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ÌSr ÌÌZIo.S,;^ 




CLASS OF 1828 



*. ■ 














**Posiiit mendacium spem suanii et mendacio protectus est." — laaìee xxyììì. 15. 






Si. Patrick' t CoUege^ Maynooih. 









Presìdent, Royal College of St. Patrick, Majnooth. 

AB ARE, the Right Hon. theViscouNT, 

M.P., M.R.I.A. 
Butler; the Very Rev. Richard, 

KiLDABE, the Most Noble the Mar* 

quìa of, M.P., M.R.I.A. 
Metlbr, the Very Rev. Walter, 

D.D., Dean of Clonroacnoise. I D.D. 

Hudson, the Very Rev. Edward ' Monsell, William, M.P., M.R.I.A. 

GusTATUS, A.M., Deanof Armagh. O'Loohlbn, Sir Colman M., Bart. 
Kàhe, Sir Robert, M.R.I.A., Presi- 

dent of the Queen's College, Cork. 

Crtt0trr0 : 

Hudson, Henry, M.D., M.R.I.A. 
HuTTON, Thomas, M.R.I.A. 
Swbetman, Walter, M.R.I.A. 

PiaoT, John Edward^ 

£ecrrtatir0 : 

Gilbert. John T. 
Webb, Patrick Robert. 


BiNDON, Samuel Henry. | Mao Donnxll, Charles P., 

Globe, James S., M.R.I.A. j M.R.I.A. 

Crollt, the Rev. George, D.D., Pro- Madden, Richard R., M.R.I.A. 
fessor, Boyal College of St. Patrick, Nowlan, the Very Rev. Edward, 
Maynooth. i V.G., Ossory ; P.P. Gowran. 

Fabbelly, the Rev. Thomas. I O'Callaghan, Isaac Stoney. 

Febguson, James Fbedebick. i O'Haoan, Thomas, Q.C. 

Fitzpatbick, Patrick Vincent. ' Rebyes, the Rev. William, M.B., 

Grayes, the Rev. Charles, A.M., 
Professor and F.T.C.D., M.R.I.A. 

Gbatss, the Rev. James, A.B., Kil- 

Habdihan, James, M.R.I.A. 

HuDSOM, William Elliot, A.M., 

KEI.I.T, the Rev. Matthew, Profes- 
sor, Koyal College of St. Patrick, 


Russell, the Rev. Charles, D.D., 
Professor, Royal College of St. Pa- 
trick, Maynooth. 

Smyly, John George, Q.C. 

Tenison, Edward King, M.P., 

Tennant, Robert James, M.P. 

Wildb, William Robert, 

CoBK— John Windelb. | Edinburgh — ^W.B, Turnbull, F,S.A. 


Mr. John O'Dalaigh. 





[73] Leogarìas.— S. Patricins venit in Hibernìlam, A.I).432.— 01iUiuMolt.~Lngadiiu.— S. Patrìcios 
moritar, A.D. 493. [74] Marchertacbns fiUus Ero».— Tnathalias Moelgbarbb.~Cata]ogiu tri- 
am ordinam Sanctorum Hibemie.— Hibemia insula Sanctonim.— Dermitiaa I. filias Kervailtl. 
[75 Domaaldas I. et Fergusins filli Morcbertacbi.— Eochodins et BoethanuaL — Ainmims fi- 
lina Sednfle.—Boethanua II. filius Nennedi.— Aidua 1. Ainmiri filina. — ^Aidus^ll. cognomento 
Slanensis et Colmanas, A,D. 600. — Aidna 111. CJarìnocb. — Moelcobbns filiua Aidi 1. Ainmiri 
[76] Snibbnena Mennlna^^Domnaldna II.->ConnalIus et Kellaeha&— Blathmacoa et Dermlcius 
il,, — Sacbnaaacbua. — Kan&ladiua— Finnacbta Fleadbacb. [77] Longsecbna, A.D. 701 — Conga- 
lioa Kinmagar.— Firgalina.— Fogarthacb.— Kenetbna.— Flabbertachna nltìmoa Ibb Niellortim 
aeptentrìonalinm de atirpe Connalli GulbanL — Aidaa IV. cognomento Ollamh.—- Domnaldiu 111. 
— Niellna I. cognomento Fraaaacbna. [78] Doncbadua 1. A.D. 793. — Aidna V. cognomento Ar- 
nidina — Conchorariua.— Niellna II. cognomento Calneaa.— Malachiaal. — ^Aidus VI. cognomento 
Fini iacb, A.D . 876. — Flannna Sinna. — N iellna I II. cognomento Glnndubh. — Doncbadns IX. f79] 
Congalacbna.— Domnaldoa IV O^Niellna. — Malacbias II. cognomento Magnna, A.D. 1001.— 
Brianna Borumbna— Victoria Clflhtarfenaia. [80] Malacbiaa li. nltìmna Ibh Niellonun Ana- 

tralium de atirpe Conalli Crimthani — Regea 50 l^t^f Ab1)7tACl), id eat, non aine conteptione 

interregnum et anarcbia aeptuaginta dno annoram. — Donatna 0*Brian-^x Momoniie. 
[81] Dermitiaa cognomento Moelnamboi, rex Lageniae.— Terdelachua O Brianna, rex majoris 
partia Hibemiae. [82] Mnrcbertacbua O'Brianna et Domnaldns mac Lochiinnna, aociato im- 
perio, Regea Hibemiae. [83] Murcbertacbi rea geatao. [84] Domnaldi m«c Locblanni rea 
geatao. [85] Terdelacbna I. Magnoa O'Concbobhar.— Rex Hibemiae — Rea geatae, pietas et 
mnnificentia. [86] Mnrcbertacbua mac Locblain, Rex. [87] Rotberìci O'Concbobbar, rea 
geatas. [88] de eodem. [89] Angli primnm Hiberaiam armia infeatant [90] Rotbericna, generis 
Hibemici, nltìmna Hibemiae Rex, A.D. 1173.— Diacrepantanctorea in ennmeratione annoram 
Regum Cbriatianomm Hiberai8e-.Hibemia inter Regna in Provinciali Romano recensita. 
[91] Anctornon biatoriam aed catalognm Regnm Hibemiae deacribit— Quidam inter Reges Hi- 
bemiae falaò acripti.— Fortcbemua nonfuit Hibemiae Rex.— nec Artbuma Brito. [93] Fabule de 
Artbnro in biatoriÀ.— Hnlapbua non fuitHibamiae Rex.— nec Boedanua filiua Carilli.— nec Hagle- 
tea, nec Proto. [93] nec Gormacua mac Culenanua.F.-nec filine ejus Elermaen.— nec Godredus. 
nec Dnncanua— Gregorins non fbit Scotorum Albanenaium Rex.— Scoti Albanenaea Regnm ca< 
talognm a Pictia mntuàaae videntnr. [94] Regum Pictorum catalogna^— Regea Scotoram non 
aimili aed eodem nomini afficiuntur— 4Scotomm aliquot Regum nomina. — Quando Scotorum in 
Britanni^ ditio, Scotica dici coepta eat [95] Quam partem bodiemae Scoti» Angli et Picti an- 
tiquitna tenuerant— Quo tempore IHcti aula finibna pulai anni [96] Hiberni Scotos in delendis 
Pictia juTftrant— Pleraeqne aliae gentes Hibemos equant aut potius anperant in catàlogo Reg^um 





[73] Laegliaif«<-43t P»trÌck1attdB|nIi«luid, AD. 431— Olili Molt— Lnghaidb.^Deftth ofSt Patrick, 
AD.49X [74] Mnircheartach mae Earca— Tuathal Maelgarbh/— Catalogne of thethree orders 
of Irish Saiiita.^Inlaiid Che island of Saint». -Dburmaid L Ceirrbbeoil. [76] Oomhnall 
l.aiidFearg1iiisaoBs of Muircbeartach. — Eochaidh and Baedan I.— Ainmire mac Sedna.— >Baedan 
li. 8on of Ninoidiu— Aedh L aon of Ainmire.— Aedh II. anmamed SUùne and Coiman. — Aedh 
IIL Uairidliaaek.— Maelcobha son of Aedh I. [76] Snibhne Meann.— Domhnall II.->Conall and 
CeaQach. — Diarmaid II. and Blatbmac.— Seachna8acb.p— Ceannfaeladb.— Finnacbta Fleadhach. 
[77] Loingaeaich, AJ>. 701.— Congal CinnmagbaÌr.~Fearf(hal — Fogartach..— 01naeth.>-Flaltli- 
bheattadi, last monarcb ùÌ tiie race of the nortbem Ui Neill descended from Conati Onlban.-» 
AedtalY. anmamed AUan.— Domhnall III.— Niall I. samamed Frosach. [78] Donndiadb I. A.D. 
791— Aedh V.aomamed Oirdnidhe.— >Concbobhar.— Niall IL samamed CailIe.~Maelaeachlainn 
L— Aedh VI. anmamed Finnliath, A.D. 87&^-Flann Sinna. — ^Niall ill.surnamed Olundabh.» 
Donnchadh II. [79] Conghalach. — Domhnall IV. O'NeilL— Maelseacblainn II. samamed the 
Great, A.D.1001.— Brian Boroimhe.— Victory of Clontarf. [80]Maelseachlainn II. last monarch of 
tberaoeof the SoathemUf NeUl,descended from Cenali Crimhthainn.— Kings t^o ^t^f AbljjtACby 
that ia, -vdiose daims were disputed.— interregnnm and anarehy daring 72 years.— Donnchadh 
0*Briain, King of Manster. [81] Diarmaid, son of Mael-na-m-bo, Ring of Leinster.— Toir- 
dhealbbach OBriain, King of Ihe greater part of Ireland. [82] Mnircheartach 0*Brìain and 
Domhnall Mac Loehlainn colleagnes on the Irish throne, A.D. 1090. [83] Muircbeartacb's life. 
[84] Domhnall mac Lochlainn's life. [85] Toirdhealbhach O'Concbobhair the Oreat, King of Ire- 
land— bis life, piety and mnnificence. [86] Mnircheartach mac Loehlainn, King. [87] Ruaidhri 
O'Conchobhair, bis life [88] The samesnbject [89] The English inrade Ireland. [90] Ruaidhri 
the lastmonarch of Irish race, A D. 1IT2. Discrepancy of anUiors in the periods of Irish reigns.-» 
lieland ranked as a kingdom in the Roman Provincial. [91] The aathor wrìtes merely a catalogne 
notahistory of theKings of Ireland. — Some persons falsely called Kings of Ireland. Fortcheren 
was not King of Ireland— nor King Arthur. \9£\ Fabulous life of Arthur.— Hnlaph was not 
King of Ireland— nor Boedan mac CarrolL— nor Hugletet, nor Froto. [93] nor Cormae mao 
Cnileannain nor bis son Elermaen. — nor Godred nor Duncan, — No Gregory King of the Albanian 
Scots.— the Albanian Scota seem to bave borrowed the catalogne of their Kings from the Pietà. 
[94] Catalogne of Pictish Kings.— The names of Picttsh and Scottlsb Kings not merely similar 
but identicaL— Names of some Seottish Kings^— When was the Scotch territory in Britain first 
called Scotia ? [95] What portion of modem Scotland was anciently held by the English and 
Pietà ?— Wben were the Picts driven from their territorìes ? [96] The Irish aided the Scotch in 
destroying the Picts.— The number of monarchs carried off by violent deafhs are not greater but 


qni non sua sed riolentà morte sublati snnt.— Decessores aanccedentibuslmperatorlbas Roma- 
nis c«BSÌ. [97] Decessores a Regibus Angliss successorìbas occisù— ** Qui Bine peccato est yes- 
trùmi primus in illam lapidem mittat"! 

Leogarius Nelli noviobsidis filius rerum administratio;ii post Da- 
thiam extinctum admotus, eum honorem annis triginta gessìt. Quarto 
regni ejus anno, Christi 432, et mundi 5631. S. Patricius ChristianaB 
Religionis disseminandsB causa in Hibemiam venit. Leogarius majorum 
superstitionibus ita mordicus adhsesit, ut non nisi prodigiorum terrori- 
bus à S. Patricio adhibitis, illas aegrè sibi evelli passus fuerit Chris- 
tianismi, et non mediocris literaturae specimen edidit, cum veteribus 
legum Hibemicarum monumentis excutiendis sedulò incumbens, £th- 
nicis legibus aboletis Christiana instituta surroganda esse sancivit.^ 
Eum comitia Teamorica bis indixisse Ketingus insinuat, in quibus^ol- 
lapsse desuetudine leges instaurabantur, et novse cudebantur. Ilio 
etìam rege, Catholica fides longè latèquè diffusa est, et Episcopatus 
Armachanus, Athrimensisque instituti. Ecclesia Saballa pluresque alise 
erectee sunt. Ille censum vulgo Boarium à Lageniensibus repetens, 
secundum prselium fecit. Sed bello ab illis postea impetitus, et rap- 
tus, lunam, et ventos dejeravit mulctam illam Boarìam in perpetuum 
iis se condona turum. Quod juramentum postea violaturus, fulmine 
afflatus interiit, propè Cassiam in Ibhfoelan, in ter duos montes Eran 
et Alban dictos, eluso vaticinio ilio, quo inter Hibemiam, quse Ere, 

J Vide TJsherum de Primor. pag. 724. 2 Trias Thaumat. pag. 41, 51, 130. 

a Te save space and trouble in the than 30 out of 44 regal chronological 

annotations on this chapter, the leader dates from A.D. 428 te A.D. 1014, 

willpleasetorememberthattheacces- they coincide; in eleven they differ 

Sion of Laeghalre, A.P. 428, and the only by one year. Where they differ, 

battle of Clontarf, A.D. 1014, are car- Ware's date is given in the margin 

dinal points in Irish chronology admit- under OTlaherty's, or explaìned in a 

ted by ali. The intermediate 568 years note, and in these cases, it must be 

are arranged by different chronologists observed, Ware has frequently the 

with as few important discrepancies authority of higher note as arranged 

as are found in an equal period of any by Dr. 0*Conor. Where the contrary 

contemporary history. O'Flaherty's is not expressed in the margin or a 

chronology is retaìned in our English note, OTlaherty's chronology is one 
margin. The differences between him ' year in advance of the Ulster Annals. 

and Ware are inconsiderable. In more Had Ware followed Tighearnach in ali 

coAP. nc] 


nSba km ìd Ireland ttun in otber coontriet Roman Emperon tlAin by UmIt sueeeMort.— 

£B^Jsh Kìngs dain b j their sncoesion. 

Laeghaibe, son of Niall, succeeding to the crown on the death ofoTl. Cln 

I ^ A TI 

Dathi,* governed the kingdom durìng thirty years.^ It was in the '^'^' 
fouTth year of his reign^ in the year of our Lord^ 432, in the year 4*28. 
of the world, 563 1 / that St. PatricK carne to estahlish the Christian 
ileligion in Ireland. Laeghaire was so ohstinately attached to the su- 
perstition of his fathers, that hardly even the terror of the miracles of 
St. Patrick could pluck it from his heart He gave proofs of his 
Christianity, and of considerahle love of learning, hy a diligent exa- 
mination of the old compilations of Irish laws, and the suhstitution of 
Christian institutes for the Pagan code.^ Since, as Keating assures us, 
he assembled the convention of the States at Teamhair, in which laws, 
\ong obsolete, were revoked, and new laws established. Durìng his reign 
also, the Catholic faith was difiused far and wide, the Sees of Ard-Macha 
asd Truim were fonnded, and the Church o( Sabhall and many others 
erected. He defeated the Lagenians and received the Boromean tri- 
buto, but they rose against him once more, and having gained a victory, 
compelled him to swear by the moon and the winds, that he would 
never more demand that odious tribute. In violatiou of his oath he 
marcbed against them, but was killed by lightning near Caissi in Ui- 
Faelain, between the two mountains Eire and Alba, according to the 

cases, I would adopt his chronology* 
A few special chronological difficultìes 
reqmre a note. Dr. Lanigan and 
Ussher of course are consulted, but 
tUefonner frequently disclaims the in • 
tention of •* diving," as he expresses 
it, into the cìyìI history of Ireland, 
and does not appear on that subject to 
^ve consulted the originai authorìties ; 
the latter did not undertake to com- 
pile a complete chronology . See note «• 

^See note « infra. 

^ In the preface to his translation of 
Keatàng, Dr. Lynch explains why he 
adopted tliis chronology. 

d It is highly improbable that Lae- 
ghaire embraced Christianity. St. Pa- 
trick, who in his confession, written at 
the dose of his life, mentions the sons 
and daughters of Scota and petty kings 
(^regulorum) as conrerts, would not 
omit the Arch-king. But ali autho- 
rìties agree that at a very early period, 
and frequently in the lapse of time, 
the clergy revised the Irish Brehon 
code, according to the Christian law ; 
Tribes and Customs of Ui Fiachrach, 
pp. 75, 76, note. Rer. Hib. ii. p. 101. 
Our author discusses the same subject 
in the Supploment to his AUthonologia. 


[Gap. IX. 

et Alba, quae Albania Hibenùcè dicitur, morituius fuisse praesagìebatur. 
Anno Domini 458, mundi 5657. 
iellides Olillum sive Ailillum Molt successorem in regno Leogarìus habuìt» 
e Dathi. i^^it ijj^g dictum, quod matrem illum utero gestantem ovillae camìs 
manducandae cupido iilcessit. lUe comitìis Teamoricis semel indictis, 
et cum Lageniensìbus prselio saepè^ congressus, in octava pugna occu- 
buit. Anno regni vigesimo, Christi 478, mundi 5677. 
iellides Lugadius Leogarìi filius Ailillum in regno' excepit, qui S. Patricii 
: Leoga- imprecationibus poscentibus ut patris ejus Leogarìi posteritas regis dig- 
nitate nunquam honestaretur exemptus, et cum puer bolo faucibus 
inbserente moreretur, in vitam ab eodem S. Patricio retocatus, in eun- 
dem in ter cselites jam relatum voces blaspbemiam redolentes evomuit.^ 
Quare justas ingratitudinis, et blaspbemise psenas dedit, tonitru anì^ 
mam illi excutiente apud Achacbfarcha, id est collem fulminis in ori- 
entalis Mediae finibus anno regni. 25. Cbristi 503.^ 

Decimo quinto regis bujus, et Cbristi 493. anno, divus Patricius è 
corporis erg^tulo in caelos evolavit. Anno autem post Christum natum 
498. et post regnum à Lugadio initum vigesimo, annales nostri Fer^ 
gusium magnum filium Erci, nepotem Eocbodii Munremorii, cura 
fratribus in Albaniam trajecisse memorant ; Tigemaebus res peregrinas 

3 Trias Thau., pag. 128, 


« The date assigned by thefour Mas- 
ters, from whom Dr. Lynch never de- 
parts, though in a few instances he 
cites with approbation the chronology 
ofotherannalists. Dr. O'Conor writes, 
Rer. Hib. voi. III. p. 106, that down 
to the Uth century the Four Masters 
depart from the common sera frequent- 
ly, '* àliqnandoannis quinque, nonnun- 
quam, sed raro, annis sex, plurìes annis 
quatuor.'* Understood of the dat|B8 of 
accesaion and death of kings, this as- 
sertion is nearly correct. The Masters 
always style the year after aking's 
death, the first year of his successor ; 

hence to find their first year of any 
long, you must add one year to their 
obituary year giyen by Dr. Lynch, 
thus— first year of Olili Molt, 459, of 
Lughaidh, 479, &c. Ac. This discre- 
pancy affects but slìghtly the absolute 
order of eyents, as the same chrono* 
logicai differences nm constantly 
through certain periods, Moreover, 
in the lengthof the reigns, our author 
and OTlaherty differ only in twelve 
cases, and in six of these by one year 

f Dr, O'Conor rejects this ridiculous 
derivation, and interprets, wìthout any 

Ca^f. IX.3 


ambigaoos prophecy that he would be slain between Eire and Alba» 
the Iiish names of Ireland and Scodand. A.D. 458.* A.M. 5667* 

4^. Olill Molt' succeeded Laeghaire in the throne. He was 
snnzamed Molt firom the aìngular relish which bis mother had for 
mnttjou, whìle she was bearhig hìm. The Convention of Teamhair wa& 
h^d once diirìng bis reign» and he fought many battles with the Lago- 
niacDs, but thej slew hims in the eighth fight» in the 20th year of bis 
reigu. A.D. 478,»» A.M. 6677. 

483. L1T6HAIDH, son of Laeghaire, succeeded Olili. Wben a child 
he was in danger of being choked by a bolus that stuck in bis tbroat, but 
he was lelieved by St. Patrick, who exempted him moreover from the 
malediction pionounced against LAegbaire, and excluding bis posterìty 
firom the throneJ After the ascent of St Patrick to heaven, the un- 
giatefnl Lughaidh uttered blasphemies against bis benefactor, but the 
lightning of heaven slew him at Achadhfarcbay that is, the bill of light- 
ning, in East Meath. A.D. 503.^ 

d08. In the 15th year of this monarch's reign, A.D. 493,^ St Patrick 
ascended to heaven from bis montai prison. The Annals state that Fear- 
ghas the Great, son of Earc and grandson of Eochaidh Muinrearahor,"* 
passed over to Albania with his-brothers in the 20th year of the reign of 
Lughaidh, A.D. 498" Tigheamach, who usually chronicles foreign events 

aathority, tqoIc, laudabìlìs, i.e. beauti- 
ful in person. Proleff, pars. L p. clxyii. 
g He was the only monarch of Ireland 
of Dathi's famìly, which however al- 
waysretained great power inConnacht. 
Tribes and Customs of Vi Fiachrach, 
pp. 17, 18. 

bThe annals of Ulster record the 
deaih cS Olili Molt, A.D. 482, and the 
accessioii of Lughaidh, A.D. 484, thus 
leaving an interregnum of two years. 

i Iiieghaìre*8 progeny , though exclu-» 
ded frono^the throne, ezcept Lughaidh, 
ofteu figure in history. 

k Annals of Ulster, A.D. 506, and 
agaìn according to others, A,D. 507. 
Ware and OTlaherty àllow an Inter* 

regnum of Ave years after the death 
of Lughaidh, but I know not on what 
authorìty% Tigheamach records the 
death of Lughaidh, A.D. 508, the ac- 
cession of Muircheartach, A.D. 509, 
and bis death, A.D. 534. They haye 
no authorìty firom the poem of Olila 
Modud or the Annals of Ulster, note 
e infra. 

