself into NIGG at Aberdeen, and near Fearn in Ross- 
shire ; caolas, a strait, combining etymologically the 
very distant and very different localities of Calais and 
BALLACHULISH ; stron or sron, a nose, which lends its 
name to a parish near the end of Loch Sunart, in 
Morvern, and thence to a famous mineral found in its 
vicinity ; lastly, salen is nothing but salt, and appears 
in the south of Ireland and the north-west of Scotland, 


under the slightly varied forms of KlNSALE and KlN- 
TAIL, both of which words signify the head of the salt 
water \ for Irish and Gaelic are only one language with 
a slightly different spelling here and there, and a 
sprinkling of peculiar words now and then. 

The only other features of natural scenery that play 
a noticeable part in topographical etymology are the 
rivers, lakes, wells, and waterfalls ; and they need not 
detain us long. The Gaelic uisge, water, of which the 
Latin aqua is an abraded form, appears in the names 
of Scottish rivers as Esk, and of Welsh rivers as Use. 
The familiar English Avon is the Gaelic amhainn, 
evidently softened down by aspiration from the Latin 
amnis. This avon often appears at the end of river 
names curtailed, as in Garonne, the rough river, from 
the Gaelic root garbh, rough. The Don, so common 
as a river name from the Black Sea to Aberdeen, 
means either the deep river or the brown river. A 
small river, brook in English, gives name to not a few 
places and persons. In the Scottish Highlands, and 
in those parts of the Lowlands originally inhabited by 
the Celtic race, the word alt performs the same functions. 
Loch, in Gaelic, answering to the English mere (Latin 
mare), appears most commonly in the Highlands, as 
KlNLOCH, i.e. the town or house at the head of the 
lake ; and tobar, a well, frequently, as in Holywell, 
connected with a certain religious sanctity, appears in 
Tobermory, i.e. the well of the Virgin Mary, one of 
the most beautiful quiet bits of bay scenery in Great 


Britain. Of places named from waterfalls (eas, from 
esk), a significant element in Highland scenery, Inver- 
ness, and MONESS near Aberfeldy, are the most notable, 
the one signifying " the town at the bottom of the river, 
which flows from the lake where there is the great 
waterfall," i.e. FOYERS ; and the other, " the waterfall 
of the moorish uplands," which every one understands 
who walks up to it. 

So much for the features of unappropriated nature, 
stereotyped, as it were, at once and for ever, in the 
old names of local scenery. But as into a landscape 
an artist will inoculate his sentiment and symbolise 
his fancy, so on the face of the earth men are fond to 
stamp the trace of their habitation and their history. 
Under this influence the nomenclature of topography 
becomes at once changed from a picture of natural 
scenery to a record of human fortunes. And in this 
department it is plain that the less varied and striking 
the features of nature, the greater the necessity of 
marking places by the artificial differentiation produced 
by the presence of human dwellings. Hence, in the 
flat, monotonous plains of North Germany, the abun- 
dance of places ending in hausen and heim, which are 
only the Saxon forms of our English house and home. 
Of the termination hausen, Sachsenhausen, the home 
of the Saxons, and Frankenhausen, the home of the 
Franks, are amongst the most notable examples. Heim 
is pleasantly associated with refreshing draughts in 
HOCHHEIM, i.e. high home, on the north bank of the 


Rhine a little below Mainz, whence a sharp, clear wine 
being imported, with the loss of the second syllable, 
and the transformation of ch into k, produced the 
familiar hock. This heim in a thousand places of 
England becomes ham, but in Scotland, where the Celtic 
element prevails, appears only rarely in the south-east 
and near the English border, as in COLDINGHAM and 
Ednam — the birthplace of the poet Thomson — con- 
tracted from Edenham. Another root very widely 
expressive of human habitation, under the varying forms 
of beth, bo, and by, is scattered freely from the banks of 
Jordan to the islands of the Hebrides in the north-west 
of Scotland. First under this head we have the great 
army of Hebrew beths, not a few of which are familiar 
to our ear from the cherished teachings of early 
childhood, as — Bethabara, the house of the ferry; 
Bethany, the house of dates : Bethaven, the house 
of naughtiness ; Bethcar, the house of lambs ; Beth- 
dagon, the house of the fish-god Dagon ; Bethel, the 
house of God ; Bethshemesh, the house of the sun 
(like the Greek Heliopolis) ; and a score of others. Bo 
is the strictly Danish form of the root, at least in the 
dictionary, where the verb boe, to dwell, also appears. 
Examples of this are found in Skibo, in Ross-shire, 
and BUNESS, at the extreme end of Unst, the seat of 
the Edmonstones, a family well known in the annals 
of Shetland literature ; but more generally, in practice, 
it takes the softened form of by, as in hundreds of local 
designations in England, specially in Lincolnshire, 


where the Danes were for a long time at home. Near 
the English border, as in LOCKERBY, this same termina- 
tion appears ; otherwise in Scotland it is rare. In the 
Sclavonic towns of Mecklenburg and Prussia, it takes 
the form of bus, as in Pybus, while in Cornish it is bos, 
which is a later form of bod (German bude, English 
booth, Scotch bothy), which stands out prominently in 
Bodmin and other towns, not only in Cornwall, but in 
Wales. The termination bus appears likewise in not a 
few local designations in the island of Islay, where the 
Danes had many settlements. In Skye it appears as 
host, as in Skeabost, one of the oldest seats of the 
Macdonalds. The other Saxon or Scandinavian terms 
frequently met with throughout England and in the 
north-east of Scotland are — ton, setter or ster, stead, 
stow, stoke, hay, park, worth, bury, thorp, toft, thwaite. 
In Germany, besides heim and hausen, as already 
mentioned, we have the English hay, under the form 
hagen, a fence ; and thorp under the form dorf, a village ; 
and worth under the forms worth and werth, which are 
merely variations of the Greek ^6pro<;, English yard, 
and the Sclavonic gard and gorod, and the Celtic garad, 
the familiar word in the Highlands for a stone wall or 
dyke. In Germany, also, weiler, from weilen, to dwell, 
and leben, to live, are thickly sprinkled ; hof, also, is 
extremely common, signifying a court or yard — a suffix 
which the French, in that part of Germany which they 
stole from the Empire, turned into court or ville, as in 
Thionville from Diedenhofen. 


So much for the Teutonic part of this branch of 

topographical designation. In the Highlands tigh and 

bail are the commonest words to denote a human 

dwelling, the one manifestly an aspirated form of the 

Latin tignum (Greek 0-T670?, German dacJi), and the 

other as plainly identical with the 7ro7u? which appears 

in Sebastopol, and not a few cities, both ancient and 

modern, where Greek influence or Greek affectation 

prevailed. With regard to bal, it is noticeable that in 

Ireland it generally takes the form of bally, which is 

the full form of the word in Gaelic also, baile, there 

being no final mute vowels in that language ; but in 

composition for topographical use final e is dropped, as 

in Balmoral, the majestic town or house, from morail, 

magnificent, a very apt designation for a royal residence, 

by whatever prophetic charm it came to be so named 

before her present Majesty learned the healthy habit of 

breathing pure Highland air amid the fragrant birches 

and clear waters of Deeside. Tigh, though less common 

than bal, is not at all unfrequent in the mountains ; and 

tourists in the West Highlands are sure to encounter 

two of the most notable between Loch Lomond and 

Oban. The first, Tyndrum, the house on the ridge, 

at the point where the ascent ceases as you cross from 

Killin to Dalmally ; and the other TAYNUILT, or the 

house of the brook, in Scotch burnhouse, beyond Ben 

Cruachan, where the road begins to wend through the 

rich old copsewood towards Oban. I remember also a 

curious instance of the word tigh in a local designation, 


half-way between Inveraray and Loch Awe. In that 
district a little farmhouse on the right of the road vs 
called TlGHNAFEAD, i.e. whistle-house (Jead, a whistle, 
Latin fides), which set my philological fancy immediately 
on the imagination that this exposed place was so called 
from some peculiar whistling of the blast down from 
the hills immediately behind ; but such imaginations 
are very unsafe ; for the fact turned out to be, if some- 
what less poetical, certainly much more comfortable, 
that this house of call, in times within memory, stood 
at a greater distance from the road than it now does, 
which caused the traveller, when he came down the 
descent on a cold night, sharp-set for a glass of strong 
whisky, to make his presence and his wish known by 
a shrill whistle across the hollow. 

So much for tigk. The only other remark that I 
would make here is, that the word clachan, so well 
known from Scott's Clachan of Aberfoyle, does not 
properly mean a village, as Lowlanders are apt to 
imagine, but only a churchyard, or, by metonomy, a 
church — as the common phrase used by the natives, 
Di domhnaich dol do'n chlachan, " going to church on 
Sunday," sufficiently proves — the word properly meaning 
only the stones in the churchyard, which mark the 
resting-place of the dead ; and if the word is ever used 
for a village, it is only by transference to signify the 
village in which the parish church is, and the parish 

But it is not only the dwellings of men, but their 


actions, that make places interesting ; and as the 
march of events in great historical movements generally 
follows the march of armies, it follows that camps and 
battle-fields and military settlements will naturally have 
left strong traces in the topography of every country 
where human beings dwell. And accordingly we find 
that the Chester and the caster, added as a generic term 
to so many English towns, are simply the sites of 
ancient Roman castra or camps ; while Cologne, on 
the Rhine, marks one of the most prosperous of their 
settlements in Germany. Curiously analogous to this is 
the Coin, a well-known quarter of Berlin, on the Spree, 
where the German emperors first planted a Teutonic 
colony in the midst of a Sclavonic population. In the 
solemn march of Ossianic poetry, the word blar generally 
signifies a field of battle; but, as this word properly 
signifies only a large field or open space, we have no 
right to say that such names as Blair Athol and 
Blairgowrie have anything to do with the memory 
of sanguinary collisions. ALEXANDRIA, in Egypt, is 
one of the few remaining places of note that took their 
name from the brilliant Macedonian Helleniser of the 
East. Alexandria, in the vale of Leven, in Dum- 
bartonshire, tells of the family of Smollett, well known 
in the annals of Scottish literary genius, and still, by 
their residence, adding a grace to one of the most 
beautiful districts of lake scenery in the world. Adrian- 
ople stereotypes the memory of one of the most 
notable of the Roman emperors, who deemed it his 


privilege and pleasure to visit the extremest limits of 
his vast dominions, and leave some beneficial traces of 
his kingship there. The name PETERSBURG, whose 
Teutonic character it is impossible to ignore, indicates 
the civilisation of a Sclavonic country by an emperor 
whose early training was received from a people of 
German blood and breed ; while Constantinople 
recalls the momentous change which took place in the 
centre of gravity of the European world, when the 
declining empire of the Roman Cassars was about to 
become Greek in its principal site, as it had long been 
in its dominant culture. The streets of great cities, as 
one may see prominently in Paris, in their designations 
often contain a register of the most striking events of 
their national history. Genuine names of streets in old 
cities are a historical growth and an anecdotal record, 
which only require the pen of a cunning writer to make 
them as attractive as a good novel. London, in this 
view, is particularly interesting ; and Emerson, I 
recollect, in his book, How the Great City grew 
(London, 1862), tells an amusing story about the great 
fire in London, which certain pious persons observed to 
have commenced at a street called Pudding Lane, 
and ended at a place called Pve Corner, in memory 
of which they caused the figure of a fat boy to be put up 
at Smithfield, with the inscription on his stomach, " This 
boy is in memory put up for the late fire of London, 
occasioned by the sin of gluttony, 1666." Many a 
dark and odorous close in Old Edinburgh also, to men 


who, like the late Robert Chambers, could read stones 
with knowing eyes, is eloquent with those tales of Celtic 
adventure and Saxon determination which make the 
history of Scotland so full of dramatic interest ; while, 
on the other hand, the flunkeyism of the persons who, 
to tickle the lowest type of aristocratic snobbery, bap- 
tized certain streets of New Edinburgh with Bucking- 
ham Terrace, Belgrave Crescent, GROSVENOR Street, 
and such like apish mimicry of metropolitan West 
Endism, stinks in the nostrils and requires no comment. 
But not only to grimy streets of reeking towns, but to 
the broad track of the march of the great lines of the 
earth's surface, there is attached a nomenclature which 
tells the history of the adventurous captain, or the 
courageous commander, who first redeemed these regions 
from the dim limbo of the unknown, and brought them 
into the distinct arena of cognisable and manageable 
facts. In the frosty bounds of the far North- West, the 
names of Mackenzie, Maclintock, and Maclure 
proclaim the heroic daring that belongs so character- 
istically to the Celtic blood in Scotland. But it is in 
the moral triumphs of religion, which works by faith in 
what is noble, love of what is good, and reverence for 
what is great, that the influence of history over topo- 
graphical nomenclature is most largely traced. In 
ancient Greece, the genial piety which worshipped its 
fairest Avatar in the favourite sun-god Apollo, stamped 
its devotion on the name of Apollonia, on the Ionian 
Sea, and other towns whose name was legion. In 


CORNWALL, almost every parish is named after some 
saintly apostle, who, in days of savage wildness and 
wastefulness, had brought light and peace and humanity 
into these remote regions. In the Highlands of Scot- 
land, the KlLBRIDES {kill from cella, a shrine), KlL- 
MARTINS, Kilmarnqcks, and Kilmallies everywhere 
attest the grateful piety of the forefathers of the Celtic 
race in days which, if more dark, were certainly not 
more cold than the times in which we now live. In 
the Orkneys the civilising influence of the clergy, or, in 
some cases, no doubt, their love for pious seclusion, is 
frequently marked by the PAPAS or priests' islands. In 
Germany, Munich or Monacum, which shows a monk 
in its coat-of-arms, has retained to the present day the 
zeal for sacerdotal sanctitude from which it took its 
name ; and the same must be said of Muenster, in 
Westphalia (from /Aovao-rfjpi, in modern Greek a 
cathedral, English minster), the metropolis of Ultra- 
montane polity and priestly pretension in_ Northern 

But it is not only in commemorating, like coins, 
special historical events, that local names act as an 
important adjunct to written records; they give likewise 
the clue to great ethnological facts and movements of 
which written history preserves no trace. In this respect 
topographical etymology presents a striking analogy to 
geology ; for, as the science of the constitution of the 
earth's crust reveals a fossilised history of life in sig- 
nificant succession, long antecedent to the earliest action 


of the human mind on the objects of terrestrial nature, 
so the science of language to the practised eye discloses 
a succession of races in regions where no other sign 
of their existence remains. If it were doubted, for 
instance, whether at any period the Lowlands of Scot- 
land had been possessed by a Celtic race, and asserted 
roundly that from the earliest times the plains had 
been inhabited by a people of Teutonic blood, and 
only the mountain district to the west and north-west 
was the stronghold of the Celt, the obvious names of 
not a few localities in the east and south-east of Scotland 
would present an impassable bar to the acceptance of 
any such dogma. One striking instance of this occurs 
in Haddingtonshire, where a parish is now called Gara- 
VALT — by the very same appellation as a well-known 
waterfall near Braemar, in the hunting forest of the late 
Prince Consort ; and with the same propriety in both 
cases, for the word in Gaelic signifies a rough brook, and 
such a brook is the most striking characteristic of both 
districts. Cases of this kind clearly indicate the vanish- 
ing of an original Celtic people from districts now 
essentially Teutonic both in speech and character. The 
presence of a great Sclavonic people in Northern 
Germany, and of an extensive Sclavonic immigration 
into Greece in mediaeval times, is attested with the 
amplest certitude in the same way. A regular fringe 
of Scandinavian names along the north and north-west 
coast of Scotland would, to the present hour, attest 
most indubitably the fact of a Norse dominion in those 


quarters operating for centuries, even had Haco and the 
battle of Largs been swept altogether from the record 
of history and from the living tradition of the people. 
To every man who has been in Norway, Laxfiord, in 
West Ross-shire, a stream well known to salmon-fishers, 
carries this Scandinavian story on its face ; and no man 
who has walked the streets of Copenhagen will have 
any difficulty, when he sails into the beautiful bay of 
Portree, in knowing the meaning of the great cliff called 
the Storr, which he sees along the coast a little 
towards the north ; for this means simply the great 
cliff, storr being the familiar Danish for great, as mor is 
the Gaelic. Ethnological maps may in this way be 
constructed exactly in the same fashion as geological ; 
and the sketch of one such for Great Britain the reader 
will find in Mr. Taylor's well-known work on Names 
and Places. 

With regard to the law of succession in these ethno- 
logical strata, as indicated by topographical nomencla- 
ture, the following three propositions may be safely laid 
down : — i. The names of great objects of natural 
scenery, particularly of mountains and rivers, will 
generally be significant in the language of the people 
who were the original inhabitants of the country. 2. 
Names of places in the most open and accessible districts 
of a country will be older than similar names in parts 
which are more difficult of access ; but — 3, these very 
places being most exposed to foreign invasion, are apt 
to invite an adventurous enemy, whose settlement in 


the conquered country is generally accompanied with a 
partial, sometimes with a very considerable, change of 
local nomenclature. 

In reference to this change of population, Mr. 
Taylor in one place uses the significant phrase, " The 
hills contain the ethnological sweepings of the plains." 
Very true ; but the effect of this on the ethnological 
character of the population of the places is various, and 
in the application requires much caution. It is right, 
for instance, to say generally that the Celtic language 
has everywhere in Europe retreated from the plains into 
the mountainous districts ; but the people often still 
remain where the language has retreated, as the ex- 
amination of any directory in many a district of Scotland, 
where only English is now spoken, will largely show. 
In Greece, in the same way, many districts present only 
Greek and Sclavonic names of places, where the popu- 
lation, within recent memory, is certainly Albanian. 
Inquiries of this nature always require no less caution 
than learning ; otherwise, as Mr. Skene observes, what 
might have been, properly conducted, an all-important 
element in fixing the ethnology of any country, becomes, 
in rash hands and with hot heads, a delusion and a 
snare. 1 

But the science of language, when wisely conducted, 
not only presents an interesting analogy to geological 
stratification ; it sometimes goes further, and bears 

1 Ancient Books of Wales, vol. i. p. 144, with reference to 
the famous work of Chalmers, the Caledonia. 


direct witness to important geological changes as con- 
clusive as any evidence derived from the existing 
conformation of the earth's crust. How this comes to 
pass may easily be shown by a few familiar examples. 
The words wold and weald originally meant wood and 
forest, as the Anglo-Saxon Dictionary and the living 
use of the German language — wald — alike declare ; but 
the wolds at present known in Yorkshire, Gloucester- 
shire, and other parts of England, are generally bare 
and treeless, and in bad weather very cheerless places 
indeed. If, then, "there is nothing arbitrary in lan- 
guage," and all local names tell an historical tale, it is 
certain that, at the time when those names were 
imposed, these same sites were part of an immense 
forest. The geologist, when, in the far-stretching bogs 
east of Glencoe, and near Kinloch Ewe, and in many 
other places of Scotland, he calls attention to the fact 
of layers of gigantic trees lying now deeply embedded 
under the peat, adduces an argument with regard to the 
primitive vegetation of our part of the world not a whit 
more convincing. The same fact of a lost vegetation 
is revealed in not a few places of England which end 
in the old word hurst, signifying a forest. Again, there 
is a large family of places in and about the Harz 
Mountains, in Germany, ending in ode, as Osterode, 
Hasselrode, Werningerode, and so forth. Now 
most of these places, as specially HASSELRODE, are 
now remarkably free from those leagues of leafy 
luxuriance that give such a marked character to the 


scenery of that mountain district. It is certain, 
however, that they were at one time in the centre of an 
immense forest ; for the word rode, radically the same 
as our rid, and perhaps the Welsh rhydd, Gaelic reidh, 
simply means " to make clear " or " clean," and teaches 
that the forest in that part had been cleared for human 

Once more : it is a well-known fact in geology that 
the border limit between sea and land is constantly 
changing, the briny element in some cliffy places, as to 
the north of Hull, systematically undermining the land, 
and stealing away the farmer's acreage inch by inch 
and foot by foot ; while in other places, from the 
conjoint action of river deposits and tidal currents, large 
tracts of what was once a sea-bottom are added to the 
land. The geological proof of this is open often to the 
most superficial observer ; but the philological proof, 
when you once hold the key of it, is no less patent. 
In the Danish language — which is a -sort of half-way 
house between high German and English — the word oe 
signifies an island. This oe, in the shape of ay, ea, ey, 
or y, appears everywhere on the British coast, particu- 
larly in the West Highlands, as in Colonsay, TOROSAY, 
ORANSAY, and in ORKNEY; and if there be any locality 
near the sea wearing this termination, not now sur- 
rounded by water, the conclusion is quite certain, on 
philological grounds, that it once was so. Here the 
London man will at once think on Bermondsey and 
Chelsea, and he will think rightly ; but he must not 


be hasty to draw Stepney under the conditions of the 
same category, for the EY in that word, if I am rightly 
informed, is a corruption from hithe, a well-known 
Anglo-Saxon and good old English term signifying a 
haven ; and generally, in all questions of topographical 
etymology, there is a risk of error where the old 
spelling of the word is not confronted with the form 
which, by the attritions and abrasions of time, it may 
have assumed. 

These observations, which at the request of the 
author of the following pages I have hastily set down, 
will be sufficient to indicate the spirit in which the 
study of topographical etymology ought to be pursued. 
Of course, I have no share in the praise which belongs 
to the successful execution of so laborious an investiga- 
tion ; neither, on the other hand, can blame be attached 
to me for such occasional slips as the most careful 
writer may make in a matter where to err is easy, and 
where conjecture has so long been in the habit of 
usurping the place of science. But I can bear the 
most honest witness to the large research, sound judg- 
ment, and conscientious accuracy of the author ; and 
feel happy to have my name, in a subsidiary way, 
connected with a work which, I am convinced, will 
prove an important addition to the furniture of our 
popular schools. 

College, Edinburgh, 
February 1875. 


Anc. (ancient). 

Ar. (Arabic). 

A.S. (Anglo-Saxon). 

Bret, or Brez. (Brezric). 

Cel. (Celtic). 

Conf. (confluence). 

Cym.-Cel. (Cymro-Celtic, includ- 
ing Welsh). 

Dan. (Danish). 

Dut. (Dutch). 

Fr. (French). 

Gadhelic (including Gaelic, Irish, 
and Manx). 

Gael. (Gaelic). 

Ger. (German). 

Grk. (Greek). 

Heb. (Hebrew). 

Hung. (Hungarian). 
Ind. (Indian). 
It. (Italian). 
Lat. (Latin). 
Mt. (mountain). 
Par. (parish). 
Pers. (Persian). 
Phcen. (Phoenician). 
P. N. (personal name). 
Port. (Portuguese). 
R. (river). 
Sansc. (Sanscrit). 
Scand. (Scandinavian). 
Sclav. (Sclavonic). 
Span. (Spanish). 
Teut. (Teutonic). 
Turc. (Turkish). 



A (Old Norse), a possession -, 1 e.g. Craika, Torfa, Ulpha ; a (Scand.) 
also means an island — v. ea, p. 71. 

AA, A (Scand.), a stream ; from Old Norse d, Goth, aha, Old Ger. 
aha (water). The word, in various forms, occurs frequently 
in river names throughout Western Europe, especially in 
Germany and the Netherlands, and often takes the form 
of au or ach; e.g. the rivers Aa, Ach, Aach ; Saltach (salt 
river) ; Wertach (a river with many islands) — v. Warid, 
etc. ; Trupach (troubled stream) ; Weser, i.e. Wesar-aha 
(western stream) ; Lauter, i.e. Hlauter-aha (clear stream) ; 
Danube or Donau, i.e. Tuon-aha (thundering stream) ; Main, 
i.e. Magin-aha (great stream) ; Fisch-aha (fish stream) ; 
Schwarza (black stream) ; Zwiesel-au (the stream of the 
whirlpool) ; Erlach (alder-tree stream) ; Gron-aha (green 
stream) ; Dachau (the clayey stream) ; Fulda, i.e. Fold-aha 
(land stream) ; Rod-aha (reedy stream) ; Saale and Saala 
from salz (salt stream). The simple a or o, with a prefix 
expressive of the character of the stream, is the most 
frequent form of the word in Iceland and Scandinavia, and 
in the districts of Great Britain colonised by Norsemen or 
Danes ; e.g. Laxa (salmon river) ; Hvita (white river) ; 
Brora (bridge river) ; Rotha (red river) ; Greta (weeping 
river) ; Storaa (great river) ; Thurso (Thor's river), which 
gives its name to the town ; Lossie, anc. Laxi-a (salmon 

1 A, signifying in possession, seems to be derived from a, Old Norse, I 
have ; aga, I possess. The Old English awe, to own, is still retained in the 
north of England and in Aberdeenshire. 



._ . [ water ; e.g. Doab (the district of two waters) ; 

\„ /' •< Menab (the mouth of the water), on the Persian 
aw (Jrers ) 1 

v ( Gulf ; Busheab or Khoshaub (good water), a river 

in Hindostan, also an island in the Persian Gulf; Neelab 
(blue water) ; Punjaub (the district of the five streams) ; 
Chinab or Chenaub R., said to be a corrupt, of its former 
name Chaudra Bhagee (the garden of the moon), so called 
from a small lake of that name from which it proceeds. 
Cognate with this root is the Gadhelic abk, in its forms of 
aw or ow. Thus in Scotland we have the River Awe and 
Loch Awe ; in Ireland, Ow and Owbeg (little stream) ; 
Ow-nageerah (the stream of the sheep) ; Finnow (clear 
stream). Cognate with these root-words is the Lat. aqua 
and its derivations in the Romance languages, as well as 
ae or ea (A.S. water). Forsteman finds river names, allied 
to the foregoing, throughout Germany and France, in such 
forms as ap, op, ep, etc., as in the Oppa, Lennep, Barop, 
ABAD (Pers. and Sansc), a dwelling or town, generally connected 
with the name of its founder ; e.g. Hyderabad (the town of 
Hyder Ali, or of the Lion) ; Ahmedabad (of the Sultan 
Ahmed) ; Furrackabad (founded by Furrack the Fortunate) ; 
Agra or Akberabad (founded by Akber) ; Nujiabad (of 
Nujibah-Dowlah) ; Auringabad (founded by Aurungzebe) ; 
Jafferabad (the city of Jaffier) ; Jehanabad (of Shah Jehan) ; 
Jellabad (of Jellal, a chief) ; Moorshedabad (the town of 
Moorshed Khoolly-Khari) ; Moorabad (named after Morad, 
the son of Shah Jehan) ; Shahabad (of the Shah) ; Abbas- 
abad (founded by Abbas the Great) ; Dowladabad (the town 
of wealth) ; Hajiabad (of the pilgrim) ; Meschdabad (of the 
mosque) ; Islamabad (of the true faith) ; Allah-abad (of 
God) ; Secunderabad (named after Alexander the Great) ; 
Resoulabad (of the prophet) ; Asterabad (on the River 
Aster) ; Futteabad (the town of victory) ; Sadabad or Suffi- 
abad (the town of the sadi or suffi, i.e. the sage). 
ABER (Cym.-Cel.), f a confluenc e of waters ; applied, in 

ABHIR and OBAIR (Gael.), \ t0 P°g ra P h y> to places at the conf. of 
\ streams, or at the embouchure of a 
river. The derivation of the term has been traced by some 
etymologists to the conjunction of ath (Gael.), a ford, and 


bior, water ; by others to Cym.-Cel. at (at) and bior (water). 
This prefix is general in many of the counties of Scotland, 
throughout Wales, and, in a few instances, in Ireland, 
although in the latter country the synonyms inver and 
cumar are more frequent. Both words are found in the 
topography of the Picts, but the Scots of Argyleshire used 
only inver before they came from Ireland to settle in that 
district. The word aber seems to have become obsolete 
among them ; and as there are no abers in Ayrshire, 
Renfrew, and Lanarkshire, the word had probably become 
obsolete before the kingdom of Strathclyde was formed. 
Dr. Joyce, in his Irish Names of Places, traces its use as 
prefix or affix to the Irish root abar (a mire), as in the 
little stream Abberachrinn (i.e. the river of the miry place 
of the tree). In Wales we find Aberconway, Aberfraw, 
Aberistwyth, Aberavon, Aberayron, Aberdare, Aberdaron, 
Abergavenny, at the embouchure of the Conway, Fraw, 
Istwyth, Avon, Aeron, Dar, Daron, Gavenny. Barmouth, 
corrupt, from Aber-Mowddy, a seaport in Merioneth, at the 
mouth of the R. Mowddy. Berriew, corrupt, from Aber- 
Rhiw (at the junction of the R. Rhiw with the Severn) ; 
Aberdaugledden, the Welsh name for Haverford-west, at 
the mouth of twin rivers resembling two swords (gledden), 
which unite at Milford Haven. It is called by the Welsh 
now Hwlford (the sailing road) because the tide comes up 
to the town. Aberhonddu, at the mouth of the R. Honddi 
or Honddu (the county town of Brecknock), and Aber- 
dovey, at the embouchure of the R. Dovey in Wales. In 
Scotland, Aberbrothwick or Arbroath, Abercorn, anc. Aeber- 
curnig, Aberdour, Abergeldie, Abernethy, at the embouchure 
of the Brothock, Cornie, Dour, Geldie, and Nethy. Aber- 
chirder is Abhir-chiar-dur (the conf. of the dark water) ; Aber- 
crombie (the curved conf.) ; Aberfeldy, i.e. Abhir-feathaile 
(the smooth conf.) ; Aberfoyle (the conf. of the pool, phuill) 
Aberlemno (the conf. of the leaping water, leumnach) 
Arbirlot, anc. Aber-Elliot (at the mouth of the Elliot) 
Applecross for Abhir-croisan (the conf. of trouble) ; Old 
Aberdeen and New Aberdeen, at the mouths of the Don 
and Dee, Lat. Devana-castra; Fochabers (the plain, at 
the river mouth), Gael, faigh, a plain ; Lochaber (at the 


I water ; e.g. Doab (the district of two waters) ; 
ab (bansc.), I Menab ( the mouth of the W ater), on the Persian 
aw (i'ers.), | Gulf . Busheab or Ktoshaub ( g00 d water), a river 
in Hindostan, also an island in the Persian Gulf; Neelab 
(blue water) ; Punjaub (the district of the five streams) ; 
Chinab or Chenaub R., said to be a corrupt, of its former 
name Chaudra Bhagee (the garden of the moon), so called 
from a small lake of that name from which it proceeds. 
Cognate with this root is the Gadhelic abh, in its forms of 
aw or ow. Thus in Scotland we have the River Awe and 
Loch Awe ; in Ireland, Ow and Owbeg (little stream) ; 
Ow-nageerah (the stream of the sheep) ; Finnow (clear 
stream). Cognate with these root-words is the Lat. aqua 
and its derivations in the Romance languages, as well as 
ae or ea (A.S. water). Forsteman finds river names, allied 
to the foregoing, throughout Germany and France, in such 
forms as ap, op, ep, etc., as in the Oppa, Lennep, Barop, 
abad (Pers. and Sansc), a dwelling or town, generally connected 
with the name of its founder ; e.g. Hyderabad (the town of 
Hyder Ali, or of the Lion) ; Ahmedabad (of the Sultan 
Ahmed) ; Furrackabad (founded by Furrack the Fortunate) ; 
Agra or Akberabad (founded by Akber) ; Nujiabad (of 
Nujibah-Dowlah) ; Auringabad (founded by Aurungzebe) ; 
Jafferabad (the city of JafKer) ; Jehanabad (of Shah Jehan) ; 
Jellabad (of Jellal, a chief) ; Moorshedabad (the town of 
Moorshed Khoolly-Khari) ; Moorabad (named after Morad, 
the son of Shah Jehan) ; Shahabad (of the Shah) ; Abbas- 
abad (founded by Abbas the Great) ; Dowladabad (the town 
of wealth) ; Hajiabad (of the pilgrim) ; Meschdabad (of the 
mosque) ; Islamabad (of the true faith) ; Allah-abad (of 
God) ; Secunderabad (named after Alexander the Great) ; 
Resoulabad (of the prophet) ; Asterabad (on the River 
Aster) ; Futteabad (the town of victory) ; Sadabad or Suffi- 
abad (the town of the sadi or suffi, i.e. the sage). 
ABER (Cvm Cel) ( a confluence of waters 5 applied, in 

ABHIR and 'obai'r (Gael.), t°P°g»phy, to places at the conf of 
\ streams, or at the embouchure of a 
river. The derivation of the term has been traced by some 
etymologists to the conjunction of ath (Gael.), a ford, and 


bior, water ; by others to Cym.-Cel. at (at) and bior (water). 
This prefix is general in many of the counties of Scotland, 
throughout Wales, and, in a few instances, in Ireland, 
although in the latter country the synonyms inver and 
cttmar are more frequent. Both words are found in the 
' topography of the Picts, but the Scots of Argyleshire used 
only inver before they came from Ireland to settle in that 
district. The word aber seems to have become obsolete 
among them ; and as there are no abers in Ayrshire, 
Renfrew, and Lanarkshire, the word had probably become 
obsolete before the kingdom of Strathclyde was formed. 
Dr. Joyce, in his Irish Names of Places, traces its use as 
prefix or affix to the Irish root abar (a mire), as in the 
little stream Abberachrinn (i.e. the river of the miry place 
of the tree). In Wales we find Aberconway, Aberfraw, 
Aberistwyth, Aberavon, Aberayron, Aberdare, Aberdaron, 
Abergavenny, at the embouchure of the Conway, Fraw, 
Istwyth, Avon, Aeron, Dar, Daron, Gavenny. Barmouth, 
corrupt, from Aber-Mowddy, a seaport in Merioneth, at the 
mouth of the R. Mowddy. Berriew, corrupt, from Aber- 
Rhiw (at the junction of the R. Rhiw with the Severn) ; 
Aberdaugledden, the Welsh name for Haverford-west, at 
the mouth of twin rivers resembling two swords {gledderi), 
which unite at Milford Haven. It is called by the Welsh 
now Hwlford (the sailing road) because the tide comes up 
to the town. Aberhonddu, at the mouth of the R. Honddi 
or Honddu (the county town of Brecknock), and Aber- 
dovey, at the embouchure of the R. Dovey in Wales. In 
Scotland, Aberbrothwicb or Arbroath, Abercorn, anc. Aeber- 
curnig, Aberdour, Abergeldie, Abernethy, at the embouchure 
of the Brothock, Cornie, Dour, Geldie, and Nethy. Aber- 
chirder is Abhir-chiar-dur (the conf. of the dark water) ; Aber- 
crombie (the curved conf.) ; Aberfeldy, i.e. Abhir-feathaile 
(the smooth conf.) ; Aberfoyle (the conf. of the pool, pkuill) 
Aberlemno (the conf. of the leaping water, leumnacK) 
Arbirlot, anc. Aber-Elliot (at the mouth of the Elliot) 
Applecross for Abhir-croisan (the conf. of trouble) ; Old 
Aberdeen and New Aberdeen, at the mouths of the Don 
and Dee, Lat. Devana-castraj Fochabers (the plain, at 
the river mouth), Gael, faigh, a plain ; Lochaber (at the 


mouth of the loch) ; Barmouth, in Wales, corrupt, of Aber- 

Mawdoch or Maw. 
abi (Turc), a river ; e.g. Abi-shiran (sweet river) ; Abi-shur (salt 

river) ; Abi-gurm (warm river) ; Abi-gard (yellow river) ; 

Abi-kuren (the river of Cyrus) ; Ab-Allah (God's river). 

C These and similar words, in 
ABT (Teut.), an abbot, Lat. abbatis. I the Roman ce languages, de- 
abie, an abbey. y rived from the Heb abba 

(father), were introduced into the languages of Europe in 
connection with the monastic system, and are attached to 
the names of places founded for monks, or belonging to 
church lands. Thus — Absberg (abbot's hill) ; Apersdorf, 
for Abbatesdorf (abbot's village) ; Absholz (abbot's wood) ; 
Abtsroda (abbot's clearing), in Germany ; Appenzell, anc. 
Abbatiscella (abbot's church), founded by the Abbot of St. 
Gall, A.D. 647 ; Abbeville (abbot's dwelling), in France ; 
Abbotsbury (the abbot's fortified place), Dorset ; Abbey- 
dare (the abbey on the R. Dare in Hereford) ; Abbotshall, 
in Fife, so called from having been the occasional residence 
of the abbots of Dunfermline ; Abdie (belonging to the 
abbey of Lindores) ; Abingdon, in Berks (abbot's hill), 
Abington (with the same meaning), the name of two parishes 
in Cambridge and avillage in Lanarkshire, and of two parishes 
in Ireland ; Abbotsford (the ford of the Tweed in the abbey 
lands of Melrose) ; Abbotsrule (the abbey on the R. Rule in 
Roxburghshire) ; Abbeyfeale (on the R. Feale) ; Abbeyleix 
(the abbey of Lewy), an Irish chief Abbeygormacan (Irish 
mainister) ; Ua-g Cormacain (the abbey of the O'Corma- 
cans) ; Abbeylara, i.e. Irish abbey, leath-rath (the abbey 
of the half-rath) ; Abbeyshrule, anc. Sruthair (the stream), 
named for a monastery founded by one of the O'Farells ; 
Abbeystro wry (with the same meaning), in Ireland; Abbensee 
(the lake of the abbey), in Upper Austria ; Newabbey, a 
Par in Kirkcudbright (named from an abbey founded in 
1275 by Devorgilla, the mother of John Baliol) ; Badia- 
San-Salvatore (the abbey of the Holy Saviour) ; Badia- 
Torrita (the abbey with the little tower), in Italy ; Appin, 
in Argyleshire, anc. Abbphon (abbot's land), and Appin, 
in Dull, indicating probably the territory of a Celtic 


ach, or ICH, a form of the Teut. aha (water), p. i , as in Salzach 
(salt stream), but it is also a common affix to words in 
the Teut. and Cel. languages, by which a noun is formed 
into an adjective, signifying full of, or abounding in, equi- 
valent to the' Lat. terminations etum and iacum. Thus, in 
German topography, we find Lindach, Aichach, Aschach, 
Buchach, Tannich, Fichtig, i.e. abounding in lime, oak, ash, 
beech, fir, and pine wood ; Affaltrach (in apple-trees) ; 
Erlicht (in alders) ; Heselicht (in hazels) ; Laubach (in 
leaves). In Ireland : Darach, Farnach (abounding in oaks 
and alders) ; Ounagh, in Sligo, and Onagh, in Wicklow 
(watery place), from the adjective Abhnach (abounding 
in streams). In the Sclav, languages, again, the affix zig 
has the same meaning, as in Leipzig (abounding in lime- 

,, .. . (a. field, plain, or meadow; e.g. Aghinver 

achadh (Gadhelic), j ( the field of the confluence) ; Aghindarragh 

AUCH, augh, ^ ^ of the Qak wQod ^ . AchonrV; anc Achadh- 

AUCHEN, y Chonaire (Conary's field) ; Ardagh (high 

field) ; Aghabeg (little field) ; Aghaboy (yellow field) ; 

Aghamore (great field) ; Aghaboe (the cow's field) ; Agha- 

down (of the fort) ; Aghadoe, i.e. Achadh-da-eo (of the two 

yew-trees). In Scotland : Auchclach, Auchinleck, Auchna- 

cloich (the stony field) ; Achray (smooth field) ; Auchinleith 

(the physician's field) ; Auchindoire (the field of the oak 

grove) ; Auchinfad (of the peats) ; Auchinrath (of the fort) ; 

Auchincruive (of the tree, craoibhe) ; Auchline (of the pool) ; 

Auchnacraig (of the rock) ; Auchindinny and Auchteany 

(the field of the fire) — teine, i.e. probably places where the 

Beltane fires were kindled. 

/the ash-tree; e.g. Ashton, Ashby, Askham (ash- 
AESC (A.S.), I tree dwelling ). Ashrigg (the ash-tree ridge), in 
ASK (bcand.) England In Germany : Eschdorf, Eschweil, 
ESCHE(Ger.), ^ EschweiUer ( as h.tree dwelling); Eschenbach 

(ash-tree brook) ; Eschwege (ash-tree road). 
AESP (A.S.), (the aspen or poplar; e.g. Aspley, Aspden 
ASP (Scand.), \ (poplar field or valley). 

. . fa fountain ; e.g. Aenon (the fountains) ; En- 
AIN (beimtic), J shemish ^g founta i n G f the sun) ; Engedi (of 
aayn, y {he gQat ^ . Enrogel ( of the f u n er ' s field) ; Dothan 


(the two fountains) ; Aayn-el-kebira (the great fountain) ; 
Ain-halu (the sweet fountain) ; Aayn-taiba (the good foun- 
tain) ; Engannim (the fountain of the gardens) ; Enrimmon 
(of the pomegranates). 

.„,,,.. I a place, a possession ; e.g. Daviot, 

aite, or ait (Gadhehc) ^ Damh _ aite (the place of the ox)j 

aeht, or eigen (Teut), | in Aberdeenshire! and also in i„ ver . 

ness ; Tynet, i.e. ait-an-taimhu (the place of the river), in 

Banffshire. In Ireland the word is used in combination 

with tigh (a house) ; e.g. Atty (the dwelling-place) ; Atty- 

Dermot (the dwelling of Dermot) ; Atti-duff (the dark 

dwelling) ; Oedt (the possession), a town in Prussia, on the 

Niers ; Iberstolfs-eigen (the possession of Iberstolf) ; Iber- 

stolfs-eigen, Smurses-eigen (i.e. the possession of Iberstolf 

and Smurse) ; Souder-eygen (south possession). 

aith, or AED, or eid (Scand.), a headland ; e.g. Aithsvoe (the 

bay of the headland) ; Aithsthing (the place of meeting on 

the headland) ; Eidfoss (the waterfall on the headland). 

an oak ; e.g. Acton, Acworth (oak town and 
manor) ; Oakley (oak meadow) ; Oakham 
(oak dwelling) ; Auckland (oakland) ; Acrise 
(oak ascent) ; Wokingham or Oakingham 
(the dwelling among oaks) ; Sevenoaks, 
anc. Seovanacca, named from some oak-trees which once 
occupied the eminence on which it stands, but Okehampton, 
in Devon, is on the R. Oke. In Germany and in Holland 
are Eichstadt, Eichdorf, Eikheim (oak dwelling) ; Ekholta 
(oak wood) ; Eichhalden (oak height) ; Eichstegen (oak 
path) ; Echehout, in Hainault (oak wood) ; Eykebusch (oak 
ak (Turc), white; e.g. Ak-tag, Ak-dagh (the white mountains); 
Ak-su (white river) ; Ak-hissar (white castle) ; Ak-serai 
(white palace) ; Ak-shehr (white dwelling) ; Ak-meschid 
(white mosque) ; Ak-kalat (white fortress). 
AL (the Arabic definite article) ; e.g. Alkalat (the fortress) ; Al- 
maden (the mine) ; Alcantara (the bridge) ; Alkasar (the 
palace) ; Almeida (the table) ; Almeria (the conspicuous) ; 
Almazen (the storehouse) ; Alcarria (the farm) ; Alcana 
(the exchange) ; Algezira (the island), anc. Mesopotamia 
(i.e. between the rivers) ; Algeciras (the islands), in Spain ; 

AK, or aek (A.S.), 
ek, or EG (Scand.), 
eyke (Dutch), 
eiche (Ger.), 


Algarve (the west) ; Almansa (the plain) ; Almazara (the 
mill) ; Alhambra (the red) ; Alhucen (the beautiful) ; Al- 
puxarras (the grassy mountains). 

ALD eald (A S ) ( ° ld ' e ' g ' Alt0n ' ° ldham > A1 t h ° r pe, Al- 

'.„ . ^ "'' 1 caster, Aldwark (old dwelling, farm, camp, 

^ ■'' ,„ ^ , . \ fortress) : Audlem (old lyme or border) ; 
OUDE, OLDEN (Dutch), ( Audle / ( ' old field)> [ n E^. InG £ 

many : Altenburg, Altendorf, Oldenburg (old dwelling) ; 
Altenmarkt (old market) ; Altmark (old boundary) ■ Alt- 
stadt (old place) ; Altsattel (old seat) ; Altofen (old oven), 
so called from its warm baths ; Oudenarde (old earth or 
land) ; Oudenbosch (old thicket) ; Oude-capel (old chapel). 
aldea (Span, and Port., from the Arabic), a village ; e.g. Aldea- 
del-Cano (the dog's village); Aldea-vieya (old village); 
Aldea-el-Muro (the walled village) ; Aldea-del-Rio (of the 
river) ; Aldea Galliga (of the Gauls). 

ATTTCPvrr, on ( a hei § ht or cIiff; e S- A lltmaur ( the S reat 
AMflrishi Height); Builth, in Wales, i.e. Bu-allt (the 

{ '' [ steep place of the wild oxen). The Alts 

(heights or glen-sides), Monaghan ; Altachullion (the cliff 
of the holly) ; Altavilla, i.e. Alt-a-bhile (the glen-side of the 
old tree) ; Altinure (the cliff of the yew-tree) ; Altanagh 
(abounding in cliffs) ; Altan (the little cliff). 

._ . . . (a rock or cliff; e.g. the Alps ; Albainn (the 

ALP, AILPE (Celtic), I h j Uy Qr high j and ^ the an(; _ name of ScQt _ 

L ' (land; Albania, with the same meaning; 

Alpenach (the mountain stream), at the foot of Mount 
Pilate ; Alva and Alvah (the rocky), parishes in Scotland ; 
Cantal (the head of the rock), in France. In Ireland the 
word ail takes the form of oil, aspirated foyle or faill; 
e.g. Foilycleara (O'CIery's cliff) ; Foilnaman (the cliff of the 
women) : but while the aspirated form of ail is confined to 
the south, aill is found all over Ireland ; Ayleacotty, i.e. 
Aill-a-choite (the cliff of the little boat) ; Ailla-gower (the 
goat's cliff) ; Alleen (the diminutive) is found in Alleen- 
Hogan and Alleen-Ryan (Hogan's and Ryan's little cliff). 
When, however, foyle comes in as a termination, it is com- 
monly derived from poll (a hole), as in Ballyfoyle and 
Ballyfoile (the town of the hole). The anc. name of Britain, 
Albion, has sometimes been traced to this root, but more 


generally to the white cliffs (Lat. albus) on the coast of 
Kent, as seen first by the Romans. 
,, „. ( the alder-tree ; e.g. Air-holt, Aldershot (alder-tree 

alnus HLat ) W00d ^ ; Alresford ( Alderford ) 5 Alrewas (alder- 
.£, . '■" j tree pasture) ; Alderley (alder-tree meadow), in 

AUNE(fr.), ( England . Aulney, Aulnoy, Aulnois, Aunay, 
Auneau (alder grove), in France. 

ALT (Gadhelic), a stream ; e.g. the Alt, Aldan, Alta (river names) ; 
Alt-dowran (otter stream) ; Aultsigh (gliding stream) ; Alt- 
na-guish (the stream of the fir-trees) ; Aldivalloch, i.e. Allt- 
a-bhealaich (the stream of the pass) ; Alness, i.e. Allt-an- 
casa (of the cascade) ; Alltmore (great stream) ; Auldearn, 
i.e. Allt-feam (alder-tree stream) ; Cumbernauld, corrupt, 
from Cumar-nan-alta (the confluence of the streams) ; Gara- 
vault in Aberdeenshire, Garvault in East Lothian, and 
Garvald in Dumfriesshire (rough stream) ; Altderg (red 

altun, or altan (Tartar), golden ; e.g. the Altai, or golden 
mountains ; Altanor (golden lake) ; Altan-su (golden river) ; 
Alta-Yeen (the golden mountains) ; Altun-tash (golden rock) ; 
Altun-kupri (golden bridge). 

4M, or an, contrac. from Ger. an den (on the, or at the) ; e.g. 
Amberg (at the hill) ; Amdorf or Ambach, Amsteg, Amwalde 
(at the village, brook, path, wood). 

amar (Old Ger. ), a kind of grain ; e.g. Amarbach, Amarthal, 
Amarwang, Amarveld (the brook, valley, strip of land, 
field where this grain grew). 

ambacht, or amt (Ger.), a district under the government of an 
Amtman or bailiff; e.g. Amt-sluis (the sluice of the Am- 
bacht) ; Amthof (the court of the Amtman) ; Graven-Am- 
bacht (the duke's district) ; Ambachtsbrug (the bridge of 
the Ambacht). 

AMBR, an Indo-Germanic word, signifying a river, allied to the 
Sansc. ambu (water). According to Forsteman (v. Deutsche 
Ortsnameri) the suffix r was added by most European nations 
before their separation from the Asiatic tribes, as appears 
in the Greek ombros and the Lat. imber (a shower). The 
word appears in the names of tribes and persons, as well 
as of places, on the European continent ; e.g. the Ambrones 
(or dwellers by the water), and perhaps in Umbria ; Am- 


berloo and Amersfoort (the meadow and ford by the water), 
in Holland ; and in such river names as the Ammer, Em- 
mer, Emmerich, Ambra, etc. 

anger (Ger.), a meadow or field; e.g. Rabenanger (the raven's 
field) ; Kreutzanger (the field of the cross) ; Moosanger 
(mossy field) ; Wolfsanger (the wolfs field, or of Wolf, a 
man's name) ; Vogelsanger (the birds' field) ; Angerhusen 
(the field houses) ; Angerbach (the field brook) ; Anger 
(the field), a town in Austria ; Angerburg (the fortress in 
the field). 

ANGRA (Port.), a creek or bay ; e.g. Angra (a sea-port in the 
Azores) ; Angra-de-los-reyes (the king's bay). 

aqua (Lat.), 

AGUA (Span, and Port.) 

water ; e.g. Aix, anc. Aqucz-Sextim 
(the warm springs, said to have been 

„ v ,*\ s { discovered and named by Sextus Cal- 

ACQUA (It.), ' t, ' . . 

„, TI ,t-t- 'L.j t-. .„, venus, B.C. 123), in Provence; Aix, 

EAU (Fr. ; Old Fr. ax), . ' ,. ' . T r I- 

K ' [in Dauphmy, anc. Aquce-Vocontiorum 

(the waters of the Vocontii); Aix-les-bains (the bath waters), 

in Savoy ; Aachen or Aix-la-Chapelle, celebrated for its 

mineral springs, and for the chapel erected over the tomb 

of Charlemagne ; Plombieres, anc. Aquce-filombaritz (waters 

impregnated with lead) ; Veraqua, in New Granada, corrupt. 

from Verdes-aguas (green waters) ; Aigue-perse (the bubbling 

water), in Auvergne; Aigue-vive (the spring of living water); 

Aigue-belle (beautiful water); Aigue-noire (black water, etc.), 

in France ; Dax, celebrated for its saline springs, corrupt. 

from Civitas aquensis (the city of waters) ; Aigues-mortes 

(stagnant waters) ; Aguas-bellas (beautiful waters), Portugal ; 

Aguas-calientes (warm waters), Mexico ; Evaux, Evreux 

(on the waters), France ; Evian, anc. Aquarum (the 

waters), Savoy ; Entreves and Entraigues (between the 

waters), anc. Interaquaj Yvoire, anc. Aquaria (the watery 

district), on Lake Geneva ; Aas or Les Eaux (the waters), 

Basses Pyrenees ; Nerac, anc. Aquce Neriedum (the waters 

of the Nerii) ; Amboise and Amboyna (surrounded by 

waters) ; Bordeaux (the dwelling on the water), borda, Low 

Lat. (a dwelling) ; Vichy, anc. Aquce calidce (warm waters), 

on the Allier ; Bex (upon the two waters), at the juncture 

of the Rhone and Avengon ; Outre L'Eau (beyond the 

water) ; Acalpulca, in Mexico, corrupt, from Portus aqua 


pulchrce (the port of beautiful waters) ; Agoa-fria (cold 
water), Brazil ; Aqui, in North Italy, celebrated for its 
baths ; Acireale, anc. aguas calientes (the warm waters) ; 
Agoa-quente (hot spring), Brazil. 

ARA, a frequent element in river names, with various and even 
opposite meanings. Some of the river names may have 
come from the Sansc. ara (swift, or the flowing), and in 
Tamil aar means simply a river. There is another San- 
scrit word arb (to ravage or destroy), with which the 
Gadhelic words garw, garth (rough) may be connected ; 
and, on the other hand, there is the Welsh araf (gentle). 
According to the locality and the characteristics of the 
stream, one must judge to which of these roots its name 
may belong. There are, in England, the Aire, Arre, Arro, 
Arrow ; in France, the Arve, Erve, Arveiron, etc. ; in 
Switzerland and Germany, the Aar, Are ; in Spain and 
Italy, the Arva, Arno ; and in Scotland, the Ayr, Aray, Ir- 
vine, etc. Many of these names may signify simply flowing 
water (the river), while others beginning with the syllable 
ar may be referred to the adjectival forms, araf, arb, ara, 
or garbh, followed by another root-word for water, as in 
Arrow (the swift stream) ; Yarrow (the rough stream) ; ow 
(water) ; Arveiron (the furious stream) ; avon (water) ; Arar 
(the gentle stream), now the Saone. 

ard, aird (Gadhelic), a height, or, as an adjective, high ; e.g. the 
Aird (the height) on the south coast of the island of Lewis, 
also in Inverness-shire ; Aird Point in the island of Skye ; 
Aird-dhu (the black height), a hill in Inverness-shire ; the 
Airds (high lands in Argyleshire) ; Airdrie, Gael. Aird-righ 
(the king's height), or, perhaps, Aird-reidh (the smooth 
height) ; Aird's Moss (a muirland tract in Ayrshire) ; 
Ardbane (white height) ; Ardoch (high field) ; Ardclach 
(high stony ground) ; Ardach and Ardaghy (high field) ; 
Ardmore (great height) ; Ardeen and Arden (the little 
height) ; Ardglass (green height) ; Ardfert (the height of the 
grave or ditch, Irish fert) ; Ardrishaig (the height full of 
briers, driseach) ; Ardnamurchan (the height of the great 
headland, ceann, or of the great ocean, cuari) ; Ardgower 
(goat's height) ; Ardtornish (the height of the cascade, cas 
and torr) ; Ardross (high point) ; Ardrossan (little high 


point) ; Ardchattan (St. Cathan's height) ; Ardersier, Gael. 
Ard-ros-siar (the high western height) ; Ardlui (the height 
of the fawn, laoidK) ; Ardentinny (of the fire, teine) ; Ardboe 
(of the cow) ; Ardbraccan (of St. Brachan) ; Ardfinan (St. 
Finan's height) ; Armagh, in Ireland, anc. Ard-macha 
(the height of Macha, the wife of one of the early Irish 
colonists) ; Arroquhar, in Dumbarton, i.e. Ardthir (the high 
land) ; Ardmeanach (the mossy height or the black isle) ; 
Ardgask (the hero's height, Gael, gaisgeach, a hero) ; 
Ardnacrushy (of the cross) ; Ardtrea (St. Trea's height) ; 
Ardnarea, i.e. Ard-na-riaghadh (the height of the execu- 
tions, with reference to a dark tale of treachery and 
murder) ; Ardgay (windy height) ; Ardblair (high field) ; 
Ardwick (high town, a suburb of Manchester). The Lat. 
root arduus (high) is found in Ardea, in Italy ; the Ardes 
(or heights), in Auvergne ; Auvergne itself has been traced 
to Ar-fearann (high lands), but Cocheris, Au Noms de Lieu, 
gives its ancient name as Alverniacus {i.e. the domain of the 
Auvergni). Ardennes, Forest of (high-wooded valleys) ; 
Ardwick-le-street (the high town on the great Roman 
road), stratum. Ard, art, and artha are also Persian pre- 
fixes attached to the names of places and persons ; e.g. 
Ardboodha (the high place of Buddha) ; Aravalli (the hill 
of strength) ; and such personal names as Artaxerxes, 
Artabanes, Artamenes. In some cases it may refer to the 
agricultural habits of the Indo-Germanic races (Lat. aro, 
Grk. apom, Goth, arjan, Old High Ger. aran, Cel. ar (to 
plough), hence the Aryan tribes are those belonging to the 
dominant race — the aristocracy of landowners, as distin- 
guished from the subject races — v. Taylor's Names of Places. 
' a place, farm, dwelling ; e.g. Heddern (hid- 
ing-place) ; Beddern (sleeping-place) ; 
Suthem (south place) ; Arne, a town 
t^.^V/T^T 6 ' \ in Yorkshire; Chiltern (chalk place) ; 
Whithorn, in Wigton, A.S. Whitern, 
Lat. Candida-casa (white house) ; As- 
perne (the place of poplar-trees) ; Fe- 
mern (of cattle) ; Domern (of judgment) ; Thalern (valley 
dwelling) ; Mauthern (toll place) ; Bevern and Bevergern 
(the dwelling on the R. Bever) ; Aire, Lat. Area-Atrebatum 

arn, ern (Teut.), 


area, bas (Lat.), 
AIRE (Fr.), 
AROS (Cel.), 


(the dwelling of the Atrebates), on the Adour, in France ; 
also Aire, on the Lys ; Les Aires (the farms) ; Airon, etc., in 
France, Bavaria, Ger. Baiern (the dwelling of the Boii) ; 
Aros, Gael, (the dwelling), in Mull ; Arosaig (corner dwell- 
ing), Argyle. 

ARN COld Ger 1 ) ( an eagle ' This WOrd is USed in t0 P°S ra P h y 
/N ^ J either with reference to the bird itself, or to 

vr , w .'!. \ a personal name derived from it; e.g. Arnfels 

* V (eagle's rock) ; Arnberg, Arnstein, Arlberg 

(eagle mountain or rock) ; Arisdale (eagle valley, or the 

valley of a person called Arix) ; Arnau (eagle meadow) ; 

Arnecke (eagle corner) ; Arendal (eagle valley) ; Arenoe 

(eagle island) ; Eryri (the eagle mountain), the Welsh 

name for Snowdon. 

arx (Lat), a fortress ; e.g. Arc6, anc. Arx, a town in Italy with a 
hill fortress called Rocca cPArcd (the rock of the fortress) ; 
Arcis sur Aube (the fortress on the R. Aube), in France ; 
Arcole and Areola, in Lombardy and Sardinia ; Saar-Louis, 
anc. Arx-Ludovici-Sarum (the fortress of Louis on the 
Saar), founded by Louis XIV., 1680; Arx-fontana or 
Fuentes (the fortress of the fountain), in Spain ; Monaco, 
anc. Arx-Monceci (the fortress of the Monaeci), on the Gulf 
of Genoa ; Thours, anc. Tuedtz-Arx (the fortress on the 
R. Thouet), in France. 

AS, or aas (Scand.), a hill ridge; e.g. Astadr (ridge dwelling); 
As and Aas, the names of several towns in Sweden and 
Norway ; Aswick, Aastrap, Aasthorp (the village or farm 
on the ridge), in Shetland. 

asta (Basque), a rock ; e.g. Astorga, in Spain, Lat. Asturica- 
Augusta (the great city on the rocky water, ura) ; Astiapa 
and Estepa (the dwelling at the foot of the rock), in 
Spain ; Astulez and Astobeza, also in Spain ; Asti, a dis- 
trict in Sardinia which was peopled by Iberians or Basques ; 
Astura (the rocky river) ; Asturias (the country of the 
dwellers by that river) ; Ecija, in Spain, anc. Astigi (on 
the rock) ; Estepa and Estepona (rocky ground). 

ATH, agh (Gadhelic), f a f ° rd : ™ s "^-word is more common 

AUGH < in Ireland than in Scotland, and is cog- 

( nate with the Lat. vadum, and the 

A.S. wath or wade; e.g. Athy, i.e. Ath-Ae (the ford of 



Ae, a Munster chief who was slain at the spot) ; Athmore 
(great ford) ; Athdare (the ford of oaks) ; Athenry (the 
king's ford) ; Athlone, i.e. Ath Luaen (the ford of St. 
Luan) ; Athleague (stony ford) ; Athane (little ford) ; 
Aghanloo (Lewy's little ford) ; the town of Trim is in Irish 
Athtruim (the ford of the elder trees) ; Agolagh, i.e. Ath- 
goblach (the forked ford) ; Aboyne (the ford of the river), 
on the Dee in Aberdeenshire ; Athgoe, i.e. Ath-goibhne 
(the ford of the smiths), in Dublin. 
athel (A S ) ( noble > or the nobles > e -g- Adelsdorf, Adels- 

Cf" ' \ J ne ' m > Adelshofen, Attelbury (the nobles' dwell- 

ADELIG (Gothic) ) ™ g ) ' Athelne y ( the island of the nobles), in 
^ '' \ Somersetshire, formerly insulated by the rivers 

Tone and Parret ; Addelsfors (the nobles' waterfall) ; Adels- 
berg (the nobles' hill) ; Adelsclag (the nobles' wood-clear- 
ing) ; Adelsoe (the nobles' island) ; Adelmanns-felden (the 
nobleman's field). 

/<- \ { a meadow, formed from aha (water), and 
' /t t \ \ frequently annexed to the name of a river; 

( " e -g- Aarau, Ilmenau, Rheinau, Wetterau, Op- 
penau, Muhrau (the meadow of the Aar, Ilmen, Rhine, 
Wetter, Ofifia, Muhr) ; Frankenau (the Franks' meadow) ; 
Lichtenau (the meadow of light) ; Reichenau (rich meadow) ; 
Schoenau (beautiful meadow) ; Greenau (green) ; Langenau 
(long) ; Weidenau (pasture-meadow) ; Rosenau (the meadow 
of roses) ; Lindau (of lime-trees) ; Herisau, Lat. Augia- 
dominus (the Lord's meadow) ; Eu, anc. Augia (the 
meadow), in Normandy ; Hanau (the enclosed meadow) ; 
Nassau (the moist meadow) ; Iglau (the meadow of the R. 
Igla, in Moravia) ; Troppau, in Silesia (the meadow of the 
R. Oppa). 

.„ ,, ,. . ( the summit, or, as an adjective, 
AUCHTERoroCHTER(Gadhehc), ' ' w ^ J ' 

UCHDER (Welsh) \ Upper ; e - g - Auchtertvre > anc - 

\ >' [ Auchterar dower (the summit 

on the water) ; Auchterarder (the upper high land) ; Auchter- 

blair (upper field) ; Auchtercairn (upper rock) ; Auchter- 

muchty (the upper dwelling, tigh, of the wild boar, ?nuc) ; 

Auchterau (the upper water) ; Auchtertool (the upper land 

on the R. Tiel), in Fife ; Auchterless (the upper side, slios). 

In Ireland this word takes the form of Oughter ; e.g. 


Oughterard (upper height) ; Oughter-lough (upper lake, in 
reference to Loch Erne) ; Balloughter (upper town) ; Lis- 
soughter (upper fort) ; Killoughter (upper church). The 
Irish adjective uachdar is not unfrequently Anglicised water, 
as in Clowater in Carlow, i.e. Cloch-uachdar (upper stone 
or castle) ; Watree, in Kilkenny, i.e. Uachdaraighe (upper 
lands) — v. Joyce's Irish Narnes of Places. 

AVON -afon (Cvm Cel ) ( water ' a river ; e ' g - the Av0n ' Aven ' 

ABHMN, ABHUINNE (Gael.), \ ^ ^^ ^^ ^^J' ^' 

AMNIS (Lat. Sansc. aj>.), ) I™??' nv f P*?" m &&»**, 
v r ' \ Wales, and Ireland ; Avengorm 

(red river) ; Aven-banna (white river) ; Avenbui (yellow 

river) ; Avonmore (great river), in Ireland ; the Seine, 

anc. Seimh-au (smooth river) ; the Mayenne or Meduana 

(probably the middle river, from Cel. meadhou). In 

France there are from this root — the Ain, Avenne, Vilaine, 

Vienne ; the Abona, in Spain. In Scotland : the Almond 

or Awmonj Devon (deep river) ; Doon (dark river) ; 

Kelvin (woody river) ; Annan (quiet river) ; the Leith, 

Leithen, Lethen (the broad or the gray river) ; the Don, in 

Scotland and England (dark or brown river) ; Irvine and 

Earn (the west-flowing river) ; Anwoth, in Kirkcudbright, i.e. 

Avonwath (the course of the river) ; the Spey, speach-abhain 

(swift river) ; the Allan (beauteous river, aluinri) ; the 

Boyne, anc. Bouoninda (perhaps yellow river, buidhe). 

Many towns derive their names from their rivers, or from 

their vicinity to water : thus, Avignon and Verona (on the 

water) ; Amiens, the cap. of the Ambiani (dwellers on the 

water, i.e. of the Samara or Somme). Teramo, anc. 

Interamnia (between the rivers), and Terni, with the same 

meaning ; Avenay, anc. Avenacum (on the river) ; Avesnes, 

celebrated for its mineral springs. But such names as 

Avenay, Avennes, etc., may have been derived in many 

cases from Lat. avena, Fr. avoine (oats) — v. Cocheris's Noms 

de Lieu. 

baal, a prefix in Phoenician names, derived from the worship of 
the sun-god among that people ; e.g. Baalath and Kirjath- 
Baal (the city of Baal) ; Baal-hazor (Baal's village) ; Baal- 



BACH, BATCH (Teut.), 

BEC, boek (Scand.), 
but bach, by mutation fach or vacli, 
in Welsh names means small, little 

Hermon (near Mount Hermon) ; Baal-Judah, etc., in Pales- 
tine. Sometimes, however, the word is used as synonymous 
with beth (a dwelling), as Baal-tamar and Baal-Meon (for 
Bethtamar and Beth Meon). But Baal-Perazim, we are 
told, means the place of breaches, and has no reference to 
the sun-god, Baalbec (the city of the sun), in Syria. 
BAB (Ar.), a gate or court ; Babel and Babylon, according to the 
Arabic (the gate of God), or from a word signifying con- 
fusion, Gen. xi. 9 ; Baab (the gate), a town in Syria ; 
El-Baab (the gate), in the Sahara ; Bab-el-Mandeb, Strait 
of (the gate of tears), so called by the Arabs from its 
dangerous navigation ; Bab-el-estrecho (the gate of the 
narrow passage), the Arabic name for the Strait of Gibraltar. 

a brook ; e.g. Snail- 
batch and Caldbeck 
(cold brook or swift 
brook) ; snell in A.S. 
and Old English means 
active, sharp, quick ; and in Scotland, as applied to 
the weather, it means sharp or severely cold ; Crumbeck 
(crooked brook) ; Lauterbach (clear brook) ; Skurbeck 
(dividing brook) ; Griesbach and Sandbach (sandy brook) ; 
Gronenbach (green brook) ; Over-beck (upper) ; Reichen- 
bach (rich) ; Marbeck (boundary) ; Schoenbach (beautiful 
brook) ; Beckford (the brook ford) ; Bacheim and Beckum 
(the dwelling at the brook) ; Beckermet (the meeting of 
brooks) ; Bickerstith (the station at the brook) ; Laubach 
and Laybach (the warm brook) ; but Laubach may also 
mean rich in leaves — v. ach. Bee in Normandy is named 
from a brook that flows into the Risle : Birkbeck in West- 
moreland (the birch-tree brook) ; Ansbach or Anspach (at 
the stream in Bavaria) ; Schwalbach (the swallow's brook), 
in Nassau ; Houlbec, in Normandy, Holbeck, in Lincoln and 
in Denmark (the brook in the hollow) ; Fulbeck (Lincoln) 
and Foulbec, in Normandy (muddy brook). 
/„ n i a bath or mineral spring ; e.g. Baden, anc. 

^ in c \\ { ^ erm(S --^ us ^ nc ' z (the Austrian warm 
\ y ' ( springs) ; Baden - Baden, anc. Civitas 

Aquenses Aurelia (the watering-place of Aurelius) ; Baden- 
bei-Wien (the baths near Vienna) ; Baden-ober (the upper 


baths) ; Franzens-bad (the bath of the Franks) ; Carlsbad 
or Kaiser-bad (the bath-town of the Emperor Charles IV. 
of Bohemia) ; Marien-bad, Lat. Balneum Maria (the bath- 
town of the Virgin Mary) ; Wiesbaden, anc. Fontes-Mattiaci 
(the baths or springs of the Mattiaci, dwellers on the 

meadow) v. wiese ; Badborn (bath well) ; Wildbad (wild 

bath, i.e. not prepared by art), in the Black Forest ; Slangen- 
bad (the bath of snakes), so called from the number of 
snakes found in the mineral springs; Badsdorf (bath village), 
Bohemia. The Celtic name of the English city Bath was 
Caer-badon, or Bathan-ceaster (bath city or fortress); the 
Anglo-Saxons made it Akeman-ceaster (the sick man's 
camp), or Agues Lulis (dedicated to a British divinity, 
Lulis, identified with Minerva). 
bagh (Ar. and Turc), a garden ; e.g. Bag, or Baug, in Hindostan. 
Bagdad superseded Seleucia, which, it is related, was reduced 
to such a state of ruin as td have nothing remaining on the 
spot where it stood formerly but the cell of the monk Dad ; 
hence the name of the new city founded by the Caliph 
Almazar, a.d. 762. Baghdad, i.e. the garden of Dad, a 
monk who had his cell near the site of the city ; Bala-Bagh 
(high garden), in Affghanistan ; Karabagh (black garden), 
a district in Armenia, so called from its thick forests ; 
Alum-bagh (the garden of the Lady Alum), in Hindostan ; 
Baktschisarai (the palace of the garden), in Crimea. 

from the Lat. balneum (a bath) ; e.g. Bagna- 
cavallo (the horses' bath) ; Bagna-di-aqua 
(water bath) ; Bagnazo, Bagnara, Bagnari, 
towns in Italy, celebrated for their baths. 
In France there are Bagneres-de-Bigorre (the 
baths of Bigorones, i.e. the dwellers between two heights) ; 
Bagneres-de-Luchon (the baths on the R. Luchon) ; Bains- 
les-du-mont-dore" (the baths of the golden mount); with 
numerous names with similar meanings, such as Bagneux, 
Bagneaux, Bagnol, Bagnoles, Bagnolet, Bagnot, etc. In 
Italy : Bagnolina (the little bath) ; Bagni-di-Lucca, Bagni- 
di-Pisa (the baths of Lucca and Pisa). 
BAHIA (Port.), a bay ; e.g. Bahia or St. Salvador (the town of 
the Holy Saviour), on the bay, in Brazil ; Bahia-blanca 
(white bay) ; Bahia-hermosa (beautiful) ; Bahia-honda 

bagna (It.), 
bano (Span.), 
banho (Port.) 
bain (Fr.), 


(deep) ; Bahia-negra (black) ; Bahia-neuva (new bay) ; 
Bahia-de-Neustra-Senora (the bay of Our Lady) ; Bahia- 
Escosesa (Scottish bay), in Hayti ; Bayonna, in Spain, and 
~ Bayonne, in France (the good bay), from a Basque word, 
signifying goods Baia (the town on the bay), in Naples ; 
Bahia-de-todos los Santos (All Saints' Bay), in Brazil. 

BAHN (Ger.), a way or path ; e.g. Winter-bahn (winter path) ; 
Langen-bahn (long path) ; Wild-bahn (wild or uncultivated 

BAHR, or bahar (Ar.), a sea, a lake, and sometimes a river ; e.g. 
Bahar-el-Abiad (the white) ; Bahar-el-azrak (the blue river), 
forming together the Nile ; Bahar-belame (waterless river), 
in Egypt ; Baraach (the sea of wealth), in Hindostan ; 
Bahari (the maritime district), Lower Egypt ; Bahr-assal 
(salt lake), Africa ; Bahrein (the two seas), a district in 
Arabia, between the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea ; also a 
group of islands on the same coast. 

BAILE, bally (Gadhelic), originally merely a place, a home, then 
a fort, a town, allied to the Grk. fiolis. The word joined 
with the article an is found as ballin for baile-an; e.g. 
Ballinrobe (the town of the R. Robe) ; Balbriggan (Brecon's 
town) ; Ballintra and Ballintrae, in Ireland, and Ballantrae, 
in Scotland (the dwelling on the strand) ; Ballinure (the 
town of the yew) ; Ballintubbert (the town of the well) ; 
Ballinakill (of the church or wood) ; Ballinahinch (of the 
island) ; Ballinamona (of the bog), in Ireland ; Ballycastle 
(castle town) ; Ballymena (middle town) ; Ballymony (of 
the shrubbery) ; Balmagowan and Ballingown (of the 
smiths) ; Ballymore and Ballmore (great town) ; Nohoval, 
corrupt, from (new dwelling), localities in 
Ireland. In Scotland : Balvanie, anc. Bal-Beni-mor (the 
dwelling of Beyne, the great first Bishop of Mortlach), in 
Aberdeenshire ; Balmoral (the majestic dwelling, morait) ; 
Ballater (the dwelling on the hill-slope, leitir) ; Balmerino 
(on the sea-shore, muir) ; Balachulish, Gael. Baile-na-caolish 
(the dwelling on the narrow strait) ; Baldernock, Gael. 
Baile-dair-cnoc (the dwelling at the oak hill) ; Balnacraig 
(dwelling of the rock) ; Balfour (cold dwelling) ; Balgay 
(windy dwelling, gaoth, wind) ; Balfron (of mourning, 
bhroiri), so called, according to tradition, because a number 

c >v 


of children had been devoured by wolves at the place ; 
Balgreen (the sunny place, grianach) ; Balgarvie (of the 
rough stream) ; Ballagan and Ballogie (the dwelling in the 
hollow) ; Balgownie and Balgonie (of the smiths) ; Bal- 
bardie (of the bard) ; Balmac Lellan (the dwelling of the Bal- 
MacLellan), in Kirkcudbright; Balmaghie (of the Maghies); 
Balquhidder (the town at the back of the country) ; Bal- 
blair (of the field or plain). 

BALA (Turc), high ; e.g. Bala-hissar (high castle) ; Bala-dagh 
(high mountain) ; Bala-Ghauts (the high Ghauts) ; Balasore 
(high dwelling) ; Balkan (high ridge), also called Mount 
Haemus (the snowy mount), hima (Sansc), snow ; Balkh 
(high town), anc. Bactra. 

BALKEN (Ger.), a ridge ; e.g. Griesen-balken (sandy ridge) ; Moes- 
balken (mossy ridge) ; Schieren-balken (clear ridge) — the 
word is applied to chains of mountains in general. 

, . (a strait or belt ; e.g. Balta (the island of the 

BALTA ( bc f- nd -). J strait ) . Ba]tia ( th e country of belts or straits), 
^ ''' ( the ancient name of Scandinavia. The Great 
and Little Belts, or straits. 

BAN (Gadhelic), white, fair ; e.g. Rivers Bann, Bane, Bain, Bana, 
Banon, Bandon, Banney, etc. ; Banchory (the fair valley). 

BAN (Cym.-Cel.), a hill or height ; e.g. Cefh-y-fan (the hill-ridge) ; 

Tal-y-fan (the face of the hill), in Wales. B by mutation 

becomes f. 

,_ . I a district or enclosure, from Old Ger. 

BANT, banz (Ger.), , , ,. ,- , ' ... _ 

j jji/t \ py n " an - (to confine), cognate with Cym.- 

' ' ( Cel. pant; e.g. Brabant, i.e. Brach-bant 

(the ploughed district) ; Altenbanz (the old) ; Ostrevant 

(the eastern) ; Grunnenbant (the green district) ; Hasel- 

point (hazel field) ; Pound- stock (the enclosed place), in 

Germany ; Drenthe, corrupt, from Thri-banta (the three 

districts), in Holland ; Bantz, in Bavaria. From pant we 

have in Monmouth, Panteg (beautiful valley, tig) ; Pant-y- 

goitre (the valley of the town in the wood). 

banya (Hung.), a mine; e.g. Uj-banya (new mine) ; Nagy-banya 

(great mine), a town of Hungary with gold and silver 

mines, named by the Germans Neustadt; Abrud-banya 

(the mine on the R. Abrud, a district abounding in metals). 


BARR (Gadhelic} ( Z summit ; e S- Barmona (the summit or top 
BAR rCvm -Cel ) J ° f the b0g ^ ; Barra - vore (S reat height, mor) ; 
RApn (k H \ \ Barmeen (smooth summit), in Ireland. In 
*• ''' ^several counties in Scotland we have Barr 

(the uplands), but Barr in Ayrshire took its name from St. 
Barr ; Barbreac (spotted point) ; Barrie and Barra (the 
head of the water, abh) ; Barcaldine (hazel point, calltunii) ; 
Barbeth (birch point) ; Barrglass (gray point) ; Bar-darroch 
(the summit of the oak grove) ; Bardearg (red point) ; Bar- 
caple (the horses' point) ; the Bard of Mousa and of 
Bressay, in the Shetlands, is the projection on these islands ; 
the ancient name of the town of Perth was Barr-Tatha (the 
height of the R. Tay) ; Barwyn for Bar-gwn (a white-topped 
mountain, or tipped with snow), in Wales. In France the 
prefix bar is applied to strongholds, as in Bar-le-Duc (the 
duke's citadel) ; Bar-sur Saone, Bar-sur Aube (the strong- 
hold on the rivers Saone and Aube). 

._ , . (a mound of earth, especially over a grave ; 
. A \, \ \ e -S- Barrow-by (the dwelling at the mound) ; 

^ ' '" [ Ingle-barrow (the mound at the grave of 

Ingold). But, in some cases, barrow may be a form of 
A.S. boerw (a grove), as in Barrow-den (the grove hollow), 
in Rutland. 
. /a building ; e.g. Brun-bau (the well-house) ; 

bau (Ger.), j Neu-bau and Alten-bau (the old and new 

GEBAUDE, ^ building) ; Buittle (the building), a parish on 

bauen, to build, ^ {he Sdway Firth . T i che i_boo (brick build- 
ing) ; Forst-gebaude (the building in the forest). It takes 
the form of bottle and buttel in Germany, and battle 
in Britain — v. p. 27 ; Newbattle (new building in Mid 
Lothian) ; Wulfen-buttel (the dwelling of Ulpha) ; Bolton, 
in Lancashire, anc. Botl. 
.„ . ( a tree, a post ; e.g. Baumburg (tree town) ; Baum- 
BAUM (Uer ) I garten ^ he orchard ) . Baumgartenthal (orchard 
beam <A b -). i valley ) . Baum-kriig (the tree inn) ; Schoen- 
BOOM (Dut.), ^ baum ( beautifu i tree ) . Heesbaum (the hazel- 
tree), in Germany ; Bampton and Bempton (tree town), 
in Oxford and Yorkshire ; but Bampton in Devon takes 
its name from the R. Bathom — its ancient name was 


bedd (Welsh), a grave ; e.g. Bedd-gelert (the grave of a favourite 

hound of Llewelyn, or, as others affirm, the grave of a saint 

named Kelert). 

._ „ . . ( the birch-tree, cognate with the Lat. betula; 
BEDW (Cym.-Cel.), I _ ,, ',,, ° , . , , „ , -a , 

BEITH (Gadhelic) J e ' g ' Beddoe (the birches )' Salo P ; Bed " 

,■,-,-, , , (' \ welty, i.e. Bedw-gwal-ty (the wild beast's 

BEDWEN (Welsh), I , I .'. .? . . < \ ■ Tij- it . 

v yl ^dwelling among the birches), in Monmouth ; 

Penbedw (birch hill), Monmouth. In Ireland : Beagh, 

Beaghy, Behagh, Behy, i.e. (birch land) ; Kilbehey, i.e. 

coill -beithne (birch wood); Behanagh (birch - producing 

river) ; Ballybay, i.e. Bel-atha-beithe (the ford mouth of the 

birch) ; Aghaveagh (birch field). In Scotland : Beith and 

Beath, in Fife and Ayrshire ; Dalbeath, Dalbeth, Dalbeathie 

(the birch field or valley) ; Barbeth (the summit of birches). 

beemd (Dutch), a meadow ; e.g. Beemd and Beemte (on the 
meadow) ; Haagschbeemden (enclosed meadow) ; Beem- 
ster-polder (the meadow embankment). 

beer, bir (Heb. and Ar.), a well ; e.g. Beer-sheba (the well of the 
oath) ; Beer-Elim (the well of heroes) ; Beer-lahai-roi (the 
well of the living sight) ; Beirout (the city of wells), in 
Palestine ; Bir, a town of Asiatic Turkey. 

beer, or bear (Teut.), (% farm ' ~ tta ? e ' , or dwelling ; e.g. Beer- 
BUR (AS) J. Re S ls ( tlie king's farm) ; Beer- Alston 

byr (OldGer ) ) ^ the dwellin S of Alston) ; Beardon and 

^ *'' (^Berewood (the dwelling on a hill and in 

a wood) ; Aylesbear (the dwelling of Aegle) ; Biihren, in 
Hanover and Switzerland ; Beuren, in Swabia ; Grasbeuren 
(grassy dwelling) ; Sandbuur (sandy dwelling) ; Erlesbura 
(dwelling among elms) ; Beerendrecht (the dwelling on the 
pasture) ; Nassenbeuren (damp dwelling) ; Blaubeuren (the 
blue dwelling) ; Benediktbeuren (the dwelling of the Bene- 

BEG, BEAG (Gadhelic), ( }i n J e ' e S- Morbihan (the . 

bach, or BYCHAN, by mutation/^ J !i ttle 1 sea )' ln B "ttany ; 

atfychan (Cym.-Cel.), ^ Taafe - fechan (the little 

J ' y ' \ River Taafe), in Wales. 

In Ireland : Castlebeg (little castle) ; Downkillybegs (the 

fortress of the little church) ; Bunbeg (small river mouth) ; 

Rathbeg (little fort). 


beim, a contraction of the Ger. bei-dem (by the) ; e.g. Beimbach, 
Beimberg, Beimhofen (by the brook, the hill, the court). 

BEINN (Gadhelic), (* mountai £ ~P«te with the Cym.-Cel. 
v < A' 2 / *•£"■ Beanach (a hilly place) ; Ben- 

( more (great mountain); Ben-a-buird (table 
mountain) ; Ben-a-bhaird (the bard's mountain) ; Benan, 
i.e. Binnean (the peaked hill or pinnacle) ; Bencleuch (stony 
mountain) ; Ben-cruachan (the stack- shaped mountain, 
cruack) ; Bendearg (red mountain) ; Bendronach (the 
mountain with the hunch, dronnag) ; Bengloe (the moun- 
tain with the covering or veil, gloth) ; Benamore and Bann- 
more (the great peaks, beanna, peaks) ; Bennachie (the hill 
of the pap, at its summit, ache) ; Benavoir (the mountain of 
gold, or), in Jura ; Benclibrig (the hill of the playing trout) ; 
Benloyal, i.e. Ben-laoghal (the hill of the calves) ; Ben-na- 
cailleach (nun's hill) ; Ben Lomond, named from Loch 
Lomond, quod vide; Benmacdhui, i.e. Beinn-na-muc-dubh 
(the mountain of the black sow) ; Ben Nevis (the cloud- 
capped or snowy mountain) ; Benvenue (the little moun- 
tain), as compared with Benledi ; Benwyvis (stupendous 
mountain, uabhasach) ; Benvrachie (spotted mountain) ; 
Benvoirlich (the mountain of the great loch). In Ireland : 
Benbo, i.e. Beannabo (the peaks of the cows) ; Dunmanway, 
in Cork, corrupt, from Dun-na-mbeann (the fortress of the 
pinnacles). In Ireland ben is more generally applied to 
small steep hills than to mountains ; e.g. Bengore (the peak 
of the goats, gabhar) ; Benburb, Lat. pinna superba (proud 
peak), in Tyrone ; the Twelve Pins, i.e. bens or peaks, in 
Connemara ; Banagh and Benagh (a place full of peaks) ; 
Bannaghbane and Bannaghroe (white and red hilly ground) ; 
Banaghaf, King's Co., and Bangor, Co. Down, anc. Beann- 
char (the pointed hills or rocks) ; but Bangor, in Wales, 
signifies the high choir ; Drumbanagh (the ridge of the 

,_ , ( beautiful, fine, from the Lat. 

BEL, BELLE, BEAU (Fr.), . J Bekh Belcastr0 

bello, BELLA (Port., Span., It.), | (beautifu f fie i dandcam p ); Belle- 
isle and Belile (beautiful island) ; Beaufort, Beaulieu, Beau- 
mont, Beaumanoir (fine fort, place, mount, manor) ; Beau- 
maris (the fair marsh), so named in the reign of Edward I. 

22 BEL 

Some think it may have been formerly Bimaris (between 
two seas), a name applied by Horace to Corinth ; Belvoir 
(beautiful to see), in Rutland ; Bewley and Bewdley, 
corrupt, from Beaulieu ; Beauley, a river and village in 
Inverness -shire, named from Prioratus -de-bello-loco (the 
priory of the beautiful place), founded in 1230; Beachy 
Head, according to Camden, is the head of the beach, but 
Holland, who published Camden's Britannia, says it was 
called Beaucliff, or, more probably, Beauchef (beautiful 
headland) ; Beaudesert (beautiful retreat) ; Belper, i.e. 
Beau-repaire (with the same meaning), in Warwick and 
Derbyshire ; Leighton-Buzzard, corrupt, of its ancient name 
Legionbuhr (the fortress of the legion) ; Balaclava, corrupt, 
from its ancient name Bella-chiava (the beautiful frontier 
town, chiave), founded by the Genoese. 

BEL, biala (Sclav.), white ; e.g. Biela (white stream) ; Bela, Belaia 
(white place) ; Belowes and Belowiz (white village) ; was or 
wies (a town or village) ; Belgrade, Ger. Weissenburg (white 
fortress) ; Bialgorod, Turc. Akkemtann (white castle) ; Belki 
or Bielki (a name applied in Russia to snow-capped 
mountains) ; Berat, in Albania, corrupt, from Belgrade 
(white fort). 

BEL, beal (Gadhelic), a mouth, in its literal sense, but in a second- 
ary sense, signifying an entrance into any place. In 
Ireland it is often united with ath (a ford), forming belatha 
(ford entrance). The word bel itself is often used to denote 
a ford ; e.g. Belclair, i.e. Bel-an-chlair (the ford or entrance 
to the plain) ; Belatha (Anglicised Bella) is found in many 
names, as in Bellanagare, i.e. Bel-atha-na-gcarr (the ford 
mouth of the cars) ; Lisbellaw (the fort at the ford mouth) ; 
Bel-atha is often changed in modern names to balli or 
bally, as if the original root were baile (a town), as in 
Ballinamore (the mouth of the great ford) ; Ballinafad 
(the mouth of the long ford) ; Ballyshannon is corrupt, 
from Bel-atha-Seanach (Shannagh's ford) ; Belfast, anc. 
Bel-feirsde (the ford of the farset or sandbank) ; Ballinaboy, 
i.e. Bel-an-atha-buide (the mouth of the yellow ford) ; 
Ballinasloe, Bel-atha-na-sluaigheadh (the ford mouth of the 
armies) ; Bel (a ford) is not found in Scotland, but a word 
with a kindred meaning as applied to land, bealach (a 


pass or opening between hills), is frequent there, as well 
as in Ireland, and takes the form of ballagh or balloch ; e.g. 
Ballaghboy in Ireland, and Ballochbuie in Scotland (the 
yellow pass) ; Ballaghmore (great pass) ; Ballaghkeen (the 
beautiful pass, ctziri) ; Ballaghadereen (the pass of the little 
oak grove) ; Balloch alone occurs in several counties of 
Scotland, the best known being Balloch, at the entrance to 
Loch Lomond ; Ballochray (smooth pass, reidK) ; Balloch- 
myle (the bald or bare pass) ; Ballochgair (short pass) ; 
Ballochcraggan (of the little rock); Balloch-nam-bo (the 
pass of the cattle), etc. 

beled, or eelad (Ar.), a district ; e.g. Beled-es-Shurifa (the dis- 
trict of the nobles) ; Belad-es-Sudan (the district of the 
Blacks) ; Belad-es-Sukkar (sugar district) ; Belad-t-moghrib 
(the district of the West), the Arabian name for Morocco, 
also called Beled-el-Djered (the land of dates) ; Beled-el- 
Sham (the district of the north or on the left), the Arabic 
name for Syria, to distinguish it from Yemen (to the south 
or right). Syria was also called by the Turks Soristan, 
and by the Greeks Suria, i.e. the country of Tyre (Tzur, 
the rock). The word in its secondary sense means pros- 
perous or happy — hence the Greeks called it 'Apafica rj ev- 
Saifuov, to distinguish it from Arabia deserta (Ar.), El- 
Badiah (the desert), hence the Bedawees or Bedouins. 

bender (Ar.), a market or harbour. Bender is the name of 
several towns on the Persian Gulf, and also of a town on 
the Dniester; Bender -Erekli (the harbour of the ancient 
Heraclea), on the Black Sea. 

BENI (Ar.), sons of; e.g. Beni-Hassan (a town named from the 
descendants of Hassan) ; Beni-Araba (belonging to the sons 
of the desert) ; Beni-Calaf (to the sons of the Caliph) ; 
Beni-Sham (the sons of Shem), i.e. Syria ; Beni-Misr (the 
land of Mizraim or Egypt). 

(3, hill, a summit; e.g. Ailberg (eagle 

berg (^er.) hiu) B1 b (lead hm) . Schnee berg 

BIERG (Scand.) \ ,J hill) Wa i k enberg (the hill of 

BRIG, braigh (CelUc), (^^ . !5 0rmers berg (of thunder); 

Habsberg, Falkenberg, Valkenberg (of hawks) ; Finsterberg 

(dark hill) ; Groenberg (green hill) ; Teufelsberg (the devil's 

hill) ; Greiffenberg (the griffin's hill) ; Geyersberg (of the 

84 BETH 

vulture) ; Jarlsberg (of the earl) ; Dreisellberg (the hill of 
three seats) ; Kupperberg (copper hill) ; Heilberg (holy 
hill) ; Silberberg (silver hill, near a silver mine) ; Schoen- 
berg (beautiful hill). The word berg, however, is often 
applied to the names of towns and fortresses instead of 
burg ; and, when this is the case, it indicates that the town 
was built on or near a hill, or in connection with a fortress ; 
e.g. Kaiserberg (the hill fort of the Emperor Frederick II.) ; 
Wiirtemberg, anc. Wirtenberg (named from the seignorial 
chateau, situated upon a hill). The name has been trans- 
lated (the lord of the hill) from an Old Ger. word wirt (a 
lord). Heidelberg is a corrupt, of Heydenberg (the hell of 
the pagans), or from heydel myrtle, which grows in great 
abundance in the neighbourhood ; Lemberg, Lowenburg, 
or Leopolis (the fortress of Leo Danielowes), in Galicia ; 
Nurnberg, anc. Nori7nberga or Casirum Noticum (the 
fortress of the Noricii) ; Lahnberg (on the R. Lahn) ; 
Spermberg (on the Spree) ; Wittenberg (white fortress) ; 
Koningsberg (the king's fortress), in E. Prussia and in 
Norway ; Bamberg (named after Babe, daughter of the 
Emperor Otho II.), in Bavaria; Havelberg (on the R. 
Havel). There are several towns in Germany and Scan- 
dinavia called simply Berg or Bergen ; e.g. Bergen-op-Zoom 
(the hill fort on the R. Zoom), in Holland ; Bergamo (on a 
hill), in Italy. Berg (a hill) sometimes takes the form of 
berry, as in Queensberry, in Dumfries ; also of borough, as 
in Flamborough Head and Ingleborough (the hill of the 
beacon light). Gebirge signifies a mountain range ; eg. 
Schneegebirge (the snow-clad range) ; Siebengebirge (the 
range of seven hills) ; Fichtelgebirge (of the pines) ; Erze- 
gebirge (the ore mountain range) ; Glasischgebirge (of the 
glaciers) ; Eulergebirge (of the owls). 
eeth CHeb "1 ( a h° use > e S- Bethany (the house of dates) ; Beth- 

beit CAr ) { phage ( of figs ) ' Bethsaida ( of fish ) 5 Bethoron 

v ' ; ' ( (of caves) ; Bethabara (of the ford) ; Bethlehem 

(the house of bread), but its present name, Beit-lahm, 
means the house of flesh ; Bethesda (of mercy) ; Betharaba 
(desert dwelling) ; Bethjesimoth (of wastes) ; Bethshemish 
Grk. Heliopolis (the house or city of the sun) ; its Egyptian 
name was Aun-i-Aun (light of light), contracted to On; 


Beit-Allah (the house of God), at Mecca; Beit-el-Fakih 
(the house of the saint), on the Red Sea. 
bettws (Cym.-Cel.), a portion of land lying between a river and 
a hill, hence a dwelling so situated ; e.g. Bettws-yn-y-coed 
(the dwelling in the wood) ; Bettws -disserth (the retreat 
dwelling) ; Bettws-Garmon (of St. Germanus, where he led 
the Britons to the famous Alleluia victory over the Saxons) ; 
Bettws-Newydd (new dwelling). 
BETULA (Lat.), ( tbe b ! rch - tree ; e -S- Le Boulay La Boulay, 
BOULEAU(Fr) ) Boulages, Les Boulus, Belloy (places 

* *'' ( planted with birch-trees). 

BIBER BEVER (Teut ) ( thC beaver > e S- the Biber > Beber » 

L , . ^ '" < Biberich, Beber-bach (rivers in Ger- 
* ■'' y many) ; Bober, Boberau, Bobronia 

(beaver river), in Silesia and Russia ; Bobersburg (on the 
R. Bober) ; Biberschlag(beaver's wood clearing); Biberstein 
(beaver rock); Beverley, in Yorkshire, anc. Biberlac (beaver 
lake), formerly surrounded by marshy ground, the resort of 
beavers ; Beverstone, in Gloucester ; Beverloo (beaver 
marsh), in Belgium. 

bill, an old German word, signifying plain or level ; e.g. Bilderlah 
(the field of the plain) ; Billig-ham (level dwelling) ; Wald- 
billig (woody plain) ; Wasser-billig (the watery plain) ; 
Bilstein (level rock) ; Bielefeld (level field) ; Bieler-see 
(the lake on the plain). 

BIOR (Gadhelic), water, an element in many river names ; e.g. 
the Bere, in Dorset ; Ver, Hereford ; Bervie, in Mearns. 
The town of Lifford, in Donegal, was originally Leith-bhearr 
(the gray water) ; Berra, a lake in France ; the Ebura or 
Eure, in Normandy ; and in Yorkshire, the Ebro, anc. 
Iberus ; Ivry, in Normandy, anc. Ebarovicus (the town on 
the Ebura). 

™ . ( the birch-tree ; e.g. Birkenhead (the head 

BERK aatTBETULA J ° f the birCh6S ) ' ^^ ^^ W °° d) 5 
™«r^ ^Berkeley (birch field); Birchington, 

1 j ' (Birkhoff (the birch-tree dwelling and 

court) ; Birkhampstead (the home place among the birches) ; 

Oberbirchen (the upper birches) ; but Berkshire is not from 

this root ; it was called by the Anglo-Saxons Berroc-shyre, 

supposed to be named from the abundance of berroc (box- 


wood), or the bare-oak-shire, from a certain polled oak in 
Windsor Forest, where the Britons were wont to hold their 
provincial meetings. 
BLAEN (Cym.-Cel.), the source of a stream ; e.g. Blaene-Avon, 
Blaen-Ayron, Blaen-Hounddu (river sources in Wales) ; 
Blaen-porth (the head of the harbour) ; Blaen-nant (of the 
brook); Blaen-Bylan, abbreviated from Blaen-pwll-glan 
(the top of pool bank) ; Blaen-Sillt, at the top of a small 
stream, the Sillt, in Wales ; Blaen-afon (of the river). 
blair, blar (Gadhelic), a plain, originally a battle-field ; e.g. 
Blair-Athole, Blair-Logie, Blair-Gowrie (the battle-field in 
these districts) ; Blairmore (the great) ; Blaircreen (the 
little plain) ; Blairdaff (the plain of the oxen, daimh) ; 
Blair-burn (of the stream) ; Blair-craig (of the rock) ; Blair- 
linne (of the pool) ; Blair-beth (of birches) ; Blair-ingone 
(the field of spears), in Perthshire ; Blair-glass (gray plain) ; 
Blarney (little field), in Ireland ; Blair-Drummond, Blair- 
Adam, modern places named after persons. 

white ; e.g. Mont-Blanc, Cape-bianco, Sierra- 
blanca (white mountain-ridge) ; Castella-bianca 
(white castle) ; Villa -bianca (white town) ; 
Blankenburg (white town) ; Blankenham 
(white dwelling) ; Blankenhavn, Blankenloch, 
Blankenrath, Blankenese (white haven, place, 
wood-clearing, cape), in Germany ; Bianchi- 
mandri (white sheep-folds), in Sicily; Branco (the white 
stream), in Brazil; Los-Brancos (the white mountains); 
Cata-branca (the white cove) ; Casa-branca (the white 
house), in Brazil. 
blisko (Sclav.), near ; e.g. Bliesdorf, Bliesendorf, Blieskendorf 

(near village) ; Bliskau (near meadow). 
bloto, blatt (Sclav.), a marsh ; e.g. Blotto, Blottnitz (marshy 
land) ; Wirchen- blatt (high marsh) ; Sa- blatt, Sablater, 
Zablatt (behind the marsh) ; Na-blatt (near the marsh). 
In some cases the b in this word is changed into fi, as in 
Plotsk and Plattkow (the marshy place) ; Plattensee or 
Balaton (the lake in the marshy land). 
BOCA (Span., Port., and It.), a mouth — in topography, the narrow 
entrance of a river or bay; e.g. Boca-grande, Boca-chica 
(great and little channel), in South America ; La Bochetta 

BLANC (Fr.), 
BLANCO (Span.), 

BRANCO (Port.), 
BLANC (A.S.), 
BLANK (Ger.), 


(the little opening), a mountain pass in the Apennines ; 

Desemboque (the river mouth), in Brazil. 

BOD (Cym.-Cel.), a dwelling ; e.g. Bodmin, in Cornwall, corrupt. 

from Bodminian (the dwelling of monks) ; Bodffaris (the 

site of Varis), the old Roman station on the road to Chester ; 

Hafod, the name of several places in Wales, corrupt, from 

Hafbod (a summer residence) ; Bosher or Bosherston, 

corrupt, from Bod and kir, long (the long ridge abode), in 


._ . (a bay, the ocean swell ; e.g. Bodden (an arm 
BODDEN (leut.), j of the sea which divides the island of Rugen 

BOD (bcand.), I from Pomerania ) . Bodden-ness (the headland 

of the bay), on the east coast of Scotland. 

BODEN (Ger.), the ground, soil — in topography, a meadow ; e.g. 
Gras-boden (grassy meadow) ; Dunkel-boden (dark meadow). 
It may sometimes, however, be used instead of bant or 
paint — v. p. 1 8 ; and in Bodenburg, in Brunswick, it is a 
corrupt, of Ponteburg (bridge town) ; and Bodenheim is 
from a personal name, like Bodensee — v. SEE. 

BOGEN (Ger.), a bend or bow — in topography, applied to the 
bend of a river ; eg. Bogen, anc. Bogana (the bending 
river) ; Bogen, a town of Bavaria, on a bend of the Danube ; 
Ellbogen or Ellenbogen, Lat. Cubitus (the town on the 
elbow or river bend), in Bohemia ; Bogenhausen (the 
houses on the river bend) ; Langen-bogen (the long bend) ; 
Entli-buch (the bend on the R. Entle), in Switzerland. 

{a dwelling ; e.g. Newbattle, Newbottle, 
Newbold (new dwelling), as distin- 
guished from Elbottle (old dwelling) ; 
Morebattle (the dwelling on the marshy 
plain) ; Bolton, in Lancashire, A.S. Boil; Buittle, in Kirk- 
cudbright ; Newbald, Yorkshire ; Harbottle (the dwelling 
of the army, here), a place in Northumberland where, in 
former times, soldiers were quartered ; Erribold (the dwell- 
ing on the tongue of land, eir) ; Maybole, in Ayrshire, anc. 
Minnibole (the dwelling on the mossy place, Cym.-Cel., 
mys-wn) ; Exnabul, in Shetland (a place for keeping cattle) ; 
yxn, Scand. (a bull or cow) ; Walfenbuttel (the dwelling 
of Ulpha) ; Brunsbottle (of Bruno) ; Ritzbiittel (of Richard) ; 


Griesenbottel (sandy dwelling) ; Rescbiittel (the dwelling 
among rushes). 

BUEN S fLan\' ) g °° d ' "■£■ Bonavista ' Boavista (g° od view ) ; 
* y > Buenos-Ayres (good breezes), in South America ; 

bom (Port ) I Buenaventura (S ood luck )> in California. 

boom (Sansc), Bhuma (land, country) ; e.g. Birboom (the land 
of heroes) ; Arya- Bhuma (the noble land), the Sanscrit 
name for Hindostan. 

BOR (Sclav.), wood ; e.g. Bohra, Bohrau, Borowa, Borow (woody 
place) ; Borovsk (the town in the wood) ; Sabor and 
Zaborowa (behind the wood) ; Borzna (the woody district) ; 
the Borysthenes, now the R. Dnieper (the woody wall), 
from stena (a wall or rampart), the banks of the river 
having been covered with wood ; Ratibor (the wood of the 
Sclavonic god Razi). 

, T - [ land broken up for tillage, Old Ger. firacha 

brak fS A\ ^ ( t0 P' ou £k) > e -S- Brabant, anc. Bracbant (the 

'" ( ploughed district) ; Brachstadt, Brachfeld, 

Brachrade (the ploughed place, field, clearing) ; Brakel (the 

ploughed land), in Holland ; Hohenbrack (high ploughed 


brand (Ger.), a place cleared of wood by burning ; e.g. Eber-brand 
and Ober-brand (the upper clearing) ; Newen-brand and 
Alten-brand (the old and new clearing) ; Brandenburg (the 
burned city), so called, according to Buttman, by the Ger- 
mans ; by the Wends corrupted into Brennabor, and in 
their own language named Schorelitz (the destroyed city), 
because, in their mutual wars, it had been destroyed by 
fire. Bran and Brant, in English names, are probably 
memorials of the original proprietors of the places, as in 
Brandon, Cumbran, Brandeston ; Brantingham (the home 
of the children of Brand) — v. ing, ingen. 

brasa (Sclav ) ( the birch - tree 5 e -g- Briesnitz, Beresoff, Beresek, 

< Beresenskoi, Beresovoi (places where birches 

( abound) ; Gross-Briesen (great birch-tree town) ; 
Bresinchen (little Briesen), a colony from it ; Birsa and 
Beresina (the birch-tree river) ; Birsk, a town on the R. 
Birsa ; Brzesce-Litewski (the house of mercy at the birches); 
the letter b in this word is often changed into p by the Ger- 



mans, as in Presinitz for Brezenice (birch-tree village), in 
Bohemia ; also Priebus, with the same meaning, in Silesia ; 
Priegnitz, i.e. the town of the Brizanen (dwellers among 
birches) ; Briezen (the place of birches), in Moravia, is 
Germanised into Friedeck (woody corner) ; Bryezany 
(abounding in birches), in Galicia. 
BRAY (Cel.), damp ground, a marshy place ; e.g. Bray, in Nor- 
mandy ; Bray sur Somme und Bray sur Seine, situated on 
these rivers ; Bray-Maresch, near Cambray ; Br6 C6tes-de- 
Nord ; Bray-la-Campagne (calvados, etc.) 
BREIT CGerl C Droad ; brede, Dutch (a plain) ; e.g. Breitenbach 
brad (A S { J an( * Bre denbeke (broad brook) ; Breda (the flat 

„„™ /o j \ 1 meadowland), in Holland ; Breitenbrunn (broad 
bred (bcand.), 1 „>„..„■, „ , „ K 

x " ^ well) ; Breitenstem, Breitenburg (broad fortress) ; 

Bradford, in Yorkshire, and Bredevoort, in Holland (broad 
ford) ; Bredy (the broad water), in Dorset ; Brading, in 
Isle of Wight, and Bradley (broad meadow) ; Bradshaw 
(broad thicket) ; Broadstairs, corrupt, from its ancient name 
Bradstow (broad place). 
BRIA (Thracian), a town ; eg. Selymbria, Mesymbria. 

._ . . C a general name among the Celts for a town — so 
* '■" I called, apparently, from the Celtic words braigh, 
( brugh, brig (a heap, pile, or elevation), because 
the nucleus of towns, among uncivilised tribes in early 
times, were merely fortified places erected on heights ; 
cognate with the Teut. and Scand. burg, byrig, the Sclav. 
brieg (an embankment or ridge), and the Scottish brae (a 
rising ground). Hence the name of the Brigantes (dwellers 
on hills) ; the word Brigand (literally, a mountaineer) ; 
Briancpn, anc. Brigantium (the town on the height) ; Brieg, 
a town in Silesia ; Braga and Braganca, fortified cities in 
Portugal ; Talavera, in Spain, anc. Tala-briga, the town 
on the tala, Span, (a wood clearing) ; Bregenz, anc. Bri- 
gantium, in the Tyrol ; Breisach Alt and Neuf (the old 
and new town on the declivity), in the duchy of Baden — ■ 
the old fortress was situated on an isolated basalt hill ; 
Brixen (the town among the hills), in the Tyrol. In Scotland 
there are Braemar (the hilly district of Mar) ; Braidalbane 
(the hill country of Albainn, i.e. Scotland) ; Braeriach (the 
gray mountain, riabhach) ; the Brerachin, a river and dis- 


trict in Perthshire ; Brugh and Bruighean, in Ireland, 
signifying originally a hill, was subsequently applied to a 
palace or a distinguished residence. The term, as applied 
to the old residences, presupposed the existence of a fortified 
brugh or rath, several of which still remain. The word has 
suffered many corruptions : thus Bruree, in Limerick, is 
from Brugh-rigk (the king's fort) ; and Bruighean (little 
fort) has been transformed into Bruff, Bruis, Bruce, or 
Bryan. The word briva, on the other hand, was generally 
applied to towns situated on rivers — as in Amiens, anc. 
Samarabrina, on the R. Somme — and was gradually 
used as synonymous with pons (bridge), as in Pontoise, 
anc. Briva-Isara (the bridge on the Ouse) ; Briare, anc. 
Brivodurum (the bridge over the water) ; Brionde, anc. 

BRINK (Ger.), a grassy ridge ; e.g. Osterbrink (east ridge) ; Mittel- 
brink (middle ridge) ; Zandbrink (sand ridge) ; Brinkhorst 
(the ridge of the thicket). 

BRO (Cym.-Cel.), a district ; e.g. Broburg (the fort of the district), 
in Warwickshire ; Pembroke (the head, pen, of the district, 
it being the land's end of Wales). 

BROC (A.S.), a rushing stream ; e.g. Cranbrook (the stream of the 
cranes) ; Wallbrook (probably the stream at the wall) ; 
Wambrook (Woden's stream). 

broc (A S "l ( tlle b ac te er > e S- Brox-bourne and Broxburn, Brog- 
^ < den, Brokenhurst, Brockley, Broxholme (the stream, 

" ' ' ' ( hollow, thicket, meadow, and hill of the badger). 

brod (Sclav.), a ford ; e.g. Brod and Brody (at the ford), the 
name of several towns in Moravia, Bohemia, Hungary, and 
Turkey ; Brod-sack (ford dwelling) ; Brod-Ungarisch (the 
Hungarian ford), on the Olsawa ; Brod-Deutsch (the Ger- 
man ford), on the Sasawa ; Brod-Bohmisch (the Bohemian 
ford), on the Zembera ; Krasnabrod (beautiful ford) ; Eisen- 
brod (the ford of the Iser) ; Brodkowitz (ford station). 

BROEK, bruoch (Teut), a marsh ; e.g. Broek, a town in Holland ; 
Bogen-brok (the bending marsh) ; Breiden-bruch (the broad 
marsh) ; Aalten-broek (the old marsh) ; Eichen-bruch (the 
oak marsh) ; Broekem and Broickhausen (marsh dwelling) • 
Bruchmiihle (the mill on the marsh) ; Brussels or Bruxelles, 


anc. Bruock-sella (the seat or site on the marsh) ; Ober- 
bruch and Niederbruch (upper and lower marsh). 

BROG CSclav ) ( a dam ' e '£' Biesenbrow and Priebrow, from 

brow 1 Pschibrog (elder-tree dam), by the Germans 

"' (called Furstenberg, on the Oder; Colberg, 

Sclav. Kola-brog (around the dam). 

BRON (Welsh), the slope or side of a hill ; eg. Brongest (the slope 
of the cest or deep glen) ; Bronwydd (the slope covered 
with trees) ; Wydd, in Wales. 

BRUCKE (Ger.), if .. brid 6°i ■.**; Brugg-Furstenffeld (the 

BRIGGE (AS) I bnd S e at the P rlnce s field ) > Brugg-an-der- 

„^ ',A , , \ Leitha (the bridge across the Leitha) ; 

bro, bru (Scand.), J _ , , v & , . >' 

' . v ' ^ Brugg-kloster (the bridge at the monas- 

tery) ; Langenbriick, Langenbriicken (long bridge) ; Bruges, 
in Belgium (a city with many bridges) ; Saaxbrook (on the 
R. Saar) ; Osnaburg, in Hanover, anc. Osnabriicke or Asen- 
briicke (the bridge on the R. Ase) ; Voklabriick (on the R. 
Vokle) ; Bruchsal, in Baden (the bridge on the Salzbach) ; 
Zweibriicken or Deux-ponts (the two bridges) ; Zerbruggen 
(at the bridge). In England : Bridgenorth, anc. Brugge- 
Morfe (the bridge at the wood called Morfe, on the opposite 
bank of the Severn) ; Brixham, Brixworth, and Brigham 
(bridge town) ; Brixton, A.S. Brixges-stan (the bridge stone) ; 
Cambridge, Cel. Caer-Grant (the fort and bridge on the R. 
Granta, now the Cam) ; Tunbridge (over the R. Tun or 
Ton), a branch of the Medway ; Colebrook, in Bucks (the 
bridge over the R. Cole) ; Oxbridge (the bridge over the 
water, uisge) ; Staley-bridge (at a bridge over the R. Tame), 
named after the Staveleigh, a family who resided there ; 
Bridgewater, corrupt, from Burgh-Walter (the town of 
Walter Douay, its founder) ; Bridgend and Brigham, vill- 
ages in different parts of Scotland ; Brora (bridge river), 
in Sutherlandshire, named when bridges were rarities ; 
Trowbridge, however, did not get its name from this root, 
but is a corrupt, of its ancient name, Trutha-burh (the loyal 
.„ . ( a marshy place, overgrown with brushwood, cog- 

BRUEL (leut.), I ate with the French brmil and iruyere (a 

BRUHL, (thicket), the Welsh pryskle, and the Breton 

briigekj eg. Bruel, Bruhl, and Priel, in Germany ; Bruyeres, 


Broglie, and Brouilly (the thicket), in France ; also Breuil, 
Bruel, Breuillet, Le Brulet, etc., with the same meaning, or 
sometimes a park. St. Denis du Behellan, in Eure, was 
formerly Bruellant, i.e. the breuil or park of Herland. 

,„ . (a well, especially a mineral well ; e.g. 
BRUNN,BRUNNEN(Ger.), HeUb ; oun F (ho i y well) . Frau-brunnen, 
BRONGA (Scand.), ^ Lat Fons . beata .virginis (the well of 

Our Lady) ; Brunn-am-Gebirge (the well at the hill-ridge) ; 
Haupt-brun (well-head) ; Lauter-brunnen (clear well) ; 
Salz-brunn, Warm-brunn, Schoen-brunn, Kaltenbrunn (the 
salt, hot, beautiful, cold, mineral wells) ; Baldersbrunnen, 
Baldersbrond (the well of the Teutonic god Balder) ; 
Cobern, corrupt, from Cobrunnen (the cow's well) ; Paderborn 
(the well or source of the R. Pader), in Germany. In the 
north of France, and in the departments bordering on 
Germany, we find traces of this German word ; e.g. 
Mittel-broun (middle well) ; Walsch-broun (foreign well) ; 
Belle-brune (beautiful well); Stein-brunn (stony well), 
BRYN (Cym.-Cel.), a hill - ridge ; bron (a round hill); e.g. Brin- 
croes, Brin-eglwys, Bron-llys (the cross, church, palace, on 
the hill) ; Bryn-gwynn (fair hill) ; Brynn-uchil (high hill) ; 
Bron-Fraidd (St. Bridget's hill) ; Brown-Willy, in Corn- 
wall, corrupt, from Bryn-huel (the tin mine ridge) ; Brindon- 
hill, in Somerset (merely the hill), with synonymous word 
dun added to Bryn ; and Brandon, in Suffolk, with the 
same meaning ; Bryn-mawr (the great hill), in Wales ; 
Bron-gwyn (white hill) ; Bryn-y-cloddian (the hill of fences, 
clawd), so called from its strong fortifications ; Bryn- 
Barlwm (the bare-topped mountain) ; Bryn-Gwyddon (the 
hill of Gwyddon, a mythological philosopher) ; Bryn-kinallt 
(a mountain without trees) ; Bryn-berian (the kite's hill, beri, 
a kite) ; Bryn-bo, with the same meaning, boda in Wales ; 
Bryn-chwarew (the hill of sports) ; here the ancient inhabit- 
ants of Wales used to meet to play different games in 
competition ; Brienne-la-chateau (the castle on the hill), in 
France ■ Brientz, in Switzerland, on the Brienz See (a lake 
surrounded by hills) ; Brendenkopf (hill-head), and the 
Brennen Alps, the culminating points in the mountains of 



buche (Ger.), 
BOC (A.S.), 
BOG (Scand.), 
BUK (Sclav.), 

buda, BUS (Sclav.), 
bwth, both (Gadhelic). 
BOD (Cym.-Cel.), 
BUDE (Ger.), 
BOTHY (Scotch), 
BOT (Brez.), 

the beech-tree ; e.g. Buch-au, Buch-berg, Buch- 

egg (the meadow, hill, corner of the beeches) ; 

Buchholtz and Bochholt (beech-wood) ; Bockum, 

Bucheim (beech-dwelling) ; Butchowitz (the place 

of beeches), in Moravia ; Bochnia and Bucho- 

wina (with the same meaning), in Poland ; Bickleigh 

(beech-meadow). But Bocking in Essex, and the county of 

Buckingham, as well as Bouquinheim in Artois, and 'Boch- 

ingen in Wurtemberg, were named from the Bocingas (a 

tribe), probably the dwellers among beeches. 

a hut or dwelling ; e.g. Budin, Budzin, 
Bautzen, or Budissen (the huts) ; 
Budvveis (the district of hut villages), 
■\ in Bohemia ; Budzow, Botzen (the 
place of huts) ; Briebus (birch -tree 
dwelling) ; Trebus and Triebus (the 
three dwellings) ; Putbus (under the 
hut) ; Dobberbus (good dwelling, dobry, good) ; but Buda, 
in Hungary, took its name from Buda, the brother of Attila, 
as well as Bud-var and Bud-falva (Buda's fort and village). 
The island of Bute, in the Firth of Clyde, is said to have 
derived its name from the bwth or cell of St. Brandon, but 
its earlier name was Rothsay, from a descendant of Simon 
Brek (i.e. Rother's Isle), while its Gaelic name is Baile- 
Mhoide (the dwelling of the court of justice) ; Bothwell, 
anc. Both-uill (the dwelling on the angle of the R. Clyde). 
In Ireland we meet with Shanboe, Shanbogh (the old hut, 
seari) ; Raphae, in Donegal, is Rath-both (the fort of the 
huts) ; Bodoney, in Tyrone, is Both-domhnaigh (the tent of 
the church) ; Knockboha (the hill of the hut) ; Bodmin, 
in Cornwall, anc. Bodmanna, p. 27 (the abode of monks, 
the site of an ancient priory) ; Merfod, corrupt, from 
Meudwy-bod (the dwelling of a hermit) ; Bodysgallen (the 
abode of the thistle, ysgalleri) ; and Bod-Ederyryn (Edryn's 
dwelling). In Lancashire the word takes the form of booth, 
as in Barrowford booth and Oakenhead booth, etc. 
BUHIL, buckel (Ger.), a hill; e.g. Dombiibil (the dwelling on 
the hill) ; Grimbuhill (green hill) ; Eichenbiihil (oak hill) ; 
Birchenbuhil (birch hill) ; Holzbiihil (wood hill) ; Dinkels- 
biihil (wheat hill) ; Kleinbuhil (little hill). 


BURG, BURGH (Teut.), 
BORG (Scand.), 
BOURG (Fr.), 
BORGO (It. and Span.), 

BtJHNE, BOHEN (Ger.), a scaffold, sometimes in topography a 
hill ; e.g. Hartbohen (wood hill) ; Biindorf (hill village) ; 
Osterbeuna (east hill). 
BUN (Gadhelic), the foot, in topography applied to the mouth of 
a river; e.g. Bunduff (at the mouth of the dark river, 
dubh) ; Bunderan and Bunratty, the mouth of the R. 
Dowran and Ratty ; Bunowen (at the mouth of the water). 
The town of Banff is a corrupt, of Bunaimh (the mouth of 
the river) ; Bunawe (at the opening of Loch Awe) ; Buness 
(of the cascade, cas). 

' a town or city, literally an enclosed and 
fortified dwelling, from bergen, Teut. 
to cover or protect. As these fortified 
places were often erected on heights for 
security, as well as to enable their in- 
mates to observe the approaches of an 
enemy, the word berg (a hill) was frequently used synony- 
mously with burg, as in the name of Konigsberg and other 
towns — v. BERG. Burgh and borough are the Anglican 
forms of the word in England and Scotland, while bury 
is distinctively the Saxon form ; e.g. Sudbury (south town), 
as also Sidbury in Salop, but Sidbury in Devon takes its 
name from the R. Sid. Tewkesbury, from Theoc (a certain 
hermit) ; Glastonbury, anc. Glastonia (a district abounding 
in woad, glastum) ; Shaftsbury (the town on the shaft-like 
hill) ; Shrewsbury, anc. Shrobbesbyrig (the fortress among 
shrubs), being the Saxon rendering of the native name 
Pengweme (the hill of the alder grove), which the Normans 
corrupted into Sloppesbury, hence Salop j Tenbury, on the 
R. Teme ; Canterbury, i.e. Cant-wara-byrig (the town of 
the dwellers on the headland), Cantium or Kent ; Wans- 
borough, in Herts ; Wanborough, in Surrey and Wilts ; 
Woodensborough, in Kent ; Wednesbury, Stafford ; Wem- 
bury, Devon (the town of the Saxon god Woden) ; Aide- 
borough, on the R. Aide ; Marlborough, anc. Merlberga, 
situated at the foot of a hill of white stones, which our 
forefathers called marl, now chalk; Richborough, anc. 
Ru-tufiium (rock town) ; Aylesbury, perhaps church town, 
ecclesia, or from a person's name ; Badbury (the city of 
pledges, bad), in Dorset ; the Saxon kings, it is said, kept 

BURG 35 

their hostages at this place ; Malmesbury, the town of 
Maidulf, a hermit ; Maryborough, named for Queen 
Mary. Burg or burgh, in the names of towns, is often 
affixed to the name of the river on which it stands in 
Britain, as well as on the Continent ; e.g. Lauterburg, 
. Lutterburg, Schwartzburg, Salzburg, Saalburg, Gottenburg, 
Rotenburg, and Jedburgh (on the rivers Lauter, Lutter, 
Schwarza, Salza, Saale, Gotha, Rothbach, and Jed). Still 
more frequently, the prefix is the name of the founder 
of the town, or of a saint to whom its church was dedi- 
cated ; e.g. Edinburgh (Edwin's town) ; Lauenburg, after 
Henry the Lion ; Fraserburgh, in Aberdeenshire, founded 
by Sir Alexander Fraser of Philorth in 1570; Peterborough, 
from an abbey dedicated to St. Peter ; Petersburgh, 
named by its founder, Peter the Great ; Tasborough, 
Norfolk, on the R. Thais ; Banbury, anc. Berinburig 
(Bera's town) ; Queenborough, in the Isle of Sheppey, named 
by Edward III. in honour of his queen; Helensburgh, in 
Dumbartonshire, after the lady of Sir James Colquhoun ; 
Pittsburg, U.S., after Mr. Pitt ; Harrisburg, U.S., after 
the first settler in 1733; Sumburgh, in Shetland, and 
Svendborg, Sweden (Sweyn's fortress) ; Oranienburg, in 
Brandenburg (the fortress of the Orange family) ; Bury St. 
Edmund's (in memory of Edmund the Martyr) ; Rabens- 
burg (the fort of Hrafn, a Dane) ; Marienburg (the town 
of the Virgin), founded by the Grand Master of the Teu- 
tonic order in 1274 ; Rothenburg, in Prussia, Sclav. Rostar- 
zewo (the town of the Sclav, god Razi) ; Duisburg, corrupt, 
from Tuiscoburgum (the town of the Teut. god Tuesco) ; 
Flesburg, in Sleswick, founded by the knight of Flenes ; 
Cherbourg, supposed to be Caesar's town ; Augsburg (the 
town of the Emperor Augustus) ; Salisbury, anc. Seares- 
byrgg (the town of Sarum, a chief) ; Bamborough (the 
town of Bebba, the Queen of Ida, of Northumberland) ; 
Carrisbrook, corrupt, from Gwihtgarabyrig (the fortress of 
the men of Wight) ; Amherstburg, in Canada, named in 
1780 after Lord Amherst; Loughborough, anc. Leirburg 
(the town on the R. Leir, now the Soar) ; Hapsburg or 
Habichtsburg (hawk's fortress) ; Schiissburg, Hung. Segevar 
(treasure fort) ; Luneburg, in Hanover (the fort of the 


Linones, a tribe) ; Aalburg (Eel-town) on the Lyme-fiord. 
There are several towns in Germany named simply Burg 
(the fortress), also Burgos in Spain, and Burgo in Italy. 
As a derivative from this Teut. root, there is the Irish form 
of the word, introduced by the Anglo-Normans — buirghes, 
Anglicised borris and burris, as in Borris in Ossory, Burris- 
carra, Burrishoole (i.e. the forts erected in the territories 
of Ossory, Carra, and Umhal) ; Borrisokane (O'Keane's 
.. _ . fa small stream ; e.g. Milburn (mill stream) ; 

;„' '£ ... 1 Lambourne (muddy stream, lam) ; Rad- 
^ ■" ( bourne and Redbourne (reedy stream) ; 

Sherbourne (clear stream, or the dividing stream) ; Cran- 
bourne, Otterbourne (the stream frequented by cranes and 
otters) ; Libourne, in France (the lip or edge of the stream) ; 
Bourne, in Lancashire (on a stream) ; Burnham (the dwell- 
ing on a stream), in Essex ; Melburne, in Yorkshire, in 
Doomsday Middelburn (middle stream) ; Auburn, for- 
merly a village in Yorkshire, called Eleburn or Eelburn ; 
Bannockburn (the stream of the white knoll) ; Sitting- 
bourne, in Kent (the settlement on the stream) ; East- 
bourne, contracted from its former name Easbourne (prob- 
ably the stream of the water or the cascade, cas) ; Tiche- 
burne (the kid's stream, ticcen, A.S. a kid). 

BUSCH BOSCH (Ger ) r a bush V P lace or S rove ; 

BOSc/aSI Tow Tat Rntn,* e & Boscabel ( the beautiful 

buisson CFr ^ bots > grove ) ; Bushe y ( a P ar - Co - 

^ J^l'^o ' ,p^ ^ Hertford); Buscot(thehutin 

BOSCO, BOSQUE (Span, and Port.), ,, < ' , V. , , 

„ ,_ ,\.\ •" thegrove); Badenoch(aplace 

BOD or bad (Celtic), 6 " .,,,,• 

v ' [_ overgrown with bushes), in 

Inverness ; Breitenbusch (the broad grove) ; Hesel-boschen 

(hazel grove) ; Eichbusch (oak grove) ; Ooden-bosch (old 

grove), in Holland ; Auberbosc (Albert's grove), in France ; 

Stellenbosch, in S. Africa, founded in 1670 by Van der 

Stelle, the governor of the Dutch colony ; Biesbosch (the 

reedy thicket), in Holland ; Aubusson (at the grove), France. 

Boissac, Boissay, Boissiere, Boissey, etc., in France, from 

the same root ; Bois-le-Duc (the duke's wood) ; Briquebosq 

(birch-wood), in Normandy. 

bwlch (Welsh), a pass or defile ; e.g. Dwygyfich {i.e. the joint 


passes), in Wales ; Bwlch-newydd (the new pass) ; Bwlch- 
y-groes (of the cross). 
BYSTRI (Sclav.), swift ; e.g. Bistritza, Bistrica, Weistritz (the swift 
stream) ; Bistritz (the town on this river), called by the 
Germans Neusohl (new station). 

/'(Scand.), a dwelling, a town — from biga (Norse), 
' ' 1 to build. This word occurs frequently in town 

BIGGEN-BO, < . . , ,, „ r-cij a • 

.„ ' J names in the N.E. of England and in some 

^ '" \ parts of Scotland formerly possessed by the 
Danes or Normans ; e.g. Derby, i.e. Dearaby (deer town), 
formerly called North Worthige (the northern enclosure) ; 
its Celtic name was Durgwent (the white water), from its 
river; Whitby (white town), A.S. Streones-heal (treasure- 
hall, streone) ; Selby (holy town) ; Danby (Dane's dwelling) ; 
Rugby, anc. Rochberie (the dwelling on the rock, in reference 
to its castle) ; Appleby (the town of apple-trees) ; Sonderby 
(southern town) ; Ormsby, Lockerby, Thursby, Grimsby, 
Lewersby (the dwellings of Ormv, Loki, Ulf, Grimm, 
Leward) ; Risby (beech-tree dwelling) ; Canisby, in Caith- 
ness, and Canoby or Cannonbie, Dumfries (the dwelling 
of the canon), or perhaps Canisby is Canute's dwelling ; 
Haconby (of Haco) ; Harrowby, in Doomsday, is Herigerby 
(the town of the legion), A.S. herigej Kirby, Moorby, Ashby 
(church town, moor town, ash -tree town) ; Ashby -de- la- 
Zouch was simply Ascebi or Esseby, perhaps the town of 
the Asci, a tribe. It received the addition to its name 
from the family of the Zouches, its proprietors. In France : 
Daubceuf, for Dalby (vale dwelling) ; Elbceuf (old dwelling) ; 
Ouittebceuf( white dwelling); Quillebceuf (well town) ; Linde- 
boeuf (lime-tree town) ; Karlby-gamba and Karlby-ny (old 
and new Charles' town), in Finland ; Criquebceuf (crooked 

CAE, KAE (Cym.-Cel.), an enclosure ; e.g. Ca-wood (wood-enclosure) ; 

Cayton (wood town or hill). This root is frequently used 

in Welsh names. 
CAELC, or cealc (A.S.), chalk or lime — cognate with the Lat. calx, 

Cel. cailc, stale; e.g. Challock, Chaldon, Chalfield (chalk 

38 CAER 

place, hill, and field) ; Chalgrove (the chalk entrenchment, 
grab) ; the Chiltern Hills (the hills in the chalky district, 
em) ; Chockier, corrupt, from Calcharia (the lime kilns), in 
Belgium ; Kelso, anc. Calchou (the chalk heugh or height), 
so called from a calcareous cliff at the confluence of the 
Tweed and Teviot, now broken down. 

.... ... fan enclosed fortification, a castle, 

CAER, CADAER (Welsh), 1. j-tij-i 

lr * ji i- ^ J a town, and in Ireland a circular 
CATHAIR, caher (Gadhelic), < „ i t „ , 

Co ■. ) stone i° rt > e -S- Caer-leon, anc. 

' ^ '' \Isca-legionem (the fort of the 

legion), on the R. Usk; 1 Caerwent, in Monmouth, anc. 
Venta-silurum (the fortress in the province of Gwent) ; 
Caerwys (of the assizes, gwys, a summons) ; Caermarthen, 
anc. Maridunum (the fort on the sea -shore) ; Caernarvon, 
Welsh Caer-yn-ar-Fon (the fortress opposite to Mona) ; 
Cardigan (the fortress of Caredig, a chieftain) — Cardigan 
is called by the Welsh Aberteifi (the mouth of the R. 
Teify) ; Cardiff, on the R Taff ; Carriden, anc. Caer-aiden 
or eden (the fort on the wing), in Linlithgow ; Caerphilly 
(the fort of the trench, vallum), corrupt, into philly ; 
Cader-Idris (the seat of Idris, an astronomer) ; Caer- 
gyffin (the border fortress) ; Grorigar, corrupt, from Caer- 
gron (the circular fortress) ; Q.&ex-hen or hun, corrupt, 
from Caer-Rhun, named from a Welsh prince ; Carlisle, 
anc. Caergwawl (the fort at the trench) ; its Latin name 
was Luguvallum (the trench of the legion). It was 
destroyed by the Danes in 675, and rebuilt by William 
II. In Mid-Lothian, Cramond, i.e. Caer-Ahnond, on the 
R. Almond ; Cathcart, on the R. Cart, Renfrew ; Crail, 
anc. Carraile (the fort on the corner, aile), in the S.E. 
angle of Fife ; Caerlaverock (the fort of Lewarch Ogg), 
founded in the sixth century ; Sanquhar, i.e. Sean-cathair 
(old fort) ; Carmunnock or Carmannoc (the fort of the 
monks) ; Kirkintilloch, corrupt, from Caer-pen-tulach (the 
fort at the head of the hill) ; Cardross (the promontory 
fort); Kier, in Scotland, for Caer or Cathair ; Carew 
(the fortresses), a castle in Wales; Carhaix, in Brittany,' 
i.e. Ker-Aes (the fortress on the R. Aes — now the 
Hieres). In Ireland : Caher (the fortress) ; Cahereen 
1 Caer-afon (the fortress on the water) was its ancient name. 

CALA — CAM 39 

(little fortress) ; Cahergal (white fort) ; Cahersiveen, 
i.e. Cathair-saidbhin (Sabina's fort) ; Carlingford, Irish 
Caer-linn, fiord being added by the Danes ; its full 
name is, therefore, the ford of Caer-linn. It was also 
called Suamh-ech (the swimming ford of the horses) ; 
Derry-na-Caheragh (the oak grove of the fort); Caer- 
gwrle (the fortress of the great legion), i.e. Caer-gawr- 
lleon, with reference to the twentieth Roman legion sta- 
tioned at Chester, or Caer-gwr-le (the boundary-place in 

CALA (Span.), a creek or bay — probably derived from Scala (It.), 
a seaport, Cel. cala (a harbour), and cognate with the 
Teut. kille; e.g. Callao, in S. America ; Cale, the ancient 
name of Oporto, and probably Calais; Scala (a seaport), in 
Italy ; Scala-nova (new port), in Turkey ; Kiel, in Sleswick, 
so called from its fine bay. 

( bald or bare — synonymous with the 

CALO (AS.), I Lat calvus and the Fr chauvej e g. 

KAHL (Ger.), KAEL (Dut.), | Caumont and chaumont (bald hiU)) 

in France ; Kahlenberg, anc. Mons Calvus (bald hill), 
belonging to a branch of the Alps called Kahlen Ge- 

/crooked; e.g. Rivers Cam, Camon, Camil, 
CAM (Gadnelic) I Cambad; Calmin) Cambeck (crooked stream) ; 
CAM (Cym.-Cel.), -> Kembach) a parish in Fif6j so calle d f rom the 
CAMBUS, a creek, ^ R Kem Qr Kame . Cambusmore (the great 
creek in Sutherland) ; Cambuscarrig, in Ross, near which 
a Danish prince (Careg) was buried ; Cambuskenneth (the 
creek of Kenneth, one of the kings of Scotland) ; Camelon 
(on the bend of the water), near Falkirk ; Cambuslang (the 
church or enclosure, lann, on the bending water), in Lanark ; 
Cambus, in Clackmannan ; Cambusnethan (on the bend of 
the R. Nethan) ; Campsie, anc. Kamsi (the curved water) ; 
but Camus, a town in Forfarshire, is not from this root, but 
in memory of a Danish general who was slain in battle 
near the place ; Camlyn (the crooked pool), in Anglesea ; 
Cambray or Cambrai, in France, anc. Camaracum (on a 
bend of the Scheldt) ; Chambery, in Savoy, anc. Camber- 
iacum, with the same meaning ; Morecambe Bay (the bend 
of the sea). 



CAMPUS (Lat), 
CAMPO (It., Span 
CHAMP (Fr.), 
kampf (Ger.), 

and Port.), 

a field or plain ; e.g. Campania, 
Campagna, Champagne (the 
plain or level land) ; Fechamp, 
Lat. Campus-fiscii (the field 
of tribute) ; Chamouni, Lat. 
Campus-munitus (the fortified field) ; Kempen (at the field) 
Kempten, Lat. Campodunum (the field of the fortress) 
Campvere (the ferry leading to Campen), in Holland 
Campo-bello, Campo-chiaro, Campo-hermoso (beautiful or 
fair field) ; Campo-felici (happy or fortunate field) ; Campo- 
frio (cold field) ; Campo-freddo (cold field) ; Campo-largo 
(broad field) ; Campillo (little field) ; the Campos (vast 
plains), in Brazil ; Capua, supposed to be synonymous with 

CANNA (Lat. and Grk.), a reed ; e.g. Cannae, in Italy ; Cannes, 
in the south of France ; Canneto and Canosa (the reedy 
place), in Italy. 

tr HVi v \ I a soun< ^ or stra it; e.g. Caol-Isla, Caol- 
CAEL '' < Muileach (the Straits of Isla and Mull) ; the 

( Kyles or Straits of Bute ; Eddarachylis 
(between the straits), in Sutherlandshire. As an adjective, 
this word means narrow ; e.g. Glenkeel (narrow glen) ; 
Darykeel (narrow oak grove). 

_ T //- i \ ( a chapel, derived from the Low Lat. capella; 

,J? ». \ e -K- How-capel (the chapel in the hollow), 

kapelle (Ger.), ) . & „ / v *, . .'' 

^ ' \va Hereford; Capel-Ddewi (St. Davids 

chapel) ; Capel St. Mary and Maria-Kappel (St. Mary's 

chapel) ; Capel-Garmon (St. Germano's chapel) ; Chapelle- 

au-bois (the chapel in the wood) ; Capelle-op-den-Yssel 

(the chapel on the R. Yessel), in Holland ; Kreuzcappel 

(the chapel with the cross). 

a goat ; e.g. Capri, Cap- 

rera, Cabrera (goat island); 

Chevreuse, anc. Cafiriosa 

(the place of goats) ; 

Chevry, Chevriere, Chevre- 

ville, with the same meaning, in France ; Gateshead, in 

Co. Durham, Lat. Capra-caput, perhaps the Latin rendering 

of the Saxon word (the head of the gat or passage) — the 

CAPER (Lat.), CHEVRE (Fr.), 
Capra, cabra (Span., Portland It.), 
Gabhar, and GOBHAR (Gadhelic), 
GAFR, or gavar (Cym.-Cel.), 


Pons JSluts of the Romans ; or, according to another mean- 
ing, from the custom of erecting the head of some animal 
on a post as a tribal emblem. In Ireland, Glengower (the 
glen of the goats), and Glengower, in Scotland ; Ballynagore 
(goat's town), in Ireland ; Gowrie and Gower, in several 
counties of Scotland ; Ardgower (goat's height) ; Carnan- 
gour (the goat's crag). 
CAR (Cel.), crooked or bending ; e.g. the Rivers Carron, in several 
parts of Scotland ; Charente and Charenton, in France ; 
also the Cher, anc. Carus (the winding river). 
CARN, cairn (Gadhelic), f aheapof stones thrown 

CARN (Welsh), 
CARNEDD, a heap of stones, such as was 

erected by the ancient Britons over the 

graves of their great men ; e.g. Carn- 

Ingli (the cairn of the English) ; Carn- 

Twrne (the cairn of the turnings). It 

was named from a stupendous monu- 
ment which stood on three pillars, 

within a circuit of upright stones. 

together in a conical 
form, also a rocky 
mount ; e.g. Carnac 
(abounding in cairns), 
in Brittany; Carnmore 
(great cairn) ; Carnock 
(the hill of the cairn) ; 
Carntoul, Gael. Carn- 
t-sabhal (the cairn of 
the barn) ; Carntaggart 
(of the priest) ; Carnrigh (of the kfng) ; Cairndow, Cairn- 
glass, Cairngorm (the black, the gray, the blue moun- 
tains) ; Caiman and Cairnie (little cairn) ; Carnwath (the 
cairn at the ford) ; Carnoustie (the cairn of heroes) ; 
Cambee (the birch cairn), in Scotland. In Ireland : Carn- 
tochar (the hill of the causeway) ; Cam-Tierno (Tiger- 
nach's cairn) ; Carnbane (white cairn) ; Carnsore Point, 
in Irish being simply the cam or monumental heap, 
ore (a promontory) having been added by the Danes ; 
Carnteel, Irish Carn-t-Siadhal (Shiel's monument). In 
Wales : Carn-Dafydd (David's cairn) ; Cam-Llewelyn 
(Llewelyn's cairn) ; Carnfach (little cairn), in Monmouth ; 
Fettercairn, perhaps the deer's cairn, Gael, feidh (deers) ; 
Chimside (the side or site of the cairn), on one of 
the Lammermuir Hills ; Carnoch (abounding in cairns), 
a parish in Fife ; Boharm, in Banffshire, anc. Bocharin 
(the bow about the cairn). The countries of Carniola 
and Carinthia probably derived their names from this 
Celtic root. 


„.__.._ „. „,//-. ,, ,■ x /a rock. The words are usually 

CARRAIG, CARRICK (Gadhelic), I ,. , , , , , 

__._ „„ ,,,7 , , , " J applied to large natural rocks, 

CRAG, or CARREG (Welsh), J rr & > 

^.„t,.„ //- • i_\ i more or less elevated. Car- 

CARRAG (Cornish), J . , , „ ,, 

v " ^nck and Camg are the names 

of numerous districts in Ireland, as well as Carrick. in 

Ayrshire ; Carrigafoyle (the rock of the hole, phoilV), in the 

Shannon ; Carrickaness (of the waterfall) ; Ballynacarrick 

(the town of the rocks) ; Carrigallen, Irish Carraig-aluinn 

(the beautiful rock) ; Carrickanoran (the rock of the spring, 

uarari) ; Carrickfergus (Fergus's rock), where one Fergus 

was drowned ; Carrick-on-Suir (on the R. Suir) ; Carriga- 

howly, Irish Carraig-an-chobhlaigh (the rock of the fleet) ; 

CarrickdufT (black rock) ; Carrigeen and Cargan (little 

rock) ; Carragh (rocky ground) ; but Carrick-on-Shannon 

is not derived from this root — its ancient name was Caradh- 

droma-ruise (the weir of the marsh ridge) ; Cerrig-y-Druidion 

(the rock of the Druids), in Wales. 

CARSE, a term applied in Scotland to low grounds on the banks 
of rivers ; e.g. the Carse of Gowrie, Falkirk, Stirling, etc. 

CASA (It. and has Lat.), a house; e.g. Casa-Nova and Casa- 
Vecchia (new and old house), in Corsica ; Casal, Les 
Casals, Chaise, Les Chaises (the house and the houses), in 
France ; Chassepiare (corrupt, from Casa-fietrea (stone 
house), in Belgium. 

CASTEL, chateau, ( ™rds in the Romance languages de- 

CASTELLO, CASTILLO, J "^ f™ ^ Lat . f"'«"«* ( a CaStle )" 

CASTELL (Cym.-Cel.), \ C > "? the InSh lan S ua S e > e,ther 

' ^cognate with the Lat. word or derived 

from it, has the same meaning, and is commonly met with 
in that country under the form of Cashel; e.g. Cashel, in 
Tipperary ; Cashelfean and Cashelnavean (the fort of the 
Fenians) ; Caislean-tHh-Oghmaighe, now Omagh (the castle 
of the beautiful field). It is often changed into the English 
castle, as in Ballycastle, in Mayo (the town of the fort) ; 
but Ballycastle, in Antrim, was named from a modern 
castle, not from a caiseal or fort ; Castle-Dargan (of Lough 
Dargan) ; Castlebar, Irish Caislean-an-Bharraigh (the fort 
of the Barrys) ; Castle-Dillon, Castle-Dermot, and Castle- 
Kieran were renamed from castles erected near the her- 
mitages of the monks whose names they bear. Castel, 


Lat. Castellum (the capital of the Electorate of Hesse- 
Cassel) ; Castel Rodrigo (Roderick's castle), in Portugal ; 
Castel-Lamare (by the sea-shore) ; Castel-bianco (white 
castle) ; Castel del piano (of the plain) ; Castiglione (little 
castle), in Italy. In France : Castelnau (new castle) ; 
Castelnaudary, anc. Castrum-novum-Arianiorum (the new 
castle of the Arians, i.e. the Goths) ; Chateaubriant, i.e. 
Chateau-du-Bryn (the king's castle) ; Chateau-Chinon (the 
castle decorated with dogs' heads) ; Chateau- Gontier 
(Gontier's castle) ; Chateaulin (the castle on the pool) ; 
Chateau-vilain (ugly castle) ; Chateau-roux, anc. Castrum- 
Rodolphi (Rodolph's castle) ; Chatelandrew (the castle of 
Andrew of Brittany) ; Chateaumeillant, anc. Castrum-Medio- 
lanum (the castle in the middle of the plain or land, lann) ; 
Neufchatel (new castle) ; Newcastle-upon-Tyne, named 
from a castle built by Robert, Duke of Normandy, on the 
site of Monkchester ; Newcastle-under-Line, i.e. under the 
lyme or boundary of the palatinate of Chester, having its 
origin in a fortress erected by Edmund, Earl of Lancaster, 
instead of the old fort of Chesterton ; Castleton, in Man, is 
the translation of Ballycashel (castle dwelling), founded by 
one of the kings of the island ; Bewcastle (the castle of 
Buith, lord of Gilsland) ; Old and New Castile, in Spain, 
so named from the numerous fortresses erected by 
Alphonso I. as defences against the Moors. Cassel, in 
Prussia, and various places with this prefix in England and 
Scotland, owe the names to ancient castles around which the 
towns or villages arose, as Castletown of Braemar, Castle- 
Douglas, Castle- Rising, etc.; Castlecary, in Stirlingshire, 
supposed to be the Coria Damnorum of Ptolemy, and the 
Caer-cere of Nennius ; Barnard Castle, built by Barnard, 
the grandfather of Baliol ; Castell-Llechryd (the castle at 
the stone ford), on the banks of the R. Wye, in Wales ; 
Cestyll-Cynfar (castles in the air). 

( a fortress, city, town, from the Lat. castrum 

CASTER, CHESTER, I ^ fortified place)) and castra ( a camp ) ; e.g. 

CEASTER (A.b.), | Caistor) Castor, Chester (the site of a 

Roman fort or camp). The Welsh still called the city of 
Chester CaerZeon, which means the city called Legio, often 
used as a proper name for a city where a Roman legion 


was stationed ; Doncaster, Lancaster, Brancaster, Illchester, 
Leicester, Colchester (i.e. the camps on the Rivers Don, 
Lune, Bran, Ivel, Legre or Leir, Colne) ; Alcester, on the 
Alne; Chichester (the fortress of Cissa, the Saxon prince 
of the province) ; Cirencester, anc. Corinium-ceaster (the 
camp on the R. Churn) ; Exeter, Cel. Caer-Isc (the fortress 
on the river or water, wysk) ; Towcester, on the R. Towey ; 
Gloucester, Cel. Caer-glow (the bright fortress) ; Godman- 
chester (the fort of the priest), where Gothrun, the Dane, in 
the reign of Alfred, embraced Christianity ; Chesterfield 
and Chester-le-Street (the camp in the field and the camp 
on the Roman road, stratum) ; Winchester, Cel. Caer- 
gwent (the camp on the fair plain), p. 38 ; Dorchester 
(the camp of the Durotriges (dwellers by the water) ; Wor- 
cester, Hwicwara-ceaster (the camp of the Huiccii) ; Sil- 
chester, Cel. Caer-Segont (the fort of the Segontii) ; Man- 
chester, probably the camp at Mancenion (the place of 
tents), its ancient name; Rochester, Cel. Durobrivae (the ford 
of the water), A.S. Hrofceaster, probably from a proper name ; 
Bicester (the fort of Biren, a bishop) ; Alphen, in Holland, 
anc. Albanium-castra (the camp of Albanius) ; Aubagne, in 
Provence, anc. Castrznn-de-Alfiibus (the fortress of the 
Alps) ; Champtoceaux, Lat. Castrum-celsum (lofty fortress) ; 
St. diamond, Lat. Castrum-Anemundi (the fortress of 
Ennemond) ; Chalus, Lat. Castrum-Lticius (the fortress by 
Lucius Capriolus, in the reign of Augustus) ; Passau, in 
Bavaria, Lat. Batavia-Castra (the Batavians' camp), corrupted 
first to Patavium and then to Passau ; La Chartre, Chartre, 
and Chartres (the place of the camps), in France ; Chartre- 
sur-Loire, Lat. Carcer-Castellum (the castle prison or strong- 
hold) ; Castril, Castrillo (little fortress) ; Castro-Jeriz 
(Cassar's camp) ; Ojacastro (the camp on the R. Oja), in 

a hollow place, cognate with the Lat. 

cavea or cavusj e.g. Cavan (the 
«j hollow), the cap. of Co. Cavan, and 

many other places from this root in 

Ireland. Cavan, however, in some 
parts of Ireland, signifies a round hill, as in Cavanacaw (the 
round hill of the chaff, catha) ; Cavanagh (the hilly place) ; 

cavan, cabhan (Irish), 

CAVA, LA (It.), 

CUEVA (Span.), a cave, 
COFA (A.S.), a cove, 


Cavanalick (the hill of the flagstone) ; Covehithe, in Suffolk 
(the harbour of the recess) ; Runcorn, in Cheshire, i.e. 
Rum-cofan (the wide cove or inlet) ; Cowes (the coves), in 
the Isle of Wight ; La Cava, in Naples ; Cuevas-de-Vera 
(the caves of Vera) ; Cuevas-del-Valle (of the valley), in 

., .. /'cold ; e.g. Caldicott, Calthorpe, Calthwaite (cold 
<r ' \ J dwelling) ; Koudhuizon, Koudaim, with the 
Vr> II 1 same meaning ; Caldbeck, Kalbach, Kallenbach 
^ '" ^(cold stream) ; Kaltenherberg (cold shelter) ; 
Calvorde (cold ford) ; Kaltenkirchen (cold church) ; Colwell 
(cold well). 
CEANN, (Gadhelic), a head, a point or promontory — in topography 
kin or ken; e.g. Kinnaird's Head (the point of the high 
headland) ; Kintyre or Cantire (the head of the land, tir) ; 
Kenmore (the great point), at the head of Loch Tay ; 
Kinloch (the head of the lake) ; Kincraigie (of the little 
rock) ; Kinkell (the head church, tilt) ; Kendrochet (bridge 
end) ; Kinaldie and Kinalty (the head of the dark stream, 
allt-dubK) ; Kingussie (the head of the fir- wood, guith-saitK) ; 
Kinnaird (the high headland), the name of a parish in Fife 
and a village in Stirling. Kinross may mean the point 
(ros) at the head of Loch Leven, with reference to the town 
or with reference to the county, which in early times formed 
part of the large district called the Kingdom of Fife, 
anciently called Rossj and in this sense it may mean either 
the head of the promontory or of the wood, both of which 
are in Celtic ros. The ancient name of Fife, Ross, was 
changed into Fife in honour of Duff, Earl of Fife, to whom 
it was granted by Kenneth II., and in 1426 Kinross was 
separated from it, or, according to Nennius, from Feb, the 
son of Cruidne, ancestor of the Picts. Kintore (the head 
of the hill, tor) ; Kinneil, i.e. Ceann-fhail (the head of the 
wall), i.e. of Agricola ; Kinell, Kinellar (the head of the 
knoll) ; King-Edward, corrupt, from Kinedur (the head of 
the water, dur) ; Kinghorn, from Ceann-cearn (corner head- 
land) — Wester Kinghorn is now Burntisland ; Kingarth, in 
Bute, i.e. Ceann-garbh (the rough or stormy headland) ; 
Kinnoul (the head of the rock, ail) ; Kintail (the head of 
the flood, tuil), i.e. of the two salt-water lakes in Ross- 


shire ; Boleskine (the summit of the furious cascade, boil 
cas), i.e. of Foyers, in Inverness-shire ; Kinmundy, in Aber- 
deenshire, corrupt, from Kinmunny (the head of the moss, 
moine) ; Kinglassie, in Fife, was named after St. Glass or 
Glasianus) ; Kenoway, Gael, ceann-nan-uamh (the head of 
the den) ; Kent, Lat. Cantium (the country of the Cantii, 
or dwellers at the headland). In Ireland : Kenmare in 
Kerry, Kinvarra in Galway, and Kinsale in Cork, mean 
the head of the sea, i.e. ceann-mara and ceann-saile (salt 
water), the highest point reached by the tide ; Kincon (the 
dog's headland) ; Kinturk (of the boar) ; Slyne Head, in 
Ireland, is in Irish Ceann-leime (the head of the leap), and 
Loop Head is Leim-Chonchuillinn (Cuchullin's leap); 
Cintra, in Portugal, may mean the head of the strand, 
CEFN (Cym.-Cel.), a ridge, cognate with the Grk. KtfyaXrj, a head ; 
e.g. the Cevennes, the Cheviots ; Cefh-Llys (palace ridge) ; 
Cefn-bryn (hill ridge) ; Cefn-coed (wood ridge) ; Cefh-coch 
(red ridge) ; Cefn-y-Fan (the hill ridge) ; Cem-Rhestyn (the 
row of ridges) ; Cem-cyn-warchan (the watch-tower ridge) ; 
Cemmaes (the ridge of the plain), in Wales ; Cefalu (on the 
headland), in Sicily; Chevin Hill, near Derby; Chevin (a 
high cliff), in Yorkshire ; Cephalonia (the island of head- 
lands), also called Samos (lofty) ; Cynocephale (the dog's 
headland), in Thessaly. 

CEOL (AS) I a ship ' e ' g ' Keal and Keelbv ) in Lincoln 

kielle (Teut ) ) ( ship station ) > Ceolescumb, Ceoleswyrth, 
'•" ( Ceolseig, and perhaps Kiel, in Denmark ; 
Chelsea, i.e. Ceolesig, on the Thames. 

CEORL (A.S.), a husbandman ; e.g. Charlton (the husbandman's 
dwelling) ; Charlinch (the husbandman's island), formerly 

CEOSEL (A.S.), sand, gravel ; e.g. Chesil (the sand-hill), in Dorset ; 
Chiselhurst (the thicket at the sand-bank) ; Chiseldon (sand- 
hill) ; Chiselborough (the fort at the sand-bank) ; Win- 
chelsea, corrupt, from Gwent-ceoseley (the sand-bank on the 
fair plain, gwent), or, according to another etymology, 
named after Wincheling, the son of Cissa, the first king of 
the South Saxons ; Chiswick (sandy bay), on the Thames. 

CERRIG (Welsh), a heap of stones; e.g. Cerrig-y-Druidion (the 


Druids' stones) ; Cerrig-y-Pryfaed (the crag of the teachers), 
probably the Druids, in Wales. 

CHEP, CHEAP, CHIPPING (Teilt.), \\ &"* f ^"f «. *™ 

KIOPING, KIOBING, 1 ^ S ; '^. Ger. kaufen (to 

(^ buy) ; e.g. Chepstow, Chippen- 
ham, Cheapside (the market-place or town) ; Chipping- 
Norton and Chipping-Sodbury (the north and south market- 
town) ; Chippinghurst (the market at the wood or thicket) ; 
Copenhagen, Dan. Kioben-havn (the haven for merchan- 
dise) ; Lidkioping (the market-place on the R. Lid) ; 
Linki oping, anc. Longakopungar (long market -town), in 
Sweden ; Arroeskicebing (the market-place in the island 
of Arroe) ; Nykoping, in Funen, and Nykjobing, in Falster, 
Denmark (new market-place). The Copeland Islands on 
the Irish coast (the islands of merchandise), probably used 
as a storehouse by the Danish invaders ; Copmansthorpe 
(the village of traders), in Yorkshire ; Nordkoping (north 
market), in Sweden ; Kaufbeuren (market-place), in Ba- 
varia ; Sydenham, in Kent, formerly Cypenham (market- 
CHLUM (Sclav.), a hill, cognate with the Lat. culmen, transposed 
by the Germans into kulm and sometimes into golm; e.g. 
Kulm, in W. Prussia (a town on a hill) ; Kulm, on the R. 
Saale ; Chlumek, Chlumetz, Golmitz, Golmuz (the little 

a cell, a burying-ground, a church ; in 
Celtic topography, kil or kel; e.g. 
Kilbride (the cell or church of St. 
Bridget), frequent in Ireland and 
Scotland ; Kildonan (of St. Donan) ; 
^ Kilkerran (of St. Kieran) ; Kilpeter 
(of St. Peter) ; Kilcattan (of St. Chattan) ; Kilmichael, Kil- 
marnock, Kilmarten, Kelpatrick, Kilbrandon (the churches 
dedicated to St. Michael, St. Marnock, St. Martin, St. 
Patrick, St. Brandon) ; Kilmaurs, Kilmorick, Kilmurry (St. 
Mary's church) ; I Columkil or Iona (the island of Columba's 
church) ; Kilwinning (St. Vimen's church) ; Kilkenny (of 
St. Canice) ; Kilbeggan, in Ireland, and Kilbucho, in 
Peeblesshire (the church of St. Bega) ; Kil-Fillan (of St. 
Fillan) ; Killaloe, anc. Cill-Dalua (the church of St. Dalua) ; 

CILL (Gadhelic), 
cell (Cym.-Cel.), from 
CELLA (Lat.), and in the 
Provence languages, 



Killarney, Irish Cill-airneadh (the church of the sloes) — 
the ancient name of the lake was Lough Leane, from a 
famous [artificer who lived on its shores ; Killin, i.e. Cill- 
Fhinn (the burying-ground of Finn, which is still pointed 
out) ; Kilmany (the church on the mossy ground, moine) ; 
Kilmelfort, Cel. Cill-na-maol-phort (the church on the bald 
haven) ; Kilmore generally means the great church, but 
Kilmore, Co. Cork, is from Coillmhor (great wood), and in 
many places in Ireland and Scotland it is difficult to deter- 
mine whether the root of the names is cill or coill ; Kildare, 
from Cill-dara (the cell of the oak blessed by St. Bridget) ; 
Kilmun, in Argyleshire, is named from St. Munna, one of 
St. Columba's companions ; Kilrush, Co. Clare (the church 
of the promontory or of the wood) ; Kells (the cells) is the 
name of several places in Ireland, and of a parish in 
Dumfries ; but Kells, in Meath and Kilkenny, is a contrac- 
tion of the ancient name Ceann-lios (the head, lis, or fort) ; 
Closeburn, in Dumfries, is a corrupt, of Cella-Osburni 
(the cell of St. Osburn) ; Bischofzell and Appenzell (the 
church of the bishop and of the abbot) ; Maria-Zell (of St. 
Mary) ; Kupferzell, Jaxt-zell, Zella-am-Hallbach, Zell-am- 
Harmarsbach (the churches on the rivers Kupfer, Jaxt, 
Hallbach, and Harmarsbach) ; Zell-am-Moss (the church 
on the moor) ; Zell-am-See (on the lake) ; Zella St. Blasii 
(of St. Blaise) ; Sabloncieux, in France, anc. Sabloncellis 
(the cells on the sandy place) ; but in France La Selle 
and Les Selles are often used instead of cella or cellules, 
as in Selle-St.-Cloud for Cella-Sanct.-Clotoaldi (the church 
dedicated to this saint) ; Selle-sur-Nahon, anc. Cellula 
(little church) ; Kilconquhar, in Fife (the church of St. 
Conchobar or Connor) ; Kilbernie, in Ayrshire (the church 
of Berinus, a bishop) ; Kilspindie (of St. Pensadius) ; Kil- 
blane and Kilcolmkill, in Kintyre (of St. Blane and St. 
Columba); Kilrenny(of St. Irenaeus); Kilchrenan, in Argyle- 
shire (the burying-place of St. Chrenan, the tutelary saint 
of the parish). 
., /Ti , (a. city or borough, derived 

CITTA, CIVITA (It.), I r ', x . • u 

/c- j -r, ,. \ ) from the Lat. civitas: e.g. 

CIUDAD cidade (Sp. and Port.), ) cittadellaand C i v itella (little 
CIOTAT(Fr.), ^ dt . 

:ity) ; Citta di Castello (cas- 


tellated city) ; Citta-Vecchia (old city), in Malta ; Civita 
Vecchia (old city), in Central Italy, formerly named Cen- 
tum-cellce (the hundred apartments), from a palace of the 
Emperor Trajan ; Civita-de-Penne' (the city of the summit), 
in Naples ; Cividad-della-Trinidad (the city of the Holy 
Trinity) ; Ciudad-Rodrigo (Roderick's city) ; Ciudad-Real 
(royal city) ; Ciudad-de-Gracias (the city of grace), in 
Spain ; Ciudadella (little city), in Minorca. 
CLACH, CLOCH, CLOUGH (Gadhelic), a stone ; e.g. Clach-breac 
(the speckled stone); Clach-an-Oban (the stone of the 
little bay) ; Clach-na-darrach (the stone of the oak grove) ; 
Clachach (a stony place). The word clachan, in Scotland, 
was originally applied to a circle of stones where the Pagan 
rites of worship were wont to be celebrated ; and, after the 
introduction of Christianity, houses and churches were 
erected near these spots, and thus clachan came to mean a 
hamlet ; and, at the present day, the expression used in 
asking a person if he is going to church is — "Am bheil- 
thu'dol do'n clachan ?" {i.e. "Are you going to the stones ?") 
There is the Clachan of Aberfoyle in Perthshire ; and in 
Blair-Athole there is a large stone called Clach nHobairt 
(the stone of sacrifice). In Skye there is Clach-na-h-Annat 
(the stone of Annat, the goddess of victory) ; and those 
remarkable Druidical remains, called rocking-stones, are 
termed in Gaelic Clach-bhraeth (the stone of knowledge), 
having been apparently used for divination. There are 
others called Clach-na-greine (the stone of the sun), and 
Clach-an-t-sagairt (of the priest). The village of Clack- 
mannan was originally Clachan-Mannan, i.e. the stone circle 
or hamlet of the district anciently called Mannan. In 
Ireland this root-word commonly takes the form of clogh 
or dough, as in Cloghbally, Cloghvally (stony dwelling) ; 
Clogher (the stony land) ; Clomony (the stony shrubbery) ; 
Clorusk (the stony marsh); Cloichin, Cloghan, Clogheen 
(land full of little stones) ; but the word clochan is also 
applied to stepping-stones across a river, as in Clochan-na- 
bh Fomharaigh (the stepping-stones of the Fomarians, i.e. 
the Giant's Causeway) ; Cloghereen (the little stony place) ; 
Ballycloch and Ballenaclogh (the town of the stones); 
Auchnacloy (the field of the stone) ; Clochfin (the white 


stone) ; Clonakilty, corrupt, from Clough-na-Kiltey (the 
stone house of the O'Keelys). 

CLAR, claragh (Irish), a board, a plain, a flat piece of land ; 
Clare is the name of several places in different counties of 
Ireland, sometimes softened to Clara. County Clare is 
said to have derived its name from a plank placed across 
the R. Fergus, at the village of Clare. Ballyclare, Ballin- 
clare (the town of the plain) ; Clarbane (white plain) ; 
Clarderry (level oak grove) ; Clarchoill (level wood) ; 
Clareen (little plain). 

Clawdd (Cym.-Cel.), a dyke or embankment ; e.g. Clawdd-Offa 
(Offa's Dyke). 
,. s s , leof ^.A dvf ( a stee P bank or rock > cognate with 

KLlpL ( tGetandScandf the Lat divUS < a sl °^ > Clive > 
klippe (Orer. and bcand.), | Cleave) clee (tfae diff) . clifton 

(the town on the cliff) ; Clifdon (cliff hill) ; Clifford (the 
ford near the cliff) ; Hatcliffe and Hockcliffe (high cliff) ; 
Cleveland (rocky land), in Yorkshire ; Cleves (the town on 
the slope), Rhenish Prussia ; Radcliffe (red cliff) ; Silber- 
klippen (at the silver cliff) ; Horncliff (corner cliff) ; Under- 
cliff (between the cliff and the sea), in Isle of Wight ; 
Clitheroe (the cliff near the water), in Lancashire ; Lillies- 
leaf, in Roxburghshire, a corrupt, of Lillys-diva (the cliff of 
Lilly or Lille). 

CLERE (Anglo-Norman), a royal or episcopal residence, some- 
times a manor ; e.g. King's-clere, Co. Hants, so called 
because the Saxon kings had a palace there ; Burg-clere 
(where the bishops of Winchester resided), High-clere. 

CLUAN, cloon (Gadhelic), a fertile piece of land, surrounded 
by a bog on one side and water on the other, hence a 
meadow ; e.g. Clunie, Cluny, Clunes, Clones (the meadow 
pastures). These fertile pastures, as well as small islands, 
were the favourite spots chosen by the monks in Ireland . 
and Scotland as places of retirement, and became event- 
ually the sites of monasteries and abbeys, although at first 
the names of these meadows, in many instances, had no 
connection with a religious institution — thus Clones, Co. 
Monaghan, was Cluain-Eois (the meadow of Eos, probably 
a Pagan chief), before it became a Christian settlement ; 
Clonard, in Meath, where the celebrated St. Finian had his 



school, in the sixth century, was Cluain-Eraird (Erard's 
meadow). In some instances Clonard may mean the high 
meadow ; Clonmel (the meadow of honey) ; Clonfert (of 
the grave) ; Clontarf and Clontarbh (the bull's pasture) ; 
Clonbeg and Cloneen (little meadow) ; Clonkeen (beautiful 
meadow) ; Cluainte and Cloonty (the meadows) ; Cloonta- 
killen (the meadows of the wood) — v. Joyce's Irish Names 
of Places. 
CNOC (Gadhelic), ( a ^oll, hill, or mound ; eg. Knock a hill 
knwc (Cym.-Cel.), ™ B ^'' Kn ° ckbr ff (the spotted knoll) ; 
x ' ( Knockbane, Knockdoo, Knockglass (the 

white, black, and gray hill) ; Carnock (cairn hill) ; Knockea, 
Irish Cnoc-Aedha (Hugh's hill) ; Knocklayd, Co. Antrim, 
i.e. Cnoc-leithid (broad hill) ; Knockan, Knockeen (little 
hill) ; Knockmoyle (bald hill) ; Knocknagaul (the hill of 
the strangers) ; Knockrath (of the fort) ; Knockshanbally 
(of the old town) ; Knocktaggart (of the priest) ; Knocka- 
tober (of the well) ; Knockalough (of the lake) ; Knockanure 
(of the yew) ; Knockaderry (of the oak-wood) ; Knockane 
(little hill), Co. Kerry ; Knockandow (little black hill), 
Elgin ; Knockreagh, Knockroe, Knockgorm (the gray, red, 
blue hill) ; Knockacullion (the hill of the holly) ; Knock- 
ranny (ferny hill) ; Knockagh (the hilly place) ; Knock- 
firinne (the hill of truth), a noted fairy hill, Co. Limerick, 
which serves as a weather-glass to the people of the neigh- 
bouring plains ; Ballynock (the town of the hill) ; Balder- 
nock (the dwelling at the Druid's hill), Co. Stirling ; Knwc-y 
Dinas (the hill of the fortress), in Cardigan. 

COCH (Cym.-Cel.), red. 

a wood ; e.g. Coed - Arthur 
(Arthur's wood) ; Coedcymmer 
(the wood of the confluence) ; 
Catmoss and Chatmoss (the 
wood moss) ; Coitmore (great 
wood) ; Selwood, anc. Coitmaur 
(great wood) ; Catlow (wood 
hill); Cotswold (wood hill), 
the Saxon wold having been 
added to the Cel. coed. The 

COED (Cym.-Cel.), 

COID. This word was variously 
written Coit, Coat, or Cuit- 
goed. In Cornwall it is found 
in Penquite (the head of the 
wood) ; Pencoed, with the 
same meaning, in Wales ; 
Argoed (upon the wood), 
in Wales ; Goedmore (great 
wood), in Wales ; Coed-llai 



(short wood) ; Glascoed 
(green wood), in Wales ; Cal- 
decot, corrupt, from Cil-y-coed 
(the woody retreat), in Wales ; 
Coedglasen, corrupt, from 
Coed-gleision (green trees). 

forms of this word in Brittany 
are Koat or Koad — hence 
Coetbo, Coetmen, Coetmieux, 
etc. ; Llwyd-goed (gray wood), 
in Wales. 

COGN (Cel.), the point of a hill between two valleys, or a tongue 
of land enclosed between two watercourses ; e.g. Cognat, 
Cougny, Cognac, Le Coigne", Coigneur, Coigny, etc., in 
various parts of France — v. Cocheris's Noms de Lieu, Paris. 

COILL (Gadhelic), a wood — in topography it takes the forms of 
kel, kil, kelly, killy, and kyle ; e.g. Kellymore, and sometimes 
Kilmore (the great wood) ; Kelburn, Kelvin, Kellyburn, and 
Keltie (the woody stream) ; Callander, Coille-an-dar (the 
oak-wood) ; Cuilty, Quilty, Kilty (the woods) ; Kilton (the 
town in the wood), in Scotland. In Ireland : Kilbowie 
(yellow wood) ; Kildarroch (the oak-wood) ; Kilcraig (the 
wood of the rock) ; Kildinny (of the fire) — v. teine ; 
Killiegowan (of the smith) ; Kilgour (of the goats) ; Eden- 
keille (the face of the wood) ; Kylebrach (the spotted 
wood) ; Kylenasagart (the priest's wood) ; Kailzie (the 
woody), a parish in Peebles ; but Kyle, in Ayrshire, is not 
from this root, but was named after a mythic Cymric king ; 
Loughill, in Co. Limerick, corrupt, from Leamhchoill (the 
elm-wood) ; Barnacullia (the top of the wood), near Dublin ; 
Culleen and Coiltean (little wood) ; Kilclare, anc. Coill-an- 
chlair (the wood of the plain). 

COIRE, or CUIRE (Gadhelic), a ravine, a hollow, a whirlpool ; e.g. 
Corrie-dow (the dark ravine) • Corrie-garth (the field at 
the ravine) ; Corrimony (the hill, monadh, at the ravine) ; 
Corrielea (the gray ravine) ; Corrie (the hollow), in Dum- 
friesshire ; Corriebeg (the little hollow) ; Corryvrechan 
whirlpool (Brecan's cauldron) ; Corgarf (the rough hollow, 
garbh) ; Corralin (the whirlpool of the cataract) — v. LIN ; 
Corriebuie (yellow ravine) ; Corryuriskin (of the wild spirit) ; 
but Cor, in Ireland, generally signifies a round hill, as in 
Corbeagh (birch hill) ; Corglass (green hill) ; Corkeeran 
(rowan-tree hill) ; Corog and Correen (little hill) ; while 
Cora, or Coradh, signifies a weir across a river, as in 


Kincora (the head of the weir) ; Kirriemuir, in Forfar, 
corrupt, from Corriemor (the great hollow) ; Loch Vena- 
choir, in Perthshire, is the fair hollow or valley — v. fin, 
p. 80. 
COL, COLN (Lat. colonia), a colony ; e.g. Lincoln, anc. Lindum- 
colonia (the colony at Lindum, the hill fort on the pool, 
linne) ; Colne (the colony), in Lancashire ; Cologne, Lat. 
Colonia-Agrippina (the colony), Ger. Koln. The city was 
founded by the Ubii 37 B.C., and was at first called 
Ubiorum-oppidum, but a colony being planted there in 50 
A.D. by Agrippina, the wife of the Emperor Claudius, it 
received her name. 