I Dr. Lanigan, against nearly ali 
authorìties, ancient and modem, re- 
jects this date. 

m Note suprà. 

n A.D. 502, according to O'Conor's 
edition of Tigheamach, but the differ- 
enee of Ave years arises from the cause 
assigned, note ^ suprà. 


Latino, patrìas H ibernico sermone prosequi solìtus, qufle subjicio Latine 
profert " Fergus Mor mac Erca id est Fergusius magnus Erci &ìiwi, 
cum gente Dalrìeta partem Brìtanniee tenuità et ibi mortuus est,^ sub 
prìmum pontificatuB Simachi annum/' qui est, ut rectè Usberus obser- 
vavit, annus Domini 498. Est penes me libellus Hibemicus non novi- 
tius autbor, ut Usherus loquitur, qui monarcbarum et provincialium 
HibemisB, nec non Albaniie regum Syncbronismos complectitur> qui 
tradit vigesimo post prseliura Ocbanum anno, sex filios Erci, duos £n- 
[74] gusios, duos Loarnos, et duos Fergnsios | in Albaniàm trajecisse. 
Prselium autem Ocbanum, in quo Ailillus Molt Rex Hibemiae cecidit 
anno ut paulo ante videras, 478. commissum est : à quo anno ad annum 
498. annos viginti affloxisse quis non Vìdet ? bue accedit quod Nennius 
Hibemicè versus (Nennium enim latinum nondum vidi) 0*Duvegani 
Miscellaneis insertus narrat, sexta setate Dalriedos venisse in partem 
Pictorum, et Saxones venisse in Britanniam.^ Certe 0*Duveganus mi- 
grationem banc filiorum Erci minutatìm prosequitnr, et in quas fami- 
lias eorundem filiorum soboles propagata fuerit, et quas in Albania 
terras singulss familiee capessiverunt, quas copias in aciem terra, vel 
mari eduxerunt, uberrime narrat. Nomina locorum ibi memorata prae- 
ter Ilam, et Cantiram baud novi. 

Murcbertacbus, Muredatio patre, Erca matre genitus, Lugadio mor- 
lì^oghan talibus adempto, regnum iniit, vir bello clarus, ut qui septemdecem 
praeliis bostes proffigaverit. Non adeo tameu pietà lem aversatus est 
quìn fidem quam susceperat cbristianam piis operibus jugiter exomarit,^ 
ut de ìlio Capgravius loquitur. Sina quaBdam Sigbi filia vebementer 
illum exosa, ob patrem suum olim ueci datum, mortem illi praestigiis 
intttlit, et effecit ut lemurum opera, intemicione, submersione, et flam- 
mis extingueretur. Nimirum aedibus ab eo insessis, apud Toecletaicb 
(vel> ut Tigemacbus babet Mullacbcletaìch) propé Boinum amnem 
conflagrantibus, telo confossus, et vini dolio immersus fuit, anno regni 
24. Cbrìsti nati 527. 

ft De primordiis, pag. 610. Ibid., p. 1029. « Fol. 91. T Colgan 20 Mart. 
pag. 679, e. 1. vit» Cuthberti. 

<* See Ogygìa, p. 427. The beat au- The sixth age was from John the Bap- 

* thorities admit but three sons of Earc, tist to Doom's^y. 

Loarn, Fearghus, and Aenghus. 4 Tighearnach, 534, gives extracts 

P See Irish Nennius, p. 59, ci. civ. from a few historical poema on this 


in Latin and domestic in his native tongue, has the following in LAtin : 
Feargiios Mor, mac Earca, that is, Fearghus, the great, son of Earc, oc- 
cupied a large portion of Brìtain with the Dalridians and died there," 
io the first year of Pope Symmachus, which agrees, as Ussher truly 
obsenres, witB the year of our Lord, 498. I have in my possession aii 
Insh hook, " no modem authority/' as Ussher says, which in the syn- 
chronisms® of the Monarchs and Provincial Kings of Ir§}and and Al- 
bania, asserts, that the six sons of Earc, two Aenghuses, two Loami, 
and two Fearghuses passed over to Albania in the 20th year after the 
battle of Ocha. This batUe, in which Olili Molt King of Ireland 
was dain, was fought, as you have seen above, in the year 478, be- 
tveen which and 498, there intervened, as every one knows, 20 years. 
The Irìsh version of Nennius, as given in the Miscellany of O'Dubha- 
gain, (for I have not seen the Latin of Nennius), also states that in the 
sixth age,p the Dalriedi enteréd Pict-land ,and the Saxons Brìtain. 
O'Dnbhagain follows in minate detail the history of theDalrìedan colony, 
ud the difierent families descended from the originai settlers, what 
lands thej held in Albania, and what forces they were able to brìng to 
battle by sea or land. Of the names of places mentioned by him, I 
bow none, except Ila and Cantire. 

MuiRCHEABTACH, son of Muireadheach and Earca, after the death of 
Lughaidh, ascended the throne. He was highly famed in arms by seven- 
teen TÌctorìes over his enemies, and was attentive enough to hisreligious 
duties to merìt the eulogium of Capgrave, " that his good works gave 
edifying proof of the Christian faith which he professed." One Sina, 
a danghter of Sighi, conceived a mortai hatred against him, on accomit 
of tlie death of ber father, and worked his ruin by ber spells. With 
the aid of spirits, sword, fire and flood, were armed against him, for the 
palace in which he dwelt at Toecletaich, (or as Tigheamach calls it 
Mullachcletaich) near the Boyne, taking fire he was pierced through 
with a spear, and drowned in a cask of wine,i in the 24th year of his 
age, A.D. 527.' 

fiTent, but in Dr. O'Conor's version ^ xhe annals of Ulster record this 

% are not very clear. Untilpoems event at 533, or 535, and Tuathal'a. 

of the kind are publishecTIrish history accession, A.D. 536, thus allowing an 

J8 a skeleton. interregnum of one or three years. 




liellides Tuathalius Moelgharbh regnum, quod illì matris atenim nondn 
egresso S. Patrìcias portendit assecntus, imdecem annos administravi 
Mortezn tum denìque oppetiit à Moelmoro Argetani filìo, 1>enxiit 
filli Kervalli nutrìtio ; ut alii volunt coUactaneOj ut Tigernachus ute 
ino fratre apud Grallacbelt non procul à Clonmacnosià caesos ; M oe 
morus autem faclnus illud aggressns, ut maturìus regno Detmitias Grui 
retur» breve J|cinorisgaudiamretnlit àToathalìassedis illioo ccmscisso] 
An. Dom. 538.^ 

Hibemia, bisce quinque regibus ei moderantibns, religione pIuTÌmuB 
inclamit : cum trecentis in ea cathedralibus Ecclesiis à S. Patricio in 
stitutis ipse totidem Episcopos pFnfecerìt^ tria bominum millia sacer 
dotio ad populum religioni» informatione, sacnunentorumque adminfs^ 
tratione cunìulatius muniendum initiaverìt.^ Inusitata tum p»ne dix4 
erim profusa et immoderata bominum liberalitas erat largiendi modum 
sibi non praescrìbere^ sed a S. Patrieii arbitrio pendere volentium. Ille 
yero largitiones eorum inaudita prudentià certis eoercuit finibus. Nam 
decimum quemque bominem numinis cultui^ et decimam agri partem, 
ac decimum animai eorum alimonia^ addixìt.^^ duod si nitro donata in 
suum peculium S. Patridus retulisset, duorum equorum pastum sanctis 
post eum adventuris non reliquisset. Deinde angulns quisque regni 
multitudine sanctorum ita consitus full, ut Hibemìa sanctorum Insula 
ubique gentium audierìt. Eorum vero sanctorum erat cor unum et 
anima una ut in Catalogo sanctorum Hibemi» apud Usberum videro 

8 Trias. Thau., p. 132. e. 27. » JocoeU. e. 174. Ibid., e, 176. >0c. 174. 
H Act. 4. de primordiis EcdeBianim Brit. p. 913. Vita S. Columb» 1. 1. e. 36. 

The latter number and the two years, 
note b suprd, make up the whole in- 
terregnum admitted by Ware and 
OTlaherty after Lughaidh. This Muir- 
cheartach Ifac Earca was the first mo« 
narch of the northem Ui Neill of the 
fiunily of Eoghan, son of Niall of the 
nìne hostages. The fiimily gave six- 
teen kmgs to Ireland as our Latin mar- 
gin shows. 

• Toathal was the only Irìsh mo- 
narch of the race of Calrbre, son of 
Niall of the nine hostages. His family 
had extensÌTe possessions in Con- 
nacht — TVibes and Customs of Ut 

t This and the preoeding date, A.P. 
527, are the only two instances in 
which the difference between 0*Fla- 
herty and our author is Ave years. 

chap. rs.] 



TuATHAL M AELGARBH govemed eleven yean the kmgdom, which 

St. Padack had predicted for hhn, while he was yet in his mother's 

conili. He was alain by Maelmor, son of Airgeadan^ and foster-father 

of Diannaid mac CeirrbheoU, at Greallacheillte, near Cluainmicnoìs. 

Aecardmg to some accounts^ Maelmor was foster-brother^ and according 

io Tigheamach, uterine brother of Diannaid. But the traitor^ who had 

murdered his kìng to aeeelerate the accession of Diannaid, did not long 

enjoy the fìniits of his crime, for he was hewn to pieces on the spot 

by the retinue of Tuathal,^ A.D. 538.^ 

Durìng these five reigns, religion made great progress in Ireland* 
St. Patrick fonnded three hundred Episcopal Sees, and consecrated as 
many Bishops, and ordained three thoosand priests to instmct the peo- 
pie in the trnths of the Gospel, and adminìster to them the abmidant 
grace of the sacraments. So great was the unprecedented, I would 
almost say, the lavish and excessive generosity of the people, that the 
wiU of their Apostle was the sole mie and limit of their munificence. 
But wìth singular pnidence he confined the current of their liberality 
wì$fain certain bounds. He selected and directed one man in every ten 
to the service of God, atid ordained, for their support, the tenths of the 
firuits of the earth,*^ and of flocks and herds. Had he accepted ali the 
donations laid at his feet, " he would not bave lefl for the saints who 
came after him, so much as would feed two horses." Evexy corner of 
the Island was thronged with such a multitude of saints, that Ireland 
was known uni^ersally as the '* Island of Saints." "One heart and 
one sodi" reigned in those saìuts, as we leam from the Catalogues of 
ihe Saints published by Ussher.'^ 

u Some of these assertions rest on 
the anthoritj of Jocelyn, who, like 
many of his contemporaries, made the 
hìstory of distant ages according to 
notìana of his own. 

▼ Alludes to the three ordere oi 
great Irìsh saints. The first order 
lasted during the reigns of Laeghaire, 
Olili Molt, Lughaidfa, Muircheartach 

Mac Earca, and Tuathal. They were 
ali Bishops, Romans, Franks, Britons, 
or Scots. They had in ali things the 
same ecdesiastical rites and discipline. 
Their splendor, says the old annàlist, 
** was as of the sun :** more than forty 
of their names bave been preserved. 
U88her*8 Antiq, pp. 473, 490, 492. Seo 
notes supràEt^' 


rimhthan. Tuathalo caeso, Dennitius fìlius KeiTaillì rex Hibemise salutatus^ 
sive totius Scotiae regnator (S. Adamnanum audis) Deo authore ordì- 
natus est, qui à piis largitionibus initium regnandi duxit, araeà enim 
Ecclesiae Clonmacnoensis delineata, prima ejus fundamenta jecit, et 
Temoriam appìilsus tria, vel quatuor loca, et postea agros monti Usna> 
chce finitimos in S. Keranum, et Kenanusam in S. Columbam contulit ; 
et sub S. Kerani patrocinium concessiti ut est apud 0*Duveganum, 
qui dicit nuUum Hibemise regem, post illam fide illustratam fuisse ilio 
aut prudentiorem, aut formosiorem, aut potentiorem, aut cudendis le- 
gibus accuratiorem, ut qui comitiis Teamorìcis bis indictis, plures leges 
tuleritJ2 A deo acris earum cultor, ut ob unam vaccam viduaB ademp- 
tam, Guario Connacise regi bellum, et ob simile facinus, Bressallio 
filio necem intulerit Hoc vero justitiae studium aliis vitiis, sanctorum 
'-' J Columbse, Kerani, et Ruadani | execrationes promeritus maculavit, 
quse funestam illi mortem compararunt. Etenim in Banuani cujusdam 
sdibus apud Ratbbeggam de Muigblinne positis constitutus, ubi do- 
mum flagrasse persensit, extra portam se proripere conatus, ab Aido 
Nigro Dalaradise regulo, suo quondam alumno basta confossus e3||i^' 
Quare pedem infra tecta referens cado aqua plétao incendium declinans 
immersus, laqueari in ejus caput corruente peremptus est, anno regni 
vigesimo, et Cbristi 558, ut babent Annales nostri. Sed Annàlibus 
Ultoniensibus ab Ushero prolatis magis credo, S. Columbse discessum 
ex Hibemia in annum 563, referentibus^ duobus ante quem annis, 
pugnam Culedrebbnensem gestam fuisse S. Adamnannus narrat; ut 
bine perspiciatur Dennitius vitam et regnum ^altem ad annum 561, et 

12 S. Ennius in vita S. Patricii, p. 3, «e. 28, fol. 132. Odonel, in vita S. Co- 
lumb., lib. i., e. 64, Warrse de antiq., p. 166. 13 Oduveg. ubi suprà. 

V The first monarcb of the soathem in. te this^omhnall L and both are 

Ili Neill descended from Conall expressly classed by Qilla Modud 

Crimhthainn, son of Niall of the nìne among the southern Ui Neill. Per- 

hostages. There were seventeen Irish haps he means that Domhnall was the 

kings of this family. I know net first of the Meath branch which Gilla 

what Dr. O'Conor means by bis note. Modud distinguishes from the Bregian. 

Rer. Eih. II. p. 243, in which he as- ^cjt is at O'Flaherty's date of Diar- 

serts that Domhnall III. was the first maid's death, A.D. 565, that our an- 

Irish monarch of Jihe southern Ui nalists generally record the cursing of 

Neills. Por he there traces Domhnall the Eoyal palace of Teamhair, by St. 

CK±r. IX.] 



DiARjtfAiD I.^mac [Fearghusa] Ceirrbbeoìl» after the death of Tua- 
Ihal, was proclaìmed king of Ireland, or^ in the words of St Adamnan, 
" bj the ordinance of God he was inslituted kiiig of ali Scotìa." The 
ci^mmeiiceineiit of bis reign was sìgualìzed by pious munificence. He 
marked out the site for the church of Cluainmicnois^ and laid its founda- 
tion stono. During bis residence at Teaiubair he conferred three or four 
grants^ and afterwards the laDdsaround the bill ofUisneach, on St. Cia* 
ran^ asd Ceanannus, [Kellsjon St. Columba, and placed himself under 
tbe patronage of St. Ciaran. Never, sàys 0*Dubbagain, since the ligbt of 
faith shone on Ireland, was there a king moreprudent, more noble in per- 
soli» more powerful or more provident in tb^ enactment of laws, many of 
which he promolgated in two conventions held at Teambair. So severely 
did he enforce them that he waged war against Guaite, king of Connacht 
on account of a heifer stolen from a poor widow, and put bis son Breasail 
to death for a similar offence. But bis love of justice was disgraced 
by other crìmes which drew down on bim tbe maledictions of Columba, 
Ciaran, and Ruadbaii,^ and brought bim to a tragical end. For, while 
he was sojouming with Banuan in Ratbbeag of Maghline, discover- 
ing the house to be in flames, he rushed out tbrough tbe door; but was 
pierced tbrough with a spear by Aedb tbe black, prince of Dalaradia, 
wbo bad formerly been bis foster-son. Retuming into the house be 
plonged into a large vessel of water to save himself from the flames, 
but one of the falling rafters crushed bim to death, in tbe twentieth 
year of bis reign, A.D. 558.^ Tbis i» tbe date in our Annals, but I am 
more inclined to believe the annals of Ulster publisbed by Ussher, 
which refer tbe departure of Columba to Albania to tbe year 563, two 
years previous to the date assigned by Adamnan to tbe battle of Cuil- 
dreimhne, so that Diarmaid must bave reigned at least until tbe year 561, 

Roadban of Lothra and tbe Saints of 
£ire, from wbicb date Teamhair ceased 
to be a royal residence. Subsequent 
monarcbs selected their residence 
wberever they pleased. Battle ofMagh 
Rath, p. 5, note f- 

y Tbe only date in which our author 

differs from O'Flaherty by five years ; 
observe that though Dr. Lynch ìnclines 
in the next sentence to the year 561, he 
adheres nevertheless to the four Mas- 
ters and 558, by making Domhnall and 
Fearghus, the successors of Diarmaid 
I. die in 561, the third of their reign. 



[Gap. t 

ìpsis annalibus nostris testantibus ad binos px)st memoratam pugna 
annos produxisse.i^ 

Eoghan. Domnaldum et Fergusium Muchertachi filios Dermitìus successori 
habuìt^ qui bello ìnsignes triennium regnando permensi placida mori 
quieverunt. Anno Domini^ 561 : eorum S. Adamannus memìnit. 1 
I. e. 7. 

Eoghan. Eochodius, et Boethanus bic fratrìbus^ ille patri Donaldo successi 
quos decapitatosi S. Adamnannus, caesos vero fuìsse à Cronano Dy 
nasta Kiannacbtas de Glingembin, Anno 563^ et regni sai secund 
Annales nostri narrant.^* 

Gulban. Ainmirus Sednse filius bis suffectus est, vir sacrorum studiosissimi^ 
ut qui minimos naevos in Ecclesise ritus irrepsisse conspicatus, è Bri 
tannia Gildum Badonicum, ad eos abstergendos literis accivit ; Adam 
nanus mentionem illius facit. Illi, post tertium regni annum, Boetanc 
successore soUicitante, Fergusius Nelli filius vitam eripuit. Anno Do^ 
mini 566.*^ 

Gulban. Boetanus Nennedi filius annum duntaxat unicum in regno egit : cura 
duo Cuomoini, alter Colmanni parri^ alter Libbreni filius Colmanno 
parvo stimulante, i]lum ad Leimaneib aggressi vita regnoque spolia- 
runt. Anno Domini 567. 

14 Pag. 692. Praefa. 2, ad vitam S, Columbse. i» Vita S. Columb., lib. i., e. 
12. 16 9 Jan. lib. i., e. 7. 

B At ibis date 565 (6) our cbronology 
not inaptly represents the confosion 
which the desertion of the old palace 
of Teamhair must bave caused at the 
time. The best guides part company 
here and do not meet until 572. Ware 
and Ussher, on the authority of Tigh- 
earnach, assignthe deathof Domhnall 
I. A.D. 665v the accession of Ainmire, 
A.D. 566, and bis death, A,D. 569, 
when Baedan and Eochaidh succeed 
and reign until 572. See Ann, InnUfaU 
ien, A.D. 563. Cod. Bod. OTlaherty 
agrees wìth the text, and with justice I 
think, note « infra. 

& Fearghus is not mentioned at ali in 
Messingham's Adanman, nor Domh- 
nall in the 7th chap. Lih. 1. Batin 
chap. VI. a Domhnall, son of Aedh, is 
blessed by St. Columba. He is ma- 
nifestly, asWare states, Domhnall IL 
son of Aedh I. Ainmire. Dr. 0*Conor, 
according to bis custom, copies this 
incorrect reference of Dr. Lynch, Ep. 
Nuncup, p. Izzvii. See Lanigan, voi. 
II. p. 146. 

b Not in Messingham, lib. 1 , e. ix. 
but in e. V. an Eochaidh, son of King 
Aidan (Domhnall) is predicted by St. 
Columba, as Aidan*8 succeesor. 

Chaj . IZ.] 



since Olir own annals record his death two years later than the above- x.D. 
mentioned battle. 

DoMHNiiLL L aBd Fbarghus, the sona of Muircheartach^ succeeded 665 
rUianiaid; after a reìgn of three years, daring which their arme were 
always successfnl, they died a naturai death, A.D. 561«* They are 
meratioDed by St Adamnan. L. 1. C. 7.* 

SocHAiDH, son of DoMHNALL I. and Babdan I. biother to the 566 
Domlmal] I. succeeded to the throne^ Adamnan wrìtes that ''they 
were decapitated;"^ but our.AnnaIs state merely that they were slain by 
Cronan dynast of Kiannachta of Gleanngemhm» A*D. 563, in the 
second of dieir reign. 

AufìtiRE,^ son of Sedna» succeeding to the crown, was so zealous 568 
foT the interests of relìgion, that haviug discovered some trifling irre* 
golarìtiesB^ in the ceremonìes of the chuTch« he invìted over GUdas Ba- 
donìcus to reform them. He is mentioned by Adamnan. In the third 
year of bis reìgn he was slam by Fearghus, son of Niall, at theìnstiga- 
tion of Baedan who succeeded him, A.D. 666. 