„.„ „„ ,~ ,, ,. „ (a. confluence, often found as 

COMAR, CUMAR (Gadhehc), I _ , „ ' , _ 

„ „„ „„„„„/,-. A 1 \ \ Cumber or Comber: e.g. Com- 

CYMMER, KEMBER (Cym.-Cel.), ), ^ -^ r- r j 

v ' •" ( ber, Co. Down ; Cefn-coed-y- 

cymmer (the wood ridge of the confluence), where two 
branches of the R. Taff meet ; Cumbernauld, in Dumbar- 
ton, Gael. Comar-n-uilt (the meeting of streams, alt). 
Cumnock, in Ayrshire, may have the same meaning, from 
Cumar and oich (water), as the streams Lugar and Glas- 
nock meet near the village ; Comrie, in Perthshire, at the 
confluence of the streams Earn, Ruchill, and Lednock ; 
Kemper and Quimper (the confluence), and Quimper-1£, 
or Kember-leach (the place at the confluence), in Brittany. 
The words Condate and Conde", in French topography, 
seem to be cognate with this Celtic root, as in Conde", in 
Normandy (at the meeting of two streams) ; Conde", in 
Belgium (at the confluence of the Scheldt and Hawe) ; 
Condate-Rhedorum (the confluence of the Rhedones, a Celtic 
tribe), now Rennes, in Brittany ; Coucy, anc. Condiceacum 
(at the confluence of the Lette and Oise) ; Congleton, Co. 
Chester, was formerly Condate. 
.... /a hollow valley between hills, a dingle ; 

COMBE (A.b.), Colcombe (the valley of the R. 

CWMKOMB (Cym.-Cel.), ) * Cwmneath (of the Neath); 

CUM (Gadhehc), ( Compton (the town in the hollow) ; 

Gatcombe (the passage through the valley, gat) ; Combs, 
the hollows in the Mendip hills ; Wycombe (the valley of 
the Wye) ; Winchcombe (the corner valley) ; Wivelscombe 
and Addiscombe, probably connected with a personal name ; 


Ilfracombe (Elfric's dingle) ; Cwmrydol and Cwmdyli, in 
Wales (the hollow of the Rivers Rydol and Dyli) ; Cwm- 
eigian (the productive ridge) ; Cwmgilla (the hazel-wood 
valley) ; Cwm-Toyddwr (the valley of two waters), near the 
conf. of the Rivers Wye and Elain in Wales ; Cwm-gloyn 
(the valley of the brook Gloyn) ; Cwmdu (dark valley) ; 
Cwm-Barre (the valley of the R. Barre), in Wales ; Combe 
St. Nicholas, in Somerset and in Cumberland, named for 
the saint; Comb -Basset and Comb -Raleigh, named from 
the proprietors ; Cwm-du (black dingle) ; Cwm-bychan 
(little dingle), in Wales ; Corscombe (the dingle in the 
bog). In Ireland : Coomnahorna (the valley of the barley) ; 
Lackenacoombe (the hillside of the hollow) ; Lake Como, 
in Italy (in the hollow). 

CONFLUENTES (Lat.), a flowing together, hence the meeting of 
waters ; e.g. Coblentz, for Confluentes (at the conf. of the 
Moselle and Rhine) ; Conflans (at the conf. of the Seine 
and Oise) ; Confluent, a hamlet situated at the conf. of the 
Creuse and Gartempe. 
COP (Welsh), a summit ; e.g. Cop-yr-Leni (the illuminated hill), 
so called from the bonfires formerly kindled on the top. 

a marsh ; e.g. Corse (the marsh); 
Corston, Corsby, Corsenside (the 
dwelling or settlement on the 
marsh) ; Corscombe (marsh 
dingle), in England. In Ire- 
land : Cork, anc. Corcach-mor-Mmnham (the great marsh 
of Munster) ; Curkeen, Corcaghan (little marsh) ; Curragh- 
more (great marsh) ; Currabaha (the marsh of birches). 
Perhaps Careby and Carton, in Lincoln, part of the Danish 
district, may be marsh dwelling. 

CORNU (Lat) ( a h0rn ' a corner — in topography, 

KERNE, CERYN(Cym,Cel.), J a PP lle f t0 hea f">ds; e.g. Corneto 

CEARN (Gael.), ) £ he P la « on the corner) in Italy ; 

' l^Corne, Cornay, Corneuil, etc., in 

France, from this root, or perhaps from Cornus (the cornel 

cherry-tree) ; Cornwall, Cel. Cernyu, Lat. Cornubice, A.S. 

Cornwattia (the promontory or corner peopled by the Weales, 

Welsh, or foreigners) ; Cornuailles, in Brittany, with the 

CORS (Welsh), 
CAR (Gael), 
KER (Scand.), 


COTE (A.S.), 
COITE (Gael.), 
CWT (Welsh), 
kothe (Ger.), 

same meaning — its Celtic name was Pen-Kemaw (the head 
of the corner). 

a hut ; e.g. Cottenham, Cottingham, Coatham 
(the village of huts) ; Chatham, A.S. Coteham, 
with the same meaning ; Bramcote (the hut 
among broom) ; Fencotes (the huts in the fen 
or marsh ; Prescot (priest's hut) ; Sculcoates, in 
Yorkshire, probably from the personal Scandinavian name 
Skule; Saltcoats, in Ayrshire (the huts occupied by the 
makers of salt, a trade formerly carried on to a great extent 
at that place) ; Kothendorf (the village of huts) ; Hinter- 
kothen (behind the huts), in Germany. 
COTE, COTTA (Sansc), a fortress ; e.g. Chicacotta (little fortress) ; 
Gazacotta (the elephant's fortress) ; Jagarcote (bamboo fort) ; 
Islamcot (the fort of the true faith, i.e. of Mahomet) ; Noa- 
cote (new fort) ; Devicotta (God's fortress) ; Palamcotta 
(the camp fort). 

„ [a side or coast ; e.g. C6te d'Or (the 

COTE (Fr.), J golden coast), a department of France, 

COSTA (Span, and Port.), "j gQ ^^ from ^ fertilky . c6tes . du . 

Nord (the Northern coasts), a department of France ; Costa- 
Rica (rich coast), a state of Central America. 

_ . (a. place enclosed, the place occu- 

COURT(Nor.Fr) ied b a sovereigrl) a lord i y 

CWRT (Cym.-Cel.), 1 mansion ; from the Lat. colors, 

CORTE (It., Span., and Port.), ( a]sQ cors _ cortis (an enclosed yard), 
cognate with the Grk. hortos. The Romans called the 
castles built by Roman settlers in the provinces cortes or 
cortem, thence court became a common affix to the names 
of mansions in England and France — thus Hampton Court 
and Hunton Court, in England ; Leoncourt, Aubigne-court, 
Honnecourt (the mansion of Leo, Albinius, and Honulf) ; 
Aubercourt (of Albert) ; Mirecourt, Lat. Mercurii-curtis, 
where altars were wont to be dedicated to Mercury. From 
the diminutives of this word arose Cortiles, Cortina, Corti- 
cella, Courcelles, etc. The words court, cour, and corte 
were also used as equivalent to the Lat. curia (the place 
of assembly for the provincial councils) — thus Corte, in 
Corsica, where the courts of justice were held ; but Corsica 
itself derived its name from the Phoenician chorsi (a woody 


place). The Cortes, in Spain, evidently equivalent to the 
Lat. curia, gives its name to several towns in that country ; 
Coire, the capital of the Grisons, in Switzerland, comes from 
the anc. Curia Rhatiorum (the place where the provincial 
councils of the Rhsetians were held) ; Corbridge, in North- 
umberland, is supposed to take its name from a Roman 
curia, and perhaps Currie, in East Lothian. 

( a rock ■ e tr Crai°ie 
CRAIGCARRAIGCARRICK(Gadhelic), l Crekh '^j q^ 

CRAIG (Cym,Cel.), [Creagach (rocky), parishes 

in Scotland ; Carrick and Carrig, in Ireland (either the rocks 
or rocky ground) ; Carrick-on-Suir (the rock of the R. Suir) 
— v. p. 42 ; Craigengower (the goat's rock) ; Craigendarroch 
(the rock of the oak-wood) ; Craigdou (black rock) ; Craig- 
dearg (red rock) ; Craigmore (great rock) ; Craig-Phadric 
(St. Patrick's rock), in Inverness -shire ; Craignish (the 
rock of the island), the extremity of which is Ardcraignish ; 
Craignethan (the rock encircled by the R. Nethan), sup- 
posed to be the archetype of Tullietudlem ; Craigentinny 
(the little rock of the fire) — v. teine ; Criggan (the little 
rock). In Wales, Crick-Howel and Crickadarn (the rock 
of Howel and Cadarn) ; Criccaeth (the narrow hill) ; Crick, 
in Derbyshire ; Creach, in Somerset ; Critch-hill, Dorset. 

. . _ . (a. small bay ; e.g. Cricklade, anc. 

CREEK (A.S.), CRECCA, i „ , . , ', rf r .1. .. \ 

v ._ " ' ) Creccagelade (the bay of the stream) ; 

y„ . '■'' j Crayford (the ford of the creek) ; 

^ "■" ^Crique-bceuf, Crique-by, Crique-tot, 

Crique-villa (the dwelling on the creek) ; Criquiers (the 
creeks), in France. In America this word signifies a small 
stream, as Saltcreek, etc. 

a cross, cognate with the Lat. 

CROES, CROG (Cym.-Cel.), 
CROIS, CROCH (Gadhelic), 

crux; e.g. Crosby (the dwelling 
near the cross) ; Crossmichael(the 

CROD (A.b.), krys (bcand.), <^ aoss q{ MichaePs church) ; 

kreutz (Ger.) 
CROIX (Fr.), 

Groes-wen for Croes-wen (the 
blessed cross), in Glamorgan ; 
Crossthwaite (the forest -clearing at the cross) ; Croxton 
(cross town) ; Crewe and Crewkerne (the place at the 
cross) ; Croes-bychan (little cross) ; Kruzstrait (the road at 
the cross), in Belgium ; Crosscanonby, Crosslee, Crosshill, 


places in different parts of Scotland, probably named from 
the vicinity of some cross ; but Crossgates, Co. Fife, so called 
from its situation at a spot where roads cross each other. 
It was usual with the Celts in Ireland, as well as with the 
Spaniards and Portuguese in America, to mark the place 
where any providential event had occurred, or where they 
founded a church or city, by erecting a cross — as in St. 
Croix, Santa-Cruz, and Vera Cruz (the true cross), in South 
America. In Ireland : Crosserlough (the cross on the lake) ; 
Crossmolina (O'Mulleeny's cross) ; Aghacross (the fort at 
the cross) ; Crossard (high cross) ; Crossreagh (gray cross) ; 
Crossmaglen, Irish Cros-mag-Fhloinn (the cross of Flann's 
son) ; Crossau, Crossoge, and Crusheen (little cross) ; 
Oswestry, in Shropshire, anc. Croes- Oswalt (the cross on 
which Oswald, King of Northumberland, was executed by 
Penda of Mercia). Its Welsh name was Maeshir (long 
field), by the Saxons rendered Meserfieldj Marcross (the 
cross on the sea-shore), in Glamorgan ; Pen-y-groes, Maen- 
y-groes, Rhyd-y-croessau (the hill, the stone of the cross, 
the ford of the crosses), in Wales ; Glencorse, near Edin- 
burgh, for Glencross, so named from a remarkable cross 
which once stood there ; Corstorphine, in Mid-Lothian, cor- 
rupt, from Crostorphin, which might mean the cross of the 
beautiful hill, torr fioum, or the cross of a person called 
Torphin. In the reign of James I. the church of Corstor- 
phine became a collegiate foundation, with a provost, four 
prebendaries, and two singing boys. Crotch in Gaelic means 
a gallows — thus Knockacrochy (gallows hill) ; Raheena- 
crochy (the little fort of the gallows), in Ireland. 

CROAGH (Gael.), a hill of a round form — from cruach (a haystack) ; 
e.g. Croghan, Crohane (the little round hill) ; Ballycroghan 
(the town of the little hill), in Ireland ; Bencruachan (the 
stack-shaped hill), in Argyleshire. 

CROFT (A.S.), an enclosed field; e.g. Crofton (the town on the 
croft) ; Thomycroft (thorny field). 

" crooked ; e.g. Cromdale (the winding 
valley), in Inverness-shire; Croome, in 

CROM, CRUM (Gadhelic), 

KRUMM (Ger.), 
CRUMB (A.S.), 

CRWM (Cym.-Cel.), I Worce ; ter Crom i in Crimlin (the wind- 

ing glen, ghlinn), in Ireland ; Krum- 
bach (the winding brook); Krumauand 


Krumenau (the winding water or valley) ; Ancrum, a village 
in Roxburghshire, situated at the bend of the R. Alne at 
its confluence with the Teviot. 
CRUG (Welsh), a hillock ; e.g. Crughwel (the conspicuous hillock, 
hywel) ; Crug-y-swllt (the hillock of the treasure), in Wales ; 
Crickadarn, corrupt, from Crug-eadarn (the strong crag), in 

CUL ) (Gadhelic) ( e ' gm Cou11 ' Cults ' P arishes in Scotland ; 

CUIL I fthe rn \ \ Culter, i.e. Cul-tir (at the back of the land), 
' '' ( in Lanarkshire ; Culcairn (of the cairn) ; 

Culmony (at the back of the hill or moss, monadh) ; Culloden 
for Cul-oiter (at the back of the ridge) ; Culnakyle (at the 
back of the wood) ; Cultulach (of the hill) ; Culblair (the 
backlying field) ; Culross (behind the headland), in Scot- 
land. In Ireland : Coolboy (yellow corner) ; Coolderry (at 
the back or corner of the oak-wood) ; Cooleen, Cooleeny 
(little corner) ; Coleraine, in Londonderry, as well as Cool- 
raine, Coolrainy, Coolrahne, Irish Cuil-rathain (the corner 
of ferns) ; Coolgreany (sunny corner) ; Coolnasmear (the 
corner of the blackberries). 

CUND (Hindostanee), a country ; e.g. Bundelcund, Rohilcund (the 
countries of the Bundelas and Rohillas). 


DAGH, tagh (Turc), a mountain; e.g. Daghestan (the mountainous 
district) ; Baba-dagh (father or chief mountain) ; Kara-dagh 
(black mountain) ; Kezel-dagh (red mountain) ; Belur-tagh 
(the snow-capped mountain); Aktagh (white mountain); 
Mustagh (ice mountain) ; Beshtau (the five mountains) ; 
Tak-Rustan (the mountain of Rustan) ; Tchazr-dagh (tent 
mountain) ; Ala-dagh (beautiful mountain) ; Bingol-tagh (the 
mountain of iooo wells) ; Agri-dagh (steep mountain) ; 
Takht-i-Suliman (Solomon's mountain). 
DAIL (Gadhelic) \ a valle y> sometimes a field, English dale or 
DOL (Cym Cel )' del1, and often J oined t0 the name of the river 

dahl (Scand.)' J !* idl fl ° WS thr ° Ugh the distrkt ; «* C1 y des " 

THAL (Ger ) ' Tevl0tdale > Nithsdale, Liddesdale, Dove- 

DOL (Sclav) dale ' Arundel > Dryfesdale, corrupt, to Drys- 

'>' [dale (the valley of the Clyde, Teviot, Nith, 

DAIL 59 

Liddel, Dove, Arun, Dryfe) ; Rochdale, on the Roch, 
an affluent of the Trivell ; Dalmellington (the town 
in the valley of the mill). It is to be noted that in 
places named by the Teut. and Scand. races, this root- 
word, as well as others, is placed after the adjective 
or defining word ; while by the Celtic races it is placed 
first. Thus, in Scandinavia, and in localities of Great 
Britain where the Danes and Norsemen had settle- 
ments, we have — Romsdalen and Vaerdal, the valleys 
of the Raumer and Vaer, in Norway ; Langenthal, on 
the R. Langent, in Switzerland ; Rydal (rye valley), West- 
moreland ; Laugdalr (the valley of warm springs), Iceland. 
In districts again peopled by the Saxons, Avondale, Annan- 
dale (the valleys of the Avon and Annan). This is the 
general rule, although there are exceptions — Rosenthal 
(the valley of roses) ; Inn-thai (of the R. Inn) ; Freuden- 
thal (of joy) ; Fromenthal (wheat valley) ; Grunthal (green 
valley). In Gaelic, Irish, and Welsh names, on the 
contrary, dal precedes the defining word ; e.g. Dairy and 
Dalrigh (king's level field) ; Dalbeth and Dalbeathie (the 
field of birches) ; Dalginross (the field at the head of the 
promontory or wood) ; Dalness and Dallas (the field of 
the cascade, cos) ; Dalserf (of St. Serf) ; Dailly, in Ayr- 
shire, anc. Dalmaolkeran (the field of the servant, maol, of 
St. Kiaran) ; Dalrymple (the valley of the rumbling pool, 
ruaemleagh) ; Dalgarnock (of the rough hillock) ; Dalhousie 
(the field at the corner of the water, i.e. of the Esk) ; 
Dalwhinnie (the field of the meeting, coinneacK) ; Dalziel 
(beautiful field, geal) ; Dalguise (of the fir-trees, giuthas) ; 
Dalnaspittal (the field of the spideal, i.e. the house of enter- 
tainment) ; Dalnacheaich (of the stone) ; Dalnacraoibhe 
(of the tree) ; Dalbowie (yellow field). Dollar, in Clack- 
mannan, may be from this root, although there is a tradition 
that it took its name from a castle in the parish called 
Castle-Gloom, Gael, doillair (dark) ; Deal or Dole (the 
valley in Kent) ; Dol and Dole, in Brittany, with the 
same meaning ; Doldrewin (the valley of the Druidical 
circles in Wales) ; Dolquan (the owl's meadow) ; Dolau-Cothi 
(the meadows of the River Cothi) ; Dolgelly (the grove 
of hazels) ; Dalkeith (the narrow valley, caeth) ; Codale 

60 DAL — DAN 

(cow field) ; Grisdale (swine field) ; Gasdale (goosefield) ; 
Balderdale, Silverdale, Uldale, Ennerdale, Ransdale (from 
the personal names, Balder, Solvar, Ulf, Einer, Hrani) ; 
Brachendale (the valley of ferns) ; Berrydale, in Caithness, 
corrupt, from Old Norse, Berudalr (the valley of the pro- 
ductive wood) ; Dalecarlia, called by the Swedes Dahlena 
(the valleys) ; Dieppedal (deep valley) ; Stendal (stony 
valley) ; Oundle, in Northampton, corrupt, from Avondle; 
Kendal or Kirkby-Kendal (the church town in the valley of 
the R. Ken) ; Dolgelly (the valley of the grove), in Wales ; 
Dolsk or Dolzig (the town in the valley), in Posen ; Dolzen, 
in Bohemia ; Bartondale (the dale of the enclosure for the 
gathered crops), in Yorkshire ; Dalarossie, in Inverness, 
corrupt, from Dalfergussie, Fergus'dale ; Dalriada, in 
Ulster, named from a king of the Milesian race, named 
Cairbe-Raida, who settled there. His descendants gradu- 
ally emigrated to Albin, which from them was afterwards 
called Scotland ; and that part of Argyleshire where they 
landed they also named Dalriada. The three brothers, 
Fergus, Sorn, and Anghus, came to Argyleshire in 503 
a.d. Toul and Toulouse, situated in valleys, probably were 
named from the same root-word ; Toulouse was anciently 
called Civitas-Tolosatium (the city of the valley dwellers, 

a part, a district ; e.g. Kalthusertheil (the 
district of the cold houses) ; Kerckdorfer- 
theil (the district of the village church) ; 
Baradeel (the barren district), in Germany 
and Holland. This word, rather than 
dail, may be the root of Dalriada ; see above. 
dalej (Sclav.), far ; e.g. Daliz, Dalchow, Dalichow (the distant 

damm (Teut.), an embankment, a dyke ; e.g. Rotterdam, Amster- 
dam, Saardam, properly Zaandam (the embankment on the 
Rivers Rotte, Amstel, and Zaan) ; Schiedam, on the R. 
Schie ; Leerdam (the embankment on the field, lar) ; 
Veendam (on the marsh, veen) ; Damm (the embankment), 
a town in Prussia ; Neudamm (the new dyke) ; Damm- 
ducht (the embankment of the trench). 
DAN, in topography, signifies belonging to the Danes ; e.g. Dane- 

DAL, or GEDEL (A.S.) 
DEEL (Dutch), 

theil (Ger.), 
dal (Irish), 

DAR 61 

lagh (that portion of England which the Danes held after 
their treaty with Alfred) ; Danby, Danesbury (the Danes' 
dwellings) ; Danesbanks, Danesgraves, Danesford, in Salop, 
where the Danes are believed to have wintered in 896 ; 
Danshalt, in Fife, where they are said to have halted after 
their defeat at Falkland ; Danthorpe, Denton (Danes' 
town) ; Denshanger (Danes' hill or declivity) ; Dantzic (the 
Danish fort, built by a Danish colony in the reign of 
Waldemar II.) ; Tennstedt, in Saxony, corrupt, from Dan- 
nenstedi (the Danes' station); Cruden, in Aberdeenshire, 
anc. Cruor-Danorum (the slaughter of the Danes on the 
site of the last battle between the Celts and the Danes, 
which took place in the parish 1012). The Danish king 
fell in this battle, and was buried in the churchyard of 
Cruden. For centuries the Erroll family received an 
annual pension from the Danish Government for taking care 
of the grave at Cruden, but after the grave had been dese- 
crated this pension was discontinued. 

DAR, DERA, DEIR (Ar.), ) * dw f? h *' "fp, Or district ; e.g. 

deh fPersl Dar-el-hajar (the rocky distnct), in 

v '" I Egypt ; Darfur (the district of the 

Foor or Foorians, or the deer country), in Central Africa ; 

Dera-Fati-Khan, Dera-Ghazi-Khan, Dera-Ismail-Khan {i.e. 

the camps of these three chiefs, in the Derajat, or camp 

district) ; Deir (the monk's dwelling), in Syria ; Diarbekr 

(the dwellings or tents of Bekr) ; Dehi-Dervishan (the 

villages of the dervishes) ; Deh-haji (the pilgrims' village) ; 

Dekkergan (the village of wolves) ; Deir-Antonius (St. 

Anthony's monastery), in Egypt ; Buyukdereh (Turc. the 

great district on the Bosphorus). 

„ „ „„ „„„,„, /r~ i- 1 \ (an oak, cognate with the 

dar, dero, deryn (Cym.-CeL), ) ' » 

rj->j-i|-v JudLi Cif hJj ell 1U OdlJat-. UTlij 

^ " ( doire, or daire, Gadhelic, an 

oak-wood, Anglicised derry, darach, or dara, the gen. of 
dairj e.g. Daragh (a place abounding in oaks) ; Adare, i.e. 
Athdara (the ford of the oak) ; Derry, now Londonderry, 
was originally Daire-Calgaigh (the oak-wood of Galgacus, 
Latinised form of Calgaigli). In 546, when St Columba 
erected his monastery there, it became Derry-Columkille 
(the oak-wood of Columba's Church) ; in the reign of James 


I., by a charter granted to the London merchants, it obtained 
its present name ; Derry-fad (the long oak-wood) ; Derry-na- 
hinch (of the island, innis) ; Dairbhre or Darrery (the oak 
forest), the Irish name for the Island of Valentia ; Derry- 
allen (beautiful wood) ; Derrybane and Derrybawn (white 
oak-wood) ; Derrylane (broad oak-wood) ; Durrow, Irish 
Dairmagk, and Latinised Roberetica?nfius (the plain of the 
oaks) ; New and Old Deer (the oak-wood), in Aberdeenshire, 
was a monastery erected in early times by St. Columba, 
and given by him to St. Drostan. The old monastery was 
situated near a wooded hill, still called Aikie-Brae (oak 
hill), and a fair was held annually in the neighbourhood, 
called Mercaius querceti (the oak market) — v. Book of Deer, 
p. 48 ; Craigendarroch (the crag of the oak-wood) ; Dar- 
nock, or Darnick (the oak hillock), in Roxburghshire ; Dry- 
burgh, corrupt, from Darach-bruach (the bank of oaks) ; 
Dori, the name of a round hill covered with oak-trees, in 
Wales ; Darowen (Owen's oak-wood), in Wales. 

deich, DYK (Teut.), a dyke or entrenchment. These dykes were 
vast earthen ramparts constructed by the Anglo-Saxons to 
serve as boundaries between hostile tribes ; e.g. Hoorndyk 
(the dyke at the corner) ; Grondick (green dyke) ; Wansdyke 
(Woden's dyke) ; Grimsdyke and Offa's dyke (named after 
the chiefs Grim and Offa) ; Houndsditch (the dog's dyke) ; 
Ditton, Dixton (towns enclosed by a dyke) ; Zaadik, in Hol- 
land, (the dyke) on the R. Zaad. Cartsdike, a village in Ren- 
frewshire separated from Greenock by the burn Cart. Besides 
Grimesdyke (the name for the wall of Antoninus, from the 
R. Forth to the Clyde), there is a Grimsditch in Cheshire. 

delf (Teut.), a canal, from delfan (to dig) ; e.g. Delft, a town 
in Holland, intersected by canals ; Delfshaven (the canal 
harbour) ; Delfbriike (canal bridge). 

den, dean (Saxon), a deep, wooded valley. This word is 
traced by Leo and others to the Celtic dion (protection, 
shelter) ; e.g. Dibden (deep hollow) ; Hazeldean (the valley 
of hazels) ; Bowden or Bothanden (St. Bothan's valley), in 
Roxburghshire ; Tenterden, anc. Theinwarden (the guarded 
valley of the thane or nobleman), in Kent ; Howden (the 
haugr or mound (in the valley), in Yorkshire ; Howdon, 
with the same meaning, in Northumberland ; Otterden (the 


otter's valley) ; Stagsden (of the stag) ; Micheldean (great 
valley) ; Rottingdean (the valley of Hrotan, a chief) ; 
Croxden (the valley of the cross). 

deor (A S 1 ( a wild animal — English, a deer ; e.g. Deerhurst 

(\ ' A\ ) (^ eers thicket) ; Durham, in Gloucester (the 

(r \ 1 dwelling of wild animals). For Durham on the 

V. •/» (^ Wear, v. holm. Tierbach, Tierhage (the brook 

and the enclosure of wild animals). 

desert, or disert, a term borrowed from the Lat. desertum, and 
applied by the Celts to the names of sequestered places 
chosen by the monks for devotion and retirement ; Dyserth, 
in North Wales, and Dyzard, in Cornwall ; e.g. Dysart, in 
Fife, formerly connected with the monastery of Culross, or 
Kirkcaldy — near Dysart is the cave of St. Serf ; Dysertmore 
(the great desert), in Co. Kilkenny ; Desertmartin in 
Londonderry, Desertserges in Cork (the retreats of St. 
Martin and St. Sergius). In Ireland the word is often 
corrupted to Ester or Isert — as in Isertkelly (Kelly's re- 
treat) ; Isertkeeran (St. Ciaran's retreat). 

DEUTSCH (Ger.), from thiod, the people, a prefix used in Germany 
to distinguish any district or place from a foreign settlement 
of the same name. In Sclavonic districts it is opposed to 
the word Katholic, in connection with the form of religion 
practised by their inhabitants — as in Deutsch-hanmer (the 
Protestant village, opposed to Katholic-hanmer, belonging 
to the Catholic or Greek Church). In other cases it is 
opposed to Walsch (foreign — v. WALSCH), as in Deutsch- 
steinach and Walsh-steinach (the German and foreign towns 
on the Steinach, or stony water). The Romans employed 
the word Germania for Deutsch, which Professor Leo traces 
to a Celtic root gair-mean (one who cries out or shouts) ; 
e.g. Deutschen, in the Tyrol ; Deutz, in Rhenish Prussia ; 
Deutschendorf, in Hungary ; Deutschenhausen, in Moravia, 
i.e. the dwellings of the Germans. The earliest name by 
which the Germans designated themselves seems to have 
been Tungri (the speakers). It was not till the seventeenth 
century that the word Dutch was restricted to the Low 
Germans. The French name for Germany is modernised 
from the Alemanni (a mixed race, and probably means other 
men, ox foreigners). 


_. Fp TIF „ , T . ( deep ; e.g. Deeping, Dibden, Dibdale (deep 
diep, TIEF Ueut), J vaUey) . D eptford (deep ford); Market- 
DWFN (Lym.-Lel.), y dee ping (the market-town in the low 
meadow) ; Devonshire, Cel. Dwfnient (the deep valleys) ; 
Diepholz (deep wood) ; Dieppe, Scand. Duipa (the deep 
water), the name of the river upon which it was built ; 
Abraham's diep (Abraham's hollow), in Holland ; Diepen- 
beck (deep brook) ; Tiefenthal and Tiefengrund (deep 
valley) ; Teupitz (the deep water), a town in Prussia on a 
lake of this name ; Defynock (a deep valley), in Wales. 

dinas, or din (Cym.-Cel.), a fortified height, a city, cognate with 
the Gadhelic dun; e.g. Dinmore (the great fort), in Hereford ; 
Dynevor, anc. Dinas-fawr (great fortress), in Carmarthen ; 
Denbigh, Welsh Din-bach (little fort) ; Ruthin, in Co. Denbigh, 
corrupt, from Rhudd-din (red castle) ; Dinas Bran, a moun- 
tain and castle in Wales named after an ancient king named 
Bran-Dinas-Powys, corrupt, from Denes Powys, a mansion 
built by the Prince of Powys in honour of the lady whom 
he had married, whose name was Denis ; Hawarden, i.e. 
fixed on a hill, den, in Flint ; its ancient name was Penarth- 
Halawig (the headland above the salt marsh) ; Dinefwr (the 
fenced hill), an ancient castle in the vale of the R. Tywy ; 
Tenby (Dane's dwelling) — v. dan ; Welsh Denbych-y-Pysod, 
i.e. of the fishes — to distinguish from its namesake in North 
Wales ; Tintern, corrupt, from Din-Teyrn (the king's mount), 
in Wales ; Dinan in France ; Dinant in Belgium (the fortress 
on the water) ; Digne, anc. Dinia-Bodionticarium (the fort 
of the Bodiontici), in France ; London, anc. Londinum (the 
fort on the marsh — Ion, or perhaps on the grove — llwyri). 
Din sometimes takes the form of tin, as in Tintagel (St. 
Degla's fort), in Cornwall ; Tintern (the fort, din, of the 
prince, Welsh teyrn), in Monmouth. 

DINKEL (Ger.), a kind of grain ; e.g. Dinkelburg, Dinkelstadt, 
Dinkellage, Dinklar, Dinkelsbuhl (the town, place, field, 
site, hill, where this grain abounded). 

DIOT, or THEOD (Teut.), the people ; e.g. Thetford, corrupt, from 
Theotford (the people's ford) ; Detmold, corrupt, from Theot- 
malli (the people's place of meeting) ; Diotweg (the people's 
highway) ; Dettweiller (the town of the Diet, or people's 


meeting) ; Ditmarsh, anc. Thiedmarsi (the people's marsh) ; 
Dettingen (belonging to the people) — v. ing. 

diva, or dwipa (Sansc), an island ; e.g. the Maldives {i.e. the 
iooo islands); the Laccadives (the 10,000 islands); Java 
or Yava-dwipa (the island of rice, jawa, or of nutmegs, 
jayaK) ; Socotra or Dwifia-Sukadara (the island of bliss) ; 
Ceylon or Sanhala-Dwipa (the island of lions), but called 
by the natives Lanka (the resplendent), and by the Arabs 
Seren-dib (silk island) ; Dondrahead, corrupt, from Dewan- 
dere (the end of the island), in Ceylon. 

DLAUHY, DLUGY (Sclav.), long, Germanised dolge; e.g. Dlugen- 
most (long bridge) ; Dolgenbrodt (long ford) ; Dolgensee 
(long lake) ; Dolgen, Dolgow, Dolgenow (long place). 

dobro, dobra (Sclav.), good ; e.g. Great and Little Dobern, 
Dobra, Dobrau, Dobrawitz, Dobretzee, Dobrezin (good 
place) ; Dobberstroh (good pasture) ; Dobberbus (good 
village) ; Dobrutscha (good land), part of Bulgaria ; Dober- 
gast (good inn). 

DODD (Scand.), a hill with a round top ; e.g. Dodd-Fell (the 
round rock), in Cumberland ; Dodmaen (the round stone), 
in Cornwall, popularly called Dead Man's Point. 

DOM (Ger.), a cathedral, and, in French topography, a house, from 
the Lat. domusj e.g. Dom, in Westphalia ; Domfront (the 
dwelling of Front, a hermit) ; Dompierre (Peter's house 
or church) ; Domblain (of St. Blaine) ; Domleger (of St. 
Leger) ; Dongermain (of St. Germanus), in France ; but 
the word domhnach, in Ireland {i.e. a church), has another 
derivation. This word, Anglicised donagh, signifies Sunday 
as well as church, from the Lat. Dominica (the Lord's day) ; 
and all the churches with this prefix to their names were 
originally founded by St. Patrick, and the foundations were 
laid on Sunday ; e.g. Donaghmore (great church) ; Don- 
aghedy, in Tyrone (St. Caidoc's church) ; Donaghanie, i.e. 
Domnach-an-eich (the church of the steed) ; Donaghmoyne 
(of the plain) ; Donaghcloney (of the meadow) ; Donagh- 
cumper (of the confluence); Donnybrook(St. Broc's church). 
( a mound surrounded by a marsh ; e.g. Dong- 

D0NK ' °y. N ^' x < weir (the mound of the weir) ; Dunkhof (the 

DONG (Old Ger.), y endosure at the mound) ; Dongen (the dwelling 

at the mound) ; Hasedonk (the mound of the brushwood). 


DORF, DORP, DRUP (Teut.), a village or small town, originally 
applied to any small assembly of people ; e.g. Altendorf, 
Oldendorf (old town) ; Sommerstorf (summer town); Baiars- 
dorf (the town of the Boii, or Bavarians) ; Gastdorf (the 
town of the inn, or for guests) ; Dusseldorf, Meldorf, Ohr- 
druff, Vilsendorf (towns of the Rivers Dussel, Miele, Ohr, 
and Vils) ; Jagersdorf (huntsman's village) ; Nussdorf (nut 
village) ; Mattersdorf and Matschdorf, Ritzendorf, Otters- 
dorf (the towns of Matthew, Richard, and Otho) ; Lindorf 
(the village at the linden-tree) ; Sandrup (sandy village) ; 
Dorfheim, Dorpam (village home). 

" the thorn ; e.g. Dornburg, Dorn- 

DORN (Ger.), DOORN (Dutch) 

THYRN (A.S.), 

draenen (Cym.-Cel.), 
DRAEIGHEN (Gadhelic), 

heim or Dornum, Dornburen, 
Thornton (thorn dwelling); Doom, 
the name of several places in the 
Dutch colony, South Africa ; Dorn- 
berg and Doornhoek (thorn hill) ; Dornach (full of thorns) ; 
but Dornoch, in Sutherlandshire, is not from this root ; it 
is said to be derived from the Gael, dorneich, in allusion to 
a certain Danish leader having been slain at the place by a 
blow from a horse's hoof. Thornhill, Thornbury, village 
names in England and Scotland ; Thorney (thorn island) ; 
Thome, a town in Yorkshire ; Yr Ddreinog, Welsh (the 
thorny place), a hamlet in Anglesey ; but Thorn, a town in 
Prussia — Polish Torun — is probably derived from a cognate 
word for^ torres, a tower. In Ireland : Dreen, Drinan, 
Dreenagh, Drinney (places producing the black thorn). 
DRECHT (Old Ger.), for ttift, meadow pasture ; e.g. Moordrecht, 
Zwyndrecht, Papendrecht, Ossendrecht (the moor, swine, 
oxen pasture, and the priest's meadow) ; Dort or Dordrecht 
(the pasture on the water), situated in an island formed by 
the Maas ; Maestricht, Latinised into Trajectus-ad-Moesum 
(the pasture or ford on the Maas or Meuse) ; Utrecht, 
Latinised Trajectus-ad-Rhenum (the ford or pasture on the 
Rhine), or Ultra-trajectum (beyond the ford). 
DRIESCH (Ger.), fallow ground ; e.g. Driesch and Dresche, in 
Oldenburg ; Driesfelt (fallow field) ; Bockendriesch (the 
fallow ground at the beech-trees). 
droichead (Gadhelic), a bridge ; e.g. Drogheda, anc. Droichead- 
atka (the bridge at the ford) ; Ballydrehid (bridge town) ; 

DROOG — DU 67 

Knockadreet (the hill of the bridge) ; Drumadrehid (the 
ridge at the bridge) ; Kildrought (the church at the bridge), 
in Ireland ; Ceann-Drochaid (bridge end), the Gaelic name 
for the Castleton of Braemar. 
DROOG, or durga (Sansc), a hill fort; e.g. Savendroog (golden 
fort) ; Viziadroog (the fort of victory) ; Chitteldroog (spotted 
fort) ; Calliendroog (nourishing fort) ; Sindeedroog (the fort 
of the sun). 

DROWO, or drzewo (Sclav.), f 7°° d ' °l a fores ' ; '* Dreb " 

dru (Sansc), triu (Goth.), a tree, )^\ Drewitsch, V*™* 
x » ' ( Drohobicz(thewoodyplace); 

Drewiz, Drehnow, Drehna, with the same meaning ; Mis- 
droi (in the midst of woods). 

druim, drom (Gadhelic), a ridge, from droma, the back-bone of 
an animal, cognate with the Lat. dorsum; e.g. Drumard 
(high ridge) ; Dromeen, Drumeen, Drymen (little ridge) ; 
Dromore (great ridge) ; Dromagh and Drumagh (full of 
ridges) ; Dromineer, Co. Tipperary, and Drumminer in 
Aberdeenshire (the ridge of the confluence, inbhir) ; Augh- 
rim, Irish Each-dhruim (the horses' ridge) ; Leitrim, i.e. 
Liath-dhruim (gray ridge) ; Dromanure (the ridge of the 
yew-tree) ; Drumderg (red ridge) ; Drumlane (broad ridge) ; 
Drumcliff, i.e. Druim-chluibh (the ridge of the baskets) ; 
Drummond, common in Ireland and Scotland, corrupt, 
from drumen (little ridge). In Scotland there are Drumoak 
(the ridge of St. Mozola, a virgin) — in Aberdeenshire it 
was originally Dalmaile (the valley of Mozola) ; Meldrum- 
Old (bald ridge), in Aberdeenshire ; Drem (the ridge in 
East Lothian) ; Drumalbin, Lat. Dorsum-Britanniae (the 
back-bone or ridge of Scotland) ; Drummelzier, formerly 
Dunmeller (the fort of Meldredus, who, according to tra- 
dition, slew Merlin, whose grave is shown in the parish) ; 
Drumblate (the warm ridge, or the flowery ridge) ; Drum- 
cliff, Co. Sligo, i.e. Druimcliabh (the ridge of the baskets). 

DRWS (Welsh), a door or pass ; e.g. Drws-y-coed (the pass of the 
wood) ; Drws-y-nant (of the valley) ; Drws-Ardudwy (of 
the black water). 

tin (C C n ( b!ack ; e.g. Ddulas, a river in Wales ; Douglas, 
„,,;,• ^'"jif v \ \ in Scotland (the black stream) ; Dubyn (the 

DUBH ( GadhdlC )'( black lake)/ 

68 DUB — DUN 

DUB (Sclav.), the oak ; e.g. Dubicza, Dubrau, Diiben, Dubrow 
(the place of oak-trees) ; Teupliz, corrupt, from Dublize, 
with the same meaning ; Dobojze, Germanised into Dauben- 
dorf (oak village) ; Dubrawice (oak village) ; Dubrawka 
(oak wood), Germanised Eichenwaldchen, a colony from 
Dubrow. In Poland this word takes the form of Dom- 
browo, Dombroka. 

DUN (Gadhelic), a stronghold, a hill fort, cognate with the Welsh 
din. As an adjective, dun or don means strong, as in 
Dunluce, i.e. dun-lios (strong fort) ; Duncladh (strong 
dyke). As a verb, it signifies what is closed or shut in, 
dunadh, with the same meaning as the Teut. tun, as in 
Corra-dhunta (the closed weir). Its full signification, 
therefore, is a strong enclosed place, and the name was 
accordingly applied in old times to forts surrounded by 
several circumvallations, the remains of which are still found 
in Ireland and Scotland. Many such places are called simply 
doon or down; e.g. Doune Castle, in Perthshire ; Down- 
Patrick, named from an entrenched dun near the cathedral ; 
Down and the Downs, King's Co. and West Meath ; 
Dooneen and Downing (little fort) ; Dundalk, i.e. Dun- 
Dealgan (Delga's fort) ; Dundonald (the fort of Domhnall) ; 
Dungannon (Geanan's fort) ; Dungarvan (Garvan's fort) ; 
Dunleary (Laeghaire's fort), now Kingston ; Dunhill and 
Dunally, for Dun-aille (the fort on the cliff) ; Downamona 
(of the bog) ; Shandon (old fort) ; Doonard (high fort) ; 
and many others in Ireland. In Scotland : Dumbarton 
(the hill fort of the Britons or Cumbrians) ; Dumfries 
(the fort among shrubs, precis, or of the Feresians, Caer 
Pheris) — v. Dr. Skene's Book of Wales j Dunbar (the fort 
on the summit, or of Barr, a chief) ; Dunblane (of St. 
Blane) ; Dundee, Lat. Tao-dunum, probably for Dun- 
Tatha (the fort on the Tay) ; Dunedin, or Edinburgh 
(Edwin's fort), so named by a prince of Northumberland 
in 628 — its earlier names were Dunmonadh (the fort of the 
hill), or in Welsh Dinas-Agned (the city of the painted 
people), and the Castrum-Alatum of Ptolemy. The Pict- 
ish maidens of the royal race were kept in Edinburgh 
Castle, hence it was also called Castrum-Puellarum ; Dun- 
ottar (the fort on the reef, oiler) ; Dunfermline (the fort of 

DUNE 69 

the alder-tree pool, or of the winding pool) ; Dundrennan 
(the fort of the thorn bushes) ; Dunlop (the fortified hill at 
the angle of the stream, luV) ; Dunkeld, anc. Duncalden 
(the fort of hazels) ; Dunbeath (of the birches) ; Dunrobin 
(Robert's fortress), founded by Robert, Earl of Sutherland ; 
Dunure (of the yew-trees) ; Dunnichen, i.e. Dunn-Nechtan 
(of Nechtan, a Pictish king) ; Dunsyre (the prophet's hill 
or fort) ; Donegall, Irish Dungall (i.e. the fort of the 
strangers, the Danes) ; Lexdon, in Essex, Lat. Legionis- 
dunum (the fort of the legion) ; Leyden, in Holland, Lat. 
Lugdunum-Batavoi'um (the fortress of the Batavians, in 
the hollow, lug) ; Lyons, anc. Lugdunum (the fort in the 
hollow) ; Maldon, in Essex, anc. Camelodunum (the fort of 
the Celtic war-god Carnal) ; Melun, anc. Melodunum (bald 
fort, maol), in France ; Nevers, Lat. Noviodunum (new 
fort), in France ; Thuin, in Belgium, and Thun, in Switzer- 
land {dun, the hill fort) ; Yverdun, anc. Ebrodunum (the 
fort on the water, bior) ; Kempten, in Germany, anc. 
Campodunum (the fort in the field) ; Issoudun (the fort 
on the water, uisge) ; Emden (the fort on the R. Ems) ; 
Dijon, anc. Dibisdunum (the fort on two waters), at the 
conf. of the Ouche and Suzon ; Mehun, Meudon, and 
Meuny, in France (the fort on the plain), Lat. Magdunum ; 
Verdun, anc. Verodunutn (the fort on the water, bior), on 
the R. Meuse, in France ; Verden, in Hanover, on the R. 
Aller, with the same meaning ; Autun, corrupt, from 
Augustodunum (the fortress of Augustus) ; Wimbledon, in 
Surrey, anc. Wibbandun (from an ancient proprietor, Wibba); 
Sion, in Switzerland, Ger. Sitten, corrupt, from its ancient 
Celtic name Suidh^dunum (the seat of the hill fort). From 
Daingeann (a fortress) are derived such names as Dangen 
and Dingen, in Ireland ; also Dingle, in its earlier form 
Daingean-ui-Chuis (the fort of O'Cush or Hussey) ; it re- 
ceived its present name in the reign of Elizabeth ; Ballen- 
dine and Ballendaggan (the town of the fort) ; Dangan was 
also the ancient name of Philipstown. 

, „ „ . (a grassy hill or mound ; e.g. the Downs, 
DUNE or DOWN (A.S.), I ;n * the s ' Quth of Eng]and . the DuneSj 

DUN (Cel.), I in Flanders . Halidon Hill (the holy 

hill) ; Dunham, Dunwick, and Dutton, originally Dunton 

7o D UR — D YFFR YN 

(hill town) ; Croydon (chalk hill) ; Dunkirk, in Flanders 
(the church on the dunes) ; Snowdon (snowy hill), in Wales ; 
its Welsh name is Creigiawr (the eagle's rock), eryr (an 
eagle) ; Dunse, a town in Berwickshire, now Duns, near 
a hill of the same name ; the Eildon Hills, in Roxburgh- 
shire, corrupt, from Moeld-un (the bald hill) ; Eddertoun, in 
Ross-shire (between the hills or dunes). 

,r> ji v v /'water; e.g. Dour, Douro, Dore, 
DUR, or dobhr (Gadhehc , ^ Doro / Adour; Durance> 

DWFR or DWR (Cym.-Cel.), I Dnron(live r names); Glasdur(green 
DOUR (Breton), (^ water ^ . Calderj anc _ Caldover (woody 

water) ; Derwent (bright or clear water) ; Lauder (the gray 
water) ; Ledder and Leader (the broad water) ; Dorking, 
Co. Surrey, anc. Durchinges, or more correctly, Durvicingas 
(dwellers by the water — wician, to dwell) ; Briare, on the 
Loire, anc. Briva-durum (the town on the brink of the 
water, probably Dover, from this root) ; Dorchester (the 
fortress of the Durotriges — dwellers by the water), tiigo, 
Cym.-Cel. (to dwell), called by Leland Hydropolis j Rother 
(the red river) ; Cawdor, anc. Kaledor (woody water). 

,_ . (" dry, sterile ; e.g. Diirrenstein (the barren 

DURRE (Ger.) I r0<± y . Diirrental ( the barren valley); Diirr- 

*■ '' ( wald (the dry or sterile wood) ; Droogberg 

(the barren hill) ; Drupach (dry brook). 

a door or opening, an open court ; e.g. Dvoretz 
(the town at the opening), in Russia ; Dwarka 
(the court or gate), Hindostan ; Hurdwar (the 
court of Hurry or Siva), called also Gangadwara 
(the opening of the Ganges), in Hindostan ; 
Issoire, anc. Issiodorum (the town at door or meeting of the 
waters, zrisge), a town in France at the conf. of the Allier 
and Couze ; Durrisdeer, Gael. Dorus-darach (at the opening 
of the oak-wood), in Dumfriesshire ; Lindores, in Fife, anc. 
Lindoruis (at the outlet of the waters), on a lake of the 
same name which communicates by a small stream with 
the Tay. 

dyffryn (Welsh), a river valley ; e.g. Dyffryn-Clydach, Dyffryn- 
Gwy, in the valleys of the R. Clwyd and Gwy, in Wales ; 
Dyffryn-golych (the vale of worship), in Glamorgan. 

dwor (Sclav.), 
thur (Ger.), 
DORUS (Cel.), 
dwar (Sansc), 

EA 7 i 


EA (A.S.), EY, AY, 
EGE or EG 
OE, o, or A (Scand.), 
OOG (Dutch), 

an island ; from ea, a, aa, running water ; 
ea or ey enter into the composition of many 
A.S. names of places which are now joined 
to the mainland or to rich pastures by the 
river-side, as in Eton, Eaton, Eyam, Ey- 
worth, Eywick (dwellings by the water) ; Eyemouth, Moulsy, 
on the R. Mole ; Bermondsey, now included in the 
Metropolis ; Eamont, anc. Eantot (the meeting of waters) ; 
Fladda and Fladday (flat island) ; Winchelsea (either the 
corner, A.S. ivincel, of the water, or the island of Wincheling, 
son of the Saxon king Cissa, who founded it) ; Swansea 
(Sweyn's town, on the water), at the mouth of the Tawey ; 
Anglesea (the island of the Angles or English), so named 
by the Danes — its Welsh name was Ynys-Fonn or Mona ; 
Portsea (the island of the haven) ; Battersea (St. Peter's 
isle), because belonging to St. Peter's Abbey, Westminster ; 
Chelsea (ship island, or the island of the sandbank) — v. p. 
46, ceol, ceosel ; Ely (eel island) ; Jersey (Caesar's isle) ; 
Olney (holly meadow) ; Odensee (Woden's island or town 
on the water) ; Whalsey (whale island, hvaV) ; Rona (St. 
Ronan's isle) ; Mageroe (scraggy island) ; Nordereys and 
Sudereys — from this word Sudereys, the Bishop of Sodor 
and Man takes his title — (the north and south isles), names 
given by the Norsemen to the Hebrides and the Orkneys 
under their rule ; Oesel (seal island) ; Oransay (the island of 
St. Oran) ; Pabba and Papa (priest's isle). The Papae or 
Christian anchorites came from Ireland and the west of Scot- 
land to Orkney and Shetland, and traces of them were found 
in Iceland on its discovery by the Norsemen, hence probably 
such names as Pappa and Crimea (the island of the Cymri 
or Cimmerians) ; Morea (the mulberry-shaped island) ; 
Shapinsay (the isle of Hjalpand, a Norse Viking) ; Faroe (the 
sheep islands — -faar, Scand.) ; Faroe, also in Sweden ; but 
Farr, a parish in the north of Scotland, is from faire, Gael, 
a watch or sentinel, from a chain of watch-towers which 
existed there in former times ; Staffa (the island of the 
staves or columns, Scand. stav) ; Athelney (the island of 


the nobles) ; Bressay, Norse Bardie's ay (giant's island) ; 

Bardsey (the bard's island), the last retreat of the Welsh 

bards ; Femoe (cattle island) ; Fetlar, anc. Fedor's-oe 

(Theodore's island) ; Romney (marsh island), Gael. Rumach; 

Sheppey, A.S. Sceapige (sheep island) ; Langeoog (long 

island) ; Oeland (water land) ; Torsay (the island with 

conical hills, torr) ; Chertsey, AS. Ceortes-ige (Ceorot's 

island) ; Lingley (heathery island), ling, Norse (heather) ; 

Muchelney (large island); Putney, A.S. Puttanige (Putta's 

isle) ; Thorney (thorny island), but its more ancient name was 

Ankerige, from an anchorite who dwelt in a cell in the island. 

. _ . „ , ( e.g. Eddertoun, Co. Ross (be- 

eadaredar (Cel.), between, tween ha]a) _„_ DUNE . Eddra . 

ENTRE(Fr. Span., and Port.), ^ chmiSj u ? Eadar da chaolas 
INTER (Lat.), ((between two firths), Co. Suther- 

land ; Killederdaowen, in Galway, i.e. Coill-eder-da-abhainn 
(the wood between two rivers) ; and Killadrown, King's . 
County, with the same meaning ; Cloonederowen, Gal- 
way (the meadow between two rivers) ; Ballydarown (the 
townland between two rivers). In France : Entre-deux-mers 
(between two seas) ; Entrevaux (between valleys) ; Entre-rios 
(between streams), in Spain ; Entre-Douro-e-Minho (between 
these rivers), in Portugal ; Interlacken (between lakes), in 

a church. These and synonymous words 

in the Romance languages are derived 

from Lat. ecclesia, and that from the 

Grk. IkkAijo-io (an assembly) ; e.g. Eccles, 

a parish and suburb of Manchester, also 

the name of two parishes in Berwickshire ; Eccleshall, in 

Staffordshire, so called because the bishops of Lichfield 

formerly had a palace there ; Eccleshill (church hill), 

in Yorkshire ; Eccleston (church town), in Lancashire ; 

Ecclesmachan (the church of St. Machan), in Linlithgow ; 

Eaglesham (the hamlet at the church), Co. Renfrew ; Eccles- 

craig or Ecclesgrieg (the church of St. Gregory or Grig), in 

Kincardine; Eglishcormick (St. Cormac's church), Dumfries ; 

Ecclescyrus (of St. Cyrus), in Fife ; Lesmahago, Co. Lanark, 

corrupt, from Ecclesia-Machuti (the church of St. Machute, 

who is said to have, settled there in the sixth century) ; 

eaglais (Gadhelic), 
ILIZ (Armoric), 
egyhaz (Hung.), 


Carluke, in Lanarkshire, corrupt, from Eccles-maol- Luke 
(the church of the servant of St. Luke) ; Terregles, anc. 
Traver-eglys (church lands), Gael, treabhair (houses), in 
Kirkcudbright. In Wales : Eglwys Fair (St. Mary's church) ; 
Hen-eglwys (old church) ; Aglish and Eglish (the church), 
the names of parishes in Ireland ; Aglishcloghone (the 
church of the stepping-stones) ; Iglesuela (little church), in 
Spain ; Fehe"r eghaz (white church), in Hungary. In 
France : Eglise-aux-bois (the church in the woods) ; Eglise 
neuve (new church) ; Eglisolles, Elicaberry, and Eligaberria 
(the church in the plain). Such names as Aylesford, Ayls- 
worth, Aylesby, etc., may be derived from eglwys or ecclesia, 

eas, ESS, ESSIE (Gadhelic), a waterfall ; e.g. the R. Ness and Loch 
Ness (i.e. the river and lake of the Fall of Foyers) ; Ess- 
nambroc (the waterfall of the badger) ; Essmore (the great 
waterfall) ; Doonass (i.e. Irish Dun easa (the fort of the 
cataract), on the Shannon ; Caherass, in Limerick, with 
the same meaning ; Pollanass (the pool of the waterfall) ; 
Fetteresso, in Kincardine (the uncultivated land, fiadhair, 
near the waterfall) ; Edessa, in Turkey, seems to derive 
its name from the same root, as its Sclavonic name is 
Vodena, with the same meaning ; Edessa, in Mesopotamia, 
is on the R. Daisan ; Portessie (the port of the waterfall), 

eben (Ger.), a plain ; e.g. Ebenried and Ebenrinth (the cleared 
plain) ; Ebnit (on the plain) ; Breite-Ebnit (broad plain) ; 
Holzeben (woody plain). 

,_ , „ , . [ a nook or corner ; e.g. 

ecke or egg (Teut. and Scand.), I Sch6 (beantiftl nook) ; 

vig (Gadhelic), { Eckdorf (corner village); 

Eggberg (corner hill) ; Reinecke (the Rhine corner) ; Ran- 
decke (the corner of the point, rand) ; Vilseek (at the 
corner of the R. Vils) ; Wendecken (the corner of the 
Wends or Sclaves) ; Edgcott (the corner hut) ; Wantage, 
Co. Berks (Wanta's corner), on the edge of a stream ; 
Stevenage, Co. Herts (Stephen's corner) ; Gourock (the 
goal's corner) ; Landeck, in the Tyrol (at the meeting or 
corner of three roads) ; Nigg, Gael. N-uig (at the corner), 


eilean (Gadhelic), 


eylandt (Dutch), 
insel (Ger.), 

a parish in Co. Kincardine, and also in Ross and Cromarty ; 
Haideck (heath corner), in Bavaria. 
eger (Hung.), the alder-tree ; e.g. the R. Eger with the town of 
the same name. 

an island, cognate with the Lat. insula. 
The Gaelic word is generally applied -to 
smaller islands than innis j e.g. Eilean- 
sgiathach or Skye (the winged island) ; 
Eilean-dunan (the isle of the small fort) ; 
Eilean-na-goibhre (of the goats) ; Eilean-na-monach (of the 
monks) ; Eilean-na-Clearach (of the clergy) ; Eilean-na- 
naoimbh (of the saints), often applied to Ireland ; Eilean- 
nam-Muchad or Muck (the island of pigs), in the Hebrides ; 
Flannan, in the Hebrides, i.e. Eilean-an- Flannan (of St. 
Flannan) ; Groote Eylandt (great island), off the coast of 
Australia ; Rhode Island, in the United States, Dutch {red 
island), or, according to another interpretation, so named 
from its fancied resemblance in form to the island of 
EISEN (Ger.), iron ; e.g. Eisenstadt (iron town) ; Eisenach, in 
Germany (on a river impregnated with iron) ; Eisenberg 
(iron hill fort), in Germany ; Eisenburg (iron town), Hung. 
Vasvar, in Hungary ; , Eisenirz (iron ore), on the Erzberg 
Mountains ; Eisenschmidt (iron forge), in Prussia. 
._ , . fa river; e.g. Alf, Alb, Elbe, Elben, river names; 
ELF (Goth.), Laagenelv ( the river m the hollow) ; Dol-elf (valley 
' I river) ; Elbing, a town on a river of the same 

ENAGH, or ^enagh (Irish), an assembly of people, such as were 
held in old times by the Irish at the burial mounds, and in 
modern times applied to a cattle fair ; e.g. Nenagh, in Tip- 
perary, anc. ^n-zEnach-Urmhumhan (the assembly meeting- 
place of Ormund), the definite article n having been added 
to the name— this place is still celebrated for its great fairs ; 
Ballinenagh, Ballineanig, Ballynenagh (the town of the fair) ; 
Ardanlanjg (the height of the fair) ; Monaster-an-enagh (the 
monastery at the place of meeting). But this word is not 
to be confounded with eanach (a watery place or marsh), 
found under such forms as enagh and annagh, especially in 
Ulster. Thus Annabella, near Mallow, is in Irish Eanach- 


bile (the marsh of the old tree) ; Annaghaskin (the marsh 
of the eels). 

ENDE (Teut.), the end or corner; Ostend, in Belgium (at the 
west end of the canal opening into the ocean) ; Ostend, in 
Essex (at the east end of the land) ; Oberende (upper end) ; 
Suderende (the south corner) ; Endfelden (the corner of 
the field), probably Enfield, near London. Purmerend (at 
the end of the Purmer), a lake in Holland, now drained. 

enge (Teut.), narrow; e.g. Engberg (narrow hill); Engbriick 
(narrow bridge) ; Engkuizen (the narrow houses). 

erbe (Ger.), an inheritance or property ; e.g. Erbstellen (the 
place of the inheritance, or the inherited property) ; Erbhof 
(the inherited mansion-house) ; Sechserben (the property 
or inheritance of the Saxons). 

ERDE (Teut.), cultivated land ; e.g. Rotherde (red land) ; Schwarz- 
enerde (black land). 

ERLE (Ger.), the alder-tree ; e.g. Erla and Erlabeka (alder-tree 
stream) ; Erlangen (the dwelling near alder-trees) ; Erlau, 
a town in Hungary, on the Erlau (alder-tree river). 

ermak (Turc), a river ; e.g. Kizel-Ermack (red river) ; Jekil- 
Ermak (green river). 

ESCHE (Old Ger.), a common or sowed field ; e.g. Summeresche, 
Winteresche (the field sown in summer and winter) ; Brach- 
esche (the field broken up for tillage) ; Kaiseresche (the 
emperor's common). For this word as an affix, v. p. 5 : 
as a prefix it signifies the ash-tree, as in the Aschaff or 
ash-tree river ; Aschaffenberg (the fortress on the Aschaff) ; 
Eschach (ash-tree stream) ; Escheweiller (ash-tree town) ; 
Eschau (ash-tree meadow). 

ESGAIR (Welsh), a long ridge ; e.g. Esgair-hir (the long ridge) ; 
Esgair-yn-eira (the snow ridge). 

eski (Turc), old ; e.g. Eski-djuma (old ditch). 

espe, or aspe (Ger.), the poplar-tree ; e.g. Aspach (a place 
abounding in poplars, or the poplar-tree stream) ; Espen- 
field (the field of poplars) ; Aspenstadt (the station of 
poplars) — v. AESP, p. 5. 

ESTERO (Span.), a marsh or salt creek ; e.g. Estero-Santiago (St. 
James's marsh) ; Los-Esteros (the salt creeks), in South 
etan, tana (Basque), a district, with the same meaning as the 


Cel. tan, Latinised taniaj e.g. Aquitania (the district of the 
waters) ; Mauritania (of the Moors) ; Lusitania (the ancient 
name of Portugal). This root-word enters into the name 
of Britain, according to Taylor — v. Words and Places. 

EUDAN, or aodann (Gadhelic), the forehead — in topography, the 
front or brow of a hill ; e.g. Edenderry (the hill-brow of the 
oak-wood); Edenkelly (the front of the wood); Ednashanlaght 
(the hill-brow of the old sepulchre) ; Edenmore (the great 
hill-brow) ; Edina (one of the ancient names of Edinburgh). 

EVES (A.S.), a margin ; e.g. Evedon (on the brink of the hill) ; 
Evesbatch (the brink of the brook) ; Evesham (the dwell- 
ing on the bank of the River Avon, in Worcester, or the 
dwelling of Eoves, a shepherd, afterwards made Bishop of 

FAGUS (Lat), a beech-tree ; Fagetum, a place planted with 
beeches ; e.g. La Fage, Le Faget, Fayet, Les Faus, Fau- 
mont, in France. 

fahr, fuhr (Teut. and Scand.), a way or passage — from fahren, 
to go ; e.g. Fahrenhorst (the passage at the wood) ; Fahren- 
bach, Fahrwasser (the passage over the water) ; Fahrwangen 
(the field at the ferry) ; Rheinfahr (the passage over the 
Rhine) ; Langefahr (long ferry) ; Niederfahr (lower ferry) ; 
Vere or Campvere, in Holland (the ferry leading to Kampen); 
Ferryby (the town of the Ferry), in Yorkshire ; Broughty- 
Ferry, in Fife (the ferry near a brough or castle, the ruins 
of which still remain) ; Ferry-Port-on-Craig (the landing- 
place on the rock), opposite Broughty-Ferry) ; Queensferry, 
West Lothian, named from Queen Margaret ; Connal-Ferry 
(the ferry of the raging flood), confhath-tuil, in Argyleshire ; 
Fareham, Co. Hants (the dwelling at the ferry). 

falu, or falva (Hung.), a village ; e.g. Uj-falu (new village) ; 
Olah-falu (the village of the Wallachians or Wallochs, a name 
which the Germans applied to the Sclaves) ; Hanus-falva 
(John's village) ; Ebes-falva (Elizabeth's village), Ger. 
Elizabeth-stadt s Szombat-falva (the village at which the 
Saturday market was held) ; Balars-falva (the village of 
Blaise) ; Bud-falva (the village of Buda).' 


fanum (Lat.), a temple ; e.g. Fano, in Italy, anc. Fanum-Fortunce 
(the temple of fortune), built here by the Romans to com- 
memorate the defeat of Asdrubal on the Metaurus ; Famars, 
anc. Fanum- Martis (the temple of Mars) ; Fanjeaux, anc. 
Fanum-Jovis (of Jove) ; St. Did, anc. Fanum-Deodati (the 
temple of Deodatus, Bishop of Nevers) ; St. Dezier, anc. 
Fanum-Desiderii (the temple of St. Desiderius) ; Florent- 
le-Vieul, anc. Fanum- Florentii (of St. Florentius) ; St. 
Flour, Fanum-Flori (of St. Florus). 

farr (Norse), a sheep. This word seems to have given names 
to several places in the north of Scotland, as affording 
good pasture for sheep ; . e.g. Farr, a parish in Sutherland- 
shire) ; Farra, Faray, islands in the Hebrides and Orkneys ; 
Fare, a hill in Aberdeenshire. 

fearn (Gadhelic), ( * e ^r-tree ; .e.g. Fernagh, 

faur, or vaur (great)-*, maur, ) Farna f h ' and ^^ < a P la ? e 
v ° ' y abounding in alder-trees), in 

Ireland ; Glenfarne (alder-tree valley) ; Ferns, Co. Wexford, 
anc. Fearna (the place of alders) ; Gortnavern (the field of 
alders) ; Farney, Co. Monaghan, corrupt, from Fearn- 
mhagh (alder-tree plain) ; Altanfearn (the little stream of 
alders); Sronfearn (the point of alders) — v. p. 178; Fearn s 
(the alder-trees), in Ross-shire ; Fearn, also in Forfar ; 
Ferney, on the Lake of Geneva, probably with same mean- 
ing as Femey in Ireland. 

FEHER (Hung.), white ; Szekes-Fehervar, Ger. Stulweissenburg 
(the throne of the white fortress). 

fekete (Hung.), black ; e.g. Fekete-halam (black hill). 

fel (Hung.), upper, in opposition to al, lower ; e.g. Felsovaros 
(upper town) ; Alvaros (lower town). 

feld, or veld (Teut.), a plain or field ; lit. a place where trees 
had been felled ; e.g. Feldham (field dwelling) ; Feldberg 
(field fortress) ; Bassevelde, in Belgium (low plain) ; Gurk- 
feld (cucumber field) ; Leckfeld, Rhinfeld (the plain of the 
Rivers Leek and Rhine) ; Great Driffield, in Yorkshire 
(dry field) ; Huddersfield, in Doomsday Oderesfeld, from a 
personal name ; Macclesfield (the field of St. Michael's 
church) ; Sheffield, on the R. Sheaf; Mansfield, on the R. 
Mann ; Lichfield, Co. Stafford (the field of corpses), A.S. 
Licenfelt, where, according to tradition, a great slaughter 


of the Christians took place in the reign of Diocletian ; 
Wakefield (the field by the wayside, waeg) ; Spitalfields, 
(i.e. the fields near the hospital or place of entertainment), 
Lat. hosfiitalium. There is a watering-place near Berwick 
called Spital, also a suburb of Aberdeen called the Spital ; 
Smithfield, in London, is a corruption of Smethfield (smooth 
field) ; Beaconsfield, Berks, so called from having been 
built on a height on which beacon fires were formerly 
lighted) ; Coilsfield, in Ayrshire (the field of Coilus or 
King Coil). There is a large mound near it said to mark 
the site of his grave. 

.„ , . la. high mountain or mountain 

^vS(^r ( °' T ge; -VTrf (the 

' v " ( gloomy mountains) ; Donners- 

feld (the mountain range of thunder or of Thor) ; Snafel, 
Iceland, and Sneefell, in the Isle of Man (snow moun- 
tain) ; Blaefell (blue mountain) ; Drachenfells (the dragon's 
rock) ; Weissenfels (the white rock) ; Rothenfels (red 
rock) ; Scawfell (the mountain of the scaw or promontory) ; 
Hartfell (of harts) ; Hestfell (of the steed) ; Lindenfels (of 
the linden-tree) ; Lichtenfels (the mountain of light), a 
Moravian settlement in Greenland ; Fitful Head, corrupt. 
from fiifioll (the hill with the promontory running into the 
sea), Old Norse fit — in Shetland ; Falaise, in France, a 
promontory, derived from the Ger. fell; Fellentin (the 
fort, dun, on the rock), in France ; Souter-fell, Cumber- 
land ; Saudfjeld, Norway ; Saudafell, in Iceland (sheep 
hill), from Old Norse sauder, a sheep ; perhaps Soutra Hill, 
in Mid- Lothian, may come from the same word; Criffel 
(the craggy rock), Dumfries ; Felza, Felsbach (rocky 
stream), in France ; Felsberg (rock fortress), in Germany ; 
Goat-fell, in Arran, Gael. Gaoth-ceann (the windy point), 
to which the Norsemen added their fell. 

fenn ( Ger ) ( a marsh ; e S- the Fenns or marshy 

,„,„ v , T ™, /-t, * t,\ J lands; Fen-ditton (the enclosed town on 

ven, or VEEN (Dutch), -< , -u\ r- c. ,, , ,, , , 

fenVa S *) ) marsh) ; Fenny-Stratford (the ford 

^ ' '■'' Von the Roman road, strat, in the 

.marshy land) ; Fenwick, Fenton, Finsbury (the town or 

enclosed place on the marsh) ; Venloo, in Belgium (the 

place in the marsh) ; Veenhof, Veenhusen (dwellings in the 


marsh) ; Houtveen (woody marsh) ; Diepenveen (deep 
marsh) ; Zutphen, in Holland (the south marsh) ; Ravenna, 
in Italy, called Pludosa (the marshy). It was originally 
built in a lagoon, on stakes, like Venice ; Venice, named 
from the Veneti, probably marsh dwellers ; Vannes, in 
France, and La Vendee, may be from the same word, 
although others derive the names from venna (a fisherman), 
others from gwent, Cel. (the fair plain) ; Finland (the land 
of marshes). The natives call themselves Suomilius, from 
suoma (a marsh). Fang in German and Dutch names, 
and faing in French names, are sometimes used instead of 
fenn — as in Zeefang (lake marsh) ; Aalfang (eel marsh) ; 
Habechtsfang (hawk's marsh) ; Faing-du-buisson, Dom- 
faing, etc., in the valleys of the Vosges. 

fern, or farn (Teut.), the fern ; e.g. Femdorf, Farndon, Farn- 
ham, Farnborough (dwellings among ferns) ; Farnhurst (fern 
thicket) ; Ferndale (fern valley) ; Farringdon (fern hill) ; 
Fernruit (a place cleared of ferns). 

f a grave or trench ; e.g. Farta, Ferta, and 
FERT ' in v \ Fartha {i.e. the graves) ; Fertagh and Far- 

FERTA (Gadhelic), ^ tagh ^ place of g,.^^ . Moyarta, in 

Clare, Irish Magh-fherta (the field of the graves) ; Fortin- 
gall, in Perthshire, is supposed to have derived its name 
from this word, Feart-na-gall (the grave of the strangers), 
having been the scene of many bloody battles. 

la FERTE, contracted from the French Lafermeti, from the Lat. 
firmitas (strength), applied in topography to a stronghold ; 
e.g. La Ferte" Bernardi (Bernard's stronghold); Fertd-freshal, 
from Firmitas Fraxinelli (the stronghold of little ash-trees) ; 
La Ferte, in Nievre and in Jura, etc. 

fa fortress ; e.g. Altefeste (high fortress) ; 

FESTE (Gen), t Franzenfeste / t he fortress of the Franks) ; 

vesting (Dutch) < Fes tenburg (the town of the fortress); 

faestung (Scand.), ^ Ivanich . festung (John . s fortress), in Croatia. 

( moist, marshy; e.g. Feuchtwang (the marshy 
FEUCHT (Ger.), J field - ;n Bavaria f ormer iy called Hudro- 

VOICHTIG (Dutch), j^ in Greekj with the same meaning . 

Feucht (the damp place), also in Bavaria ; Viecht-gross and 
Viecht-klein (the great and little damp place), in Bavaria. 


LES FEVES (Fr.), beans, Lat. faba, from which come such places 
in France as La Faviere, Favieres, Faverage, - Favray, 
Faverelles, etc. 

FICHTE (Ger.), the pine-tree ; e.g. Schoenfichten (the beautiful 
pine-trees) ; Finsterfechten (the dark pine-trees) ; Ficht- 
horst (pine-wood) ; Feichheim (a dwelling among pines). 
In topography, however, it is difficult to distinguish this 
word from feucht (damp). 

fin, fionn (Gadhelic), fair, white, Welsh gwynnj e.g. Findrum 
(white ridge) ; Fionn-uisge (the clear water). The Phcenix 
Park, in Dublin, was so called from a beautiful spring well 
on the grounds ; Findlater (the fair slope, letter) ; Fingart 
(fair field) ; Finnow, Finnan, and Finglass (fair stream) ; 
Finglen (fair glen) ; Knockfm (fair hill) ; Loch Fyne (clear 
or beautiful lake) ; Fintray, in Aberdeenshire ; Fintry, in 
Stirling (fair strand, traigh) ; Ventry, Co. Kerry, i.e. Fionn- 
traigh (fair strand) ; Finnow (the fair stream). 

fiord, or FJORD (Scand.), a creek or inlet formed by an arm of 
the sea, Anglicised ford, or in Scotland firth j e.g. Selfiord 
(herring creek) ; Laxfiord (salmon creek) ; Hvalfiord (whale 
creek) ; Lymefiord (muddy creek) ; Skagafiord (the inlet of 
the promontory, skagi) ; Halsfiord (the bay of the neck or 
hah, i.e. the narrow passage); Waterford, named by the Danes 
Vadre-fiord (the fordable part of the bay) — the Irish name 
of the town was Part-lairge (the port of the thigh), from its 
form ; Wexford (the western creek or inlet), also named by 
the Danes Flekkefiord (the fiat inlet) — its Irish name was 
Inverslanie (at the mouth of the Slaney) ; Strangford Lough 
(i.e. the loch of the strong fiord) ; Carlingford, in Irish 
Caerlinn, the fiord having been added by the Danes ; Vaer- 
ingefiord, in Norway (the inlet of the Varangians or 
Warings) ; Breidafiord (broad inlet), in Ireland ; Haver- 
ford, probably from Scand. havre (oats). 

FLECKE (Teut. and Scand.), a spot or level place, hence a hamlet ; 
e.g. Flegg, East and West, in Norfolk ; Fleckney (the flat 
island) ; Fletton (fiat town) ; Pfaffenfieck (the priest's 
hamlet) ; Amtsfleck (the amptman's hamlet) ; Schcenfleck 
(beautiful hamlet) ; Marktflecten (the market village) ; 
Fladda, Flatholme, Fleckeroe (flat island) ; Fladstrand 
(flat strand). 


/.•n ^ \ ( a flush of water, a channel or arm of the 

FLEOT, FLIEZ (Teut.), -u- r. i a * 

'._ ,. v " < sea on which vessels may float ; e.^. 

> '» ^ Fleet (a river name), in Kirkcudbright ; 

Fleet Loch ; Swinefleet (Sweyn's channel) ; Saltfleetby (the 
dwelling on the salt water channel) ; Shalfleet (shallow 
channel) ; Depenfleth (deep channel) ; Adlingfleet (the 
channel of the Atheling or noble) ; Ebbfleet, a place which 
was a port in the twelfth century, but is now half a mile 
from the shore ; Purfleet, Co. Essex, anc. Pourteflete (the 
channel of the port) ; Fleetwood (the wood on the channel 
of the R. Wyre) ; Muhlfloss (mill channel) ; Flushing, in 
Holland, corrupt, from Vliessengen (the town on the channel 
of the R. Scheldt). In Normandy this kind of channel 
takes the form of fleur, e.g. Barfieur (the summit or pro- 
jection on the channel) ; Harfleur or Havrefleur (the harbour 
on the channel) ; Biervliet (the fruitful plain on the channel). 
Flad as a prefix sometimes signifies a place liable to be 
flooded, as . Fladbury, Fledborough. The Lat. flumen (a 
flowing stream) is akin to these words, along with its 
derivations in the Romance languages : thus Fiume (on 
the river), a seaport in Croatia, at the mouth of the R. 
Fiumara ; Fiumicina, a small seaport at the north mouth 
of the Tiber ; Fiume-freddo (the cold stream), in Italy and 
Sicily ; Flims, in Switzerland, Lat. Ad-flumina (at the 
streams) ; Fiume-della Fine, near Leghorn, is a corrupt, of 
its ancient name, Ad-Fines (the river at the boundary). 
fold (Hung.), land ; e.g. Foldvar (land fortress) ; Alfold (low 
land) ; Felfold (high land) ; Szekel-fbld (the land of the 
Szeklers) ; Havasel-fdld (the land beyond the mountains), 
which is the Hungarian name for Wallachia. 

,. . fa fountain, a well ; e.g. Fon 

FONS (Lat.), 

FONTE (It. and Port.), 

tainebleau, corrupt, from Fon- 
taine-de-belle-eau (the spring of 

FONT, FONTAINE (Fr.), wat > onte £ (the 

FUENTE, and HONTANA (Span.), 
FUARAN and Uaran (Gadhelic), 
FFYNNON (Cym.-Cel.). 

place of the fountain) ; Fon- 
tenay (the place of the foun- 
tain) ; Les Fontaines, Fontanas 
(the fountains) ; Fontenelles (the little fountains) ; Fonte- 
vrault, Lat. Fons-Ebraldi (the well of St. Evrault) ; Fuente 
(the fountain), the name of several towns in Spain ; Fuen- 

82 FOKD 

caliente (the warm fountain) ; Fuensagrada (holy well) ; 
Fuente-el-fresna (of the ash-tree) ; Fuente-alamo (of the 
poplar) ; Fontarabia, Span. Fuentarrabia, corrupt, from the 
Lat. Fons-rapidans (the swift-flowing spring) ; Fuenfrido 
(cold fountain) ; Fossano, in Italy, Lat. Fons-sanus (the 
healing fountain) ; Hontanas, Hontanares, Hontananza, Hon- 
tangas (the place of springs), in Spain ; Hontomin (the 
fountain of the R. Omino), in Spain ; Pinos-fuente (pine- 
tree fountain), in Granada ; Saint-fontaine, in Belgium, 
corrupt, from Terra-de-centum fontanis (the land of the 
hundred springs) ; Spa, in Belgium, corrupt, from Espa (the 
fountain) — its Latin name was Fons-Tungrorum (the well 
of the Tungri) ; Fonthill (the hill of the spring). The town 
of Spalding, Co. Lincoln, is said to have derived its name 
from a spa of mineral water in the market-place. The 
Celtic uaran or fuaran takes the form of oran in Ireland : 
thus Oranmore (the great fountain near a holy well) ; Knock- 
an-oran (the hill of the well) ; Ballynoran (the town of the 
well) ; Tinoran, corrupt, from Tigh-an-uarain (the dwelling 
at the well) ; Foveran, in Aberdeenshire, took its name from 
a spring, fuaran, at Foveran Castle ; Ffynon-Bed (St. 
Peter's well), in Wales. 
.. „ . (a. shallow passage over a river; e.g. 

_ TT ^ ' ' ,' „ , n x ) Bradford (the broad ford), in Yorkshire, 

furt, or furth (Ger.), ■> ,, „\. _ j, ' ' ,. , ' 
._ y.\ I on t ' ie **" ^ lre ' Bedford, Bedicanford 

^ '' \ (the protected ford), on the Ouse ; 

Brentford, on the R. Brenta ; Chelmsford, on the Chelmer ; 
Camelford, on the Camel ; Charford (the ford of Ceredic) ; 
Aylesford (of Mgle) ; Hacford and Hackfurth (of Haco) ; 
Guildford (of the guilds or trading associations) ; Hunger- 
ford, corrupt, from Ingle ford (corner ford) ; Oxford, Welsh 
Rhyd-ychen (ford for oxen) ; Ochsenfurt, in Bavaria, and 
probably the Bosphorus, with the same meaning ; Hertford 
(the hart's ford) ; Hereford (the ford of the army), or more 
probably a mistranslation of its Celtic name, Caer-ffawydd 
(the town of the beech-trees) ; Horsford, Illford, and Knuts- 
ford (the fords of Horsa, Ella, and Canute). Canute had 
crossed this ford before gaining a great battle ; Watford (the 
ford on Watling Street) ; Milford, the translation of Rhyd- 
y-inilwr (the ford of the Milwr), a small brook that flows 


into the haven ; Haverford West — v. havn — the Welsh name 
is Hwlfford (the sailing way, fford), so called because the 
tide comes up to the town ; Tiverton, anc. Tnvyford (the 
town on the two fords) ; Stamford, A.S. Stanford (stony 
ford), on the Welland ; Stoney Stratford (the stony ford on 
the Roman road) ; Stafford, anc. Stafford (the ford at the 
station, or a ford crossed by staffs or stilts) ; Crayford, on 
the R. Cray ; but Crawford, in Lanarkshire, is corrupt, from 
Caerford (castle ford) ; Wallingford, anc. Gual-hen, Latin- 
ised Gallena (the old fort at the ford) ; Thetford, anc. Theod- 
ford (the people's ford), on the R. Thet ; Dartford, on the 
R. Darent ; Bideford, in Devonshire (by the ford) ; Furth 
and Pforten (the fords), in Prussia ; Erfurt, in Saxony, anc. 
Erpisford (the ford of Erpe) ; Hohenfurth (the high ford), 
Bohemia ; Frankfort, on the Maine and on the Oder (the 
ford of the Franks) ; Quernfurt and Velvorde (the fords of 
the Rivers Quern and Wolowe) ; Steenvoord (stony ford) ; 
Verden, in Hanover (at the ford of the R. Aller). 

F.ORS, FOSS (Scand.), a waterfall ; e.g. High-force, Low-force, on 
the R. Tees ; Skogar-foss (the waterfall on the promontory), 
in Ireland ; Wilberforce, in Yorkshire (the cascade of 
Wilbera) ; Sodorfors (the south cascade), in Sweden ; Foston 
(the town of the waterfall). 

FORST, VORST (Teut.), a wood ; e.g. Forst-Iohn (the path through 
the wood) ; Forst-bach (forest brook) ; Eichenforst (oak 
forest) ; Forstheim (forest dwelling). 

fort, a stronghold ; from the Latfortzs, strong — akin to the Irish 
Longphorth (a fortress), and the French La Ferte", abridged 
from fermete' — v. p. 79 ; e.g. Rochefort (the rock fortress) ; 
Fort Augustus, named after the Duke of Cumberland ; Fort- 
George (after George II.) ; Fort- William, anc. Inverlochy 
(at the mouth of the lake), and surnamed after William 
III. ; Fortrose (the fortress on the promontory) ; Fort- 
Louis, in Upper Rhine, founded and named by Louis XIV. ; 
Charles-Fort, in Canada, named after Charles I. In Ireland 
the town of Longford is called in the annals Longphorth 
CFarrell (the fortress of the O'Farrells). This Irish word 
is sometimes corrupted, as in Lonart for Longphorth, and 
in Athlunkard for Athlongford (the ford of the fortress). 

FORUM (Lat.), a market-place or place of assembly ; e.g. Forli, 


anc. Forum-Livii (the forum of Livius), in Italy ; Feurs, in 
France, anc. Forum- Segusianorum (the forum of the 
Segusiani) ; Forlimpopoli (the forum of the people) ; Ferrara, 
anc. Forum- Alieni (the market-place of the foreigner) ; 
Fornova (new forum) ; Fossombrone, anc. Forum- Sem- 
fironii (of Sempronius) ; Frejus and Friuli, anc. Forum-Julii 
(of Julius) ; Frontignan, anc. Forum-Domitii (of Domitius), 
also called Frontiniacum (on the edge of the water) ; Voor- 
burg, in Holland, anc. Forum-Hadriani (the market-place 
of Hadrian); Klagenfurt, anc. Claudii- Forum (the forum 
of Claudius) ; Fordongianus, in Sardinia, anc. Forum- 
Trajani (the forum of Trajan) ; Forcassi, anc. Forum-Cassii 
(of Cassius) ; Fiora, anc. Forum- Aurelii (of Aurelius) ; 
Appii-Forum (of Appius) ; Marazion, in Cornwall, or Mar- 
ketjeu, Latinised by the Romans into Forum-Jovis (the 
forum of Jove or of God), resorted to in former times from 
its vicinity to the sacred shrine of St. Michael. 

FOSSE, a ditch or trench dug around a fortified place, from the 
Lat. fodio, to dig ; e.g. Fosseway (the road near the trench) ; 
Foston (the town with the trench or moat) ; Fosse, in 
Belgium ; Fos, at the mouths of the Rhone, anc. Fossce 
Mariana Partus (the port of the trench or canal of Marius). 

FRANK (Ger.), free, but in topography meaning belonging to the 
Franks ; e.g. Franconia (the district of the Franks) ; France, 
abridged from Frankreich (the kingdom of the Franks or 
freemen) ; Frankenthal (the valley of the Franks) ; Franken- 
berg and Frankenfels (the hill and rock of the Franks) ; 
Frankenburg and Frankenhausen (the dwellings of the 
Franks) ; Frankenstein (the rock of the Franks) ; Franken- 
markt (the market of the Franks) ; Ville-franche and Ville- 
franche sur Saone (free town), in France ; Villa-franca (free 
town), several in Italy ; Villa-franca (free town), in Spain. 

FREI, or frey (Ger.), a privileged place, as also/rezheit (freedom) ; 
e.g. Freyburg and Fribourg (the privileged city) ; Schloss- 
freiheit and Berg-freiheit (the privileged castle) ; Oude- 
Vrijheid (the old privileged place), in Holland ; Freystadt, 
in Hungary, Grk. Eleutheropolis (free city). 
«. ,_ „ „ ,, t . ( the ash-tree ; e.e-. Les Frenes, 

FRENE (Fr.), FRASSINO (It.), I ' g ash . trees N . 