Baebak II., son of Ninnidh/ reigned only one year ; he was de- 591 
posed and slain by the two Comains, the son of Oolman, the Little, 
and the son of Libhren, at Leim-an-eich, A.D. 567. 

^ The first of the Tìrconaill brandi 
of the northem Ui Neìll, descended 
fìxnn Conall Gnlban, son of Niall of 
the nine hostages. Ten kings of their 
race enjojed the Iri8h throne. St. 
Ckdumba was of this royal tribe. 

d The nature of those irresrularities 
ìa amplj discussed by Dr. Ljnch in 
another chapter. 

« Ware omits this Baedan altogether, 
though Tigheamach mentions his ac- 
cession, A.D. 573, and bis death, A.D. 
586, stjling him king of Teamhair. 
The Ulster Annals also, though they 
TCcord Ainmire's accession, A.D. 565, 
his death A.D. 568, and the reigns of 
Eocbaidh and Baedan, A.D. 568—571, 
gire another date of Ainmire's acces- 

sion. A.D. 575. Ware cannot there- 
fore strictly claim the authority either 
of the Ulster Annals or of Tighearnach 
for his arrangement. Moreorer from 
note b supra, it is more probable that 
Eochaidh succeeded Domhnall I. Dr. 
Lanigan ezplains the dìfficulty, by 
saying that the Eochaidh and Baedan, 
whom OTlaherty places before Ain. 
mire, are the same as those whom 
Ware places after them ; but Tighear- 
nach clearly distinguishes Baedan Mac 
Muireadhach from Baedan Mac Nin- 
nidh. Neither can Ware, by omitting 
Baedan li. complete the 48 kings from 
Laeghaire to Maelseachlainn n. giren 
by Qilla Modud, whose authority, 
moreover, directly confirms the order 



[Gap. IX. 

Gulban Aidus Ainmirì filius rerum sumnaae praeficitur, qui ante regnum sus- 
ceptum, in S. Columbam munificus, caenobium ei Dorense, fundumque 
redditus caenobitis alendis cumulate subministraturum, et alia post mu- 
nera elargì tus est. Is in solio regio collocatus Reip. administrationi 
totus incubuit^ Hibemice proceribus eo convocante Dhimkeatham^ ad 
leges condendas, coeuntìbus, et quatuordecem menses illic hserentibus, 
Aidanoque Gaurani filio Scotorum Albiensium Rege illi se caetui aggre- 
gante. Aidum Hibemiae regem essi filii paenas^ et Boarium censum à 
Lagenìensibus bello repetentem Brandubhus Lagenise Rex annum reg- 
ni vigesimum septimum agentem occidit, decimo Jan uarii:* Anno Domini 

Crimh- Aidus cognomento Slanensis Dermitii, et Colmanus Rimiedus Boe- 

than et thani primi filius, collegas in regno constituti sunt. Illum matri 

* sterili preces divi Aidi antistitis impetrarunt, et eidem intra materna 

viscera nondum efformato idem Aidus, ^adulto autem S. Columba, Hiber- 

nise regnum obventurum vaticinatus est, et cuculio suo, ac monitis 

praemunivit. Ambo sexennium regno potiti, vitam regnumque termi' 

narunt : hunc Lochano Diolmhono, illum Conallo Suibhnei filio, propè 

Lochseimhdighe, interimeilte. Anno Domini 600.^® 

Boghan. Aidus Uarinoch Domnaldi filius ad regni culmen evectus est; ejus 

agnomini ea notio subest, ut innuat illum profligatissimis morbi parox- 

ìsmis agitatum fuisse. Vir fuit sequitatis stabiliendae studiosus ; qui 

septennis rex propè Athdafeartam, è vita migravit. Anno Domini 607. 

17 Odonelli YÌta S. Columb., lib. !., cap. 48, 56, Adamn., lib. i., e, 10 and 49. 
18 Colg. 18 Februarii. O'Donel.. lib. i«, e. 84. Adam., lib. i., e. 4. 

of the reign8 bere adopted by our au- 
thor and OTlaherty. 

f Tighearnach, A.D. 598, allows Aedh 
I. only nineteen years reign, which 
must commence at the battle of Druim 
mie Earca, A.D. 580, in which Aedh, 
defeated Colga, son of Domhnall I. 
Tighearnach, therefore, makes Aedh I. 
and Baedan II. coUeagues, from 580 to 
586, note ^ supra, See Annah of Innis- 
fallen, A.D. 573, 580, Cod, Bod. 

gWith this reign ends the second 
order of Irish Saìnts, whose " splendor 
was like the moon." They had the 
same Easter and tonsure, but dififerent 
masse s and rules introduced from 
Wales. Few of these Saints were 
bishops, but 300 of them were priests, 
amongst whom are many whose naraes 
are stili embalmed in popular traditlon 
and associated with Irish ecclesiastìcal 
ruins ; two Finnians, two Brendans, 

Chap. IX.] 



Aebh I. son of AiMMiRE, who was next raised lo the throne» was be- 
foTe his elevation a great patron of St Colomba, on whom he conferred 
a graot of Doire with revenues for the support of the monks, and 
manj^ other gìfts. On his accession he devoted himself exclusively to 
the affaiis of govemment^ and convoked the nobles of Ireland to Drum- 
keath^ where^ together with Aidan son of Gaurany king of Albania, they 
remained fourteen months, dìscussing and enacting laws. Aedh, having 
attacked the Lagenians, for the murder of his son, and also the re- 
covery of the Boromean tributo, was slain by Brandubh, king of Lein- 
ster, in the 27th^ of his reign^ on the lOth of January, A.D. 694.» * 

Aebh II. sumamed Sigine, son of Qiarmaid I. and Coiman Rimidh, 
soD of Baedan I. were next colle^ues in the throne. Aedh*s mother, 
who had been childless, obtained him by the prayers x)f St. Aedh, who 
predicted eren b^ore his conception, as Columba dìd when he was a 
yoimg man, that he would one day wear the Irìsh crown. Columba 
blessed and strengthened him with his cowl and his advice.^ After a 
jomtreign of six years. Coiman was slain by Lochan Dilmana, and Aedh 
by Cenali, son of Suibhne, near Loch Semhdidhe [Sewdy], A.D. 600.* 

Aedh III. surnamed Uairidhnach, son of Domhnall I. who suc- 
ceeded, acquired his sumame from the terrific paroxysms of illness 
undet which he sn^fered. He was distinguished for his love of justice,*^ 
and after a reign of seven years died near Ath-da-fearta, A.D. 607.' 

Colomba, Kevin, Congall, Eiaran, 
Canice, &c. Ussher Antìq. p. 474. The 
chronological dìscrepandes from A.D. 
Ó65 to this date, arose perhaps from 
the conflictmg claims of the three 
great branches of the Ui Neill, who 
began at the former date, and conti- 
nned for more than 200 years to enjoy 
the crown nearly in equal succession. 

b This reference to Adamnan, Lib. 
1. e. IV, is not correct. 

i Tighearnach records the accession 
of Aedh m.A.D. 605, and the deaths 
of Aedh I. and Coiman, A.D. 604, 

"What availeth king? or judge? or 
power of princes ? Coiman the munifi. 
cent hath fallen by the hand of Lochan 
the hireling." Oldpoem, ibid, 

k ** He judged justly and according 
tolaws" ; Gìllamodud, apud 0*Conor. 

l Tighearnach, A.D. 612, records his 
death; bui at A.D. 605, calls him 
Aedh Allan. Aedh may bave had two 
surnames, and thns Dr. O'Conor's cri- 
ticism on IJssher, who calls Aedh HI. 
Allan, falla to the ground. Ep. Nuncup. 
p. Ixxyiii. and rol. II. p. 183. 



[Gap. rX. 

Gulban. Moelcobhas Aidi filius Ammiri nepos rex inauguratus triennium reg- 
nando transegìt; cum Soiblineas Meannius regnum ei vitamque^ in 
prselio de Sliabhtoadh ademisset; Anno Domini 610 : virum strenuum 
fuisse magnoque cleri Leithcuinensis desiderio peremptum GiUemodu- 
dus narrat. Alii tamen Moelcobum hunc teneros adhuc annos agentem 
[76] à I morte per S, Columbam excitatum^ postea regno non cessum exci- 
disse^ sed eo nitro se abdicasse, monacborumque cffitni se aggregasse, 
ac deinde Cloehorensem Episcopum rennntiatum, in cselitnm tandem 
numerum relatum, eiqiie Drumliasensem Ecclesiam sacratam esse nar- 

Eoghan. Suibbneus Mennius regnum morte decessorìs partum, et tredecem 
annos retentum amisi t, à Con gallo Scanlani filio Ultonise rege, apnd 
Traigbbrene, caesus ; Aniìo Domini 623.*® 

Gulban. Donnaldns Aidi ólins, Ainmiri ne(>os regiam dignitatem, et placidam 
mortem à S. Columba illi praesagitam nactus est. Toto sexdecem an- 
* norum quibus regnavit decursii, multa prseclarè gessit, Victoria de bos- 
tibus crebro reportatà. Sui contemptus in eo maxime tum emicuit, 
cum delicti veniam à S. Fecbino demissius efflagitans ad pedes ejus 
prostratus coUum si^um ab eo calcari passas est.*' Ille praeter alia pie- 

19 O^nel, L i. e. 66. 20 Trias Thau. pag. 450» num. 50. 21 Adanm. e. 10. 
Idem 1. 3. e. 5. 

m ** Three years, years of war, reign- 
ed the brave Maelcobha ; the clergy of 
Leath Cuinn mourn for him, slain in 
battle." Dr. O'Conor erroneously 
translates "0 Cuiijij,** *«0 Connorum." 
Proleg» par, 1 . p. clxix. 

n They deserve no credit. Tighear- 
nach and the Annals of Ulster record 
his death, A.D. 615 (4). Perhaps the 
story explains the epithet ** clericus»* 
given te him by OTlaherty. See Lan. 
igan, voL II. p. 302 (6), In the bat- 
tle of Magh Bath, p. 11, however, it 
is stated that Maelcobha resigned the 
crown and retired to Druìm Dilair, 
(now Drumdillar in the parìsh of De- 

venish. Co. of Fermanagh,) where he 
had a small hermìtage with ten women 
and one hundred clerks to offer masses 
and sing vespers at the hours. 

o O'Conor, Ep. Nun. p. Ixxìx. criti- 
cizes Ussher for styling thìs monarch 
son of **Mend," and Ware for styling 
him son of Ilachra. In defence of 
Ware, we may cite 0*Conor*8 own 
edltion of Tigheamach, A.D. 628. 
Ussher's blunder is quite as pardonable 
as 0*Conor*8 various translations of 
"ipeijb," i.e. **illustrìs** ubi supra, 
*« parvus," voi. II. p. 183. O'Flaherty 
leaves the epithet in its originai, and 
reads Eiachna for Fiachra. 

Chip. IX.] 



Mablcdbha» son of Aedb I. and grandson of Aìnmire^bemgproclaim- 
ed ìsag, was deposed and slam after a reìgn of three years, by Saibbne 
Meamiìn tbe battle of Slìabb-toadb, A.D. 610. Gillanìodud extols bis 
brareij, and sajs tbe elergy of Ijeatb Conn"' bemoaned bis deatb. But» 
aeeording to otber accoiints,^ Maelcobba wasin bìsyoutb raised from tbe 
dead by St Colamba, and was not slain, bnt abdicated tbe tbrone of 
Ids own free cboice^ and embraced the monastic life, from wbìcb be was 
nised to tbe See of Clocbar» and after bis deatb was bonored as a 
Saint, and patron of tbe cbnrcb of Druimlias. 

SuiBHNB MsAiTK,* baving obtaìned tbe crown by tbe murder of bis 
predeoessor^ was bimself slain in the tbirteentb year of bis reign by 
CoDgal^Pson of .Scamial, king of Ulster^ at Traigb-breana, (near Ail- 
each), A.D. 62S. 

DoHHNALL II.' son of Aedb I. and grandson of Ainmire, obtaìned 
the kingdom and a happy deatb, as St. Columba had foretold.' Durlng 
the àxteen years of bis reign he gain ed many victories over bis ene- 
mies, and performed many illustrious deeds.^ Tbe most signal instance 
of bis hinnility was wben he tbrew bimself at the feet of St. Feichin to 
beg pardon for bis crime,^ and allowed the saint to place bis foot on bis 
Deck. Among many otber monuments of bis piety, I find it reeorded 
by some, that be founded the monastery of Conga/ wbìcb was dedi- 

P One of the grcat beroes in the Bat> 
ile of Magh Bath, p. 35, surnamed 
•'cUoi),crooked,'* and ** caocI), blind." 
See Ttghearnach, A.D. 626, 628. 

4 le. XJlidia, part of Down and An* 

r Tbe King of Eirecommanding at 
Hagb Sath. See bis addreaa lx> bis 
^^7fibidA6S, They marehed under 
"tbe gtreamìng, atar-brìght, oona^ 
crated satin banner" of St. Columba, 
P. 1^. 
•note b iuprà, 

^GilU Modud atyles him "Domh- 

of tbe sciencea." O'Cmor. 

This '* crime" was an ezpedition 

aarched by DomhnaU into Meath, 

imt tbe south Ui Nelli, to efiect 

a new distrìbution of the Ui Neill ìn- 
heritance, and thence called r^i5l)eAbl) 
Al) fQbe]ch, or "expeditio tequalitatla." 
The Southern UlNeilldreading tomeet 
DomhnaU in the field, had recouree to 
the prayers of St. Feicbin of Fobbar, 
who accepted the office of mediator, 
and by perauaaion and mimclea com* 
pelled DomhnaU to retire, and leave 
the land in peaee. Acta 88, p. 137. 
See ibidtmt p. 142, a leamed inquiry 
into the real nature of DomhnaU'a 
claims. Ware aaya, but wìihout au< 
thority, DomhnaU'a brother, Mael- 
cobha, was Bishop of Cloohar. 

▼ Ware, Antiq. e. 26, but wìthout 
good authority. Lanigan, voi. iii. p. 



[Càp. IX. 






tatis monumenta, caenobium Congense S. Pechino, ut alicubi legi, 
sacratum condidit ; ac tandem pio fine vitam clausit ; morbo scilicet 
ingravescente, menses octodecem lecto affixus, animam noxis per con- 
fessienem expiatam, et singulis diebus dominicis pane celesti refectam 
emisit, ultimo Januarii. Anno Domini 639.^2 apud Artfothad in Tir- 
connellia, postea vocatam RatlidomlmaiU in Tiraodha. Vel potius, ut 
habent annales Ultonienses apud Usherum 642.*^ 

Connallus et Kellachus Moelchobii filii Hibemiffi regnum pari po- 
testate septem annos administrarunt. Tum denique illum Dermitii 
successoris ferrum, hunc mors sustulit. Anno Domini 656. 

Blathmacum et Dermicium Aidi Slanii filios, sicut natura fratres, 
sic genus et sors reges Hibernise fecit ; quos octavo post regnum initum 
anno pestis Hiberniam late pervagata, et populata vìvìs eripuit. Anno 

Domini 664. 

Sachnasachus Blathmaci filius regimm Hibemiae quinquennio pos- 
sedit. Tum demum illud ei vitamque Dubhdunnius Kenelcorbriae do- 
minus eripuit. Anno Domini 669. 

Kanfaladium decessoris fratrem HibemisB regno quatuor annos poti- 
tum Finnachtus successor interemit in praelio de Airchealtra, Anno 

Domini 673. 

Finnachta cognomento Fleadhach (id est convivator, quod exercenda 
hospitalitate plurimum capiebatur) Dunchadi filius, Aidi Slanii nepos 
ad regni fastigium evectus, et in eo viginti annos collocatus est, qui 

22 Vita S. Fechini S^O. Janu. e. 35. 23XJvarraBUS de antìq. p. 222.pag. 712. 

w At the death of Domhnall, Tighear- 
nàfch, A.D. 643, and after him the 
Ulster Annals remark, " Hic dubitatur 
quia regnavitpost Domnall. Dicunt 
alii historiographi regnasse quatuor 
reges ; Cellach et Connal coel, et duos 
filios Aedh Slaine, i.e. Diarmad et 
Blathmac per commixta regna. Ann, 
Uh. A.D. 642. 

X Tigheamach, A.D. 643. " Connal 
coel et Cellach obtinent regnum Hi- 

y A.D. 654, Ware & OTlaherty, who 
date the accession of Blathmac and 
Diarmaid II. A.D. 658, on the death of 
Cenali. But at A.D. 654, Tigheamach 
records, '* Blaithmac et Dermad, duo 
fùerunt regia Hiberniae*" Hencefor- 
ward the chronological dìfficulties are 

z The Chonaill Buidhe, which car- 
ned off many distinguished characters, 
especiallj some Irish saints of the 
third order, whose catalogne closes at 

€haf. IX.] 



cated to St Feichìn. His death was saintly^ for being confined to hÌ8 
bed dghteen months by his mortai ìllness, he purìfied his soul by the 
confession of his sìns, and refreshed himself every Sunday with the 
Bread of Hea^en. He expired at Ardfothadh in Tir-Conaill, which was 
a/teiwards called Rathdomhnaill in Tiraedha, on the last day of January, 
A.D. 639,^ or rather as Ussher states fh>m the Ulster Anna]s^ A.D. 642, 

CoNALL and Ceallach,^ sons of Maelchobha^ govemed the kingdoni 
of Ireland jointly during seven years. The latter died a naturai death, 
the foimer was slain bv the sword of Diannaidhis successor, A.D. 666. 

Blathhac and Diarmaid II.^ the sonsof Aedh II. Slaine> brothers 
in blood^ were placed by fortune and hereditary right colleagues on 
the Irish throne, which they enjoyed eight years. Both were carried 
ofi* by the plague,' which spread its depopulating ravages to ali parts 
of Ireland, A.D. 664.* 

Seìchnasach, son«of Blathmac,^ reigned five years. He was de- 
posed and slain by Dubhduin, Lord of Kinealcairbre, A.D. 669.^ 

Eeannfaeladh, brother of the preceding^ reigned four years^ and 
was slain by his successor Finnachta in the battio of Aircealtair, A.D. 

Finnachta, surnamed Fleadhagh (that is, the hospitable, from his 
laTish bospitalityO son of Dunchadh, and grandson of Aedh Slaine, was 
then raised to the royal throne, which he adomed during twenty years. 

thùdate. Their splendor was "like 
the stare." They were one hundred in 
number, mostlj priests and a few 
bishops who liyed in desert placca, on 
berbs, water, and the alms^ of the 
£ùthfal. They did net use the aame 
tonsilla, nor celebrate Easter at the 
same times. The principal Bishops 
▼ere Ultan, Coiman, Aidan of Feama- 
inor, &c. &c. and the priests Feichin, 
Cnnunian, Cronan, &c. &c. 

*The Ulster Annals record this 
c^ent, A.D. 664, and also, secundum 
«lioB, A.D. 667. 

b Two other sons of Blathmac were 
murdered inthe millof Maelodran (now 
Mollenoran, near Mullingar), A.D. 
651. Tigheamach, *< O MiU of Mael- 
odran, why hast thou ground the green 
wheat? mayest thou neyer grind agoin, 
thou that hast ground the scions of Mac 
CeirrbheoiI (Diarmaid I;) ; not oats, 
but wheat of blood thou hast ground ; 
be thou accursed for everlasting ages, 
O Millof Maelodran." — Oldpoem. ihid. 

e The Ulster Annals record his death, 
A.D. 670, and Geannfaeladli*s acces- 
Sion, A.D. 671. 



[Cap. IX. 

fuit in pietatem adeo propeQsus, ut duodecimo regni anno clericatum 
(Tigernaci yerbis utor) susceperit, et sequ^iti anno ad regnum re- 
versus fuerit Quae verba meo quidem judicio insinuant alicui se re- 
ligìosorum hominum csetui adscrìpsisse^ et ante religionis tyrocinium 
inter eos positum^ publicis negotiis id forsitan exigentibus^ rerum ad- 
ministrationem, optimatum impulsu denuo suscepisse. Prsclarìssimum 
pietatis ejus argumentum est^ quod mulctam Boariam Lageniensibus^ 
S. Molingo impensius rogante^ in perpetuum condonaverìt. Census 
autem iJle Boarius constabat ex quindecies mille bobus^ totidem suibus, 
totìdem velaminibus^ totidem vervecibus^ totidem catenis argenteis, 
totidem lebetibus seneis vel cnpreis tam capacibus> ut eorum singulos 
magnitudinem lebetis Teamorici (in quo duodecem boves, totidemque 
sues una coquebantur) exsequare oportuerit. Prsterea bis adjungebantur 
trìginta candidse vel rubrae boves, quarum singulas suus vitulus .colore 
matri conformis comìtabatur. Totìdem etiam ffi^ea vincula^ qu» boum 
sub tecto stabulantium colla, et alia totidem etiam sanea^ qu® pedes 
eorum dum mulgerentur astringei'ent. Hanc mulctmn à Tuatbalio 
Tecbtmarìo primum irrogatam quotannis Lagenienses quadraginta Hi- 
bernise regìbus è Tuathali stirpe procreatis pjBndebant. Cujus magni* 
ficenti^ mercedem uberrimam S. Molìngus Finnacthi ceedem ceelitus 
[77] I edoctus^ à Deo traditam ipsi fuisse vìdit Nìmirum cum iUe jugulatus 
est (ut Tigemacbus loquitur) in preelio de Graillacb Dolaicb ab Aido 
Dlutbacìì iìlio, Aililli nepote^ Aidi Slaniì pronepote Dinasta de Farcu- 
labreagb^ et Congalacbo filio Covangii nepote Congalacbi pronepote 
Aidi Slaniì; Anno Domini 693. 14 Novembris. 

Gulban. Longsecbum ex Engusìo fratre Finacbtì nepotem solio regio annos 
octo insidentem Kellacbus Regallacbì filius Connacise rex in pugna de 
Coren interemit. Anno Domini 701. 

Gulban. Congalius cognomenlo Kinmagar Fergusii filius septem annos scep- 

d A.D. 688. 

e Tigheamach cites the first lines of a 
poem on Finsneachta, by Adamnan bis 
contemporaryand admirer, from which 
Dr. O'Conor infers that the above 
estimate of the Boromean tributa is 
greatly exaggerated. * ' Great was thy 

tributa, O Finsneachta, son of the vir- 
tuousDonnchadh, threetimasfifty, one 
huudred oxan, well trained te the yoke, 
and with each of tham a calf." What 
more Adamnan may bave said, Tigh< 
aamach does not tali. His custom is to 
cita a few lines. 


So great was iiìs devotion to religion, that in the twelfth year of his 
leigabeentered '' the derical state" (the words of Tlgheaniach)<> and 
retimied to the worid in the following year. The construction I put 
opoii those words is^ that he entered some religious community, whence 
hewascalled ont again, perhaps in some pnhlic emergency at the re- 
qaest of the nohles, hefore he had completed his noviciate. A most 
sigimi proof of his piety is the renunciation> made hy him at the ear- 
Destpnyersof St. Moling, of the Boromean trihute demauded firom 
Leinster. That tributo consisted of fifteen thousand oxen/ as many 
swìne, and robes, and wethers, and gold chains, and brass or copper 
pota, each equal in dimension to the great canldron of Teamhair, 
in wbiclr twelve oxen and as many pigs could he boiled together. To 
these were added thirty white or red cows, each with its calf, the same 
color as the dam. There were also fifteen thousand brass chains for the 
Decb of the cattle while they were in stali» and the same number for 
theÌT feet when they were milked. This tribnte/ which was first im- 
posed bj Tuathal Teachtmhar, contmued to he paid yearly by the men 
of Leinster to forty Irish kings descended from his line. The generosity 
of Fìannachta was not without its reward, for St Moling, to whom his 
death was revealed,^ saw him receiving his recompense from God. Fin- 
naclita was slain (jugulatus, as Tigheamach writes,) in the battio of 
Greallach BoUaith, by Aedh sou of Dluthach, grandson of Ailill, great 
grandson of Aedh Slaine, dynast of Fearculabreagh, and Conghalach 
son of Conaing, grandson of Conghal, great grandson of Aedh Slaine. 
14 November, A.D. 693. 

LoiNosEACH, nephew to Finnachta, by his brother Aenghus, having 
succeeded and reigned eight years, was slain by Keallach, son of Ra 
gballachin the battle of Corann, A.D. 701.^ 

CoNGAL L somamed Keannmaghair, son of Fearghus» swayed the 

^Finsneachta made good use of his who remitted the Boromean tribute.'* 

vealth. " He was the bulwork of the Tigheamach A.I). 695. 

^^i^nìed, the bounteous and hospitable ^ The Annals of Ulster record the 

ofthefoamingbowls."— Gt7/aJlfo£?u(f. death of Loinggeach, A.D. 702(3) and 

i And moumed for his death. '* O, the accession of Congal, A.D. 704(5) 

WmoumfolthatFinsneachtashouid Tigheamach, also, gives the years 

lieweak and powerless thi« day, he A.D. 703—705. 



[Cap. IX. 

tTum gessit, vir bellandi studio vehementissime captiis, ut qui obsides 
provinciarum domurn qùotannis dimiseri t, eosque rursum bello vindi- 
caverit, et Lageniam armis infestaverit, ob proavuin ejus Aidum Ainmiri 
filium in pTselio de Burlachdimbolg occisum. Ipse mortem repentinam 
oppetiit. Anno Domini 708. 
Eoghan. ^^ demortui locum successit Firgalius Moeldunio Moelitarii filio, 
Aidi Uardinochi nepote genitus. Hoc ad octavum regni annum pro- 
vecto, cum filius ejus Nellus Frassach gigneretur, mellis apud Otham- 
beg, argenti apud Othanmor, et in Lagenia imber tritici caelo demissus 
est. Fergalius in Lagenienses, cum ob mulctam boariam non solutam, 
tum ob alias causas exasperatus, exercitum è semel et vigecies mille 
hominum conflatum in Lageniam eduxit^ et MuTchadium Brami filium 
Lagenise Regem novem duntaxat millibus stipatum^ apud Almuniam 
obviam habuit. Tum infestis animis et armis aeriter utrinque con- 
curritur. Decertantium contumacia victoriam diu ancipitem fecit.* 
Tandem Rex Hibemia) decimo regni anno cum centum et sexaginta 
8uis proceribus, in acie cecidit Novem stragi s atroci tate perterriti 
amentià corripiuntur, et per silvas, aviosque recessus instar ferarum 
lucones oberrant. Denique septies mille utrinque desiderati sunt. An- 
no Domini 718. 

Forgarthacum Nelli filium^ Kemachi nepotem, Dermitii Regis pro- 
nepotem unius anni regem^ in prselio Delganensi Kenetbus occidit. 
Anno Domini 719. 

Kenetbus Irgalacii filius, Aidi Slanii abnepos regnum iniit, qui sic 
in flentem nescio quem excanduit, ut illum ex Ecclesia de Dombnach- 
padrig per vim extractum morte multaverit. Violentiae à Deo indignius 
lataB indicium fuit, quod illieo ex altari Ecclesia illius S. Patricii ma- 
nibus consecrato, tres sanguinei rivuli eruperint, quorum duo, Kenetho 



» There are no evidences of this ex- 
travagant propensity in Tigheamach. 
The warrior king died in the monastery 
of Lotra, A.D. 710 — ibid, net in the 
plain of Teamhair as Dr. O'Conor would 
bave it. Proleg. par. 1. p. cbm. 
k **Ofblood,"Tigh€arnach,A.D.718, 
where these prodigies are recorded. 

J Tigheamach, A.D. 722, who cites 
two poems on the subject, " fallen are 
the hosts at Almhain, that gnarded 
the oxen at Magh Br^igh; Toltures 
bave devoured with bloody beaks, with 
Bharp swords, those who defended thy 
head, ! Firghal,"&c. &c. Until those 
hìBtorical poems are correctly publish- 


sceptre seren years. He was so passionatelj addicted to war, that he 
libemted his proTÌncìal hostages eveiy year^ and then flew to arms to 
bare tbem delìvered ap to bis hands.-^ He scourged Leinster with his 
anoies, to revenge his grand&ther^ Aedh son of Ainmire, who was slain 
in the batUe of Barlachdiinbolg. He was carrìed off by a sadden 
death, A.D. 7(». 

Fearqhal, son of Maelduin Maelitar, and grandson to Aedh III. 
UaiTÌdhnach sacceeded after the death of Congal. In the eighth jear 
of his reign^ at the birth of his son Niall Franach, there fell a shower 
of honey at Othainbeag, a shower of money at Othainmor^ and a shower 
of wheat^ in Leinster. Fearghal being incensed against the Lagenians 
on account of the remission of the Boromean tributo and other causes^ 
coQected an army of twenty-one thousand men^ and marching into 
Leinster^ encountered Murchadh son of Bran, at Almhain> who had only 
nine thousand men. Both armies rushed to the battio with infuriate 
rage and valor^ and the obstinacy of the combatants long held the 
rictoiy in suspense. But at ìàst vìctory declared against the King of 
Iieland, who fell on the field with one hundred and sixty of his 
nobles.' Nine soldiers went mad from their horror of the camage, and 
wandered like wild beasts through the forests and trackless wilds.*^ The 
total slain on both sides was seven thousand men. A.D. 718. 

FoGARTACH, sou of Niall, grandson of Keamach, and great grandson 
of Diarmaid I* was slain by Kinaeth after one year's reign in the battio 
ofDelgean, A.D. 719. 

Kinaeth^ son of Irgalach, descendant of Aedh II. Slaine, succeeded 
to the throne. Conceiving an unaccountable aversion to a person whom 
he saw weeping in the Church of Domhnach-Padraig, he ordered him 
to he dragged out and slain on the spot. When, beh old, three streams 
of hlood, Issued from the aitar, which had been consecrated by the 
bands of St. Patrick — a manìfest proof of the anger of God for the 
desecration of his church, nor did two of them cease to flów until 

«3, Irish history is a tree without the word **volatilÌ8"a8 if they werea 

foliage. Our fathers wrote laws, his- certain order of soldiers. A meaning 

tory, religion, every thing in poetry. more consistent with our text may be 

» These must be the 9 C7) S^Icai of found in the Battle of Magh Rath, p. 

Tighearnach. Dr. O'Conor translates 236, note. 


tres ìlli Ecclesia^ fandos elargito^ manare desierunt^ Alius non autt 
fluendi finem, quàm Kenetus vivendi^ tertio regni anno fecit à Flaber 
tacho interemptus, in praelio Dromcorcranensi. Anno 722. 

Galban. Flabhertachus Longsechi regia filius dignitate regia deinde falsiti qu 
sepdmum regni annum attingens honorìs cadaci pertsesus, nontio dig- 
nitati remisso, instituta monachorum amplexus est^ Anno Domini 729; 
et accuratiori eorum observationi reliquos triginta vit» sosb annos im- 
pendit Tarn demum Ardmachae animam efflavit^ Anno Domini 760. 

EoghaD. Aido Oliano Fergutii regis filio regni fasces delati sunt, qui literis 
addictus^ et injuriarum Ecclesiis Olatarum vindex acerrimus, à Donaldo 
successore^ novemjam annos imperans, in praelio de Muighsearadh, 
apud Kannanas trucidatus est. Anno Domini 788 : ejus regnum prò- 
digiis memorabile fuit. Mare caetum tres dentes aureos habentem in 
Ultoniae littus ejecit ; et naves armamentis nautisque instructae in aere 
vis» sunt. 

Crimh- Donaldus Murcbadi filius ad regni clavum annos viginti sedit, cum 
than. ^ Hiensem insulam peregrinationis obeundte causa profectus, diem 
suum illic obierit. Anno Domini 7d8^ vel potìus 763. 

£oghan. Nellus cognomento Frassach, id est imbricus sive nimbosus, quod 

eo genito^ molle, argento, et trìtico, jam rege, sanguine pluerit. Fer- 

galii regis filius septem annos in administranda Hibemia progressus. 

[78] regni fastidio, | yitaeque sanctioris desiderio captus, non solum Hiberoi» 

regno, sed etiam finibus ultro excessit, et in Hiensem insulam con- 

w Trias Thaum. p. 150, e. 7. 

nA.D. 765, Tigheamach. Hedìed '*leaxned*' by poema celebrating ina 

in orders, ** in clericatu." The royal own victory over the Lagenìans in the 

honors of the house of Cenali Gulban battle of Ucbadh, the most fatai in 

were buried with Flaithhheartach in whichtheyeverengaged Tigheamach 

the monastery of Ard-Macha. He was A.D. 738. This Aedh Allan is evi- 
the lastmonarchof bis line. Theunited dently different from the Aedh, note 
reigns of the ten Conall kings amount * suprày though Dr. 0*Conor asserts 
only to 55 years, which give an average there was but one of that surname. 
considerably lower than those of their P The reign of Domhnall III. was the 
two rivai linea. *- reign of prodigies. Besides the won- 

o He proved his title to the surname dera in the text recorded by Tighcar- 

Chap, DC] 



Einaeth bad conferred three grants of land on the &ame charch* The 
third was not drìed np nntil the death of Kinaeth who was slain in the 
tìiiid jear of his reign by Flaithbheartach in the hattle of Droim- 
Cmctm, A.D. 722. 

Flaithbheartach, son of Jkmg Loingseach, was next elevated te 
the loyal digniiy, but after a reign of seven years, being disgusted with 
Meeting honors, he embraced the monastic life, A.D. 729, and devoted 
the thirty foìlowing years to the stript observance of the virtues of 
the cloister. He died at Arà-macha, A.D. 760.'^ 

Aedh IY. sumamed Allan, son of king Fearghos next seized the 
sceptie. He was a great lover of leaming,^ and a stem champion of 
the rigbte of the chorch, bnt was slain in the seventh year of his 
reign by bis successor in the battle of Magbseirigh near Keanannus, 
A.D. 738. Wonderfnl events occarred in his reign. A whale, with 
three golden teeth, was stranded on the coast of Ulster, and fleets of 
ships, vitb men and armour, were seen sailing in the heavens.? 

DoMHNALL III. son of MuTchadb, aftef guiding the helm of state 
doring twenty years, retired on a pilgrìmage to la, where he expired, 
A.D. 758, or rather 763.« 

Nuli I. sumamed Frosacb, that is the " showery" or the " cloudy," 
becanse it rained blood in his reign, as it had rained honey, sìlver, and 
^heat at bis birth,' next ascended the throne. He was son of king 
Feargbus. Having govemed Ireland during seven years, he grew weary 
of this worid, and inspired with an ardent desire of a holier state, he 
renounced net only the crown of Irefand,» but his native land itself. 

Mch, A.D. 744-748, stara frequently 
feU fiorn tbe beavens, a deep snow de- 
^yed nearly ali the cattile in Ireland, 
andfamine wasted the land. 
iDomhnall ni. had taken some orders 
in740«mclericatumexit." Tighear^ 
«w^: but in 743 he began to reign, 
aoddied in 763 accoiding to the same 

'Note k sapra. The fragment of 
Tighearnacb on the reign of Niall I. 

does not record the " shower of blood," 
but ithfls other strange entries, **a 
wonderful and horrible sìgn was seen 
in the night. Flaithbheartach, king of 
Ireland, dies in dericatu," A.D. 765. 
« OTlaherty dates the accession of 
Donnchadh I. from this event, A.D. 
770, thus giving to Donnchadh 27 
years* reign. Ware dates from the 
death of Niall I. and allows only 
19 years. 



[Gap. IX. 


cessit ubi post annos octo in se virtutibus excolendo positos pio fine 
yitam terminavit** 

Donchadas, aliis Donatus Domnaldi regis filius regno viginti septem 
annos potitas^ cum magna pietatis, et rat» paenitentìae laude^ Yitam 
hanc mortalem immortali mutavit, Anno Domini 792. 

Eoghan. Aidus Amidi us Nelli Nimbosi filius potestatem regiam, qua viginti 
quinque annos munitus erat, i^d resarciendas molestias Ecclesiasticis fa- 
cessitas convertit ; quibjis ad bella proficisci antea consueiis^ immunita- 
tem ab onere isto impertiit. Ille^ ubi vitse finem impendere sibi sensit, 
animi sordibus per confessionem elùtis, sacra quoque synaxi percepta, 
et sacro ad supremam luctam oleo inunctus^ diem suum pie obiit, apud 
Athdafartam de Muighconell in Kenebonise, Kenelconelliseque confi- 
nio. Anno Domini 817. 

Crimh. ' Conchovarius Donchadi regis filius decimo quarto regni anno espleto, 
than. multa delictorum pcenitentià vicinae morti prolusiti quam pie obiit. 
Anno Domini 831. 

Eoghan. Nellus Calneus Aidi Ordnidiì filius^ primo regni anno^ Danos propè 
Doriam Ultoniss urbem, postremo in Maighith Tirconnellise agro fudit. 
Cognomen à Gallino amne sortitus est quod fluvium istum agnomini 
municipio in comitatu- Kilkenniensi adfluentem trajecturus^ ubi vadum 
explorantibus submersionis perìculo subducendis ad ripam ap- 
propinquasset, bumo pedi equino cedente illapsus in amnem submersus 
fuit anno regni decimo tertio, Gratiss 844. 

25 Trias Thaum. p. 448. 

tAnd was buried there in "the 
tomb of the Irìsh kings," according to 
Ware. Dr. O'Conor brings him home 
to Ireland and buries him in Doire, 
but one of the readings of Gìlla Mo- 
dud partly substantiates Ware. Proleg, 
par. l.p. clv. 

oFrom the death of DonnchadhI. 
A^D. 795, to the accessionof Brian Bo- 
roìmhe, 1001(2) the Four Master s are 
one year after O'Flaherty except at 
860, 876, where the difference is two 

years. The rarying difierences lie 
principally between A.D. 623 and 718, 
Gilla Modud styles Donnehadh I. 
"Donnchadh the Fair, the very pros- 
perous and just.*' 

▼ That is " the Legislator." During 
bis reign flourished the celebrated Fo- 
thad of the canone. 

^I find no proof of this assertion in 
ourpreceding Annals. The military 
Services exacted from the clergy com- 
menced very probably in this or the 

ClIAP. IX.] 



and retired to the Island of Ift, where, after eight years spent in the 
diltgent exercises of virtue^ he ptously breathed bis last.^ 

DoNNCHABH I. or, as some style bim» Donatus, aon of King Domh- 
nall, having succeeded to the throne, passed from a mortai to an ìm- 
mortal life after a reign of twenty-seven years, leaving after him a re- 
patatìon of great piety and singular penitence, A.D. 792." 

Abdh V. somamed OianNiDHs/ son of Niall I. Frosacb, ascended 
the throne, and exercised bis royal authority to redress the beavy 
grieranoes to whicb the clorgy were subjectedy for he exempted them 
firom the military aervice^ whicb bis predecessors had exacted.^ Wben 
he felt that bis mortai career was drawing to a close^ he purified bis 
conscience by a confession of bis sins^ received the holy communion, 
and was anointed witb the boly oil for the final struggle, and thus 
pioosly breathed bis last in the twenty-fifth year of bis reign at Ath 
da-fhearta of Maghconaille^ on the confines of Kenebon and Kineal- 
conaill, A.D. 817, 

CoNCHOBHAR^ son of Donncbadh I. reigned fourteen years. He 
prepared for death with great penance for bis sìns^ and died piously, 
A.D. 831. 

Niall I. sumamed Caille, son of Aedh II. Oirdnidhe, in the first 
year of bis reign defeated the Danes, near Doire a city in Ulster, and in 
the last year at Maghita a terrìtory in TirconailL His sumame was 
derìred ùom the rìvei Callainn,' whicb flows tbrougb the town of that 
name in the Coonty of Kilkenny; for, approachlng too near the bank in 
his anxiety to resene some men wbo had been setit out to try whetber 
the river was fordable, the ground sunk under his charger's feet, and 
he was plnnged into the river and drowned in the thirteenth year of bis 
reign, A.D. 844. 

preceding rdgn, and though Niall re- 
mìtted them on the dedaion of Fothad 
in tbe year 799 (800), it is certain that 
hencefòrward the dergy became pro- 
mìnent in cìyìI and military affiiirs. 
The inyasions of Fagan Danes nata- 
rally compelled t^em to use their in- 
flnence, and it is remarkable that of 

fifteen kings from Aedh Allan to 
Maelseachlainiì, ali died a naturai 
death, except three who fell in battle 
against the Danes, and one who iras 
acddentally drowned.—- See InÉroàuc- 
tion to Chap, IX. 
X Called to this day the king's rirer, 


norum in memorato conflictu cecìderunt. Decimum nonum deinde 
regni annum agens, agros omnes inter Diiblinium Athrustanumque in 
Danorum potestate positos late populatus est. Demum ad vigesimiun 
[79] I <luÌDlam regni annum^ et vitse finem repentina morte penrenit. Anno 
Domini 942. 
Crimh- Congalachus Molmithii fiUùs regnmn a Danorum Dubliniensium 
than, aggressione auspicatus, quatuor eorum miltìa pugnans occidit. Dubli- 
nium postea ingressus^ urbem diripuit^ et opibiis ac praeciosà quaque sup- 
perlectile ìllìnc exportatà^ flammis absumpsit* Tertio etiam deinde anno, 
propé Slaniam Danos ìnnumeros ferro <etunda deleyit. Sequenti quoque 
anno cum iis acie decertans mille sexcentos^ et filacarum eorum ducem 
neci dedit. Duobus defainc annis, pugna cum iis ad Muinebracaniam 
initày sex primorum millia^ cum Imaro duce^ pr^eter gregarìorum mili- 
tum multìtudinem perieruut. Duodecimo demum regni anno^ Lage« 
niensum contumaciam bello frangentem> Dani à Lageniensibus accitit 
ad Toyghgingram trucidarunt ; Anno Domini 954. 
Eoghan. Monaldo O'Neal Murchertachi filio, Nelli Gland.ubbi nepoti^ post plu- 
rimas concertationes^ tam prosperas, quam adversas cum boste babìtas, 
et peccata summopere defleta, vigesimus quartus regni annus fuit vitse 
postremus^ quae illum Ardmacbse defecìt. Anno Domini 978. 
Crìmh- Malacbias secundus Domnaldi decessoris fìlius diu faelix, ut qui Danos 
than. quìnquies, seditiosos Hibemos multoties fuderit^ et regni exordium a 
Teamoricà Victoria duxerit : ubi prsBter Reginaldum Anlafi filium copia- 
rum omnium ducem, Canmalium Gillarì filium Dubliniensumque pri- 
mores csesos, universum pene Danorum, tam Dubliniensium, quam insù- 
lanorum exercitum intemecione delevit. 