FRESNO (Span.), FREIXO (Port), 1 £ eS * res " eS (t .f „ aSh Y^> • 
v * " \ " [ Frenois, Frenoit, Frenai, Fre- 


nay, Fresney (the place abounding in ash-trees), in France ; 
Frassinetto-di-Po (the ash-tree grove on the R. Po). 
FREUDE (Ger.), joy ; e.g. Freudenthal (the valley of joy) ; Freuden- 

stadt (the town of joy). 
FRIDE, a hedge, from the Old Ger. word wide — akin to the Gael. 
fridh, and the Welsh fridd (a wood) ; e.g. Burgfried (the 
hedge of the fortress) ; Friedberg, anc. Viiduperg (a fortress 
surrounded by a hedge) ; but Friedland, in East Prussia, 
Grk. Irenopyrgos (the tower of peace), is itomfriede, Ger. 
peace. The prefix fried is also sometimes a contraction for 
Frederick — thus Friedburg may mean Frederick's town. 
frith, or firth, the navigable estuary of a river, akin to fiord 
and the Lat. /return, a channel ; e.g. the Firths of Forth, 
Tay, and Clyde ; the Solway Firth. This word Solway has 
had various derivations assigned to it : one derivation is 
from the Selgova, a tribe ; Ferguson suggests the Old Norse 
word sulla, Eng. sully, from its turbid waters, particularly 
as it was called in Leland's Itinera Sulway. I would 
suggest the A. S. sol (mire), as this channel is a miry slough 
at low tide, and can be crossed on foot ; Pentland Firth, 
corrupt, from Petland Fiord (the bay between the land of 
the Picts and the Orkneys). 
frou, frau (Ger.), lord and lady ; e.g. Froustalla (the lord or 
nobleman's stall) ; Frousthorp (the nobleman's farm) ; Frau- 
brunnen (our lady's well) ; Frauenberg, Frauenburg, Frau- 

stadt (our lady's town) ; Frauenkirchen (our lady's church) ; 

Frauenfeld (our lady's field). 
ful (A.S.), dirty ; e.g. Fulbeck, Fulbrook (dirty stream) ; Fulneck 

or Fullanig (dirty water) ; Fulham or Fullenham (either 

the dwelling on the miry place or, according to another 

derivation, from fiigel, a bird). 
FURED (Hung.), a bath or watering-place ; e.g. Tisza-Fured (the 

watering-place on the R. Theis or Tisza) ; Balaton-Fured, 

on Lake Balaton. 
FURST (Ger.), a prince or the first in rank; e.g. Furstenau, 

Furstenberg, Furstenfeld, Furstenwald, Furstenwerder, 

Furstenzell (the meadow, hill, field, wood, island, church, 

of the prince) ; but Furstberg means the chief or highest 



GABEL (Teut 1 ( a fork ' a PP lied t0 river forks ; e S- 

v ■-" ._ ,, .. , < Gabelbach (the forked stream) ; 

Gabhal, or GOUL (Gadhehc), ) „ , „ , ,} . , „. ' ' 

' v ■" ( Gabelhof (the court or dwelling 

at the forked stream), in Germany. In Ireland : Goul, 

Gowel, and Gowl (the fork) ; Gola (forks) ; Addergoul, 

Addergoule, and Edargoule, Irish Eadar-dha-gkabhal (the 

place between two river-prongs) ; Goule, in Yorkshire (on 

the fork of two streams. 

GADEN (Ger.), a cottage ; e.g. Holzgaden (wood cottage) ; Stein- 
gaden (rock cottage). 

, p , . fan enclosure, a city, or fortified place, from 
' ''' j ktr, a wall ; e.g. Gades or Cadiz, anc. Gadr, 

' .„ , . \ in Spain ; Carthage, anc. Kartha-hadtha (the 
^ "" (new city, in opposition to Utica, the old); 
Carthagena (New Carthage) ; Kirjath-Arba (the city of 
Arba, afterwards Hebron) ; Kirjath-sepher (of the book) ; 
Kirjath-jearim (of forests) ; Kirjath-Baal (Baal's town) ; 
Kirjath-Sannah (of palms) ; Keriathaim (the double town) ; 
Kir-Moab (the citadel of Moab) ; Cordova, in Spain, 
Phcen. Kartha-Baal (which may mean the city of Baal). 

GAMA (Tamul), a village ; e.g. Alut-gama (new village), in Ceylon. 

GANG (Ger.), a narrow passage, either on land or by water; e.g. 
Birkengang (the birch-tree pass) ; Strassgang (a narrow 
street); Gangbach (the passage across the : brook) ; Gang- 
hofen (the dwelling at the ferry), on the R. Roth, in 

GANGA, or GUNGA (Sansc), a river; e.g. Borra Ganga or the 
Ganges (the great river) ; Kishenganga (the black river) ; 
Neelganga (the blue river) ; Naraingunga (the river of 
Naranyana or Vishnu) ; Ramgunga (Ram's river). 

GARBH (Gadhelic), ( r ° Ugh; e £ RiverS Gara ' Garry Garwe, 
GARW (Cym -Cel ) ) Garw y> Owengarve, Garonne, Garvault, 
\ -h y Yair, Yarrow (rough stream) ; Garracloon 

(rough meadow) ; Garroch head or Ard-Kingarth (the point 
of the rough headland), in Bute ; Garioch (the rough dis- 
trict), in Aberdeenshire. 
GARENNE, a word of Germanic or Celtic origin, from the Low 


Lat. warenna, and that from the High Ger. waran (to take 
precautions), had at first the sense of a protected or guarded 
place, and more lately of a wood to which was attached the 
exclusive right of the chase ; e.g. La Garenne, Garenne, 
Varenne, Varennes, Warennes, in various departments of 
GARIEF (South Africa), a river ; e.g. Ky-garief (yellow river) ; Nu- 
garief (black river). 

GARRDH (Gadhelic') ( a garden ; "■£• Garr y° wen (Owen's gar- 

„ „„„ /A /-in I den) ; Gairyard (high garden) ; Ballin- 

GARDD (Cym.-Cel.), ) ' ' , / \ X 1 \ r> 

K ' ' \ garry (the town of the garden) ; Garrane 

and Garrawn (the shrubbery); Garranbane (white shrubbery). 

GARTH (Welsh), a hill ; e.g. Tal-garth (the brow of the hill), in 

Brecknockshire ; Brecknock, named after Brychan, its 

king, who came from Ireland in the sixth century. Its 

ancient name was Garth-Madryn (the fox's hill). 

. „ „ ._ , , „ , . ( an enclosed place, either for 

garth, GART (Teut. and Scand.), I , , ,f, V r 

' ,„ ,> ,. . " I plants or cattle, then a farm. 

GARRAD (Gadhehc), < t • *■ r 1 ■ ^ 

„ „„„/,-. ' r. , » 1 It is sometimes found in the 

GARRD, GARZ (Cym.-Cel.), 1 , , . . T , , , 

x ' " ^ form of gort in Ireland and 

Scotland ; e.g. Garton (the enclosure or enclosed town) ; 
Applegarth (the apple enclosure or farm) ; Hogarth (an 
enclosure for hay) ; Weingarten (an enclosure for vines, or 
a vineyard) ; Stuttgart and Hestingaard (an enclosure for 
horses) ; Nornigard (the sibyl's dwelling, norn, a pro- 
phetess) ; Fishgarth or Fishguard (the fisher's farm), in 
Wales ; Noostigard (the farm at the naust or ship station) ; 
in Shetland ; Smiorgard (butter farm) ; Prestgard (the 
priest's farm) ; Yardley (the enclosed meadow) ; Yard- 
borough (the enclosed town) ; Gartan (little field) ; Gordon, 
a parish in Berwickshire, corrupt, from Goirtean (little 
farm) ; Gartbane and Gortban (fair field) ; Gartfarran (the 
farm at the fountain, fuarari) ; Gartbreck (spotted field) ; 
Gortnagclock (the field of the stones) ; Gortreagh (gray 
field) ; Gortenure (the field of the yew-tree) ; Oulart, in 
Ireland, corrupt, from Abhalghort (apple-field or orchard) ; 
Bugard (an enclosure for cattle), in Shetland ; Olligard (the 
farm or dwelling of Olaf ), in Shetland ; Girthon, corrupt, 
from Girthavon (the enclosure on the river), in Kirkcud- 
bright). On the other hand, Garda or Warda in French 


names signified originally a fortified or protected place, 
from an old Teutonic word warta; hence Gardere, Gardiere, 
La Garderie, La Garde, La Warde, etc. 

GATfScand'l ( an °P enin g or P assa S e ; e -g- the Cattegat' (the 
(A S \\ J cat ' s throat or passage) ; Margate (the sea-gate 
rk \ } or P a ssage), anc. Meregate, there having been 
(. ns -h ^formerly a mere or lake here which had its influx 
into the sea ; Ramsgate (the passage of Ruim, the ancient 
name of Thanet) ; Reigate, contraction from Ridgegate (the 
passage through the ridge) ; Yetholm (the valley at the 
passage or border between England and Scotland, yet, 
Scot, a gate) ; Harrowgate, probably the passage of the 
army, A.S. here, as it is situated near one of the great 
Roman roads ; Crossgates, a village in Fife (at the road 
crossings) ; Ludgate did not derive its name from a certain 
King Lud, according to popular tradition, but is an instance 
of tautology, there having been an ancient A.S. word Mid 
(a door), hence Geathlid (a postern gate) — v. bosworth. 
In India the word ghat is applied to a pass between hills 
or mountains, as in the Ghauts (the two converging mountain 
ranges) ; Sheergotta (the lion's pass), between Calcutta and 
Benares ; and Geragaut (the horse's pass), or to a passage 
across a river, as well as to the flights of steps leading from 
a river to the buildings on its banks. Thus Calcutta is 
Kalikuti (the ghauts or passes leading to the temple of the 
goddess Kali), on the R. Hoogly ; also Calicut, on the 
Malabar coast. 

GAU, govia (Ger.), a district ; e.g. Sundgau, Westgau, Nordgau 
(south, west, and north district) ; Aargau, Rheingau, Thur- 
gau (the districts watered by the Rivers Aar, Rhine, and 
Thur) ; Schoengau (beautiful district) ; Wonnegau (the 
district of delight) ; Hainault, Ger. Hennegau (the district of 
the R. Haine. and ault, the stream); Pinzgau (the district 
of rushes, binse), in Tyrol ; Oehringen or Oringowe (the 
district of the R. Ohr). 

GEBEL, or djebel (Ar.), a mountain; e.g. Gebel-Kattarin, in 
Sinai (St. Catharine's mountain), where, according to tradi- 
tion, the body of St. Catharine was transported from Alex- 
andria ; Djebel-Mousa (the mountain of Moses), in Horeb ; 
Djebel-Nimrod (of Nimrod), in Armenia ; Jebel-Khal (black 


mount), in Africa ; Gibraltar, Ar. Gebel-al-Tarik (the moun- 
tain of Tarik, a Moor, who erected a fort on the rock of 
Calpe, a.d. 711); Jebel-Libnan or Lebanon (the white 
mountain), supposed to be so called because covered with 
snow during a great part of the year ; Gebel-Oomar (the 
mountain of Omar) ; Gibel-el-Faro (the mountain with the 
lighthouse), near Malaga ; Djebel-es-Sheikh (the mount of 
the sheik or shah, i.e. of the king), the Arabian name for 
Mount Hermon — v. index. 

GEESTE (Ger.), barren land ; e.g. Gaste, Geist, Geeste (the barren 
land) ; Geestefeld (barren field) ; Holzengeist (the barren 
land in the wood) ; Nordergast, Middelgast (the northern 
and middle barren land). 

GEISE (Ger.), a goat ; e.g. Geisa and Geisbach (the goat's stream) ; 
Geismar (rich in goats) ; Geiselhoring, Geisenhausen, Geisen- 
heim (the goat's dwelling) ; Geisberg (goat's hill). 

GEMENDE (Ger.), a common ; e.g. Gmeind (the common) ; Peters- 
gemeinde (Peter's common) ; Gemeindmuhle (the mill on 
the common). 

GEMUND (Ger.), a river-mouth or a confluence ; e.g. Neckarge- 
mund (at the mouth of the R. Neckar) ; Saaregemund (at 
the conf. of the R. Saare and the Belise) ; Gmund, in Wur- 
temberg (at the conf. of the two streams) ; Gemund and 
Gemunden, in various parts of Germany. In Holland this 
word takes the form oimonde, as in Roermonde and Dender- 
monde (at the mouths of the Roer and Dender) ; Emden, 
in Hanover, is a corrupt, of Emsmiinder (at the conf. of the 
Ems and a small stream). 

GEN, an abbreviated form of magen or megen, the Teutonic form 
for the Cel. magh (a field) — qu. v.j e.g. Remagen or Rhem- 
maghen (the field on the Rhine) ; Nimeguen, for Novio- 
magus (the new field) ; Schleusingen (the field or plain of 
the R. Schleuse) ; Munchingen (the field of the monks) ; 
Beverungen, on the R. Bever ; Meiningen (the great field 
or plain), in the valley of the R. Wara. 

GEN, GENAU (Cel.), a mouth or opening ; e.g. Llanfihangel- 
genaur'-glyn (the church of the angel at the mouth of the 
glen), in Wales ; Genappe and Gennep (the mouth of the 
water, abh) ; Geneva (either the opening or mouth of the 
water, or the head, ceann, of the water, where the Rhone 


proceeds from the lake) ; Genoa, probably with the same 
meaning ; Ghent or Gend, at the conf. of the Scheldt and 
Lys, may also mean • at the mouth of the rivers, although, 
according to tradition, it acquired its name from a tribe of 
Vandals, the Gandani, and was called in the ninth century 
Gandavum-vicum, from the name of its inhabitants. 

gent, in French topography, beautiful ; e.g. Gentilly, anc. Gen- 
tiliacum (the place of beautiful waters), on the Bievre— 
v. OEUIL ; Nogent (beautiful meadow). 

GERICHT (Ger.), a court of justice ; e.g. Gerichtsbergen (the hill 
of the court of justice) ; Gerichtstetten (the station of the 
court of justice). 

GHAR (Ar.), a cave ; e.g. Garbo (the cave), in Malta ; Trafalgar, 
i.e. Taraf-al-gar (the promontory of the cave). 

GHAR, ghur, or GORE (Sansc), (* f rt f ; ff- AfcMdnaghar (the 

NAGAR a city \ f ° rt ° f Ahmed ) > Ramghur (of 

' ( Ram); Kishenagur (of Krishna); 

Furracknagur (of Furrack) ; Moradnagur (of Morad) ; 
Jehanagur (of Jehan) ; Allighur (of Allah or of God) ; Bis- 
naghur (triumphant fort) ; Futtegur (fort of victory) ; Deo- 
ghur (God's fort) ; Neelgur (blue fort) ; Seringagur (the 
fort of abundance) ; Chandernagore (the fort of the moon) ; 
Haidernagur (of Hyder Ali) ; Bissengur (the fort of Vishnu) ; 
Chunarghur (the fort of the district of Chunar). 

GHARI, or GHERRY (Sansc), a mountain ; e.g. Ghaur, a mountainous 
district in Afghanistan ; Boughir (the woody mountain) ; 
Kistnagherry (Krishna's mountain) ; Rutnagiri (the mountain 
of rubies) ; Chandgherry (of the moon) ; Shevagherry (of 
Siva) ; Neilgherries (the blue mountains) ; Dhawalageri (the 
white mountain), being the highest peak of the Himalayas. 

gill, gja (Scand.), a ravine ; e.g. Buttergill, Horisgill, Ormsgill, 
Thorsgill, etc. (ravines in the Lake District named after 
Norse leaders) ; Hramgia (the ravens' ravine, or of Hrafan, 
a Norse leader) ; Almanna-gja (Allman's ravine), in Ice- 
land. The Hebrew gae (a ravine) answers in meaning to 
this word, as in Ge-Hinnom (the ravine of the children of 
Hinnom), corrupt, to Gehenna. This word, in the form of 
goe, is applied to a small bay, i.e. a ravine which admits 
the sea, as in Redgoe, Ravengoe, in the north of Scotland. 

GLAISE (Gadhelic), a small stream ; e.g. Glasaboy (the yellow 


stream) ; Tullyglush (hill stream) ; Glasheena (abounding 
in small streams) ; Douglas, i.e. Dubhglaise (the black 
stream), frequent in Ireland and Scotland ; Douglas, in the 
Isle of Man, is on the R. Douglas ; also the name of a 
parish and village in Lanarkshire, from which the Douglas 
family derive their name. Glasheenaulin (the beautiful 
little stream), in Co. Cork ; Ardglashin (the height of the 
rivulet), in Cavan. 

GLAN (Cym.-Cel.), a shore, a brink, a side ; e.g. Glan-yr-afon, 
Welsh (the river side). 

GLAS (Cel.), gray, blue, or green; e.g. Glasalt (gray stream); 
Glascloon (green meadow) ; Glasdrummond (green ridge) ; 
Glaslough (green lake) ; Glasmullagh (green summit), in 
Ireland ; Glass, a parish in Scotland. In Wales : Glascoed 
(greenwood) ; Glascombe (green hollow). Glasgow is said 
by James, the author of Welsh Names of Places, to be a 
corrupt, of Glas-coed. 

.„ „ .. . fa small valley, often named from 

GLEANN (Gadhehc) J the rive r which flows through it ; 

GLYNandGLANN(Cym.-Cel.), < ? Glen . fender> G i en .fi nnan , 

GLEN (A. b.), (Glen-tilt, Glen-shee, Glen-esk, 

Glen-bervie, Glen-bucket, Glen-livet, Glen-lyon, Glen-almond, 
Glen-dochart, Glen-luce, Glen-isla, Glen-ary, Glen-coe, Glen- 
devon (valleys in Scotland watered by the Rivers Fender, 
Finnan, Tilt, Shee, Esk, Bervie, Bucket, Livet, Lyon, 
Almond, Dochart, Luce, Isla, Aray, Cona, Devon). In 
Ireland : Glennagross (the valley of the crosses) ; Glen- 
mullion (of the mill) ; Glendine and Glandine and Glen- 
dowan, Irish Gleann-doimhin (the deep valley) — sometimes 
it takes the form of glan or glyn, as in Glin on the 
Shannon, and Glynn in Antrim ; Glennan, Glenann, Glen- 
tane, Glenlaun, etc. (little valley). When this word occurs 
at the end of names in Ireland the g is sometimes sup- 
pressed; e.g. Leiglin,in Carlow, anc. Leith-ghlionn (half glen) ; 
Crumlin, Cromlin, and Crimlin (the winding glen) ; Glencross 
or Glencorse, in the Pentlands, named from a remarkable 
cross which once stood there ; Glenelg (the valley of hunt- 
ing or of the roe) ; Glengarnock (of the rough hillock) ; 
Glencroe (of the sheepfold) ; Glenmore or Glenmore-nan- 
Albin (the great glen of Scotland which divides the High- 


lands into two nearly equal parts) ; Glenmoreston (the 
valley of the great cascade, i.e. of Foyers) ; Glenbeg (little 
valley) ; Glenburnie (of the little stream) ; Glenmuick 
(the boars' valley) ; Glenure (of the yew) ; Glenfinlas (of 
the clear stream) ; Glengariff (rough glen) ; Glendalough, 
Co. Wicklow, is in Irish Gleann-da-locha (the glen of the 
two lakes) ; Glennamaddy (of the dogs, madadh) ; Glinties 
(the glens), Co. Donegal ; Forglen, a parish in Banffshire 
(the cold or the grassy glen). In Wales, Glyn-Nedd (of the 
R. Nedd). 

GLEIZ (Old Ger.), shining; e.g. Glisbach (shining brook) ; Gleis- 
berg (shining hill) ; Gleesdorf, Gleesweiler (shining dwelling). 

GLINA (Sclav.), clay ; e.g. Glinzig, Glindow, Glintock, Glianicke, 
Glinow (names of places near clay pits) ; Glina (the clayey 

GLOG (Sclav.), the white thorn ; e.g. Glogau, Gross, and Upper 
Glogau, in Silesia (places abounding in white thorn) ; 
Glognitz, with the same meaning. 

GNADE (Ger.), grace ; e.g. Gnadenhiitten (the tabernacles of grace), 
a Moravian settlement on the Ohio ; Gnadenthal (the valley 
of grace), in Africa ; Gnadenburg and Gnadenfeld (the 
city and field of grace). 

GOBHA (Gadhelic), a blacksmith — in topography Gow or Gowan; 
e.g. Ardgowan (the blacksmith's height) ; Balgowan, Balna- 
gowan, Balgownie, Balgonie, in Scotland, and Ballygow, 
Ballygowan, Ballingown, Ballynagown, in Ireland (the 
dwelling of the blacksmith) ; Athgoe (the blacksmith's ford). 
In early times the blacksmith was regarded as an important 
personage, being the manufacturer of weapons of war, and 
the ancient Irish, like other nations, had their smith god, 
Goban, hence the frequent use of the word in their topo- 

GOLA, or gala (Sclav.), a wood ; e.g. Golschow, Goltzen, Golkojye 
or Kolkwitz, and Gahlen (the woody place) ; Galinchen 
(the little Gahlen, i.e. a colony from that town) ; Kallinichen, 
i.e. the colony from Gallun (the woody place) ; Gollnow, in 
Pomerania, from this root ; but Gollnitz, near Finsterwalde, 
is corrupt. ixom.Jelen.ze (stag town), from jelen. 

GOLB, GULB (Sclav.), the dove ; e.g. Gulbin, Golbitten, Golembin, 



Golembecks, Golembki (dove town) ; Gollombken, in 
Prussia, Ger. Taubendorf (dove town). 

GORA (Sclav.), ( a mounta | n °f h" 1 .; *f Goritz, Ger. G*& (the 

V) fi./ { town on the hill), in Hungary, in a province of 
P ^ ( the same name ; Gorlitz (behind the hill), called 

also Sgoretzj Gorigk, Ger. Bergheide (hilly heath) ; Gor- 
gast (hill inn), gosta corrupt, into gast; Podgorze, Pod- 
gorach, Podgoriza, Poschgorize (near the hill). This word 
sometimes takes the form of kora, as in Zahora, in Turkey 
(behind the hill) ; Czernahora (the black hill). 

GORT (Gadhelic), a field, cognate with the Lat. hortus and Span. 
huerta, and the Teut. garth — v. p. 87 ; eg. Huerta-del- 
rey (the king's orchard), in Spain. 

GRAB (Sclav.), the red beech ; e.g. Grabkow, Grabitz, Grabig, 
Grabow (the place of red beeches) ; Grabin, Ger. Finster- 
walde (the place of red beeches or the dark wood). 

prabfn (Ger -\ { a grave or trench > from graben, grafan 

GRAB GRAEP (A S) { < t0 di *) ; e S- Miihlgraben (the mill 
' ( trench or dam) ; Vloedgraben (the trench 

for the flood) ; Schutzgraben (the moat of the defence) ; 
Grafton and Graffham (the moated town) ; Gravesend (the 
town at the end of the moat) ; Bischofsgraef (the bishop's 
trench). In Ireland the prefix graf is applied to lands 
that have been grubbed up with a kind of axe called a 
grafan — hence such names as Graffan, Graffin, Graffee, 

GRAF, graaf (Teut. and Scand.), a count or earl ; e.g. Graffenau, 
Graffenberg, Grafenschlag, Grafenstein (the meadow, hill, 
wood-clearing, and rock of the count) ; Grafenworth and 
Grafenhain (the count's enclosure or farm) ; Grafenthal (the 
count's valley) ; Grafenbriick (the count's bridge) ; Grafen- 
miihle (the count's mill) ; Gravelines, in Flanders, anc. 
Graveninghem (the count's domain). In Sclavonic names, 
Grabik, Grabink, Grobitz, Hrabowa, Hrabaschin (the 
count's town) ; Grobinow (count's town), Germanised into 

GRANGE (Fr. and Scot.), a farm or storehouse for grain, from the 
Lat. granaria, cognate with the Gadhelic grainnseach, Low 
Lat. grangia; e.g. Grange, a parish and village in Banff- 
shire ; Les Granges (the granaries); La Neuve Grange 


(the new farm), in France ; La Granja, in Spain ; Grange- 
geeth (the windy farm), in Ireland. From the same root 
such names in Ireland as Granagh, Granaghan (places 
producing grain). 

.„ . ( the boundary or corner ; e.g. Grenzhausen (the 

GRENZE (Ger), dwelHngs on the boundary); Banai-Militar 

GRAN (bclav.), J Granze ( the border territory under the govern- 
ment of a military officer called The Ban) ; Gransee (the 
corner lake) ; Graniz, Granowo (boundary towns), in 
Hungary ; Gran, a town in Hungary, in a province of the 
same name through which the R. Gran flows. 

GRIAN (Gadhelic), the sun ; e.g. Greenock, either from grianach 
(sunny) or the knoll, cnoc (of the sun) ; Greenan, Greenane, 
Greenawn, and Grennan (literally, a sunny spot), trans- 
lated by the Irish Latin-writers solarium; but as it occurs 
in topographical names in Ireland, it is used as another 
name for a royal palace ; Grenanstown, in Co. Tipperary, is 
a sort of translation of its ancient name Baile-an-ghrianain 
(the town of the palace) ; Greenan-Ely (the palace of the 
circular stone fortress, aileach) ; Tullagreen (the hill of the 
sun) ; Monagreany (sunny bog). 

GRIES (Ger.), sand or gravel ; e.g. Griesbach (sandy brook) ; 
Griesau, Griesthal (sandy valley) ; Grieshaim (sandy dwell- 
ing) ; Grieswang (sandy field) ; Griesberg (sand hill) ; 
Grieskirchen (the church on the sandy land). Gresshis and 
Gresum in bos Lat. have the same meaning, and have 
given names to such places in France as Les Gres, Greses, 
Les Gresillons, La Gresse'e, La Grezille, etc. 

.„ , . (a fortified town ; e.g. Belgrade 

GR ADmTrc? ° RAD \ and Belg0r ° d (whke f ° rtreSS); 

* '" ( Ekateringrad and Elizabethgrad 

(the fortified town of the Empress Catharine and Elizabeth) ; 

Zaregorod (the fortress of the Czar or Emperor) ; Novgorod 

(new fortress) ; Paulograd and Ivanograd (the fortress of 

Paul or Ivan, i.e. John) ; Gratz, Gradiska, Gradizsk, 

Gradentz, Grodek, Grodno, Grodzizk (the fortified towns), 

in Poland and Russia ; Hradeck and Hradisch, with the 

same meaning, in Bohemia. 

GRODEN (Frisian), land reclaimed from the sea ; e.g. Moor- 

groden, Ostergroden, Salzgroden, places in Holland. 


GRON, GROEN, GRUN (Teut. and Scand.), green ; e.g. Groenloo, 
Gronau (the green meadow) ; Grunavoe (green bay) ; 
Grunataing (green promontory) ; Grunaster (green dwell- 
ing), in Shetland ; Greenland, translated from Terra-verde, 
the name given to the country by Cortoreal in 1500, but it 
had been discovered by an Icelander (Lief, son of Eric the 
red), in the ninth century, and named by him Hvitsaerk ^ 
(white shirt), probably because covered with snow ; Green- 
wich, A.S. Grenavie, Lat. viridus-vicus (green town). 

GRUND (Ger.), a valley ; e.g. Amsel-grund, Itygrund (the. valleys 
of the Rivers Amsel and Ity) ; Riesengrund (the giant's 
valley) ; Laucha-grund (the valley of the R. Laucha), in 

GUADA, the name given to the rivers in Spain by the Moors, from 
the Arabic wddy (the dried-up bed of a river) ; e.g. Guada- 
laviar, i.e. Ar. Wadi-l-abyadh (the white river) ; Guadalete 
(the small river) ; Guadalimar (red river) ; Guadarama 
(sandy river) ; Guadalertin (the muddy river) ; Guadaloupe 
(the river of the bay, upT) ; Guadiana (the river of joy), 
called by the Greeks Chrysus (the golden) ; Guadalquivir, 
i.e. Wad-al-kebir (the great river) ; Guaalcazar (of the 
palace) ; Guadalhorra (of the cave, ghar) ; Guadalbanar 
(of the battlefield) ; Guadaira (of the mills). 

GU^ (Fr.), a ford, perhaps from the Celtic gwy, water ; e.g. Gue"- 
du-Loire (the ford of the Loire) ; Gue'-de-l'Isle (of the 
island) ; Le Gu^-aux-biches (of the hinds) ; Bone", formerly 
BonuTn-vadum, Lat. (the good ford), in France ; Bungay, 
in Suffolk, on the R. Waveney, corrupt, from Bon-gue" (good 

GUISA (Old Ger.), to gush, found in river names ; e.g. Buachgieso 
(the bending stream) ; Goldgieso (golden stream) ; Wisgoz 
(the white stream). 

GUNGE (Sansc), a market-town ; e.g. Saibgunge (the market-town 
of the Englishmen) ; Futtegunge (the town of victory) ; 
Sultangunge (of the Sultan) ; Shevagunge (of Siva) ; 
Jaffiergunge (of Jaffier). 

GUT, GOED (Ger,), a property ; e.g. Schlossgut (the property of 
the castle) ; Wustegut (the property in the waste land) ; 
but this word, used as a prefix, denotes good, as in Gutten- 


berg, Guttenbrun, Guttenstein (the good hill, well, and 

GWEN (Cym.-Cel.), fair, white, cognate with the Gadhelic fionn; 
e.g. Gwenap (the fair slope) ; Gwendur and Derwent (the 
fair water) ; Berwyn (the fair boundary) ; Corwen (the fair 
choir) ; Ventnor (the fair shore) ; Guinty or Guindy (the 
fair or white dwelling), common in Wales. Gwent, Latin- 
ised Venta, meant a fair open plain, and was applied to the 
counties of Monmouth, Gloucester, and Hereford, and 
Hampshire, as well as to the coast of Brittany : thus Win- 
chester was formerly Caer-gwent (the fortress of the fair 
plain), Latinised Venta-Belgorum (the plain of the Belgians). 
There was a gwent also in Norfolk, Latinised Venta-Icen- 
orum (the plain of the Iceni). This root-word may be the 
derivation of Vannes and La Vendee, in Normandy, if not 
from the Veneti — v. FEN. 

gwent (Welsh), a fair or open region, a campaign. It is a name 
now confined to nearly all Monmouthshire, but which 
anciently comprehended also parts of the counties of 
Gloucester and Hereford, being a district where Caer-wenl 
or the Venta-Silurum of the Romans was the capital ; 
Corwen (the blessed choir or church) ; Yr Eglwys-Wen 
(the blessed choir or church) ; Wenvoe, in Glamorgan, 
corrupt, from Gwenvai (the happy land). 

GWERN (Cym.-Cel.), the alder-tree, also a swamp; e.g. Coed- 
gwern (alder-tree wood). 

GWY, or wy (Cym.-Cel.), water; e.g. the Rivers Wye, the Elwy 
(gliding water) ; Llugwy (clear water) ; Mynewy (small 
water) ; Leveny (smooth water) ; Garway (rough water) ; 
Conway (the chief or head water, cyii) ; Gwydir, i.e. Gwy-tir 
(water land), the ancient name of Glastonbury ; Gwynedd 
(water glen), an ancient region in North Wales. 

GWYRDD (Welsh), green, verdant ; e.g. Gwyrdd-y-coed (the winter 


HAAR (Teut), an eminence ; e.g. Haarlem (the eminence on the 
clayey soil, leein). 


hafen, havn (Teut. and Scand.), ( a har N b ° Ur ' fr °™ h f <*£ 
hofen, hamm J ° cea ") 5 «*■ Fnsche - haff 

HAVRE (Fr.), Y tTl" ,1^1 \ 

v " ^lsche-haff (the harbour of 

the Cures, a tribe) ; Ludwig's-hafen (the harbour of Louis) ; 
Charles's -haven, Frederick's -haven (named after their 
founders) ; Delfshaven (the canal harbour) ; Vilshaven (the 
harbour at the mouth of the R. Vils) ; Thorshaven (the 
harbour of Thor) ; Heiligenhaven (holy harbour) ; Hamburg 
(the town of the harbour), formerly Hochburi (high town) ; 
Soderhamm (the south harbour) ; Osterhafen (east har- 
bour) ; Ryehaven, in Sussex (the harbour on the bank, 
rive) ; Milford-haven (the harbour of Milford), the modern 
name of the Cel. Aber-du-gledian (the confluence of the two 
swords), a word applied to streams by the ancient Britons ; 
Whitehaven, in Cumberland, according to Camden named 
from its white cliffs ; Stonehaven (the harbour of the rock), 
in allusion to the projecting rock which shelters the har- 
bour ; Newhaven, Co. Sussex, in allusion to the new 
harbour made in 17 13 — its former name was Meeching; 
Newhaven, Co. Edinburgh, named in contradistinction 
from the old harbour at Leith. 

HAG, hagen (Teut. and Scand.), I an ""^^ "ff Y * ^T 

HAIGH, hay, hain, \ s ™nded by a hedge, cognate 

( with the Celtic cae ; e.g. Hagen, 
in Germany, and La Haye, Les Hayes, and Hawes (the en- 
closures), in France, Belgium, and England ; Hagenbach 
(the hedged-in brook) ; Hagenbrunn (the enclosed well) ; 
Hagueneau (the enclosed meadow), a town in Germany ; 
Fotheringay (probably originally an enclosure for fodder or 
fother) ; The Hague, Ger. Gravenhage (the duke's en- 
closure, originally a hunting-seat of the Princes of Orange) ; 
Hain-Grossen (the great enclosure) ; Jacob's-hagen (James's 
enclosure), in Pomerania ; Urishay (the enclosure of Uris), 
in Hereford ; Haigh and Haywood (the enclosed wood), in 

HAGO, hegy (Hung.), a hill ; e.g. Kiraly-hago (the king's hill) ; 
Szarhegy (the emperor's hill). 

hai (Chinese), the sea ; e.g. Hoanghai (the yellow sea) ; Nankai 
(the southern sea). 



HAIDE, or HEIDE (Teut.), a heath or wild wood ; e.g. Falkenheid 
(the falcon's wood) ; Birchenheide (the birch - wood) ; 
Hohenheid and Hochheyd (high heath) ; Hatfield, Hadleigh, 
Hatherley, and Hatherleigh (the heathy field or meadow) ; 
Hadlow (heath hill) ; Haidecke (heath corner) ; Heyde- 
capelle (the chapel on the heath), in Holland. 

HAIN (Ger.), a grove or thicket ; e.g. Wildenhain (the wild beasts' 
thicket) ; Wilhelmshain (William's grove or thicket) ; Lan- 
genhain (long thicket) ; Grossenhain (the thick grove). 

halde (Ger.), a declivity, cognate with hald, Scand. (a rock) ; e.g. 
Leimhalde (clayey declivity) ; Frederick's-hald, in Norway, 
so named by Frederick III. in 1665. Its old name was 
simply Halden (on the declivity). 

hatt attt ^T t\ { a stone nouse ) a palace ; e.g. Eccleshall 
',. c\ \ (church house), in Staffordshire, where 

^ ' ''' ( the Bishops of Lichfield had a palace ; 

Coggeshall, in Essex (Gwgan's mansion) ; Kenninghall 
(the king's palace), in Norfolk, at one time the residence of 
the princes of East Anglia. 

hall and Halle, in German topography, is a general name for a 
place where salt is manufactured. The word has its root 
in the Cym.-Cel. halen (salt), cognate with the Gadhelic 
salen and the Teut. salz, probably from the Grk. hals (the 
sea). Hall and Halle, as town names, are found in con- 
nection with Salz; as in Hall in Upper Austria, near the 
Salzberg (a hill with salt mines), and Hall, near the salt 
mines in the Tyrol ; Halle, in Prussian Saxony, on the R. 
Saale ; Reichenhall (rich salt-work), in Bavaria ; Hallein, 
celebrated for its salt-works and baths, on the Salza ; 
Hallstadt, also noted for its salt-works ; Hall, in Wurtem- 
berg, near salt springs ; Halton, in Cheshire, probably 
takes its name from the salt mines and works in the neigh- 
bourhood ; Penardhalawig (the headland of the salt marsh) 
was the ancient name of Hawarden, in Flint and Cheshire ; 
Halys and Halycus (salt streams), in Galatia and Sicily. 

ham, heim (Teut. and Scand.), j * ho ™ e or , family residence, 

hjem, heim ^^y * p lac ; of shelter > from 

( heimen, Ger. (to cover), hama, 

A.S. (a covering), cognate with the Grk. heimaj e.g. Hamp- 

stead and Hampton (the home place) ; Okehampton (the 

HAM 99 

dwelling on the R. Oke), in Devonshire ; Oakham (oak 
dwelling), so called from the numerous oaks that used to 
grow in its vicinity ; Buckingham (the home of the Buc- 
cingus or dwellers among beech - trees) ; Birmingham, 
probably a patronymic from the Boerings ; Addlingham 
and Edlingham (the home of the Athelings or nobles) ; 
Horsham (Horsa's dwelling) ; Clapham (Clapa's home) ; 
Epsom, anc. Thermce- Ebb e sham (the warm springs of 
Ebba, a Saxon queen) ; Flitcham (Felex's home) ; Blen- 
heim, Ger. Blindhei?n (dull home), in Bavaria ; Notting- 
ham, AS. Snotengaham (the dwelling near caves) ; Shore- 
ham (the dwelling on the coast) ; Waltham (the dwelling 
near a wood) ; Framlingham (the dwelling of the strangers), 
from the A.S. ; Grantham (Granta's dwelling) ; Ightham 
(the parish with eight villages), in Kent ; Wrexham, 
anc. Writtlesham (the town of wreaths), A.S. wreoth; 
Ingelheim (the dwelling of the Angli) ; Ingersheim (of 
Ingra) ; Oppenheim (of Uppo) ; Rodelheim (of Rodolph) ; 
Southampton (the south dwelling, in distinction from North- 
ampton) ; Twickenham (the dwelling between the streams, 
where the Thames seems to be divided into two streams) ; 
Rotherham, anc. Cel. Yr odre (the boundary), Lat. Ad-fines 
(on the boundary) ; Wolverhampton (the dwelling endowed 
by the Lady Wulfrana in the tenth century) ; Godmanham, 
in Yorkshire (the holy man's dwelling), the site of an idol 
temple, destroyed under the preaching of Paulinus, whose 
name it bears. This root-word is often joined to the name 
of a river, thus — Coleham, Coverham, Debenham, Hexham 
or Hestildisham, Jaxtham, Lenham, Trentham, Tynningham 
(i.e. towns or villages on the Rivers Colne, Cover, Deben, 
Hestild, Jaxt, Len, Trent, Tyne) ; Cheltenham, on the Chelt ; 
Oxnam, Co. Roxburgh, formerly Oxenham (a place of shelter 
for oxen) ; Hameln, on the R. Hamel, in Hanover ; Dron- 
theim or Trondjeim (throne dwelling) ; Kaiserheim (the 
emperor's dwelling) ; Heidelsheim (the dwelling of Haidulf ), 
in Bavaria ; Hildesheim, probably the dwelling near the 
field of battle, Old Ger. hilti (a battle) ; Mannheim (the 
dwelling of men), as contrasted with Asheim or Asgarth 
(the dwelling of the gods), in Baden ; Hildersham, in 
Yorkshire, anc. Hildericsham (the dwelling of Childeric). 


Ham is often contracted into om, um, en, or am, etc. — as 
in Dokum (the town of the port or dock), in Holland ; 
Nehon, in Normandy, corrupt, from Nigel's home ; Angeln 
(the dwelling of the Angli) ; Oppeln, in Silesia (the dwelling 
of Oppo) ; Edrom, in Berwickshire, corrupt, from Adderham 
(the dwelling on the R. Adder) ; Ednam, on the Eden, in 
Roxburghshire ; Hitchen, on the Hiz or Hitche, in Herts ; 
Fulham, anc. Fullenham (the home of birds), A.S. fugil; 
Hownam (the dwelling of Howen or Owen), in Roxburgh- 
shire. In Flanders ham or heim often takes the forms oteim, 
em, etc., as in Killim (the dwelling of Kilian) ; Ledringhem 
(of Ledro) ; Hem (of Hugnes) ; Pitgain (of the well) ; 
Wolsen, for Wolfsheim ; Bohemia (the home of the Boii) ; 
Dahlen (valley dwelling) ; Wolsen (Wolfa's dwelling). 

hamman (Ar. and Turc), J^ T^'' ^ f H ^ mma "-^ ousa 

HAMMAH \ < the hot s P nn S s of Moses) ; Ham- 

'■■'■> ^ man-Pharoon (of Pharaoh) ; Ham- 

mah-de-Cabes (the warm baths of Cabes), in North Africa ; 

Alhama (the town of the warm baths), the name of several 

places in Spain. 

hammer (Scand.) This word sometimes signifies a village or 
small town, and sometimes a rock ; e.g. Lillehammer (the 
little town) ; Oesthammer (east village) ; Hamr (a steep 
place), in Shetland ; Hammerfeste, in the island of Qualoe, 
probably means the rock fortress, faestung. In German 
topography it is generally connected with the blacksmith's 
hammer, and is common in localities where metals are 
worked, thus — Hammersmeide (hammer -smithy) ; Silber- 
hammer (a place where silver is wrought), near Dantzic. 
Kemble also suspects a reference to Thor's hammer in the 
names of some towns or villages in England ; e.g. Hamerton, 
in Huntingdon, and also in Middlesex ; Hammerwich, in 
Staffordshire ; Hamerton-kirk, in Yorkshire. 

HANG (Ger.), a declivity, from hdngen (to hang), A.S. hongian; 
e.g. Hangenheim (the dwelling on the declivity) ; Panns- 
hanger (Penn's slope), in Herts ; Clehonger (clayey slope), 

HAR, haer (Teut), the army ; e.g. Harwich (army town or bay), 
in Essex, so called because the Danes had a great military 
depot at this place ; Herstal, in Belgium, anc. Hari-stelle 


(army place) ; Hargrave (the army entrenchment), in Nor- 
folk ; Harbottle (the army's quarters), in Northumberland. 
In Edmond's Names of Places this prefix, as well as hor, is 
referred to an A. S. word signifying hoary ; under which he 
places Harborough, in Leicestershire, the name of which is 
traced by Bailey to havre (oats). 

._ . ( brushwood or a wood ; e.g. the Harz 
' / A e \ \ Mountains, with the town of Harzburg 

^ " "■" ( (the fortress in the wood) ; Harsefeld 

(woody field), in Hanover ; Hurst, in Kent ; Deerhurst 
(deer wood or thicket) ; Hurst- Monceaux (the wood of 
Monceaux, probably a Norman baron), in Sussex ; Hurst, 
a town in Lancashire ; Lyndhurst (the wood of lime-trees) ; 
Midhurst (in the middle of the wood) ; Hawkhurst (hawk 
wood) ; Gravenhorst (the count's wood) ; Horstmar (rich 
in wood) — v. MAR; Billing's-hurst (the wood of the Billings), 
a patronymic ; Farnhurst and Ferneyhurst (ferny wood) ; 
Sendenhorst (the rushy wood), in Westphalia ; Herzovia or 
Herzegovia (a woody district), in Turkey ; Murrhard, in 
Wurtemberg, means the wood on the R. Muhr ; Delmen- 
horst, on the Delme, in Hanover. Hart, in English topo- 
graphy, however, refers more commonly to heort (the hart), 
as in Haxtgrove, Yiaxtland, Hartley, Haxtfield, Hartsford, 
Hartshill. It occasionally takes the form of chart, as in 
Seal-chart (holy wood); Chart- Sutton (the wood at the 
south town). i 

hasel, haezel (Teut.), the hazel-tree ; e.g. Hessle (the place of 
hazels) ; Haselbum and Haselbrunnen (the stream and 
well of the hazels) ; Haslau (hazel meadow) ; Heslington 
(the dwelling among hazels) ; Hasselt, in Belgium, i.e. 
Hasselholt, Lat. Hasseletum (hazel grove) ; Hasseloe (hazel 
island), in Sweden and Denmark ; Hazeldean and Hasling- 
den (the hollow of the hazels). 

HATCH, HjECA (A.S.), a bolt, a gate, hence an enclosed dwelling; 
e.g. Hatch- Beauchamp (the enclosed dwelling of Beau- 
champ, a personal name) ; Colney-Hatch (of Colney) ; West- 
Hatch, in Somerset ; Pilgrim's Hatch, in Essex. 

( In Scotland these words generally denote a 

HAUGH, HEUGH, I low4ymg m eadow between hills or on the 

HOW, HOPE. | banks Qf a stream _ as in Hobkirk (i.e. the 


church in the hope or meadow) ; Howwood (the wood in the 
hollow) ; Hutton, for How\.ot\ (the dwelling in the hollow), 
parishes in Scotland. In England how and haugh come 
more frequently from the Scand. haugr (a heap or mound 
often raised over a grave, like the cairns in Scotland), — as in 
Silver-how, Butterlip-how, in the Lake District, probably 
from mounds over some Norse leader's grave ; Haugh, in 
Lincoln ; Haugham (the dwelling near the mound) ; How- 
den, in Yorkshire (the valley of the Jiaugr or mound) ; 
Haughley (the meadow near the mound). La Hogue, in 
France, is from haugr or from the houg, as also Les Hogues 
and La Hoguette (the little mound) ; Gretna Green is the 
modern name for Gretan-how (the great hollow). Haugr 
also means a temple or high place, fenced off and hallowed, 
among the Scandinavians ; and to this word so derived 
Dasent traces Harrow-on-the-hill and Harrowby. 

haupt (Gerl ( a head ' a P romontor y; e -S- Howth Head, in 
\„ '", , J Ireland, from the Danish hofed — its Irish 

/a o \ \ name is Ben Edair (the hill of Edar) ; Brun- 
HEAFOD (A.S.), { houU ( the weU head ) . Berghaupt ( hiU head ) . 

Ruckshoft (ridge head), in Germany ; Hoft (the headland), 
in the island of Rugen ; Sneehatten (snowy head), in Nor- 
way ; Hoddam (holm head), in Dumfriesshire. 
,„ . (a. dwelling, allied to casa, Lat, It., Span., and 

HUUS (Scand ) ) P ° rt ' e ' g ' MUhlhausen ( at the mil1 h °use) ; 
(W \ I Saxenhausen (the dwelling of the Saxons) ; 
* °''' ^Wendenhausen (of the Wends) ; Schaffhausen 
(the ship station), which consisted originally of a few store- 
houses on the banks of the Rhine for the reception of mer- 
chandise ; Dunkelhauser (the dark house) ; Aarhuus (the 
town on the watercourse), a seaport in Denmark ; Aggers- 
huus, in Norway, on the R. Agger. This district and 
river seems to have been named from an agger or rampart 
erected near Christiania in 1302, on the Aggerfiord. Ward- 
huus (the dwelling in the island of the watch-tower), on the 
coast of Fenmark ; Holzhausen (the dwelling at the wood) ; 
Burghausen (the fortified dwelling) ; Distilhousen (the dwell- 
ing among thistles), in Belgium. In Hungary, Bogdan-haza 
(God's house) ; Oroshaza (the dwelling of the Russians) ; 
Chaise-Dieu, Lat. Casa-Dei (the house of God), in France. 


Also in France, Chaise, Les Chaises; Casa-nova (new house); 
Casa-vecchia (old house), in Corsica; Chassepierre, Lat. 
Casa-petrea (stone house), in Belgium ; Casa-bianca (white 
house), in Brazil. 

hel helle f P refixes with various meanings in Eng., Ger., 

helge heil ) and Scand - topography. Sometimes they mean 
' ' ( holy, Ger. heilig, as in Heligoland (holy isle) ; 

Heilbron (holy well) ; Heligensteen (holy rock) ; Heilberg 
and Hallidon (holy hill) ; Heiligencreuz (the town of the 
holy cross), Hung. Nemet-keresztur (the grove of the cross) ; 
Heiligenhaven (holy harbour) ; Heiligenstadt (holy town) ; 
Halifax, in Yorkshire (holy face), is said to have been 
named from an image of John the Baptist, kept in a her- 
mitage at the place ; Hoxton, in Sussex, was originally 
Hageltoun (holy town), because it was there that St. Edmund 
suffered martyrdom. Sometimes, however, hell denotes a 
covered place, as in Helwell, in Devonshire (the covered 
well) ; sometimes it means clear, as in Hellebrunn (clear or 
bright fountain) ; Heilbronn, in Wurtemberg (fountain of 
health), named from a spring formerly used medicinally. 
Hellefors, a waterfall in Norway, and Hellgate, New York, 
seem to derive their names from a superstition connected 
with Hel, the goddess of the dead ; Holyhead, in Wales, 
is in Welsh Pen-Caer-Gibi (the hill fort of St. Cybi, called 
holy in his honour) ; Holy Island, Lat. Insula- sancta, 
obtained its name from the monastery of St. Cuthbert — its 
more ancient name, Lindisfarne, is probably the ferry, fahr, 
of the brook Lindis, on the opposite shore ; Holywell, in 
Flint, took its name from St. Winifred's Well, celebrated for 
its miraculous cures — its Welsh name is Tref-fynnon (the 
town of the clear water) ; Holywood, Dumfriesshire, Cel. 
Der Congal (the oak grove of St. Congal). 

HELLR (Scand.), a cave into which the tide flows ; e.g. Hellr- 
hals (the neck or strait of the cave) ; Heller -holm (the 
island of the cave) ; Hellersness (the headland of the 

HELY (Hung.), a place ; e.g. Vasarhely (the market-place) ; Var- 
hely (the place of the fortress) ; Marosvasarhely (the 
market-place on the R. Maros), in Ger. Neumarkt; 
Vasarhely-hod-Mezo (the market-place of the beaver's 


meadow) ; Szombathely (the place where the Saturday 
market is held, szombaf) ; Csotortokhely (the Thursday 
market-place), Germanised Donners-markt; Udvarhely 
(court place) ; Szerdahely (Wednesday market-place), 
Vasar, Hung, (a market), from Turc. Bazar. 

hen (Cym.-Cel.), old ; e.g. Henly (the old place), on the Thames ; 
Hentland, for Hen-Han (old church, now St. Asaph's) ; 
Henlys (old palace) ; Hen-egglys (old church), in Anglesea. 

hen (Cym.-Cel.), old, ancient ; e.g. Henlys (the ancient hall). 

HENGST (Teut), a horse — hence Hengiston, in Cornwall, either 
an enclosure for horses or the town of Hengist ; Hengest- 
dorf or Pferdsdorf (horse's village) ; Hengistridge (horse's 
ridge) ; Hinksey (the horse's island or marshy place) ; 
Hinkley (the horses' meadow). 

,„ . [a duke or lord ; e.g. Herzogenbosch or 

HERR, HERZOG (Ger.), „ . . „ ... ' f , , a . „ 

HERTOG CDutcW \ B01S - le - DuC ( the dukeS S rove ); Her " 

^ '' ( togspodler (the duke's reclaimed land) ; 

Herzogenburg (the duke's fortress) ; Herzogenrath (the 
duke's cleared land) ; Herrnsbaumgarten (the duke's 
orchard) ; Herrnhut (the Lord's tabernacle), founded by 
Count Zinzendorf, in Saxony, for the Moravian Brethren, 
in 1722 ; Herisau (the duke's meadow), Lat. Augia- 
Domini, in Switzerland. 

HESE, or hees (Teut.), a hedge or thicket ; e.g. Hessingen (the 
dwelling in the thicket) ; Maashees. (the thicket on the R. 
Maas) ; Wolfhees (the wolfs thicket). 

. „. J, an elevation, cognate with the Ger. hugel; 

\~ ''', . '< e.g. Silver-hill, named after Solvar, a Norse 

HOLL (bcand.), ^ leader; in the Lake District ; Hilton, Hilston 

(hill town) ; Woolwich, anc. Hyl-vich (hill town) ; Butter- 
hill (the hill of Buthar), a personal name in the Lake District. 

HINDU (Pers.), water ; e.g. the Rivers Indus, Inde, Indre, etc. ; 
Hindostan (the district watered by the R. Indus). 

HIPPO (Phoen.), a walled town ; e.g. Hippo, near Carthage. 
There were three cities called Hippo in Africa and two in 
Spain : Olisippo (the walled town), now Lisbon ; Oreppo, 
Belippo, Lacippo. 

HIR (Cym.-Cel), long. 

HIRSCH (Ger.), the hart ; e.g. Hirzenach (the hart's stream) ; 
Hersbrock (the hart's marsh); Hirschberg, Lat. Cotva- 


montem (the hart's hill) ; Hirschfeld, Herschau, Hirsch- 
holm, Hirschhorn (the field, meadow, hill, peak of the harts). 

HISSAR (Turc), a castle ; e.g. Kezil-hissar (red castle) ; Kara- 
hissar (black castle) ; Eski-hissar (old castle), anc. Lao- 
dicea ; Demir-hissar (iron castle) ; Guzel-hissar (white 
castle) ; Sevri-hissar (cypress castle) ; Sultan-hissar (the 
sultan's castle) ; Kulci-hissar (the castle on the R. Khelki). 

hithe (A.S.), a haven; e.g. Hythe, in Kent; Greenhithe (the 
green haven) ; Lambeth, anc. Lomehithe (clayey haven) ; 
Maidenhead, anc. Mayden-hithe, i.e. the wharf midway 
between Marlow and Windsor ; Queenhithe (the queen's 
haven) ; Redriff, in Surrey, anc. Rethra-hythe (the haven 
of sailors), A.S. rethra, also called Rotherhithe (the haven 
for horned cattle), Old Eng. rother ; Stepney, anc. Stebon- 
hythe (Stephen's haven or timber wharf) ; Erith, A.S. Ora- 
hithe (shore haven), in Kent ; Challock, in Kent, corrupt, 
from ceale hythe (chalk haven). 

hjalti (Scand.), a Viking ; e.g. Shapansay, anc. Hjalpansay (the 
Viking's island) ; Shetland, i.e. Hjaltiland, with the same 

HLINC (A.S.), a ridge ; e.g. Linch, in Sussex; Rouselinch (Rouse's 
ridge), in Worcestershire. 

HO (Chinese), a river or water ; e.g. Euho (the precious river) ; 
Hoangho (the yellow river) ; Peiho (white river) ; Yuho 
(imperial river) ; Keangho (rapid river) ; Hoonan (south of 
the lake) ; Hoohe (north of the lake, i.e. of Lake Tongting). 

hoch hohen fGer 1 C high ; h ° he (a height) ; "■£■ Hohurst and 
HOCH, hohen (Uer.), I Hohenhart (high wood) . Hohenberg 

Hoor'm^ch 1< hi S h hil1 ); Homburg (high hill fort); 

hooo (.uutcn;, ^ Homburg-von-der-hohe (the high fort in 

front of the height) ; Hochfeld (high field) ; Hochain (high 
enclosure) ; Hochstadt, Hochstetten, Hochstatten (high 
dwelling) ; Hocheim (high home or dwelling), from which 
place Hock wines are named ; Hochwiesen, Sclav. Velko- 
ftolya (high meadow or plain) ; Hochst for Hochstadt, and 
Hoym for Hochham (high town) ; Hohenelbi, Grk. Albifiolis 
(the high town on the Elbe) ; Hohenlohe (the high meadow 
or thicket) ; Hohenstein and Hohenstauffen (high rock) ; 
Hohenwarth, Lat. Altaspecula (the high watch-tower) ; 
Hohenzollern (the high place belonging to the Zwolf family) ; 


Hohenscheid (the high watershed) ; Hockliffe (high cliff), 

in Bedford ; Higham, Highworth (high manor or dwelling) ; 

Highgate (high road) ; Wilhelmshohe (William's high place) ; 

Hoy, in Shetland (the high island). 

C an enclosure, manor, and court. In Scan- 

m ii\ \ dinavia hoff means a temple ; e.g. Eyndhoven 
HOEVE (Dutch), y ^ he manor a{ the corner ) . Neuhof and Neun - 

hoffen, in France (new manor) ; Hof and Hoff (the enclosure), 
in Belgium ; Hof, in Bavaria, on the R. Saale ; Stadt-am- 
hof, in Bavaria, anc. Curia Bavarica (the place at the 
court) ; Hof-an-der-March (the court or manor on the R. 
March) ; Schoonhoven (beautiful manor), in Holland ; 
Nonnenhof (the nun's enclosure) ; Meerhof (the dwelling 
on the marshy land) ; Peterhof (the court dwelling founded 
by Peter the Great) ; Hoff (the temple), in Iceland ; Hoff, 
a village near Appleby, has the same meaning, as it is 
situated in a wood called Hoff-land (the temple grove). In 
Iceland, when a chieftain had taken possession of a district, 
he erected a temple (hoff) and became, as he had been in 
Norway, the chief, the pontiff, and the judge of the district ; 
and when the Norwegians took possession of Cumberland and 
Westmoreland they would naturally act in the same manner. 

HOHN (Old Ger.), a low place, as in Die-H6hne (the hollows), in 
the Brocken. 

HOLLE (Teut), a cave, from hohl (hollow); e.g. Hohenlinden, anc. 
Hollinden (the hollow place of lime-trees) ; Holland or the 
Netherlands (the low countries) ; also Holland, a low-lying 
district in Lincolnshire ; Holdeornesse (the low promontory 
of the province of Deira) ; Holmer, in Hereford (the low 
lake, mere). 

HOLM (Scand.), a small island ; eg. Flatholm (flat island) ; Steep- 
holm (steep island) ; Priestholm (of the priest) ; Alderholm 
(of alders) ; Holm, in Sweden, and Hulm, in Norway (the 
island) ; Stockholm, anc. Holmia (the island city, built upon 
stakes). But holm also signifies occasionally a hill, as in 
Smailholm, in Roxburghshire (little hill) ; and Hume, or 
holm, Castle, in Berwickshire (on a hill). Sometimes also 
it signifies a low meadow on the banks of a stream, as in 
Durham, corrupt, from Dun-holm or Dunelme (the fortress 
on the meadow), almost surrounded by the R. Wear; Lang- 


holm (the long meadow) ; Denholm (the meadow in the 
deep valley) ; Twynholm, anc. Twynham (the dwelling on 
the hillock), Welsh twyn, a parish in Kirkcudbright ; 
Brachenholm (ferny meadow) ; Lingholme (heather island), 
in Windermere ; also Silverholme (the island of Solvar, a 
Norse leader) ; Bornholm, in the Baltic, anc. Burgundaland 
(the island of the Burgundians) ; Axholme, an insulated dis- 
trict in Co. Lincoln, formed by the Rivers Trent, Idle, and 
Don, from uisge, Cel. (water) ; Drotningholm, in the Malar 
Lake near Stockholm (queen's island), from Swed. drottmig 
(a queen) ; Battleholme, found in some places in the north 
of England, according to Ferguson, means fertile island, 
from an Old English word battel or bette (fertile). 
HOLT, holz (A.S. and Ger.), a wood; e.g. Aldershot (alder-tree 
wood) ; Bergholt (the hill or hill fort in the wood) ; Evershot 
(the boar's wood, eofer) ; Badshot (badger's wood) ; Boch- 
holt (beech-wood) ; Jagerholz (huntsman's wood) ; Ooster- 
hout (east wood) ; Holzkirchen (the church at the wood) ; 
Thourhout, in East Flanders (the wood consecrated to the 
god Thor) ; Tourotte, in the. department of Oise, in France 
(also Thor's wood) ; Hootenesse (woody promontory), in 
Belgium ; Diepholz (deep wood) ; Meerholt and Meerhout 
(marshy wood) ; Holt, a woody district in Norfolk. 
HOO, or hoe (Scand.), a spit of land running into the sea ; e.g. 
Sandhoe (the sandy cape) ; The Hoe, in Kent ; Kew, in 
Surrey, anc. Kay-hoo (the quay on the spit of land). 

(a. horn-like projection or cape jutting into the 
HORN (Ger.), I sga ^ or a valley between hills, curved like a 

HYRNE (A-S.), ■< horn . etgi Hoorn (the promontory), a seaport 
HOORN (Dutch), ^. n Hollandj from which place the Dutch 

navigator Schoutens named Cape Horn, Hoorn being his 
native place ; Hornburg (the town on the projection) ; 
Hornby (corner dwelling) ; Horncastle (the castle on the 
promontory) ; Hornbergand Horndon (the projecting hill) ; 
Hornsea (the projection on the coast) ; Matterhorn (the 
peak in the meadows), so called from the patches of green 
meadow-land which surround its base ; Schreckhorn (the 
peak of terror) ; Finsteraarhorn (the peak out of which the 
Finster-Aar, or dark Aar, has its source). This river is so 
named to distinguish it from the Lauter or clear river. 

io8 HOVC—IA 

Skagenshorn (the peak of the Skaw), in Denmark) ; Faul- 
horn (the foul peak), so called from the black shale which 
disintegrates in water ; Wetterhorn (stormy peak) ; Katzen- 
horn (the cat's peak) ; Silberhorn (the silvery peak) ; Jung- 
frauhorn (the peak of the maiden). 

HOUC, or HOOG (Teut), a corner or little elevation, akin to the 
Scottish heugh and the Scand. haugr; e.g. Hoogzand and 
Hoogeveen (the sand and marsh at the corner) ; Hoogheyd 
(corner heath) ; Hoogbraek (the broken-up land at the 
corner) ; Stanhoug (stone corner). 

HUBEL, or hugel (Ger.), a little hill ; e.g. Haidhugel (heath hill) ; 

Steinhugel (stony hill) ; Huchel and Hivel (the little hill) ; 

Lindhovel (the hill of lime-trees) ; Gieshiibel (the hill of 

gushing brooks). 

„ . ™ /t- \ ( a district supposed to have originally com- 

HUNDRED (Eng.), 1 ■ j . , V , , , t ■ -, j „ 

A, °" <j prised at least one hundred family dwell- 

* ■'' ( ings, like Welsh Cantref (from cant, a 

hundred), the name of a similar division in Wales ; e.g. 

Hundrethwaite (the cleared land on this Hundred), a district 

in Yorkshire. 

HUTTE (Teut. and Scand.), a shed or cottage ; e.g. Dunkelhiitte 
(dark cottage) ; Mooshutten (the cottage in the mossy land) ; 
Buxtehude (the hut on the ox pasture) ; Huttenwerke (the 
huts at the works or mines) ; Hudemiihlen (mill hut) ; 
Hutton (the town of huts). But Landshut, in Bavaria, 
does not seem to be derived from hiitte, but from schutz, 
Ger. (a defence), as it is in the neighbourhood of an old 
fortress, on the site of a Roman camp. 

hver (Norse), a warm, bubbling spring ; e.g. Uxaver (the oxen's 
spring), in Iceland. 


I (Gadhelic), an island ; e.g. I-Colum-chille or Iona (the island of 
St. Columba's cell) ; Ierne or Ireland (the western island or 
the island of Eire, an ancient queen). 

I A (Cel.), a country or land ; e.g. Galatia and Galicia, and anc. 
Gallia (the country of the Gauls) ; Andalusia, for Van- 
dalusia (the country of the Vandals) ; Batavia (the good 


land), bette, good ; Britania or Pictavia (probably the land 
of painted tribes) ; Catalonia, corrupt, from Gothalonia (the 
land of the Goths) ; Circassia (the land of the Tcherkes, a 
tribe) ; Croatia (the land of the Choriots or mountaineers) ; 
Suabia (of the Suevii) ; Moravia (the district of the R. 
Moravia) ; Moldavia (of the R. Moldau). It is called by 
the natives and Turks Bogdania, from Bogdan, a chieftain 
who colonised it in the thirteenth century. Ethiopia (the 
land of the blacks, or the people with the sunburnt faces), 
from Grk. ops (the face), and cdtho (to burn) ; Phoenicia (the 
land of palms or the brown land), Grk. Phoenix; Silesia 
(the land of the Suisli) ; Bosnia (the district of the R. 
Bosna) ; Russia, named after Rourik, a Scandinavian 
chief ; Siberia, from Siber, the ancient capital of the Tartars ; 
Kaffraria (the country of the Kaffirs or unbelievers), a 
name given by the Arabs ; Dalmatia (the country of the 
Dalmates, who inhabited the city Dalminium) ; Iberia, the 
ancient name of Spain, either from the R. Ebro or from a 
tribe called the Iberi or Basques ; Caledonia, perhaps from 
Coille (the wood). 
IACUM, an affix used by the Romans, sometimes for ia (a district), 
and sometimes the Latinised form of the adjectival termina- 
tion ach — qtt. v. p. 5 ; e.g. Juliers, Lat. Juliacutn (belonging 
to Julius Caesar) ; Beauvais, Lat. Bellovacum (belonging to 
the Bellovaci) ; Annonay, Lat. Annonicutn (a place for 
grain, with large magazines of corn) ; Bouvignes, in Bel- 
gium, Lat. Boviniacum (the place of oxen) ; Clameny, Lat. 
Clameniacum (belonging to Clement, its founder) ; Joigny, 
anc. Joiniacum, on the R. Yonne ; Annecy, Lat. Anneacum 
(belonging to Anecius) ; Cognac, Lat. Cogniacum (the corner 
of the water), Fr. coin, Old Fr. coiny, Cel. cuan. 
1ERE, an affix in French topography denoting a possession, and 
' generally affixed to the name of the proprietor ; e.g. Guil- 
letiere (the property of Guillet) ; Guzoniere (of Guzon). 
ILI (Turc), a district; e.g. Hi- Bosnia (the district of the R. 
Bosna) ; Rumeli or Roumelia (the district of the Romans). 
ILLIA (Basque), a town ; e.g. Elloirio, Illora, and Illura (the town 
on the water, ura) • Lorca, anc. Illnrcis (the town with fine 
water) ; Elibyrge (the town with the tower), Grk. pyrgos ; 
Elche", anc. Illici (the town on the hill, ci) ; Illiberus (new 


town, surnamed Elne after the Empress Helena), in Spain ; 
the isle of Oleron, anc. Illura (the town on the water). 
IM and in, a contraction for the Ger. in der (in or on the) ; e.g. 
Imgrund (in the valley) ; Imhorst (in the wood) ; Eimbeck 
(on the brook) ; Imruke (on the ridge). 

/ an affix used by the Teutonic races, as a patronymic, 
' ' I in the same sense as Mac is used in Scotland, ap 

(in Wales, and O in Ireland. Ing is generally affixed 
to the settlement of a chief, and ingen to that of his descend- 
ants. Ing, preceding ham, ton, dean, ley, thorp, worth, etc., 
is generally an abbreviation of ingen, and denotes that the 
place belonged to the family of the tribe, as in Bonnington, 
Collington, Collingham, Islington (the home of the Bonnings, 
the Collings, and the Islings). In French topography ingen 
takes the forms of igny, igne", or ingesj and it appears, by 
comparing the names of many towns and villages in Eng- 
land and the north-west of France with those of Germany, 
that Teutonic tribes forming settlements in these countries 
transferred the names in their native land to their new 
homes. For the full elucidation of this subject reference 
may be made to Taylor's Words and Places, chap. vii. and 
the Appendix, and to Edmund's Names of Places, p. 5 8. 
Only a few examples of the use of this patronymic can be 
given here ; thus, from the Offings — Oving and Ovingham 
corresponding to the Ger. Offingen and the Fr. Offignes, 
From the Eppings — Epping, Ger. Eppinghofen, and Fr. 
Epagne. The Bings — Bing, Bingham, Bingley ; Ger. 
Bingen ; Fr. Buigny. The Basings — Eng. Basing, Basing 
ham, Bessingby ; Fr. Bazigny. From the Raedings — 
Reading, Co. Berks. The Harlings — Harrington. The 
Billings — Bellington. From the Moerings or Merovingians 
many French towns and villages are named ; e.g. Morigny, 
Marigne', Merignac, Merrigny ; in England • — Merring, 
Merrington. We can sometimes trace these tribe names 
to the nature of the localities which they inhabited. Thus 
the Bucings, from which we have Boking and Buckingham, 
to a locality abounding in beech-trees, bocj the Durotriges, 
from which we have Dorset and Dorchester, are the 
dwellers by the water, durj as well as the Eburovices, 
who gave their name to Evreux, in France. Ing, also, in 


INNIS (Gadhelic), 
YNYS, enez (Cym.-CeL), 
insel (Ger.), 
INSULA (Lat.), 
NESOS (Grk.), 

A.S. names, sometimes means a meadow, as in Clavering, 
in Essex (clover meadow), A.S. Claefer; Mountnessing, 
Co. Essex (the meadow of the Mountneys, who were 
formerly lords of the manor) ; Godalming (the meadow of 
inner (Ger.), opposed to ausser (the inner and outer), as in 
Innerzell, Ausserzell (the inner and outer church). 

an island, also in some cases pasture 
land near water, or a peninsula. It 
often takes the form of inch, as in 
Inchkeith (the island of the Keith 
family) ; Inchcolm (St. Columba's 
Island) ; Inchfad (long isle) ; Inch- 
garvie (the rough island) ; Inchard (high isle) ; Inch- 
Cailleach (the island of the old women or nuns), in Loch 
Lomond, being the site of an ancient nunnery ; Inchmarnoch 
(of St. Marnoch), in the Firth of Clyde ; Inchbrackie (the 
spotted isle) ; Inchgower (the goat's isle) ; Inchtuthill (the 
island of the flooded stream) ; Craignish, anc. Craiginche 
(the rocky peninsula) ; Durness, in Sutherlandshire, is a 
corrupt, from Doirbh-innis (the stormy peninsula) ; Ynys- 
Bronwen (the island of Bronwen, a Welsh lady who was 
buried there), in Anglesey ; Ynis-wyllt (wild island), off the 
coast of Wales ; Inysawdre (the isle and home of refuge), 
in Glamorgan. In Ireland : Ennis (the river meadow) ; 
Enniskillen, Irish Inis-Cethlenn (the island of Cethlenn, an 
ancient queen of Ireland) ; Ennisheen (beautiful island) ; 
Devenish, in Lough Erne, is Daimhinis (the island of oxen). 
But Enniskerry is not from this root ; it is corrupt, from 
Ath-narscairbhe (the rough ford) ; Orkney Isles, Gael. Orc- 
innis (the islands of whales) ; they are sometimes called 
Earr-Cath (the tail of Caithness) ; Innisfallen, in Lake 
Kallarney (the island of Fathlenn) ; the Hebrides or 
Sudereys, called Innisgall (the islands of the Gaels) ; the 
Aleutian Islands, from Russ. aleut (a bald rock) ; in Hol- 
land, Duiveland (pigeon island), and Eyerlandt (the island 
of the sand-bank) ; Eilenburg, in Saxony (the town on an 
island in the R. Mulda) ; Isola, a town in Illyria (on an 
island) ; Issola or Imo-Isola (low island), in Italy ; Lille, 
in Flanders, anc. L'lsle, named from an insulated castle in 


the midst of a marsh ; Peloponnesus (the island of Pelops) ; 

Polynesia (many islands). 

,_ „ ,. , I a river confluence or a creek at 
inver, or inbhir (Gadhehc), I ^ mouth rf a riyer _ Tfais WQrd 

( is an element in numerous names 
throughout Scotland ; and although it is not so common in 
Ireland, it exists in old names, as in Dromineer, for Druim- 
inbhir (the ridge of the river mouth). In Scotland it is 
used in connection with aber, the word inver being found 
sometimes at the mouth and aber farther up Jthe same 
stream : thus — Abergeldie and Invergeldie, on the Geldie ; 
Abernyte and Invernyte, etc. ; Inversnaid (the needle or 
narrow confluence, snathad, a needle) ; Innerkip (at the 
conf. of the Kip and Daff) ; Inveresk and Inverkeilor (at 
the mouths of the Esk and Keilor), in Mid Lothian and 
Forfar ; Innerleithen (at the conf. of the Leithen and 
Tweed), in Peebles ; Inveraven (at the conf. of the Aven 
and Spey) ; Inverness (at the conf. of the Ness with the 
Beauly) ; Inveraray (at the mouth of the Aray) ; Inverury 
the Urie) ; Inverkeithing (of the Keith) ; Inverbervie or 
Bervie (at the mouth of the Bervie) ; Peterhead, anc. 
Inverugie Petri or Petri firomontorium (the promontory of 
the rock of St. Peter), on the R. Ugie, with its church 
dedicated to St. Peter ; Inverleith, now Leith (at the 
mouth of the Leith) ; Inverarity (at the mouth of the Arity), 
in Forfar ; Cullen, anc. Invercullen (at the mouth of the 
back river) — v. cul. 
itz, iz, izch, a Sclavonic affix, signifying a possession or quality, 
equivalent to the Teut. ingj e.g. Carlovitz (Charles's town) ; 
Mitrowitz (the town of Demetrius) ; Studnitz (of the foun- 
tain) ; Targowitz (the market town) ; Trebnitz and Trebitsch 
(poor town) ; Schwanitz (swine town) ; Madlitz (the house 
of prayer) ; Publitz (the place of beans) ; Janowitz (John's 
town) ; Schwantewitz (the town of the Sclavonic god 


JABLON (Sclav.), the apple-tree ; e.g. Jablonez, Jablonka, Jablona, 
Jablonken, Jablonoko, Gablenz, Gablona (places abounding 
in apples) ; Jablonnoi or Zablonnoi (the mountain of apples). 


JAMA (Sclav.), a ditch ; e.g. Jamlitz, Jamnitz, and Jamno (places 
with a ditch or trench) ; Jamburg (the town in the hollow 
or ditch) ; but Jamlitz may sometimes mean the place of 
medlar-trees, from je melina (the medlar). 

JASOR (Sclav.), a marsh ; e.g. Jehser-hohen and Jeser-nieder (the 
high and lower marsh), near Frankfort ; Jeserig and 
Jeserize (the marshy place). 

JASSEN (Sclav.), the ash-tree ; e.g. Jessen, Jessern, Jesseu, Jessnitz 
(the place of ash-trees). 

jawor (Sclav.), the maple-tree ; e.g. Great and Little Jawer, in 
Silesia ; Jauer, in Russia ; Jauernitz and Jauerburg (the 
place of maple-trees), in Russia. 

jaza (Sclav.), a house; e.g. Jaschen, Jaschwitz, Jaschiitz (the 

jezirah (Ar.), an island or peninsula ; e.g. Algiers or Al-Jezirah, 
named from an island near the town ; Al-Geziras (the 
islands), near Gibraltar ; Alghero (the peninsula), in Sar- 
dinia ; Jezirah-diraz (long island), in the Persian Gulf ; Al- 
Jezirah or Mesopotamia (between the river). 

JOKUL (Scand.), a snow-covered hill ; e.g. Vatna-Jokul (the hill 
with the lake) ; Orefa-Jbkul (the desert hill) ; Forfa-Jokul 
(the hill of Forfa) ; Long-Jokul (long hill). 

JONC (Fr.), from juncus, Lat. (a rush) ; e.g. Jonchere, Joncheres, 
jonchery, Le Jonquer, La Joncieres, etc., place-names in 


KAAI, kai, kade (Teut.), a quay or a bank by the water-side ; 
e.g. Oudekaai (old quay) ; Kadzand (the quay or bank on 
the sand) ; Moerkade (marshy bank) ; Kewstoke (the place 
on the quay) ; Kew, in Surrey, on the Thames ; Torquay 
(the quay of the hill called Tor). 
kahl (Ger.), ( bald, cognate with the Lat. calvus; e.g. Kalen- 
CALO (AS.), } berg and Kahlengebirge (the bald mountains). 

.„ . /the emperor or Cssar ; e.g. Kaisersheim, 

KAISER (|-» e W> 1 Kaiserstadt (the emperor's town) ; Kaiser- 

KEYSER (Dutcn), i stuhl ^ he emperor , s seat ) . Ka i S e r berg (the 

CYZAR (bclav.), Emperor's fortress), in Alsace, named from 

a castle erected by Frederick II. ; Kaiserslautem (the em- 



peror's place), on the R. Lauter ; Kaiserswerth (the emperor's 
island), on the Rhine ; Keysersdyk (the emperor's dam) ; 
Keysersloot (the emperor's sluice), in Holland ; Cysarowes 
(the emperor's village), in Bohemia ; Kaisariyeh, anc. 

KALAT, or kalah (Ar.), a castle ; e.g. Khelat, in Belochistan ; 
Yenikale (the new castle), in the Crimea ; Calatablanca 
(white castle), in Sicily ; Calahorra, Ar. Kalat-harral (stone 
castle), in Spain ; Calata-bellota (the oak-tree castle), in 
Sicily ; Calata-girone (the surrounded castle), Sicily ; Calata- 
mesetta (the castle of the women) ; Calatayud (the castle of 
Ayud, a Moorish king) ; Alcala-real (the royal castle) ; 
Alcala-de-Henares (the castle on the R. Henares), in Spain; 
Sanjiac-Kaleh (the castle of the standard), corrupt, by the 
French into St. Jaques, in Asia Minor ; Calatrava (the 
castle of Rabah). 

kamen (Sclav.), a stone ; e.g. Camentz, Kemmen, Kammena, 
Kamienetz (the stony place) ; Kamminchen (the little 
stony place), a colony from Steenkirchen ; Chemnitz (the 
stony town, or the town on the stony river) ; Kersna- 
kaimai (the Christian's stone house) ; Schemnitz, Hung. 
Selmecz (stony town), in Silesia. 

Kara (Turc), black ; e.g. Karamania (the district of the blacks) ; 
Karacoum (the black sand), in Tartary ; Kara-su (the black 
river) ; Kara-su-Bazar (the market-town on the Kara-su) ; 
Kara-Tappeh (the black mound), in Persia ; Kartagh and 
Kartaon (the black mountain chains), in Turkey and Tar- 
tary ; Kara-Dengis, the Turkish name for the Black Sea, 
called by the Russians Tchernce-more, Ger. Schawarz-meer j 
Kara-mulin (black mill) ; Cape Kara-bournow (the black 
nose), in Asia Minor. 

kehle (Ger.), a gorge or defile ; e.g. Bergkehle (hill gorge) ; 
Hundkehle (the dog's gorge) ; Langkehl (long gorge) ; 
Kehl (the gorge), in Baden ; Schuylkill (the hidden gorge), 
a river in America. 

KESSEL, KEZIL (Ger.), j literally a kettle but in topography ap- 

kytel (A S ) \ P a bowl " sna P ea - valley surrounded 

K " ■■" (by hills ; e.g. Ketel, in Holstein ; Kessel, 

in Belgium ; Kessel-loo (the low-lying grove or swamp), in 

Belgium ; Kesselt (the low-lying wood, holt), in Belgium ; 


Kettle or King's-kettle (the hollow), in the valley of the R. 
Eden, in Fife, formerly belonging to the crown ; but such 
names as Kesselstadt, Kesselsham, Kettlesthorpe, and 
Kettleshulme are probably connected with the personal 
name Chetil or Kettle, being common names among the 
Teutons and Scandinavians. 
.„ , . (3. wall or stronghold, a city or town ; e.g. Kir- 
kir (rieb.), 1 Moab ^ he stron g hold of Moab ) . Kiriathaim (the 

J ' ( two cities) ; Kirjath-Arba (the city of Arba), now 

Hebron ; Kirjath-Baal (of Baal) ; Kirjath-Huzoth (the city 

of villas) ; Kirjath-jearim (of forests) ; Kirjath-sannah (of 

palms), also called Kirjath-sepher (the city of the book). 

The Breton Ker (a dwelling) seems akin to this word, as 

in Kergneii (the house at the nut-trees), in Brittany. 

._ , „ . „ (a. church. The usual derivation of 

KIRCHE (Ger. and Scand.), ... , , , . , „ . 

. . q \ 1 this word is from kunake, Grk. 

^_ ''' \ oikos-kurtou (the Lord's house) ; 

^ '' \ e -g- Kirkham, Kerkom, Kirchdorf 

(church town) ; Kirchhof (church court) ; Kirchwerder 

(church island), on an island in the R. Elbe ; Kirchditmold 

(the church at the people's place of meeting) — v. diot. 

Funfkirchen (the five churches), in Hungary ; Kirchberg 

(church hill), in Saxony. Many parishes in Scotland have 

this affix to their names, as in Kirkbean (the church of St 

Bean) ; Kirkcaldy (the church of the Culdees, who formerly 

had a cell there) ; Kirkcolm (of St. Columba) ; Kirkconnel 

(of St. Connal) ; Kirkcowan, anc. Kirkuen (of St. Keuin) ; 

Kirkcudbright (of St. Cuthbert) ; Kirkden (the church in 

the hollow) ; Kirkhill (on the hill) ; Kirkhope (in the valley) ; 

Kirkinner (the church of St. Kinneir). In England : Kirkby- 

Lonsdale (the church town), in the valley of the Lune ; 

Kirkby-Stephen (of St. Stephen, to whom the church was 

dedicated) ; Kirkdale, in Lancashire ; Kirkham, also in 

Lancashire ; Kirkliston (the- church of the strong fort, 

founded by the Knights Templars), in Linlithgow ; Kirk- 

oswald, named after Oswald, King of Northumberland ; 

Kirkurd, in Peeblesshire, Lat. Ecclesia de Orde (the church 

of Orde or Horda, a personal name) ; Kirkwall, Norse 

Kirk-ju^vagr (the church on the bay) ; Hobkirk (the church 

in the hope or valley) ; Ladykirk, in Berwickshire, dedicated 


to the Virgin Mary by James IV. on his army crossing the 
Tweed near the place ; Falkirk, supposed to be the church 
on the Vallum or wall of Agricola, but more likely to be the 
A.S. rendering of its Gaelic name Eglais-bhrac (the spotted 
church), /ah in A.S. being of divers colours ; Stonykirk, 
in Wigtonshire, corrupt, from Steenie-kirk (St. Stephen's 
church) ; Kirkmaden (of St. Medan) ; Carmichael for Kirk- 
Michael (of St. Michael); Bridekirk (of St. Bridget); Carluke 
for Kirkluke (of St. Luke) ; Selkirk, anc. Sella-chyrche-Regis 
(the seat of the king's church, originally attached to a royal 
hunting-seat) ; Laurencekirk (the church of St. Laurence, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, called the Apostle of the Picts) ; 
Kirby-Kendal (the church in the valley of the Ken or Kent) ; 
Channelkirk, in Berwickshire, anc. Childer-kirk (the child- 
ren's church, having been dedicated to the Innocents). 

KIS (Hung.), little ; e.g. Kis-sceg (little corner), in Transylvania ; 
Kishissar (little fort). 

KLAUSE, KXOSTER, a place shut in, from the Lat. claudo, also 
a cloister ; e.g. Klausen (the enclosed place), in Tyrol ; 
Klausenburg (the enclosed fortress) ; Klausenthal (the en- 
closed valley); Kloster-Neuburg (the new town of the 
cloister) ; Chiusa, in Tuscany, anc. Clusium, and Clusa, in 
Saxony (the enclosed place), also La Chiusa, in Piedmont ; 
but claus, as a prefix, may be Klaus, the German for 
Nicholas, and is sometimes attached to the names of 
churches dedicated to that saint. 

KLEIN (Ger.), little ; e.g. Klein-eigher (the little giant), a mountain 
in Switzerland. 

KNAB, KNOP (Scand. and Teut.), J a hill ° ck ; «*. N°opnoss (the 
riMAP Vol \ \ P ro J ectm S P° mt ) 5 Knabtoft 

tM K >! ( (the farm of the hillock) ; The 

Knab, in Cumberland ; Knapen-Fell (the hill with the pro- 
tuberance), in Norway ; Knapdale (the valley of hillocks), 
Argyleshire ; Knapton, 'Knapwell (the town and well near 
the hillock) ; Snape (the hillock), in Suffolk and Yorkshire ; 
Nappan (little hillock), and Knapagh (hilly land), in Ireland. 
t CT ^ ( a h^ 00 ^ ' e -S- Knowle and Knoyle (the hillock) ; 
nw < Knowl-end (hill end) ; Knowsley (hill, valley, or 

( field). In the form of know or now it is common 
as an affix in Scotland. 