Proximo deinde anno, immensi exercitus obsidione Dublinio per tri- 
duum admota, Dublinienses ad bis mille obsides Hibemos, praeter Dom- 
nallum Claon Lageniae regem, et Aitbitaeum O'Neil, dimittendos adegit^ 
tum etiam omnes Hibemos in Danorum servitute per Hibemiam positos 

e « < Moumful was the bill, the beloved of pirates. " — Gilla Modud. 

Cruachan, for the death of Bonn- gTbelastùndispnted'motiaFchof the 

chadh, the descendant of Tuathal Northern Ui NeiU of Eoghan*B race. 

Teachtmhar." — GìUa Modud, The united fourteen reigns (two reigns 

f ** The victoriouB and the scourge vere jqint reigns) of the sixteen Eo- 


reign he laid waste the whole territory between Dublin and Ath-Truis- 
tean, [near Athj] which was then occupied by the Danes. He died 
suddenly^ in the twenty-fifth year of bis reign^ A.D. 942. 

CoNGHALACH II. son of Maelmithigh, opened bis relgn vrith an on- « 
slaaght on the Danes of Dublin, slayìng four thousand of them in bis 
first batde. He took and plundered Dublin, and after sending off ali 
its wealth and costly materìals, delivered np the buildings to the flames 
Agaìn, in the thiid year of bis reign^ he slew or drowned bosts of 
Danes near Slaine. The foUowing year, one thousand six hundred of 
them with their general Blacaire, fell beneath bis sword in pitched 
battle. Two years later he met them at Muinebrocain, and slew six 
thousand of their chief men, with Imhar their general, besides a count- 
less herd of the common soldiers. But in the twelfth year of bis reign, 
having taken up arms to chastise* the insolence of the Lagenìans, they 
called in the Danes to their assistance, and Conghalach' fell in the 
battle field at Tigb-Gighgrain, [near the river Liffey.] A.D. 954 [956]. 

DoMHNALL IV. O'Neill, sou of MuÌTcbeartach^ grandson of Niall 
III. Glundabb, after many reverses and victories in bis fields against 
the Danes, died at Ard-Macha after a most heartfelt repentance for bis 
sins, in the twenty-fourtb year of bis reign.» A.D. 978. [^rectè 979.] 

Maelseachlainn II. son of a former king Donnchadb II. com- 
menced bis reign with the victory of Teambair, in which he slew Reginald 
son of Olaf, the commander in chief, Conmal, son of Gillarri, and the 
chieftaius of Dublin, and almost annihilated the whole army of the 
Danes of Dublin and of the Islands.** Five times he defeated the Danes, 
and often suppressed the rebellious attempts of bis countrymen. Jn 
the next year, marching at the head of an immense army, he laid 
seige to Dublin, and on the tbìrd day compelled the Danes to liberate 
two thousand Irìsh bostages, together with Dombnall Claen, King of 
Leinster, and Aithine O'Neill, whom they had in captivity. He also 
compelled them to liberate ali the Irisb, who were slaves to the Danes 

gban kings, amount to I5à years, rdgns. See note P suprù, p. 26. 
givingan arerage of more than eleren ^ Tigheamach, A.D. 980; Ann. In- 
years to each reign, that is more than nisfal. A.D. 962 ; ^r. Gomm. 960. 
doublé the arerage of the Cenali 




[Cap. IX. 

in lìbertatem asseruit. Porro servitus ista servitutis Babilonica^ similitu^ 
dinem referebat, et ejus cruciatus à nollis nisi ab infernalibus supera- 
bàntur.^ Decimo quoque imperii anno Dublinium viginti dierum ob- 
sidione^ lata prius strage Dubliniensium sedità cinsi t^ et omnem ad 
eos aditum sic interclusiti ut aliam aquam interea quam salsam non 
biberint ac tandem obsequium ei prò ipsius arbitrio detulerìnt, et ad 
unciam auream è singulis hortis illi^ ejusque successcdbus Hibemiae 
regibus^ in quolibet natalium Domini pervigilio> se tradìtutos obstrìnx- 
erint. Decimo sexto regni anno annulum Tomarii^ et ensem Caroli 
Dubliniensibus per vim ademit. Sub decimum nonum regni annum 
Dublinienses Danos alia clade apnd Glenmamam prostravi t^ Artalacho 
Sitrici, Araldo Andavi, Culeno Ecbitigeni filio, nec non optimatibus 
Dubliniensibus innumerisque gregaiìis militibus oceisis*^^ Dublinii 
deinde unius hebdomadsB moram trabens, magnam obsidum, auri argen- 
tique copiam inde retulit, et Sitrico Amlavi filio in^exilium pulso, 
faces urbi subjecit. Malachia ad vigesimum tertium regni annum per- 
veniente, plerorumque Hibemiae procerum suiTragiis, et ipsius tandem 
Malachise, omnes à se defecisse perspicientis, delatione ; - 

27 Tiger. continuator, «a Tigeriui. continuator. 

i Becorded proudly by Tigheamach, 
A.D. 980. 

kTigheamach, A.D. 989. 

1 The 13th year according to Tigh- 
eamach, A D. 995. For the sword of 
C§rlus and the ring of Tornar won by 
Maelseachlainn from the proud in- 
vader, 866 Introduction to the Book of 
RightSf p. 40. 

Ili The forces of Brian Borumha and 
Maelseachlainn II. were combined in 
this engagement,— ^Tigheamach, A.D* 
998. The glory of this exploit belongs 
net to Brian Borumha alone — Tighear^ 
naeh 999. Annui. InnisfaL 982. 

n Modem historians gire very con- 
flicting accounts of tlie progress of 

^' this revolution," for a revolution it 
was, as Dr. Lanigan justly observes. 
Even Mr. Moore*s story abounds in 
anachronisms more irreconcilable with 
the concurrent testimony of our An- 
nals, than any two conflicting passages 
of those Annals in the darkest perioda 
of our history. He represents Brian as 
king of Leath Mogha in 982, by treaty 
with Maelseachlainn II. though Brl- 
an's name does not appear in Tighear- 
nach beyond Thomond, until 992, 
when he marched against Loch Ainninn 
in Meath, but retreated <*furtini, wìth- 
out prey of man or cattle." Our na- 
tional bard was misled by Dr. 0'Brien*s 
work on the Law of Tanistry, as 

Ghap. IX.] 



in eveiy pirt of Ireland. Now the captìvìtj of Babylon itself was not 
more gailisg than tliat tyxHjmyof the Danes; nothiiig but the tonnents 
of hell itself cdnld exceed it. In the tenth jrear of his reign alao, he 
gained a decbÌTe vìctory over the Dublln Danes^ and blocked up Dab- 
lin itself so dosely dnring twenty days, that the besieged had no water 
to drinx, but salt water, and were at last compelled to surrender on the 
conqnexor s terms,^ whiph were, that on Chxistmas Ève each year» 
they shonld pay to him and his successors, the Kings of Ireland, an 
onnce of gold, trìbnte from each of their gardens. In the tenth year 
of his rèign,^ he carrìed off the celiar of Tornar, and the sword of 
Carlos, from the Danes of Dablin. Again, in the nineteenth year 
of bis reign, he defeated the Danes of Dnblin with great slaughter at 
Glfflunama, slajrìng Artalach son of Sitrìc, Arald son of Amlaf, Cu- 
lin son of Ecfaitìgra, together with the chief men of Dublin, and an 
innuBierable hexd of common soldiers.^ Taking up his quarters in 
Dublin, during one week, he sdzed a great number of hostages, and 
an enonnous spoil of gold and silver, and having banished Sitrìc son 
of Anlaf fìom the island, he delirered up the city to the flames."^ 
Maelseacblaìnn having now reigned twenty-three years, the great ma- 
jority of the Irìsh lords revolted, and he, findinghimself deserted by ali 
resigned thó crown to Ireland's choice, Brìan Borumha, who was pro- 
claimed King.*^ 

publìshed in ValUincey's Collectanea, 
or those modem Amials of Innisfìdlen 
compiled towards the dose of the last 
centuiy, and fìlli of chronological 
errcNre: or fae did not adyert to the 
fact that the Teal AimalB of Innìs&llen 
are behind the conunon sera hj 14, 15, 
16, or 17 years, in the records of the 
llthcentoiy. The trae orderofeYents 
appears from Tigheamach coDated 
with the Annals of Innisfallen. It 
was thos — ^Brian invades Meath wìth- 
out success in 962, is defeated hy Mael- 
seachlainn in Mnnster in 994, com- 
bìnes with Maelaeachlaum against tlie 

Doblin Danes and takes hostages from 
Connacht in 998, burns the fortress of 
Dublin in 999, rebels treacherously for 
the first time(ceb ]i9pob) against Mael- 
seachlainn with ali Leath Mogha and 
the Danes in 1000, but retires fìrom 
Teamhair, his vanguard of Danish 
cayalry haring been cut to pieces bj 
Kaelseaohlainn ; takes his position 
at Fearta-neme in East Meath, but 
was proclaimed king of Ireland in 
1001 . This is Tigheamach's account. 
His being proclaimed king means that 
he took hostages from Maelaeach- 
lainu, which the Annals of Innisfallen 



[Cap. IX. 

Brìanus Boramlius rex Hibemise salutatus est Vir rebus pace ae 
bello prseclare gestis Celebris^ ut qui fTcclesiam omni decere, Kemp. 
optimis institutìs exernaverit, nobilitati pristinam dignilatem, et amissas 
sedes, vulgo quietem comparaverit : bellator autem adeo ssgregìus 
fuerit, ut vigiliti quinque victori^ ab hoste retulerit, quarum postrema 
Clontarfensis fuit, cui conserendo Moelmorus Lageniae Rex, et Dani 
Dublinienses conjuratione inità causam praebuerunt. Dublinien^ium 
tamen quatuor mìllia, eorum qui peregre auxilio lis venerunt septin*- 
genti supra sex millia ; centeni supra ter mille Lagenienses, cum suo 
Rege Moelmoro in eo conflictu ceciderunt. Annales Innisfallenses 
paucis rem complexi aiunt : Moelmorum regem, et proceres Lageniae 
[80] eum | Danis paenè omnibus ìnteriisse. Nec incruenta fuit Briano Vic- 
toria : ex ejus enim exercitu quatuor millia desiderata sunt. Ipse quo- 
que Brianus Isetbali vulneie afiectus, postridie peccatis per confessionem 
expiatis> caelesti pabulo refectus, et unctionis extrems sacramento 
munitus, banc vitam cselesti mutavit. Anno astatis- 88, regni 12^- 
Cbristi nati 1014, 23 Aprilis. 

Decessor Briani Mal^chias eidem novem annos successit, multis 
interim Danos damnis efficiens. Nam sedes omnes, et habitacula Dub- 
limo finitima incendio absumpsit, et immensam Danorum stragem apud 
Odbbbam sìdidit, amplasque praedas ab iis postea, et ultimo vitae anno, 
apud Athbnitblacham, memorabilem retulit victoriam plurimis illorum 
csesis. Mensis deinde unus effluxit, cum morti vicinus confessionis, 
Eucharistiae, et unctionis sacramenta Amalgadii Archiepiscopi Arma- 
ebani ministerio percipiens, extremum vitae diem clausit, apud luniblo- 
cbanin ; sanctorum etiam Columbae Kieranique successoribus ei morienti 
assistentibus, et precibus suis ac praesentià funus ejus honestantibus 

record, A.D. d84. The c<mhined 
cperations of Brian and Maelseach- 
lainn against Connacht and the Dub- 
lin Danes, A.D. 998, had for their ob- 
ject that each shouldhave the hostages 
of hi8 own half of Ireland. 

o Yet he was driven back from the 
North in 1002 without hostages from 
the race of Eoghao, Gonall, or Orghialla 
— Tigkearnach, The two former paid 

him no tributa until three or four years 
before the battle of Clontarf, A.D. 
1014.— ^nn. Innis. A.D. 992, 993. 
Cod. Bodleian, 

P These precìse words are in neither 
of the Annals of Innisfallen published 
b7 Dr. O'Conor. O'Donovan's Four 
Masters givés full details of this great 

4 ** Maelseachlainn plunders the 


BrìaD Borumba was emìnent for noble deeds iu peace and war. 
He lestored the gloiy of the Cburch, established the wìsest laws 
foT lìis kìngdom, and gave peace to the people, and their ancien t 
dignity and lost inheritances to the nobles.® So great was bis fame in 
war, that he gained twenty-five victorìes oyer the enemy, the last and 
greatest of which was on the field of Clontarf^ over the combined forces 
of th^ Danes of Dublin and Maelmordha king of Leinster. Four thou- 
sand of the Danes of Dablin, and six thousand seven bnndred foreign 
anxiliarìes, and three thoasand one hundred of the men of Leinster, with 
their king Maelmordha, were slain on the field. The Annals of Inis- 
fallen, sam up the resolt in a few words, " King Maelmordha and the 
chieftains of Leinster, with nearly ali the Danes, were slain. '*p But 
Brìan's was net a bloodless victory ; four thousand of bis army being 
slain, and the monarch himself, who was mortally wounded, passed on 
the following day from an earthly to a heavenly crown, after having 
expiated bis sins by confession,mnd received the Bread of Heaven and 
the Sacrament of Extreme Unction. He died in the eigbty-eighth 
year of bis age, the twelfth of bis reign, on the 23rd of Aprii, A.D. 

Maelseachlaink il on the death of Brian, resuming the reins of 
government, reigned nine years, during which he gained many yictories 
over the Danes. He burnt ali their establishments and bouses, to the 
walls of Dublin, and gave them a terrible overtbrow at Odbbba ; after 
which he continued to take great spoils from them, and in the last year 
of his reign slew great numbers in the memorable victory of Atb-buidbe- 
Tlachtgba. A month after tbis victory,^ feeling bis end was approacbing, 
he received the sacraments of confession, communion, and extreme 
QQctionfirom the hands of Ambalgbaidb, Archbishop of Ard-Macha; 
and breatbed bis last at Cro-inis-Locha Aininn.' The successors of St. 
Kiaran and St. Columba werealso present at bis death, and bonored bis 
fonerai procession with their presence and prayers, on the 4th of the 

Galls."— TV^A. A.D. 1021. good orders and of the nobles of the 

'Cro-inìs, ìs an island in Loch Ain- whole western world, died at Cro- 

nhm, now Longh Ennell, near Mul- inis, an island in Loch Ainninn, 

Hngar, in the County of Westmeath. in the 43rdyear of his reign." — Tigh, 

"Maelseachlainn the Great, supreme A.D. 1022. Tigheamach very rarely 

king of ali Ireland, the tower of the indulges in similar eulogy. 



[Gap. IX. 

quarto nonas Septembris. Anno Domini 1023. Is vero moriens jussit, 
ut trecenti pupilli parentibus orbati ad numinis gratiam ejus animae 
conciliandam in varìis oppidis nutrirentur. 

Porro arctioribus finibus successorum Malachiae quam decessorum 
potestas constringebatur. Oli enìm Keges *' Gafìrasabbrach" dicebantur, 
quìbus verbis innuitur, alii][uibus ìnvitis, imo et relnctantibus^ ìllos ad 
regìam dignitatem evectos fuìsse. Nempe quìspiam é Leitbcunnenpbus 
Rex non instituebatur nisi Leithcunnìà tota, et una Leithmo» prp- 
rincià ejus imperatìs obteuìperante. Nec è Leitbmoensibus quispiam 
honore regis insigniebatur, nisi prseter Leìthmoam, et Temorise fines, 
una quoque Leithcunnise provincia in ejus ditione foret. Hinc vetus- 
tiores antiquarii, non sicut priorum regum, sic horum nomina in regum 
album seriatim retulerunt Ita ut in regum bujus secundi ordinis 
enumeratione scriptores nostri plurimum fluctuent, uno eum quem in 
Annalibus potentià reliquos anteire deprehendit classi regum inserente^ 
alio penitus eundem omittente. ^ 

Sic Donatum O Brian Briani Borumhi filium in regia dignitate prox- 

B He was the last undisputed mo- 
narch of the Southern Ui Neill, of the 
race of Conall Crlmhthan, Bon of Mail 
of the Nine Hostages. The united 
sixteen reigns (one was a joint reign) 
of the seventeen southemUi Neill kings 
amount to250 jears, being nearly six- 
teen ye^urs for each reign, an average 
greater by one half than that of the 
Eoghan reigns, note ^ p. 32. suprà, and 
triple that of the Conall Gulhan reigns, 
note P p. 26, suprà, With Maelseach- 
lainn Mor. U. fell the power of bis 
house, whìch had withstood during 
more than 200 jears the assaults of 
the Danes. There was now no bulwark 
in Leinster agaìnst invaders. 

* •• The friend of the poor, the sick, 
and the afflicted."^Gt7/a Modud, 

« However later writers may bave dif- 
fered on these matters — Book o/RightSy 

p. xiii., contemporary writers speak 
plainly enough. "From the death 
of Maelseachlainn Ili the legitimate 
monarchy of ali Ireland departed from 
ali families during 72 years, uhtil the 
joint reigns of Muircheartaich O'Brìain 
and Domhnall Mac Lochlainn : dnrìng 
that time no Feis or general assembly, 
so agreeable to the people, was held, 
because Ireland had no supreme king." 
These are the words of the poet Gilla 
Modud who lived early in the 12th 
century. — Proleg, par. 1. p. clxxv, 
clxxyiii. Tighearnach, or the con- 
tinuator of bis chronicle, confirms 
that statement, and appears to weigh 
bis words in definìng the precise power 
of each pretender • after Maelseach- 
lainn. TakìngTighearnach's notes of 
the most prominent characters we find 
" Cuan O'Lochan die in 1024," with- 

Chip. IX.] 



Nones of September, A.D. 1033.* On bis death-bed, he ordered that 
; three hundred orphans should be sapported in difierent towns for the 
good of his soul and the glory of God.* 

Tbe authorìty of Maelseachlainn's saccessors was restrìcted to 
narrower limits, than that of his predecessora ; for succeeding Kings were 
alled Go-irasabhrach, which raeans, literally, that they were never 
QDanimously acknowledged, and were oflen resisted. For example, no 
oatire of Leath-Cuinn was instituted king, if^ besides the whole of 
Leath-Cuinn^ <me province of Leath-Mogha> did not also acknowledge his 
tide ; nor was any prìnce of Leath-Mogha regarded as king, if, besides 
ali Leath-Mogha and the territory of Teamhair, he did not also possess 
oneproTince of Leath«C uinn* Hence our ancient historìans bave not given 
a regolar catalogne of those kitter kings, like that of their royal prede- 
cessoTs ; so that there is great discrepancy in the line of successione 
hm this period, as given by vaiious wrìters, one person sometimes in- 
serting in the royal list, some prince who appeared in his judgment to 
be the most powerful, while another totally omits bim." 

For instance^ Donnchadh O'Brìain, son of Brian Borumìia^ is put down 

out any remark on his supposed re- 
gency of the kingdom. In 1039 Bonn- 
chadh Mac Gìll Patrie ** supreme lord 
of Lemater and Osraidhe, and of a great 
P«rt of Ireland" dies. In 1072 Dlar- 
iQiud Mac MaelnambOy *'king of the 
Britona, the Elyidas, and Dublin, and 
f Leath Mogha,** dies. In 1086 Toir- 
dhealbhach O'Conchobhair "king tj/* 
t^greaterpart(aVrntof\K) of Ireland" 
dies. Doimchadh O'Briain took the 
iiostages of Meath, Leinster, the 
l^anes, and Osraidhe, and had the 
Aichbìshop of Ard'Macha in his palace 
at Cìnncoradh in 1026 ; Ann. Innisf. 
1009, bnt Ì8 no where called king of 
Irdand by Tigheamach, who was of 
the royal sept of the SiUMuìreadhaigh 
ofConnacht. Among the conflìcting 
daìniants, he clings to legitimacy, and 
'^rda the deaths of Conchobhar and 

Maelseachlainn, and of his son Mael- 
seachlainn, kinga of Tearnhair, at the 
years 1073, 1067. Also at the years 
1026, 1035, 1047, 1056, he records the 
deaths of tti5 ó^ib^A, or candidate kings 
of Ireland of the UiNeiUfamUy. But 
contrary to his costoni he records the 
hirth of Mnircheartach O'Briain, king 
of Ireland, A.D. 1050; and mentions con* 
didate kings of Ireland of the 0*firiain 
family 1066, 1064, which prore dearljr 
that prejudice against that family did 
not g^de his estimate of their power. 
How could he be prejudiced, honest 
soni, who records without a comment 
the destruction of his own monastery 
of Cluainmicnois at least half a dozen 
times durìng his own life time, by the 
high-bom plunderers, who sported 
with the lives of their people and the 
honor of their country. 