KOH (Pers.), a mountain ; e.g. Koh-baba (the chief or father 
mountain) ; Caucasus (mountain on mountain, or the moun- 
tain of the gods, Asses) ; Kuh-i-Nuh (Noah's mountain), the 
Persian name for Ararat ; Kashgar (the mountain fortress). 

KOI (Turc), a village ; e.g. Kopri-koi (bridge village) ; Haji-Veli- 
koi (the village of the pilgrim Veli) ; Papaskoi (the priest's 
village) ; Kadikoi (the judge's village) ; Hajikoi (the pil- 
grim's village) ; Akhmedkoi (Achmed's village) ; Boghaz-koi 
(God's house), near the ruins of an ancient temple in Asia 

KONIG CGer ^ f a king ; e ' g ' K6ni g shofen ( the kin g' s court ) ' 
/a o \ ' \ Konigheim (the king's dwelling) ; Konigsbrunn 
^ ' " ( (the king's well) ; Konigshain (the king's en- 
closure) ; Konigshaven (the king's harbour) ; Konigsberg, 
in Prussia, and Kongsberg, in Norway (the king's moun- 
tain) ; Konigstein (the king's rock fortress) ; Coningsby, 
Connington, Coniston, Kingsbury, places in England where 
the Anglo-Saxons held their court ; Kingston, in Surrey, 
where their kings were generally crowned ; Kingston or 
Hull, upon the R. Hull, in Yorkshire, named after Edward 
I. ; Kingston, Co. Dublin, so named in commemoration of 
George IV. 's visit to Ireland ; Kingston, in Jamaica, named 
after William III. ; Cunningham, Kingthorpe, Kingsby (the 
king's dwelling or farm) ; but Cuningsburg, in Shetland, may 
be derived from Kuningr (a rabbit) ; Kingsbarns, in Fife, 
so called from certain storehouses erected there by King 
John during his occupation of the castle now demolished. 
. r [a. headland or mountain peak ; e.g. 

kopf, KOPPE (Ger.), 1 Catzenkopf ( th e ca t' s head) ; Schneekopf 
£?™ ™rbZ\ \ and Schneekoppe (snowy peak) ; Och- 

senkopf (the oxen's peak) ; Riesenkoppe 
(giants' peak) ; Perecop, in Russia (the 
gate of the headland) ; Vogelskuppe (the birds' peak) ; 
Cape Colonna (the headland of the pillars), so named from 
the ruins of a temple to Minerva ; Cape Leuca (the white) ; 
Cape Negro (the black) ; Cape Roxo (the red cape) ; 
Kuopio (on a headland), in Russia ; Cabeza-del-buey (ox 
headland), in Spain ; Cabeciera (black headland), in Spain ; 
Capo-d'Istria (the summit of I stria) ; Copeland, a district 
in Cumberland full of peaks or headlands. 

kupa (Sclav.), 
CABO (Span.). 


KOPRI, KUPRI (Turc), a bridge ; e.g. Vezir-kopri (the vizier's 
bridge) ; Keupri-bazaar (the market-town at the bridge) ; 
Keupris (bridge town), in Turkey. 

KOS (Sclav.), a goat ; e.g. Koselo (goat's river) ; Koslin (goat 
town), in Pomerania. 

KOSCIOL (Sclav.), a Romish church ; e.g. Kostel, Kosteletz 
(towns with a Romish church), a Protestant church being 
called Zbor, and a Greek church Zerkwa. 

KRAL, krol (Sclav.), a king ; e.g. Kralik, Kralitz, Krolow, 
Kraliewa, Kralowitz (the king's town or fortress). 

krasna (Sclav.), beautiful ; e.g. Krasnabrod (the beautiful ford) ; 
Krasnapol (the beautiful city) ; Krasno-Ufimsk (the beau- 
tiful town of the R. Ufa) ; Krasna and Krasne (the beautiful 

KRE (Sclav.), a coppice ; e.g. Sakrau, Sakrow (behind the coppice). 

kreis (Ger.), a circle ; e.g. Saalkreis (the circle watered by the R. 
Saal) ; Schwardswaldkreis (the circle of the Black Forest). 

KREM, krim (Sclav.), a stone building; e.g. The Kremlin (the 
stone fort of Moscow) ; Kremmen, Kremenetz, Kremnitz, 
Kremmenaia, Kremenskaia, towns in Russia, Poland, and 

krone, KRON (Teut. and Scand.), a crown ; e.g. Kronstadt, 
Hung. Brasso (crown city), in Hungary ; Cronstadt, in 
Russia, founded by Peter the Great ; Kon'igscrone (the 
king's crown) ; Carlscrone (Charles's crown) ; Landscrone 
(the crown or summit of the land), a mountain and town 
in Silesia — also with the same meaning, Landscrona, in 
Sweden. Kron, however, as a prefix, comes occasionally 
from krahn (a crane), as in Kronwinkel (the crane's corner). 

KRUG (Ger.), a small inn ; e.g. Dornkrug (the thorn inn) ; Krug- 
mtille (the mill at the inn). 

LAAG, LAGE (Ger.), ( * site ' % }™ A (vl fiel d 5 ^- Brawenlage 

t nnr cn,,trM i (brown field) ; Wittlage (white field or wood 

° ( umca >> ( field) ; Blumlage (flowery field) ; Miihlen- 

loog (the mill field or site) ; Dinkellage (wheat field). 

This word is also used as an adjective, signifying low ; e.g. 

LAC — LADE 119 

Loogkirk (low church) ; Loogheyde (low heath) ; Loogemeer 

(low lake) ; Laaland (low island). 

a lake, cognate with the Lat lacus 
and the CeL loch or Iwch. These 

LAC (Fr.), 

LACHE (Ger.), 

t inn nt S ip ., \ words m the vanous dialects ongin- 

^ '' " "' ''I ally signified a hollow, from the 

[ roots lag, lug, and Grk lakos; e.g. 
Lachen, Lat. Adlacum (at the lake), a town on Lake Zurich ; 
Interlachen (between the lakes), in Switzerland ; Biber- 
lachen (beaver lake) ; Lago Maggiore (the greater lake), 
with reference to Lake Lugano, which itself means simply 
the lake or hollow ; Lago Nuovo (new lake), in Tyrol, — it 
was formed a few years ago by a landslip ; Lagoa (on a 
lake or marsh), in Brazil ; Lagow (on a lake), in Prussia ; 
Lagos, in Portugal (on a large bay or lake) ; Laguna- de- 
Negrillos (the lake of the elms) and Laguna-Encinillos (of 
the evergreen oaks), in Spain ; Laach, in the Rhine Pro- 
vinces (situated on a lake), the crater of an extinct volcano ; 
Anderlecht or Anderlac (at the lake or marsh), in Belgium ; 
Chablais, Lat Cafiut-lacensis (at the head of the lake, i.e. of 
Geneva) ; Missolonghi, i.e. Mezzo-laguno (in the midst of a 
marshy lagoon) ; Beverley, in Yorkshire, anc. Biberlac (the 
beaver lake or marsh) ; Lago-dos-Patos (the lake of geese), 
in Brazil ; Niederhaslach and Oberhaslach (lower and upper 
lake), in Bas Rhin ; Lake Champlain takes its name from 
a Norman adventurer, Governor-general of Canada, in the 
seventeenth century ; Alagoas (abounding in lakes), a 
province in Brazil, with its capital of the same name ; 
Filey, in Yorkshire, in Doomsday Fuielac (i.e. bird lake, 

LAD (Scand.), a pile or heap ; e.g. Ladhouse, Ladhill, Ladcragg, 
Ladrigg (the house, hilL crag, ridge of the mound or cairn), 
probably so named from a heap or cairn erected over the 
grave of some Norse leader. 

LADE, or LODE (A.S.), a way, passage, or canal; e.g. Ladbrook 
(the passage of the brook) ; Lechlade, in Gloucester (the 
passage of the R. Lech into the Thames) ; Evenlode (at 
brink of the passage or stream) ; Cricklade, anc. Creccc^- 
gelade or Crecca-ford (the creek at the opening or entrance 
of the Churn and Key into the Thames). 


t Aifw fT t^ ( ' an< ^ l ease d out, a fief ; e.g. Kingsland or 
^ i Kingslaen, in Middlesex, Hereford, and Orkney; 

( Haylene (the enclosed fief), in Hereford; Len- 
ham (the dwelling on the laen) ; Lenton, ditto. 
LAESE (AS.), pasture, literally moist, wet land; e.g. Lewes, in 
Sussex ; Lesowes, in Worcester (the wet pasture) ; Lewis- 
ham (the dwelling on the pasture), in Kent ; Leswalt (wood 
pasture), in Dumfriesshire. 

,„ ,, .. . (a hollow, cognate with the Lat. lacus and 

LUCKE^Ger ) 6 ' ) the Grk ' lakkos; e S- L °g ie ( the hollow), 
* '" (in Stirling ; Logiealmond (the hollow of 

the R. Almond in Perth) ; Logie-Buchan, in Aberdeenshire ; 
Logie-Coldstone, Gael. Lag-cul-duine (the hollow behind 
the fort), Aberdeen ; Logie-Easter and Logie-Wester, in 
Cromarty ; Logie Loch and Laggan Loch (the lake in the 
hollow) ; Logan (the little hollow) ; Logierait, Gael. Lag-an- 
rath (the hollow of the rath or castle, so called from the 
Earls of Atholl having formerly had their castle there in 
Perthshire) ; Mortlach, Co. Banff, probably meaning the 
great hollow. In Ireland : Legachory, Lagacurry, Lega- 
curry (the hollow of the pit or caldron, coire) ; Lugduff 
(dark hollow) ; Lugnaquillia (the highest of the Wicklow 
mountains), is from the Irish Lug-na-gcoilleack (the hollow 
of the cocks, i.e. grouse) ; Lough Logan (the lake of the 
little hollow) ; Lagnieu, in France, anc. Lagniacum (the 
place in the hollow of the waters) ; Laconia and Lace- 
demonia (in the hollow), in Greece, 
f r Hh I' 1 ( an enc l° sure > a church, a house ; but Mr. 

»„.„/>. r* 1 \ ) Skene considers that the Cel. llan comes 
llan (Cym.-Cel.), < , ^ T . ,, , , , , . . 

t and (T t , i 1 planum (a level place), just as 

^ ''' ^the Gael. Ian (full) comes from the Lat. 

plenus. This word is more common in Welsh names than 
in the topography of Ireland and Scotland, and in its 
signification of a church forms the groundwork of a vast 
number of Welsh names. In Ireland it means a house as 
well as a church, as in Landbrock (the badger's house) ; 
Landmore (the great church), in Londonderry ; Landa- 
hussy (O'Hussy's church), in Tyrone ; Lanaglug (the 
church of the bells). It is not so frequent in Scotland, but 
the modern name of Lamlash, in the Island of Arran, for- 

LANN 121 

merly Ard-na-Molas, the height of St. Molios, who lived 
in a cave there, seems to be the church or enclosure of this 
saint ; Lambride, in Forfar, is Lannbride (St. Bridget's 
church) ; Lumphanan is from Lann-Finan (St. Finan's 
church). The derivation of Lanark, anc. Lanerk, is prob- 
ably from the Welsh Llanerch (a distinct spot or fertile 
piece of ground). There are many examples of this root 
in Brittany ; e.g. Lanleff (the enclosure on the R. Leff) ; 
Lanmeur (great church) ; Lannion (the little enclosure) ; 
Landerneau and Lannoy (the enclosure on the water) ; but 
in French topography the Teut. land generally signifies 
uncultivated ground ; e.g. La Lande, Landes, Landelles, La 
Landelle, Les Landais, Landau, etc. — v. Cocheris's Noms 
de Lieu. Launceston, in Cornwall, is probably corrupt, 
from Llan-Stefihen. The greatest number of our examples 
must be taken from Wales. There are Lantony or Llan- 
Ddevinant (the church of St. David in the valley, nant, of 
the R. Hodeny) ; Llan-Dewi-Aberarth (St. David's church 
at the mouth of the Arth) ; Lampeter (of St. Peter) ; Llan- 
Asaph (of St. Asaph) ; Llanbadern-fawr (the great church 
founded by Paternus), also Llan-Badarn-Odyn ; Llandelo- 
vawr (of Feilo the Great); Llandewi-Brefi (St. David's 
church). Brevi here means the bellowing, from the dismal 
moans of a sacred animal killed here ; Llandovery, corrupt, 
from Llan-ym-dyffrwd (the church among the rivers, at the 
confluence of three streams) ; Llanudno (of St. Tudno) ; 
Llanelly (of St. Elian) ; Llanfair (of St. Mary) ; Llanover 
(the church of the Gover wells) ; Llanon (the church dedi- 
cated to Nonn, the mother of St. David) ; Llanfair-yn- 
nghornwy (on the horn or headland of the water). There are 
several of this name, — as Llan-fair-ar-y-bryn (St. Mary's 
church on the hill) ; Llanfair-helygen (St. Mary's church 
among willows) ; Llanfair-o'r-llwyn (on the lake) ; Llanfi- 
hangel (of the angel) ; Llanfihangel-genau'r-glyn (the church 
of the angels at the opening of the valley) ; Llanfihangel-y- 
creuddin, a church erected probably on the site of a bloody 
battle ; Llanfihangel-Hedrod (the church at the foot of a 
declivity) ; Llangadogvawr (of St. Cadoc the Great) ; Llan- 
geler (of St. Celert) ; Llangollen (of St. Collen) ; Llanidloes 
(of St. Idloes); Llaniestyn (of St. Constantine) ; Llannethlin, 

122 LAR 

anc. Mediolanum (the church among the pools or marshes) ; 
Llantrissant (of three saints) ; Llanddeusaint (of two saints) ; 
Llanberis (of St. Peres) ; Llandegla (of St. Theckla) ; 
Llanrhaiadr (the church of the cataract) ; Llanfaes (the 
church of the battle-field) ; Landaff, on the R. Taff ; Llan- 
goedmore (the church of the great wood) ; Llanaml-lech 
(the church on the stony ground, etc.) ; Llangwyllog (the 
gloomy church, perhaps in the shade of the Druidic grove) ; 
Llanfleiddian (dedicated to a bishop named Flaidd) ; Llan- 
llawer (the church of the multitude, llawer, close to which 
was a sainted well famous for its medicinal properties, and 
which was resorted to by crowds of impotent folk) ; Llancilcen 
(the church in the nook, cil, at the top, cen, of a hill), a 
parish in Flint ; Llan-mabon (of St. Mabon) ; Llan-Beblig, 
corrupt, from Bublicius, named for the son of Helen, a Welsh 
princess ; Llan-sant-Fagan, named in honour of St. Faganus, 
a missionary from Rome. Llan is sometimes corrupted to 
long in Scotland, as in Longniddrie ; Lagny, a town in 
France, anc. Laniacum (the church or enclosure on the 
stream). From the Teut. land, i.e. a country or district, 
some names may come in appropriately under this head — 
thus Scotland (the land of the Scots), from Ireland ; Monk- 
land, in Lanarkshire (belonging to the monks) ; Natland, 
in Norway (the land of horned cattle) ; Sutherland (the 
southern land, as compared with Caithness), both Suther- 
land and Caithness having formed part of the Orkney 
Jarldom ; Cumberland (the land of the Cymbri), being part 
of the British kingdom of Cumbria ; Holland (the marshy 
land, ollanf) ; Gippsland, named in honour of Sir George 
Gipps, a governor of Port Philip ; Friesland (the land of 
the Frisii) ; Beveland (of oxen or beeves) ; Baardland (of 
the Lombards) ; Westmoreland (the land of the West- 
mot ingas or people of the Western moors) ; Gothland, 
in Sweden (the land of the Goths) ; Jutland (the land 
of the Getas or Jutes, the Cimbric Chersonesus of the 

„ ™ /nu r* \ /a site, abed; and in Germany, 

LAR, LAAR, LEER (Old Ger.), I ' 't, ^ c ,j 

/a c \ J according to Buttmann, a field ; 

lIthair, orLAUE R (Gadhelic), )» topography synonymous 
x " ^ with lage; e.g. Goslar (the site 


or field on the R. Gose), in Hanover ; Somplar (marshy 
field) ; Wittlar (woody field) ; Dinklar (wheat field) ; Wetzlar, 
in Prussia, anc. Wittlara (woody field) ; Wassarlar (watery 
field) ; Noordlaren (the northern site) ; Lahr (the site), a 
town in Baden. In Ireland this word takes the forms of 
laragh and lara; e.g. Laraghleas (the site of the fort) ; 
Laraghshankill (of the old church). Lara, however, is 
sometimes a corrupt, of Leath-rath (half rath), as in 
Laragh, in West Meath ; and laar and lore often mean 
middle, as in Rosslare (the middle peninsula) ; Ennislare 
(the middle island) ; Latheron, in Caithness, is the site of 
the seal. 

LAUF LAUFEXD (Ger ) ( * CUrrent > a ra P id > fr0m laU f m ' Ger - ' 

LOOp'(Dutchi ) hlau P en ^ Scand - ; Meafen, A.S. (to 

\ /' y run, to leap) ; e.g. Laufen (the rapids), 

on the R. Salzach ; Lauffenberg (the town near the rapids 
of the Rhine) ; Laufnitz (the leaping river) ; Lauffen (on the 
rapids of the R. Inn) ; Leixlip, in Ireland, Old Norse Lax- 
hlaup (salmon-leap), on a cataract of the R. Liffey ; Beck- 
loop (brook cataract), in Holland ; Loop-Head, Co. Clare, 
Irish Leitn-Chon-Chuillerin (Cuchullin's leap) — v. Joyce's 
Names of Places. 

TAW ,A S \ hleaw ( a hil1 ' ^Snzte with the Irish ^ghj e.g. 
law (A.O.), nieaw, j Houndslow ^ dog > s hill ) . Lud i ow ( the 

' ( people's hill, leod) ; Greenlaw, in Berwick- 

shire (the green hill) — the modern town is situated on a 
plain, but old Greenlaw was on a hill ; Winslow (the hill of 
victory), in Berks ; Marlow (the chalk or marshy hill) ; 
Wardlaw (guard hill) ; Hadlow, anc. Haslow (hazel hill) ; 
Castlelaw, in the Lammermuir range, named from Roman 
camps on these hills ; Sidlaw Hills (the south hills, in re- 
ference to their forming the southern boundary of Strath- 
more) ; Warmlow, Co. Worcester, anc. Waermundes-hleau 
(the hill of Waermund, a personal name) ; Fala, a parish 
in Mid Lothian, abbreviated from Fallaw (the speckled hill) ; 
Mintlaw, in Aberdeenshire, corrupt, from Moan-alt-law (the 
hill at the moss burn). 
LAYA (Sansc), an abode ; e.g. Naglaya (the abode of snakes) ; 
the Himalaya Mountains (the abode of snow) ; Hurrial, for 
Arayalaya (the abode of Hari or Vishnu). 


leac (GadheliO ( a flat stone— in topography, found in the 
^ (c c '\ s I forms of lick and leek, cognate with the 
\ j •- ■)> [ L at _ iapi s an d Grk. lithos j e.g. Lackeen, 
Licken (the little stone) ; Slieve-league (the mountain of 
the flagstone) ; Lickmollasy (St. Molasse's flagstone) ; Bel- 
leek, Irish Bel-leice (the ford of the flagstone), near Bally- 
shannon ; Lackagh (full of flagstones) ; Lickfinn (white 
flagstone) ; Duleek, anc. Doimhliag (the stone house or 
church) ; Auchinleck (the field of the stone), in Ayrshire ; 
Harlech, in Merioneth ; Ar-llech (on the rock, the place 
being situated on a craggy eminence) ; Llananl-lech — v. 
LLAN ; Llech-trufin, probably originally Llech-treffen (the 
rock of the look-out, or twrfine) ; Llanml-lech (the church 
among many stones) ; Tre-llech (stone dwelling) ; Llech- 
rhyd (the ford of the flat stone) ; Leek, Lech, Leckbeck 
(the stony rivers) ; Leckfield (the field on the R. Leek) ; 
Leckwith, in Wales, for Lechwedd (a slope). 

leamhan (Gadhelic), the elm-tree ; e.g. the Laune, a river at 
Killarney, and the Leven, in Scotland (the elm-tree stream) ; 
Lennox or Levenach (the district of the R. Leven), the 
ancient name of Dumbartonshire ; Lislevane (the fort of the 
elm-tree), in Ireland. According to Mr. Skene, the Rivers 
Leven in Dumbartonshire and in Fife have given their 
names to Loch Lomond and Loch Leven, while in each 
county there is a corresponding mountain called Lomond. 

learg (Gadhelic), the slope of a hill ; e.g. Largy, in Ireland ; 
Lairg, a parish in Sutherlandshire ; Largs, in Ayrshire, and 
Largo, in Fife, from this word ; Largan (the little hill-slope) ; 
Largynagreana (the sunny hill-slope) ; Larganreagh (gray 
hill-slope), in Ireland. 

leben (Ger.), a possession, an inheritance. Forsteman thinks 
this word is derived from the Old Ger. laiban (to leave or 
bequeath), cognate with the Grk. leipa, and not from leben 
(to live) ; e.g. Leibnitz, anc. Dud-leipen (the inheritance of 
Dudo) ; Ottersleben (of Otho) ; Ritzleben (of Richard) ; 
Germersleben (of Germer) ; Osharsleben (of Ausgar) ; San- 
dersleben (of Sander) ; Hadersleben (of Hada). 

LEGIO (Lat.), a Roman legion; e.g. Caerleon, on the Usk, anc. 
Isca-Legionis ; Leicester, Legionis-castra (the camp of the 
legion) ; Leon, in Spain, anc. Legio, being the station of 


the seventh Roman legion ; Lexdon, anc. Legionis-dunum 
(the fort of the legion) ; Megiddo, in Palestine, now Ledjun, 
anc. Castra-legtoms (the camp of the legion). 

LEHM CGer ) ( Clay ' mud ' e ' gm the Leam ^ the mudd y river ) ; 
^ ')' ) Leamington (the town on the R. Leam) ; Lehm- 

* ' ''' j hurst (the clayey wood) ; Lambourn (muddy 

* '' ^ brook) ; Leemkothen (the mud huts). 

LElTER (Gadhelic), the slope of a hill ; e.g. Ballater, in Aberdeen- 
shire (the town on the sloping hill) ; Letterfearn (the alder- 
tree slope); Letterfourie (the grassy hill-side, feurach); Find- 
later (the cold hill-slope, fionri), in Scotland. In Ireland : 
Letterkenny (the hill-slope of the O'Cannons) ; Letterkeen 
(beautiful hill-slope) ; Lettermullen (Meallan's hill-slope) ; 
Letterbrick (the badger's hill-slope) ; Letterlickey (the hill- 
slope of the flagstone) ; Letherhead, in Surrey (at the head 
of the slope, Welsh llethr), on the declivitous bank of the 
R. Mole ; Machynlleth for Mach-yn-Llethr (the ridge on the 
slope), a town in Montgomery. 

.. _ . I the people ; e.g. Leutkirch (the people's church) ; 
^ ._ '■'' I Liege, Ger. Liittich, anc. Leodicus-vicus (the 

LEUTE (° er -)> { people's town)— the hill on which the citadel 
stands was called Publes-mont (the people's hill) ; Leeds, 
in Yorkshire, anc. Loidis (the people's town, according to 
Bayley) ; Whittaker, however, makes it the town of Loidi, a 
personal name) ; but Leeds, in Kent, is said to have been 
named after Ledian, the Chancellor of Ethelred II. 

LESSO, LESSE (Sclav.), a wood or thicket ; e.g. Lessau, Leske, 
Leskau, Lessen, Lissa (the woody place), towns in Prussia ; 
Leschnitz, in Silesia, and Leizig, in Saxony, with the same 
meaning ; Leschkirch (the church in the wood), in Tran- 
sylvania ; Liezegorike (woody hill). 

LEUCUS (Grk), white ; e.g. Leuctra, Leuctron, Leucadia, so named 
from the white rocks at its extremity ; Leucasia (the white 
river) ; Leucate (the white promontory in Greece). 

( K c\ ( a district — in English topography generally 
' *■ I applied to an open field or meadow ; e.g. 

LEG ' ( Leigh (the meadow), in Lancashire ; Berkeley, 

Thornley, Oakley, Auchley, Alderley, Brachley (the meadow 
of birch, thorn, oak, alder, ferns) ; Hasley (of hazels) ; 
Hagley (the enclosed meadow) ; Horsley (the meadow of 

126 LIN— LINN E 

Horsa, or of horses) ; Brockley (of the badger) ; Hindley 
(of the stag) ; Everley (of the wild boar, aper) ; Bradley 
(broad meadow) ; Stanley (stony meadow) ; Loxley (of 
Loki, a Scandinavian deity) ; Ashley (ash-tree meadow) ; 
but Ashley, S. Carolina, was named after Lord Ashley in 
the reign of Charles II. ; Morley (moor-field) ; Bisley (bean- 
field) ; Cowley (cow's field) ; Linley (flax-field) ; Monkley 
(the monk's field) ; Audley, Co. Stafford (old field) ; but 
Audley, in Essex, took its name from a palace erected 
by Thomas Audley, Lord Chancellor of England ; Ofley 
(the field of King Offa) ; Tarporley, in Cheshire, corrupt, 
from Thorpeley (the farm-field or meadow) ; Chorley (the 
meadow of the R. Chor) ; Bosley (Bodolph's field) ; West 
Leigh, North Leigh, Leighton, from the same root ; Satter- 
leigh (the field of Seator, an A. S. deity) ; Earnley, Sussex 
(eagle meadow) ; Ripley, in Yorkshire, from Hryp, a 
peronal name ; Bentley, betit, pasture (a coarse kind of 
grass) ; Tewesley and Tisley, from Tiw, a Saxon deity — 
as also Tewing, Tuoesmere, and Teowes (thorn) ; Henley 
(the old meadow or field), supposed to be the oldest town 
in Oxfordshire. 
lin (Esthonian), a fort or town ; e.g. Rialin, now Riga (the fortress 
of the Rugii), in Russia ; Pernau, anc. Perna-lin (the lime- 
tree fort) ; Tepelin (hill town ; iepe, Turc. hill). 
(c . ( the linden-tree ; e.g. Lindhurst 

'/'ac- jo j \ \ and Lyndhurst (the linden-tree 
lind, lynd (A.S. and Scand.), ) ,. ' . ,, . v _ . , , T . 

v " { wood) ; Lmdheim, Lindorf, Lim- 

burg, in Germany (the town of linden-trees) ; as also Lim- 
burg, in Holland, formerly Lindenburgj Lindau (the linden- 
tree meadow) ; Lindesnaes (the promontory of linden-trees), 
in Norway ; La Linde, Le Lindois (abounding in linden-trees) ; 
Limbceuf, Lindebceuf (linden-tree dwelling), in France. 

LINNE (Gadhelic), ( a ?°?' a lake ' s ° me t™es applied to a 
/ C C J\ J waterfall, not as associated with the cas- 

hlynna (AS 1 ) j Cade ' but with the P° o1 int0 which it: is 

\ • •'' ^received, as in the Linn of Dee, in Aber- 

deenshire, and Corra-linn, on the Clyde. Dublin (the black 
pool) takes its name from that part of the R. Liffey on 
which it is built ; and there are several other places in 
Ireland whose names have the same meaning, although 

LIOS 127 

variously spelt, as Devlin, in Mayo ; Dowling and Doolin, 
in Kilkenny and Clare ; Ballinadoolin (the town of the 
black pool), in Kildare. In several such cases the proper 
name was Ath-cliath (hurdle ford), literally Baik-atha-cliath 
(the town of the hurdle ford), the original name of Dublin. 
The ancient name of Lincoln, Lindum, is the hill fort on 
the pool ; Linlithgow comes from the same root, and is 
probably the gray lake — how it came by the termination 
gov.; gu, or a/, as it is variously spelt, cannot be deter- 
mined ; Linton, in Roxburghshire, is the town on the pool ; 
Linton, in Peebles, on the R. Lyne — in Cambridge (on the 
brook, filynna) ; Dupplin, on the R. Earn, in Perthshire 
(the black pool) ; Crailing, in Berwickshire, anc. Travertin 
(the dwellings, trcabliar, on the pool) ; Edarline (between 
the pools) ; Aber-glas-lyn (the estuary of the blue pool), in 
Wales ; Lynn-Regis (the king's pool), in Norfolk ; Roslin 
(the projecting point on the pool), in Mid Lothian ; Lynn- 
yr-Afrange (the beaver's pool), in Wales ; Mauchline, in 
Ayrshire (the pool in the plain, magli) ; Lincluden, in 
Kirkcudbright (the pool of the R. Cluden) ; Lindores, in 
Fife, probably not from this root, but a corrupt of Latin- 
Tours, being the seat of the abbey of Tours, founded by 
David, Earl of Huntingdon. Lyme-Regis (the king's pool), 
in Dorset ; Lymington, anc. Linton (the town on the pool), 
in Hants ; Llyn-hir (long pool) ; Llyn-y-cun (the dog's pool), 
in Carnarvon ; Llynn-y-Xadroedd (the adder's pool) ; Llynn- 
ye-cae (the enclosed pool), all in Wales ; Llyn-tegid (the 
fair or beautiful lake) ; Lly-gwyn, with the same meaning ; 
Llyn-Teivy, of the R. Teivy, in Wales : Llyn-Safaddon, 
corrupt, from Llynsaf-baddon (the standing pool or fixed 
bathing place) — v. BAD. 

,_,,,.. (an enclosure, a garden, or a fort. In 
LIOS, or lis (Gadhehc), I . , , . ^ £> „ ' . . „ 

' v , _ . ' Ireland it generally meant originally a 

les (Breton and Comish), 1 . . ° , ., ' . . °. \ 

v ' ( place enclosed with a circular entrench- 

ment, for the purpose of shelter and safety, and is often 
translated by the Lat atrium (the entrance-room to a 
dwelling or temple). There are eleven places in Ireland 
called Lismore (the great enclosure) ; Lismore also in 
Argyleshire ; Listowel (Tuathal's fort) ; Liscarrol (Carrol's 
fort) ; Liscahane (Cathan's fort) ; Lissan, Lissane, Lessany 


(the little fort) ; Ballylesson (the town of the little fort) 
Lisclogher (stone fort) ; Lislevane (the fort of the elm) 
Lismullin (of the mill) ; Lisnadarragh (of the oaks) 
Lisnaskea, i.e. Lios-na-sceithe (of the bush) ; Lissard (high 
fort) ; Gortnalissa (the field of the fort) ; Lisbellaw, i.e. 
Lios-bel-atha (the fort at the ford mouth) ; Dunluce (strong 
fort) ; Thurles, Co. Tipperary, from Durlas (strong fort) ; 
Rathurles (the rath of the strong fort) — all in Ireland; 
Liskard or Liskeard (the enclosure on the height), in Corn- 
wall and Cheshire ; Lostvvithel, in Cornwall, i.e. Les-vthiel 
(the lofty palace), one of the ancient seats of the Duke of 
Cornwall ; Lesmahago, in Lanarkshire, Lat. Ecclesia- 
Machute (the enclosure or church of St. Machute) ; Les- 
neven, in Brittany, i.e. Les-an-Evan (the enclosure or palace 
of Evan, Count of Leon) ; Leslie, in Fife (the enclosure on 
the R. Leven) ; Lessudden or St. Boswell's, in Roxburgh- 
shire, bears the first name from Aidan, the Bishop of 
Lindesfarne, who is said to have lived there ; and its second 
name from Boisel, a disciple of St. Cuthbert. The Spanish 
llosa is akin to the Celtic lios, as in Lliosa-del-Obispo (the 
bishop's enclosure). 

lipa (Sclav.), the linden-tree ; e.g. Leipzig, Lipten, Laubsdorf or 
Libanoise, Lauban or Luban, Luben, Laubst, Labolz, etc. 
(the places abounding in linden-trees) ; Lubeck and Lublin 
may come from the same root, or from a Sclavonic word 
signifying beloved. 

llwyd (Welsh), gray-brown ; e.g. Rhipyn Llwyd (the gray upland) ; 
Llwyd-goed (gray wood). 

loch, LOUGH (Gadhelic), j % ^ ; e * Loc * Bioom (the lake 

LLWCH (Cym.-Cel.), ) ° f showe "' **"»> ' , Loc T h C f r ° n (° f 

x ' ' { the winding water) ; Loch Dome 

(deep loch) ; Loch Duich, in Ross-shire (the lake of St. 
Duthic, the same person from whom the town of Tain took 
its Gaelic name, Baile-Duich, St. Dulhaick's town) ; Loch 
Fyne (the fair lake) ; Loch Lomond (the lake of the elm- 
tree river) ; Loch Nell (of the swan, eald) ; Loch Ness (of 
the waterfall, i.e. of Foyers) — v. eas ; Loch Long (ship 
lake, Scand. Skipafiord) ; Gareloch (short lake, gearr), in 
Ross-shire, and also a branch of the Firth of Clyde ; Loch 
Etive (dreary loch, eitidh) ; Lochlubnaig (the lake of the 

LOCH 129 

little bend, lubnaig) ; Lochbuie and Lochbuy (the yellow 
loch) ; Lochmuic (of the wild boar) ; Lochgorm (blue 
loch) ; Lochlaggan (of the hollow) ; Loch Tay (of the R. 
Tay or Tamha, quiet river) ; Lochgelly (of the fair water) ; 
Loch Maree (the lake of St. Malrube) ; Lochard (high 
loch) ; Loch Awe and Loch Linnhe (here duplicate names, 
aw signifying water and linne a pool) ; Loch-na-keal (the 
loch of the cemetery, till) ; Loch Earn (the west loch, i.e. 
west of Loch Tay) ; Lochgelly (white \ake,.gealich) ; Loch 
Katrine, probably the lake of the Caterans or freebooters ; 
Benderloch, in Argyleshire, i.e. Bendaraloch (the hill 
between the lakes) ; Lochnagar, i.e. Lochan-na-gabhar (the 
little lake of the goats, at the base of the mountain to which 
it gives its name) ; Lochmaben, probably the loch of the 
bald headland, as in an old charter the castle at the head 
of the loch is called Lochmalbanj Lochfad (long loch), in 
the Island of Bute, five miles long and scarce half a mile 
broad ; Loch Achray, in Perthshire (the loch of the level 
plain, reidk) ; Leuchars, in Fife, formerly Lough-yards, the 
low grounds of the village used to lie under water for the 
greater part of the year. In Ireland there are Lough Derg 
(red lake), originally Loch Dergderc (the lake of the red 
eye, connected with a legend) ; Lough Conn (from a per- 
sonal name Conn) ; Loch Rea (gray or smooth lake, reidh, 
smooth) ; as also Loch Ryan, in Kirkcudbright (of the 
smooth water, reidkan) ; Loch Foyle (the lake of Febhal, 
the son of Lodan) ; Loughan, Loughane (little lake) ; 
Lochanaskin (the little lake of the eels) ; Lough Corrib, 
corrupt, from Lough Orbsen (the lake of Orbsen or 
Mannanan, over whose grave it is said to have burst forth) ; 
Lough Erne, in Ireland, named from the Ernai, a tribe ; 
Lough Finn, named after a lady called Finn, who was 
drowned in its waters ; Lough, i.e. Loch-n' -Echach (the lake 
of Eochy, a Munster chief, who, with his family, was over- 
whelmed in the eruption which gave their origin to its 
waters) ; Loch Swilly, probably a Scand. name, meaning 
the lake of the surges or whirlpool, swelchie. The town of 
Carlow was originally Cetherloch (the quadruple lake, cether, 
four), from a tradition that formerly the R. Barrow formed 
four lakes at this spot. 



LOCUS (Lat), 
loca (A.S.), 
LOK, lle (Cym.-Cel.) 
lieu (Fr.), 

a place ; e.g. Netley, Lat. Laeto-loco (at 

the pleasant, cheerful place), so called 

from a monastery founded there by 

Mereward, King of Mercia, in 658 ; 

Madley (the good place) ; Matlock (the 

meat enclosure or storehouse) ; Leominster, Lat. Locus- 

fanum (temple place) ; Porlock or Portlock, in Somerset 

(the place of the port) ; Lok-Maria-Ker (the town of Maria 

Ker), in Brittany. In France : Richelieu (rich place) ; 

Chaalis, anc. Carolis-locus (the place of Charles the Good, 

Count of Flanders) ; Beaulieu (beautiful place) ; Loctudey, 

at Finisterre, corrupt, from Loc-Sancti-Tudene (the place of 

St. Tudy) ; Locdieu and Dilo, i.e. Dei-locus (God's place) ; 

Lieusaint (holy place) ; Baslieu (low place). 

._, ,„ ,. ( a meadow or thicket, and sometimes 

LOH^LOo(Ger.andDutch),l a marsh . ^ Waterloo (watery 

( meadow) ; Venloo (the marshy 
meadow), and perhaps Louvain may have the same mean- 
ing; Groenloo (green thicket) ; Hohenlohe (the high marshy 
meadow) ; Tongerloo (the marshy meadow of the Tungri) ; 
Schwarzenloh (the black thicket) ; Anderlues (on the marsh). 

t nun (C \ ( a P a 'k ' e & I ser "' onn (^e P at h by the R. Iser) ; 
m \\ \ Forstlohn (the path in the wood) ; Neerloon and 
^ '' ( Oberloon (the lower and upper path) ; Loon-op- 

Zand (the path on the sand). 

LUCUS (Lat.), ( a Sac ; ed gr ° ve; 'f:. Lug0 ' ™ Italy ' 

ttwviwVw i \ \\\ \ anc lucus- Dtance (the sacred grove 

^ '' ° ' (of Diana); Lugo, in Spain, anc. Lucus- 

Augusti (the sacred grove of Augustus) ; Les luches, in 

France, near the remains of an ancient temple ; Luc, anc. 

Lucus, in Dauphiny. 

._ , . (a. marsh, cognate with the Lat. 

LUG, LUKA, or LUZ (Sclav.), \ , _, t „■ t 4. /u. 

ir HVi v \ J l utum > e -S- Lusatia or Lausatz (the 

/„ , . '\ \ marshy land) ; Lassahn, Ger. Laki- 

lauk (Esthoman), I , ,^'\ \ ^\ 

v " \ ourgum (the town on the marsh) ; 

Lugos or Lugosch, Luko and Leignitz, with the same mean- 
ing, in Poland and Silesia ; Podlachia (near the marshes), 
a district in Poland. The towns of Lyons, Laon, and Leyden 
were formerly named Lugdunum (the fortress in the marshy 
land); Paris was formerly ^ ' Lutetia-Parisiorum (the marshy 


land of the Parisii). In France : Loches, formerly Lucca 
and Lochia (the marshy land) ; and Loche", formerly Loch- 
eium (the marshy dwelling), in the departments of Indre et 

lund (Scand.), a sacred grove ; e.g. Lund, towns in Sweden and 
in the Shetlands ; Lundgarth (the enclosed grove), in York- 
shire ; Lundsthing (the place of meeting at the grove), in 
Shetland ; Charlottenlund, Christianslund, and Fredericks- 
lund (the grove of Charlotte, Christian, and Frederick), vill- 
ages in Denmark ; and perhaps the island Lundy, in the 
Bristol Channel. 

LUST, lyst (Teut.), pleasure — applied, in topography, to a palace 
or lordly mansion ; e.g. Ludwigslust, Charlottenlust, Raven- 
lust (the palaces of Ludovick, of Charlotte, and of Hrafen) ; 
Lostwithel, in Cornwall (the manor of Withel), in the old 
Brit, language, Pen Uchel coet (the lofty hill in the wood, 
and the Uzella of Ptolemy) ; Lustleigh (the valley of plea- 
sure), in Devon. 

LUTTER, lauter (Teut.), bright, clear; e.g. Lutri, on Lake Geneva; 
Luttar, in Brunswick (the bright place) ; Latterbach and 
Lauterburn (clear stream) ; Lauterburg, in Alsace, on the 
R. Lauter ; Lutterworth (the bright farm) ; Lauterecken, in 
Bavaria, at the corner, eck, of the R. Lauter. 

._ . I small ; e.g. Lutgenrode (the little clear-' 

lutzel lytel ( 1 eut.), 1 ing) . Luxemburg; cor rupt. from Lutzel- 

lille (bcand.), y burg ^ smaH fortress ) ; L at i n i S ed Lucis- 

Burgum (the city of light), and hence passing into Lux- 
emburg ; Lucelle or Lutzel, in Alsace ; Lutzelsten (the small 
rock), in Alsace. 


MAEN (Welsh), a stone ; e.g. Maentwrog (the tower-like pillar), a 

parish in Merioneth ; Maen or Dewi (St. David's possession). 

._ _ . . /a meadow or field, cognate with the 
MAES,orFAES(Cym,Cel.), j ^ Maescar ({he j 

MOED, or MEAD (A. S.), I m ^ fie * } . M * aisemQre (great field)j 

MATTE (Ger.), ^ m Brecknock and Gloucestershire; 

Marden, in Hereford, anc. Maes-y-durdin (the field of the 


water camp) ; Basaleg, a parish in Wales. The name has 
been corrupted Maes-aleg, signifying elect land, from an 
event famous in Welsh history, which took place there. 
Maes-teg (the fair field) ; Maes-yr-onnen (the field of ash- 
trees) ; Cemmaes (the plain of the ridge, cefn) ; Maes-y- 
Mynach (monk field) ; Cemmaes, i.e. Cefrirmaes (the ridge 
of the plain), in Wales ; Runnymede, Co. Surrey (the 
meadow of the council), Latinised Pratum-concilii j Ander- 
matt (on the meadow) ; Zermatt (at the meadow), in 
Switzerland ; Matterhorn (the peak of the meadow) ; 
Aeschenmatt (ash-tree meadow); Maes-Garmon (the field 
of St. Germanus), in Wales ; Soultzmatt (the meadow of 
mineral waters, salz), in Alsace. 
MAGEN, MEKEN, or main (Teut), great ; e.g. the R. Main, anc, 
Magen-aha (great water) ; Mainland, anc. Meginland (great 
island), in the Orkneys ; Mainhardt (great wood) ; Mein- 
ingen (the great field) — v. GEN — in Germany. 
,„ „ ,. . ( a field or plain, corrupt, into Maw 

mach (Cvm-Cen a ridee \ or Moy ' Latinised ma S us S e -S- Magh- 
v ' '" \ breagh (the beautiful plain), in 

Ireland, extending from the R. Liffey to the borders of Co. 
Louth ; Moy and May (the plain), both in Ireland and in 
Scotland; Moidart(the high plain), in Inverness-shire; Mayo 
(the plain of yew-trees) ; Moynalty, Irish Magh-nealta (the 
plain of the flocks) ; Macosquin, in Londonderry, corrupt, 
from Magh-Cosgrain (the field of Cosgrain) ; Mallow, in 
Cork, Magh-Ealla (the plain of the R. Alio or Ealla, now 
the Blackwater) ; Moville and Movilla (the plain of the old 
tree, bile) ; Moycoba, for Magh-Coba (the plain of Coba) ; 
Machaire, a derivative from Magh, is found under the forms 
of Maghera and Maghery, thus — Magheracloone (the plain 
of the meadow) ; Magheraculmony (the plain at the back of 
the shrubbery) ; Maynooth (the plain of Nuadhat) ; Moira, 
corrupt, from Magk-ralh (the plain of the forts), Co. Down ; 
Moyarta (the plain of the grave, ferla). In Scotland we find 
Rothiemay, in Banff, corrupt, from Rath-na-magh (the castle 
of the plain) ; Monievaird, i.e. Magh-na-bhaird (the plain 
of the bards), in Perthshire ; Machynlleth (the ridge on the 
slope), a town in Montgomeryshire, Wales. In its Latin- 
ised form this word is found in Marcomagus, now Margagen 


(the plain of the Marcomanni) ; Juliomagus and Caesaro- 
magus (of Julius and Caesar) ; Noviomagus (the new plain) ; 
and again the same word became magen or megen among 
the Teutonic races, thus Noviomagus became Nimeguen ; 
Nozon was anc. Noviomagus or Noviodunum; Riom, in 
France, anc. Ricomagus (rich plain) ; Maing or Meung, on 
the Loire, formerly Magus; Argenton, Argentomagus (silver 
field) ; Rouen, anc. Rothomagus (the fort on the plain). 
The ancient name of Worms was Bartomagus, which Butt- 
man says means high field ; its present name was corrupted 
from Vormatzaj Mouzon, in France, was Mosomagus (the 
plain of the R. Meuse). 
maha (Sansc), great ; e.g. Mahabalipoor (the city of the great god 
Bali) ; Mahanuddy (the great river) ; Mahadea Mountains 
(the mountains of the great goddess) ; Maha-vila-ganga (the 
great sandy river) ; Mantote, in Ceylon, corrupt, from Maha- 
Totta (the great ferry). 
Mahal, MAL, or mold (Teut.), the place of meeting ; e.g. Mahl- 
burg or Mailburg, in Lower Austria (the town of the place 
of meeting) ; Detmold, anc. Theotmalli (the people's meet- 
ing-place ; Wittmold (the meeting-place in the wood) ; 
Moldfelde (in the field) ; Malton (the town of the meeting), 
in Yorkshire ; Maulden (the valley of the meeting), in Bed- 
fordshire ; Kirch-ditmold (the church at the meeting-place). 
maly, or malki (Sclav.), little ; e.g. Malinek, Malinkowo, Malenz, 
Malchow, Malkow, Malkowitz (little town) ; Maliverck (the 
little height). 
man, or maen (Cym.-Cel.), a place or district ; Maenol or Mainor, 
Welsh (a possession), akin to the Lat. mansio and the Fr. 
maison. From this word may be derived Maine, a province 
of France ; Mans and Mantes, although more directly they 
may probably come from the Cenomanni, a people who for- 
merly inhabited that district in France ; Mantua, in Italy, 
and La Mancha, in Spain, may be placed under this 
head ; also Manchester, anc. Mancunium, and Mancester, 
anc. Manduessedum j Menteith, in Perthshire, the district 
of the R. Teith. In the Welsh language the letter . m is 
changed into f, and pronounced v, and fan abridged to fa, 
thus — Brawdfa (the place of judgment) ; Eisteddfa (the 
sitting place) ; Gorphwzsfa (resting place) ; Morfa (the shore 


or sea place) ; Manaera (the place of slaughter), probably 
the site of a battle ; Manclochog (the ringing-stone). 1 

MANSUS (Lat.), a farm or rural dwelling, to which was attached a 
certain portion of land. It was often contracted into mas, 
miex, or mexj e.g. La Manse, Mansac, Manselle, Le Mas, 
Beaumets, Beaumais, in France. The Manse, i.e. the dwell- 
ing and glebe attached to a parish in Scotland ; Mains, a 
parish in Forfar. 

MANTIL (Old Ger.), the fir-tree ; e.g. Mantilholz (the fir-wood) ; 
Mantilberg (fir-tree hill) ; Zimmermantil (the room or 
dwelling at the fir-trees). 

mar, a Ger. word, used both as an affix and a prefix, with 
various meanings. As a prefix, it occasionally stands for 
mark (a boundary), as in Marbrook (the boundary brook), 
and Marchwiail (the boundary of poles), in Wales ; some- 
times for a marsh, as in Marbach, on the Danube, and 
Marburg, on the Neckar ; sometimes also for mark, an Old 
Ger. word for a horse, as in Marburg, on the R. Lahn, and 
Marburg and Mardorf (horse town), in Hesse. As an affix, 
it is an adjective, and signifies, in the names of places and 
persons, clear, bright, distinguished, or abounding in ; e.g. 
Eschmar (abounding in ash-trees) ; Geismar (in goats) ; 
Horstmar (in wood) ; Weimar (in the vine). 

M4RK(Ger} ( the boundal 7; e -S- Stvria or Stiermark, the 

mearcCAS^ ) boundary of the R. Steyer ; Markstein (the 
/f \ J boundary stone) ; Markhaus (the dwelling on the 
"■" (.border); March, a town in Cambridge; La 
Marche (the frontier), a domain in France, having been the 
boundary between the Franks and Euskarians ; Mercia, 
one of the kingdoms of the Heptarchy, bordering on Wales ; 
and Murcia, in Spain, the boundary district between the 
Moorish kingdom of Granada and the other parts of Spain ; 
Newmark, Altmark, Mittelmark (the new, old, and middle 
boundary), in Germany ; Mark, in the Scandinavian lan- 
guage, meant a plain or district, thus Denmark means the 
plain of the Danes ; Finnmark (of the Finns) ; Markbury, 
in Cheshire ; Markley, in Hereford (the boundary town and 
field). The Marcomanni were the March or boundary men 

1 It obtained the name from two large stones that lay on the roadside near 
the church, and possessed that property. 


of the Sclavonic frontier of Germany ; the R. March or 
Morava, the boundary between Lower Austria and Hungary ; 
Marbecq and Marbeque, rivers in France ; Mardick (the 
boundary dike). 

MARKT (Teut ) ( a market > sometimes found as mart ; e.g. Markt- 

MERKT \ mtihle (the market mill) ; Marktham, Markt- 

( flecken (market-town), in Germany; Martham, 
also in Norfolk ; Neumarkt in Germany, and Newmarket 
in England (new market-town) ; Martock, in Somerset (the 
oak-tree under which the market of the district used to be 
held) ; Market-Raisin, in Lincoln, on the R. Raisin ; Bibert- 
Markt, in Bavaria, on the R. Bibert ; Kasmarkt, in Hun- 
gary, corrupt, from Kaiser-Markt (the emperor's market- 
town) ; Donnersmarkt, the German translation or corrup- 
tion of Csotariokhely (the Thursday market-place), in Hun- 
gary. The cattle-market at Stratford-on-Avon is still called 
the Rother-market, from an old word rother, for horned 

marsa (Ar.), a port ; e.g. Marsala, in Sicily, i.e. Marsa-Allah 
(the port of God) ; Marsalquivir, i.e. Marsal-el-kebir (the 
great port). In Malta : Marsa-scala, Marsa-scirocco, Marsa- 
muscetto, Marsa Torno. 

MAS (Irish), the thigh — applied in topography to a long low 
hill ; e.g. Massreagh (gray hill) ; Mausrower (thick hill) ; 
Massareene, i.e. Mas-a-rioghna (the queen's hill) ; but 
Massbrook, Co. Mayo, is not from this root ; it is a trans- 
lation of Sruthan-an-aiffrinn (the brook where the mass 
used to be celebrated). 

maum, moym, or mam, Irish madhm (a mountain pass or chasm) ; 
e.g. Maum-Turk (the boar's pass) ; Maumakeogh (the pass 
of the mist); Maumnaman (of the women) ; Maumnahaltora 
(of the altar). 

MAVRO (Modern Grk.), black ; e.g. Mavrovouno (the black 
mountain) ; Mavro Potamo (the black river), in Greece ; 
Mavrovo and Mavroya (the black town), in Turkey. 

MAWR, by mutation fawr, Welsh (great) — v. mor, p. 143. 

MEDINA (Ar.), a city or the metropolis ; e.g. Medina, in Arabia, 
called by the Arabs Medinat-al-Nabi (the city of the 
prophet). In Spain : Medina-de-las-torres (the city of the 
towers); Medina-del-campo (of the plain); Medina-del- 


pomar (of the apple-orchard) ; Medina-del-rio-seco (of the 
dry river-bed) ; Medina-Sidonia (of the Sidonians). This 
city was so named by the Moors, because they believed it' 
to have been built on the site of the Phoenician city Asidur. 

meer, MERE (Teut.), a lake, sea, or marsh ; e.g. Blakemere (the 
black lake, blaec), in Hereford ; Great Marlow or Merelow 
(the hill by the marsh) ; Cranmere (the crane's lake or 
marsh) ; Winandermere, so called, according to Camden, 
from the winding of its shores ; Wittleseamere, Buttermere, 
and Ellsmere, probably from personal names ; Meerfeld, 
Meerhof, Meerholz, and Meerhout (the field, court, and 
wood near the lake or marsh), in Holland. But mere, in 
place-names, is said sometimes to mean a boundary — thus 
Merse, the other name for Berwickshire, may mean either 
the marshy land or the boundary county between England 
and Scotland. Closely connected with meer (a lake) are 
the words in the Celtic as well as in the Teutonic languages, 
denoting marshy lands, z>. lands that have lain under water, 
and are still partially submerged — such as merse, A.S. ; 
morast, Ger. ; morfa, Welsh ; marish, Gadhelic ; marsk, 
Scand. ; and marais, Fr. Many places in Great Britain 
and the Continent derive their names from these words, thus 
— the Maros or Marosh ; and the Morava (marshy rivers); 
Moravia (the district of the marshy river) ; Morast, in 
Sweden (the town on the marsh) ; Merton, in Berwickshire 
(the town on the marsh); Morebattle, in Roxburghshire, anc. 
Mereboda (the dwelling on the marsh) ; Ostermarsh (east 
marsh), in Holland ; Marengo (the marshy field), in Italy ; 
Les Moeres (the marshes), in Flanders ; Marchienne, 
Marchienes, Maresche, Maresches, Marest, etc., in France ; 
Marcienisi, in Italy (marshy localities). The River Mersey 
may come from this word, or it may mean the border river 
between England and Wales. 

menil, mesnil (Fr.), from Mansionile, the dim. of mansusj e.g. 
Grandmenil (the great dwelling or hamlet) ; Le Menil-Ia- 
comtesse (the manor of the countess) ; Mesnil-eglise (the 
church hamlet) ; Mesnil-Guillaume, Mesnil-Gilbert, Mesnil- 
Jourdan, named from .the proprietors ; Mesnil-sur-PEstree 
(the hamlet on the Roman road called Strata Estre'e) ; Les 
Menils, Menillot, etc., in France. 


menzil (Ar.), a village ; e.g. Miselmeri, corrupt, from Menzil-el- 
Emir (the emir's village) ; Mezojuso, from Menzil- Yusuf 
(the village of Joseph). 

._ . . ( little, cognate with the Lat. minor; e.g. the Rivers 

. *■ "'' I Minnow and Mynwy, in Wales ; the Mincio, in 

mio (bcand.), y ItaIy . the Minh0) in p ortuga i . Minorca (the 

less), in opposition to Majorca (the greater island) ; Miosen 
(the little sea or lake), in Norway. 

mickla, mycel (Teut. and Scand.), great, Scotch muckle; e.g. 
Mickledorf, Michelstadt, Michelham, Mickleton (great 
dwelling) ; Micklebeck (great brook) ; Michelau (great 
meadow) ; Mitchelmerse (the great marsh) ; Mecklenburg, 
anc. Mikilinberg (the great town or hill fort) ; Muchelney 
(the great island), in Somersetshire, formed by the conf. 
of the Rivers Ivel and Parret ; Meikle Ferry (the great 
ferry), on Dornoch Firth ; Micklegarth (the great enclosure), 
the Scandinavian name for Constantinople, Grk. Megalo- 
polis j but mikil or miklos, especially in Russia and Hun- 
gary, is often an abbreviation of St. Nicholas, and denotes 
that the churches in these places were, dedicated to that 
saint — thus Mikailov, Mikhailovskaia, Mikhalpol (St. 
Nicholas's towns), in Russia; Miklos-Szent and Miklos- 
Nagy-Szent, in Hungary ; Mikolajow, in Poland ; Mitcham, 
in Surrey, in Doomsday is Michelham. 

min, men, or maen (Cym.-Cel.), a high rock or the brow of a 
hill ; e.g. Maen-du (black rock), in Monmouth ; Minto, a 
parish in Roxburghshire, on the brow of a steep hill ; Meon- 
stoke (hill station) ; East and West Meon, in Gloucester- 
shire ; Mendabia (at the foot of the hill), in Spain ; Alt- 
maen, corrupt, to " Old Man of Coniston," in the Lake 
country, and to the " Old Man of Hoy," in the Orkneys ; 
the " Dodmaen," in Cornwall — v. DODD — has been cor- 
rupted to Deadman. 

. , . „ . (a monk's dwelling or monastery, 

MINSTER, MYNSTER (AS.), I hence ft cathedra l _ Lat . monas . 

MUENSTER (Ger.), | tota . e # master, Axminster, 

Stourminster, Kremmunster, Charminster (the monasteries 
on the Rivers 111, Ax, Stour, Krem, and Char) ; Beam- 
minster, Co. Dorset, named after St. Bega ; Kidderminster 


(the monastery of Earl Cynebert) ; Westminster (the min- 
ster west of St. Paul's) ; Warminster (near the weir or dam 
of the R. Willey) ; Monasteranenagh (the monastery of the 
fair) ; Monasterboice (of St. Boethus) ; Monasterevin (of 
St. Evin), in Ireland ; Monasteria de la Vega (of the plain), 
in Spain. In France : Moutier, Moustier, Moustoir, Mun- 
ster, Monestier (the monastery) ; Montereau, Montreuil, 
Marmoutier (the monastery of St. Martin) ; Masmoutier 
(of Maso) ; Noirmoutier and Rougemoutier (the black and 
red monastery) ; Toli-Monaster or Bitolia (the monastery 
of the beech-trees), in Turkey ; Munster (the monastery), 
in Alsace ; but Munster, a province in Ireland, is com- 
pounded from the Scand. ster — qu. v. — and the Irish 
Mumha, a king's name ; Munster-eifel (the monastery at 
the foot of the Eifel-berg). 
mir (Sclav.), peace ; e.g. Mirgorod (the fortress of peace) ; 
Miropol, Mirowitz, Mirow (the town of peace). 

,„ , „ , x { the middle, cognate with 

mittel, middel (Teut. and Scand.), I j 

MIEDZY (Sclav.), 1 the Lat T 6 ^' £\. 

v " ( mesos, and Gadhelic 

meadhonj e.g. Middleby, Middleton, Middleham, Mitton, 
Middleburg (the middle town) ; Middlesex (the territory of 
the middle Saxons) ; Middlewich (the middle salt manufac- 
tory), in Cheshire — v. wich ; Midhurst (the middle wood), 
in Sussex ; Midmar (the middle district of Mar), in Aber- 
deenshire ; Ardmeanadh, Gael. Ardmeadhonadh (the middle 
height), being the Gaelic name for Cromarty ; Mitford (the 
middle ford) ; Melton-Mowbray, sometimes written Medel- 
tune (the middle town), formerly belonging to the Mowbray 
family ; Mittelgebirge (the middle mountain range) ; Mittel- 
walde, Sclav. Medzibor (the middle of the wood), in Silesia ; 
Methwold, in Norfolk, with the same meaning ; Mittweyda 
(in the midst of pasture ground), in Saxony ; Methley and 
Metfield (middle field) ; Meseritz and Meseritsch, i.e. mied- 
zyvreka (in the midst of streams), in Moravia and Pomer- 
ania ; Mediasch (in the midst of waters), in Hungary ; 
Misdroi (in the midst of woods), in Pomerania ; Mediter- 
ranean Sea (in the middle of the land) ; Media (the middle 
country, as then known) ; Mesopotamia, Grk. (the country 
between the rivers) ; Mediolanum (in the midst of the plain 


or land) — v. LANN — the ancient name of Milan, Saintes, and' 
some other towns. 

MLADY, MLODY (Sclav.), new ; e.g. Mladiza, Mladowitz, Mladzo- 
witz (new town), in Bohemia ; Bladen and Bladow, corrupt, 
from Mladen, with the same meaning, in Silesia. 

moel (Cym.-Cel.), ( a r0Und J hill . or a ba l d Promontory, 

maol, meall (Gadhelic), \ " an ad Je. ct l ve signifying ■bald, and 

MOOL(Scand.), j often a PP lled V h n !l 1S 1 f nd Pr ° m0n " 

v " I. tones, thus — the Mull or promon- 

tory of Cantyre and Galloway ; Meldrum, in Aberdeenshire, 
and Meeldrum, in Ireland (the bald ridge) ; Melrose, i.e. 
Maol-ros (the bald headland), Old Melrose having been 
situated on a peninsula formed by the Tweed ; the Eildon 
Hills, near Melrose, corrupt, from Moeldun (bald hill) ; the 
Island of Mull, one of the Hebrides ; Mealfourvounie (the 
hill of the cold moor), in Inverness-shire ; Glassmeal (gray 
hill), in Perth ; Malvern (the bald hill of the alders, gwer- 
nen) ; Moel-y-don (the hill of the waves), in Anglesea ; 
Moel-Aelir (the frosty hill) ; Muldonach (the hill of Donald), 
one of the Hebrides ; Moel-Try-garn (the ridge of the three 
cairns); Moel-Eilio (the mount of construction) ; Moel-y-crio 
(the hill of shouting) ; Moel-ben-twrch (boar's head hill), in 
Wales ; Moel-cwm-Cerwyn (the bald dingle of the cauldron); 
Moelfre, corrupt, from Moelbre (bald hill), in Wales. In 
Ireland this word often takes the form of moyle, as in Kil- 
moyle (bald church) ; Rathmoyle, Lismoyle, Dunmoyle 
(the bald or dilapidated fort) ; Mweelbane (the white hill) ; 
Meelgarrow (rough hill) ; Meelshane (John's bald hill) ; 
Mweel-na-horna (the bald hill of the barley) ; Maulagh 
(abounding in hillocks) ; Mullaghmeen (smooth hillock) ; 
Mulboy (yellow hillock), etc. ; Mullanagore and Mullana- 
gower (the little summit of the goats). In Wales : Moel- 
hebog (hawk hill) ; Moel-eryn (eagle hill), in Wales. The 
Mool of Aswich and the Mool of Land, in Shetland. 

.,„ „ „ //- j-u v \ ( a moss or bog. In Ireland: Mona- 

MOIN, moine (Gadhelic), I , , ° , . ... ,. 

v ' { braher, i.e. Moin-nam-brathar (the 

MON 1 

' ( bog of the friars) ; Monalour (of the 

lepers) ; Moneen (the little bog) ; Ballynamona (the town 
of the bog) ; Monard (high bog) ; Montiagh, for Mointeach 

140 M'dNCH— MONDE 

MONCH (Ger.), 
monec (A.S.), 
monach (Gadhelic), 
mynach (Cym.-Cel.), 

(the boggy place) ; Monabrock (the badger's moss) ; Mon- 
roe (the red moss) ; Mon is, however, sometimes used 
instead of monadh (a rising ground in a moor), as in Co. 
Monaghan, Muineachan (abounding in little hills) ; which 
country, however, according to the Annals of the Four 
Masters, was named from its chief town (the town of monks). 
In Scotland : Moin, a moorland district in Sutherlandshire ; 
Monzie and Moonzie (the mossy land), in Fife and Perth- 
shire ; Montrose (the boggy promontory) ; Mon, again for 
monadh, in Monimail (bald hill), in Fife ; Moncrieffe (the 
woody hill, craobach) ; Moness (the hill of the cascade, 

a monk, from the Greek monos (alone) ; 
e.g. Monkton, Monkstown, Monkswood, 
Monkland, named from lands belonging 
to the monks ; Le Monch (the monk), one 
of the highest of the Bernese Alps ; Mon- 
achty (the monks' dwelling), in Wales ; Llan-y-mynach (the 
monks' church or enclosure), Co. Salop ; Monksilver, in 
Somerset, corrupt, from Monk-sylva (the monks' wood) ; 
Monkleagh (the monks' meadow) ; Munsley, with the same 
meaning, in Hereford ; Monach-log-ddu (the place of the 
black monks), in Wales ; Munchberg (monk's hill), in 
Bavaria ; Munchengratz (the monks' fortress), in Bohemia ; 
Munich and Munchingen (belonging to the monks), in 

._ . (a. river mouth j e.g. Dortmund, Fisch- 

' *■.„ ■■" , . I mund, Dendermund, Roermonde, 

' ^ \ Travemiinde, Saarmund, Tanger- 

miinde, Ysselmonde, Rupelmonde, Orlamunda, Stolpe- 
miinde, Swinmund or Sweinemund, Ukermunde, Warne- 
munde, at the mouth of the rivers forming the first part 
of these names ; Munden, in Hanover (at the mouths of the 
Rivers Werra and Fulda) ; Monmouth (at the conf. of the 
Mynwy and Wye) ; Plymouth, Falmouth, Sidmouth, Yar- 
mouth, Grangemouth, Teignmouth, Wearmouth, Cocker- 
mouth, at the mouths of these rivers ; Bishop's Wearmouth, 
founded by Biscop in the middle of the seventh century ; 
Deulemont, in France, at the mouth of the Deule ; Glad- 
mouth, in Wales, formerly Cledemuth, at the mouth of the 


Clede or Cleddy ; Minde, in Iceland, at the mouth of Lake 


MONEY, a frequent prefix in Irish names from muine (a brake or 

shrubbery) ; e.g. Moneymore, Moneybeg (the great and little 

shrubbery) ; Moneygorm (the blue shrubbery) ; Moneyduff 

(the black or dark shrubbery) ; Moneygall (the shrubbery 

of the strangers). 

,-r. , Ti , (a. mountain, from the 

MONT, monte (Fr. and It.), J T . ' , 

, x /c . jti,.\S Lat. mons, and cog- 

MONTANA and monte (Span, and Port.), | ^ ^ ^ ^^ 

monadh, and the Cym.-Cel. mynydd; e.g. Montalto (high 
mount) ; Montauban (the mount of Albanus) ; Montechiaro 
(clear mount) ; Monte-fosoli (brown mount) ; Montehermosa 
(beautiful mount), in Spain ; Montenegro, Turc. Karadagh, 
Sclav. Zerna-gora (black mount), in Turkey ; Beaumont, 
Chaumont, Haumont (the beautiful, bald, and high mount) ; 
Montereale and Montreal (the royal hill) ; Montreal, in 
Canada, so named by Cartier in 1555; Monte-Rosa, anc. 
Mons-sylva (woody hill) ; Monte-Video (the prospect mount) ; 
Montmartre, anc. Mons-Martyrum (the hill of the martyrdom 
of St. Denis), but its earlier name was Mons-Martis (the 
hill of Mars) ; Montmirail, Lat. Mons-mirabilis (the wonder- 
ful mountain) ; Remiremont, Lat. Romaries-mons, founded 
by St. Romarie in 620; Monte-Cavallo, corrupt, from Monte- 
Calvaria (the Mount of Calvary), so called from a number 
of chapels, in which were represented the successive scenes 
of our Lord's passion. From monticellus, the diminutive 
of mont, have arisen such place-names as Moncel, Le 
Monchel, Monchelet, etc. ; Mont d'Or (golden mount), in 
Auvergne; Montefrio (cold mount), in Spain; Montpellier, Lat. 
Mons-fiuellarum (the hill of the young girls), so called from 
two villages belonging to the sisters of St. Fulcrum ; Mont- 
serrat (the serrated hill) ; Clermont (bright hill) ; Mondragon 
and Montdragone (the dragon's hill) ; Monfalcone (hawk 
hill); Mons, Ger. Berghen (hill town), in Belgium; Piedmont 
(at the foot of the Alps) ; Floremont or Blumenberg (flowery 
hill), in Alsace ; Montaign and Monthen, anc. Mons-acutus 
(sharp or peaked hill) ; Montigny, Montignac (mountainous) ; 
Jeumont, anc. Jovismons (the hill of Jove), in France ; 
Mount Pilatus (the mount with the cap of clouds, from pileus, 


Lat. a felt cap) ; Richmond, in Yorkshire, named from a 
castle in Brittany, from which the Earl of Richmond took 
his title, meaning the rich or fertile hill ; Richmond, in 
Surrey, named by the Earl after his Yorkshire estate, for- 
merly called Skene from the splendour of the royal residence 
there, sane, A.S. (splendid); Righimont, in Switzerland, cor- 
rupt, from Mons-regius (royal hill) ; Montacute (sharp hill), 
in Somerset ; Tras-os-Montes (beyond the hills), in Portugal ; 
Apremont, in France, for Aspromonte (rough hill) ; Pyrmont, 
corrupt, from Mons-Petrus (St. Peter's mount) ; Montferrato 
(the fortified hill). Mont also signified a hill fort, like berg 
and dun, as in Montalcino (the fort of Alcinous), in Italy ; 
Montgomery, in Wales, (the fortress of Roger de Mont- 
gomerie, who erected a castle there in 1093) — its earlier 
name was Tre-Faldwyn (the dwelling of Baldwin, a Nor- 
man knight) ; Charlemont, in France, named after Charles 
V.; Henrichemont, after Henri -Quatre. In Wales: the 
town of Mold, abbreviated from Mons-altus (high fort) — 
the Normans built a castle there ; Mynydd-du (black hill) ; 
Mynydd-mawr (great hill) ; Mynydd-moel (bald hill). In 
Scotland : Monadh-ruadh (the red mount or the mounth), 
the Gaelic name for the Grampians ; Mount Battock, Gael. 
Monadh-beatach (the raven's hill) ; Mountbenjerlaw, in 
Selkirkshire, originally Ben-Yair (the hill of the R. Yair), 
to which the A.S. law and the Norman mount were added. 
But monadh in Gael, signifies a mountain range, and some- 
times a moor, as Monadh-leath (the gray mountain range). 
Probably Mendip, in Somerset, is the deep hill, Welsh dwfn 
and mynydd; Monimail (bald hill) ; Monifieth (the hill or 
moor of the deer, feidh). The Mourne Mountains, in 
Ireland, means the mountains of the tribe ; Mughhoma. 
Mon, in the Basque language, also signifies a hill, and is 
found in Monzon, an ancient town of Spain, with a hill fort ; 
Monda and Mondonedo, in Spain ; and Mondego, in 
Portugal ; and in Carmona (hill summit), in Spain. 

MOOS (Ger.), MOS (Scand.), j ^ § round \ <* , D ° naUr ?°f 

MECH mock (Sclav ) \ (the mossy meadow of the Danube) ; 

' \ •/> ^ Mosston (the town on the mossy 

ground) ; Moseley (moss-field or valley) ; Moscow, on the 

R. Moskwa (mossy water) ; Mossow, Mehzo, Mochow, 

MOR—MOR 143 

Mochlitz (the mossy ground) ; Mohacs, Ger. Margetta (the 
marshy or mossy island), in the Danube ; Miesbach (the 
district of the mossy brook), in Bavaria. The Irish word 
mathail (soft mossy land) is almost synonymous with these 
roots. It is found in Mohill, Co. Leitrim ; Mothel in 
Waterford, and Mothell in Kilkenny ; Cahermoyle (the 
stone fort of the mossy land) in Ireland, and in Muthil in 
MOR, moer (Teut. and Scand.), waste land, heath ; Scot, muirj 
e.g. Moorby, Morton, and Moreton (the dwelling on the 
moor) ; Morpeth (the moor path) ; Oudemoor (the old 
moor), and Oostmoer (east moor), in Holland ; Moorlinch 
(the moor ridge, Mine) ; Lichtenmoer (the cleared moor) ; 
Muirkirk (the church in the moor), in Argyleshire ; Murroes, 
corrupt, from Muirhouse, a parish in Co. Forfar ; Tweeds- 
muir (the moor at the source of the R. Tweed), a parish in 
Peeblesshire ; Muiravonside (the mossy land on the banks 
of the R. Avon), in Stirlingshire. 

" great ; e.g. Morven (the great 

MOR (Gadhelic), 

mawr (Cym.-Cel.), or by mutation 
fawrj e.g. Morlais for Mawr- 
clais (the great trench), the 
name of a ruined castle near 
Cardiff, built above a deep 
gully, through which a brook 

ben or hill), a hill in Caithness 
and also in Aberdeenshire ; 
Morven or Morvern, i.e. Mor- 
Earrain (the great district), 
in Argyleshire, called by the 
Gaels Kenalban, corrupt, from 
Cenealbaltyn, i.e. the tribe of 
fialdan, a personal name ; Ken- 
more (the great headland), on Loch Tay ; Penmaen-mawr 
(the great stone-hill), in Wales. 

,_ _ , , „ , „ / the sea, cognate with the Lat. mare, 
MOR (Cym.-Cel. and Sclav.), t , .,. ' , . ,.. . ,., „ 

(C HTi r ■* ) » a derivatives in the Romance 

m, , t \ i-l languages, and the Teut. meerj e.g. 

MORFA (Welsh), sea-marsh, ( Armor f ca ' or BrittanV) and p ome l 

ania (the districts on the sea-shore) ; Morbihan (the little 
sea), in Brittany; Morlachia or Moro-Vlassi (the Wallachs' 
or strangers' land by the sea) — v. WALSCH ; Morlaix (a 
place on the sea-shore), in Brittany ; Glamorgan, Welsh 
gwlad-morgant (the district of Morgan Mawr, an ancient 
king of Wales) ; Morgan, in Cornwall, i.e. by the sea-shore ; 
Maracaybo(the headland bythe sea-shore), in South America ; 

144 MOST—mUhLE 

Parimaribo (the dwelling near the sea), in South America; 
Connemara, in Ireland, Irish Conmac-ne-Mara, the de- 
scendants of Conmac (by the sea-side). 

most (Sclav.), a bridge ; eg. Dolgemost (long bridge) ; Maust, 
Most, Mostje (the place at the bridge), in Bohemia ; 
Babimost (the old woman's bridge, i.e. the fragile bridge), 
abbreviated to Bomst ; Priedemost (the first bridge), in 
Silesia ; Mostar (old bridge), a town in Turkey. 

MOT, or moot (A.S.), the place of assembly, where the Anglo- 
Saxons held their courts of justice ; e.g. Mote-hill, at Scone ; 
the Moat Hill, near Hawick ; the Mote of Galloway ; the 
Moat of Dull, in Perthshire, and of Hamilton, on Strath- 
clyde ; Moot-hill, at Naseby ; and in the Lake District, 
Montay and Caermote ; Moothill also appears in Aberdeen- 
shire ; Almoot, near Peterhead, meaning the meeting-place 
on the height, has been corrupted into Old Maud, and the 
railway company have called their station New Maud. It 
is found in the Gaelic name for the Island of Bute, Baile- 
mhoide (the dwelling of the courts of justice), but in this 
case, as in Ireland, the word was probably borrowed from 
the Saxons. The word is found in Ireland, signifying a 
large mound, as well as in connection with the courts of 
justice — as in Tom-an-mhoid (the hill of the court of justice) ; 
La Motte, Fr. (a hillock), common in France. 

* a mill, cognate with the Lat. 

MUHLE (Gfer.), MYLEN (AS.), 

muilenn (Gadhelic), 
melin (Cym.-CeL), 
mlyn (Sclav.), 

MOLEN (Dutch), 

mola, and its derivatives in the 
Romance languages ; e.g. Miilen- 
bach and Molinbech (mill brook) ; 
Muhlan, Miihldorf, Muhlhausen, 
Muhlheim (mill dwelling) ; Mo- 
leneynde (mill corner), in Germany and Holland. In Eng- 
land and Scotland : Melbourne, Milton, Millwick, Milford, 
Milden, Milnathorpe (the stream, town, ford, hollow, farm, 
of the mill) ; but Milton, in Kent and in Dorsetshire, are 
corrupt, from middle town ; Moulin, a parish in Perthshire. 
In France : Moulins (the mills), so called from the great 
number of water mills formerly on the R. Allier ; Miilhausen 
or Mulhouse, in Alsace, celebrated for its manufactures ; 
Molina, a manufacturing town in Murcia ; also in Spain, 
Molinos-del-Rey (the king's mills). In Ireland : Mullina- 

.VrZZAGff—.\\4£S 145 

hone (the mill of the cave) ; Mullinavat (of the stick) ; 
Mullintra (of the strand) ; MuUinakjl (of the church). In 
Sclavonic districts : Mlineh, Mlinki. Mlinsk, MTtnow, etc. 

muulagh (GadheHc), the top or summit, and sometimes applied 
to hills of a considerable height ; i^-. Mullaghmeen (the 
smooth summit) ; Mulkeeigh (the summit of the sheep, 
.u»*rrwi) : Mullan (the Utile summit), in Ireland : probably 
the Island of Mull, in the Hebrides. 

. „._ /t f \ 1 a 1Ka ^ > '\>~ Maars (the walled town), in France ; 

\r t-ft? iC \ a ' so ^"yta-de-Muro-cincto (the dwelling sur- 

" " -c . "* \ rounded by walls) ; Morsain, in S*9 Jifurv- 
^ V dm-fus (surrounded by walls) ; Murviel (old 

wallsV in Herault, — a place where the ruins of an ancient 
Gaulish city are found ; Mauerhof (the enclosed court), in 
Germany ; Trasmauer (the walled town on the R. TrasenV 
in Austria ; Murany-var (the walled fortress), in Hungary : 
Muriel-de-la-fueme (the walled town of the fout::>.in) ; 
Mnriei-riejo (the old walled town) : Murillo (the Utile walled 
town), in Spain ; Murviedro (the old fortifications\ called 
by the Romans J/arrVs-A-n-.f. because they beUeved it to be 
on the site of the ancient Saguntum : Semur, in France, 
corrupt from S:'':rmarum (without walls V. 


v r^ A s V 1 a nose > cog 113 ^ with the Lat. nastts, and in 

" n _T - '> \ 1 topography appUed to a promontory ; aj% the 

~ ,p . ~) Xaze. in Xorway. and Xash. in Monmouth ; 

* '" ^Xash-scaur (the promontory of the cliff), in 

Wales ; Katznase (the cat's headland) ; Blankenese (white 

cape), in Holstein : Foreness, Sheemess, Fiieness, Buchan- 

ness, Blackness, in England and Scotland : Roeness (red 

cape), Shetland ; Yatternish (water capeV in Skye : Bor- 

Tfwstrt^iness or Boiiess, in West Lothian (the cape near 

Bcrward's dwelling) : Holdemess (the woody promontory) : 

Langness and Littleness, in Man ; Dungeness (danger 

cape) : Fumess (the cape of the beacon-fire), the she of an 

ancient Ughthouse in Lancashire : Satumness (the southern 

cape), in Kirkcudbright ; Shoeburyness, corrupt, from 

^".V;ifc'rr> (the cape of the sea-fortress) ; Skegness (the cape 


146 NA GORE— N A VA 

near the wood, skogr) ; Skipness (ship headland) ; Sviata- 
nos, Sclav, (holy cape), in Russia ; Caithness (the promon- 
tory of the Catti, a tribe). 

nagore (Hindu nagar, Sansc. nagura), a. city ; e.g. Barnagore 
for Varaha-nagur (the city of the boar) ; Chandernagore (of 
the moon) ; Serenagur (of the sun). 

nagy (Hung.), great ; e.g. Nagy-Karoly (Charles's great town) ; 
Nagy-Malton (St. Matthew's great town); Nagy-Szent- 
Miklos (of St. Nicholas) ; Nagy-varad (great fortress) ; 
Nagy-Koros (the great town on the R. Koros). 

nahr (Semitic), a river ; e.g. Nahr-el-keber (the great river) ; 
Nahr-el-kelb or Lycus (the river of the dog or wolf), so 
named from a fancied resemblance of a rock near its mouth 
to the head of these animals ; Nahr-Mukatta (the river of 
slaughter); Aram-Naharaim (the high lands of the two 
rivers, i.e. Mesopotamia); Nahar-Misraim (the river of 
Egypt, i.e. the Nile). 

nant (Cym.-Cel.), a brook or a valley through which a stream 
flows ; e.g. Nantmel (the honey brook) ; Sych-nant (dried- 
up brook) ; Nancemillin (the valley of the mill), in Wales ; 
Dewffneynt (the deep valley) was the ancient British name 
of Devonshire ; Levenant (smooth stream)-; Nant-frangon, 
i.e. Nant-yr-a-franc (the beavers' valley) ; Nantglyn (the glen 
of tjie brook) ; Nant-y-Gwrtheyren (Vortigern's valley), in 
Wales ; Nans, in Cornwall ; also in Cornwall — Penant (the 
head of the valley), and Cornant (a brook) ; Nantwich, in 
Cheshire (the salt-works, wick, on the brook or stream, i.e. 
the Weaver) ; Nantua (in a valley of the Alps) ; Nantes 
named from the Namnetes (dwellers in the valley) ; Moch- 
nant (the swift brook) ; Nannau (the brooks), in Wales ; 
Nangle, a bay on the coast of Wales, perhaps Nant-gel or 
eel (a secret corner) — the Rev. J. James. Nevern, a 
parish in Wales, for Nant-ynfer (the brook of the conflu- 
ence) ; Nancy (the valley dwellings) ; Nans, Nant, with the 
same meaning, in France ; Nanteuil (the valley of the 
fountain) — v. Ceuil ; Nantberis (St. Peris's brook). 

NASS (Ger.), moist ; e.g. Nassau (the moist meadow) ; Nassenfeld 
(moist field) ; Nassenhuben (the huts in moist land) ; 
Nassenbeuren (the dwelling in moist land). 

nava (Basque), a plain ; e.g. Nava-de-los-Oteros (the plain of the 


NEU (Ger.), 
NEWYDD (Cym.-Cel.), 
nuadh (Gadhelic), 
nowy and NAU (Sclav.) 

heights) ; Nava-hermosa (beautiful plain) ; Navarre and Nav- 
arreux (the plain among hills) ; Navarette (the plain at the 
foot of the hill) ; Paredes-de-nava (the houses of the plain). 
neder, NIEDER, neer (Teut. and Scand.), lower ; e.g. Nether- 
lands (the lower lands) ; Netherby (lower town) ; Nieder- 
lahnstein (the fortress on the lower R. Lahn) ; Nederheim, 
Nederwyk (lower dwellings). 
NEMET (Celtic), a sacred grove, cognate with the Lat. nemus and 
the Grk. nemos j e.g. Nemours, anc. Nemoracum (the place 
of the sacred wood or grove) ; Nanterre, also in France, 
anc. Nemetodurum (the sacred grove on the waters) ; 
Nismes, anc. Nemausus (the place in the grove) ; Augusto- 
nemetum (the splendid place of the grove), being the ancient 
name of Clermont ; Nemetacum, the ancient name of Arras ; 
Nemea (the place of the grove), in Greece. 

new, cognate with the Lat. novus and 
the Grk. neos and their derivatives ; 
e.g. Neuburg, Neudorf, Neustadt, Neu- 
ville, Newbury, Newburgh (new town) ; 
Neumarkt (new market) ; Newbold, 
Newbottle, Newbattle (new building), in Germany, Eng- 
land, and Scotland ; Newburgh, in Fife, is a town of con- 
siderable antiquity. It owes its origin to the Abbey of 
Lindores, in its neighbourhood. It was erected into a 
burgh or barony by Alexander III., in 1266, and in the 
charter it was called "JVovus burgus, juxta monasterium de 
Lindores." It seems, therefore, that there was a more 
ancient burgh belonging to the abbey in the neighbourhood 
— Newburn (new stream), in Fife. Newhaven (the new 
harbour), in relation to the older harbour of Leith. In the 
sixteenth century Newhaven had a chapel dedicated to the 
Virgin Mary, and was then called our Lady's port of grace ; 
but in the year 1 5 1 1 the city of Edinburgh bought up the 
village and harbour. In France : Nevers and Noyon, anc. 
Noviodunum (the new fortress) ; Neuvy, with the same 
meaning ; Neuveglise (new church) ; Villeneuve (new 
villa) ; Nievre and Nivernais, a department and ancient 
province of France ; Nienburg, corrupt, from Neuenburg 
(new town), in Hanover ; Newport (new harbour), in 
Belgium ; Newport, in the Isle of Wight, so named because 


it superseded the older harbour at Carisbrook ; Newport, in 
Wales, which superseded Caerleon ; Neusatz or Neoplanta 
(new station), founded in 1700, on the Danube; Neusohl 
(new seat), in Hungary — its native name is Bestereze-banya 
(the mine on the R. Bistritz) ; Neustadl (new stall) ; Neuwied 
(new pasture) ; Nimeguen, anc. Noviomagus (new field), in 
Holland ; Novgorod and Novigrad (new fortress) ; Novidwar 
(new court), in Russia ; Nowe-mjasto (new bridge), in Poland ; 
Novobeilaiaskaia (the new town on the white stream), in 
Russia ; Nova-Zembla, i.e. Novaia-Zemlia (the new land) ; 
Nowazamka (new castle) ; Novi- Bazaar (new market), in 
Turkey ; Nowosedl (new seat) ; Nienburg, Nyborg, Nyby, 
Nystead (new town), in Denmark and Holland ; Neocastro 
(new camp), in Greece ; Nola or Novla (new place), in the 
Sardinian states ; Naumburg and Nienburg, corrupt, from 
Neuenburg (new town) ; Nykioping (new market-town), in 
Sweden, and Nykjobing, in Denmark, with the same 
meaning ; Newington, in Surrey, corrupt, from Newetonj 
Newfoundland, so called when rediscovered by John 
Cabot in 1427, but known previously by Icelandic 
colonists as Litla-Helluland ; Nova Scotia (New Scotland), 
called by the Norseman Markland; New River, a large 
aqueduct from Hertfordshire to Islington, by which a 
great part of London is supplied with water ; New Ross, 
Co. Wexford, corrupt, from its Irish name Ros-mic-Treoin 
(the wood of Treun's son) ; Newtown-Hamilton, in Ireland, 
founded by the Hamilton family in 1770 ; Newtown- 
Limavady, Co. Londonderry, named from a castle in the 
neighbourhood called Limavady (the dog's leap) ; Newtown- 
Stewart, Co. Tyrone, so called from Sir William Stewart, 
to whom it was granted by Charles I. ; New York, named 
in honour of the Duke of York, afterwards James II.; New 
Zealand, called by Tasman, its Dutch discoverer, in honour, 
it is supposed, of his native province. 
NiJNY (Sclav.), lower ; e.g. Nijny-Novgorod (the lower new for- 
tress) ; Nijny-Neviansk (the lower town on the Neva), as 
distinguished from Verkii-Neviansk, the upper; Nijnaia- 
ozernaia-krepost (the lower fort of the lakes) ; Nijny-Devitzk 
(the lower town on the Devitza) ; Nijni-Tagelsk (the lower 
town on the R. Tagel), in Russia. 


nimz (Sclav.), foreign, from nemy or nhnec, dumb — a word 
applied by the Sclavonic races to the Germans, because 
their language was unintelligible to them : e.g. Niemitsch, 
Niemez, Niemtschitz, German towns in Bohemia ; Nemet- 
uj-var (the new German fortress), in Hungary ; but there is 
a Sclavonic deity called Njam, to whom the names of some 
of these places may be traced. 