- t 


ìinam Malachi» successoreni aliqui statuunt; alìi regum numero 
prorsus excludunt. Quod si regìs titulus, ob rernm gestamm supra 
cffiteros emìnentiam cuìpiam adjudicandus fuerìt^ eum non immerito 
Donatas referet, ut quo, proximè post excessum Malachite, aut ex- 
peditìonibus babitìs, aut victorììs, prasdis, obsidibusque relatis, nemo 
celebrior fuerìt. Anno enim 1027, magnis copiis in aciem eductis, 
è Media, Breghià, Lagenià, et Ossoria plurimas praedas domum re- 
tulit. Dublinii quoque nemine reluctante, biduo castrìs propè urbem 
positis, commoratus est.^ Anno 1036, una tantum nave ìnstructus 
quatuordecem Brefnensium naveS depressit et vastationem paulo ante 
ab iis Clonfartse illatam cumulate ultus est.^ Anno 1050, Lagenien- 
slum, et Ossoriensium rebellantium eontumaciam, obsides ab illis re- 
ferens, fregit.^* Anno 1060, Rothericum Ctlonchabbor Connacise regeui 
adiit, et quot voluit obsides ab eo retulìt.^ Et ut estera ìndicia Regis 
Hibemise titulum illi vendicantia praeteream, Annales Innisfalenses 
filium ejus Murachum Regis Hìbemise filìum appellant.^ Sane annales 
iidem leges ab eo latas fuisse narrant, quibus pares a S. Patricii diebus 
in Hibemia non ferebantur.^* Latrocinia praesertim iis coercuit, et diei 
dominicae relìgiosissimus cultor vetuit onera diebus dominicis vehi, aut 
nundinas, venationesve fieri.^ Anno etiam 1050, nimia pluvia eaui 
annonae caritatem fecit, ut prsesertìm in Momonià homines omni reve- 
rentia rerum, et cognationura sacrarum conculcata in Ecclesiae patri- 
norumque bona involaverint. Cui malo ut Donatus medelam adbiberet^ 
rgn luaguo presulum et procerum Momoniensium | csetu convocato, decreta 
ejusmodi condidit, quse non solum late grassantem latronum audaciam 
penitus compresseruut, sed etiam divini numinis iram averterunt. 
Tandem tamen non solum Hibemise, sed etiam Momonise (cujus Rex 
indubitatus erat) regno exutus, Roraam peregiinandi causa petiit, ibique 
se intra monasterii recessus recepii, ubi felici morte diem clausit ex> 

29 Annales InnisfEdenses. so Ibidem. 3i Ibidem. 32 Tigema. continuator. 
33 Ad annum 1068. 34 Ad annum 1041. 35 Annales communes. 

▼ The old Annals of Innisfalien cali ^ The elements were in harmonj 
him ni5-6Àfbi;Aof Ireland, A.D. 1051, with the politicai state of Ireland 
as does Tighcarnach also, A.D. )068. during this reign ; tliere were storros. 

Chap. DU] CAMBIU:N9IS £y£BSUS. 41 

by some as Maelseaehlainn's successor in the royal dignlty ; while others 
esclude hhn. But if renowned actions, far superìor to those of othera, 
be any title to a regal lank^ Donnchadh certainly deserves it ; for im- 
mediately after the death of Maelseachlainn, he rose tohìgh fame by his 
Tictories and expeditions^ in which he carried off great plunder and many 
Iiostages. Takìng the field in 1027 at the head of an immense army» 
àe swept throngh Meath, Bregia, Leinster, and Osraidhe^ and levied 
lai^e contributions. For two days he lay without molestation in his 
camp under the walls of Dublin. In 1036 wìth only one ship he cap- 
tored and sank twelve vessels belonging to the Brefnians, and took 
signal vengeance on them for theìr devastation of Cluainfearta. In 1050 
he croshed an insurrection of the men of Leinster and Osraidhe, and. 
compelled them to give hostages. In 1060 he marched against Ruaidhrì 
O'Concbobhahr king of Connacht^ and took from him as many hostages 
as he asked. Finally, not to mention other proofs of his claims to the 
title of monarch of Ireland, the Annals of Inisfallen expressly cali his 
wn Mnirceartach^ king of Ireland. From the same authority we leam 
that laws were enacted by him for the government of the kingdom 
superior to ali laws from the days of St. Patrick. Robbery, particu- 
larly, he repressed^ and so religiously did he enforce the observauce of 
the Sabbath, that on that day no hanting, nor market^ uor carriage, 
vas allowed. In the year 1050, in consequence of excessive rain 
tbere was such a scarcity of provisìons, that the Irish, especially in 
Mnnster, losing ali reverence for holy things, and trampling on the 
rights of holy kindred, seized the property of the church and of 
sponsoTs. To remedy the evil, Donnchadh convoked a great council of 
the prelates and lords of Munster, and enacted laws which speedily 
checked the wide-spreading sacrilege> and arrested the anger of God. 
At length resigning the crown not only of Ireland^ but also of Munster, 
(of which he was undoubted king), he went on a pilgrimage to Rome» 
^here he retired to a monastery and died a happy death.^ 

inow, rain, and drought. Annal. In- seachlainn Mor*8 death there was an 
Disfai. 998, 1006, 1011, 1016. 1030, eclipseof the snn, and no rain fell from 
1035, 1040. The year after Mael- Christmas Ève to the foUowing Maj. 


Dermitium Donati cognomento Moelnamoi filium, Lageniae Regem 
aliqui regum Hìbernice albo ìnserunt^ alii eximunt.^ Multa quidem 
inter Hibemi» reges illi locum arrogant. Etenim inclinante jam Do- 
nati potestàte, nullus prò illorum temporum sestimatione factìs ilio 
clarior extitit Ipse Donati erat è ** Derbhorgilla" filia nepos; aegemmò 
tamen tulisse videtur Tadaeum Donati fratrem, si ùon fallor, majorem 
natu^ quem indubitittum regni Hibemiae successorem annales Innis- 
falenses vocant, Eliensibos à Donato tràditnm^ ab iisdem per proditi- 
onem interemptum fuisse. Illiùs certe Tadaei filium Terdelachum sibi 
Dermicius 4damnum adsciyit^ et ut regnum illi Momoniae vendicaretur, 
nuUum lapidem non movit. Ac primum Waterfordiam anno 1037 
direptam cremavit. Anno 1042 Glannusenam incendio absumpsit, 
centum viris in ea cfesis, et quadringentis in capti?itateni abductis. 
Anno 1048 immensam pecorum praodam, et multos captivos è Desia 
retulit Anno 1058 post Limbricum incendio devastatum, et Innis- 
cetam direptam pugna cum Donato apud montem Crot congressus^ 
ejus exercitum profligavit Anno 1061 copiis in Momoniam adductis, 
maximam Momoniensium stragem^ ad On^mchoill edidit agris deinde 
vaatatis, tectis et segeti flammas injecit. Anno 1063 Limbricum Der- 
micio ignem immittente conflagravit Tum Momoniensium optimates 
illum convenientes obsequium illi, obsidesque obtulerunt. Sed postea 
rebellantes compressiti et omnium agros ab Australi mari ad montem 
Brendani protensos incdlentium obsides retulit, quos Terdelacho uni- 
versos in manus tradidit Prpximo deinde anna Momonise regnum 
Donato ereptum Terdelacbo cessit» ita ut, prò Dermitii arbitrio, 
reges Momonise ceperint> et posuerint secures. Anno autem 1065, 
Murcbardo Donati fìlio in Momonia post patris in exteras regiones ab- 
scessum tumultuante, Dermicius cum exercìtu in Momoniam adrolavit, 
et Murchatdo è Momoniae finibus in Connaciam pulso, Momonise totius 
obsides alumno suo Terdelacho contulit. Nec in sola ille Momonia 
late domiuatus est sed etiam signis in Connaciam ìllatis, multa illi pro- 
vincisB damna intulit, Connaciensibus ut verosimile est, illius imperio 

36 Eetingos. 

z Son-in-law, according to O'Conor. * Gleann*Uùsean is a ehurch situate 

— Prolegomena lì. p. olii. in a valley in the barony of Slieve- 

y R|5-6aiì)ija, only in O'Conor's edi- margy in the Queen's County. 

tion, A.D. 1006. ^ Sliabh Croi, now Slieve Grud, one 



Diannaidy king of Leinster, son of Donnchadh» tumamed Mael- 
na-m-bo, Ì8 by some ranked, and by others omitted in the catalogne of 
Irìsh knigs. He bas certainly strong claìms to the dignity ; for, after 
the decline of Donnchadh*8 power^ no man stood bigher in the opinion 
of bis contempoiarìes. He was grandson* to Donncbadb O'Brìain, by hi» 
dangbter Dearbhfeargaill, bat he appears to bave been incensed against 
that monarch, on acconnt of the cruel treatment of Tadhg, Donnchadh's 
eldest brother, ( I think)^ wbo is styled by the Annals of Innisfallen un* 
donbted king of Ireland/ hot wbo was delìvered up by Donncbadb to the 
people of Eile, wbo treacherously pnt him to death. Diarmaid at ali 
events took under bis protection Toirdhealbhach, son of Tadbg> and 
stiaìned aU bis power to seat him on the throne of Mnnster. In 1080 
he sacked and bomed Waterford : in 1042 he 'bumed Gleann-Uissean," 
alajrin^ one bnndred of bis enemies, and taking four hundred captives. 
In 1048 he carrìed off an enormous spoil of cattle> and many captives 
firom Deise. In 1058, after laying Luimneach [Limetick] in ashes, and 
plunderìng Iniscealltra, he encountered and defeated Donnchadh near 
Sliabh Crot.* Again in 1061, marching at the head of bis army into 
Monster, he defeated the men of Munster wìth great slaughter at 
Cnamb-cboil],^ pillaged the country round, and bumed the houses and 
growing crops. In 1068 he bumed Luimneach a second time, after 
whicb the Munster chieftains submitted to him, and gare him hostages. 
They afterwards rose in rebellion, but were defeated, and Diarmaid took 
hostages ftom the whole country, from the Southern Bea to Brandan 
mountain9[in Kerry] and delivered them into the hands ofToirdbealbhach. 
In the foUowing year the crown of Munster was taken from Donnchadh 
and placed on the head of Toirdhealbhacb, so that Diarmaid made or 
unmade, at pleasure, the Munster kings. Muircheartach son of Donn- 
cbadb baving excited disaffection in Munster in 1065, after his father's 
retirement to fordgn countries, Diarmaid marched with his army into 
Munster> compelled Muircheartach to £y into Connacht, and delivered 
into the hands of his protegé Toirdhealbhach, hostages from allMun- 
ster. But it was not over Munster alone that he held dominion. 
Connacht suffered severely from his invasions, probably in its attempts 

of tbe Galty mountains in the County <> Cnamh-choiU, a place near the 
of Tippcrary. town of Tipperary. 


se subducentibus, donec anno 1061 Aidus O Conchobbar Connacìas 
rex BBdes Dermicii subierit, et equorum donum ab eo retulerit. Me- 
diani quoque ter^ anno 1048 bello ìnfestavit, et plerasque in illa Eccle- 
sias inflammavit Anno 1053 plurlmos captivos, et ìnnumeras prasdas 
illinc exportavi t. Danos vero sic anno 1052 afflixit, ut Fingallise fines 
Dublinio ad Albhiniam incendiis faedaverit, et pugna cum illis propè 
muros urbis inità plurìmos peremerìt, ac tandem ipse Danorum Rex 
evaserit. Hinc Annales nostri, ejus interìtum in pugna Odbbhensi 
a Conchauro O Moelacblino rege Medi» 17. id. Feb. die Martis anno 
1072 illatum enarrantes, regem appellant Lageniae, Danorum Dubli- 
niensium, et Leitbmoee. Annalium vero Tìgemaci contìnuator eum 
ait 1073 caesum fuisse, additque prseterea Walliae ac Hebridum regem 
fuisse. '* Illum dignissimum et optimum princìpem, qui unquam in 
Hibemia regnavit." Caradoc Lbamcaruamensis» et Regem Hibemiae 
Gemeticensis ìnfìra producendus, et Walsingamus appellant. E nos- 
tratibus autem, quod scio, solus Ketingus Donatum, solus Warraeas 
Dermicium Hibemiae regibus adscribit.'^ 

Terdelachum autem Tadsei filium, Brìani Borumhii nepotem, nemo 
in Regum Hibemise numero non collocata ut supervacaneum sit in 
[82] I regis titulo illi vendicando verba profundere. Vir sicut bello egregius, 
sic etiam de Repub. ritè admìnistranda soUicitus, leges perquam opti- 
mas condidit, et à populis nihil per vìm exegìt, ipsis nitro cuncta ei 
abundè subministitintibus. Hinc S. Lanfrancus '^pacis ac justitìse ama- 
torem," iUum tacite appellata Additque magnam misericordiam '^ popu- 
lis Hibemiae tunc divinitus collatam quando omnipotensDeus Terdelacho 
magnifico Hibemiae regi jus regise potestatis super illam terram con- 
cessit." Fluvium ad Atchell et Kildaluam quìndecem dierum spatìo 
pontibus jungi curavi t. Quinque Judaeos in Hìbemiam appulsos illi 
munera deferentes Hibemiae finibus excedere jussit. Rex Ultoniae 
palatium ejus adiit, et ab eo munera retulit ; quod obsequii Terdelacho 
ab ilio delati argumentum est.^ Cseteras Hibemise proyìncias in ejus 

37 Apud Warr. de antiq. Hiber. p. 25. 38 Annales Innisfa. ad an. 1068. 
39 SyUoge Epist. Hiber. Usherus Ep. 27, p. 71. 

cSeenotex«ifpr<i. Kill-da-lua, orKillaloe. 

d Ath'CheU, now BaUina, cu the Tip- « See note ^ suprà. Toirdhealbhacb 
perary side of the Shannon opposìte attempted to take the hostages of the 


to shake off bis yoke, until in the year 1066 Aedh O'Conchobhair, 
king of Connacht, carne to hìs palace, and received from hìm a gift 
of a stad of horses. Diarmaid invaded Meath tfaree times in the 
courseof the year 1048^ and biimed many of its churahes. In 1063 
he carried off from the same kìngdom many capti ves and ii\numerable 
flpoils. In 10d2 he scourged the Danes so terrìUy that ali the landa 
of Fiimgall^ from Dablin to Almhnin, were OBe scene of eonflagration. 
He slew many of the Danes under the walls of Bublin» and was at 
length acknowledged their king. Hence our annals, when recording 
hh death in the battle of Odhbha^ against Conchobbar O'Maelseach- 
laiim, king of Meath^ on Tuesday 17 Id. Feb. 1072> style him king 
of LeÌBster, of the Danes of Dublìn and of Leath-Mogha. The con- 
tinuator of the Annals of Tighearnach assigns bis death to 1073, and 
adds, moreover^ that he fras king of Wales and the Hebrkles.^' Caradoc 
of Lhancarran styles him " the greatest and best king that ever reigned 
in Ireland." Gemeticensis and Walsingham, whom I shall cite helow, 
also cali him king of Ireland. But of our own writers, the only one, 
as far as I know, who calls Donnchadh king is Keating — and Ware 
alone gives that title to Diarmaid. 

Toirdhealbhach; son of Tadhg, and grandson of Brian Borumha, being 
styled king by ali our bistorians, it would he waste of time to produce 
proofs of bis claims to the title. A man of high fame in war^ he was not 
less remarkable for bis prudent govemment, baving enacted excellent 
laws ; he never exacted any thìng by force from bis subjects, but was la- 
vishly supplied by their voluntary contribntions. For tbisreason S. Lan- 
iianc compliments him as a " lover of peace and justice/* adding that 
a great mercy bad indeed been conferred by beaven on the Irisb people, 
when the Almighty God places in the hands of T<»rdbealbhach the 
magnifìcent king of Ireland, supreme power over that lasul." In fifteen 
days he erected bridges over the river at Atbchell^ and Kill-da-lua. He 
banished five Jews who bad come to visitbim with costly presents. 
The king of Ulster visitéd him. in bis palace and shared bis bounteous 
monificence, which proves that Toirdbealbhach' must bave received bis 
homage f and from the testimony of our annalists, there can be no 

Eoghan and ConaU Ui Neill, and the back with Iobs and ** without hostage 
OrghiaUa, A.D. 1075, but was drivén oi^pref." 


obsequio fuìsse Axmalium fide constat. Conchauro Moelsachlain 
regi Medile Muichadus suus è fratre Flanno nepos, manus ex impro- 
viso intulit^ Hajii9 Conchaurì odio Terdelackus flagrasse YÌdetur» 
quod necis educatori suo Dennicio Moelnamoi filìo iUat» author ex- 
titerit, ìdeoque jussisse ut interempti caput Clonmacuosià Kencoram 
ad se, sextà majorìs kebdomadse feria deferretur> è quo sub Terdelachi 
oculos posito, mus ia «Bum ejus exilietis, non .modicum ei tenx>Tein 
iucussìt ; praecipuà cùm caput illud Clonmacnosiain ptoxiiua Paschalis 
domiifica addito etiam annulo aureo diyimtus relatum fuisse resciret/^ 
Undepost aliquot axmos in sauitate actos, mQtbuxxi languìdum con- 
traxisse dicitur: cujua gravisfflmos cruciatus, posCerioribus vitas aunis» 
lecto affixus, moderate perferens, bonam sibi numixds gratiam coq- 


Appropinquante vero morte^ criminum sordes per confessionem eluens 
sacne synaxeos perceptìone gratiae accessionem nactus^ et sacra demum 
unctione oblitus, ad extremam se luctam corroborans mortem fauatam 
obiit Kencorse, pridiè Idus Jul. anno sBtatb 77, Christi 1086, r^i 
ut aliqui volunt 12, ut alii 22, bis, ut existimo, initium ejus regni à 
Donati patrui, illis à Dermicii obitu ducentibus, A priori sententia 
stant Tadaeus sive Michael o Clerìus in libro de gentium in Hìbemiam 
migrationibus, et Ketingus. A posteriore Tigemaci continuator et 
Peregrìnus o Clerius in annalibus. 

Post excessum Terdelacbi, filius ejus Murcbertacbus» et Domnaldus 
Argarii filius Lochlinni nepos rex Olecbi» pari potestate imperasse 
traduntur. Annales certe nostri docent utrumque de principatu diu 
multumque contendisse. Domnaldus Eencoram Momoni» regiam; 
Murchertachus Olechs aulam evertit» et ssepius in Ultoniam Momo- 
niensibns, Lageniensibus, Connacieosibus, et Medensibuscomitantibus: 

40 Annales InnisM. an. 1971. Ibid. 1079. 4iAn. 1075. 

^By force, says Tigheamàch, who compelled Conchobhar's son, the kìng 

relates the fact,oimtting** the mouse," of Teamhair, to brìng hostages to 

and increasing the nomber of rxngs : Ciimcoradh, and also the Arciibmh<y 

A.D. 1073. Toirdhealbhach iniist ofArd-Macha, who in those ages was 

have other motives of jealousj against approprìated by every pretender. 

Òonchobhar O'Maelseachlainn, the s It is curìous to remark bere how 

king of Teamhair, Le. Ireland, as Dr. Lynch considers the Leabhar 

Tigheamàch styles him. In 1079 he Gabbala as the work of Michael (or 

Chip. GL] CAMBR&KSIS 8TB8SV8. 47 

4oubt tbat Ihe other princes of Irdand ako ackaowledged his sway : 
Condobbar O'Maelseachlaiiui* king of Meath» was tr^acheroualy 
àm hj ìds Bephew Muìrdbfiartach, the seni of his brother Flaim. 
Nov, Toìrdhfialbhach bore bitter enmity to Conchoohar» becauae he 
]ud Jdlled the.protector of his youth» Diarmaid, son of Mael-na-m-bo, 
aà therefmre on the news of Conchobhar^B death^ his head was carrìed 
bj lojal oidei' from Qnatfi-mioiutts to Kjaaniìrcoradh, bui when it 
vas laid be£bre the eyes of Toìidheall^eh on Good Friday, a mouse 
jomped from ìt into Toirdhealbhach's bosom, wbich gave him no sUght 
alann ; esqpedally when he he^d thtl the seme head was miraculously 
fonnd on the next Eaater-day at Cluain-mic-nois^ with a large golden 
ring-. Hence after a few year's health^ he was afflicted with a languish- 
ìng distemper, it is said^ which, in the closing yearsofhis life, tortured 
iiim with ezcmciatìng pangs, but he bore ali with patience, and re- 
covered the £a¥or of God. 

When death was drawing neai:, he f^leaoaed his conscience by a con- 
fesàon of his sins, atrengthened his swl ip grace ì>y receiving the Holy 
C(HAiDiBiian, was anoinied with the last Unction> to nervo himself for 
tbe final straggle, and died a happy death at £eann-Coradb« in the 
sey^ty-'Seventh year of his 8ge> the day befpre the Ides of July, A.D. 
1086, in the twelftb, or, as others write^ the twenty-seoond year of his 
i^— the difference arìsing, no donht, from the foimw datijog from 
Biarmaid^ and the latter from his uncle Donnchadh*s death. Tadhg or 
Miebad O'Clerigh, in his work on the Invasion of Ireland, and Keating, 
are for the first ; the oontimtator of Tigheamach and Peregrine or 
Ca-coigcriehe O'Clerigh in his annals^K are for the second opinion. 

On the death of Toirdhealhhach, his son Muircheartach and Domh- 
Hall, 8on of Ardghar, and grandson x>f Lochlainn^ long of Aìleach^ 
are said to h^ve reigned with equal authority. It is certain from our 
annals that they fougbt long and fiercely for the supremacy. Domh- 
oall bumed Koanncoradh, the royal palaie of Munster, and Muirchear- 
tach bumed Aileach, the royal palace of Ulster; the latter oAen 
o^arched into the heart of Ulster at the head o£ the combined forces of 

1^>dhg) 0*Clerìgh and the Annals of coigcrìche or Peregrine O'Cleirigh ; 
Fonr Masters as the work of Cu- but he is certainly wrong. 


Domnaldus in Momoniam rarius signa ìntulit. Sed plerumqae in- 
ducììs inter utramque partem primatum Armachanorum òpera initis, 
dotnum nullo damno lato aut illato uterque rediit. Lego in annalibus 
nostris Domnaldum Amalgadii filium prìmatem Armachanum anni 
unius inducias inter eos ter statuisse : et idem officium ab ejus succes- 
sore S. Cselso duabus vicibus prsestitum fuisse. Certe M uichertacum 
annales Innisfalenses, Dungalensesi et contdnuator Tigemaci Regem 
Hibemise, S. Ansélmus *^ gloriosum regem Hibemise" appellat. Nimi- 
rum^ ut idem Ansélmus innuit, sollicitus erat ut regnum suum pace 
fiorerete et '* de ilio multa praedicabantur> quae regìam decebant dignità- 
tem."^^ Unde illum S. Ansélmus " valde diligebat, et ejus memoriam in 
continuisperagebatorationibus^ illiusque amìcis succurrebat."^ Necme- 
dìocrem fortasse gloriam Murchertachus inde referebat^ quod tribus 
vicibus rex Dubliniensium renunciatus fuit, espulso inde Godfrido 
Rege Dubliniensi, totam Hibemiam vicloriis peragravit, classis ejus 
Hibemiam obivit, bosti vel damna inferens> vel spolìa subducens : cum 
Francis, et Danis connubia contraxit, et cum Anglis etiam.^ Filiam 
enim suam Amalfo Montgomero primo Salopiae, et Arundellise comitis 
filio : et aliam filiam Sicardio magni Norwegiae Regis filio coUocavit.^ 
[83] Amicitiam | quoque cum Albanise rege coluit, à quo camelum '' mirae 
magnitudinis" dono recepit. Dani Hebrides, et Manniam incolentes 
magnam fiduciam in eo reposi tumhabuerunt.^ Quandoquidem "omnes 
proceres insularum*' (verba sunt Cbronicì regum Mannise) " miseruut 
legatos ad Murecbardum O'Brian regém Hibemise postulantes ut 
aliquem virum industrium de regali stirpe in Regem eis mitteret donec 
Olavus filius Godredi cresceret.^^ Annuii rex libentissimè> et quendam 
Dopraldum filium Tadei ad eos misit, monens» et praecipiens ei, ut cam 
omni benignitate, et modestia regnum quod sibi non debebatur guber- 
naret Sed ille postquam ad regnum pervenit, parvi pen^ens pmcepta 

42 Usherus in Sylloge, Ep. 35 & 06. ^ Ibid. Ep. 37. ^ Annales Innisfa. 
45 Idem an. 1102. S7II0. pag. 144. 46 Ani^iles comm. ad an; 1102. 47 Annales 
Innisf. an. 1105. Apud Camde. pag. 848, an. 1089. 

i> He made a yìsitation of the North arrangement, however badly kepi, 

in 1092, and of Monster in 1094. The must bave been made between the two 

latter year closes the 72 years* anarchy riyal kings in that y ear. The Bacnlus 

mentioned by Gilla Modud. Some Jesu and other sacred relics of Ard- 


Munster, Leinster^ Connacfat and Meath; the former occasionally 
burst in turn into Munster. But generally tbese expedidons were not 
fatai to eìther party, as the primate of Ard-Macha made the be]lige- 
rents enter into a truce. I read in our Annals, that Dorahnall,^ son 
of Amhalgaidh, primate of Ard-Macha, three difierent times effected 
a trace of one year» and the same holy interference was twice exercised 
by S. Oelsos his successor. Muircheartach is styled king of Ireland 
by the Annals of Innisfallen, the Annals of Dun-na-n-Gall and the 
contìnuator of Tigheamach, and by St. Anselm, he is styled " the 
glorious king of Ireland/' For> as the same Anselm intimatesi he 
was solicitous for the peace of his kingdom, and ** many things were 
told of him, whicb graced the royal diadem." Hence, St. Anselm, 
loved him mnch, and made commemoration of him in his unceasing 
prayers, and succoured his friends. Perhaps no slight share of Muir- 
cheartach's gloiy arose from the fact, that he was three times proclaimed 
king of the Dublinians, after the expulsion of Godfrid king of Dublin, 
that he gained victories in every part of Ireland, that his fleet circum- 
navigated the isle/ taking spoi]s or severely punishing his enemies, 
and that his family was connected by marriage with the Danes, the 
Franks, and the English. One of his daughters was married to Ar- 
nalph Montgomer, eldest son to the cojint of Surrey and Arundel, 
and another to Sicard, son of Magnus king of Norway. He was also 
on inendly relations with the king of Albania, who presented to him a 
carnei of enormous size. The Danes of the Hebrides and Man, must 
bave reposed great confidence in him, since, as we read in the chronicle 
of Man, ali the nobles of the islands sent ambassadors to Muirchear- 
tach O'Briain, king of Ireland, begging that he would send to them 
some pradent member of the royal family to reign over them, until 
Slaine son of Godred grew up. The kingr consented willingly, and 
sent to them one Doprald, son of Tadhg, admonishing and command- 
ing him to govem with ali mildnes« and moderation the kingdom wbich 
was not his own right. But as soon as he was seated on the throne, 

Macha took theip'adjuring drcuit naL InnisfàlLlVJl, and note ▼ infra, 

through Ireland abóut ibis time. — Asi' p. 56. 

«a/. /«nw. 1076. See Lanigan's -Ecc/ea- 1 Whence Gilla Modud calls him 

iasHcal Hist. voi. iii. p. 9. Also An^ " Muircheartach of the ships." 



sui Dommi^ cum magna tyiannide abusus est regno, et multìs scelerì- 
btts perpetratisi trìbns annis enormiter regnarìt Tunc omnes principes 
iasularum una conspiratione commotì, adversns eum congregati sont, 
et expulerunt à finibus suis, iUe autem fugiens ad Hibemiam, non est 
ultra reversus." 

Murchertachum non mediocri prudentià pneditum fuìsse hoc qnod 
subjìcio &ctum arguit. '' Magnus Norvegi» (ut eadem Chronìca nar- 
rant) Murechardo Regi tlibemìse misìt calceamenta sua^ prsecipìens 
ei ut ea super humeros in die natalis Domini, per medium domus suae 
portaret in conspectu nunciorum èjus, ut inde intelHgeret se subjectum 
esse Magno Regi quod audientes Hibemienses, aegrè ferabant» et in- 
dignati sunt nimis.^ Sed Rex saniorì Consilio usus non solum> inqui^ 
calceamenta ejus portare, verumque manducare mallem, quam Mi^us 
Rex unam pro?inciam in Hibemia destrueret. Itaque complevit prie- 
ceptum, et auntios bohoravit, multa quoque munera per eos Magno 
regi transmisit, et fcedus composuìt. Nuntii vero redeuntes ad Domi- 
num suum, narraverunt de situ Hibemi», et amaenitate, de frugum 
fertilitate, et aérìs salubritate. Magnus vero hiec audiens, nibil cogi- 
tabat quam totam Hìbemiam sibl subjugare. Itaque prvcepit classem 
congregare. Ipso vero cum sedecem navibus procedens, explorare vo- 
lens terram, cum incaute à navibus discessisset, subito ab Hibemien- 
sibus circumvallatus interiit, cum omnibus fere qui secum erant. Se- 
pultus est autem juxta Ecclesiam S. Patricii in Duno." 

Nec mediocre pietatis ejus argumentum est quod Leithmo» proceri- 
bus, et pnesulibus Casseliam accitis Huadunano Episcopo, annis supra 
caeteros venerabili preesente, facinus à decessorum nemine praestitutum 
edidit Nimirum Cassiliam domicilium ante Momoni» Regum, à 
Regibus alìenavit, et in Ecclesiasticos, prò suo erga Deum, et S. Pa- 
tricium studio immunem tributo contulit.^^ Murchertacbo jubente prò- 
ceres, et clerus Hibemiae Fiadhmacengusiam frequentes confluxerunt, 

^ Ibidem 1098. 49 Annales commun. 

k I find no authorìty in cut native 164. For Muircheartach's matrimo- 
ann^listB ,for this abaurd story— nial alliancès with foreigners, see^n- 
Moore'a tìUtory of Ir eland, voi. u. p. naU of Z/hter, A.D. 1100—1102. 


despising the commands of his lord» he oppressed the kingdom with 
great tyniiaj, and after perpetrating horrible crìmes^ closed his fnght- 
fol ragn after three years. For ali the princes of the islands with odo 
heart entered ibIo a conspiracy, and gathering their forces against him, 
expelled him from their terrìlories. Bat he fled into Ireland and never 

The foilowing &ct pro?es that Muìrcheartach was not deficient in 
produce» " Magnus of Norway/' says the chronicle of Man^ " sent 
lùs sassdaJs to Mnìrcheartach, king of Ireland^ orderiog him to canry 
(hem on his shoulders in the palace, on Christmas day, before the 
ambassadors, as an acknowledgment that he was subject to king 
Magons. When the Irish heard this they chafed and passionately 
pwtested against the indignity. But the king adopted a wiser conrse, 
'Cany his sandals/ said he, 'yes, and eat them too, rather than 
Magntis should hurt one Irish province/ Accordingly he fìilfilled 
tìie order, and honored the ambassadors, and sent many costly pre- 
SBots hy them to king Magnus, with whom he formed a treaty of 
alliaDce.^ When the amhassadors carne home to the king, they 
praised the position of Ireland, and ita amenity, the fertility of its 
soil and the salubrity of the air. But Magnus hearing this, nothing 
bat the conquest of ali Ireland conld satisfy him. His fleet was 
ordered to be assembled, and himself sailed. over first with sixteen 
ships^ mtending to reconnoitre the country, but descending incautiously 
from his ships, the Irish suddenly arose, surrounded, and slew him 
vith ali his foUowers. He was buried near the church of St. Patrick 
inDun [Downpatrick.] " 

He gafe no ordinary evidence of his 'piety in a council of lorda 
wd prelates at Caiseal, in presence of bishop Uà Dunain, a man vene- 
mble ahove ali his coUeagnes for his great age. It was a munificence 
never before performed by any of his predecessors ; for he renounced 
Caiseal, the royal seat of the Munster kings, and made it over free of 
tribute for ever, on the church, for the love of Crod and St. Patrick.^ 
The lords and clergy of Ireland also assembled in great numbers at 

' TMsfGkCt is notìced by the Four Mas. in the parta of the Annals of Innis&llen 
^, A.D. 1101, bui it 18 not recorded now eztant, nor in the Annals of Ulster. 


ac nomìnatim Moelmurius sive Marianus Huadunain Archiepiscopus 
MomonifiB, Kellacbiis> sive Celsus S. Patricii successor, cum quinqua- 
ginta Episcopis^ ter centum presbìteris, ac ter mille alila è clero, legum 
condendarum causa, et malarum consuetudìnutn» si qusB irrepserant 
antiquandarum. Annales Innisfalenses aiunt leges ibi meliores quam 
unquam ante in Hibemia latas fuisse. Alii conventum de Usnacb 
tanqoam ab boc diversum in bunc annum conjiciunt; alii eundem esse 
pronuntiant. Nec ab boc alium esse conventum Raitbbrasselensem 
in annum 11 IO, à Ketingo relatum censeo, cum quod eundem con- 
ventum Annales Innisfalenses duobus nominibus de Fiadbmacengus, 
et Muisbbrassel afficiant ; tum quod vetusti annales H ibernici, quorum 
apograpbum babeo, dùas ab Usnacbensis concìlii patribus in Media 
dic&ceses ìnstitutas fuisse narrent ; et in Raitbbraissellensi non Mediae 
solum, sed etiam Hibemiae totius dio&ceses cenis regionibus definitas 
fuisse Ketìngus memoret; addens Gillaspec, quem latine Gilbertum 
dìcimus, successorem Congelli, ìd est, ut ego interpretor Abbatem 
Bencborensem, Epìscopum Limbricensem, et legatum Apostolìcum 
eidem concilio prsesedisse. 

Cum vero Murcbertacbus, quinque ante obitum annos, in gravissi- 
mum morbum lugentibus omnibus incidere t, frater ejus Deimìcius 
Momonias sibi regnum arripuit, et provìnciarum Reges in Murcbertacbi 
bona involarunt ;^ sed ille morbo levatus fratrem arreptà dignitate sub- 
co Annales Innisfal. 

i^But does noi give the precise num- the argument in the text, on the 

ber of bishops and priests. It mentions ground that Magh Breassail is not 

none but O'Dunan archbishop of Ire- found in the Annals of Innisfallen, 

land (i.e. Cashel), as the anfialiflts and that Gilbert, Apostolica! legate, 

style hìm, and Celsus successor of St. is not inentioned. But Gilbert was 

Patrick, A.D. 1094, thatis, 1110(1). * probably not legate in 1111, though 

The Annals of Ulster give the number he certainly was very soon after, infra, 

of bishops as in the text. p. [325]. The Annals of Innisfallen, 

n Maigh Breasail is probably a typo- citedby Dr. Lanigan, are not the orlgi- 

graphìcal error. The Annals of In- nal Annals of Innisfallen, but a oompi- 

msfSallen, A.D. 1094 (UH) mention lation made in the middle ofthe last 

the synod by both names ; Fiadh mie centory. The Ulster Annals record the 

Aenghusa, or Bathbreassail. Dr. La- synod simply as Piadh Mie Aenghusa, 

nigan, voi. iv. pp. 38—40, impugns A.D. 11 II. The ecdesiastical history 

Chap. IX.] 



Fiadh-mic-Aenghusa by order of Maircheartach, especìally Macl- 
mordha or Marìan Uà Dnnain, arcbbishop oi^Munster, Keallach or 
Celsus, saccessor of St. Patrick, witb fiftj biahops, three hundred 
prìests^ and three thousand of the other orders, for the enacttn^t of 
laws and' the suppression of any bad customs, wbich may bave grown 
up. The Annals of .Innisfallen state that these were the best laws ever 
made in Ireland.*^ Opinions are divided as to whether the council of 
Uisneach^ which is assigned to this year, be the same or difierent from 
this of Fiadh-mic-Aenghusa. My own opinion is, that the latter is 
the same as that of Rath-breasail referred by Keating to 1 1 10, both 
becanse the Annals of Innisfallen gÌ7e the two names to the same 
conncìl,'' and also from a copy of old Irìsh Annals in my possession,^ 
which state that two dioceses were formed in Meath, by the fathers 
of the council of Uisneach.' Now we know from Keating, that in 
the synod of Rathbreasail, not only Meath but ali Ireland was divided 
into dioceses, and that Gillaspic or Gilbert,<i as he is called in Latin, 
the successor of Congal, (that is, I think, abbot of Beannchor)' 
bishop of Luimneach and Apostolical legate, presided at the same 

Fireyears before bis death, Muircheartach, to the great affliction 
of ali bis people, fell dangerously ili. Then bis brother Diarmaid 
seized the crown of Munster, and the kings of the provinces plun- 
dered Muircheartach's property ; but recoverìng from bis illness he 

of this perìod is amply discussed in 
subseqnent pagee by Dr. Lynch. 

ol know not what were these An- 
nals. A marginai note in Colgan's 
copy of the Fonr Masters etated that 
Fìadh Mie Aenghnsa and Uisneach 
were the same. — Trias Thaum. p. 299. 

p Held the same year for a special 
object, ihe partition of the parìshes 
of Meath between the two sees of 
Clnainmicnois and Cluainard. — Lanù 
gan, ir. p. 39. St. Celsus visited Meath 
in Ilio. — Ulster Annals. 

4 The reasoning appears condnsire 
ior the identity of the synod of Rath- 
breasail and Fiadh Mie Aenghusa, 
A.D. 1111; but does not prore that 
there was not a synod of Rathbreasail 
in 11 18 presided over by Gilbert, and 
which made a new division of Irish 
dioceses. — Lanigan ir. 41. Ferhaps 
the date should be 1120, when St. 
Celsus visited Munster agaia. — Annals 
of Ulster, 

r I haye never met that titie applied 
to Crillbert. 


movit, et in alias provincias signa inferens^ tumultuantium insolendam 
[^] I compressit. Tandem appropinquante morte, Lismoriam petegrinandi 
causa petiit/et derieatu illic in Ito, ut vetusti annales supra memorati 
refemnt, delieta gravissime plangens, vita cessìt, anno regni vigesimo, 
Christi nati 1119, in Ecclesia Laonensi sepulturam nactus. llicitnr à 
Ketingo Ardmachse mortuus fuisse. Quare ìlluc paulo ante òbitum 
peregriuationem suscepisse puto, ut priora pietatìs exercitìa pia quoque 
peregrinatione coronaret. 

Domnaldum Ardgarìi filium Lochlenni nepotem Oiiechae aut Kenel- 
conelliae regem ut plurimum in Annalibns nominatum in serie ibegum 
Hibemise, aliì collocante alii omittunt. Gillamadudus vetustus autbor, 
in regum albo quod ad annum domini 1 141, perduxit, Domnaldum 
bunc Murcbartacho decessori regnandi societate junctnm fuisse scribit, 
cui Tadseus sive Micbaél O'Clerius, et pater Colganus assentiuntur. 
O'Duveganus etiam Hibemiie Regibus eimi accenset* Et Annales In- 
nisfalenses illum Hibemise regem appellant. Et vero regìs titulum 
factis, prò ac eorum témporum consuetudo ferebat, Mbi peperìt. Prox- 
imo enim post Terdelacbum extinctum anno, Murchertacbus, et Domb* 
nailus emergere co»perunt è prìvatorum hominum conditione.^^ Et ffle 
fusis Lag€$niensibus, bic Medensibus, futurs potentiae rudimenta ex- 
orditi. Sed bic illum ad potestatis incrementum antegressus anno 
Domini 1088, à Conaciensibus obsequium, et obsides exegit Tum 
copiis in Momoniam adductis, Limbricum incéndit, agros vastavit, 
Kencoram diruit, magnam vim boum, equofum, auri, argenti, et scy- 
pborum reportavit. Crebros Kenelconellensium^ et alioiìim Ultonien- 
sinm ejus obsequium excutere couantium tumultus, eorum Regulis 
nunc vita, nunc oculorum usu privàtis, penitus compressit. Anno 
deinde 1090, Dombnallus bic vulgo Mac Locblen dictus Réx Oliecbae, 
Murcbertacbus O'Brìen Rex Cassilise, Dombnallus filius Flanni OMoel- 
sacblain Rex Mediae, et Rotbericus O Concbabbar Rex Connaciae in 
eundem locum pacis ineundsB causa coìerunt^ Tandem singuli obsidi- 
bus Mac Locblenno traditis recesserunt ; Anno 1104. Ibhleogariam in 

MFol. 12, ad annum 1121. 

8 AnnalB of Ulster, whicb style him ^ I bave not found that passage. 

kìng of Ireland. They generally cali him king of Ai- 

Chap. ix«3 oambesnsis jsvebsus. 55 

delÌBated bis brother^ and marching into the provìnces, he punisheb 
the contumacy of the rebels. At length» on the approach of death^ 
he went on a pOgrìmage to Lis-mor, and having taken orders theie> 
as oar old annalista record» he died in the twentieth year of hb reign» 
A.D. 1119/ after most sincere penance for his «ns. He waa bnried 
in the chnrch of KillKla-loa. Keating says he died at Ard-Macha. 
Probably he went on a pilgrìmage there some short time before his 
death, to crown his other pious exercises with a visit to the holy places. 
Dofinbnall» son of Ardgar, grandson of Lochlann, king of Aileach or 
Kenel-conaill [reeié Eenel-Eoghain], though omitted by some» is gene- 
rally zanked by oor annalists among the Idngs of Ireland. GillarModad, 
an ancioit wrìter» in a catalogne of kingsto the year 1141, asserts that 
this DombnaU was colleagne in the throne with his predecessor Muir- 
cheartach. Michael, or Tadhg O'Clerigh, and Colgan are of the same 
opinion. O'Dabhagain styles him king of Ireland, and the Annals 
of Inirisfallen gire him the same title.* Bnt his great actions gave to 
him^ according to the costom of this time, an undoabted rìght to the 
honor. For, the year after Toirdhealbhach's death, Moìrcheartach 
and Domhnall began to tower among their contemporaries, the former 
by his defeat of the Lagenians, and the latter by an invasion of Meath, 
giving promise of their fatare power. But Domhnall was prior in the. 
career of fame, for in 1088 he reduced Connacht and receired hostages. 
Then leading his army into Munster, he bomed Luìmneach, plundered 
the country, destroyèd Keanncoradh, and carried off an immense booty 
of men, horses, gold, silver, and vessels. He trìumphed over ali the 
attempts of Kinelconaill and the other Ultonians to shake off his 
yoke, and either slew their kings or deprived them of sight. In the 
year 1090, Domhnall, or as he is usually called Mac Lochlainn, king 
of Aiieach, Muircheartach O^Brìain, king of Caiseal, Domhnall, son 
of Flann O'Maelseachlainn, king of Meath» and Ruaidhri 0*Concho- 
bhair, king of Connacht, carne to a conference for arranging terms 
of peace. The result was, that hostages were given to Mac Lochlainn.^ 
In the year 1104, he wasted Ibh Laeghaire in Meath with fire and 

leacb. author*8 dates in this place generallj 

n Annals of Ulster, with whichoor agree. 


Media incendio foedavit^ et omnes ìllic eìbì obluctantes diripuit. Anno 
1112, in Fingalliailì irrupit, et magnam boum, pisetiosissimarumque 
vestium vim illinc retulit Nec mediocre documentum est Regis ab 
ilio titulum relatnm fiùsse, quod contentio ipsi cum Murchertacho de 
principatu habita, prìmatibas Hìbemise annuas inducias multoties pas- 
ciscentibus, etiam tum cum in annis copise jamjam pugnam consertorae 
utrìnque starent, dirempta fuit Ita ut interim hic Australibus Hiber- 
nise regionibus, ille septentrionalibus cum imperio sino rirali praefuerit. 