NO, NOE, noue (Old Fr.), a low meadow habitually overflowed 
with water. It has evidently arisen out of noyer, to sub- 
merge ; e.g. Noaillac, Noallau, La Noalle, Noalles, Noyelle, 
Noyellette, in which the word is probably joined to ceuil, 
a water-source; Nogent (pleasant meadow); No-aux-Bois 
(in the woods) ; Les Noues, Neuillay, Neuilly, Noisy, Lat. 

NORDEN, NOORD (Teut.), ( ^ T^ '£ ^^ £ he ^^ 

NOR (Scand), NORD (Fr.) 1 glV f n b £ * e French *° *« N °™ a ™ 
x " I un «er Rollo in 912); Noordbroek 

(the north marshy land) ; Noordwolde (north wood), in 
Holland ; Norbury, Nordenburg, Norton, Nordhausen (north 
dwelling or town); Norham, on the R. Tweed; Northampton 
(the town on the north side of the Aufona, now the R. 
Nen) ; Northumberland (the land north of the Humber) ; 
Nordkyn (north cape) ; Normanton and Normandby (dwell- 
ings of the Norsemen or Danes), in England ; Norrkoping 
(northern market-town), in Sweden ; Norrland (a large 
division of Sweden) ; Northallerton, in Yorkshire, so called 
to distinguish it from Allerton-Mauleverer ; North Cape 
(the most northerly point of Norwegian Lapland) ; North 
Berwick, Co. Haddington, so called to distinguish it from 
Berwick-upon-Tweed ; Norway (the northern kingdom) — v. 
reich, reike ; Norfolk (the abode of the north people, as 
distinguished from Suffolk to the south) ; Northleach, north 
of the R. Leach ; Northwich, in Cheshire (the north salt 
manufactory) — v. wich ; Norwich, the town which super- 
seded Venta^Icenorum, whose inhabitants fled at the approach 
of the Danes, and erected a castle of defence farther north. 
NOYER (Fr.), the walnut-tree, Lat. nucarius, from which are 
derived nucetum, nucelletum, and nugaretum (a place 
planted with walnut-trees) ; e.g. Noyers, Nozay, Noroy, La 
Nozaye, Les Nozees, Nozieres, Nozeroy, etc., in France. 


NUDDY (Pali), a river ; e.g. Maha-nuddy (great river) ; Nuddea 

(the district of the rivers). 
nuwera (Tamil), a city ; e.g. Alut-nuwera (new city) ; Kalawa (the 

city on the Kala-Oya, i.e. the rocky river) ; Nuwera-Panduas 

(the city of Panduas), in Ceylon. 


._ . j upper ; e.g. Oberhofen (upper court) ; Ober- 

OB, OBER (Ger.), I lahnstein ( the upper fortress on the R. Lahn) ; 

over (Dutch), y oberndorf, Overbie, Overham, Overton, Over- 
burg (upper town) ; Oberdrauburg (the upper town on the 
R. Drave) ; Overyssel (beyond the R. Yssel) ; Orton 
(upper town), in Westmoreland ; St. Mary's-Overy, South- 
wark (i.e. over the water from London). 

OE — v. ea, p. 7 1. 

ceuil (Fr.), the eye — in topography applied to the source of a 
stream or a fountain ; e.g. Arcueil (the arched fountain or 
aqueduct) ; Berneuil (the source of the water, biof) ; Ver- 
neuil and Vernel (alder-tree fountain, Lat. vermis) ; Argen- 
teuil (silver fountain) ; Bonneuil (good fountain) ; Nanteuil 
(the source of the stream) ; Auneuil (alder-tree fountain, 
Fr. aune) ; Auteuil (high fountain) ; Boisseuil (the woody 
fountain) ; Chantilly, anc. Cantilliacum (the head of the 

a border, boundary, or shore — 

OFER, or ORE (A.S.), 

OVER (Dutch), ufer (Ger.), 

OIR (Gadhelic), 

eyre, or ORE (Scand.), a point 

cognate with the Lat. ora and 
the Grk. horosj e.g. Oare and Ore 
(the shore), in Kent, Sussex, and 
Somerset ; Windsor, i.e. Windle- 
sora (the winding shore, A.S. wincile) ; Southover and 
Westover (the south and west shore) ; Ventnor (the shore 
of Gwent, the ancient name of the Isle of Wight) ; Pershore 
(the willow shore, fizirsh), or, according to Camden, corrupt, 
from Periscorum — in allusion to the abundance of pear-trees 
in its vicinity ; Andover, anc. Andeafaran (the shore or 
ferry of the R. Anton) ; Ravensore (the point or promontory 
of Hrafen,a Scand. personal name) ; Hanover, anc. Hohenufer 
(high shore) ; Elsinore (the point near the town of Helsing), 
in Denmark ; Argyle, Gael. Oirirgaedheal (the coast lands 


of the Gaels) ; Dover, in Kent, and Douvres, in Normandy, 
perhaps from ofer. 

OICHE (obs. Gael.), water ; e.g. Oich River and Oichel (the Rivers 
Ock, Ocker, Ocke, Eck) ; Loch Oich, Duich (the black 

ORE (Hindostanee), a city ; e.g. Ellore, Vellore, Nellore ; Tanjore, 
anc. Tanja-nagaram (the city of refuge) ; Bednore (bamboo 
city) ; Mangalore (the city of Mangala-Devi). 

ORMR (Scand.), a serpent, also a personal name ; e.g. Ormeshead, 

in Cumberland, named either from the serpent-like shape of 

the rock, or from the common Norse name Ormrj Orma- 

thwaite, Ormsby, Ormiston, Ormskirk (the clearing, the 

dwelling, and the church of Ormr). The same prefix in 

French topography signifies the elm-tree, as in Les Ormes 

(the elms) ; Ormoy, Lat. Ulmetium (the elm-grove), 

synonymous with Olmedo and Olmeto, in Spain. The Orne 

or Olna (elm-tree river), in Normandy ; Ulm or Ulma (the 

place of elm-trees), in Wurtemburg ; Olmeta, in Corsica. 

._ . ( a point, a corner, and sometimes a place ; e.g. 

nn» wtwm ) **&&«*■ (* he corner of the R. Anger); Ruhrort 
ooKi ^uutcn;, < ^ f thg Rohr Qr Ruhr ^ . Griinort ( green point ) . 

ORD (bcand.), ^ Schonort (beautiful point) ; Akkerort (the comer 

of the field) ; Tiegenort (of the R. Tiege) ; Storort (of the 

R. Stor) ; the Ord or headland of Caithness. 

,„ ( the east ; e.g. Ostend (at the east end or 

OST, OEST (Ger.), I opening of the canal int0 the ocean ) . 0ster . 

OOST (y utch )» < burgj Osterfeld, Osterhofen (the east town, 
OSTER (bcand.), ^ fidd; and cQurt ^ . 0sterholtz ( the east wood ) . 

Osterdalen (the east basin of the R. Duhl), in Sweden ; 
Ostheim, Osthausen, Oesthammer (the eastern dwelling or 
village) ; Ostwald (east wood), in Alsace ; Essex (the 
country of the East Saxons, in opposition to Wessex) ; 
Austerlitz (the east town of the R. Littawa) ; Alost (to the 
east), in Belgium. 
OSTROW, or ozero (Sclav.), an island or lake ; e.g. Ostrov, in 
Russia (on a river-island) ; Kolkoe-Qstrog (the island in the 
R. Kola) ; Ostrova (an island in the Danube) ; Bielo-Ozero 
(the white lake); Tschudskoe - Ozero (the lake of the 
Tschudes, a tribe) ; Ostrownoye (the new island). But 
Ostrow and Wustrow are sometimes Germanised forms of 


Wotschow, Sclav, (a marshy place), as in Wustrow, Ostropol, 
Ostrasatz, Ostrawiec (the place on the marshy ground). 
Otero (Span.), a hill or rising ground; e.g. El-Otero (the rising 
ground) ; Otero-de-las-duenas (the hill of the old ladies) ; 
Otero-del-Rey (the king's hill). 

I Sclavonic affixes, used as patronymics, like the Ger. 
' ' < ingen; e.g. Nowakwitz (the possession of the de- 
' ' ( scendants of Nouak) ; Jvanow, Janow, Janowitz (be- 
longing to John and his descendants) ; Karlowitz (to Charles) ; 
Petrowitz (to Peter) ; Kazimiritz (to Casimir) ; Mitrowitz 
(to Demetrius) ; Stanislowow (to Stanislaus) ; Tomazow (to 
Thomas) ; Cracow or Kracow (the town of Duke Craus or 
Krak of Poland, by whom it was founded in 1700). 


palachio (Span.), 
Palas (Cym.-Cel.), 
pailis (Gadhelic), 

a palace ; e.g. the Upper and Lower Pala- 
tinate, so called from the palaces erected 
by the Roman emperors in different parts 
of the empire ; Palazzo, in Dalmatia and 
Naples ; Palazzolo and Palazzuolo (the 
great palace), in Piedmont ; Los Palachios 
(the palaces), in Spain ; Pfalsbourg, anc. Palatiolum (the 
town of the palace, founded in 1570), in France; Semi- 
palatinsk, in Siberia (the town of the seven palaces), so called 
from the extensive ruins in its neighbourhood ; Spalatro, in 
Dalmatia, named from the palace of Diocletian, originally 
Salontz-Palatium (the palace near Salona), at first corrupted 
to As-palthium (at the palace), and then to Spalatro. In 
Wales : Plas-gwyn (the white palace) ; Plas-newydd (the 
new palace). 
PALLI (Tamil), a small town or village, sometimes corrupted to 
Poly, Pilly, or Pally ; e.g. Trichinopoly, i.e. Trisira-palli 
(the town of the giant). 
pa cL at \ ( a marsn ; e.g. Padula and Paduli, towns in Italy; 
PADULEfltt 1 * >ee '' ** at- i"^ us i an extensive marsh in Belgium ; 
\ '•" ( La Pala, La Palud, and Paluz, in France ; Per- 
ugia (the town on the marsh), in a province of the same 
name in Italy ; Pelusium, Coptic Permoun (the muddy or 
marshy place), on the Delta of the Nile. 

F.-iXT—FSSl 153 

pant (Welsh), a hollow : *,<-. Pant-y-cnvys (the hollow of the 
cross), in Wales; Pant-yr-Ysgraff for PvHt-vr-Vsgrnf— 

r. roxT. 

papa, or pabba (Scand.), i*, 1 ^ '*"-, *?**? < tile P rie f s 

FF \ffe ( Ger V • 1S " U1 ")> severs " °* this name m the 

POr S -lav V I Hebrides ; Papa-Stour (the great island 

\of the priest), in Shetland; Papa- 
Stronsay (the priest's island near StronsayV, Orkney ; Pap- 
penheim, Pfafienhausen, Pfaffenberg, Pfafifenhofen (the 
priest's dwelling), in Germany ; Papendrecht (the priest's 
pasture) : Pfarrkirchen (the priest's or parish church) ; 
Poppowin, Poppow, Sclav, (places belonging to the priests). 

PARA (Brazilian), a river, water, or the sea ; ^.^. Para, Parahiba, 
Parana, Paranymbuna, rivers in Brazil ; Paraguay (the place 
of waters) ; Parana- Assu (the great river) ; Parana-Miriin 
(the small river) ; Parahyba (bad water). 

PARA ( Sclav. V a swamp or marsh, cognate with the Lat /xt/uss 
<-,<; Parchen, Parchau, Parchim (places in a marshy locality) ; 
Partwitt or Parzow, Paaren (the town on the marsh), in 
several localities. The letter/ is sometimes changed into 
A, as in Bardux, Barcig. Baruth, in Prussia, and Bars or 
Barsch. in Hungaiy. 

PATAM, or tatiaxa (Sansc), a city ; <•._<■-. Xagapatam (the city 
of the snake) ; Masulipatam (of iishes) ; Periapatam (the 
chosen city 1 ) ; Yiiiaparam (the city of victory^ : Seringa- 
patam, :\c Sri-nwj'a-Paffuna (the city of Vishnu) ; Tata or 
Pattana (the city) ; Madras or .'. r ,}jr.zs-f*rf<ix (the city of 
the college or school : HMJnis.i, At., a university'). Madras 
is called by the natives CJkcnx.i-f><7Jtutti (the city of Chenappa, 
an Indian prince). 

feel (Cel. /.-'/A a small fortress ; <-,c- Peel, in the Isle of Man, 
and numerous Peel towers on the border between England 
and Scotland. The File of Foudrig (the peel or tower of 
the fire island), called Furness. the site of an ancient light- 
house : Les Pilles, in Dauphiny ; He du Pilier, in La 
Vendee, with a lighthouse ; Pif&ts, in the Lithuanian lan- 
guage also, is a castle, thus — Pillkallan (the castle on the 
hill), in E. Prussia, as well as the towns of Pillau, in E. 
Prussia, Pilsen, in Bohemia, and Pillnin (the towns with 


pen (Cym.-Cel.), a head, or a promontory, or hill summit ; e.g. 
Pen-carrig (rocky hill or cape) ; Pen-brynn (hill summit) ; 
Pencoid (of the wood) ; Penmon (the promontory of Mona 
or Anglesea) ; Pentir (the headland) ; Pentyrch (the boar's 
head) ; Pen-y-cwm-gwig (the top of the woody vale), in 
Wales ; Pen-y-groes (the headland of the cross) ; Penby- 
diog (land's end), in Wales ; Pencelly (the chief grove) ; 
Pen-y-gelly (the head of the grove, cell, a grove) ; 
Penllech (of the stone or rock); Penhill, Somerset, and 
Penlaw, Dumfries (the hill summit) ; Pendarves (the head 
of the oak-field) ; Penpont (the head of the bridge), in 
Dumfriesshire ; Penn (a hill), in Stafford ; Pencombe 
(the head of the hollow) ; Penforfa (of the moor) ; Pen- 
nant (of the valley) ; Pen-mynnydd (of the mountain) ; 
Penrith, anc. Pen-rhyd (of the ford) ; Penicuik (the cuckoo's 
hill) ; Cockpen (red hill) ; Pen-maen-maur (the great stone 
head or hill) ; Pennigant (windy hill) ; Penryn and Penrhyn 
(the head of the promontory) ; Pentraeth (of the strand) ; 
Pen-y-craig or Old Radnor (the head of the rock) ; Penzance, 
formerly Pensans — it is called the saint's headland, 
from a head of John the Baptist (the town's arms), but 
Camden thinks it might mean the head of the sands ; 
Pain-bceuf or Penn-Ochen (the ox's headland) ; Pendennis 
(the fort on the headland) — v. DINAS. Mount Pindus 
and the Grampians, Van in Brecknock, and the Vans 
in Wales, embody this root ; also the Apennines and the 
Pennine Alps, Pena and Penha, in Spain and Portugal, 
are applied to rocks, thus — Penafiel (the loyal rock), in 
Spain, and also Cape Penas ; Penha-verde (green rock), 
in Brazil. 

PFERCH (Ger.), 
PARC (Fr.), 
pairc (Irish). 

In Germany this word signifies an enclosure 
for cattle — in England and France, an en- 
■j closure for the protection of game or for 
pleasure ; e.g. Parkhurst (the enclosure in the 
wood) ; Parkfoot (at the foot of the park), Co. 

Stirling ; Parkham (park dwelling) ; Parkmore (great park 

or field), in Ireland ; Parkatotaun (the field of the burning), 

Co. Limerick. 
pferd (Ger.), a horse ; e.g. Pferdsfeld (the horse's field) ; Pfers- 

dorf (the horse's village). 


._ . fa haven, landing-place, or passage — cognate 

A /' with the Lat. tortus; e.g. Seligenpforten 

POORT (Dutch), lt , , , j iX c „ /.v. 

)r r 1 \ 1 ^ blessed port) ; Sassenpoorte (the 
/r HVi V , \ 1 Saxons' haven) ; Himmelpforte (the port 
* " I of heaven) ; Pforzheim (the dwelling at 

the passage or entrance to the Hyrcenian forest), in Baden ; 
Zandpoort (sandy haven) ; Porlock (the enclosed haven), 
in Somersetshire ; Portsmouth (the mouth of the haven) ; 
Porthkerry (rocky haven), in Wales ; Porthaethroy (the 
landing-place of the terrible water), a dangerous ferry in 
Wales ; Portholgoch, corrupt, from Porth-y-wal-goch (i.e. 
the harbour of the red wall) ; Porthstinian (the port of 
Justinian), in Wales ; Porth-y-cawl, corrupt, from Porth-y- 
Gaul (the harbour where the Gallic invaders used to land), 
in Wales. In Ireland : Portraine, now Rathlin (the land- 
ing-place of Rachra) ; Portadown (at the fortress) ; Port- 
law, Irish Port-lagha (at the hill) ; Portmarnock (the 
haven of St. Marnock) ; Port-na-Spania (the port of the 
Spaniard), where one of the vessels of the Invincible 
Armada was wrecked, off the coast of Ireland ; Port-Arling- 
ton, named after the Earl of Arlington in the reign of 
Charles II. ; Port-Glasgow, anc. Kil-?na-Colm (St. Columba's 
church). It received its modern name in 1668, when pur- 
chased by the merchants of Glasgow ; Portmoak, in Kin- 
ross (the landing-place of St. Moak) ; Port-Patrick (the 
place from which it is said St. Patrick sailed for Ireland) ; 
Portree, in Skye, and Port-an-righ, in Ross (the king's 
haven) ; Portnellan (the landing-place of the island), in 
Loch Tummel ; Portmore (the great port), in Wigton ; 
Port-na-craig (of the rock) ; Port-na-churaich (of the boat), 
in Iona, where St. Columba landed from Ireland ; Port- 
skerrie (the rocky landing-place), in Sutherland ; Snizort, 
in Skye, corrupt, from Snisfiort, probably named after a 
Norse leader or pirate ; Port-ny-hinsey (the haven of the 
island), the Celtic name of Peel, in the Isle of Man ; 
Portinscale, in Westmoreland (the passage where the 
skaala or booths for the Scandinavian thing, i.e. meeting, 
were erected) ; Portobello (the beautiful harbour), in South 
America, so named by its founder; Portobello, in Mid 
Lothian, named in commemoration of the capture of the 

156 PIC—PI7T 

South American town in 1739 ; Portskewitt or Porth-is-coed 
(the port below the wood), in Monmouth ; Porth-yn-lyn (the 
port of the pool), in Wales ; Portsoy, in Banffshire, i.e. 
Port-saith (the safe port) ; Port-dyn-Norwig (the port of the 
Northman), in Wales ; Maryport, in Cumberland, named 
after the wife of its first proprietor ; Portlethan, Gael. Port- 
Uath-an (the port of the gray river), Kincardine ; Port- 
Logan, in Wigton, i.e. Gael. Port-na-lagan (the port of the 
hollow). Port became an established Saxon word for a 
market-town — hence we have such names as Newport, 
Longport, applied to inland towns ; Bridport, on the R. 
Brit. The Cinque-ports, Fr. cinq (five), were the towns of 
Dover, Hastings, Hythe, Romney, Sandwich. In Portugal : 
Oporto (the port) ; Portugal, anc. Portus-cale, both mean- 
ing the harbour ; Porto-rico (rich port), an island of the 
Antilles group ; Porto-Santo (the holy port), in the Madeira 
Isles ; Porto-seguro (safe port) ; Porto- Vecchio (old port), 
in Corsica ; Porto-Alegre (the cheerful port), in Brazil ; 
Porto-farina (the port of wheat), in North Africa ; Porto- 
ferrajo (fortified port), in Tuscany, on the coast of the Island 
of Elba ; Port-Vendres, Lat. Portus- Veneris (the port of 
Venus), in France ; Le Treport, corrupt, from the Lat. 
Ulterior-Portus, in Normandy, at the mouth of the Bresle. 
., nm ,,^ (a peak or promontory; e.g. the Pike o' 

PIC, PlKi. (*.Z K), I Stkkle / the k of the h ; h rQck x the 

Pic and PUY (Fr.), < „ . . v „ 1 ,. „., , ° „ , '. ' , 
, x " j Peak, in Derbyshire ; Pike s Peak, in the 

SPITZE (Ger.), (R 0C ky Mountains, named after General 

Pike ; Spitz, in Austria, built around a hill ; Spitzbergen 
(the peaked mountains) ; Spithead (the head of the promon- 
tory) ; Le Puy (the peak), a town situated on a high hill ; 
Puy-de-dome (the dome-shaped peak). 

PISCH (Sclav.), sand ; e.g. Pesth, in Hungary (on a dry, sandy 
soil) ; but Buttman suggests that the name may be derived 
from fiaz, Sclav, (a baking place), as the German name for 
Buda, on the opposite side of the Danube, is Ofen (the 
oven) ; Peschkowitz, Peshen, Pisck, Pskov, Peckska, in 
Russia and Bohemia. Pies, Sclav, (the dog), may, however, 
be the root-word of some of these names. 

pitt, pitten (Gadhelic), a hole, a small hollow. This word, as 
a prefix, occurs very frequently in Scotland, especially in 


Fife, in which county the most important place is Pitten- 
weem (the hollow of the cave, tutimh), the seat of an ancient 
monastery, near which is the cave from which it was 
named ; Pitcairn (the hollow of the cairn), near Perth, in 
the neighbourhood of which there are two large cairns of 
stones ; Pitgarvie (the rough hollow) ; Pitglas (the gray 
hollow) ; Pettinain (the hollow of the river), a parish on the 
Clyde; Pittencrieff (the hollow of the tree, craobh); Pitgober 
(of the goat) ; Pitnamoon (of the moss) ; Pittendriech (the 
Druid's hollow) ; Pitcaithly, probably the hollow of the 
narrow valley, in Perthshire ; Pittentaggart (the priest's 
portion) — as in ancient times, the word fiitte is understood 
to have also meant a part or portion of land ; and it has 
probably this meaning in Pitlochrie, in Perthshire, anc. 
Pittan-cleireach (the portion of the clergy or church-land), 
as well as in Pittan-clerach, in Fife ; Pitmeddin, in Aber- 
deenshire, named after St. Meddane. Pittenbrae (the 
hollow of the hill) ; Petty or Pettie, anc. Petyn (the hollow 
of the island), on Beauly Loch, Inverness ; Pettycur (the 
hollow of the dell, coire), in Fife. 
._ , ( meaning successively a hedge, an enclosed and 

^ r '" < cultivated place surrounded by trees, an enclosed 
PLESSEICUM, ) , , ■ -j 

' ( garden, a park, a mansion, or country residence ; 

e.g. Plessis, Le Plessin, Plessier, Le Plessial, etc. — v. 

Cocheris's Noms de Lieu. , 

PLEU, or PLOE (Cym.-Cel.), a village, found only in Brittany ; e.g. 

Pleu-meur (great village) ; Pleu-nevey (new village) ; Ploer- 

mel (the mill village) ; Pleu-Jian (John's village) ; Pleu, 

Ploven, Pleven, etc. 
PLON, polski (Sclav.), a plain ; e.g. Ploen, a town in Holstein ; 

Pldnersee (the lake of the plain) ; Juriev-Polsk'oi (St. George's 

town on the plain) ; Poland, i.e. Polskoi (the plain or level 

land) ; Volkynia (the level country). 
POD (Sclav.), near or under ; e.g. Podgoriza (under the hill) ; 

Podmokla (near the moss) ; Potsdam, from Pozdu-pemi 

(under the oaks). 
POLDER (Dutch), land reclaimed from the sea ; e.g. Polder and 

Polders, in Belgium ; Beemsterpolder (the meadow of the 

reclaimed land); Charlotten- Polder (Charlotte's reclaimed 

land) ; Pwlpolder (land reclaimed from a pool or marsh). 


POLIS (Grk.), a city ; pol (Sclav.), probably borrowed from the 
Greek ; Constantinople, Adrianople, founded by the emperors 
Constantine and Adrian ; Nicopolis and Nicopoli (the city 
of victory) — the first founded by Augustus to commemorate 
the battle of Actium, and the second by Trajan to com- 
memorate his victory over the Dacians ; Persepolis (the city 
of the Persians) ; Pampeluna, corrupt, from Pompeiopolis, 
so called because rebuilt by the sons of Pompey the Great ; 
Decapolis (the district of the ten cities), colonised by the 
Romans, in Palestine ; Sebastopol (the august city) ; Stav- 
ropol (the city of the cross), in Russia ; Bielopol (the white 
city) ; Bogopol (the city of God, Sclav. Bog) ; Gallipoli, 
anc. Calipolis (the beautiful city) ; Naples, Nauplia, Nablous, 
and Neapolis (the new city) ; Grenoble, corrupt, from 
Gratianopolis (the city of Gratian) ; Heliopolis (the city of 
the sun), being the Greek name for On, in Egypt, and also 
for Baalbec, in Syria ; Krasnapol (the fair city) ; Theriasipol, 
in Hungary (named after the Empress Theresa) — its Hun- 
garian name Szabadka (the privileged) ; Yelisabetpol (after 
the Empress Elizabeth) ; Tripoli, in Syria (the three cities), 
being a joint colony from Tyre, Sidon, and Aradus ; Tripoli, 
in Barbary, named from its three principal cities, Lepta, 
Oca, and Sabrata ; Tripolitza, in the Morea, built from the 
remains of the three cities Tegea, Mantinea, and Palantium ; 
Amphipolis, now Emboli (the surrounded city), so called 
because almost encircled by the R. Strymon ; Anapli, in 
the Morea, corrupt, from Neapolis (new town) ; Annapolis, 
in Nova Scotia, named after Queen Anne ; Antibes, in 
Provence, a colony from Marseilles, anc. Antinopolis, named 
after its founder ; Stamboul, the Turkish name for Con- 
stantinople, means eis ten polin (to the city). 
,. ,, ,. . fa pool or marsh, cognate with the Lat. palm; 

(C r l \ J e 'S- P°°l e > m Dorset, situated on a lagune ; 

Vt m J P° nt yP°°l (^e pool at the bridge) ; Welsh- 

^ "'' (pool, so called to distinguish it from Poole in 

Dorset — its Welsh name is Trellyn (the dwelling on the 
pool) ; Hartlepool, Danish Hartness (the pool hard by the 
headland) — the Normans added le pol, from a pool called the 
Slake, by which it is almost insulated ; Liverpool, probably 
"~ Llyr-pwl, Welsh (the sea pool) ; Blackpool, in Lancashire, 


named from a marsh now drained ; Polton and Pulborough 
(pool town) ; Polbaith and Polbeath, Gael, (the pool of the 
birches) ; Poltarf (of the bull) ; Pollnaranny and Polrane 
(of the ferns), in Ireland ; Wampool in Cumberland {i.e. 
Woden's pool) ; Pwl-helli (the salt pool) ; Pwll-du (black 
pool) ; Pwll-broch-mael (the pool of the warlike weapons), 
the site of a battle between the Welsh and Saxons ; Pwll- 
tin-byd (the very deep pool, literally the pool at the bottom 
of the world) ; Pwll-y-wrach (the hag's pool), in Wales. 
Pill, in Gloucester, means the mouth of a brook, e.g. Cow- 
pill, Horse-pill, etc. ; Polmont, Co. Stirling, corrupt, from 
poll-monaidh (the pool near the hill). 
pommier (Fr.), the apple-tree ; pomeratum (a place planted with 
apple-trees) ; e.g. La Pommere'e, Pommeray, Pomiers, 
Pommera, Pommeraie, Pommereau, Pommereuil, in France. 
... ( the bridge, with its derivatives in the Romance 
twr i h\ S anc * m l ^ e Welsh languages ; e.g. Pontefract, 
^ '' ( Lat. Ad-pontem-fractum (at the broken bridge) ; 

Pontoise (the bridge across the R. Oise) ; Pont-Audemer 
(the bridge built by Aldemar across the R. Rille) ; Pont-de- 
briques (the bridge of bricks) ; Pont-d'Espagne, corrupt, 
from Pont-de-sapins (the fir-tree bridge) ; Ponteland, in 
Northumberland, corrupt, from Ad-pontem-AZlianum (at the 
bridge of ./Elius) ; Pontigny (bridge town); Les-Ponts- 
de-Ce" (the bridges of Caesar), a town in France, with four 
bridges across the Loire ; Negropont, probably a corrupt, 
of Egripp, which the Italian sailors translated into Negripo 
or Negropont (black bridge), in allusion to the narrow strait 
called in Greek Euripos (i.e. the strait with the violent 
current), on which the town was built — the name of the 
town was gradually extended to the whole island, till then 
called Eubceaj Ponte-vedra (the old bridge), and Puenta- 
de-la-Reyna (the queen's bridge), in Spain ; Grampound, in 
Cornwall, Welsh Pout-maur (the great bridge), corrupt, 
from the Fr. Grand-pout j Paunton, in Lincoln, anc. Ad- 
pontem (at the bridge) ; Pontesbury (bridge town), in 
Cheshire ; Ponte-corvo (the crooked bridge), in Campania ; 
Deux-ponts (the two bridges), in Bavaria. In Wales : Pont- 
faen (stone bridge) ; Pont-newydd (new bridge) ; Pont-glas- 
llyn (the bridge at the blue pool) ; Pont-y-glyn (the bridge 


of the glen) ; Pont-y-pair (the bridge of the cauldron) ; 
Pont-ar-ddulas (the bridge on the dark water) ; Pont-ar- 
Fynach (the devil's bridge) ; Pontypool (the bridge of the 
pool) ; Pant-yr-ysgraff, probably corrupt, from Pont-yr- 
ysgraff{ the bridge of boats). In France: Poncelle, Ponchel, 
Poncelet, Ponceaux, etc. ; Pont-a-couleuvre, in the depart, of 
Oise, probably from an Old Lat. text, in which this place is 
called Pont-&-qui-l'ouvre {i.e. the bridge to whomsoever may 
open), it being a bridge closed by barriers — Cocheris's Noms 
de Lieu. , 

POOR, PORE, pura (Sansc), a city ; e.g. Nagpoor (snake city) ; 
Chuta Nagpore (the little snake city) ; Amarapoora (divine 
city) ; Bejapore or Visiapoor (the city of victory) ; Beram- 
pore (of the Mahometan sect called Bohrd) ; Bhagulpore 
(tiger city) ; Ahmedpore (the city of Ahmed) ; Ahmedpore 
Chuta (the little city of Ahmed) ; Callianpoor (flourishing 
city) ; Bhurtpore (the city of Bhurat, the brother of the god 
Ram) ; Rampoor (Ram's city) ; Bissenpoor (of Vishnu) ; 
Ferozepore (of Feroze-Togluk) ; Huripoor (of Hari or 
Vishnu) ; Shahjehanpoor (of Shah Jehan) ; Mahabalipoor 
(of Bali the Great) ; Caujapoor (of the Virgin) ; Rajapore 
(of the rajah) ; Cawnpoor or Khanpur (of the Beloved 
One, a title of Krishna) ; Hajipoor (of the pilgrim) ; Ghazi- 
pore (of Ghazi, a martyr) ; Mirzapoor (the city of the 
emir) ; Secunderpoor (of Secunder Lodi) ; Sidhpoor (of 
the saint) ; Singapore (of the lions) ; Russoulpoor (of the 
prophet) ; Chandpoor (of the moon) ; Joudpoor (war city) ; 
Ratnapoor (of rubies) ; Munnipora (of jewels) ; Darma- 
pooram (of justice) ; Dinajpore (of beggars) ; Futtepoor (of 
victory) ; Sudhapura (bright city) ; Conjeveram, corrupt, 
from Canchipura (the golden city) ; Trivandrum, corrupt, 
from Tiruvanan-thafiuram (the town of the holy Eternal 
One), in Travancore. 

PRAAG, prayaga (Sansc), a holy place ; e.g. Vissenpraag (the holy 

place of Vishnu) ; Devaprayaga (God's holy place). 

_ ,„ , n ,, /a meadow, derived from the Lat. j>ra- 

PRADO (Span, and Port.), 1 , ' „ . . , , ■, 

;, r . ' J turn; e.g. the Prairies or meadow lands; 

„.i; /■<?' \ ^ Prato-Vecchio (the old meadow), in 

PRAIRIE (Fr.), I „ r\ * r 

x " ^Tuscany; Ouro-preto, corrupt, from 

Ouro-firado (the gold meadow), near a gold mine in Brazil. 


In France, Premol, i.e.pratum molle (the smooth meadow); 
Prabert, i.e. Pratum Alberti (Albert's meadow) ; Pradelles, 
Les Pre'sek, Premontie', Lat. Pratum-mons (the mount in the 
meadow), the site of an abbey, chief of the order of the 
PUEBLA (Span.), a collection of people, hence a village; e.g. La 
Puebla, in Mexico ; La Puebla-de-los-Angelos (the village of 
the angels), in Mexico. 
PULO (Malay), an island ; e.g. Pulo-Penang (betel-nut island). 
PUSTY (Sclav.), a waste place ; e.g. Pustina (on the waste ground) ; 

Pusta-kaminica (the stony waste). 

PVTT , » c \ ( a we H or P 00 ' °f standing water, cognate with 

__..__.,-, ,A \ J the Lat. ftuteus and its derivatives in the 

PYDEN (Welsh} ) Romance languages; e.g. Puozzuoli in Italy, 

^ '' \and Puteaux in France, anc. Puteoli (the place 

of wells) ; Le Puiset, anc. Puteolis castrum (the camp of 

the well) ; Pfutzenburg and Pfutzenthal (the town and valley 

of the wells or pools), in Germany ; Poza-de-la-sal (the salt 

well), near a salt mine in Spain ; also in Spain : Pozanca 

and Pozancos (the stagnant pools) ; Pozo-blanco and Pozo- 

hondo (the white and deep pool) ; Putney, anc. Puttenheath 

(the pool on the heath), in Surrey ; Puttenheim, in Belgium 

(a dwelling near a well or pool). 


QUELLE (Ger.), WEDEL (Old Ger.) 
wyl (A.S.), 
Kilde (Scand.), 
KILL (Dutch), 

' aplacefromwhichwaterflows 
— from quellen,\.o spring, and 
•wyllan, to flow ; e.g. Muhl- 
quelle (the mill fountain) ; 
Hoogkill (corner well), and 
Bassekill (low well), in Holland ; Quillebceuf (well town), in 
Normandy ; Roeskilde (the fountain of King Roe), in Den- 
mark ; Salzwedel (salt well) ; Hohenwedel (high well) ; 
Tideswell, in Derbyshire — probably from a personal name, as 
there is a Tideslow in the neighbourhood ; Wells, in Nor- 
folk (a place into which the tide flows) ; Wells, in Somerset, 
named from a holy fountain dedicated to St. Andrew ; 
Motherwell, in Lanarkshire, named from a well dedicated to 
the Virgin Mary ; Amwell, in Hants, corrupt, from Emma's 



well; Holywell, in Wales, named from St. Winifred's well — 
in Welsh it is called Treffynnon (the town of the well) ; 
Shadwell, in London (St. Chad's well) ; Bakewell, anc. 
Badican-wylla (the bath wells), in Derbyshire ; Walston, a 
parish in Lanarkshire, named from a sacred well near the 
site of the church ; Ashwell (the well among ash-trees), in 
Hertford ; Ewell, in Surrey, found written Etwell and 
Awell (at the well). 


RADE, rode (Teut), a place where wood has been cut down, and 
which has been cleared for tillage, from reuten, to root out, 
to plough or turn up. The word in its various forms, reud, 
reut, and rath, is common in German topography ; e.g. 
Wittarode (the cleared wood) ; Herzegerode (the clearing 
on the Hartz Mountains) ; Quadrath (the clearing of the 
Quadi) ; Lippenrode (the clearing on the R. Lippe) ; Rade- 
vor-dem-walde (the clearing in front of the wood) ; Randa- 
rath and Wernigerode (the clearing of Randa and Werner) ; 
Zeulenroda (the clearing on the boundary, ziel) ; Schabert, 
corrupt, from Suabroid (the Swabian clearing) ; Pfaffrath 
(the priest's clearing) ; Baireuth (the cleared ground of the 
Boii or Bavarians) ; Schussenried (the clearing on the R. 
Schussen). Royd, in England, means a path cut through a 
wood, as in Huntroyd, Boothroyd, Holroyd. Terra-rodata 
(rode land) was so called in opposition to Terra-Bovata, i.e. 
an ancient enclosure which had been from time immemorial 
under the plough, i.e. Ormeroyd (Ormer's rode land). 

a promontory or peninsula ; 

rain, rand, ra (Teut. and Scand.), 
rhynn (Cym.-Cel.), 
rinn (Irish), 
roinn (Gael.), 

e.g. Rain, a town name in 
Bavaria and Styria; Randers, 
on a promontory in Den- 
mark ; Hohenrain (high pro- 

montory) ; Steenrain (rock headland) ; Renfrew (the pro- 
montory of the stream, frew), anc. Strathgriff, on the R. 
Griff; the Rhinns (i.e. the points), in Galloway; Rhynie, 
a parish in Aberdeenshire ; Rhind, a parish in Perthshire, 
with the parish church situated on a headland jutting into 
the R. Tay ; Rinmore (the great point), in Devon, Argyle, 

RAJA — RATH 163 

and Aberdeenshire ; Rindon, in Wigton ; Tynron, Gael. 
Tigh-an-roinne (the house on the point), a parish in Dum- 
friesshire ; Reay, in Sutherlandshire, and Reay, a station 
on the Lancaster and Carlisle Railway, from Ra, Norse (a 
point) ; Penryn (the head of the point), in Cornwall. This 
word, in various forms, such as rin, reen, rine, ring, is of 
frequent occurrence in Ireland ; e.g. Ringrone (the seal's 
promontory) ; Rineanna (the promontory of the marsh, 
eanaigh) ; Ringville and Ringabella, Irish Rinn-bhile (the 
point of the old tree) ; Ringfad (long point) ; Ringbane 
(white point) ; Rineen (little point) ; Ringagonagh (the 
point of the O'Cooneys) ; Rinville, in Galway (the point of 
Mhil, a Firbolg chieftain) ; Ringsend, near Dublin (the end 
of the point). 

raja, RAJ (Sansc), royal ; e.g. Rajamahal (the royal palace) ; 
Rajapoor (royal city) ; Rajpootana (the country of the Raj- 
poots, i.e. the king's sons — fiutra, a son). 
. [a cape ; e.g. Ras-el-abyad (the white cape) ; 

RAS (H b \ Rasi ? elbi > corrupt, from Rasicalbo (the dog's 
v e • /> y cape) ; Rasicarami (the cape of the vineyards) ; 
Ras-el-tafal (chalk cape) ; Rasicanzar (the swine's cape) ; 
Ras-el-shakah (the split cape) ; Ras-el-hamra (red cape) ; 
Rascorno (Cape Horn). 

RATH, raed (Teut.), council ; e.g. Rachstadt or Rastadt (the town 
of the council or court of justice) ; Rathenau (the meadow of 
the council) ; Raithby (the dwelling of the court of justice). 

RATH (Gadhelic), a round earthen fort or stronghold, cognate with 
the Welsh rhath, a mound or hill ; e.g. Rathmore (the great 
fort) ; Ratass or Rathteas (the south fort) ; Rattoo or Rath- 
tuaith (northern fort) ; Rathbeg (little fort) ; Rathduff (black 
fort) ; Rathglass (green fort) ; Rathcoole (the fort of Cum- 
hal, the father of Finn) ; Rathcormac (of Cormack) ; Rath- 
drum (of the ridge) ; Rathdowney, Irish Rath-tamhnaigh 
(of the green field) ; Rathbane (white fort) ; Rathfryland 
, (Freelan's fort) — all in Ireland. Rattray, in Perthshire, 
where there are the remains of an old fortress on a hill, and 
near what is called the Standing Stones, supposed to have 
been a Druidical temple ; Rathven (hill-fort), in Banffshire ; 
Rathmorail (the magnificent fort), in Aberdeenshire ; Ra- 
phoe, Co. Donegal, abbrev. from Rathboth (the fort of huts). 


,„ , „ /a kingdom; e.g. France, i.e. Frank-reich 

REICH, REIKE (Goth.), I ,., ? ■ j t ,* rr z. v. 

/ A c \ J ( tne kingdom of the franks, who are 

y' '-", . } supposed to have derived their name 

^ '" (from a kind of javelin called franca) ; 

Austria, CEstreich (the eastern kingdom), as opposed to 
Neustria (the western) ; Surrey or Sud-rice (the southern 
kingdom) ; Goodrich, in Hereford (Goda's rule or kingdom) ; 
Rastrick (Rasta's rule), in Yorkshire ; Norway or Nordrike 
(the northern kingdom) ; Ringerige, in Norway (the king- 
dom of King Ringe) ; Gothland, anc. Gotarike (the kingdom 
of the Goths) ; Sweden, anc. Sviarike (the kingdom of the 
REIDH (Gadhelic), smooth, used also as a noun to signify a level 
field, and Anglicised re, rea, or rey j e.g. Remeen (the 
smooth plain) ; Muilrea (smooth hill, mullagh, p. 145) ; 
Rehill for Redh-choill (smooth wood). 
REKA (Sclav.), a river; e.g. Riga, Rega, Regan, Regnitz (river 
names) ; also the R. Spree, Sclav. Serbenreka (the river of 
the Serbs or Wends) ; Meseritz and Meseritsch (in the 
midst of rivers), in Moravia and Wallachia ; Rakonitz (the 
town on the river), in Russia ; Reka, the Sclavonic name for 
Fiume, It. (the river), a town on the Adriatic, at the mouth 
of a stream of the same name. 

to flow, from whence are derived rivus 
and rivula, Lat. ; rio, Span, and Port. ; 
rivola, raes, and rith, A.S. (a stream). 

rhedig (Cym.-Cel.) 
ruith (Gadhelic), 

\ T /' 'The Eng. river comes through the Fr. 

RUO (Lat.), 

Rl, SRI (Sansc), 

riviere, and that from tiftaria, in Mediae- 
val Lat. a river, but literally a river-bank. 
From these root-words many river names are derived, or 
from rhe, rea (swift), joined to root-words signifying water ; 
e.g. the Rhone, anc. Rhodanus, the Rhine, Rye, Rea, Rhee, 
Rhea, Rey, Rheus, Roe, Ruhr, etc. ; Rio-doce and Rio- 
dulce (sweet or fresh river), in opposition to Rio-salada 
(salt river) ; Rio-branco (white river) ; Rio-bravo-del-norte 
(the great north river) ; Rio-grande-do-sul (the great south 
river) ; Rio-negro (black river) ; Rio-tinto (coloured river) ; 
Rio -Colorado, with the same meaning; Rio -de -Janeiro, 
generally called Rio — so named by the Portuguese dis- 
coverer because the bay was discovered on the feast of 


St. Januarius : the city founded at the place, and now called 
Rio, was originally named St. Sebastian ; Rio-de-Cobra 
(the snake river), in Jamaica ; Rio-dos-Reis (the river of 
the kings), in Africa, so named by Vasco de Gama, because 
discovered on the feast of the Epiphany; Rio-de-Ouro 
(the river of gold), on the coast of Guinea ; Rio-azul (the 
blue river); Rio-Marahao (the tangled river); Rio-de-la- 
Plata (the river of plata, i.e. silver), so called from the 
booty taken on its banks. 
RHIADUR (Cym.-Cel.), a cataract ; e.g. Rhayadar (the cataract), a 
town in Radnor, near a fall of the R. Wye, removed in 
1780. Radnor itself is supposed to have taken its name 
from Rhiadur-Gwy (the cataract of the R. Wye) ; Rhiadur- 
mawr (the great cataract), in Caernarvonshire ; Rhaidr-y- 
wennol (the cataract of the swallow), so named from the 
rapidity of its motion, like that of the bird. 
rhiw (Welsh), an ascent ; e.g. Ruabon, corrupt, from Rhiuu- 

Fabon (the ascent of St. Mabon). 
RHOS, ROS (Cym.-Cel.), in Wales signifying a moor, in Cornwall 
a valley ; e.g. Ross, a town in Hereford ; Rhoscollen (the 
moor of hazels), in Anglesea ; Rhos-du (black moor); 
Penrhos (the head of the moor), in Wales. In Cornwall : 
Roskilly (the valley of hazels) ; Rosecrewe (the valley of 
the cross); Rosvean (little valley); Rosmean (stony valley). 
" red ; e.g. Rutland (red land), or per- 
haps cleared ground — v. rode ; 
-; Rhuddlan (the red bank, glan) ; 
Rhuthin, corrupt, from Rhudd-din (the 
red land); Llanrhudd (the red church), 
in Wales ; Romhilde, anc. Rotemulte (red land) ; Rother, 
Rotha, Rothback (red stream) ; Rotherthurm, Hung. 
Vdrostoroney (red tower) ; Rothen-haus, Sclav. Czerweny- 
hradek (red house or castle), in Bohemia ; Rotenburg, in 
Switzerland (the town on the red brook) ; Rothenburg, in 
Hanover and Bavaria (the red fortress) ; Rothenburg, in 
Prussia proper, is called by the Sclaves Rostarezewo (the town 
of the Sclavonic deity Ratzi) ; Rothenfels (red rock) ; 
Rotherham (the dwelling on the red river) ; Roughan and 
Rooghaun (reddish land), in Ireland. But the prefix rud 
is sometimes the abbreviation of a proper name, thus — 

rhudd (Cym.-Cel.), 
ruadh (Gadhelic), 
roth and rud (Teut.), 
ROD (Scand.), 


Rudesheim, in Germany, is from Hruodinesheim (the dwell- 
ing of Hruodine) ; Rudby, in Yorkshire (of Routh) ; Rud- 
kioping, in Denmark (the market-town of Routh). 

RHYD (Welsh), a ford ; e.g. Rhyderin, corrupt, from Rhyd-gerwin 
(the rough ford) ; Rhyd-y-Boithan, corrupt, from Byddin 
(the ford of the army) ; Rhydonen, corrupt, from Rhyd-hen 
(the old ford) ; Rhyd-dol-cynfar (the ford of the valley of 
the ancient fight). 

riding, or thrithing, the three things, q.v., i.e. the three places 
or districts where the Scandinavians held their judicial 
assemblies ; e.g. the Ridings, in Yorkshire, so named under 
the Danish rule ; Lincoln was divided by the Danes in the 
same manner. 

ried (A.S.), a reed; e.g. Retford and Radford (the reedy ford) ; 
Radbourne (reedy brook) ; Redbridge, in Hants, anc. 
Reideford (reedy ford). Bede calls it Arundinis-vadum, 
Lat. (the ford of the reeds). 

RlGGE (AS1 ( a " dge ' " mg - Hansriicke (J olm ' s rid ge) ; 

*■ " ■'' . < Hengistriicke (the horses' ridge) ; Hundsricke 

^ "'' ( (the dog's ridge) ; Rudgeley (the field at the 

ridge) ; Brownrigg, Grayrigg (the brown and gray ridge) ; 

Reigate (the passage through the ridge), contracted from 

ridgegatej Lindridge (lime-tree ridge) ; Rucksteig (the 

steep path on the ridge) ; Langrike (long ridge) ; Steen- 

riicke (stony ridge). 

a bank or the border of a stream ; e.g. 

Riva (on the bank of Lake Como) ; 

Riva or Rief (on Lake Garda) ; Rive- 

de-Gier and Aube-rive (on the banks of 

the R. Gier and Aube) ; Aute-rive and 

Rives-altes (the high river-banks) ; Rieux, anc. Rivi-Castra 

(the camp of the river-bank) ; Riberac (on the bank of the 

water), in France ; Rivalta (the high bank), in Piedmont ; 

Rivoli, anc. Riftula (the little bank), in Piedmont ; Romor- 

antin, anc. Rivus-Morentini (the bank of the R. Morantin), 

in France ; Riveria or Riberia, in Low Lat. signified a 

plain on the bank of a river — hence Riviere, Rivieres, 

Hautes- Rivieres, La Rivoire, etc., in France ; Rivar- 

rennas, i.e. Ripa-arena (the sandy bank), on the R. Cher ; 

the Rialto at Venice is corrupt, from Riva-alto (the high 

ripa (Lat.), 

riva (It), 

riba (Span, and Port.) 

rive (Fr.), 


bank) ; Rye, in Sussex, in Lat. records Rifiaj Ryde, in the 

Isle of Wight, formerly Rye (on the bank of the water) ; 

Altrupp, on the R. Rhone, anc. Alta-tipa (the high bank) ; 

Ribaute and Autrepe, for Haute-rive (high bank), in Belgium ; 

Ribadavia and Riba-de-Sella (the bank of the Rivers Avia 

and Sella), in Spain ; Ripon, in Yorkshire, and Ripum (on 

the bank of the R. Ure). 

/ the rush ; e.g. Ruscomb (the rushy hollow) ; 
RISCH (^er.), I Rushbrook ( the rushy str eam) ; Rushford, 

RISGE (A.i>.), < Rushmere, Rushholme, Ryston (the rushy 

rogoscha (tjciav.), ^ fordj marshj island) and town ). Rogatzn, 

in Poland, and Rogatchev, in Russia (the place of 

._ . ( a rock — derivatives from the Lat. rupesj e.g. 
ROC, ROCHE (t r.), I Rocca . bianca ( w hite rock) ; Rocca-casale (rock 
R0CC Mlt.), ^village or dwelling); Rocca-secura (the safe 

ROC (A.b.), ^ rock fortress ^ in Italy . Rocca-Valoscuro (the 

rock in the dark valley), in Naples ; Rochefort-sur-mer (the 
strong fortress on the sea), at the mouth of the R. Charente ; 
La Rochelle (the little rock fortress) ; Rochefort (rock for- 
tress), in Belgium ; Rochester, Co. Kent (the fortress on 
the rock), or, according to Bede, the fort of Hrop, a Saxon 
chief ; Rochester, in New York, named after Colonel 
Rochester, one of the early settlers ; Roche- Guyon, Lat. 
Rupes-Guidonis (the rock fortress of Guido); Roche-Foucault, 
anc. Rupes-Fucaldi (the fortress of Foucalt) ; Rocroi, Lat. 
Rupes-Regia (the royal fortress), in France ; Roxburgh (the 
rock fortress) — the ancient town, as well as the county, 
taking their name from the strong castle, situated on a rock 
near the junction of the Tweed and Teviot — the ancient 
name of the castle was Marchidun (the hill -fort on the 
marshy land). 
ROS, ROSS (Gadhelic), a promontory or isthmus, and also, in the 
south of Ireland, a wood ; thus New Ross, Co. Wexford, 
anc. Ros-mic-Treoin (the wood of Treuon's son) ; Ros- 
common (of St. Coman) ; Roscrea (Cree's wood) ; Ross- 
castle (on a promontory on Lake Killarney) ; Muckross 
(the peninsula of the pigs), in several places in Ireland ; 
Muckros (with the same meaning — the pig's headland) 
was the ancient name of the town of St. Andrews ; Ross- 


begh (of the birches) ; Rossinver (of the confluence) ; Port- 
rush (the landing-place of the promontory) ; Ross-shire 
seems to have taken its name from Ross (a wood) ; Mon- 
trose, anc. Monros (the promontory on the marshy land, 
moin) ; Rosneath, anc. Rosneveth (the promontory of St. 
Nefydd), in Dumbartonshire ; Roslin (the promontory on 
the pool) ; Kinross (the head of the promontory), either 
with reference to the county — in regard to Fife, of which 
it anciently formed part — or with reference to the town at 
the head of Loch Leven. Fife was anciently called Ross : 
it got the name of Fife in honour of Duff, Earl of Fife, to 
whom it was given by Kenneth II. ; and in 1426 Kinross 
was made a separate county. Roskeen (the head or corner 
of Ross-shire) ; Rosehearty, in Aberdeenshire, corrupt, from 
Ros-ardty (the dwelling on the high promontory). 

RUHE (Ger.), rest ; e.g. Ludwigsriihe (Ludowic's rest) ; Carlshriihe 
(Charles's rest), founded by Charles William, Margrave of 
Baden, in 171 5 ; Henricksnihe (Henry's rest). ! 

RUN (A.S.), council ; e.g. Runhall (the hall of the council) ; Run- 
nington, anc. Runenton (the town of the council) ; Runny- 
mede (the meadow of the council). 

RYBA (Sclav.), fish ; e.g. Rybnik, Rybniza (the fish pond) ; 
Rybinsk, Rybnaia (fish town). 

RYSCH, or row (Sclav.), a dam or ditch ; e.g. Prierow (near the 
dam) ; Prierosbriick (the bridge near the dam) ; Ryswick 
(the town on the dam) ; Riez, Rieze, Riezow, Riezig (at the 


/o.i, \ ( behind ; e.g. Sabor (behind the wood) ; Zadrin 
^ { (behind the R. Drin) ; Zamosc (behind the moss) ; 

( Zabrod (behind the ford); Zablat (behind the 
SABHALL (Gadhelic), a barn ; e.g. Saul, Co. Down, anc. Sabhall- 
Patrick (Patrick's barn), being the first place of worship 
used by St. Patrick in Ireland ; Saval (the barn used as a 
church), near Newry ; Drumsaul (the barn or church on 
the ridge) ; Sawel, a mountain in Ireland, probably from 
the same root ; Cairntoul, a hill in Aberdeenshire, origin- 
ally Carn-t-Sabhall (the cairn of the barn). 


SABLE (Fr.), sand; e.g. Sable, Sable", Sablat, Sablon, Sablieres, 
La Sabloniere, in France. 

SALH, sael (AS) ( the willow ' e & Salehurst (willow copse) ; 

SALix (Lat.) ) Salford (willow ford); Saul, in Gloucester- 

( shire (the place of willows). In France 

many places take their name from Saule, Fr. (the willow) ; 

e.g. Sailly, from Salicetum (a place planted with willows), as 

also Saux, Saules, Saulzais, etc. 

SALL (Teut ) ( a Stone dwellin S 5 se h a cottage, cognate with the 

zaal ) Span, and Port, solas e.g. Hohensale (high dwell- 

ing); Nordsehl (north dwelling); Oldenzeel (old 
dwelling) ; Eversal (the dwelling of the wild boar) ; Brun- 
sele (the dwelling at the well) ; Holzselen (at the wood) ; 
Laufenselden (the dwelling near the waterfall) ; Marsal (on 
the marsh), in France. In Spain : Salas (the halls) ; Salas- 
de-la-ribera (the dwellings on the river-bank) ; Salas-de-los- 
Infantes (the dwellings of the infantry) ; Upsal, Scand. 
Upsalr (the high halls), in Sweden. 

salt, cognate with the Lat. sal and the Grk. 
halss e.g. the Rivers Saale, Salzach, Salz- 
bach, Sal, Salat (salt stream) ; Salies, 
Salins, Salinas, Salines, Salenillas, Salskaia, 
place-names in France, South America, and 
Russia (in the neighbourhood of salt mines or springs) ; 
Saalfeld, on the R. Saal, in Saxony ; also Saalfelden, in 
Austria (the salt field); Salamanca, in Spain, anc. Salmantica 
(the place in the neighbourhood of salt springs) ; Salzburg, 
on the R. Salzach ; Salzbrunn (the salt well) ; Salzkam- 
mergut (the public treasury of the salt-works) ; Soultz or 
Soultzbad (the saline bath) ; Soultzbach (the salt brook) ; 
Soultz-sous-forets (the salt springs under the woods) ; Soultz- 
matt (the meadow of the salt springs) ; Selters, anc. 
Saltrissa, in Nassau, near the Selzar or mineral springs ; 
Saltzkotten (the huts of the salt miners), in Westphalia ; 
Solikamsk (the town of the salt-works on the R. Kama), in 
Russia ; salt and salts, as affixes, are also applied to dwell- 
ings on the sea-coast, thus — Westersalt, Ostersalt, Neusaltz 
(the west, east, and new watering-place by the sea) ; but 
Salton, a parish in East Lothian, does not come from this 
word. It is said to have derived its name from Nicolas de 

SALZ (Ger.), 
SALANN (Gadhelic), 
SOL (Sclav.), 
HALEN (Cym.-Cel.), 


Soules, who possessed that part of the country in the 
thirteenth century. Hal, the Celtic word for salt, still exists 
in the names of places where there are or were salt-works ; 
e.g. Haling, in Hants ; Halton, in Cheshire ; Halsal and 
Hallaton, in Lancashire ; Halle, in Prussian Saxony, stands 
on the R. Saala ; Reichenhall, on the Saale ; Hallein, on the 
Salza, near the salt mines in Tyrol. 

SANG (Ger.), a place cleared of wood by burning, from sengen, to 
burn ; e.g. Feuersang (the fire clearing) ; Altensang (the old 
clearing) ; but Vogelgesang means the place of singing-birds. 

SARN (Welsh), a road. The word sarn refers to the old Roman 
road which the Emperor Maximus called in honour of his 
wife Helen, a Welsh princess whom he had married ; e.g. 
Sam-Helen (Helen's road) ; Pen-Sam (the head or end of 
the road) ; Tal-Sarn (the face of the road). 

SAX, sahs (Teut), a stone, cognate with the Lat. saxum; e.g. 
Sachsa (the stony water in the neighbourhood of quarries) ; 
Sasso, in Italy (the stone or tomb) ; Sassoferrato (the forti- 
fied rock) ; Sassuolo (the little rock or stone), in Italy ; but 
these words, either as prefixes or affixes, in topography 
generally indicate places belonging to the Saxons, who were 
so called from the seax, a kind of sword which they used in 
warfare ; thus Sachsenberg, Sachsenburg, Sachsenheim, 
Sachsendorf, Sassetot, denote the dwellings of the Saxons ; 
Saxony, in Germany (peopled by Saxons) ; Sussex, Essex, 
and Wessex (the south, east, and west districts of the 
Saxons), in England ; Saxby (the Saxons' town), in Lincoln ; 
Saxlingham (the home of the descendants of the Saxons), 
in Norfolk ; Sassenberg (the Saxons' hill), in Westphalia. 

SCALE, SKALI (Scand.), } % ^ " ff ' ."* ^ "? d 

,.' ,. < Scaleby (hut town) ; Scalloway (the 
*■ ■" ( huts on the bay, vig), in Shetland ; 

Galashiels (the huts on the R. Gala) ; Biggarshiels (the 
huts near the town of Biggar) ; Larbert, Co. Stirling, 
formerly Lairbert-scheills (the huts of a man named Lair- 
bert) ; North and South Shields, originally a collection of 
fishermen's huts ; but as scald, in the Scandinavian language, 
means a bard — that word is likely to have formed an element 
in place-names. Scaldwell is probably the bard's well ; 
Skalholt, in Iceland, may be the bard's hill. 



scam (Old Ger.), little ; e.g. Schambach, Schamach (the little 

SCHANZE (Ger.), a bulwark ; e.g. Rheinschanze (the bulwark of 
the Rhine) ; Hochschanze (high bulwark). 

SCHEIDE (Ger.), a watershed, from scheiden, to divide ; e.g. Lenn- 
scheide, Remschede, Nettenscheide (the watershed of the 
Rivers Lenn, Rems, and Nette) ; but this word sometimes 
means a place separated by an enclosure from the surround- 
ing land,, as in Scheidhof (the separated or enclosed court) ; 
Scheidlehen (the separated fief). 

SCHENKE (Ger.), a public-house ; e.g. Schenholtz (the wood near 
the public-house) ; Shenklein (the little public-house) ; 
Shenkendorf (the inn village). 

SCHEUNE (Ger.), a shed or barn ; e.g. Ziegelscheune (the brick barn) ; 
Kalkscheune (lime-shed); Scheunenstelle(the place of sheds). 

SCHLAG (Ger.), a wood clearing or field ; e.g. Leopoldschlag (the 
field of Leopold) ; Grafenschlag (of the count) ; Pfaffen- 
schlag (of the priest) ; Kirchsclag (of the church) ; Schlagen- 
wald (the cleared wood) ; Schlagberg and Schlaghock (the 
cleared hill and corner) ; Murzuschlag (the clearing on the 
R. Murz), in Styria. 

SCHLANGE (Ger.), a snake ; e.g. Slagenhorst (snake thicket) ; 
Schlangenbad (snake bath). 

.„ . / a sluice ; e.g. Rhinschleuse (the sluice of the 

SCHLEUSE (Uer.), I Rhine ) . sluyS) in Hol i and . and siooten, also 

SLUYS (J-'utch), < a town in Holland) on a lake of th e game 

ECLUSE (*r.), ( name (fr 0m shot, a ditch); Sluispolder (the 

reclaimed land at the sluice) ; Schlusseburg, in Russia (the 
fortress at the sluice), built on an island at the spot where 
the R. Neva issues from Lake Ladoga ; Helvoetsluis (the 
sluice on the Haring-vliet, an arm of the R. Maas) ; Fort 
de FEcluse (the fortress of the sluice), in France. 

SCHLOSS (Ger.), a castle ; e.g. Marienschloss (the castle of the 
Virgin Mary) ; Heidenschloss (the castle on the heath) ; 
Schlossmiihle (castle mill) ; Schlosshof (the castle court). 
._ . ( little ; e.g. Schmalkalden, anc. Schmalenaha (the 

SCHMAL(Ger.), I tQwn Qn the smaU stream ). Smalley, with the 

SMAA (bcand.), y same meaning . Smaaleh i en (the small fief), in 
Norway ; Smallburgh (little town) ; Schmallenberg (little 
hill) ; Smailholm (little hill), a parish in Roxburghshire. 


SCHMEIDE (Ger.), a smithy; e.g. Nagelschmeide (the nail smithy); 
Schmeidefeld and Schmeidsiedel (the field and site of the 
smithy) ; Schmeideberg (the hill of the smithy). 

schwatc COld r P r ^ ( acattle - shed ; ^.Herrnschweige (the count's 

bCHWAiG(umuer.;, i cattle . shed) . Brunswick, anc. Braunsweig 

SCHweig, y (Bruno's shed, or the town of Bruno). 

SCHWAND (Ger.), a wood clearing ; e.g. Schwand or Schwandt, 
in Bavaria ; Schwanden, in Switzerland ; Schwandorf (the 
village at the wood clearing). 

SCHWARZ (Ger.), black ; e.g. Schwarza, Schwarzach, Schwarzbach, 
Schwarzwasser (black stream) ; Schwarzburg (black for- 
tress) ; Schwarzberg (black mountain) ; Schwarzwald (black 
wood) ; Schwarzkreutz (the black cross). 

SCHWERE (Sclav.), a wild beast ; e.g. Schwerin and Schwerin- 
lake, in Mecklenburg ; and Schwersentz, in Posen (places 
infested by wild beasts). 

. . „ . I clear, bright ; e.g. Sherbourne (the clear stream) ; 
* ' ■■" I but this word is sometimes used instead of scyre, 
(a division or shire, as in Sherwood (the wood 
where the shire meetings were held) ; Sherston (shire 
boundary stone) ; Shardlow and Shardhill (the boundary 
hill) ; Sharnford (the boundary ford) ; Sharrington (the 
town of the children of the shire or division). 

SEANN (Gadhelic), old ; e.g. Shanmullagh (the old summit) ; 
Shandrum (the old ridge) ; Shangarry (the old garden) ; 
Shanbally and Shanvally (the old dwelling) ; Shanbo, 
Shanboe, and Shanbogh (the old hut), in Ireland ; also 
Shankill (old church), and Shandon, Irish Seandun (old 
fort). There are several places in Ireland called Shannon 
from this word, but it is uncertain what is the origin of 
the R. Shannon, whose ancient name was Senos; Sanquhar, 
Gael. Seann-Cathair (the old fortress), in Dumfriesshire, 
named from an old castle near the town. 
,„ . (a lake or sea ; e.g. Ostsee and Oostzee (east lake) ; 
m th\ \ Zuyderzee (the Southern Sea) ; Zealand and Zee- 
^ '' ( land (land surrounded by the sea) ; Gransee 

(boundary or corner lake) ; Bodensee or Lake Constance, 
named from Bodami-Castrwn, the castle of the legate of 
the Carlovingian kings on its shore, and latterly from a 
fortress erected by Constantine the Great ; Dolgensee, 


Sclav, (the long lake) ; the Plattensee (the lake on the 
marsh, blattd) ; Unterseen (below the lakes) ; the Red Sea, 
the translation of the sea of Edom (the red). 
SEIFEN (Ger.), a place where metals are washed ; e.g. Seifen and 
Seifendorf (towns where metals were washed) ; Seifengold 
(where gold is washed) ; Seifenzinn (where tin is washed) ; 
Seifenwerk (the hill of the metal washing). 
SEILLE, an affix in French and Belgian topography, signifying a 
wood or forest, derived from the Lat. saltus and sylvaj 
e.g. Baseille (low wood) ; Haseille (high wood) ; Forseille 
(out of the wood) ; Senlis, Lat. Civitas Sylvanectensium 
(the town of the Sylvanectes, i.e. dwellers in the woods) ; 
Savigny and Souvigny, Lat. Sylvaniacum (in the woods) ; 
Selvigny, Souvignd, with the same meaning; La-silve- 
benite (the blessed wood) ; Silve-rdal (royal wood), etc., in 
France ; Transylvania (the district beyond the woods) — 
its Hungarian name, Erdely - Orsag, means the woody 
country ; Selwood, anc. Brit. Coit-mawr, Lat. Sylva-magna 
(the great wood), perhaps Selby, in Yorkshire. 
SELENY, or zieleny (Sclav.), green ; e.g. Selinga (the green 
river) ; Zelendorf (green village) ; Zielonagora (green moun- 
tain) ; Zieleng-brod (green ford) ; Zielenzig and Szelenek 
(green place). 
SELIG (Teut), holy; e.g. Seligenstadt, Seligenfeld, Seligenthal 
(the holy place, field, valley) ; Sellyoak (holy oak), perhaps 
Selby, in Yorkshire, if it is not from sylva, wood. 

a seat, settlement, or possession, cognate 
with the Lat. sedes; e.g. Dorset (the settle- 
ment of the Durotriges, i.e. dwellers by the 
water) ; Wiltshire, anc. Wilsaetan (the 
settlement on the R. Willy) ; Shropshire, 
anc. Scrobsaetan (the settlement among 
shrubs) ; Somerset, named from Somerton (the summer seat 
of the West Anglo-Saxon kings) ; Settle, in Yorkshire (the 
settlement) ; Sittingbourne, in Kent (the settlement on the 
brook). In the Lake District, colonised by Norsemen, this 
word often takes the form of side; e.g. Ormside, Ambleside, 
Kettleside, Silverside (the settlement of Ormr, Hamel, 
Ketyl, Soelvar), etc. ; Pecsaeten (the settlement at the peak), in 
Derbyshire ; Alsace, anc. Alsatia, i.e. the other settlement, 

set, seata (A.S.), 

ZETEL (Dutch), 

SITZ (Ger.), 
SSEDLIO (Sclav.), 
SUIDHE (Gadhelic) 

i 7 4 SHAN— SI DH 

with reference to the German settlements on the west 
bank of the Rhine, as distinguished from the Franks or 
Rifiuari, on the east ; Holstein, anc. Holtsatia (the settle- 
ment in the woods) ; Waldsassen (wood settlement) ; 
Winkelsass and Endzettel (the corner settlement) ; Neusass, 
Neusiedel, and Neusohl (the new settlement); Einsiedeln 
(the settlement of Eina), in Switzerland ; Wolfsedal (of 
Wolfa) ; Soest or Sbst, in Prussia, for Suth-satium (the 
southern seat). In Sclavonian names we have Sedlitz (the 
possession); Stary-Sedlo (the old possession); Sedlitz- 
gross (the great settlement) ; Sursee, in Switzerland (the 
seat or dwelling, Old Fr. Zi), on the R. Sur ; Sion or Sitten, 
in Switzerland, Cel. Suidh-dunum (the seat on the hill-fort). 
In Ireland : Seagoe, Irish Suidhe-Gobha (St. Gobha's seat) ; 
Seeoran (Oran's seat) ; Seaghanbane (the white seat) ; 
Seaghandoo (the black seat) ; Shinrone, anc. Suidhe-an-roin 
(literally the seat of the seal, but figuratively of a certain 
hairy man) ; Hermosillo, in Mexico, Span, (beautiful seat). 

SHAN (Chinese), a mountain ; e.g. Shan-tung (east of the moun- 
tain) ; Shan-se (west of the mountain) ; Thian-Shan (the 
celestial mountain). 

SHAMAR (Pers.), a river ; e.g. Samer, Samara, Sambre, river 
names. The Samur, which flows into the Sea of Asoph. 

(a wood or grove ; e.g. the Shaws, in 

SHAW (AS.), sceaga, I Cumberland and Lanarkshire; Birchen- 

SKEG (Scand.), | ghaw ^ birch groye ^ . PoUokshaws ( the 

woods near the village of Pollok) ; Bradshaw (broad 

wood) ; Shaugh-Prior (the prior's wood) ; Shawbury (the 

town in the wood) ; Evershaw (the wood of the wild boar, 

eofer) ; Skegness (the headland of the wood). 

c „_™ —„ N ( a dwelling ; e.g. Begshehr (the dwelling of the 

shehr (^ers ;, j bgg or bgy ^ . Abou . shehr ( the dwelling of 

CHERI (Tamil), ^ AbQu ^ . Allah _ shehr (God's house) ; Eskshehr 

(old dwelling) ; Yenishehr (new dwelling) ; Anoopshehr 

(incomparable dwelling) ; Pondicherry, originally Pudicheri 

(new dwelling or town) ; Paraicherie (the village of Pariahs) 

— probably Shiraz and Shirvan belong to this root. 

SIDH, sith (Gadhelic), a fairy or a fairy hill. The belief in these 

supernatural beings is still general among the Celtic races. 

It was believed that they resided in the interior of pleasant 



hills called sidhe or siodha. The word frequently takes the 
form of shee, as in the Shee Hills, in Co. Meath ; Glenshee, 
in Perthshire ; Mullaghshee (the fairy hillock) ; Sheetrim, 
i.e. Sidh-dhruim (the fairy ridge), the old name of the rock 
of Cashel ; Killashee (the church near the fairy hill) ; 
Rashee (the fort of the fairies) ; also Shean, Sheann, 
Sheane, Shane, in Ireland. 
sierra (Span.), f a m °™ tain <=ham, having a serrated appear- 

CERRO (Port ) \ anCe ' SCrra ' a SaW ; ° r P erha P s 

* ■'' ( from the Ar. sekrah, an uncultivated tract of 

land, being the root of the desert of Sahara, in Africa ; e.g. 
Sierra- de-fuentes (the mountain chain of the fountains); 
Sierra-de-los-vertientes (of the cascades) ; Sierra Leone (of 
the lion) ; Sierra-Calderona (the mountain chain with the 
cauldrons or craters); Sierra-de-las-Monas (of the apes); 
Sierra Morena (the dark mountain range) ; Sierra Nevada 
(the snowy) ; Sierra Estrella (the starry mountain range) ; 
Sierra-de-Culebra (of the snake) ; Sierra-de-gata (of agates) ; 
Esmeraldas-Serradas (the emerald mountains), in Brazil ; 
Cerro-da-vigia (the mountain of observation) ; Cerro-de-la- 
Giganta (of the giantess) ; Cerro-largo (broad mountain) ; 
Cerro-gordo (fruitful mountain) ; Cerro-del-cobre (of the 
snake) ; but serra, in Italian, means a narrow place — as in 
Serra-capriola (the narrow place of the goats) ; and Serra- 
Monascesca (of the monks). 
/c a\ [ a snar P roc k — allied to the Welsh 

^rn^nd^rFTRCGadhelicI \^erid, cleft asunder, ysgariad j 

{ e -S- Skend-fawn and Skend-fach 
(the great and little skerid or division). Esgair is another 
word from the same root, applied to a long ridge ; e.g. 
Esgair-hir (the long ridge) ; Esgair-graig (the rock ridge) — 
e.g. Scarcliff (the cliff of the sharp rock) ; Nashscaur (the 
promontory of the steep rock) ; Scarborough (the town on 
the rock or cliff) ; Scorton, with the same meaning, in 
Yorkshire ; Scarnose and Scarness (the sharp cape) ; Skerry- 
ford, Skeerpoint, on the coast of Wales ; Sheerness (the 
sharp headland), on the Thames ; Scaranos, with the same 
meaning, on the coast of Sicily ; Scarabines (the sharp 
points), in Caithness ; Scuir (a sharp rock), on the island 
of Egg ; Scordale, in Westmoreland, and Scordal, in Ice- 


land (the valley of the steep rock) ; Scarsach (abounding 
in steep rocks), in Perth ; Scarba (the island of the 
sharp rock), and Scarp, in the Hebrides ; the Skerry 
and the Skerries, in the Shetlands, and on the coast 
of Ireland and Wales ; Skerry-vore (the great rock), in the 

SKAW, skagi (Scand.), an isthmus or promontory ; e.g. the Skaw 
or Skagen Cape, on the coast of Denmark ; Skagerack or 
Skagen-rack (the strait near the promontory). 

SKI, SK, SKIA, an affix in Sclav, topography, signifying a town, 
often annexed to the name of the river near the town, or to 
the name of its founder ; e.g. Tobolsk, Tomsk, Pinsk, 
Vitepsk, Volsk, Omsk, on the Rivers Tobol, Tom, Pina, 
Viteba, Volga, Om ; Irkutsk, Berdiansk, Bielorietzk, Bob- 
roninsk, Illginsk, Miask, Olekminsk, Okhotsk, Olensk, on 
the Rivers Irkut, Berda, Biela, Bobronia, Ilga, Miass, Olekma, 
Okhota, and Olenek ; Bielozersk (the town on the white 
island) ; Jarensk (the town on the Jarenga or strong river) ; 
Kesilskaia (on the red river) ; Krasno-Ufimsk (the beautiful 
town of the R. Ufa) ; Petsk (silk town), in Turkey, where 
the mulberry- tree is extensively cultivated; Yakutsk (the 
town of the Yakuts, a Tartar tribe) ; Salskaia, on the R. 
Sal ; Sviajsk (the town on the Sviga, holy river) ; Sviatskaia 
(the town of Sviatovid, a Sclav, deity) ; Dmitrovisk (the 
town of Demetrius, a Russian saint) ; Kupianskand Kupiszki 
(the town on the promontory, kupd). 

, . (a sheep ; e.g. Skipton, Skipwich, Schaefheim 

skip ( bca " d s )> I (sheep town) ; Shapfells (sheep hills) ; Sheppey 
*■''-"( (sheep island) ; Skipsia (sheep's stream) ; Schaef- 
matt (sheep meadow) ; Shefford (sheep's ford) ; Scaefstadt 
(sheep town). 

SLIABH, slieve, or slieu (Gadhelic), a mountain or heath, akin to 
the Ger. sliet, a declivity ; e.g. Slieve-Anieran (the iron 
mountain), so called from its mines ; Slievesnaght (snowy 
mountains) ; Slieve-Bernagh (gapped mountain) ; Bricklive 
(speckled mountain) ; Beglieve (small mountain). In all 
these places in Ireland the original names have been cor- 
rupted : Sleaty (the mountains) ; Sleeven (the little hill) ; 
Slievenamon, i:e. Sliabh-na-mban-fion (the mountain of the 
fair women or fairies) ; Slievebloom (Bladh's mountain) ; 


Slieve-beagh (birch-tree hill) ; Slieve-corragh' (rugged hill) ; 
Slieveroe (the red hill) ; Sliabh-cuailgne, now the Cooley 
Mountains, in Ireland ; Sleibhe-Cuillinn (the Coolin or 
Cuchullin Hills), in Skye ; Slamannan (the sliabh or moor of 
the district formerly called Manan, parts of Stirling and 

SLOG (A.S.), a slough or marshy place ; e.g. Slough, Co. Bucks ; 
Sloby, Slawston, Slaugham (the dwelling on the marshy 

SLUAGH (Gadhelic), a multitude, a host ; e.g. Ballinasloe (the ford- 
mouth of the hosts), in Co. Galway ; Srahatloe, i.e. Srath- 
a'-tsluagh (the river holm of the hosts) ; Knockatloe and 
Tullintloy (the hill of the hosts), in Ireland. 

SNAID, SNOED (Teut.), a separated piece of land, from the Old Ger. 
sniden and Modern Ger. schneiden (to cut) ; e.g. Eckschnaid 
(the oak snaid) ; Hinterschnaid (behind the snaid) ; Snaith, 
in Yorkshire ; Snead, Montgomery ; Sneyd, Co. Stafford ; 
Sneaton (the town on the snaid) ; Snodland and Snodlands 
(the separated lands) ; Snodhill (the hill on the snaid). 
., .. (a. place privileged to hold local courts ; e.g. 

/c j \ 1 Thorpe-le-Soke and Kirby-le-Soken (the village 
^ ■'' ( and church-town where the courts were wont to 

be held) ; Walsoken and Walton-le-Soken (the place near 
the wall, or perhaps the well, where the court was held) ; 
Sockbridge and Sockburn (the bridge and stream near the 
court station). 

SOTO (Span.), a grove ; e.g. Soto, the name of several places in 
Spain ; Sotilla (the little grove) ; Sotilla-de-las-Palomas 
(the little grove of the doves) ; Sotilla-de-la-ribera (the little 
grove of the river-bank). 

. PIN , / T „ t x (a thorn; e.g. Epinac, Epinal, Epinay, in France ; 
^ l )y J'< Espinosa, in Spain (the thorny place); Epinville 
EPlNE(*r.), J ^ thorny viUa ). Epineuil (the thorny fountain, 

ceuil); Epinoy, Epineuse, etc., in France; Speen, in Co. 

Berks, anc. Spina (the thorny place). 

., . /an hospital or place of entertainment for 

SPITAL (JN I or.-f r.), I stran or invalids f rom the Lat. hospi- 

YSPYTTY (Cym.-Cel.), J * m Caithness and Co . 

SPIDEAL (Gadhelic), ( pembr0l f e . £ pittlej in Cheshire and in 

Berwickshire ; the Spital of Glenshee, in Perthshire ; Dal- 



na-Spidal (the field of the hospital) ; Spittalfields, in Middle- 
sex ; Yspytty-Rhew-Ystwith, on the R. Ystwith ; Yspytty- 
Evan (Evan's hospital), in Wales ; Llanspithid, in Brecknock, 
which derived its name from an ancient Ysbytty hospitium 
that existed here, supported by the priory of Malvern. 
These names and many others in England and Scotland 
derived their names from hospitals attached to religious 
houses in the Middle Ages. 
SPRING (Teut.), ( a w ^er-source ; e.g Springthorpe (the farm 
SPRONG (Scand.), \f the s foun T taln ); Adlerspnng (the eagle's 
x \ fountain) ; Lippspnng (at the source of the 

R. Lippe) ; Springe (at the source of the R. Haller) ; 
Magdespring (the maiden's fountain). 
SRATH (Gadhelic) f an extensive valle y> Anglicised strath; e.g. 
vcrcA-nVr c\\ \ Strathmore and Strathbeg (the great and 
ystrad ^ym.-^ei.), y j.^ yaUeys) . Strathavon; Strathblan, 

Strathbogie, Strathconan, Strathearn (the valleys of the 
Rivers Avon, Blane, Bogie, Conan, and Earn) ; Strathyre, 
corrupt, from Srathiar (the western valley, with reference to 
Strathearn, the eastern), in Perthshire ; Strathclyde, Strath- 
naver, Strathspey, Strathallan, Strathpeffer, Strathbran, Strath- 
griffe (the valleys of the Rivers Clyde, Naver, Spey, Allan, 
Peffer, Bran, and Griffe) ; Strath Tary, in Sutherlandshire 
(the bull's strath, tairebb) ; Strichen, in Aberdeenshire, 
corrupt, from Srath-Ugie (the valley of the R. Ugie) ; Strath- 
don, corrupt, from Srath-domhain (the valley of the deep 
river) ; Ystrad-Tywy (the valley of the R. Tywy), in Wales ; 
Ystrad-yw (yew-tree valley or the valley of the brook Ywen) ; 
Yester, a parish in East Lothian, from Ystrad; Ystrad-mur 
(the flowery valley), called by the Romans Strata- Florida ; 
Ystrad-gwnlais (the valley of the trench, dais, through which 
a stream flows) ; Straiton, in Ayrshire (the town on the 
Strath) ; Traquhair (sheep valley). 

SRON (Gadhelic) f a n0Se ' hence a P romontor y > e -S- Stronaba 
trwyn (Cym,Cel.), \ <* he coWs promontory) ; Stronaclacher (the 
v ' ' { stony promontory) ; Stronechngen (the 

rocky point) ; Stronfearn (the point of the alders) ; Stron- 
deas (the southern point) ; Strontian (the little promontory) ; 
Sorn, in Ayrshire, named from an ancient castle situated 
on a rocky headland ; Troon (the promontory), on the 

j d 


Ayrshire coast ; Sroan-keeragh (the sheep's promontory) ; 
Shrone-beha (birch-tree promontory), in Ireland ; Duntroon 
Castle (the fortress on the promontory), in Argyleshire ; 
Turnberry Head, in Ayrshire, from trwyn; also Trwyn 
Point, in Ayrshire ; Au-tron (on the point), in Cornwall ; 
Trwyn-y-Badan (the promontory of the boats), in Wales. 

._ ,„ ,, ,. . (a. river or flowing water ; sru, 

SRUTH, SRUTHAIR (Gadhehc), „ ^ „ 6 x ' , ' 

SROTA(Sansc) "^ Sansc, to 'flow— cognate with 

v '' ( stroicm, Teut., stmja, Sclav. ; e.g. 

Srue, Sruh, Shrough, Sroughan (the stream), in Ireland ; 
also Abbeyshrule (the abbey on the stream) ; Bealnashrura 
(the ford-mouth of the stream) ; Sroolane, Srooleen, Sruffan, 
and Sruffaun (little stream) ; Killeenatruan, anc. Cillin-a- 
tsruthain (the little church of the stream) ; Anstruther in 
Fife, and Westruther in Berwickshire, probably from the 
same root ; but Strowan, in Perthshire, is named for St. 
Rowan; Ardstraw, in Tyrone, is a "corrupt, of Ard-sratha 
(the height near the bank of the stream). 

.„ , . (a. projecting rock or point ; e.g. the Stack 
(C lli 1 \ \ Rocks and South Stack, on the coast of 
*• '' ( Wales ; the Stags, on the Irish coast ; Stack 

Island, Wales ; and St. Bude's Stack. In Ireland this 
word is generally Anglicised into stookj thus — the Stookans 
(the little rock pinnacles), near the entrance of the Giant's 
Causeway ; Stookan and Stookeen (the little rock). 

. ,_, . I a place or town ;, a station for 

STADT and STATT (Ger.), I * , , , ' s ,. ' , ,, 

A „ .'' < ships ; stadel, a small town ; staeth., a 

STEDE, or STEAD (A.S.), J , , . ' ^ , . ,' t,, ■ 

' ' bank or shore ; e.g. Carlstadt, Therie- 

sanstadt, Christianstadt (towns named after one of the 
German emperors, Charles, after the Empress Theresa, 
and after Christian IV. of Sweden) ; Darmstadt, Illstadt, 
Stadt-Steinach, Lippstadt (towns on the Rivers Darm, 111, 
Steinach, and Lippe) ; Bleistadt (lead town), near lead 
mines ; Brahestadt, in Russia (founded by Count Brahe) ; 
Elizabethstadt, Hung. Ebes-falva, named after the Empress 
Elizabeth ; Frederickstadt (Frederick's town), in Denmark 
and in Norway ; Gerbstadt, in Saxony (the town of Gerbert) ; 
Gluckstadt, Lat. Fanum-fortunce (the fortunate town or the 
temple of fortune) ; Halbertstadt (the town of Albert) ; 
Heiligenstadt (holy town) ; Hermanstadt (the town of 


Herman, one of the Germans who colonised certain German 
cities in Transylvania in the twelfth century) ; Ingoldstadt, 
in Bavaria (the town of Ingold) — the name of this town 
was mistranslated by Latin and Greek authors into Auripolis 
and Chrysopolis (the golden city) ; Rudolstadt (the town of 
Rudolph) ; Grimstadt, in Norway, and Grimstead, in Co. 
Wilts (the town of Grim, a common Scandinavian name) ; 
Stade (the statien), in Hanover ; Scoppenstadt, in Brunswick, 
anc. Scifiingestete (the ship station) ; Stadt-am-hop (the 
town at the court), in Bavaria ; Tennstadt, anc. Dannenstedi 
(the station of the Danes), in Saxony ; Kroppenstadt, the 
Germanised form of the Sclav. Grobenstadt (the count's 
town); Reichstadt (rich town); Altstadt (old town) ; Elstead, 
in Sussex and in Surrey (the place of Ella, the Saxon) ; 
Stadhampton (the town at the home place), in Oxford ; 
Thaxsted (the thatched place), in Essex ; Boxstead (the 
place of beech -trees, or of the Bokings, a patronymic) ; 
Hampstead (the home place) ; Wanstead (Woden's place) ; 
Armenianstadt, in Transylvania, colonised by Armenians in 
1726; Staithes (the banks), in Cumberland; Stathern 
(the dwelling on the bank), Leicester ; Halstead, A.S. 
Haelsted (a healthy place). 

STAEF STAUF (Teut ) ( & Stak6 ° T V ° l& ' alS °' '" German y» a PP Iied 

STAV (Scand } ' i to a perpendicular rock ; e.g. Stauffen- 

* '•" ( berg (the mountain with pillar-like rocks), 

in Lower Hesse ; Donaustauff (the steep rock on the 

Danube) ; Hohenstauffen (the high rocks), in Wurtemberg ; 

Regenstauf (the rock on the R. Regen) ; Staufen (a fort 

situated on a rock), in Baden ; Staffa (the island with the 

pillar-like rocks), off the coast of Argyleshire ; Staffenloch 

(the lake of the pillars), in the Island of Skye. 

„ . , ' „ it ^\ (a stall, place, or seat ; e.g. Hohenstellen 

STAL, STUHL (Teut.), I u , , '. K ' , ' °, ,. , , 

' v \ ("^ h'g" place) ; Herstal (the place of 

(the army) ; Tunstall (the place on the 

hill, dun), in Co. Stafford. 

/« c \ ( a stone or rock, and in topography sometimes 

\p ' V J applied to a rock-fortress ; e.g. Staunton, Steynton 

steenI Dut'do r the town °" the stony s round ); Stanton > in 

^ " \ Gloucestershire, named from a remarkable stone 

in the neighbourhood) ; Fewstone (fire stone), in Yorkshire, 

STAN 181 

said to have been named from a fire-circle near the place ; 
Staines (the stones), in Middlesex, marking the jurisdiction 
of the mayor of London ; Stantz (the stony place), in 
Switzerland ; Steenbeke, Steenbegue, Steinbach (the stony 
brook) ; Stanley (stony field), in Yorkshire ; Steenbirge, 
Steenbrugge, Steenhout, Steenkirche (the stony hill, bridge, 
wood, church), in Belgium ; Steenvorde (stony ford) ; 
Stein-am-anger (the rock on the field) ; Steinitz (the German 
rendering of Sczenz, dog town), in Moravia ; Offenstein 
(the fortress of Offa) ; Lahnstein (the fortress on the R. 
Lahn) ; Lauenstein (the lion's fortress, with reference to 
some person who bore that sobriquet) ; Ehrenbreitstein 
(the broad stone of honour) ; Stennis (the headland of the 
stones), in Orkney ; Hauenstein, in Baden (the hewn rock), 
so called because the precipices of the Jura in that locality 
resemble masonry ; Ysselstein (the rock on the R. Yssel) ; 
Bleistein (lead rock), near lead mines, in Bavaria ; Dach- 
stein, in Alsace, anc. Dagoberti Saxicm (the rock of Dago- 
bert) ; Frankenstein (the rock of the Franks) ; Falkenstein 
(of the falcon or of the personal name Falk) ; Greiffenstein 
(of the vulture) ; Schaunstein (the beautiful rock or fortress) ; 
Neckar-Steinach (the stony place on the Neckar) ; Iselstein, 
on the Isel ; Wetterstein, on the Wetter ; Buxton, in 
Derbyshire, was named from the piles of stones called 
buck-stones, found in the Yorkshire and Derbyshire moors ; 
Standish, in Gloucestershire, corrupt, from Stonehouse. In 
some cases the affix stone is used instead of town or ton, 
as in Maidstone, A.S. Medwegston, Cel. Caer-Medwig (the 
town on the R. Medway) ; Goodmanstone (the priest's 
town), Dorsetshire ; and in Cumberland and Westmoreland, 
where the Norsemen had settlements, this word often marks 
the site of the grave of one of their heroes, as in Harold- 
stone, Hubberstone, Thurston, Gamfrestone, Silverstone, 
Stanton, Drew (the Druid's stone), in Somersetshire, near 
an ancient stone-circle ; Kingston, in Surrey, where in the 
centre of the town is still shown the stone on which the 
A.S. kings were crowned. 

. [a district or region ; e.g. Hindostan (the 

STAN (Fers.), I district watered by the R . In dus, Pers. Hindu 

STHANA (bansc), | __ water ) . Afghanistan (the district of the 


Affghans, who are said to have taken their designation 
from a certain chief called Malik Afghana) ; Rajpootana 
(the district of the Rajpoots or king's sons) ; Kurdistan (of 
the Kurds) ; Beloochistan (of the Beluchis) ; Gurgistan or 
Georgia (the district watered by the R. Kur or Kyros) ; 
Kaffaristan or Kaffraria (of the unbelievers) ; Arabistan (of 
the Arabs) ; Bootan (the district of the Highlanders) ; 
Dushistan (the south region), also called Gurmsir (warm 
country) ; Gulistan (the district of roses) ; Baghistan (of 
gardens) ; Khorasan (the country of the sun) ; Zangistan or 
Zanguebar, Pers. and Ar. (the country or coast-lands of 
the Zangis) — v. bahr. 

staple (Teut.), literally a prop, support, or heap ; but in the 
commerce of the Middle Ages it was applied, in the first 
place, to the buildings or towns in which the chief products 
of a district were treasured up or sold ; and, in the second 
place, to the commodities themselves ; e.g. Stapleton (the 
town of the market) ; Staplehurst and Stapleford (the wood 
and ford near the market-place) ; Dunstable (the market- 
place on the hill), formerly Dunstaplej Whitstable (white 
market-place) ; Barnstaple, anc. Berstable (the market-place 
for the produce of the district — beor, what it bears). In 
France : Etaples, L'e'tape, Staple, etc. 

STARY(Sclav.), old; e.g. Stargard,Starogard(fheoldfortress); Stary- 
sedlo, Storosele, Starosol (the old settlement) ; Starodub (the 
old oak-tree) ; Starwitz, Staria, Starinka, Stariza (old place) ; 
Starobielsk (the old town on the R. Biela) ; Staro-Constan- 
tinov (the old town of Constantine). In places where the 
population is chiefly German this word takes the form of stark, 
as in Starkenburg, Starkenhorst ; Istarda or Starova (old 
town), in Turkey; Staroi-Oskol (the old town on the R. Oskol, 
in opposition to Novoi-Oskol, the new town on that river). 

STEIG, STIG, STY (Teut. and Scand.), a steep path ; e.g. Stickney 
(the island or watery meadow by the steep path) ; Kirchsteg 
(the steep path to the church) ; Durnsteeg (thorny path) ; 
Stiegmiihle (the mill on the steep path) ; Amsteg (at the 
steep path). 

steort (as) [ the tail— in t0 P°g ra P h y a P oint 5 e -g- Start " 

. /qjj' A' s I point, in Devonshire ; Starston (the town on 

^ ''' [the point); Sterzhausen, Sterzmtihle, Staart- 


polder — v. HAUS, muhle, polder ; Staartven (the marsh on 
the point). 

steppes (Sclav.), an uncultivated waste — a word applied to the 
extensive desert plains in Russia. 

STER, or ester, in Brittany, a stream; e.g. Ster-boueux (the 
muddy stream) ; Stercaer (the stream at the fort) ; Ster- 
poulder (of the black pool), etc. According to Forsteman, 
there is a Teutonic river-root, str, which he finds in the 
names of 100 German streams ; e.g. Elster, Alster, Wilster, 
Gelster, Laster, and Ister — an ancient name of the Danube — 
Stour, Stura, etc. 

STER (Scand.), Old Norse setr (a station or place), contracted 
from stadr (a place) ; bu-stadr(& dwelling-place), contracted 
to bister or buster; e.g. Grunaster (green place) ; Kelda- 
bister (the place at the well or fountain) ; Kirkbuster (the 
dwelling at the church) ; Hesting-ster (the settlement of 
Hesting). The same word appears in the names given by 
the Danes to three of the provinces of Ireland — Ulster, for 
the Irish Uladh, i.e. Ulla-ster; Leinster, Irish Laighen or 
Layn; Munster, Irish Mumha (named after a king). 

STOC, stow (Teut.), literally a stake or the trunk of a tree, 
applied at first to a place protected by a stockade, or 
surrounded by stocks or piles ; and in German topography 
sometimes applied to hills, as in Hochstock (high hill) ; 
Stockheim (the home on the hill) ; sometimes to places 
built upon stakes, as in Stockholm. In Great Britain, 
standing alone, it means simply the place, as Stock, in 
Essex ; Stow, a parish in Mid Lothian ; Stoke-upon-Trent ; 
Stow-in-the-Wold or waste land ; Stoke-Bardolph, Stoke- 
Fleming, Stoke-Gabriel, Stoke-Poges, Stoke-Edith (named 
from the proprietors) ; Stow-market (the market-place) ; 
Stow-Upland (the place in the high lands) ; Kewstoke (at 
the quay) ; Elstow, in Wilts (old place) ; Elstow, in Bed- 
ford (St. Helen's place), the site of a nunnery dedicated to 
that saint ; Basingstoke (the place belonging to the Basings, 
a patronymic) ; Bridstow (St. Bridget's place) ; Bristol, anc. 
Briegstow (the place at the breach or chasm, brice, through 
which the R. Avon passes) — its Celtic name was Nant-Avon 
(on the valley of the Avon) ; Padstow, in Cornwall, anc. 
Petrocstowe, Welsh Llan-petroc (the place or church of St. 


Petroc) ; Tavistock and Tawstock (places on the Rivers 
Tavy and Taw). As a prefix, stock often denotes the 
chief place in a district, as in Stockton (the chief town 
on the Tees), and in Stockport (the chief port on the 
STOLL (Ger.), a mine-shaft ; e.g. Stollenberg (the hill of the mine- 
shaft) ; Stollenschmeide (the smithy at the mine-shaft) ; but 
Stollenkirchen, i.e. Stallinchirchun, is from Stalla (a per- 
son's name). 
STOLPE (Sclav.), a rising ground in a marshy place ; e.g. Stolpe, 
the name of a circle and of several towns in Hungary and 
Pomerania ; Stolpen, in Saxony. 
STOR (Scand.), great ; e.g. Storfiord (the great bay) ; Storhammer 
(great hill) ; Storoe (great island) ; Storaa (great river) ; 
Storsjon and Storsoen (great lake) ; Stora-kopparberg (the 
great copper mountain), in Sweden and Norway. 

a row, a street, a road, borrowed from the 
Lat. strata j e.g. Stratford (the ford near 
one of the great Roman roads, called 
streets) ; Stratford-le-Bow (the ford with 
the bow or bridge near the Roman road) ; 
Stratsett (the road station) ; Streatham and 
Stretton (the town on the road) ; Stratton, in Cornwall, 
and Stradbally, in Ireland (the village of one street) ; 
Straid, Strade (the street) ; Stradeen (little street), in 
Ireland ; Strond, on the R. Strond ; Strasbourg, in West 
Prussia (the town on the highway) ; but Strasbourg, in 
Alsace, anc. Stratiburg, is the German translation of its 
Latin name Argentoriatum (the town of silver — strati, 
Teut., silver) ; Stony Stratford (the stony ford on the great 
Roman road, called Erming Street) ; Watling Street is said 
to have been named from waedla (the mendicant or pil- 
grim) ; Icknield Street from the Iceni; Erming Street 
from earm (a pauper). 
STRAZNA (Sclav.), a watch-tower, akin to the A.S. streonej e.g. 

Straznitz, in Moravia (the town with the watch-tower). 
STRELITZ (Sclav.), a huntsman ; e.g. Strelitz-klein and Strelitz- 
gross (the great and little town of the huntsman, or of 
the Strelitzi, the name given to the lifeguards), in Russia ; 
Strelitzkaia and Strielinskaia, with the same meaning. 

STRASSE (Ger.), 
STRCEDE (Scand.), 
SRAID (Gadhelic), 
YSTRAD (Cym.-Cel.), 


STROM, STROOM (Teut.), a stream or current ; e.g. the Maelstrom 
(mill stream, so called from its rushing sound) ; Rheinstrom 
(the Rhine current) ; Stroomsloot (the sluice of the current) ; 
Stroma, Stromoe, Stromsoe, Stromay (the island of the 
current) ; Stromen and Stromstadt (the place near the 
current) ; Stromen-Fiorden (the bay of the current) ; Strom- 
berg (the town or hill on the stream) ; Stromness (the 
headland of the current). 

SU (Turc), water ; e.g. Ak-su (the white stream) ; Kara-su (the 
black stream) ; Adji-su (bitter water). 

sud suth ( t ' ie soutn > Buttman traces this word to the 

SODER SOUDEN 1 SUn ' the oldest form of the word bein g sundar j 
' ' { e.g. Sonnenburg, Sonderhausen, Sundheim, 

Soudham, Southofen (the south dwelling or enclosure) ; 
Southdean (south hollow) ; Southwark, Dan. Sydvirche 
(the south fortress) ; Southover (south shore) ; Suffolk (the 
district of the south people, as distinguished from Norfolk) ; 
Sutton and Sodbury (south town) ; Sudborne (south stream) ; 
Suderoe (south island) ; Sudetic Mountains (the southern 
mountain chain) ; Sudereys (the southern islands), a name 
applied by the Norsemen to all the British islands under 
their rule south of the Orkneys and north of the Island of 
Man — hence the bishoprick of Sodor and Man ; Sutherland 
(the land to the south of Caithness) ; Soderkoping (the 
south market-town), in Sweden ; Soest, in Prussia (on the 
Sosterbach) ; Sidlaw Hills (the south hills, in reference to 
their forming the south boundary of Strathmore). 

SUMAR, somar (Teut.), summer ; e.g. Somercotes, Somersall, 
Somerton (summer dwellings) ; Somerghem in Belgium, 
and Sommerberg in Bohemia, with the same meaning ; 
but Somarsheim, in Hungary, is the German corrupt, of 
Szomorfalva (the village of sorrow) ; Szmarja or Szent-marfa 
(St. Mary's town), Germanised into Sommarein. 

SUND (Scand.), a strait ; e.g. the Sound, between Sweden and 
Zealand ; Christiansund, at the mouth of a narrow inlet, 
founded by Christian IV. ; Frederichsund, on a narrow 
inlet in Zealand ; Ostersund (the eastern strait), in Sweden ; 
Stralsund (the arrow-like strait — straele, an arrow). 

SUNTARA (Teut.), privileged land ; e.g. Frankensundern (the 
privileged place of the Franks) ; Beversundern (the privi- 


leged place on the R. Bever) ; Sontra, in Hesse-Homburg 
(the privileged place) ; Sunderland (the privileged land), in 
SZASZ (Hung.), Saxon ; e.g. Szasvaros, Ger. Sachsenstadt (the 
town or fortress of the Saxons), in Transylvania ; Szasz- 
Sebes (the Saxon-Sebes or swift stream), 
m \ ( a samt > e -i- Szenta, Szentes (the saints' town 

SANT (Welsh) \ or holy town) ; e - g - Szendr0 ( St - Andrew's town ) ; 
v '' ( Mindszent (the town of All Saints); Szent-kercsyt 

(the town of the holy cross) ; Santarem, in Portugal, from 

St. Irene, Santiago (for St. James) ; St. Denis, named 

after St. Dionysius, where the remains of this saint were 

interred ; St. Heliers, in Jersey (for St. Hilarius) ; Szent- 

Gyorgy (St. George's town) ; St. Ives, in Cornwall, named 

after an Irish saint called Jia, who came to that spot; St. 

Ives, in Huntingdon, named after Ivon, a bishop. 

ta (Chinese), great ; e.g. Ta-kiang (the great river) ; Ta-Hai (the 

great lake) ; Ta-Shan (great mountain) ; Ta-Gobi (the 

great desert). 
TABERNA (Lat. and Span.), j ^ inn ; ,. f . Taberna, in Spain ; 
tafarn (Welsh), ) f bern-R hem (the mn on the Rhine) ; 

x " [ Zabern-berg (the hill mn) ; Zabern- 

Elsass (the Alsatian inn), called in French Savernce, corrupt. 

from the Lat. Tabernce ; Tavernes and Taverny, in France. 

taing, TANGA (Teut. and Scand.), ( a t0ng , ue ' a P oint of land ; 

TUNGA \ e -g- Tongue, a parish in 

( Sutherlandshire ; Tong, in 
Ross ; Tongland, in Kirkcudbright, upon a peninsula formed 
by the Rivers Dee and Tarf; Tonge, in Lancashire; but 
Tongres, Tongrinnes, and Tongerloo, in Belgium, derive 
their names from the Tungri, a tribe ; Tong-fell, in Cumber- 
land, and Tangfjeld, Norway, and Tunga-fell, Iceland (the 
mountain with the tongue or point) ; Thong-castle, in Kent, 
and Thong-castor, near Grimsby. 

tal (Cym.-Cel.), the forehead, or, as an adjective, high; e.g. 
Talgarth (the brow of the hill ; Talibont (bridge-end, font) ; 


Talbenny (the head of the hill-pen), in Wales. Tal-y-cavn 
(the head of the trough) ; Tal-y-Llychan (the head of the 
pools), in Caermarthen ; Talachddu (the head of the black 
water, a small brook called Achddu), a parish in Brecknock. 

tamh, taw (Cym.-Cel.), quiet, cognate with A.S. tarn, found in 
many river names ; e.g. the Tame, Tamar, Tamer, Teane, 
Teign, Thame, Taw, Tawey, Tavoy, Tay, Temesch, Tees, 
Thames (the quiet water), joined to uisge, a, y, o, or, ri 
(flowing water). 

tamnach (Gadhelic), a green field, common in Irish topography 
under various forms, such as Tawny, Tawnagh, Tonagh, 
and Taminy ; e.g. Tonaghneeve, for Tamhnaich-naemh (the 
field of the saints), now Saintfield ; Tawnaghlahan (broad 
field) ; Tawnkeel (narrow field) ; Tamnaghbane (white field) ; 
Tavnaghdrissagh (the field of the briers). 

tanna (Old Ger.), wood ; tanne (modern), the fir-tree ; e.g. Nieder- 
than (the lower wood) ; Hohenthan (high wood) ; Than- 
heim, Thanhausen, Tandorf (the dwellings at the wood) ; 
Tanberg (wood hill). 

TARBERT, or tairbert (Gadhelic), an isthmus ; e.g. Tarbet, in 
Cromarty and Ross ; Tarbert, in Harris ; Tarbet, on Loch 
Lomond ; East and West Tarbert, in Argyleshire ; Tarbet- 
ness (the point of the isthmus), in Ross-shire. 

.,,... I a bull, cognate with the Lat. taurus and 
tr r 1 \ \ tne ^ r k' t auros > e -g- Knockatarriv and 

TARW (Lym.-Lel.), y Knockatarry (the hill of the bull) ; Clontarf, 
•anc. Cluain-tarbh (the bull's meadow); Cloontarriff and 
Cloontarriv, with the same meaning. Some river names, 
such as Tarf, Tarras, Tarth, Tarn, may have this word as a 
prefix, or perhaps tara, Irish, rapid. 

TARNIK (Sclav.), the thorn ; e.g. Tarnowce and Tarnowitz (thorn 

village) ; Tarnau, Tarnow, Tornow, Torniz (a thorny place) ; 

Tamograd (thorn fortress) ; Tarnopol (thorn city). 

j /<- ji_ ,- v [ a house or dwelling, cognate with 

teach and tigh (Gadhehc), I ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ and 

TY (Cym.-Lel.), | Scand ^ a rQof . An g licised 

tagh, in the genitive, tigh. This word, under various forms, 
is common in Irish topography ; e.g. Tagheen (beautiful 
house) ; Taghboy and Taghbane (the yellow and white 
house) ; Taghadoe (St. Tua's house) ; Tiaquin, in Co. 


Galway, i.e. Tigh-Dachonna (St. Dachonna's house) ; 
Timahoe, for Tech-Mochua (St. Mochua's house or church). 
Joined to the genitive of the article, it takes the form of tin 
or tinna, thus — Tinnahinch (the house of the island or river 
holm, innis) ; Tincurragh (of the marsh) ; Tinakilly (of the 
church or wood) ; Timolin (of St. Moling) ; Tigh-na-bruaich, 
in Argyleshire (the dwelling on the edge of the bank) ; 
Tynron, in Dumfries, i.e. Tigh-an-roinne (the house on the 
point); Tyndrum, in Perthshire (the dwelling on the ridge); 
Tisaran, anc. Teach-Sarain (the house of St. Saran), in 
King's Co. Stillorgan, also in Ireland, corrupt, from Tigh- 
Lorcain (the house of St. Lorcain or Lawrence) ; Saggard, 
from Teach-Sacra (of St. Mosacra) ; Cromarty, anc. Crum- 
bachtyn (the dwelling on the winding bay) ; Tinnick, in 
Ireland, i.e. Tigh-cnuie (the house on the hill). In Wales : 
Ty-gwyn (white house) ; Ty-Ddewi (St. David's house) ; 
Great Tey and Little Tey (great and little dwelling) ; Tey- 
at-the-elms, in Essex. 

teamhair (Irish), a palace situated on an elevated spot ; e.g. 
Tara, anc. Teamhair, the ancient capital of Meath, and 
several other places called Tara, in Ireland. This word 
sometimes takes the form of tavver, tawer, or tower, as in 
Towerbeg and Towermore (the little and great palace). 

TEAMPULL (Gadhelic), a temple or church, derived from the Lat. 

templum; e.g. Templemichael, Templebredon (the churches 

of St. Michael and St. Bredon) ; Templemore (the great 

church or cathedral) ; Templecarriga (of the rock) ; Temple- 

tochar (of the causeway), in Ireland ; Templemars and 

Talemars, in France, anc. Templum-Martis (the temple of 


,. ,. .. . C fire. In topography this word is found in 

,}: /- , J' \ the forms of tin and tinny, and must indicate 
tAn (Cym.-Cel.), ) ^ , n c ■ ', . 

v ' (. spots where fires of special importance were 

wont to be kindled. Whether these fires were beacon-fires, 

or whether they referred to the Beltane fires kindled by the 

ancient Celts on May Day, cannot, in special cases, be 

determined ; but that the Beltane fires were connected with 

the religious rites of the Druids is allowed, even by those 

who do not derive the word Beltane from the name of a 

Celtic deity, or trace the observance of these rites to the sun 


and fire worship once alleged to have existed among the 
Celtic tribes, but now held to be an untenable theory by 
Celtic scholars. 1 In Ireland, near Coleraine, we find Kil- 
tinny (the wood of the fire) ; Tamnaghvelton (the field of 
the Beltane sports) ; Clontinty, Co. Cork (the meadow of 
the fires) ; Mollynadinta, anc. Mullaigh-na-dtaeinte (the 
summit of the fires) ; Duntinny (the fort of the fire), Co. 
Donegal. In Scotland tinny is also found in topography, 
thus — Ardentinny and Craigentinny (the height and rock of 
the fire) ; Auchteany, and perhaps Auchindinny (the field of 
the fires) ; Tinto (the hill of the fire), in Lanarkshire. 

TEPETL (Astec), a mountain ; e.g. Popocatepetl (the smoky 
mountain), in Mexico ; Citlaltepetl (the star-like mountain — 
citaline, a. star) ; Naucampatepetl (the square-shaped moun- 
tain), in Mexico. 

teply (Sclav.), warm ; e.g. Tepla (the warm stream) ; Tepel, on 
the R. Tepla (in the neighbourhood of warm mineral 
waters) ; Teplitz, the name of towns in Hungary, Bavaria, 
and Illyria, sometimes written Toplitz ; Teplik and Teplovka, 
in Russia ; Teflis, in Georgia, celebrated for its warm baths. 
land ; e.g. Terciera (the rough 

terra (Lat., It., and Port.), 

TERRE (French), 
TlR(Gadhelic and Cym.-Cel.) 

land), in the Azores ; Terranova 

tierra (Span.), ,,, '' i j\ • 'c- -i 

,\. r /' < (the new land), in Sicily, sup 

posed to be on the site of the 
ancient Gela; Tierra- del-fuego 
(the land of fire), so named on account of the numerous 
fires seen on the land by the first discoverers ; Terregles 
(church land) ; Tiree Island, Gael. Tir-ith (the land of 
corn) ; Terryglas, i.e. Tir-dcirghlas (the land of the two 
rivers), Co. Tipperary ; Terryland, i.e. Tir-oilein (the land 
of the island) ; Tyrone, anc. Tir-Eoghain (Owen's land) ; 
Tir-Rosser, i.e. Tir-Rhos-hir (the long peat land), in 
Caermarthen ; Pentir (the headland) ; Gwydir, from the 
roots gwy, water, and tir, a general term for moist land in 
different places in Wales. It was the ancient name of 
Glastonbury ; Tiranascragh (the land of the sand hill, esker), 
Co. Galway ; Tyrconell (the land of Conell), the ancient 
name of Co. Donegal ; Carstairs, in Lanarkshire, anc. 

1 For the word Beltein, v. Joyce's Irish Names of Places, vol. i. p. 187 ; 
Chambers's Encyclopcedia ; and Petrie's Round Towers of Ireland. 

igo THAL — THOR 

Casteltarras, probably corrupt, from Castelterres (the castle 
lands), the castle in the village having been the site of a 
Roman station ; Culter, in Lanarkshire, anc. Cultir (the 
back of the land) ; Finisterroe (land's end), now Cape 
Finistere, the north-west extremity of France ; Blantyre 
(warm land — Mane, warm), in Lanarkshire ; Terrebonne 
(good land), in Canada ; Terre-haute (high land), in 

THAL (Ger.), a valley — v. DAL. 

THING, or TING, a term applied by the Scandinavians to the legis- 
lative assemblies of their nation, and also to the places 
where these assemblies met, from an old word tinga, to 
speak. Traces of these institutions appear in the topo- 
graphy of certain districts in Great Britain formerly occu- 
pied by Danes or Norwegians. The Norwegian Parliament 
is still called the Storthing or great assembly ; smaller 
courts are called Lawthings, and the Althing was the 
general assembly of the whole nation. These meetings 
were generally held on some remote island, hill, or promon- 
tory, where their deliberations might be undisturbed. The 
Swedish Parliament used to assemble on a mound near 
Upsala, which still bears the name of Tingshogen, Scand. 
haugr; Thingveller (the council-plains), in Iceland ; Sands- 
thing (the place of meeting on the sand), in Iceland ; 
Aithsthing (the meeting-place on the headland), in Ice- 
land ; Dingwall, in Ross-shire, has the same derivation — its 
Gaelic name is Inverpeffer (at the mouth of that stream) ; 
Tingwall, in Shetland, Tynwald Hill, Isle of Man, Thingwall 
in Cheshire, and Dinsdale in Durham, from the same root ; 
Tinwald, in Dumfries (the wood of the meeting) ; Tain, in 
Ross-shire, Norse Thing — its Gaelic name is Baile-Duich 
(St. Duthic's town). 

THOR and THUR, prefixes derived from the Saxon and Scandi- 
navian deity Thor; eg. Thorley, Thurley, Thursley, Thorsby, 
Thurlow, the valley, dwelling, and hill, named after Thor, 
or perhaps from a people or family name derived from the 
god, i.e. the Thurings, from whence also probably come 
Thorington in England, and Thorigne and Thorigny in 
France ; Thuringerwald, in Germany ; Thurston, Thursford, 
Thurscross, Thurlstone, etc. ; Thorsoe (Thor's island) ; 


Thurso (Thor's stream, on which the town of Thurso is 
situated) ; Thorshaven (Thor's harbour), in Norway and in 
the Faroe Islands. On the continent the god Thor was 
worshipped under the name of Thunor, hence the English 
word thunder and the German Donner (supposed, in the 
Middle Ages, to be Thor's voice). From this word are 
derived Thunersberg and Donnersberg (the mountain of 
Thor) ; Donnersbach (Thor's stream), in Styria ; Torslunde 
(Thor's sacred grove), in Denmark. 

THORPE (A.S.), an assembly of people, cognate with the Welsh 
torf (a crowd or troop), Gael, treubh (a tribe), and troupe, 
French ; and then gradually coming to denote a farm or 
village ; e.g. Thorp, in Northamptonshire ; Calthorpe (cold 
village) ; Langthorpe (long village) ; Ingelthorpe, Kettles- 
thorpe, Swansthorpe, Bischopsthorpe (the farm or village 
of Ingold, Kettle, Sweyn, and the bishop) ; Nunthorpe (the 
nun's village) ; Raventhorpe (Hrafen's village) ; Thorparch, 
in Yorkshire (the village bridge), on the R. Wharfe ; Milne- 
thorpe (the village of the mill) ; Althorpe (old villages) ; 
Basingthorpe (the village of the Basings, a patronymic) ; 
Copmanthorpe (of the merchant). 

thwaite (Scand. thveif), a cleared spot or an isolated piece of 
land, akin to the Danish tvede, a peninsula ; e.g. Harrow- 
thwaite, Finsthwaite, Ormathwaite, Sattersthwaite, places 
cleared and cultivated by the Scandinavians, whose names 
they bear; Applefhwaite (of apples) ; Calthwaite (cold clear- 
ing) ; Birkthwaite (of birches) ; Micklethwaite (great clear- 
ing) ; Crossthwaite, in Cumberland, where St. Kentigern 
is said to have erected a cross ; Lockthwaite (Loki's 

TOBAR (Gadhelic), a fountain or well, from the old word doboir, 
water. Wells and fountains were held in great veneration 
by the Celts in heathen times, and are the subjects of many 
traditions in Ireland and Scotland. Many of the early 
preachers of Christianity established their foundations near 
these venerated wells, which were the common resorts of 
the people whom they had come to convert. In this way 
the new religion became associated in the minds of the 
converts with their favourite wells, and obtained the names 
of the saints, by which they are known to this day ; e.g. 

192 TOFT— TON 

Tobermory (St. Mary's well), in the Island of Mull ; Tobar- 
na-bhan-thighern (the chieftainess's well), in Badenoch ; 
Ballintobar (the town of the well), Co. Mayo, now called 
Tobermore (the great well), which had a well blessed by St. 
Patrick ; Tibbermore or Tippermuir (the great well), in 
Perthshire ; Tobar-nam-buadh, in Skye (the well of virtues) ; 
Tipperary, anc. Tiobrad-Arann (the well of the district of 
Ara) ; Tipperkevin (St. Kevin's well) ; Tipperstown, anc. 
Baile-an-tobair (the town of the well) ; Tobercurry (the 
well of the cauldron) ; Toberbilly (the well of the old 
tree) ; Tobernaclug (the well of the bells, clog). Bells were 
held sacred by the Irish on account of a certain bell 
favoured by St. Patrick. Perhaps the rivers Tiber and 
Tiverone, as well as Tivoli, anc. Tibur, may come from 
this root. 

TOFT, tot (Scand.), an enclosure or farm ; e.g. Lowestoft, Dan. 
Luetoft (the enclosure or place of the beacon-fire, which in 
early times was placed on the promontory where the town 
stands) ; Langtoft (long farm) ; Monk's Tofts (the monk's 
farm), and West Tofts, in Norfolk ; Ecclestofts (the church 
farm buildings), in Berwickshire ; Ivetot, anc. Ivonis-tot 
(the farm of Ivo and Hautot (high farm), in Normandy ; 
Sassetot (the Saxon's farm) ; Littletot (little farm) ; Bergue- 
tot (birch farm), in Normandy. 

TOM (Gadhelic and Welsh), a knoll or mound ; e.g. Tomintoul 
(the knoll of the barn), Gael. Tom-an-t-sabhail, Co. Banff 
Tomachuraich (the boat-shaped knoll), Inverness -shire 
Tom-ma-Chessaig (St. Kessag's mound), at Callander 
Tom-na-faire (the knoll of the watch-tower), on Loch Etive 
Tomatin (the knoll of the fire, teine) ; Tomnacroiche (of 
the gallows) ; Tom-da-choill (of the two woods) ; Tombreck 
(speckled knoll) ; Tomgarrow (rough knoll) ; Tomnaguie 
(windy knoll), in Ireland ; Tom-bar-lwm (the mound of the 
bare hill) ; Tommen-y-Bala (the mound of Lake Bala, 
having been raised as . representative of Mount Ararat) ; 
Tommen-y-mur (of the rampart). 

ton fASl f an enc l° sure > a town. The primary meaning of 

/c' a \ { tn i s word comes from the Gothic tains, Scand. 

* ■■" yteinn, Ger. zaun, a fence or hedge formed of 

twigs. Originally it meant a place rudely fortified with 

TON 193 

stakes, and was applied to single farm-steadings and manors, 
in which sense tun is still used in Iceland, and toon in 
Scotland. The word toon retained this restricted meaning 
even in England in the time of WicklifFe. These single 
enclosures became the nucleus of a village which, gradually 
increasing, became a town or city, in the same manner as 
villages and towns arose around the Celtic duns, raths, and 
Uses. This root, in the names of towns and villages, is 
more common than any other in Anglo-Saxon topography, 
being an element in an eighth part of the names of dwelling- 
places in the south of Great Britain. The greatest number 
of these names is connected with those of the original pro- 
prietors of the places, of which but a few examples can be 
given here. In such cases, the root ton is generally pre- 
ceded by j or ing — qu. v. ; e.g. Grimston, Ormiston, Ribston, 
Haroldston, Flixton, Kennington (the property of Grim, 
Orm, Hreopa, Harold, and Felix) ; Canewdon (of Canute) ; 
Addlington and Edlington (of the nobles) ; Dolphinton, 
Covington, and Thankerton, parishes in Lanarkshire, took 
their names from Dolphine, Colban, and Tancred, to whom 
the lands were given in very early times ; Symington and 
Wiston, in Lanarkshire, are found mentioned in old 
charters, the one as Symington, in Ayrshire, named from 
the same Simon Lockhart, the progenitor of the Lockharts 
of Lee ; Cadoxton, i.e. Cadog's town, in Wales ; Ecclesia 
de uilla Simonis Lockard (the church of Simon Lockhart's 
villa), and the other, Ecclesia uilla Withce (the church of 
Withce's villa) ; Haddington (the town of Haddo) ; Alfreton, 
Wimbledon, Herbrandston, Houston (of Alfred, Wibba, 
Herbrand, Hugh) ; Riccarton, in Ayrshire, formerly Richard- 
ston, took its name from Richard Waleys, i.e. Richard the 
Foreigner, the ancestor of the great Wallace) ; Stewarton, 
in Ayrshire, had its name from the family which became the 
royal race of Scotland ; Boston, in Lincoln (named after 
St. Botolph, the patron saint of sailors) ; Maxton, a parish 
in Roxburghshire (the settlement of Maccus, a person of 
some note in the reign of David I.) ; Flemingston and 
Flemington (named from Flemish emigrants) ; Woolston 
(from St. Woolstan) ; Ulverston (from Ulphia, a Saxon 
chief) ; Wolverhampton and Royston (from ladies who 


endowed religious houses at these places) ; Minchhampton 
(the home of the nuns, minchens) ; Hampton (the enclosed 
home) ; Preston and Presteign (priest's town) ; Thrapston 
(the dwelling at the cross-roads) ; Broughton (the town at 
the fort or mound), a parish in Peeblesshire, with a village of 
the same name ; Albrighton (the town of Aylburh) ; Har- 
rington (of the descendants of Haro) ; Barton and Barnton 
(the enclosure for the crop ; literally, what the land bears) ; 
Shettleston, in Lanarkshire, Lat. Villa-filii-Sadin (the villa 
of Sadin's son) ; Bridlington (the town of the Brihtlingas, 
a tribe), sometimes called Burlingtonj Adlington (town of 
Eadwulf) ; Prestonpans, in Mid Lothian, named from the 
salt pans erected there by the monks of Newbattle ; Layton, 
in Essex, on the R. Lea ; Luton, in Bedford, also on the 
Lea ; Makerston, in Roxburghshire, perhaps from St. 
Machar ; Johnstone, in Renfrew (founded by the Laird of 
Johnston in 1782); Liberton, near Edinburgh, where 
there was an hospital for lepers ; Honiton, Co. Devon, 
Ouneu-y-din (the town of ash-trees) ; Kensington (of the 
Kensings) ; Edmonton, in Middlesex (Edmond's town) ; 
North and South Petherton, in Somerset (named from the 
R. Parret), anc. Pedredaj Campbeltown, in Argyleshire, 
received its name from the Argyle family in 1701 — its 
Gaelic name was Cea.7in-Loch (the loch head) ; Launceston — 
v. lann ; Torrington, in Devon (the town on the hill, tor, 
or on the R. Torridge) ; Watlington (the village protected 
by wattles). Of towns named from the rivers near which 
they are situated, Collumpton, Crediton, Frampton, Taun- 
ton, Lenton (on the Culm, Credy, Frome or Frame, Tone, 
and Lee) ; Northampton (on the north shore of the R. 
Aufona, now the Nen) ; Okehampton, on the R. Oke ; 
Otterton, Leamington, Bruton, Moulton, Wilton, on the 
Otter, Leam, Brue, Mole, and Willy; Darlington or 
Darnton, on the Dar; Lymington, in Hants, anc. Lenton 
(on the pool) ; Southampton (the south town on the Anton 
or Test, which with the Itchen forms Southampton Water) ; 
Ayton, in Berwickshire, on the R. Eye. 

TOPOL (Sclav.), the poplar-tree ; e.g. Toplitz, Neu and Alt (the 
place of poplars), in the basin of the R. Elbe, to be distin- 


guished from Teplitz, in Bohemia — v. TEPLY, which is 
sometimes misnamed Toplitz. 

TORGAU (Sclav.), a market-place ; e.g. Torgau, Torgovitza, Torgo- 
witz (market-towns). 

torr (Gadhelic) ( a mound > a hea P> a conical hill > cognate with 
Cr r 1 \ ' { *^ e ^ at ' iurns > the Ger. thurm, and the Grk. 
^ "'' (_#y?2r<M (a tower); Tor, in Ireland, means a 

tower also ; e.g. Toralt (the tower of the cliff) ; Tormore 
(great tower or tower-like rock) ; Tornaroy (the king's 
tower) ; Tory Island, off the Irish coast, had two distinct 
names — Torach {i.e. abounding in tower-like rocks), and 
Toirinis (the island of the tower), so named from a fortress 
called Tor-Conaing (the tower of Conaing, a Fomorian 
chief) ; Torran, Tortan (little tower), applied to little knolls, 
as in Toortane and Turtane ; Mistor and Mamtor, in Devon- 
shire ; Croken Torr, in Cornwall (a hill where meetings were 
held — gragan, Welsh, to speak) ; Torphichen (the raven's 
hill), a parish in West Lothian ; Torbolton, in Ayrshire, 
tradition says is the town of Baal's mound. There is a 
beautiful hill in the parish where superstitious rites are still 
held ; a bonfire is raised, and a sort of altar erected, similar 
to those described in the sacrifices to Baal on Mount 
Carmel ; Torbay, in Devonshire, named from the hill which 
overlooks the bay, which gives its name to Torquay ; Torr- 
dubh and Torrduff (black hill) ; Torbane and Torgorm 
(the white and the blue hill) ; Torbreck (speckled hill) ; 
Torinturk (the wild boar's hill) ; Kintore (at the head of the 
hill), in Aberdeenshire ; Turriff, in Banffshire, is the plural 
form of toir. From the Lat. turns and its derivatives, 
come Tordesillas (the tower of the bishop's see), in Spain ; 
Torquemada, Lat. Turris cremata (the burned tower) ; 
Torr-alba and Torre-blanca (the white tower) ; Torrecilla, 
Lat. Turricellce (the church-towers), in Spain ; Torres-novas 
and Torres-vedras (the new and old towers), in Portugal ; 
Torella (the little tower), Naples ; Truxillo, in Spain, i.e. 
Turris-Julii (the tower of Julius); Tourcoing (corner tower), 
in France ; La-tour-Sans-Venin, near Grenoble, is a corrupt, of 
Tour-Saint- Verena — to this saint the chapel was dedicated ; 
Tournay, in Belgium, Lat. Turris Nerviorum (the tower of the 
Nervii); Torres-Torres (the fortifications of the mountains), 


Tours, in France, is not named from this root, but from the 
Turones, a tribe ; but Torres Strait was named after the navi- 
gator Torres, who discovered it in 1 606. In the Semitic lan- 
guages also Tzur means a rock ; it is the root of the names 
of the city of Tyre, and of Syria, of which in early times it 
was the chief city. Taurus or Tor is a general name for a 
mountain chain ; Tabris (the mountain town), a city of Persia. 

trafth CCvm on ( a strand ; e S- Traeth-mawr (great strand) ; 

TRAIGH (Gadhelic'i \ Traeth - bach ( little strand) ; Trefdraeth (the 
^ ■" ( dwelling on the strand), in Wales ; Traeth- 

coch (red strand), in Anglesea. In Ireland : Tralee, Co. 
Derry, is from Traigh-liath (the gray strand) ; Tranamadree 
(the strand of the dogs), Co. Cork ; Ballintra, when it occurs 
on the coast, means the town on the strand, but inland it 
comes from Baile-an-tsratha (the town on the river-holm) ; 
Ventry, Co. Kerry, is from Fionn-traigh (white strand) ; as 
also Trabane, Trawane, and Trawbawn, which derive their 
names from the whitish colour of the sand ; Fintray, a parish 
in Aberdeenshire on the R. Don, is also white strand ; but 
Fintray, in Dumbartonshire, was formerly Fyntref or Fyntre, 
probably the dwelling, ire, on the Fenach, which is the 
boundary-stream of the parish on one side ; Traeth-Saith, 
in Wales, named after a mythological patriarch. 

TRANK (Ger.), a tank for watering animals ; e.g. Kleintrank (little 
tank) ; Rosstrank (horse tank) ; Trankmiihle (mill tank). 

trawa (Sclav.), grass ; e.g. the Traun and the Trave (i.e. the 
grassy rivers) ; Traunkirchen (the church on the Traun) ; 
Traunik, Trawitz (the grassy place) ; Traunviertel (the dis- 
trict of the R. Traun), in Silesia and Austria. 

TRE orTREF (Cvm -Cel ) ( a dwellin S> a town > e -S- Treago, anc. 
„,„„'.„„..„ A- 1 \ \ Tref-y-goll (hazel-tree dwelling), in 

TREABHAIR (Gael.), I ht „t ^ i / i_ u? \ 

v " ( Monmouth ; Tre-n-eglos (church town), 

in Cornwall ; Tremaine (stone dwelling), Cornwall ; Tref-y- 

clawdd (the town of the dyke, i.e. Offa's dyke), the Welsh 

name for Knighton, in Pembrokeshire ; Oswestry might 

come naturally from this word, but the Welsh call it Croes- 

Oswald (the place of St. Oswald's martyrdom) ; Coventry, 

too, might be from the same root, but Camden says it is a 

corruption of Conventria (the district of the convent) ; 

Daventry, abridged from Dwy-avon-tre (the dwelling on the 


two rivers)' ; Truro, i.e. Tre-rhiw (the dwelling on the sloping 
bank, or on the stream) ; Redruth, in Cornwall, anc. Tref- 
Derwydd (the Druid's town) ; Trefrhiw (the town on the 
stream), in Caernarvon ; Tremadoc (Madoc's dwelling) ; 
Trecoid (the dwelling in the wood) ; Braintree, Co. Essex 
(hill dwelling) ; Dreghorn, in Ayrshire, anc. Trequern (the 
dwelling near alder-trees) ; Thrisk, in Yorkshire, anc. Tref- 
Ysk (the dwelling by the water) ; Tranent, in Mid Lothian, 
corrupt, from Treabhairnant (the dwellings in the valley) ; 
Crailing, in Berwickshire, anc. Traverlin (the dwellings on 
the pool) ; Tring, Co. Herts, anc. Treungla or Treangle (the 
village at the corner), Welsh ongl, Lat. angulus; Trelech 
(the dwelling at the stone, called Harold's grave) ; Tre- 
Taliesin (the dwelling of Taliesin, the celebrated Welsh 
bard) ; Trenewydd (new dwelling), in Wales ; Rhuddry, a 
parish in Glamorgan, probably corrupt, from Yr-yw-tre (the 
yew-trees' home) ; Tre'r Beirdd (bard's town) ; Trefawr, 
Trefach (great and little town) ; Tredegar, i.e. Tre-deg-fair- 
ar (land), (the choice abode) ; Tre-Wyddel (the forester's 
abode) ; Trefhedyn, i.e. Tref-y-din (hill town). 

TROM, trium (Gadhelic), the elder-tree ; e.g. Trim, in Co. Meath, 
corrupt, from Ath-trium (the ford of the elder-trees) ; 
Trummery and Trimmer (places abounding in elder-trees) ; 
Tromann, Trumman (the little elder-tree). 

TUAIM, TOOM (Gadhelic), a mound raised over a grave, cognate 
with the Lat. tumulus; e.g. Tuam, Co. Gal way, anc. 
Tuaim-da-ghualann (the tumulus of the two shoulders, 
from the shape of the ancient sepulchral mound) ; Toome, 
on the R. Bann ; Tomfinlough (the tumulus of the clear 
lake) ; Tomgraney (the tomb of Grian) ; the Tomies (hills 
on Lake Killarney) ; Toomona (the tomb of the bog) ; 
Toomyvara, i.e. Tuaim-ui-Mheadra (O'Mara's tomb). 

TUAr' (Gadhelic), a bleach-green, Anglicised toor; e.g. Tooreen 
(little bleach-green) ; Tooreenagrena (the sunny little bleach- 
green) ; Monatore (the bog of the bleach-green) ; Tintore, for 
Tigh-an-tuair (the house at the bleach-green), in Ireland. 

TULACH (Gadhelic), a little hill or mound, and also a measure 
of land — Anglicised tulla, tullcrw, tully, or tullij e.g. 
Tullow (the hill) ; Tullamore (great hill) ; Tullanavert (the 
hill of the graves, fertd) ; Tullaghcullion and Tullycullion 


(of the holly) ; Kiltullagh (church hill) ; Tullaghan (little 
hill) ; Tallow, Co. Waterford, more correctly Tealach-an- 
iarainn (the hill of the iron, from the neighbouring iron 
mines) ; Tullyallen, on the Boyne, and Tulliallan, in 
Perthshire, i.e. Tulaigh-dlainn (the beautiful hill) ; Tullyard 
(high hill) ; Tillicoultry (the hill at the back of the land), 
in Clackmannan ; Tullibardine (the bard's hill) ; Tulloch- 
gorum (the blue hill) ; Tullybody (the hill of the black cow, bo 
dubh) ; Tillyfour (the grassy hill, feoiridh). Tully or tilfy, 
however, is sometimes a corruption of teaglach (a family), as 
in Tullynessle and Tillymorgan — v. W. Skene, LL.D. 

tundra (Tartar), a mossy fiat, the name given to the vast plains 
on the Arctic Ocean. 

tura (Tartar), a town or settlement ; e.g. Tura, a river in Russia, 
so called by the Tartars because they made a settlement 
at the place ; Tura, also in Hungary ; O'Tura (old town) ; 
Turinsk (the town on the R. Tura), in Russia. 

twistle (Scand.), a boundary ; e.g. Twistleton (the town on 
the boundary) ; Oswaldtwistle (Oswald's boundary) ; Hal- 
twistle (high boundary) ; Birchtwistle (birch-tree boundary) ; 
Ectwistle (oak-tree boundary). 


UAMH (Gadhelic), a cave ; e.g. Cluain-uamha (the pasture of the 
cave), the ancient name of Cloyne, Co. Cork ; Drumnahoe, 
i.e. Druim-na-huamha (the ridge of the cave) ; Mullinahone 
(the mill of the cave) ; Lisnahoon (the fort of the cave), in 
Ireland. Wem, in Salop, and Wembdon, in Somerset, as 
well as other place-names with the prefix wem, may be 
derived from the A.S. wem (a hollow), analogous to the Cel. 
uaimh. Wamphray, in Dumfriesshire, Gael. Uamh-fridh 
(the forest-cave). 

UCHEL, UCH (Cym.-Cel.), high, cognate with the Gael, uchda (a 
height) ; e.g. Ucheltref and Ochiltree (the high dwelling) ; 
the Ochills, a hill range in Perthshire, Lat. Ocelli-montes. 

uisce, or uisge (Gadhelic), ( ™}? ; <* Esk > Usk T ' Esk y> Esker ' 

gwy /cvm-CeU \ Eskle ' 0ise ' 0use ' ^ ^' Axe > 

<• y ; ' ( Ux, Ex, Use, Ousel, Wisk, Eska, 

Esla, Aisne, Isar, Isere, Isen, Etsch (river names) ; Duffus 


and Doubs (black water) ; Marosh (marshy water) ; the 
Theis, anc. Tibiscus j Adige, anc. Athesis j the Po, anc. 
Padusaj Loch Ewe, and Ewes, a parish in Dumfries watered 
by a stream of this name ; Wisbeach (on the beach of the 
Wysg or Wash), now some miles from the beach by the 
gradual advance of the land ; Knockaniska (the hillock on 
the water) ; Killiskey and Killiskea (the church on the 
water), in Limerick ; but Balihiskey, in Tipperary, is from 
Bealach-uisce (the road of the water) ; the Rivers Minho and 
Mincio, anc. Minhis and Mincius (little stream) ; Duffus 
(dark water) ; Istria (half land, half water) ; Argense or 
Argenteus (silver stream), in France ; Caldas (warm waters), 
in Spain and Portugal ; Ischia (the island of waters), abound- 
ing in mineral springs ; Issny, on the R. Leine, anc. Issia- 
cum (on the water) ; Metz, anc. Mettis (between the waters), 
also named Divodurum (on the two rivers) ; Osimo, in 
Italy, anc. Auximum, and Osna, in Spain, anc. Uxama 
(on the water). 

URA (Basque), water ; e.g. Astura (rocky water), a river which 
gives its name to the Asturias ; Illuria (the town on the 
water) ; Illuro, with the same meaning, now Maturo, in 
Spain ; Osuno, anc. Ursonum, and Tarazona, anc. Turiaso 
(the place of good waters), in Spain — osoa, Basque (good) ; 
Oloron, anc. Illura (the town on the water) — illia, Basque 
(a town). 

URBS (Lat.), a city ; e.g. Orvieto, Lat. Urbs-vetus (the old city). 


/a valley ; e.g. Vallais (the land 
vallis (Lat.), I of vaUeys^ m Switzerland— its 

val and VALLfiE (Fr.), < inhabitants were formerly called 

valle (Span., Port, and It.), \^ Nantuateh z> valley dwellers . 

Val-de-Avallano (the valley of hazels) ; Val-de-fuentes (of 
fountains) ; Val-del-laguna (of the lagoon) ; Val-del-losa 
(of the flagstone) ; Val-del-Moro (of the Moor) ; Val-de- 
Olivas (of olive-trees) ; Val-de-penas (of the rocks) ; Val-de- 
robles (of the oak-trees), in Spain ; Val-de-lys (the valley of 
streams), in the Pyrenees, from an old Provencal word 
lys (water); Vallde -de -Carol (of Charles), through which 


Charlemagne passed from his conquest of the Moors ; 
Vallombrosa (the shady valley) ; Valparaiso (the valley of 
Paradise) ; Valtelline, in Lombardy, consisting of a long 
valley, traversed by the R. Adda and Teglio ; Vaucluse, 
Lat. Vallis-clusa (the enclosed valley) ; Orvaux, Lat. Aure- 
vallis (the golden valley) ; Rieval, Lat. Regia-vallis 
(the royal valley) ; Vals (in the valley of the Volane) ; 
Vaucouleurs, Lat. Vallis-coloris (the valley of colour), in a 
valley of the R. Meuse, whose green and smiling meadows 
have given it this name; Gerveaux or Yorvaux, in Durham, 
Lat. Uri-vallis (the valley of the R. Ure) ; Pays-de-Vaud 
(the country of valleys or of the Waldenses) ; Clairvaux, 
Lat. Clara-vallis (the bright valley) ; Roncesvalles (the 
valleys abounding in briers) ; Vaudemont, Lat. Vallis-de- 
monte (the valley of the mountain) ; Val-di-chiana (the 
valley of the standing pool), in Italy. 

var, varad (Hung.), a fortress ; e.g. Kolos-var, Ger. Klansen- 
burg, anc. Claudtpolis (the enclosed fortress, or the city of 
Claudius) ; Nagy-varad (great fortress) ; Vasvar, Ger. 
Eisenburg (iron fortress) ; Szamos-Ujvar (the new for- 
tress), on the R. Zamos ; Sarivar (palace fortress) ; Foldvar 
(the land fortress) ; Szekes-Fehervar, Ger. Stuhl-Weissen- 
burg (the white fortress of the throne) ; Karoly-Fehervar 
or Karlsburg (Charles's white fortress) ; Varosvar, Ger. Eisen- 
thurm (the red fortress or iron tower), in Hungary ; Ersek- 
Ujvar, Ger. Neuhausel (the bishop's new fortress or seat). 

varos (Hung.), a town ; e.g. Ujvaros (the new town) ; Also-varos 
(lower town) ; Szasz-varos, Ger. Sachsenstadt (the Saxon's 

vatn and vand (Scand.), a lake ; e.g. Vatnsdalr (the valley of 
lakes) ; Arnarvatn (eagle lake) ; Fiskvatn (fish lake) ; 
Langavat (long lake) ; Steepavat (steep lake) ; Sanvatn 
(sandy lake) ; Miosen-Vand (little lake) ; Helgavatn (holy 
lake) ; Vatster (the lake dwelling) ; Myvatn (the lake of the 
midges) ; Vatnagaard (the farm on the lake). 

vega (Span.), a plain ; e.g. Vega-de-la-neustra-Senora (the plain 
of our Lady) ; Vega-Espinarada (the plain surrounded 
by thorns). 

velika, or weliki (Sclav.), great ; e.g. Velikaia (the great river) ; 
Velikja-luki (the great marsh), in Russia ; Welkawes (the 


great village or dwelling), in Sclavonia ; Welka, Welkow, 
Welchau, Welchow, etc., with the same meaning. 

vernus (Lat.), the alder-tree, Cel. gwern; e.g. Verney, Vernez, 
Vernois, Vernoy, Verneuil, Vernieres, etc., the names of 
various places in France. 

vie, ve, wy (Scand.), holy; e.g. Wydale (the holy valley); 
Wyborg, Weighton, Wisby, Wigthorpe (holy dwelling); 
Wigan, anc. Wibiggan (the holy building), in Lancashire ; 
Wigton, in Cumberland (holy town) ; but Wigton, in Scot- 
land (the town on the bay, vig) ; Sviga (holy river), in 
Russia ; Sviajsk (the town on the holy river) ; Sveaborg 
and Viborg (holy town) ; Sviatos-nos (holy cape) ; Sviatskaia 
(holy town, or of the deity worshipped by the Sclavonians, 
called Sviatovid), in Russia. 

villa (Lat.), a farm, manor, or town, with its derivatives in the 
Romance languages ; e.g. Villa-hermosa (the beautiful 
town) ; Villa-franca-de-panades (the free town of the 
bakers), in Spain. In France : Charleville (named after 
Charles, Due de Nevers) ; Flamanville (founded by a colony 
of Flemings), in Normandy; Joinville, Lat. Jovis-Villa (the 
city of Jove, named from a Roman tower near the town) ; 
Luneville (the city of the moon), supposed to have been 
named from a temple to Diana ; Offranville, in Normandy, 
Lat. Vulfrani Villa (the manor of Wulfran) ; Auberville 
and Aubervilliers (the manors of Albert) ; Thionville (the 
manor of Theodone), Lat. Theodonis Villa; La Ville-tertre 
(hill town) ; Deville, formerly Dei Villa (the city of God) ; 
Marteville, Lat. Martis Villa (of Mars) ; Villa -Vigosa 
(abundant town), in Spain and Portugal ; Villa-rica (rich 
town) ; Yeovil, in Somerset (the town on the R. Yeo) ; 
Maxwell, in Kirkcudbright and in Roxburghshire, corrupt, 
from Maccusville (the manor or settlement of Maccus, to 
whom the lands were given by David I.) ; Philipville or 
Philipstadt, in Belgium (named by Charles V. after his son) ; 
Louisville, in the United States (named after Louis XVI., 
whose troops assisted the Americans in the War of Inde- 

vinea, vinetum (Lat.), a vineyard ; e.g. Le Vignas, La Vignelle, 
Les Vigneaux, Vigneaux, Vigny, Vinax, and places abound- 
ing in the vine ; La Vigne, in France. 


VOE (Scand ) { a bay ' Bmgm Leirv0 S r ( mud ba y) ' Laxvoe ( sal " 

vnrR > mon ba y) 5 Siliavoe (herring bay) ; Grunavoe 

' ( (green bay) ; Westvoe (west bay) ; Aithsvoe 

(the bay on the aith or headland) ; Sandvoe (sandy bay) ; 

Kaltenwaag (cold bay) ; Vaage (on the bay), a town in 

VORM- (Ger.), in front of; e.g. Vormbach, Vormbusch, Vorm- 

horst, Vormhagen (in front of the brook, thicket, wood, and 



.« „ . [a ford, cognate with the Lat. vadum and 
',„ , > ' ''' -J the Gadhelic ath ; e.g. Wadebridge (the 
^ "'' (bridge at the ford), in Cornwall; Wath- 

upon-Dearne (the ford of the R. Dearne), in Yorkshire ; 
Carnwath (the ford at the cairn), in Lanarkshire ; Lasswade 
(the ford on the pasture-land, laes), in Mid Lothian ; Wath 
(the ford), on the Yorkshire Ouse ; Langwaden (long ford), 
in Germany ; Wageningen, Lat. Vadu (on the ford), in 
Holland, on the R. Leek. 
wAdi, or wady (Ar.), a river-course or ravine ; e.g. Wadi-el-Ain 
(the ravine of the fountain) ; Wadi-Sasafeh (of the pigeons) ; 
Wadi-Sidri (of the thorn) ; Wady-Solab (of the cross) ; 
Wady-Shellal (of the cataract) ; Wady-Magherah (of the 
caves); Wady-Sagal (of the acacia); Wady-Mousa (of 
Moses) ; Wady-Abou-hamad (of the father fig-tree, named 
from a very old tree) ; Wady-Mokatteb (of the writing, 
from the number of inscriptions made by pilgrims) ; Wady- 
hamman (of the wild pigeons). 

.„ . (a. wood or waste land ; e.g. Walden- 

_ wo '?' D /\ c s \ Saffron, in Essex (the waste land on 
' v ■ V) y which saffron was afterwards cultivated) ; 

the Weald, Wold, and Wealdon (the waste lands), in 
Essex, Kent, Lincoln, and Yorkshire ; Waltham and Wal- 
thamstow (the dwelling-place near the wood) ; Waldstadt, 
Waldheim, Walddorf (dwellings near the wood), in Ger- 
many ; Waldeck (woody corner, or corner of the wood) ; 
Waldshut (the forest hut), in Switzerland ; Boemerwald 
(the Bohemian forest) ; Waldau (woody meadow) ; Wald- 
sassen (the settlement in the wood) ; Unterwalden (under 



or below the wood) ; Zinnwald-Sachsisch (the wood near 
the Saxon's tin mine) ; Finsterwalde (the dark wood) ; 
Greifswald (the griffin's wood) ; Habechtswald (hawk's wood) ; 
Lichtenwald (the cleared wood) ; Rugenwalde (the wood of 
the Rugii, a tribe), in Pomerania; Regenwalde and Saalwalde 
(the woody' districts of the rivers Rega and Saale); Methwald 
(in the midst of woods), in Norfolk ; Leswalt (the pasture, 
laes, in the wood), in Wigtonshire ; Mouswald (the wood near 
Lochar Moss), in Dumfriesshire ; Wooton-Basset, in Wilts 
(the woody town of the Basset family, so called from the 
quantity of wood in the neighbourhood). 
wall (Old Ger ) ( an emDan kment, a rampart, a wall, cognate 
weall (AS) 1 w ' th the Lat vailum > the Gadhelic balla, and 

■'' ( the Welsh gwalj e.g. Walton, on the Naze, 
where there was a walled enclosure to defend the northern 
intruders from the assaults of their hostile Saxon neighbours ; 
Walton, also, in the east corner of Suffolk (the town near 
the wall); also Walton, on the Thames; Walton-le-dale 
and Walton (on the hill), in Lancashire ; Wallsend (at the 
end of the wall), in Northumberland ; Walford, in Hereford 
(the ford near a Roman fortification) ; Wallsoken (the place 
near the wall, where the judicial courts were held) — v. SOC ; 
Walmer(the sea-wall), in Kent ; Wallburg, Walldorf (walled 
towns), in Germany ; Wallingford, in Berks, anc. Gallena, 
Welsh Gwal-hen (the old wall or fortification), A.S. Weal- 
ingafordj Wallmill, Wallshiels, Wallfoot, Wallhead, places 
in Northumberland near the wall of Adrian ; Walpole (the 
dwelling, bol, near the wall), in Norfolk, a sea-bank raised by 
the Romans as a defence from the sea ; but Walsham and 
Walsingham, in Norfolk, take their name from the Wael- 
sings, a tribe. This place was called by Erasmus Parath- 
alasia, Grk. (by the sea-beach). 
WALSCH (Ger ) ( ,forei g n - These words were applied by the 
wfattt (A S \ J Teutonic and Sclavonicnations to all foreigners, 
A, '. ■''. J and to the countries inhabited or colonised 
''' (,by those who did not come from a Teutonic 
stock or speak their language. In the charters of the 
Scoto-Saxon kings the Celtic Picts of Cambria and Strath- 
clyde were called Wallensesj e.g. Wales, Gwalia — root 
gwal or gall, foreign. The Welsh call their own country 


Cymru (the abode of the Kymry or aborigines) — (the home 
of the Cymric Celts), so named by the Saxons ; Wallachia 
(the strangers 1 land, vlack), so called by the Germans and 
Sclaves because colonised by the Romans ; Walcherin, anc. 
Walacria or Gualacra (the island of the strangers or Celts) ; 
Cornwall (the horn or promontory of the Celts) ; also 
Cornuailles (a district in Brittany peopled by British emi- 
grants from Wales) ; Wallendorf (the town of the strangers), 
the German name for Olaszi or Olak, in Hungary, peopled 
by Wallachians ; Wallenstadt and Wallensee (the town and 
lake on the borders of the Romansch district of the Grisons, 
conquered by the Romans under Constantius) ; Walschland, 
the German name for Italy. The Celts of Flanders were 
also called Walloons by their German neighbours ; and 
Wlachowitz, in Moravia, means the town of the Wallachs 
or strangers. The Gadhelic gall (foreign), although used 
with the same meaning as wealh, is not connected with it. 
It is a word that has been applied to strangers by the Irish 
from the remotest antiquity ; and as it was applied by them 
to the natives of Gaul (Galli), gall, in the first instance, might 
mean simply a native of Gaul. It was afterwards used in 
reference to the Norwegians, Fionn-ghaill (the fair-haired 
strangers) ; and to the Danes, Dubh-'ghaill (the dark-haired 
strangers) ; and in connection with them and with the 
English the word enters largely into Irish topography ; e.g. 
Donegal, i.e. Dun-nau-Gall (the fortress of the foreigners 
or Danes) ; Clonegall and Clongall (the meadow of the 
strangers) ; Ballynagall and Ballnagall (the town of the 
strangers, or English). For the further elucidation of these 
words v. Irish Names of Places, by Dr. Joyce, and Words 
and Places, by the Rev. Isaac Taylor. The words Gaill 
and Gallda are applied by the Highlanders of Scotland to 
their countrymen in the Lowlands, but they have no con- 
nection with the name which they apply to themselves — 
The Gaidheil, derived from an ancestor Gaodal. 
wang (Ger. and A.S.), a field or strip of land, allied to the Scot- 
tish whang, a slice ; e.g. Feuchtwang (moist field) ; Duir- 
wangen (barren field) ; Ellwangen, anc. Ellhenwang (the 
field of the temple, eleh or alhs) ; Affolterwangen (apple-tree 
field) ; Wangford (the ford of the wang). 


wara (Sansc), a dwelling ; e.g. Kattiwar (the dwelling of the 
Katties, a tribe) ; Judwar (of the Juts or Jats) ; Kishtewar 
(the dwelling in the wood). In Anglo-Saxon wara means 
inhabitants — thus Lindiswaras (the inhabitants of Lincoln ; 
Cantwara, of Kent). 
ward, wart, WARTH (Teut.), a watch-tower or beacon, or a place 
guarded, A.S. waerdian, Ger. warten, to guard — waering, 
a fortification ; e.g. Hohenwarth, Lat. Altaspecula (the high 
watch-tower) ; Warburg (the town of the watch-tower), 
in Westphalia. In England : Warden, Wardle, Wardley 
(guarded places, or places where the warden of the district 
resided) ; Wardlaw (the beacon hill) ; Wardoe (beacon 
island), in Norway ; Warwick, i.e. Waering-vic (the fortified 
dwelling, or the fort of the Waerings) ; Woerden or War- 
den (the fortified place), in Holland ; Vordhill, in Shetland, 
and Varberg, in Sweden (the hill of the beacon) ; Warthill, 
or beacon hill, in Westmoreland ; Warburton, found as 
Wardeburgh (the town near the watch-fort) — here Athel- 
freda, Queen of Mercia, built a citadel ; Warrington (the 
town with the fortress, waering) ; Gross-wardein, the Ger- 
man rendering of Nagy iiarad, Sclav, (great fortress). 
From guardar, Span, (to defend), we have Guardamar (the 
sea guard, with a hill-fort at the mouth of the R. Segura) ; 
La Guardia (built as a defence against the incursions of the 
Moors) ; Guardia-regia (royal fortress) ; Leeuwarden, anc. 
Liervwarden (the guarded place near lime-trees), in the 

,^, 1 ^. .. ( a river island, or sometimes a plot 
WARID, werxd (Old Ger.), I rf d insulated bymarshes and 

werder (Mod. Ger.), | secured by dykes _ Jt often takes 

the forms of werth or wirth, cognate with the A. S. worth Or 
worthing, qu. v.j e.g. Bischopswerder (the bishop's island); 
Elsterwerder, Saarwerder (the islands in the Rivers Elster 
and Saar) ; Donauworth (the island in the R. Danube) ; 
Kirchwerder (church island) ; Marienwerder (the island or 
enclosure dedicated to the Virgin Mary) ; Falconswaart (the 
falcon's enclosure), in Holland ; Poppenwarth (the priest's 
enclosure) ; Werden, Werder, Wertheim (dwellings near 
river islands) ; Worth (the enclosed place), in Bavaria ; 
Worth-sur-Sauer (the enclosure on the R. Sauer) ; Nonnen- 


werth (the nun's enclosure) ; Furstenwerder (the prince's 

island) ; Verden (near a large island formed by the R. Aller), 

in Hanover ; Verderbruch (the island bridge) ; Bolswaard 

(Bolswine's river island), in Holland ; Wertingen (a town 

on an island in the R. Schmutter) ; Schonwerder (beautiful 

island on the R. Unstruth) ; Werth-sur-Sauer, in Alsace (on 

an island formed by the Rivers Sauer and Soultzbach) ; 

Borumeler-Waard (an island near the town of Berumel), in 

Holland, formed by the junction of the Rivers Waal and 

Maas ; but Hoyerswerda, in Silesia, is a corruption of the 

Wendish name Worejze (the town on the ploughed land). 

wark, virki (Scand.), a fortress ; e.g. Wark, in Dumfriesshire, 

Warke Castle, on the Scottish border ; Warkthwaite (the 

enclosure belonging to the fortress), in Cumberland ; Ald- 

wark (old fortress) ; Newark, in Nottingham and in Selkirk 

(the new fortress) ; Southwark (the south fortress) ; Warks- 

burn, Warkton, Warkworth (places named from their vicinity 

to Warke Castle), in Northumberland. 

(T 1 1 ( water > e -S- Rothwasser (a town on 

' . ^ \ t ' le re< * r i ver ) 5 Schwartz wasser (black 

\ ••" ( water) ; Whiteadder (white water), 

river names ; Ullswater (named from Ulla or Ulf, a Norse 

chief) ; Wasserburg, in Bavaria, on the R. Inn, and Wasser- 

burg on Lake Constance (the town on the water) ; Waterloo 

(the watery marsh) ; Wasserbillig (the plain by the river) ; 

Zwishenwassern (between the waters, at the confluence of 

two streams), in Illyria ; Altwasser, Sclav. Starawoda (the 

old stream), in Moravia. The ancient name of the R. 

Odra was Wodra (water). 

._ . (a. way, a road, cognate with the Lat. via; e.g. 

/t-> i \ ) Wegefurt and Wayford (the way to the ford}: 

WAAG (Dutch), < _ °. „ ', v . T . •* ./' 

) A c \ ) Bradenwaag, (broad way) ; Lichtenweg (the 

\ ■ •'' ( cleared road) ; Wegmiihle (mill road) ; Wainfleet 
(the way by the harbour) ; Wakefield (the field by the way- 
side) ; Norway, A.S. Norwaegas (the northern districts or 
paths) ; Courbevoie, Lat. Cttrba-via (the curbed way), in 
weide CGer ) f P asture ; e S- Langenweid (the long pasture) ; 
A „ 'J* < Rathsweide (the councillor's pasture) ; Neuweid 
\ ■ •/' ( (new pasture) ; Mitt weyda (the middle pasture). 


weiler (Ger.), a hamlet, Old Ger. wilaj e.g. Kleinweil 
(the little hamlet); Kurzweil (short hamlet); Langweil 
(long hamlet), Pfaffwyl (the priest's hamlet) ; Weiller, in 
Alsace, Echzell, in Hesse-Darmstadt, corrupt, from Achizwila 
(the hamlet on the water) ; Eschweiler (the hamlet near ash- 
trees) ■ Dettweiler (the hamlet of the diet, or people's 
meeting) ; Rappersweil (the hamlet of Rappert, a per- 
sonal name) ; Rothwell, in Baden, anc. Rotwili (red hamlet). 
In England this word takes the form of well or will, as 
in Kittlewell and Bradwell. In Normandy, Hardvilliers, 
Rohrwiller, Neuviller, etc. 

weir (A.S.), a dam, that which wards off the water, wearan, A.S., 
to guard ; e.g. Ware, in Co. Hertford, named from a dam 
on the R. Lea, made by the Danes ; Wareham (the town 
on the Weir), in Dorsetshire ; Warminster (the monastery 
near the weir.) 

WEISS (Ger ) ( white ' e '^' Weisshorn (white cape) ; Weissmaes 
HWIT (A S ) J ( w h ite fi eld) ; Weissenberg and Weissenfels 
HVID (Scand ) j ( white rock ) '• Weissenburg and Weissenstadt 
''' \ (white town); Weissenthurm (white tower). 
Sometimes the word takes the form of witten, as in Witten- 
berg and Wittenburg (white fortress), although this prefix 
is frequently derived from vitu, wood ; Whitacre (white 
field) ; Whitburne, Whitbourne, Whitbeck (white stream) ; 
Witley (white meadow) ; Whiston, in Worcester, so named 
because it was originally a convent of white nuns. 
WEND, wind, words applied in German topography to mark the 
settlements of the Wends or Sclavonians, from the verb wan- 
deln, to wander. The Sclavonians call themselves Slowjane, 
which means intelligible men, or Srb, which means kinsmen; 
while, by all the Sclavonic tribes, the Germans are called 
niemiec, the dumb men, because their language is unintel- 
ligible to their Sclavonic neighbours. The Wends in the 
sixth century occupied the north-eastern parts of Germany, 
but are now chiefly confined to Lusatia ; e.g. Wendischbach 
(the Wends' brook) ; Wendischhausen and Windsheim (the 
dwellings of the Wends) ; Wendischgratz (the Wends' for- 
tress) ; Wendischkappel (the Wends' chapel or church) ; 
Windecken and Wendischhayn (the Wends' corner and 


werba (Sclav.), pasture; e.g. Werben, on the Elbe. 

werch (Sclav.), a summit ; e.g. Werchau (the town on the height), 
in Prussia ; Werch-see (the lake on the height) ; Werchne- 
Udinsk (the height on the R. Uda) ; Verkne-Dnieprevosk 
(the high town on the R. Dnieper) ; Werchne-Uralish, on 
the R. Ural ; Verkne - Kolynski, on the R. Kolyma ; 
Verkne-Sousensk, on the R. Sosna ; Werchblatt (high 

werf, Warf (Teut), a dam'or wharf; literally, what is thrown up — 
werfen; e.g. Werfen (the town on the embankment), in 
Upper Austria ; Antwerp, anc. Atidoverpum (at the wharf) ; 
Hohenwerpum (high wharf) ; Neuwarp (new wharf). 

WERK, WEORC (Teut.), a work, applied in topography to places 
where manufactures are carried on ; e.g. Bergwerk (a hill 
work or mine) ; Konigswerk (the king's manufactory) ; 
Hofwerk and Werkhausen (places connected with mines) ; 
Hiittenwerk (the huts of the workmen in the Hartz Moun- 
tains) ; Seifenwerk (the place for washing the metals at the 
mines) ; Frederickswerk (a cannon foundry in Denmark 
established by King Frederick) ; Wirksworth, in Derbyshire 
(the enclosure near the mines). 

westen (Ger.), the west. This word Buttman traces to an old 
Ger. root wesen, Goth, visan (rest), i.e. the quarter of the 
heavens where the sun sinks to rest ; e.g. Westphalia (the 
western plain) ; Westerwald (west wood) ; Westerufer (the 
western shore, i.e. of the R. Inn) ; Westhausen and West- 
hoffen (the west dwellings and court), in Alsace ; Wesen, 
on the west shore of Lake Wallensee ; Westeraas, in 
Sweden, anc. Vestra-aros (western dwelling), so called to 
distinguish it from Ostra-aros (the eastern dwelling) ; West- 
man's Isles, Scand. Vestmanna-eyar, on the coast of Iceland, 
so called because peopled by men from the west — Irish 
pirates ; Westbury, Westbourn, Weston, Westbrook, from 
the same root. 

wich, wic, wyk (Teut.), ( a dwellin f' a viUa ^ e ' a town-a word 
wick VIG (Scand.), \ m Sferal use m the topography of 

was, wies (Sclav.) ) t Great B " tam ' " wdl . as on the . con " 

' ^tinent, but with various meanings. 

According to Leo, the Teut. wich or vichs arose from the 

root waes, A.S., and wiese, Ger. (a moist meadow) and 

WICH 209 

hence was applied to places situated on low lands, often on 
the bank of a stream ; e.g. Meeswyk (the town on the 
Maas) ; Beverwyk, on the Bever. The primary meaning 
seems to have been a station — with the Anglo-Saxons a 
station or abode on the land, with the Norsemen a station 
for ships. The root of the word runs through all the Aryan 
languages — Sansc. veca, Grk. oikos, Pol. wies, Ir. fieh, 
Cym.-Cel. qwic, all meaning an abode ; e.g. Alnwick (the 
town on the R. Alne) ; Ipswich, anc. Gippenswich, on the 
Gipping ; York, A.S. Eorvic, Lat. Eboracum, Welsh Caer- 
Ebreuc (the town on the water, or R. Eure) ; Hawick (the town 
on the haugh or low meadow) ; Noordwyk (north town) ; 
Nederwyk (lower town) ; Zuidwyk and Zuick (south town), 
in Holland and Belgium ; Harwich (army town), so called 
from having been a Saxon station or military depot ; Keswick 
(the town of Cissa) ; Wickware, in Gloucestershire (the 
town of the family of De la Ware). On the other hand, the 
Scandinavian wick or vig signifies a bay, or a place situated 
on the coast, or at the mouth of a river — thus Schleswick (on 
a bay formed by the R. Schlie), in Prussia ; Wick (the 
town on the bay), in Caithness ; Sandwich (the town on the 
sandy bay) ; Lerwick (on the muddy bay) ; Greenwich, 
Scand. Granvigen (the town on the pine bay) ; Reikjavik, 
in Iceland (the reeky or smoky bay) ; Vigo in Spain, and 
Vaage in Norway (on spacious bays) ; Swanage, in Dorset, 
anc. Swan-wick (Sweyen's bay town) ; Brodick, in Arran 
(the broad bay town) ; Wicklow, in Ireland, probably 
Danish Vigloe (bay shelter), used by the Danes as a ship 
station ; Smerwick (butter bay) ; Berwick, contracted from 
Aberwick (at the mouth of the R. Tweed) — v. ABER. Wiche 
also denotes a place where there are salt mines or springs, 
and in this sense is probably connected with the Scand. vig, 
as salt was often obtained by the evaporation of sea-water 
in shallow bays ; thus Nantwich — v. NANT ; Middlewich 
(the middle salt works) ; Droitwich, Lat. Salince (the salt 
springs, where the droit or tax was paid). In some cases 
•urich or wick is derived from the Lat. vicus, cognate with 
the Grk. oikos and Sansc. veca (a dwelling) — thus Katwyk- 
sur-mer and Katwyk-sur-Rhin are supposed to occupy the 
• site of the Roman Vicus-Cattorum (the dwelling-place of 


the Chatti) ; Vick or Vique, in Spain, from Vicus-Ausoni- 
ensis (the dwelling of the Ausones) ; Vidauban, in France, 
from Vicus-Albanus (the dwelling of Albanus) ; Longwy, 
from Longus-vicus (long town) ; Limoges, anc. Lemovicum 
(the town of the Lemovici) ; also in France : Vic-despres 
(the town on the- meadows) ; Vic-sur-Losse and Vic-sur- 
Aisne, the towns on these rivers. The Sclav, wice is 
found in Jazlowice (the town on the marsh) ; and Malsch- 
wice (Matthew's town), etc. 

widr, or vitu (Teut. and Scand.), wood; e.g. Norwood (north 
wood) ; Selwood, Lat. Sylva-magna (great wood), Celtic 
Coit?naurj Coteswold (from its sheep-cotes, in the wood) ; 
the Wolds, near Wolderness, in Yorkshire ; Ringwood, in 
Hants, Lat. Regni-sylva (the wood or forest of the Regni, 
a tribe) ; Wittstock and Woodstock (woody place) ; but 
Wittingau, Wittingen, Wittgenstein, Wittgensdorf, and 
other names with this prefix in Germany, come from the 
patronymic Wittick or Wittikind {i.e. the children of the 
woods). In England the same prefix may mean -white, as 
in Witney, or from places where the Saxon Witangemote 
held their meetings ; Holywood, in Dumfriesshire, Lat. 
Abbia sacra nemoris (the abbey of the sacred wood), called 
by the Irish Der-Congal (the sacred oak grove of Congal). 

wieck, or wiki (Sclav.), a market especially for corn ; e.g. Wieck 
(the market town), the name of numerous places in the 
Sclavonic districts ; Wikow (the Sclavonic name for Elster- 
werder) — v. warid, etc. 

CCer "\ ( P asture -§ roun d or meadow ; e.g. Pfaffenwiese 
A c \ I ( tne priest's meadow) ; Schaafwiese (sheep 
' " ( pasture) ; Wiesbaden (the meadow baths) ; the 
Wash (near moist pasture-ground) ; Wismar (beautiful or 
rich meadow), in Mecklenburg ; Wiesflech (the hamlet in 
the meadow pasture) ; Ziegelwasen (the goat's meadow) ; 
Wisheim (the dwelling in the meadow or pasture-ground). 

wilig (A.S.), the willow ; e.g. Wilcrick (willow crag) ; Wilden 
(willow hollow) ; but Willoughby and Willoughton, probably 
from a personal name. 

win (A.S.), victory ; e.g. Winford, Winslow, Wingrave, Wim- 
borne (the ford, hill, entrenchment, and brook of the victory). 


wiNKELfGer') ( a corner ; e S- Winceby (corner dwelling); 

wincel (A s'^l Wmchcomb ( the corner hollow) ; Winchelsea (the 

^ ' "'' ( island or moist land at the corner) ; Winchendon 

(corner hill) ; Winkleigh (corner meadow) ; Winkelhorst 

(corner thicket) ; Winkeldorf (corner village) ; Winklarn 

(the waste field at the corner). 

WISCH, or OSSICK, contracted from the Sclav, hitssoki (high) ; e.g. 
Wissek, Weissagh, Wisowice or Wisowitz, Ossiegt, and 
Ossagh (high village) ; Wischhrad (high fortress) ; Wisoki- 
mazo-wieck (the high middle market-town), in Poland; 
but in Germany witch is sometimes a form of wiese 
(meadow), as in Wischmiihle (the meadow mill) ; Wisch- 
hausen (the dwelling in the meadow) ; Essek, for O stick 
(high place), in Sclavonia. 

withig (A.S.), the willow ; e.g. Witham, Withern (willow dwelling) ; 
Withybrook (willow stream) ; Withridge (willow ridge). 

woh (A.S.), a turning; e.g. Woburn, Wooburn (the bend of the 
stream) ; Woking (the turning at the chink or chine). 

wol (Sclav.), the ox ; e.g. Wolgast (the oxen's shed) ; Wohlau (an 
enclosure for oxen), a town in Prussia which carries on 
a great trade in cattle ; Wollin (the place of oxen), at the 
mouth of the R. Oder. 

wolscha, or oelza (Sclav.), the alder-tree ; e.g. Wolschau, Wol- 
schen, Wolsching, Wolschinka (the place abounding in 
alders) ; the Sclavonic name for the R. Elster is Wolshinka 
(the river of alders) ; Oels, in Silesia, on the Oelse (alder- 
tree stream) ; Oelsen and Olsenice (the village of alder- 
trees) ; Olsnitz (the town on Elster, or alder stream). 

WOLV, or WOL, a prefix sometimes employed with reference to the 
wolf, as in Wolvesley (the wolves' island), where a tribute 
of wolves' heads was paid annually by the Britons to the 
Saxons, by order of King Edgar. Sometimes as a contrac- 
tion for wold (the waste land), as in Wolford, Wolborough, 
Woldingham, Wooler, and in Woolverton ; but it comes 
often also from a* personal name, as in Wolfhamcote, 
Wulferlow, Wolferton (from Ulp or Wulfhern). 

worth, or weorthing (A.S.), a farm, manor, or estate, a place 
warded or protected, AS. warian (to defend); cognate 
with the Ger. warid or werder; e.g. Worthing- in Sussex, 
Worthen in Salop, Worthy and Worting in Hants, 


Worthington in Lancashire (the farm or manor) ; High- 
worth (high manor) ; Kenilworth (the estate of Kenelm) ; 
Bosworth (of Bosa) ; Edgeworth (the estate on the border) ; 
Edgeware, anc. Edgeworth, same meaning ; Polwarth (the 
estate on the marshy land), a parish in Berwickshire ; 
Ravenworth (the manor of Hrafen) ; Rickmansworth (of 
Rickman) ; Tamworth (the manor), on R. Tarn ; Wands- 
worth, on the R. Wandle ; Worksworth (the place near 
the miner's works) ; Chatsworth (the manor in the wood), 
Celtic coed; Hammersmith, corrupt, from Hermoderworth 
(the manor of Hermode). 
.„ . [an herb, a plant ; wyrtwi, a garden ; e.g. Wurtz- 

WYRlTfA S^ I burg ' anC ' Herbi P olis ( the cit y of P lants ) ; 
\ ■ ■)' [ Wortley (the place or field of herbs) ; Warton 

(the garden). 

YEN (Chinese), salt ; e.g. Yen-shan (salt hill) ; Yen-yuen (salt 

yeni (Turc), new ; e.g. Yenidja-Vardar (the new fortress), anc. 
Pellaj Yenidya-Carasu (the new place on the black water) ; 
Yenikale (the new castle) ; Yenikhan (new inn) ; Yeniseisk 
(the new town on the R. Yenisei) ; Yenishehr (the new 
dwelling) ; Yeni-Bazar (new market) ; Yenikoi (new village) ; 
Yeni-Hissar (new castle). 

zab (Ar.), a fountain ; e.g. Great and Little Zab, in Turkey. 
ZARNY, or CZERNY (Sclav.), black ; e.g. Zschorne (black town) ; 

Sornosche-Elster, i.e. the black R. Elster ; Zschornegosda 

(black inn) ; Zarnowice, Zarnowitz, Same, Sarnow, Sarnowo, 

Sarnaki (black village). 
zereny, or czereny (Sclav.), red ; e.g. Tscherna (the red river) ; 

Tscherniz or Zerniz (red town) ; Tzernagora (red mountain). 
zerkwa (Sclav.), a Greek church, from the Grk. kuriake; a 

Romish church in their language is called kosciol; a 

Protestant church, zbor; e.g. Zerkowo, Zerkowitz, Zerkwitz 

(the town of the Greek church). 


zettel (Sclav.), from sedal (Ger.), a seat or settlement; e.g. 

Brockzettel (the settlement or seat on the broken-up land) ; 

Endzettel (the settlement at the corner) ; Weinzettel (the 

wine settlement). 
Zl (Old Fr.), a habitation ; e.g. Sussi (the habitation on high 

ground) ; Issy (the dwelling, here, or on low ground) ; 

Passy (the dwelling near the boat — bac or bad). 


A few Names which do not occur in the body of the Work are explained 
in the Index. 

Abbeville, 4 

Abbeyfeale, 4 

Abbeyleix and Abbeyshrule, 4 

Abyssinia, named from the Rivers Abai 

and Wabash, or, according to Bruce, 

from habish (mixed), i.e. the country 

of the mixed races 
■ Acapulca, 9 
-Acre, anc. Accho, Ar. the sultry or 

sandy shore 
Adelsberg, the nobles' fortress 
-Aden, Ar. a paradise 
Afium-kara-hissar, Turc. the black 

castle of opium 
Agades, the enclosure 
Agde, in France, Grk. Agathos, the 

good place, founded by Greeks from 

Aghrim, or Aughrim, 67 
Agosta, Lat.. Augusta 
Agra, 2 
Airdrie, 10 
Aix, 9 

Aix-la-Chapelle, 9 
Akerman, Turc. (white castle) 
Akhalzk, new fortress 
Alabama, the land of rest 
Alagous Bay (abounding in lakes) 
Aland, water land 
Albania, 7 

Albert, in Cape Colony, named after 
the Prince Consort 1 

Albuera, Ar. the lake / 

Albuquerque, Lat. the white oak- 

Alcala, Ar. the castle, 114 

Alcantara, 6 

Alcarez, Ar. the farm 

Aldershott, 107 

Alemtayo (beyond the R. Tagus) 

Aleutian Islands, the bold rocks 

Alexandria and Alexandretta, named 
after Alexander the Great 

Alexandria, in Cape Colony, in honour 
of Queen Victoria 

Alexandria, in Italy, after Pope Alex- 
ander III. 

Alhama, 100 

Alleghany Mountains, from a tribe 

Alloa, the way to the sea 

Almaden, Ar. the mine 

Almanza, Ar. the plain 

Almanzor, Ar. victorious 

Almeida, Ar. the table 

Altona, called by the Hamburgians 
All-zu-nah, i.e. (all too near), in 
allusion to its vicinity to Hamburg 

Alyth, the ascent or slope 

America, named after the Florentine 
adventurer Amerigo-Vespucci 

Angora, anc. Ancyra 



~ Annam (the place of the South) 
Anstruther, 179 
Antrim (at the elder trees) 
Antwerp, 208 
Aoasta, Lat. Augusta 
Apennine Mountains, 154 
Appenzel, 4 
Appleby, 37 
Applecross, 3 
Aranjues, Lat. Ara /avis, the altar of 

Aravali Mountain, the hill of strength 
Arbois, anc. Arborosa, the woody place 
Arbroath, 3 
Archangel, named in honour of the 

Archangel Michael 
Archipelago, the chief sea 
Arcos, anc. Argobriga, the town on 

the bend 
Ardeche, now Ardoix, in France, from 

ardoise, slate 
Ardee, in Ireland, on the R. Dee, now 
the Nith 
— Ardeen and Ardennes, 10, n 
Ardfert, 10 
Ardrossan, 10 
Argos, the plain 
Argyle, 150 

Aries, Cel. Ar-laeth, the marshy land 
Armagh, i.e. Ardmacha, Macha's 

Armorica, 143 

Arras, named from the Atrebates 

Arthur Seat, in Edinburgh, Gael. Ard- 

na-said, i.e. the height of the arrows, 

meaning a convenient ground to 

shoot from 

Ascension Island, so named because 

discovered on Ascension Day 
Asperne, n 

Aspropotamo, Modern Grk. (the white 
" Assouan, Ar. the opening at the mouth 

of the Nile 
" Astrakan, named after a Tartar king 
Astura R. , 199 
Asturias, 12 
' Attica, Grk. the promontory 
Aubusson, 36 

Auch, named after the Ausci, a tribe 

Auchinleck, 5 

Auckland, 5 

Audlem, 7 

Augsburg, 35 

Aurillac, supposed to have been named 

after the Emperor Aurelian 
Auriol, anc. Auriolum, the golden or 

Austerlitz, 151 
Australia, the southern land 
Austria, 164 
Autun, 69 

Auvergne, the high country, n 
Ava, or Awa, named from angwa, a 

Avignon, 14 
Avranches, named from the Abrin- 

Awe, Loch, 2 
Azores Isles, Port, the islands of hawks 


Baalbec, 15 
Babelmandeb Strait, 15 
Bactria, Pers. the east country 

Badajos, corrupt, from Lat. Pax Au- 

Baden, 15 

Baffin's Bay, named in honour of the 

Bagdad, 16 

Bahar, corrupt, from Vihar, a Buddhist 

Bahia, Port, the bay, 16 

Bahr-el-Abiad, 17 

Bahrein, 17 

Baikal, the rich sea 

Baireuth, 162 

Bakewell, 162 

Bakhtchisarai, the palace of the gar- 

Bala (river head) , in Wales 

Balachulisb, 17 

Balaclava, 21 

Bala-Ghauts, 18 

Bala-hissar, 18 

Balasore, 18 



Balbriggan, Brecan's bridge 

Balearic Isles, because their inhabitants 
were skilful in the use of the sling 
(Balia, Grk. to throw) 

Balfour, 17 
-Balkan, 18 

Balkh, 18 

Ballantrae, the dwelling on the sea- 
shore, 196 

Ballater, 125 

Ballina, corrupt, from Bel-atha, ford 
mouth, 21 

Ballingry, the town of the king — v. 


Ballintra, 196 

Balloch, 22 

Ballycastle, castle-town — v. 17 

Ballymena, 17 — 

Ballymoney, 17 

Ballyshannon, 22 

Balmaghie, 18 

Balmaklellan, the town of the Mac- 

lellans, 18 
Balmerino, 17 
Balmoral, 17 
Balquhidder, the town at the back of 

the country 
Balta and Baltia, the country of the 

belts or straits, the ancient name of 

Scandinavia, 18 
Banbury, 35 
Banchory, the fair valley 
Banchory -Devenick and Banchory - 

Ternan, named in honour of two 

saints who lived there 
Banda- Oriental, the eastern bank of 

the Rio-de-la-Plata 

- Banff, 34 

- Bangor, 23 

Banjarmassin, from bender, a harbour, 
and masing, usual, or from banjer, 
water, and massin, salt 

Banks Islands and Banks Land, named 
in honour of Sir Joseph Banks 

Bantry, Ir. Beantraighe, i.e. belong-" 

Note. — For Scotch or Irish names beginning 
with bal or bally, v. baile or beal, pp. 
17 and 21 

ing to the descendants of Beann, of 
the royal race of Ulster 

Barbadoes, Port, the island of pines 

Barbary, the country of the Berbers 

Barbuda, the island of the bearded men, 
so named by the Portuguese 

Barcelona, named from Hamilcar 
Barca, who founded it 

Bardhwan, Pers. the thriving place 

Bardsey, 72 

Barfieur, 81 

Bar-le-Duc, 194 

Barnstaple, 152 

Barrow, 19 

Barrow Strait, named in honour of 
Sir John Barrow 

Barton, 194 

Basque Provinces, from bassoco, a 
mountaineer, or, according to Hum- 
boldt, from basoa, a forest 

Bass Strait, named after Bass, a navi- 

Basse Terre, low land 

Bassora, or Bozra, the fortress 

Batavia, 108 

Bath, 16 

Battersea, 71 

Battle and Buittle, 27 

Bautzen, 33 

Bavaria, the country of the Boii 

Bayeux, named from the Bajoccas, a 

Bayonne, 17 

Beachy Head, 19 

Beauley and Beaulieu, 21 

Beaumaris, 21 

Beauvais, named from the Bellovacii 

Bedford, 82 

Bednore, 151 

Beersheba, 20 

Behring Strait, so named by Captain 
Cook in honour of Behring, a Rus- 
sian navigator 

Beinn, Ben, etc., a mountain, 22 

Beira, Port, the river-bank 

Beja, corrupt, from the Lat. Pax-Julia 

Belfast, 22 

Belgium, named from the Belgae 

Belgrade, 21 



Belize, named after a person called 

Bell Rock or Inch Cape, a reef of rocks 
south-east from Arbroath, so called 
from the lighthouse which was erected ■ ■ 
on it in 1811, previous to which the 
monks of Arbroath caused a bell to 
be suspended upon it so as to be rung 
by the waves, and thus give warning 
to mariners 

Belleisle, 21 

Bellie, the mouth of the ford 

Belper, 21 

Beluchistan, 182 

- Benares, named from the names 

of the two rivers on which it is 

Bender, etc., 23 
Beni, etc. , 23 
Benin, corrupt, from Lat. benignus, 

Berbice, at the mouth of the R. 

Berdiansk, 176 
Berg and its derivatives, 23 
Bergamo, on a hill 
Berhampore, 160 
Berkeley, 25 

- Berkshire, 25 

- Berlin, perhaps from Sclav, berk, un- 

cultivated ground, but uncertain 
-Bermudas Isles, named after the dis- 
coverer Juan Bermudez 

Berriew, corrupt, from Aber-Rhiw, 
at the mouth of the R. Rhiw, in 
Wales, 3 

Bervie, 112 

Berwick, 209 

Berwyn, 19 

Beveland, 122 

Beverley, 25 

Bewdley, 21 

Beyrout, 20 

Bhagulpore, 160 

Bhurtpore, 160 

Bicester, corrupt, from Birincester, i.e. 
the fortress of Birin, Bishop of Glou- 

Bideford, by the ford 

Biela-Tsorkov, white church 

Bielgorod, white fortress 

Bielorietzk, 176 

Biggar, the soft land 

Bilbao, under the hill 

Bingley, the field of Bing, the original 

Bir, 20 

Birkdale, the birch valley 

Birkenhead and Birkhampstead, 25 

Birmingham, 99 

Biscaya and Bay of Biscay, named 
from the Basques, which, accord- 
ing to Humboldt, means forest 

Bishop-Auckland, so called from the 
number of oaks that grew here, and 
from the manor having belonged to 
the bishops of Durham 

Black Sea, perhaps so called from its 
frequent storms and fogs. The 
Greeks called it Euxine, from euxinos, 
hospitable, disliking its original 
name, Axinos, inhospitable 

Blaen and its derivatives, 26 

Blair and its derivatives, 26 

Blantyre, the warm retreat 

Bodmin, 27 

Bohemia, 100 

Bois-le-Duc, the duke's wood 

Bokhara, the treasury of sciences, the 
chief town in a. state of the same 

Bolivia, named after its liberator 

Bologna and Boulogne, named from 
the Boii 

Bombay, named after an Indian god- 
dess Bomb£, but translated by the 
Portuguese into Bom-bahia, good 

Bordeaux, 9 

Bornholm, 127 

Borovsk, 28 

Borrowstounness, 145 

Bosphorus, Grk. the passage of the 

Bourges, named from the Bituriges 

Brabant, 18 



- Bramapootra R., the offspring of 

-Brazil, named from the colour of its 

dye-woods, iraza, Port, a live coal 
Breadalbane, 29 
Brecknock, the hill of Brecon or Bry- 

chan, a Welsh prince 
Breda, 29 
Breslaw, named after King Vratis- 

' Breton, Cape, discovered by mariners+Calais 

from Brittany 
Bridgenorth, 31 
Bridgewater, 31 
Brieg, 29 
Brighton, corrupt, from Brighthelm- 

ston, from a personal name 
-Bristol, 183 
" Britain : the Cym. -Cel. root brith, to 

paint, is supposed by some to be the 

root of the word ; the British poets 

called it Inis gwyn, white island, 

which answers to the Roman name 

Brixton, 31 
Brodick, 209 
Brody, 30 
Brooklyn, in New York, Dutch, the 

broken-up land 
Bruges, 31 
Brunswick, 172 
-Brussels, 30 
Brzesce-Litewski, 28 

- Bucharest, the city of enjoyment 
Buckingham, a tribe name, or the 

dwelling among beeches, 33 
Buda, 33 
Budweis, 33 

- Buenos-Ayres, 28 
Builth, 8 
Bungay, 95 
Burgos, 36 
Burslem, Burward's dwelling in the 

clayey soil, lam 
Bury, 34 - 

Bushire, 174 
Bute, 33 
Buttermere, 136 
Buxton, 33 

Cabeza-del-Buey, 117 

Cabrach, the timber-moss, a parish in 

Co. Banff 
Cader-Idris, the chair of Idris, in Wales 
Cadiz, 86 

Cahors, named from the Cadurci 
Cairo, Ar. Al-kakirak, the victorious 
Calahorra, 114 


Calatayud, 114 

Calcutta, 88 

California is supposed to have taken its 
name from an old romance, in which 
this name was given to an imaginary 
island filled with gold, and Cortes 
applied the name to the whole dis- 

Callander, the corner of the water — v. 


The Calf of Man. The word calf 
was frequently used by the Norse- 
men for a smaller object in relation 
to a larger — i.e. the small island off 

Calvados, named from one of the vessels 
of the Spanish Armada, wrecked on 
the coast of France 

Cambay, anc. Khumbavati, the city of 
the pillar 

Cambuskenneth, 39 

Canada, Ind. Kannahta, a collection 
of huts 

Candahar, named after Alexander the 

Candia, Ar. Khanda, the trench island 

Cannes, 40 

Cannoch, i.e. cann, bright, and oich, 
water, the ancient name of the spot 
on which Conway Castle stands 

Canopus was called by the Egyptians 
the city of Kneph, a god 

Cantal, the head of the rock, 41 

Canton, i. e. Kwang Chou t the metro- 

Cantyre or Kintyrer^ 

Capri and Caprera, the islands of wild 


Cardigan, named after its ancient king 

Ceredig, and is therefore corrupted 

from Ceredigion 
Carew, 38 
Carlingford, 39 
Carlisle, 38 
Carlow, 129 
Carlscroone, 118 

Carlshamm, Charles's haven, 97 - 
Carluke, 39 

Carmel, Heb. the fruitful field 
Carmichael, 39 
Carnac, 41 
Carnatic, named from the Carnates, a 

Carniola, 41 
Carolina, U. S. , named after Charles 

Caroline Isles, named after Carlos II. 

of Spain 

■ Carpathian Mountains, from Chrabat, 

a mountain range 

Carrantuohill, Ir. the reversed reap- 
ing-hook, the highest mountain in 

Carthage, 86 

Carthagena, 86 

Casale, 42 

Cashel, 42 
-Caspian Sea, named from the Caspii, 
a tribe 

Cassel, 42 

Castile, 42 

■ Catania, Phcen. the little city 
Cattegat, 88 

-Caucasus, 147 

Cavan, 44 

Caxamarca in Peru, the place of 

Cefalu, 46 

Cephalonia, 46 

Cerigo, anc. Cythera, the harp-shaped - 

Cerro — v. sierra 
"Cevennes, 46 
-Ceylon, 65 

Chambery, the bend of the water, on 
the R. Leysse, in France 

Chamouni, 40 

Champlain, named from the Governor- 

General of Canada in the seventeenth 

Charles Cape, named after Baby 

Charles in the reign of James I. 
Charlestown, named after Charles II. 
Chatham, 55 
Chaumont, 39 
Chelsea, 46 
Chemnitz, 114 
Chepstow, 47 
Chester, 43 
Cheviot Hills, 46 
Chilham, 99 
Chiltern Hills, 11 
China, probably named from the 

dynasty of Thsin in the third century 


Chippenham, 47 

Chiusa, 116 

Christchurch, in Hants, anc. Twinam- 
burne, between two streams, and 
afterwards named from a church and 
priory founded by the W. Saxons 
in the reign of Edward the Confessor 

Christiana, named after Christian IV. 
of Sweden 

Ciudad, 49 

Civita-Vecchia, 49 

Clackmannan, 49 

Clameny, 109 

Clare Co., 50 

Cleveland, 50 

Cleves, 50 

Clifton, 50 

Clitheroe, 50 

Clogheen, 49 

Clonakilty, 50 

Clones, 50 

Clontarf, 50 

Closeburn, 48 

Cloyne, 50 

Coblentz, 54 

Cochin, kocki, a morass 

Cockburnspath, in Berwickshire, cor- 
rupt, from Colbrand's Path 

Cognac, the corner of the water 

Coire or Chur, 56 

Colberg, 31 

Coleraine, 58 


• Colmar, Lat. Collis-Martis, the hill of 

"Colombo, corrupt, from Kalan-Totta, 

the ferry on the Kalawa Ganga 
Colonna, Cape, 117 
Como, Lake, 54 
Comorin, Cape, named from a temple 

to the goddess Durga 
Compostella, Santiago de, corrupt, from 
Sanctus Jacobus Apostolus, so called 
from a legend that the Apostle James 
was buried there 
Comrie, at the confluence of three 

rivers, in Perthshire, 53 
Cond6, 33 
Congleton, 33 

Connaught, anc. Conaicht, the territory 
of the descendants of Conn of the 
hundred battles 
Connecticut, Ind. Qunnitukut, the 

country on the long river 
Connemara, 144 
Constance, Lake, 172 
Copeland Isle, 47 
-Copenhagen, 47 
Corbridge, 56 
Cork, 54 
Cornwall, 54 

Coromandel, corrupt, from Choloman* 
data, the district of the Cholas, a 
Corrientes, Span, the currents 
Corryvreckan, 52 
Corsica, the woody 
Corunna, corrupt, from Columna, the 
pillars, in allusion to a tower of 
Cosenza, Lat. Cosentia, the confluence 
Cotswold Hills, 52 
Cottian Alps, named after a Celtic 

Coutance and Cotantin, named after 

the Emperor Constantius 
Coventry, 196 
Cowal, in Ayrshire, named after King 

Cowes, 45 
- Cracow, the town of Krak, Duke ofH Delft 

Cramond, 38 

Crathie, 56 

Cremona, anc. Cremonensis-ager, the 
field named from a tribe 

Crewe, 56 

Crewkerne, 56 

Crieff, Gael. Craobk, a tree 

Croagh-Patrick, 56 
-Croatia, 109 

Cromar, the heart of Mar, a. district 
in Aberdeenshire 

Cronstadt, 11S 

Croydon, 70 

crug, as prefix, 58 

Cuenca, Lat. concha, a. shell 

Cueva-de-Vera, 45 

Culebra R. , the snake river 

Cumberland, 122 

Cumbernauld, 53 

Cumbraes Isles and Cumbrian Moun- 
tains, named after the Cymbri 

Cundinamarca, named after an Indian 

Curacoa, named from a kind of bird 

Currie, 56 

Cuzeo, the centre, in Peru 

cwm, as prefix — v. 53, at combe 

Cyclad'es Isles, Grk. kuklos, a circle 

Cyprus, perhaps named from the herb 
kupros, with which it abounded, 
called by the Greeks Cerastes, the 

Czernowitz, Sclav, black town 


Dacca, Sansc. Da-akka, the hidden 
goddess, from a statue of Durga 
found there 

Dantzic, Danish fort, 61 

Daventry, 196 

Daviot, 6 

Dax, 9 

Deal, 59 

Deccan, Sansc. Dakshina, the south 

Delhi, Sansc. dahal, a quagmire 


Denbigh, 64 

Denmark, 134 ^ 

Deptford, 54 

Derbend, the shut-up gates or the 

difficult pass 
Deny or Londonderry, 61 
Derwent R., 70 

Desaguadero R. , Span, the drain 
Detmold, 64 
Detroit, the strait between Lake St. 

Clair and Lake Erie 
Devizes, anc. de vies, denoting a place 

where two ways met 
Devonshire, 64 
Dhawalagiri Mountain, 90 

- Dieppe, 54 * 
Digne, 64 
Dijon, 69 

Dinan and Dinant, 54 

Dingle, 58 

Dingwall, 190 

Dinkelsbuhl, 33 

Dmitrov, the town of St. Demetrius 
-Dnieper R. , i.e. Don-ieper, upper river 
-Dniester, Don-iester, lower river Don 

Doab, 2 

Dole, 59 

Dolgelly, 60 

Dominica Isle, so named because dis- 
covered on Sunday, i.e. Dies Domi- 

Donagh, as prefix, 65 

Dondra Head, 65 

Donegall, 69 

Donnybrook, 65 

Doon R., 14 

Dorchester, 44 

Dorking, 70 

Dornoch, 66 

Dorset, 173 

Dort or Dordrecht, 66 

Douglas, 91 

- Douro R. , 70 

-Dover, anc. Dubris, or anc. Brit. Dufy- 
Dovrefield Mountains, 78 
Downpatrick, 68 
Downs, The, 69 
Drachenfels, 78 

Drenthe, 18 

Dresden, Sclav. Drezany, the haven 
Dreux, named from the Durocasses 
Drogheda, 66 

Drohobicz, Sclav, the woody place 
Droitwich, 209 
Dromore, 67 
Drontheim, 99 
Dryburgh, 62 
Dubicza, 68 
Dublin, 126 
Dubro, 57 
Dumbarton, 68 
Dumfries, 68 
Dungeness, 145 
Dunkirk, 70 
Dunluce, 128 
Dunse, now Duns, 70 
Dunstable, 182 
Durham, 106 
Durrow, 62 
Dynevor, 64 

Dyrrachium, Grk. the place with the 
dangerous breakers, Dus and rachia 
Dysart, 63 

Eaglesham, church hamlet 

Ecclefechan, the church of St. Fechan 

Eccleshall, 72 

Ecija, 12 

Ecuador, i.e. on the equator 

Edessa, 73 

Edfou, corrupt, from Atbo, the Coptic 

synonym for Hut, the throne of Horus 
Edinburgh, 68 
Edom, the red land 
Egripo or Negropont, 139 
Ehrenbreitstein, 181 
Eichstadt, Ger. oak town 
Eiger, the giant, in Switzerland 
Eisenach, 74 
Eisenberg, 74 
Elbing, named from the river on which 

it stands 
Elbceuf, 37 
Elche\ 109 



Elgin, named after Helgyn, a Nor- 
wegian chief, about a.d. 927 

Elimo or Elath, the trees 

Elizabeth, county in New York, named 
from the daughter of James I. — 

Elizabethgrad, 94 

Elmina, Ar. the mine _ 

Elphin, Ir. Aill-finn, the rock of the 
clear spring 

Elsinore, 150 

Elster R. , the alder-tree stream 

Elstow, 183 

Elvas, anc. Alia, Basque, the place on 
the steep hill, alboa 

Ely, 71 
-Emden, 69 

Empoli, corrupt, from the Lat. empo- 
rium, the market-place 

Enkhuizen, 75 

Ennis, in 

Enniskillen, in 

Eperies, Hung, the place of strawberries 

Eperney, anc. aquce-perennes, the ever- 
flowing water 

Epinal, 177 

Epping, no 

Epsom, 99 

Erekli, anc. Heraclea 

Erfurt, 83 

Erith, ios 
-Erivan, Pers. Rewan, named after its 

Erlangen, 75 

Erlaw, 75 

Errigal, Ir. Airegal, a small church 

- Erzeroom, corrupt, fcom Arz-er-Koom., 

the fortress of the Romans 
Eschwege, ash-tree road 
Eschweiller, 6 


Esk R., 198 
Essek or Ossick, 211 
Essex, 151 
Estepa, 12 
Estepona, 12 

- Esthonia, the district of the people of 

the East 
Estremadura, Lat. Estrema-Durii, the 
extreme limits of the R. Douro 

Etna, corrupt, from attuna, the furnace 

Eton, 71 

Euboea, the well-tilled land 

Euho or Yuho R. , 105 

Euphrates R. , the fruitful, Ar. Furat, 

sweet water 
Europe, Grk. euros and op, the broad 

Euxine, Grk. the hospitable, formerly 

axinos the inhospitable sea 
Evesham, 76 
Evora, the ford, in Spain 
Evreux, 9 
Exeter, 44 

Faenza, Lat. Faventia, the favoured 

Fair Head and Fair Island, from farr, 
Scand. a sheep 

Falaise, 78 

Falkirk, 116 

Famars, 77 

Fano, 76 

Fareham, 76 

Farnham, 79 

Faroe Islands, 71 

Faulhorn, 108 

Fazal, the beech-tree island, in the 

Femern, 11 

Fermanagh, Ir. the men of Monagh 

Fermoy, the men of the plain 

Fernando Po, named after the dis- 

Ferney, jj 

Ferns, 77 

Ferrara, 84 

Ferriby, 76 

Ferrol, Span, farol, the beacon 

Fetlar Isle, 72 

Fez, Ar. fertile 

Fife, said to be named from Feb, a 
Pictish chief 

Figueras, Span, the fig-trees 

Finisterre, Cape, and district, 190 

Finster-Aar-horn, 107 

Fintray and Fintry, 196 

Fishguard, 87 



Fiume, 81 

Flamborough Head, anc. Fleamburgh, 
the flame hill or beacon hill 

Fleche, La, named from the lofty spire 
of the church of St. Thomas 

Fleetwood, 81 

Flintshire, supposed to have derived 
its name from the abundance of 
quartz in the country — 

Flisk, the moist place, Gael, fleasg - 

Florence,. Lat. Florentia, the flourish- 

Florida, called by the Spaniards Pascua- 
Florida because discovered on Easter 
Sunday — 

Flushing, 81 

Fochabers, Gael. Faichaber, the plain 
of the confluence, but more anciently 
Beulath, the mouth of the ford 

Foldvar, 81 

Folkstone, the people's fortress, Lat. 

Fondi, 81 

Fontenay, 81 

Fontenoy, 81 

Fordyce, the south pasture - 

Forfar, supposed to have been named 
from a tribe, the Forestii 

Forli, 83 

Formentara, abounding in grain 

Formosa, Span, the beautiful 

Forth R., Scot. Frock, and Welsh 

Fossano, 81 

Frankenstein, 181 

Frankfort, 83 

Frankfurt, 83 

Fraubrunnen, 32 

Frederickshald, 98 

Freiburg, 84 

Friesland, 122 

Frische Haff, 97 

Friuli, 84 

Fuentarrabia, 82 

Fiihnen Isle or Odensey, 71 

Fulham, 100 

-Funchal, a place abounding mfuncho. 
Port, fennel 

Fiirth, 83 


Gainsborough, the town of the 

Ganii, a tribe 
Galapago Isles, Span, the islands of 

the water tortoises 
Galashiels, 170 
Galatia, 108 
Galicia, 108 
Galilee, Heb. a district 
Galle, Point de, Cingalese, the rock 

promontory, galle 
Galway, named from Gaillimh, rocky 

river, 86 
Ganges R:, 86 
Garioch, 86 
Garonne R. , 86 
Gateshead, 40 
Gaza, Ar. a treasury 
Gebirge — v. BERG, 24 
Genappe, 89 
Geneva, 89 
Genoa, 90 

Georgia, named after George III. 
Ghauts Mountains, 88 
Ghent, 89 

Giant's Causeway, 49 
Gibraltar, 89 

Giessbach, the rushing brook 
Girgeh, St. George's town, on the Nile 
Girvan R. , the short stream 
Giurgevo, St. George's town 
Glamorgan, Welsh Morganwg, i.e. 

Gwlad - Morgan, the territory of 

Morgan-Mawr, its king in the tenth 

century, 143 
Glarus, corrupt, from St. Hilarius, to 

whom the church was dedicated 
Glogau, 92 
Gloucester, 44 
Gmund, 89 
Goat Fell, 78 
Godalming, Godhelm's meadow, in 

Goes or Ter-Goes, at the R. Gosa 
Gollnitz and Gollnow, 92 
Goole, 86 
Goritz, 93 
Gorlitz, 93 



Goslar, 122 

Haguenau, 97 

Gbttingen, a patronymic 

Hainan, Chinese, south of the sea, 

Gouda, on the R. Gouwe 

corrupt, from Hai Lam 

Gower, Welsh Gwyr, a peninsula 


Hainault, 88 

Wales, sloping west from Swansea 

Halicarnassus, Grk. Halikarnassos, 

— it may signify the land of 


sea horn place 



Halifax, 103 

Grabow, 93 

Halifax, Nova Scotia, named for the 

Gradentz, 94 

Earl of Halifax 

Gran, on the R. Gran 

Hall and Halle, 98 

Grasmere, the lake of swine 


Hamburg, 97 

Gratz, 94 

Hameln, 99 

Gravelines, 93 

Hammerfest, 100 

Gravesend, 93 

Hampstead, 98 

Greenland, 95 — ^ 


Hankau or Hankow, the mouth of 

Greenlaw, 123 

commerce, a city in China 

Greenock, 94 

Hanover, 150 

Greenwich, 209 

Harbottle, 27 

Grenoble, 158 

Harrogate, 88 

Gretna Green, 102 

Hartlepool, 158 

Grisnez, Cape, gray cape, 145 

Hartz Mountains, 101 

Grisons, Ger. GraubUnden, the gray 

Harwich, 100 

league, so called from the dress 

Haselt, 101 

worn by the Unionists in 1424 

Hastings, A.S. Haestinga - ceaster, 

Grodno, 94 

the camp of Hastings, a Danish 

Grongar — v, CAEE, 38 


Groningen, a patronymic 

Havana, the harbour 

Grossenhain, 97 

Havre, Le, 97 

Guadalquivir, 95 

Hawarden, Welsh, upon the hill 

-Guadiana, 95 

Hawes, 97 

Giiben, Sclav, dove town 

Heboken, Ind. the smoked pipe, the 

Gueret, Fr. land for tillage 

spot in New Jersey at which the 

Guienne, corrupt, from Aquitania 

English settlers smoked the pipe of 

Gustrow, Sclav, guest town 

peace with the Indian chiefs 

Gwasanau, corrupt, from Hosannah, 

Hechingen, a patronymic 

a place in North Wales. The name 

■ Hedjas, the land of pilgrimage 

was given in allusion to the 


Heidelberg, 24 

toria-Alleluiatica, fought on 


Heilbron, 32 

spot in 420, between the Britons, 

Heiligenstadt, 103 

headed by the Germans, and 


Heligoland, 103 

Picts and Scots 

Helvellyn, if Celtic, perhaps El-velin, 

the hill of Baal 
Hems, probably named from Hms, the 

Egyptian name of Isis 


Henly, Cym.-Cel. old place 

"Haarlem, 96 

Herat, anc. Aria-Civitas, the town 

Hadersleben, 124 

on the Arius, now the R. Heri 

Haemus Mountain, 18 

Hereford, 82 

Hague, The, 97 

Hermon, the lofty peak 



Herstal, 180 ■ ,, . 

Hesse, named from the Catti or Chatti 
- Himalaya Mountains, 123 
Hinckley, the horse's meadow 
Hindostan, 181 
Hindu Koosh Mountains, i.e. the 

Indian Caucasus 
Hinojosa, Span, the place of fennel 
Hirschberg, 105 
Hitchen, 100 
-Hoang Ho, 105 
Hobart Town, named after one of the 

first settlers 
Hohenlinden, 106 
-Holland, 106 
Holstein, 174 
Holt, 107 
Holyhead, 103 
Holy Island, 103 
Holywell, 103 
Holywood, 103 

Honduras, Span, deep water 
Hong Kong, the place of fragrant 

Hoorn, 107 - 

Hor, the mountain 
Horeb, the desert 
Horn, Cape, 107 
Horncastle, 107 
Horsham, 99 
Howden, 102 
Howth Head, 102 
Hudson R. , named after Henry Hud 

son, who ascended the river a.d. 

Huelva, Basque Onoba, at the foot of 

the hill ; and Ar. Wuebban, corrupt. 

to Huelva 
Huesca, anc. Osca, the town of the 

Basques or Euscs 
-Hull, 117 

Hurryhur, named from the goddess 

Hari or Vishnu 
Hurst, 101 
Hythe, 105 


Illinois, named after the tribe lllini, 

i.e. the men ; and ois, a tribe 
Imaus, the snowy mountain 
Inch — v. INNIS, in 
Ingleborough Mountain, 24* 
Inkermann, Turc. the place of caverns 
Innerleithen, 112 
Innsbruck, at the bridge, on the R. 

Interlachen, 119 
Inverness, 112 
Iona or' I, 108 
Iowa, the drowsy ones, a tribe name, 

Ipswich, 209 
Ireland or Ierne, 108 
Irkutsk, 176 
Irrawadi, the great river 
Iscanderoon, named after Alexander 

the Great 
Iserlohn, 130 
Isla, in the Hebrides, named after 

Yula, a Danish princess who was 

buried there 
- ■ Ispahan, Pers. the place of horses 
Issoire, 70 
Issoudun, 69 
Ithaca, the strait or steep 

Jabalon R., 112 

Jaffa or Joppa, Semitic, beauty 

the Huns ; Hung. Magyar- Orzag, 
the country of the Magyars 

Huntingdon, hunter's hill, or a pat- 

Hurdwar, 70 

Huron, Lake, from a tribe 

Hungary, Ger. Ungarn, the country of" 1 ' Jamaica, corrupt, from Xaymaca, the 

land of wood and water 
Jamboli, Sclav, the city in the hollow 
Janina, Sclav. John's town 
Jaroslav, named after its founder 
Jassy, Sclav, the marshy place 
Jauer, 113 



■ Java, 6s 
Jersey, 71 
Jersey, in U.S., so named by Sir 

George Carteret, who had come 

from the Island of Jersey 
Jerusalem, Semitic, the abode of 

peace — 

Joinville, 201 
-Joppa — v. Jaffa, the beautiful 
Jouare, anc. Ara-Javis, the altar of 

Juggernaut, or more correctly Jaggana- 

tha, the Lord of the world — -jacat, 

Sansc. the world, and natha. Lord 
Juliers, 109 
Jumna R., named after Yamuna, a 

Jungfrau Mountain, Ger. the maiden 

or the fair one, so called from its 

spotless white 
Jura Isle, Scand. Deor-oe, deer island 
Jiiterbogk, named for the Sclav, god 

of spring 
Jutland, named from the Jutes 


K affr ari A, .Ar. the land of the Kafirs 

or unbelievers 
Kaisarizeh, the mod. name of anc. 

Kaiserlautern, 113 
• Kalgan, Tartar, the gate, a. town in 

Kampen, 35 ' 

Kandy, splendour 
Kansas, a tribe name 
Karlsbad, 16 
Keith, Gael, the cloudy, from ceath, a 

cloud or mist 
Kel and Kil — v. COILL or CIIX 
Kells, 48 
Kelso, 38 
Kempen, 40 
Ken — v. CEANN 
Kendal, 60 
Kenmare, 46 
Kensington, the town of the Kensings 

Kent, 45 

Kentucky, the dark and bloodyground 

Kerry Co. , Ir. Ciarraidhe, the district 

of the race of Ciar 
Kettering, a patronymic 
Kew, 107 

Khartoum, the promontory 
Khelat, 114 
Kin — v. CEANN 
Kinghorn, 45 
Kingsclere, 5 
King's Co., named after Philip II. 

of Spain 
Kingston, 147 
Kingussie, 45 

Kirkillisia, the forty churches in Turkey 
Kirkintilloch, 38 
Kirkwall, 115 

Kishon R., i.e. the tortuous stream 
Kissengen, a patronymic 
Klagenfurt, 84 
Knock — v. CNOC 
Kbniggratz, the king's fortress 
Kordofan, the white land 
Koros R. , Hung, the red river 
Koslin, 118 
Kothendorf, 47 
Kralowitz, 118 
Kraszna R., beautiful river 
Kremenetz, 118 
Kremnitz, 118 
Krishna or Kistna R., the black 

stream, in India 
Kronstadt, 118 
Kulm, 47 
Kyle — v. CAOL 

La Hogue, Cape, 102 

Laaland Isle, 119 

Labuan Isle, Malay, the anchorage 

Laccadives, 65 

LacOnia, 120 

Ladrone Isles, Span, the islands of 

Lagnieu, 120 
Lagos, 120 
Laguna, 120 



Lahr, 123 

Leominster, 130 

Lambeth, 105 — 

Leon, anc. Legio, the station of the 7th 

Lambride, 121 

Roman Legion 

Laralash, 120 

Lepanto, Gulf of, corrupt, from Nau- 

Lampeter, 121 

f actus, Grk. the ship station 

Lamsaki, anc. Lampsacus, the passage 

Lerida, anc. Llerda, Basque, the town 

Lanark, 121 

Lesmahago, 128 

Land's End— v. PEN 

Letterkenny, 125 

Landerneau, 121 

Leuchars, the marshy land 

Langres, anc. Langone, namedfrom the 

Levant, Lat. the placeof the sun-rising, 

Lingones, a tribe 

as seen from Italy 

Languedoc, named from the use of the 

Leven R., 124 

wordoc, for yes, in their language, i.e. 

Lewes, Les ewes, the waters 


Lewis Island, Scand. Lyodhuus, the 

Lannion, 121 


Laon, 130 

Leyden, 69 

Larbert, named from a man of this 

Liberia, the country of the free, colon- 


ised by emancipated slaves 

Largo, 124 

Lichfield, 77 

Largs, 124 

Lidkioping, 47 

Larissa, named after a daughter of. 

Liege, 125 


Liegnitz, 130 

-Lassa, the land of the Divine intelli- 

Lifford, 25 

gence, the capital of Thibet 

Ligny, a patronymic 

Latakia, corrupt, from anc. Laodicea 

Lille, in 

Latheron, 103 

Lilybaeum, Phaen. opposite Libya 

Lauder, named from the R. Leader - 

-Lima, corrupt. - from Rima, the name 

Lauffen, 123 

of the river on which it stands and 

Launceston, 121 

of a famous idol 

Laval, anc. Vallis-Guidonis, the valley 

Limbourg, 126 

of Guido 

Limerick, corrupt, from Lomnech, a 

Lawrence R. , so named because dis- 

barren spot ; lorn, bare 

covered on St. Laurence's Day, 1535- 

Limoges, anc. Lemovicum, the dwelling 

Laybach or Laubach, 15 

of the Lemovici 

Learn R., 125 

Linares, Span, flax fields 

Leamington, 125 

Lincoln, 53 

Lebanon Mountain, 89 

Lindesnaes, 126 

Leeds, 125 

Lindores, in Fife, probably a corruption 

Leibnitz, 124 

of Lann- Tours, being the seat of an 

Leighlin, 91 

anc. Abbey of Tours, founded by 

Leighton-Buzzard, 21 

David, Earl of Huntingdon 

Leinster, 183 

Linkioping, 47 

Leipzig, 128 

Linlithgow, 127 

Leith, named from the river at whose 

Lisbellaw, 128 

mouth it stands 

-Lisbon, 104 

Leitrim, 67 

Lisieux, in France, Lat. Noviomagus, 

Lemberg, 24 

the new field, subsequently named 

Leobschiitz, the place of the Leubuzi, 

from the Lexovii 

a Sclavonic tribe 

Liskeard, 128 



Lissa, 125 
■ Liverpool, 158 

j . ' I named from the Liefs, a 

Li™nia, J V ^ an tribe 
Llanerch-y-medd, the place of honey, 

in Wales 
Llanos, Span, the level plains 
Lochaber, 3 •» 

Lockerby, 37 
Lodi, anc. Laus-Pompeii 
Logie, 120 
Lombardy, the country of the Longo- 

tardi, so called from a kind of 

weapon which they used 
London, 64 
Londonderry, 61 
Longford, S3 

Longniadrie — u. IXAN, 122 
Loop Head, 123 
Lorca, 109 
Loretto, named from Lauretta, a lady 

who gave the site for a chapel at that 

L' Orient, so named from an establish- 
ment of the East India Company at 

the place in 1666 
Lorn, Gael. Labhrin, named after one 

of the Irish colonists from Dalriada . 
Lossie R., 1 *- 

Loughill, Ir. Leamchoil, the elm- 
Louisiana, named after Louis XIV. of 

Louisville, 201 
Louth, in Lincoln, named from the R. 

Louth Co., Ir. Lugh Magh, the field 

of Lugh 
Louvain, Ger. Lifwen, the lion, named 

after a person called Leo 
Lowestoft, 192 
"Lubeck, 128 
Luben, 128 
Lublin, 128 

Lucca, anc. Luca — v. LUCUS 
Lucena, Basque Lvcea, the long town 
Lucerne, named from a lighthouse or 

beacon, lucerna, formerly placed on 

a tower in the middle of the R. Rheus 
Lucknow, corrupt, from the native 

name Laksneanauti, the fortunate 
Ludlow, 123 
Ludwigslust, 131 
Lugano, 119 
Lugo, 130 
Lugos, 130 
Lund, 131 

Lurgan, Ir. the low ridge 
Luxembourg, 131 
Luxor, corrupt, from El-Kasur, the 

Lycus R., Grk. leukos 
Lyme, in Kent, anc. Kainos - limen, 

Grk. the new haven 
Lyme-Regis, on the R. Lyme 
Lyons, 69 


Macao, in China, where there was a 
temple sacred to an idol named Ama. 
The Portuguese made it Amagoa, 
the bay of Ama, corrupted first to 
Amacao and then to Macao 

Madeira, Port, the woody island 

Madras, 153 

Madrid, anc. Majeiit, origin unknown, 
but perhaps from Madarat, Ar. 
a city 

Maelawr, from mael, Welsh, mart, 
and lawr, ground, a general name 
for places in Wales where trade 
could be carried on without any 
hindrance from diversity of races. — 
James's Welsh Names of Places 

Maestricht, 66 

Magdala, Semitic, a watch-tower in 

Magdala, in Saxe-Weimar, on the R. 

Magor, corrupt, from Magwyr, Welsh, 
a ruin, the name of a railway station 
near Chepstow 

Maidenhead, 105 

Maidstone, 181 

Main R., 132 



Maine, in France, named from the 

Mainland, 132 
Malabar Coast, or Malaywar, the hilly 

Malacca, named from the tree called 


- Malaga, 'Phcen. malac, salt, named 

from its trade in salt 
Malakoff, named after a sailor of that 

name who established a public-house 

Maldives Islands, 65 
Maldon, 69 
Mallow, 132 

Malpas, Fr. the difficult pass 
'Malta, Phcen. Mslita, a place of refuge 
Malvern, 139 
Mancha, La, Span, a spot of ground 

covered with weeds 
Manchester, 44 
Manfredonia, named after Manfred, 

King of Naples, by whom it was built 
Mangalore, named- after an Indian 

Mangerton Mountain, in Ireland, 

corrupt, from Mangartach, i.e. the 

mountain covered with mang, a long 

hairlike grass 
Mans, Le, named after the Cenomani 
Mansorah, in Egypt, the victorious 
Mantinea, Grk. the place of the pro- 
phet or oracle, mantis 
Mantua, 133 
Manzanares, Span, the apple-tree 

■ Maracaybo, 143 
Maranao, Span, a place overgrown 

with weeds 

- Marathon, a place abounding in fennel, 

Marazion, 84 
Marburg, 134 
March, 134 

Marchena, the marshy land 
Marengo, 136 

Margarita, the island of pearls 
Margate, 88 
Marienwerder, 205 

Marlow, Great, 136 

Marmora, Sea of, named from an 
adjacent island, celebrated for its 
marble, marmor 

Marnoch, Co. Banff, named from St. 

Maros R. , 136 

Maros-Vasarhely, 103 

Marquesas Isles, named after Marquis 
Mendoza, Viceroy of Peru, who 
originated the voyage through which 
they were discovered 

Marsala, 135 

Maryland, named after the queen of 
Charles I. 

Mathern, corrupt, from Merthyr, the 
martyr, the name of a church near 
Chepstow, built in memory of 
Fewdrig, King of Gwent, who died 
on its site as he was returning 
wounded from a battle against the 

Mathravel, the land of apples, one of 
the ancient provinces into which 
Wales was divided 

Matlock, 130 

Mauritius, discovered by the Portuguese 
in 1505, visited by the Dutch in 
1596, who named it after Prince 
Maurice of the Netherlands. From 
1713 till 1 8 10 it belonged to the 
French, who called it Isle of France 

May Island, 132 

Maynooth, 132 

Mayo, the plain of yew-trees 

Mazzara, Phcen. the castle 

Mazzarino, the little castle 

Mearns, corrupt, from Maghgkerkkin, 
the plain of Kerkin 

Meaux, named from the Meldi 

Mecklenburg, 137 

Medellin, named after its founder, 
Metellus, the Roman consul 

Medina, 135 

Mediterranean Sea, 138 

Meiningen, 132 

Meissen, on the R. Meissa 

Melbourne, named after Lord Mel- 
bourne in 1837 



Meldrum, 67 

Melrose, 139 

Melun, 69 

Memmingen, a patronymic 

Memphis or Memphe, i.e. Ma-m- 

Phthah, the place of the Egyptian 

god Phthah 
Menai Strait, anc. Sruth-monena 
-Menam, the mother of waters, a. river 

of Siam 
Mendip Hills, i.e. mune-duppe, rich in 

Mentone, It. the chin, on => point of 

Merida, Lat. Augusta Emerita, the 

town of the emeriti or veterans, 

founded by Emperor Augustus 
Merioneth, named after Merion, a 

British saint 
Merthyr - Tydvil, named after the 

daughter of an ancient British king 
Meseritz, 138 
Meshed, Ar. the mosque 
Mesolonghi or Missolpnghi, 119 
Mesopotamia, 138 
Metz, named from the Meomatrici, a 

Michigan Lake, Ind. great lake, or 

the weir, or fish-trap, from its shape 
Middelburg, 138 
Midhurst, 138 
Miklos, 137 
■ Milan, 115 
Milton, 144 

Minnesota R. , the sky-coloured water 
Miramichi, Ind. happy retreat 
Mirgorod, 138 
Mississippi R., Ind. the father of 

Missouri, Ind. the muddy stream 
Mitrovicz or Mitrovitz, 152 
Mittau, namedfrom Mita, a Sclav, deity 
Modena, Lat. Mutina, the fortified 

Moffat, the foot of the moss 
Mogadore, named after a saint whose 

tomb is on an island off the coast 
Moguer, Ar. the caves 
Mohawk R. , named from a tribe 

Moidart or Moydart, 132 

Mola, It. the mound, anc. Turres- 

Juliani, the town of Julian 
Mold, 142 
Monaghan, Ir. Muneachain, a place 

abounding in little hills 
Monaster, 138 
Monasterevin, 138 
Monda, 142 
Mondego, 142 

Monena, the river or sea of Mona 
Monmouth, at the mouth of the 

Mynwy, i.e. the border river, from 

which it took its ancient name 
Montgomery, 142 
Montrose, 168 
Moravia, 136 
Morayshire, 119 
Morbihan, 119 
Morecambe Bay, 39 
Morocco, the country of the Moors, 22 
Morpeth, 143 
Morven, 143 
Morvern, 143 
Moscow, 142 
Moulins, 141 
Mourne Mountains, 142 
Moy, Moyne, 132 
Muhlhausen, 141 
Mull Island, 145 
Miinden, 140 
Munich, 140 

Munster, in Germany, 138 
Munster, in Ireland, 138 
Murcia, 134 
Murviedro, 145 
Muscat or Meschid, Ar. the tomb of 

a saint 
Muthil, 143 
Mysore, corrupt from Mahesh-Asura, 

the name of a buffalo-headed monster, 

said to have been destroyed by the 

goddess Kali 


Naas, Ir. a fair or place of meeting 
Nablous, 158 



Nagore, na-gara, Sansc. a city 

Nagpore, 160 

Nagy-Banja, 18 

Nagy-Koros, 146 

Nairn, on the R. Nairn, anc. Ainear- 
nan, east-flowing river 

Nancy, 146 
■ Nankin, Chinese, the southern capital 
-Nantes, 146 

Nantwich, 146 
-Naples, 158 

Narbonne, named from the Narbonenses 

Naseby, the town on the cape 

Nashville, named from Colonel Nash 
-Nassau, 146 

Natal, Colony, so named because dis- 
covered on Christmas Day, Dies- 
natalis, by Vasco de Gama in 1498 

Natchez, a tribe name 

Naumburg, 148 

Naupactus, the place of ships 

Nauplia, a sea-port, from the Grit 
naus, a ship, and pleos, full 

Navan, Ir. ri Mamhain, literally the 
neck brooch, so named from a legend 
connected with the foundation of an 
ancient palace there 
-Navarre, 147 

Naxos, the floating island 

Naze, Cape, 145 

Nebraska, Ind. the shallow river 
~Nedjed, Ar. the elevated country 

Negropont, 159 

Neilgherry Hills, 90 

Nemours, the place of the sacred grove, 

Nenagh, 74 

Ness, Loch and R. , 73 

Neston, 73 

Netherlands, 147 

Neusatz, 148 

Neusohl, 148 

Neuwied, 148 

Nevada Mountains — v. sierra, 175 

Nevers, anc. Nivernum and Novio- 
dunum, the new fort or the R. Nievre 

Neviansk, on the R. Neva 

Newark, 206 

Newcastle, 43 

Newport, 156 

New Ross, 167 

Newry, Ir. Iuthar-cinn-tragha, the 

yew-tree at the head of the strand 
New York, named after the Duke of 

York, brother of Charles II. 
Niagara, corrupt, from Oni-aw-ga-rah, 

the thunder of waters 
Nicastro, new camp 
Nicopoli, 158 
Nijni Novgorod, 148 
Nile R. , native name Sikor, the blue, 

called by the Jews Nile, the stream 
Nimeguen, 133 
Nimes or Nismes, 147 
Ningpo, the repose of the waves 
Niphon Mount, the source of light 
Nippissing, a tribe name 
Nogent, 149 
Noirmoutier, 138 
Nola, 148 
Nombre-de-dios, the name of God, a 

city of Mexico 
Norrkoping, 47 
Northumberland, 149 
Norway, 149 
Nova Scotia, so named in concession to 

Sir William Alexander, a Scotsman, 

who settled there in the reign of 

James II. It was named Markland 

by its Norse discoverer, Eric the 

Nova Zembla, 148 
Noyon, anc. Noviodunum, the new 

Nubia, Coptic, the land of gold 
Nuneaton, the nun's town, on the R. 

Ea, in Warwickshire, the seat of an 

ancient priory 
Nurnberg, 24 

Nyassa and Nyanza, the water 
Nyborg, 148 

Nykbping or Nykobing, 47 
Nystadt, 148 

Oakham, 5 

Oban, Gael, the little bay 



Ochill Hills, 198 

Ochiltree, 198 

Odensee, 71 

Oeta Mount, sheep mountain 

Ofen or Buda, 33 

Ohio, beautiful river, called by the 

French La Belle riviere 
Oldenburg, 7 
Olekminsk, 176 

Olympus Mountain, the shining 
Omagh, Omeha, named from a tribe 
Omsk, 176 
Oosterhout, 107 
Oporto, 156 

Oppeln, the town on the R. Oppo 
Oppido, Lat. Oppidum 
Orange, anc. Arausione, the town on 

the R. Araise 
Orange R. and Republic, named after 

Maurice, Prince of Orange 
Oregon R., from the Span, organa, wild 

Orellana R. , named from its discoverer 
Orissa, named from a tribe - 

Orkney Islands, 111 
Orleans, corrupt, from Aurelia?ium, 
named after the Emperor Aurelian 
Orme's Head, Norse ormr, a serpent, 

from its shape 
Ormskirk, 125 
Orvieto, 199 
Osborne, named after the Fitz-Osborne 

Oschatz, Sclav. Osada, the colony ■— 
Osimo, 199 
Osnabriick, 31 

Ossa Mountain, Grk. the_watch-tower ■ 
Ostend, 74 
Ostia, Lat. the place at the river's 

mouth, Os 
Oswestry, 57 

Othrys, the mountain with the over- 
hanging brow, Grk. othrus 
Otranto, anc. Hydruntmn, a place 
almost surrounded by water, itdor, 
Ottawa, a tribe name 
Ottawa R. , a tribe name 
Oudenarde, 7 

Oudh or Awadh, corrupt, from Ayodha, 

the invincible • 

Oulart, corrupt, from Abhalgort, Ir. 

apple field 
Oundle, 60 
Ouro-preto, 160 
Ouse R., 198 
Overyssel R. , 150 
Oviedo is said to have derived this 

name from the Rivers Ove and Divo. 

Its Latin name was Lucus-Asturum, 

the grove of the Asturians 
Owyhee, the hot place . 

Padeeborn, 3a 

Padstow, 183 

Paestum, anc. Poseidonia, the city of 
Poseidon or Neptune 

Palamcotta, 55 

Palermo, corrupt, from Panormus, Grk. 
the spacious harbour 

Palestine, the land of the Philistines, 
strangers ; from Crete, who occupied 
merely a strip of the country on the 
coast, and yet gave their own name 
to the whole land 

Palma, the palm-tree 

Palmas, Lat the palm-trees 

Palmyra or Tadmor, the city of palms 

Pampeluna or Pamplona, 158 

Panama Bay, the bay of mud fish 

Panjab or Punjaub, 2 

Paraguay, 153 

Parahyba, 153 

Paramaribo, 144 

Parapamisan Mountains, the flat- 
topped hills 

Parchim, 153 

Paris, 130 

Parsonstown, named form Sir William 
Parsons, who received a grant of the 
land on which the town stands, with 
the adjoining estate, from James I. 
in 1670 

Passau, 44 

Patagonia, so called from the clumsy 
shoes of its native inhabitants 



Patna, 153 

Paunton, 159 

Pays de Vaud, 200 

Peebles, anc. Peblis, Cym.-Cel. the 
tents or sheds 

Peel, 153 

Peiho R. , 105 
■ Pe-king, Chinese, the northern capital 

Pe-ling Mountains, the northern moun- 

Pelion, the clayey mountains, pelos, 
Grk. clay 

Pella, the stony 

Pembroke, 30 

Penicuik, 154 

Pennsylvania, named after William 
Penn, whose son had obtained a 
grant of forest land in compensa- 
tion for ^16,000 which the king 
owed to his father 

Pentland Hills, corrupt, from the 
Pictsland Hills 

Penzance, 154 

Perekop, the rampart 

Perigord, named from the Petrocorii 

Perm, anc. Biarmaland, the country 
of the Biarmi 
• Pernambuco, the mouth of hell, so 
called from the violent surf at the 
mouth of its harbour 

Pernau, 126 

Pershore, 150 

Perth, 19 

Perthddu, Welsh, the black brake or 
brushwood, in Wales 

Perugia, 152 

Peshawur, the advanced fortress 

Pesth, 150 

Peterhead, 112 

Peterwarden, the fortress of Peter the 

Petra, the stony 

Petropaulovski, the port of Peter and 

Pforzheim, 135 

Philadelphia, the town of brotherly 
love, in America 

Philippi, named after Philip of Mace- 

Philippine Isles, named after Philip II. 

of Spain 
Philipstown, in Ireland, named after 

Philip, the husband of Queen Mary 
Phocis, the place of seals 
Phcenice, either the place of palms 

or the Phoenician settlement 
Phcenix Park, in Dublin, 80 
Piedmont, the foot of the mountain 
Pietermaritzburg, named after two 

Boer leaders 
Pillau, 153 

Pisgah Mountain, the height 
Pittenweem, 157 

Pittsburg, named after William Pitt 
Placentia, Lat. the pleasant place 
Plassy, named from a grove of a cer- 
tain kind of tree 
Plattensee or Balaton, 173 
Plenlimmon Mountain, Welsh, the 

mountain with five peaks 
Plock, or Plotsk, 26 
.Ploermel, 157 
Podgoricza, 157 

Poiqtiers, named from the Pictones 
Poland, Sclav, the level land 
Polynesia, 112 
Pomerania, 143 

Pondicherri, Tamil, the new village 
Pontoise, 159 
Poole, 158 
Popocatepetl Mountain, the smoking 

Portrush, 168 
Portugal, 156 

Potenza, Lat. Potentia, the powerful 
Potsdam, 157 
Powys, the name of an ancient district 

in North Wales, signifying a place 

of rest \ 

Pozoblanco, 161 

Prague, Sclav. Prako, the threshold 
Prato-Vecchio, 160 
Prenzlow, the town of Pribislav, a 

personal name 
Presburg or Brezisburg, the town of 

Prescot, 5s 
Presteign and Preston, 194 



Privas, anc. Privatium Castra, the 
fortress not belonging to the state, 
but private property 

Prossnitz, on the R. Prosna 

Providence, in U.S., so named by 
Roger Williams, who was perse- 
cuted by the Puritan settlers in 
Massachusetts because he preached 
toleration in religion, and was 
obliged to take refuge at that place, 
to which, in gratitude to God, he 
gave this name 

Prussia, the country of the Pruezi 

Puebla, Span, a town or village 

Puebla-de-los-Angelos, the town of the 
angels, so called from its fine 

Puenta-de-la-Reyna, 159 

Puerto, the harbour 

Pulo-Penang-, 161 

Puozzuoli, 161 

Puy-de-dome, 156 

Pwlhelli, 159 
- Pyrenees Mountains, named either 
from the Basque pyrge, high, or 
from the Celtic fyr, a fir-tree 

Pyrmont, 142 

■ Quang-se, the western province, in 

Quang-tung, the eastern province 
Quatre-Bras, Fr. the four arms, i.e. 

at the meeting of four roads 
Quebec, in Canada, named after 

Quebec in Brittany, the village on 

the point 
Queensberry, 24 
Queen's County, named after Queen 

Queensferry, 76 
Queensland and Queenstown, named 

after Queen Victoria 
Quimper, S3 
Quimper-16, 53 
Quita, the deep ravine 

Radnorshire, 165 

Radom and Radomka, named after 

the Sclav, deity Ratzi 
Rajputana, 163 
Ramgunga, 86 
Ramnaggur, ram's fort 
Ramsgate, 88 
Randers, 162 
Raphoe, 163 

Rapidan R., named after Queen Anne 
Rappahannock R., Ind. the river of 

quick-rising waters 
Rastadt, 163 
Ratibor, 28 
Ratisbon, Sclav, the fortress on the 

R. Regen, Ger. Eegena Castra or 

Ravenna, 79 

Rayne, Gael, raon, a plain, a parish 

in Aberdeenshire 
Reading, a' patronymic 
Redruth, in Cornwall, in old deeds, 

Tre-Druith, the dwelling of the 

Reeth, on the stream, rith 
Rega R., 164 
Reichenbach, 15 
Reichenhall, 98 
Reigate, 88 
Reims or Rheims, named for the 

Semi, a tribe 
Remscheid, 171 
Renaix, corrupt, from Hrodnace, the 

town of Hrodno 
Renfrew, 162 
Rennes, named, from the Rhedoni, a 

tribe \ 

Resht, Ar. headship 
Resolven, Welsh Rkiw, Scotch maen, 

the brow of the stonehead, in 

Reculver, in Kent, corrupt, from 

Regoluion, the point against the 

Retford, 166 

Reutlingen, a patronymic 
Revel, named from two small islands 



near the town, called reffe, the 

Reykiavik or Reikiavik, 209 
- Rhine R. and Rhone R. , 164 

Rhode Island, 74 

Rhodes and Rosas, in Spain, named 
from the Rhodians, a Grecian tribe 

Rhyddlan or Rhuddlan, Cym. -pel. 
the red church 

Rhyl, the cleft, a watering-place in 
North Wales 

Rhymni, the marshy land, in Mon- 
mouthshire, on a river called the 
Rhymni, from the nature of the 
land through which it flows — v. 
Romney, at EA, 71 

Riga, 126 

Ringwood, in Hants, the wood of the 

Rio-de-Janeiro, 164 

Ripon, 167 

Ritzbuttel, 27 

Rive-de-Gier, 166 

Rivoli, 166 

Rochdale, the valley of the R. Roche 

Rochefort, 167 

Rochelle, 167 

Rochester, 167 

Roermonde, 140 

Romania or Roumilli, 109 

Romans, anc. Romanum-Monasterium, 
the monastery of the Romans, 
founded by St. Bernard 
" Rome, perhaps named from the groma, 
or four cross roads that at the 
forum formed the nucleus of the 

Romorantin, 166 — 

Roncesvalles, 200 

Roque, La, Cape, the rock 

Roscommon, 167 

Roscrea, 167 

Rosetta, anc. Ar. Reached, headship 

Ross, in Hereford, 165 

Rossbach, the horse's brook 

Ross-shire, 168 

Rothenburg, 165 

Rotherham, 165 

Rotherthurm, 165 

Rothesay, the isle of Rother, the 

ancient name of Bute 
Rotterdam, 60 
Rouen, 133 
Rousillon, named from the ancient 

town of Ruscino, a Roman colony 
Roveredo, Lat. Roboretum, a place 

planted with oaks, in Tyrol 
Row, in Dumbartonshire, from rutha, 

Gael, a promontory running into 

the sea 
Roxburgh, 167 
Ruabon, corrupt, from Rhiw-Malon- 

Sant, the ascent of St. Mabon, in 

North Wales 
Rudgeley or Rugely, 166 
Rugen, named from the Rugii 
Runcorn, 45 
Runnymede, 132 
Rushbrook and Rushford, 167 
Russia, named from the Rossi, a tribe 

of Norsemen in the ninth century 
Ruthin and Rhuddlan, 165 
Rutland, 165 
Rybinsk, 168 
Ryde, 167 
Ryswick, 168 

Saale R., 169 

Saarbriick, 31 

Saar- Louis, 12 

Sabor, 28 

Sabor R., 28 

Saffron Walden, 202 

Sagan, Sclav, behind the road 

Sahara, 176 

Saida or Sidon, Semitic, fish town 

Saintes, named from the Santones 

Salamanca, 169 

Salem, in U.S., intended by the 

Puritans to be a type of the New 

Salford, 169 
Salins, 169 
Salisbury, 35 

Salonica, corrupt, from Thessalonica 
Salop, contracted from Sloppesbury, 



the Norman corruption of Scrobbes- 

bury, the town among shrubs, now 

Shrewsbury — v. 34 
Saltcoats, 53 
Salzburg, 169 
• Samarcand, said to have been named 

after Alexander the Great 

- Samaria, the town of Shemir 
Samos, Phoen. the lofty 

- Sandwich, 209 
Sangerhausen — v. SANG 
Sanquhar, 172 

San Salvador, the Holy Saviour, the 

first land descried by Columbus, and 

therefore named by him from the 

Saviour, who had guarded him in so 

many perils 
San Sebastian, the first Spanish colony 

founded in South America 
Santa Cruz, 57 
Santa Fe\ the city of the holy faith, 

founded by Queen Isabella after the 

siege of Granada 
Santander, named after St. Andrew 
-Saragossa, corrupt, from Casarea 

Augusta; its Basque name was 

Saluba, the sheep's ford 
Sarawak, Malay Sarakaw, the cove 
Sarnow, 212 
Saskatchewan, swift current, a river in 

British North America 
Saul, in Gloucester — v. salh, 169 
Saul, Co. Down — v. SABHALL, 168 
Saumur, anc. Salmurium, the walled 

Saxony, 170 
Scala-nova, 39 
Scalloway, 170 
Scarborough, 175 
Scawfell Mountain, 78 
Schaffhausen, 102 
Schemnitz, 114 
Schichallion Mountain, Gael. Ti-chail- 

linn, the maiden's pap 
Schleswick, 209 
Schmalkalden, 171 
Schotturen, the Scotch Vienna, a 

colony of Scottish monks having 

settled there 

Schreckhorn Mountain, 107 
Schweidnitz, Sclav, the place of the 

Schweinfurt, the ford of the Suevi 
Schwerin, 172 
Stilly Islands, the islands of the rock, 

Scinde, the country of the R. Indus or 

Scratch meal Scar, in Cumberland — 

v. skaer, 175 
Scutari, in Albania, corrupt, from 

Scodra, hill town 
Scutari, in Turkey, from Uskudar, 

Pers. a. messenger, having been in 

remote periods, what it is to this day, 

a station for Asiatic couriers 
Sebastopol, 158 
Sedlitz, 174 
Segovia, anc. Segubia, probably the 

plain on the river-bend ; ce, a plain, 

and guHa, a bend 
Selby, 173 
Selinga, 173 
Semipalatinsk, 152 
Senlis, 173 

Sens, named from the Senones 
Seringapatam, 153 
Settle, 173 

Seville, Phcen. Sephala, a marshy plain 
Sevres, named from the two rivers 

which traverse it, anc. Villa Savara 
Shamo, Chinese, the desert 
Shan — v. seann, 172 
Shanghai, supreme court 
Shansi, west of the mountain 
Shantung, east of the mountain 
Sherborne, 172 
Shetland Islands, 104 
Shields, 170 
Shiraz, 174 
Shirvan, said to have been named after 

Nieshirvan, a king of Persia 
Shotover, corrupt, from Chateauvert, 

green castle 
Shrewsbury — v. Salop 
Sicily, named from the Siculi, a tribe 
Sidlaw Hills, fairy hills — v. SIDH 
Sidon — v. Saida, in Index, 



Silesia, Sclav. Zlezia, the bad land - 
Silhet or Sirihat, the rich market 
Silloth Bay, perhaps herring bay, sil, 

Norse, a herring, and lod, a bundle 

of fishing lines 
Sion or Sitten, 174 
Sion, Mount, the upraised 
Skagen, Cape, 176 
Skager-rack, 176 
Skaw Cape, 176 
Skipton, 176 
Skye Island, Gael. Ealan - skianach, 

the winged island 
Slamanan, 177 
Sligo, named from the R. Sligeach, 

shelly water 
Sluys, 171 
Slyne Head, 46 
Snafell Mountain, 78 
Snaith, 177 

Snowdon-Mountain, 70 
Socotra, 65 

Soissons, named from the Suessiones 
Sokoto, the market-place 
Soleure, corrupt, from St. Ours or 

Ursinus, to whom the church was 

Solway Firth, according to Camden 

was named from a small village in~"Stellenbosch, 36 

Spitzbergen, 156 

Spurn Head, the look-out cape, from 
spyrian, to look out 

St. Alban's Head, corrupt, from St. 
Aldhelm's Head • 

St. Andrews, so named from a tradi- 
tion that the bones of St. Andrew 
were brought to that place by St. 
Regulus : formerly called Mucros, 
the boar's headland, and then Kil- 
rymont, the church or cell of the 
king's mount 

St. Cloud for St. Hloddwald 

St. David's, in Wales, Welsh Ty- 
Ddewi — v. TY 

St. Heliers for St. Hilarius 

St. Omer for St. Awdomar 

Stadel, etc., 179 

Staffa, 180 

Staines, 181 

Stamboul, 158 

Stanislaus, named after Stanislaus of 

Stantz, 181 


Starodub, 182 

Startpoint, 182 

Stavropol, 158 

Scotland called Solam 

Somerset, 173 

Sommariva, the summit of the bank 

Somogy, Hung, the place of cornel- 

Sophia, Grk. wisdom, dedicated to the 
second person of the Trinity 

Sorbonne,inamed from Robert de Sor- 
bonne, almoner of St. Louis 

Sost or Soest, 174 
" Soudan — v. BELED 

Southampton, 194 

Southwark, 206 

Souvigny, 173 

Spa, 82 

Spalatro, 152 

Sparta, Grk. the sowed land or the 
prace of scattered houses 

Spires or Speyer, named from the 
R. Speyerbach 

Stepney, 105 

Stetten, Sclav. Zytyn, the .place of green 

Stirling, Cym.-Cel. Ystrevelyn, the 

town of the Easterlings, from 

Stockholm, 106 
Stockport, 184 
Stockton, 184 
Stoke, 183 
Stolpe, 184 
Stonehaven, 97 
Stow-market, 183 
Stradbally, 184 
Stralsund, 185 
Strasbourg, 184 
Strehlitz, 184 
Striegau or Cziska, Sclav, the place on 

the small stream, tschuga 
Stulweissenburg — v. feher 



Stuttgard, 87 

Styria or Steyermark, the boundary 
of the R. Steyer 

Sudetic Mountains, 185 

Suez, the mouth or opening 

Suffolk, 185 
-Sumatra, corrupt, from Trimatra, the 

Sunderbunds, corrupt, from Sundari- 
vana, So called from the forest, 
vana, of Sundari-trees 

Sunderland, 186 

Surat, i.e. Su-rashta, the good country 

Surrey, 164 

Susa, a city of ancient Persia, sto 
called from the lilies in its neigh- 
bourhood ; susa, a lily 

Sussex, 170 

Sutherlandshire, 185 

Sviatoi-nos, 146 

Swan R. , so named from the number 
of black swans seen by the first dis- 

Swansea, 71 

Sweden, 164 

Sydney, named after a governor of 
the colony 
- Syria — -u. beled, 20 

Szent-kercsyt, 186 

Szentes, for saint, 186 

Tabriz, anc. Taurus, the mountain 

-Tagus or Tejo R., Phoen. the fish 

Tain, 190 

Takhtapul, the throne city, the seat 
of the Turkish Afghan government 

Takht-i-Soliman, the throne of Solo- 
mon, being the highest of the Solo- 
mon Mountains 

Talavera, 29 

Tamsai, fresh water town, in China 

Tananarivo, the city of one thousand 
towns, the capital of Madagascar 

Tanderagee, Ir. Ton-legosith, the place 

with its back to the wind 
Tanjier, Phoen. the ,city protected by 

Tanjore, corrupt, from Tanjavur, 
derived from its ancient name 
Tanja-Nagaram, the city of refuge 
Tarazona, 199 

Tarifa, named after a Moorish chief 
Tarnopol, 187 
Tarporley, 126 
Tarragona, anc. Tarraco, Phoen. 

Tarchon, the citadel or palace 
Tarsus, Phcen. the strong place 
-Tasmania, named after Abel Tasman, 
who discovered it in 1642. It was 
called Van Diemen's Land in honour 
of the Governor - General of the 
Dutch East India Company 
Taurus Mountain, 196 
Tavistock, 184 
Tay R., 187 
Tcherniz, 212 
Teflis, 189 

Teltown, Ir. Tailten, where Taillte, 
the daughter of the King of Spain, 
was buried 
Temeswar, Hung, the fortress on the 

R. Temes 
Temisconata, the wonder of water, a 

county and lake in Canada 
Temple, aparish in Mid-Lothian, where 
there was an establishment for the 
Templars or Red Friars, founded 
by David I. 
Tennessee R., the spoon-shaped river, 

so called from its curve 
Tenterden, 62 
Teramo, 14 
Terni, 14 
Terranova, 189 
Texas, Ind. hunting ground 
Tezcuco, Mexican, the place of de- 
Thames R., 187 . 
Thannheim, 187 
Thapsus, the passage 
Thaxsted, 180 
Thebes, in Egypt, Tata, the capital 



Thermia, Grk. the place of warm 

springs, in Sicily 
Thermopylae, the defile of the warm 

~Thian-shan, Chinese, the celestial 

Thian-shan-nan-loo, the country south 

of the celestial mountains 
Thian-shan-pe-loo, the country north 

of the celestial mountains 
■"Thibet, supposed to be a corrupt, of 

Thupo, the country of the Thou, a 

people who founded an empire there 

in the sixth century 
This or Abou-This, i.e. the city of 

This, corrupted by the Greeks into 

Thouars, 12 

Thrace, Grk. the rough land, trachus 
Thun, 69 
Thurgau, 88 
Thurles, 128 
Thurso, 1 
" Tiber R. , 192 
Tideswell, 161 
Tierra-del-Fuego, 189 
Tillicoultry, 198 
Tilsit or Tilzela, at the conf. of the 

R. Tilzele with the Memel 
Tinnevelly, corrupt, from Trinavali, 

one of the names of Vishnu 
Tinto Hill, 189 
Tipperary, 192 
Tiree Island, 189 
Tiverton, 83 

Tlascala, Mexican, the place of bread 
Tobermory, 192 
-Tobolsk, 176 
Todrnorden, corrupt, from Todmare-- 

dean, the valley of the foxes' mere 

or marsh 
Tomantoul, 192 
"Tomsk, 176 
Tongres, 186 

Tonquin, Chinese Tang-king, the east- 
ern capital 
Toome — v. TUAIM, 197 
Toplitz, Neu and Alt 
Torgau, 195 

Torquay, 195 

Torres Straits, named after one of 

Magalhaen's lieutenants 
Torres- Vedras, 195 
Torquemada, 195 
Tory Island, 195 
Toul and Toulouse, 50 
Toulon, anc. Telonium or Telo Mar- 

tius, named after its founder 
Tourcoing, 195 
Tours, 196 

Towie and Tough, parishes in Aber- 
deenshire, from Gael, tuath, the 

Trafalgar, 90 
Tralee, 196 
Tranent, 197 
Transylvania, 173 
Trapani, anc. Drapanum, the sickle, 

Grk. drepanon 
Tras-os-Montes, 142 
Traun R. , 196 
Traunik, 196 
Traunviertel, 196 
Trave R. , 196 
Trebizond, Grk. Irapezus, the table, so 

called from its form 
Trent, anc. Civitas-Tridentium, the 

town of the ' Tridenti 
Treves, named from the Treviri, a 

Trichinapalli, the town of the giant 

Trim, at the elder-tree, 197 
Trinidad, so named by Columbus 

from its three peaks, emblematic of 

the Holy Trinity 
Tring, a patronymic 
Tripoli, 158 
Tripolitza, 158 
Trolhatta Fall, Goth, the abyss of the 

trolls or demons 
Trondhjem or Drontheim 
Troon, 178 

Troppau, i.e. Zur-Oppa, on the R. Oppa 
Troyes, named from the Tricasses 
Truro, 197 
Truxillo, in Spain, corrupt, from 

Turris-Julii, Julius's tower 



Tuam, 197 

Tubingen, anc. Diawingen, probably 
a patronymic 

Tudela, anc. Tulela, the watch-tower 

Tullamore, 197 

Tulle, anc. Tutela, the watch-tower 

Tullow, 197 

Turin, anc. Augusta- Taurinorum,. 
named from the Taurini, i.e. dwell- 
ers among hills 

Tweed R. , Brit, tuedd, a border 

Tyndrum, 188 

Tynron, 188 
^Tyre, 196 

Tyrnau, on the R. Tyrnau 

Tyrone, 189 

Tzerna or Czerna R. , 212 

Tzemagora, 212 


Udny, a parish in Aberdeenshire, 

i.e. Wodeney, from the Saxon god 

Uist, North and South, Scand. Vist, 

an abode 
Uj-hely, Hung, new place 
—Ukraine, Sclav, the frontier or boundary 
Ulleswater, 206 

Ulm or Ulma, the place of elm-trees 
Ulster, 183 
Unst Island, anc. Ornyst, Scand. the 

eagle's nest 
Unyamuezi, the land of the moon 
Upsala, 169 
Ural Mountains and R., Tartar, the 

belt or girdle 
Usedom, the Germanised form of Huz- 

ysch, Sclav, the place of learning 
Usk R. , 198 
Utrecht, 66 

Valais, 199 
Valence, in France, and 
Valencia, in Spain, anc. Valentia, the 

Valenciennes and Valenza, or Valence, 

said to have been named after the 

Emperor Valentinian 
Valentia Island, in Ireland, Ir. 

Dearbhre, the oak wood 
Valetta, in Malta, named after the 

Grand Master of the Knights of St. 

John in 1566 
-Valparaiso, 200 
Van Diemen's Land, named after 

Maria Van Diemen by Tasman 
Vannes, named from the Veneti 
Varna, Turc. the fortress 
Varosvar, 200 
Vasarhely, 103 
Vaucluse, 200 
Vaud, Pays de, 200 
Velekaja R. , 200 
Vendee, La, and 
Vendflme, named from the Veneti 
Venezuela, little Venice, so called from 

an Indian village constructed on 

piles, discovered by the Spaniards 
Venice, 79 
Venloo, 79 
Ventnor, 150 
Ventry, 196 

Verdun and Verden, 69 
Vermont, green mountain 
Vevey, anc. Vibiscum, on the R. Vip 
Viborg, 201 
Vick, 210 
Vienna, Ger. Wien, on the R. Wien, 

an affluent of the Danube 
Viesti, named from a temple dedicated 

to Vesta 
Vigo, 209 
Vimeira, Port, the place of osiers, 

Vincennes, anc. Ad-Vicenas 
Virginia, named after Queen Elizabeth 
Vistula or Wisla, the west - flowing 

Vitrei corrupt, from Victoriacum, the 

Vitry, the victorious, founded by 

Francis I. 
Vladimir, founded by the ducal family 

of that name in the twelfth century 
Vogelberg, the hill of birds 




Volga, the great water 

Whitehaven, 97 

Volhynia, Sclav, the plain 

Whithorn, n 

Voorburg, 84 

Wiborg, 201 

Voralberg, i.e. in front of the Arlt 


Wick, 209 


Wicklow, 209 

Vukovar, the fortress on the R. Vuka 

Wiesbaden, 16 

Wigan, 201 

Wight, Isle of, anc. Zuzo-yr-with, the 


island of the channel 
Wigton, 2or 

Wakefield, 206 

Wiltshire, 173 

Walcherin Island, 204 

Wimbleton, 193 

Waldeck, 202 

Wimborne, 210 

Walden, Saffron, 202 

Winchester, 44 

Wales, 203 

Windsor, 150 

Wallachia, 204 

Wirksworth, 208 

Wallendorf, 204 

Wisbeach, the shore of the R. Ouse, 

Wallenstadt, 204 

uisge, water 

Wallingford, 203 

Wisconsin, Ind. the wild rushing 

Waltharostow, 202 


Ware, 207 

Wismar, 210 

Wareham, 207 

Withey, 207 

Warminster, 207 

Wittenberg, 207 

Warrington, a patronymic 

Wittstock, 210 

Warsaw, the fortified place — v. vae 

Wladislawaw, the town of Wladislav 

Warwick, 205 

Wokingham, 5 

Waterford, 80 

Wolfenbuttel, 27 

Waterloo, 130 

-Wolga — v. Volga 

Weimar, 134 

Wolverhampton, 193 

Weissenfels, 207 

Woodstock, 210 

Weistritz R. , the swift, straight stream 

Wooler, 211 

Well — V. QUELLE 

Woolwich, 104 

Welland R. , the river into which 


Worcester, anc. Huic-wara-ceaster, 

tide flows 

the camp of the Huieci 

Wellingborough, a patronymic 

Worms, 133 

Wellington, a patronymic 

Worm's Head, the serpent's head, 

Wells, 161 

ornr, from its form 

Welshpool, Welsh Trallwng, 


Worthing, 211 


Wrath, Cape, Scand. the cape of the 

Wem, 198 

hvarf, or turning 

Wemys, namh, the cave 

Wrietzen or Brietzen, Sclav, the place 

Werden, 205 

of birch-trees — v. BHASA 

Wesely, Hung, pleasant 

Wroxeter, anc. Uriconium 

Weser R., 1 

Wurtemberg, anc. Wrtinisberk, from 

Westeraas, 208 

a personal name 

Westphalia, the western plain 

Wurtzburg, 212 

Wetterhorn, 108 

Wycombe, 53 

Wexford, 80 

Wyoming Valley, corrupt, from Maugh- 

Whitby, 37 

■wauwame, Ind. the large plains 




Xanthds R., Grk. the yellow river 
Xeres de la Frontera, ano. Asia Regia 

Casariana, Caesar's royal fortress 
Xeres de los Caballeros, Caesar's 

cavalry town 

Yakutsk, named from the Yakuts. 
Tartar tribe 
— Yang-tse Kiang R., the son of the 
great water 
Yarra, the ever-flowing, a river in 
— Yeddo or Jeddo, river door 

Yell, barren 
-Yemen, to the south or right 

Yeni-Bazaar, 212 
— Yenisi R. , 212 
Yeovil, 201 -" 

York, 209 

Youghal, anc. Eochaill, the yew wood 
Ypres or Yperen, the dwelling on the 

Ysselmonde, 140 
— Yunnan, the cloudy south region, in 
Yvetot, 192 
Yvoire, 9 

Zab R. , 212 

Zabern, 186 

Zambor, Sclav, behind the wood 
Zanguebar or Zanjistan, Pers. and 
Arab., the land of the Zangis and 

Zaragossa — v. Saragossa 

Zealand, in Denmark, Sjvelland, 
spirit land 

Zealand, in Netherlands, land sur- 
rounded by the sea 

Zeitz, named after Ciza, a Sclav, 

Zell or Cell, 48 

Zerbst, belonging to the Wends, 

Zittau, the place of corn 

Zug, anc. Tugium, named from the 
Tugeni, a tribe 

Zurich, anc. Thiouricum, the town 
of the Thuricii, who built it after it 
had been destroyed by Attila 

Zutphen, 79 

Zuyder-Zee, 172 

Zweibriicken, 31 

Zwickau, the place of goats, Ger. 

Zwolle, anc. Suole, Old Ger. Sval, at 
the swell of the water 


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Woodcuts. 240 pp. 16mo. 3s. 6d. 

1 ' A valuable addition to our geographical works. It contains the newest 
and most reliable information derived from the researches of modern travellers. 
No better text-book can be placed in the hands of scholars." — Journal of 
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. By Mart Somerville. Revised by John 

Richardson. 548 pp. 9s. 

' ' So far as general physical geography goes, such Manuals as those of . . . 
Mrs. Somerville leave little to be desired." — Mr. J. S. Keltie's Report on 
Geographical Education. 

JOHN MUREAY, Albemarle Street, London.