Quod autem^ neque Ketingus, neqae Warraeus in Hibemiae regum 
indicem à se confectum Domnallum retulerint, bine fortasse profluxit, 
quod in plerisque annalibus, Regis Hibemiee titulo illum omari non 
viderint, nec enim in tribus diversis Annalibus penes me prostantibus, 
eum illi titulum delatum esse reperio. Nibilominus tamen memorata 
jam argumenta eum illi titulum merito vendicare videntur. Cum prae^ 
sertim pater Colganus ex annalibus, ejus obitum referet in hmc verba. 
" Domnaldus Locblenni ex Ardgaro filio nepos, Rex Hibemiae, H.i- 
bemorumque excellentissimus formae prsestantia, generis nobilitate, 
animi indole, et in rebus agendis prosperitate, postquam multa munera 
aegenis clementer, et petentibus liberaliter elargitus fuerat, in Riobereto 
divi Columbse (hoc est in Dorensi monasterio) decessit, anno astatis 
suas septuagesimo tertio, et prìncipatus in Hibemia vigesimo septimo, 

Quod instante fati die Doriam lociim religione venerabilem, ut 
animsD saluti consuleret adierit, eum piotate non mediocriter imbutum 
fuisse arguit. Nec modicum est ad ejus laudem momentum quod ilio 
Rege, proceres, et populi piis oparibus multum indulserint. Cujus 
rei argumentum est, quod cum anno 1096. " Festum S. Joannis Bap- 
[851 tistse incidit in feriam | sextam, quod tanquam malum omen ex quibus- 
dam vaticiniis augurati, nimium expaverant Clerus et populus Hìber- 
niae. Unde Consilio inito visum est Archiepiscopo et Clero totius 

52 27 Marti! e. 4, pag. 773. 

▼What St. Gregory VII. was for against the frightful discord which 

Europe, St. Celsus and his immediate arose after the usurpation of Brìain 

predecessor and successors were for Borumha. Primate Domhnall made 

Ireland. They were the only barrier peace between Muircheartach and 

Chap. IX.] 



sword, and plimdered ali that opposed hìm. In 1112 he burst ìnto 
Finngall, and returned loaded witb spoil of cattle and costly garments. 
A stróng confirmatìon of bis royal title are the truces so often made 
between hìm and Muircheartach by the prìmates of Ireland/ when 
the armies of the competitors were drawn out in battle array. In the 
mean time> Muircheartach reigned supreme in the South, and Domh- 
nall in the North. 

Keating and Ware bare omitted the name of Domhnall in the cata- 
logne of Irìsh kings, probably because the title is not given to him in 
most of the Annals of Ireland, nor do I find it in three difierent An- 
nals^ nowin my possessione Stili, firom what has been said, it appears 
that he had strong daims to the honor, especially when Colgan gives 
from the same annals this account of Domhnairs death : — *' Domhnall, 
gon of Ardgar, giandson of Lochlann, king of Ireland, renowned 
for the beauty of bis person, bis illustrìous descent, the character of 
bis mind, and bis success in bis goremment, after having lavishly dis- 
played bis boundless charity to the poor, and bis munificence to the 
powerful, died in the Doire of St Columba, (i.e. the Monastery of 
Doire), in the seyenty-third of bis age and the twenty-serenth of bis 
royalty, kJ). 1121. 

From bis baring visited a place so hallowed by religious associations, 
when death was drawing near, we may infer he was a man of no ordi- 
nary plety. It redounds greatly to bis credit, that during bis reign, 
princes and people were def oted to pious works. A singular proof of 
this occuTs, A.D. 1096,' when the Feast of St John the Baptist falliiig 
on Friday, the people and clergy of Ireland were struck witb alarm. 

Domhnall in 1094, 1099,1102,1104. In 
the last year he yidted Dablin for the 
puipose, fell sick, returned and died at 
Daimhliag (Doleek). — Annah of Ul- 
ster. St. Ceallach (Celsus) made peace 
in HOT, 1109, 1113, bnt in 1126 bo 
frìghtful were the war0, that eren he, 
sajs the annaUst, could not get a 
short trace. — Annals of Ulster. 
^ It wonld be interesting to know 

what were these annals. They were 
neither of Ulster, nor Innìsfaìlen, nor 
the Four Masters. 

X At that year the Annals of Ulster 
record a general terror of the people, 
Érom which "they were sared by the 
fiistings of the clergy and the ricar of 
Patrick." It was probably the fear 
then general through Europe, that the 
end of the world was at band. 


patris^ ut conservarentur à malis qu» pnemisso tali ^uìne subsecutura 
quidam dadum prsedìxerunt^ ìadixere omni populo^ ut sìnguli à feria 
quarta usque in diem Dominicam protelent jejunium singulis mensi- 
bus, et spatio insuper totius anni, singulis diebus exceptìs dominicìs, 
festis et sole^nilatibus majorìbus, una refectlone maneant contenti ; 
undò Biultte à populo factae sunt oblationes» et pise elargitiones : età 
regibus ac proceribus agri, et prsedia multa sunt donata Ecdesiis. His 
pietatìs òffièiis peraetìs, ab igne imminentis vindictsB, populus mansit 

TeTddachus magnus O Condfobhor, post DombnaUum, regni ga- 
bemacolis adtnotus it^t, vir non magis Reipub. sive belli tumultibos 
agitatse, sive paeis malacià florentis administrandae peiìtus, quàm pietate 
vivus, et morìens excultus. Potentìà vero tanta preeditus fuìt, ut è 
singulis HibemiaB provìncìis praedas retulerìt, et plerorumque .Reges 
prò arbitratu suo mutaverit, Dublìnensium Lagenise, ac Medi» regem 
filium suum Concbaurum instituerit, Momoniae duos Reges pnefecerit, 
'Kìnelconelliam terra, Kineloniam mari vastaverit,* et epibatas ejus 
pugna navali fuderit.^ Ut bine provineias omnes ab ejus nutU pepen- 
disse nemo non videat. Ita navibus instructus fuìt, ut centum et non- 
agìnta navium classe Momoniam semel infestaverit Adeo fiagitia 
exosus est, ut-filio suo Rotberico delinquenti vincula injececit, quibus 
eum nidi post annum exactum, Ecelesdasticorum flagitationibus fatigatus 
exuit. Primo quidem flecti non potuit, ut delieti veniam fìlip facetet, 
llcet eam ab ilio Murcbertacbus O'Dubhaay, undecem aiii Episcopi, et 
quingenti Sacerdotes demississimè imploraverint.^ Proximo «utem 
anno, cum adsuperìores viros sacros Ardmaebani, Casselliensisque pre- 
suli O'Lonorgani fieret accessio, tum demum se passus exorari filium in 
libertatem emisit* 

Sub ipsum regni exordium Taltìn» nundinas, sive ludos prìdem 
intermissos instauravit, in quibus juvenes pedum, et equorum cursu, 
luctà, saltu, lapidum jactu, et spiculorum ejaculatione, pugnarum quo- 
que simulacbro contenderunt, vìctore semper, prseter prsemium, multam 
laudem applausumque referente.^ Pontes quoque tres Atblonensem 

53 Trias Thaumatur. p. 299. s^Continu. Tìgema. «Ibidem àn. 1143. 
s^Annales vetusti 


tite eoincidenee having beea dedared by some old propheeies as an 
omen of evìl. Taking counsel togetker» the arcbbishop and dergy of 
thevbole eoantEy decreed, tfaat to airest the scourges which men of 
dà hdd piedicted would foUow after tbat omen« the irhole nation 
skuld eadi month protract the fiist barn Wednesday to Snoday, and 
duriug mie year^ moreoTer, lestrict themadvea to ose meal, except ob 
SoBclays tmtd the graat^ festiFals and solemnities ; hence many offeiv 
iogs aiìd pioas presenta weire made by the people, and landa and many 
£irms were jgiven to the Church by nobles and kings. By the perfor- 
numce of these religions acta the people were presenred firom the fire 
of impending wradi. 

Tondhealbhaeh O'Condiobfaaìr the Great, was proclaimed king 
a^r Bomhnall. In life and in death he was not less eminent for 
bis pìety^ tban Ibr bis govvniment of the kingdom, whether agitated 
by the ttramlts of war, or enjojring the rich blessinga of peace. So 
great was lùs power, that he levied contribntions on ali parts of 
lieland, aad changed the Jdngs of most of the provinces at pleasore. 
He made bss own son Oonchobhar, king of Dablìn, Meath, and 
Lemster; twìce he gave a kmg to Munster> and he wasted Kìnel- 
cooaill and Kmel-Eoghain by land and sea^ and defeated their ma- 
noers in a naval battlè. Thns ali the prorìnees Were dependant on bis 
sway. Hh fleet was so great, that he was able to send at one 
time one hundréd and ninety £»bips against Munster. So severe was 
he against vice, tha^t he east bis own son Ruaidhrì into prison, and 
kept hìm in cbains a wbole year for some crime, until at the pressing 
i^uest of the clergy the yoang m^ was liberated. The kilìg at first 
was iiii9xinable, and reft»ed a pardon, thdugh M aircheartach 0*Dabh- 
thaigb, with elevén other bishops and five hundred priests, supplicated 
in the most tnovi^ terms. Bnt in the foUowing y^r, the arcbbishop of 
Aid-Mflcha, andOXongargain of Caiseal, coming to the aid of the former 
sappficants, the king relented, and Ruaidhrì was restored to liberty. 

In thecommencement of bis reign, he revived the games of Tailtin, 
wbich had been interrupted so long, in which the young men contended 
in borse and foot-races, wrestling, casting of stoues and javelìns, and 
mock fights, the victor always receiving, besides a fixed premium, 
great praise and applause. He also built three bridges at Ath-luain, 


scilicet Athcroensein et Dunlodensem tum coDStruxit, argentumque 
postea Clonmacnosise signari jassit. 

. Pletatis ejus queedam hìc S3n]ibo]a exhibeo. Sanctam crucem per 
^ Hibemiam ferri^ multa veneratione passim coli^ et Roscommaniae tan- 
dem prsetiosà thecà recondì tam asservari curavit. Clero, et Xenedochio 
Tuamensi multos agros contulit, et prìoratum seu hospitalium illic anno 
domini 1140, posuit.^^ Cnices, scyphos, et calices argenteos, quorum 
aliqui aureis bracteis obducebantur, Ecclesise Clonmacnoensi dono 
dedit. Quandam praeterea villam S. Comani successori elargitus est. 
Sed ut estera taceam, moriens qnadraginta supra quingentas auri 
uucias, et quadraginta marcas argenti clero legavit Prseterea suam 
omnem prsetiosam supellectilem, nempe vasa aurea, et argentea, gem- 
mas, et reliqua ejusmodi instrumenta ; equos etiam et pecorum greges, 
organa musica, arcum, et pharetram, aliaque arma clero couferri im- 
peravi t. Imo ipse adhuc tìvus heec omnia sic parti tus est, ut qu» et 
quota pars singulis nominatim Ecclesìis, prò cujusque dignìtate tra- 
denda esset edixerit. Tandem octavum et sexagesimum sDtatis annuni 
agens^ diem obiit extremum, ad principem aram Ecclesise Clonmacno- 
sensis S. Kiarani sepultus. Anno Domini 1 156, postquam Connacise 
quinquaginta, Hiberniffi viginti annos dominaretur. 

Nisi peene religioni ducerem ab O Duvegani, ac plerorumque antì- 
quariorum magis trita consuetudine in annis enumerandis, quibus Hi- 
berniae Terdelachus imperavit «abscedere ; non ad viginti sed ad triginta 
quatuor annos, tempus quo Hibemiam is administravit, protrahere non 
[86] dubitarem. | Tot enim à decessoris obi tu ad ejus interitum effluxeront. 
Non me quidem latet Murchertachum successorem, Terdelacho super- 
stite, ad eam potentiam elatum fuisse ; ut buie obsides extorserit At 
hic non ante annum i 150, ad eas angustias redactus est. Ac proinde 
saltem octo supra viginti annos regnasse dicendus est Imo par est 
credere Murchertachum Terdelachi splendorem obscurassej non ex- 
tinxisse. NuUns enim est, cujus prospera non adversis aliquando ra- 
diantur. Nec verosimile est prius tìtulum ei Regis, quam vitam 
ademptam esse. Quid multis ? per me sua cuique sit sententise in hac 
controversia optio. 

w Warr, de Antiq. p, 114. 


Àth-cKHchy and Dunleodha," and foonded a loyal mint at Cluain- 


Tbe ibliowìng are a few proofe of his piety. The Holy Cross he 
erdeted to be cairìed in processìon throogh Ireland> and honored every- 
vhere with great veneration. It was then deposited in a silrer shrine, 
and kepi ai Ros-Chomaìn. To the clergy and hospital at Tuaim he 
ga?e many lands, and fonnded there a prìory or hospital in 1140. 
To the chicrch of Cluain>niio-nois he presented crosses, dishes» and 
Silver chalices, some of whieh were plated with gold. In fine, not 
to mention other things^ he hequeathed to the clergy at his death> 
fom hnndred and fifty onnces of gold, and forty marks of silv^r. 
Moreorer, ali his splendid funùtore^ namely, gold and silver vessels^ 
gems, and other similar articles; his studs, oxen, and herds; mu- 
sical organs, his bow and quiver^ and other anns, were ali given by 
his will to the Church. Nay, he distrìbuted these legacies in such a 
way, that he mentioned by name the nature and amount of the vaine 
that was to be given to each church, according to its rank. He 
died in the sixty-eighth year of hie age, and was buried before the 
great aitar of St. Eiaran's church, at Cluain-mic-nois, A.D. 1156, 
ha?ing govemed Connacht fifty, and Ireland twenty years. 

If I did not deent it a sacred duty to foUow the authority of 
0*Dabhagaìn, and most of the Irish annalists in fixing the period of 
Toirdhealbhach's reign over Ireland, I would have no difficulty in 
stadng that it lasted not twenty, but rather thirty-four years. For such 
was the number of years irom the death of his predecessor to his own. 
I am aware, that the next monardi, Muircl^eartach, became so pow- 
erful, even during the life of Toirdhealbhach, that the latter was forced 
to give hostages, but this great event did not occur before 1150, and 
conseqaently Toirdhealbhach must have reigned twenty-eight years. 
It Ì8 even probable, that Muircheartach had eclipsed rather than ex- 
tioguìshed the glory of Toirdhealbhach. For there is no man, whose 
fame is not sometimes clouded. Nor is it probable that he was de- 

^Atk'Croich. This bridge was si- ^ Dun-leodha, now "Dxinìo, apartof 

tuate near Shannon Harbour. — See Ballinasloe, in the Co. of Galway. 

TribeSf ^c. of Ut Mainei p. 5. See Annals of the Four Masters, Ed, 

LO,D. A.D. 1120. 


MuTchertaeho vulgo Ma^lochlain dicto Domnalli Regia Hibemi» è 
Nello filio nepoti regnum deinde obtìgit Illi martia indolea fiiit, ut 
^tti omnes Hibemin provinoias assidui» yictonis paxtim pugna, partdm 
solo texTore partìs, imperio suo subegerit, singolis obsìdes ei traden- 
tibusy ut saltem ille ex Hibemi» regìbus Malachiam secundum seculis, 
Rex HiberniaB citravrenitentiam appèllari possit, Beipub. quoque le- 
gibus ìnfonuandflB sedulo incubuisse dic^idns est, quod eo rege, pne- 
aules^ et proceies in caetum cìrebro coeuntes, decreta ad clerutn^ et 
p(q>uluin meliorìbus ìnstitutìa imbuendos condiderint Eodiesii^pos 
lumove plurima prosecutus est Nam iis deprecantibits» iratu sa&pius 
posuit, veniam delieti sontibus fecit, et ad. eorum aiiMtriinn gravissìmas 
controversias decidendas non invitusi detulijt; qno^diMnque Ecplesiasticos 
Immunitatem à tr^butis nondum assecutos.à vectigalibus pendendis ex- 
emit. £jus opevà Ecclesi» Dorensis ad nomaginlli pedes protensaB 
lapidei muri quadcaginta dierum spfitio peractì hv^U Opem quoque 
tttlit ad octoginta et amplius aedificia Dorìae construenda, et Ecclesia 
pomoerium muro ambìendum» post sedes. Ecclesia» m^jorì finitimas ever- 
sas. Prsater usitatas ejus elargiti<mes, Ecclem MelUfontensi ceqtum 
et quadraginta boves, sezaginta uneiaa «uri, et premium à casnobio non 
longè dissitum dono dedit Et Newrì», monasterìum de viridi ligno 
rulgo dictum, Cistendensibus insedendum erexit^ 

Sed prìncipum virtutibus magna vitia plerumque accDbaut Ita 
Murch)»tachi pietatem efinvnatiot ìracundia labefactavit Qt^ure quem 
secunda faelicem^ adversa miaerum fecerunt. Eocbodius enim UlidiaB 
Regulus non modo debitum Mnichertacho Regi obsequium excussit, 
sed bellum etiam nitro movit Quamobren Rex in ejus ditionem ar- 
matus de repente irrupit, eopias profligavit, fines vastavit, et ca|>to8 
dientes, in rincula conjecit» Eocbodio discrimini se per fugam sub- 
ducente. Qui tamen non diu post Hìbemiie primate, et Donchado 
O Caruell Orgiellie Regulo deprecatoribus, delieti veniam/ pristìnam- 
que dignitatem à Rege impetrante per baculi Jesu juramentum se ob- 
stringente, deprecatoribusque in se recipientibus inìta pacta, adamu3sim 
impletum iri. Verum vai priore iracundia in Regis animo recrudes- 
cente, vel nova ob recentem delationem enascente, oculos Eochodio 
rex effodi, ac tres èDelaradiae primoribus, duos OXingsios et Cathasachi 

M Warraeus de antiq. pag.. 181 . 

Ciuf, dl] oAiEBBsirsis smunxa 63 

pàred é the tìtle of Ung dwiag his life. Enoogh on Ibis point Fot 
aypert» kl eveiy aua enjej hb <wm opuikn oa this oontroveny. 

Tlecroim aexl passed te Muivchwtftacli» commcMily ealled Mac 

Loddabit, MR of NìaH aaé gnadioD of DoaihiMll king of Ifalaad. 

Wffwaahkdd^t His ma»j Tseloms bioQgkl aU the promces of 

Inkid oader h» swaj, eitber by the swoid or by tbe sole tenor of 

bisname. Tbe wbote isfauid gaxre bìm bostagas» so tbat ha at laaat, 

tfter thfl death of Mademeblairtn II.> maj, anuMff ali the bingt of 

beknd, be jnadj oaUed midìsputed ntonardi of Iselandé His^ solici» 

todeslao for «be eBactment of wiso laws, Biay be -reasoiiably iafenred 

from Uie eonvcntiQns of prektea and prmoea fie^ently beld during 

his reign» ia whicb sdiataiy measnres were iramed for cleigy and 

peopie. Ecciestastics be b^d in the greatest bonor. At tbeir prayer 

heealmed bis angoy pardoned tbe goilty, and willinglysabmitted tbe 

Qìost impottant eontroversiea to tbeir awaids^ exempting, moreorer, 

manj of ibem ftom tbé paymont of tribnte, frani wiiicb tbey bad net 

Mtlierto aa immonily. By bis mquificence» tbe stono walls of tbe 

cburehof Doire^nìne^ feei long» were exected in tbe spaee of forty 

^& He also contr3[>uted to tbe eiection of more than eìgbty otber 

bmldings in Doire, and altw dirowing down tbe houses near the great 

choTch, he inclosed tbe charch-sanctuary wìth a walL Besides bis 

ordnuiy niaaMcence, be presented to the churcb of Mellifont one 

liondred and fifty head of cattle^ sixiy onnces of gold, and a farm not 

&rbm the monaatexy. By bim also the Cistereian monastery of 

lubhar-chintt-tragha^ commonly ealled •* de viridi ligno" [Newry], was 

foonded. Bnt the virtnes of prinees are often tamished by great vices. 

Mmid^artitoh was at times disgraced by ungoTemable anger ; if he was 

^pyinprofiperity, he was miserable in adversity. Eochaidh, king 

of Ulidia, not only refnsed to do bim homage, bnt even rose in arms 

^inst bim. Tbe enraged monareb burst into Ulidia at the head of 

tó anny, routed the forces of Eochaidh» wasted his lands, captured 

bis adherents, and cast them into chains» and left himself no resource 

^ttt a precipitate flight But some time after, at the prayer of the 

primate of Ireland, and Donnchadh O'Cearbbaill king of Oirghialla, he 

obtained pardon from Muircheartach, who swore by the staff of Jesus, 

^d placed his covenant in the hands of the mediators, that he would 


OTlahrii nepotem necari, religioni s^ ac sponBorum nexu ad condonati- 
onem tam his quam illi praebendam devinctus^ atrociter imperat* Dun- 
chadus vero jurìsjurandi religionem spretam^ et praestitam à se fidem 
conculcatam indignissimè ferens» copias expedit» et Ubbbmimite, Con- 
macuijeque incolis in belli socìetatem adscitis, exercitam ò novem 
annatoTum millibus conflatmn in Tircmiam ìnfert, et cum Rege paacos 
in aciem tumultuario educente pugna congredttur^ ejusque copiis lata 
strage prodigatisi ipsuni tandem perìmit : virum qui ante illum diem 
è nullo congressu non discessit victor> plurimis nostrorum scriptomm 
laudibus cumulatum. Ejus vero vitam baec deploranda catastrophe 
clausit^ Anno Christi 1 166^ et post decessorem fato functum, decimo. 
[87] Rotberìcum O Choncbobbar Terdelacbi magni filium plerìsque | prò- 
cerìbus non suffragantibus sed refragantibus Regem Hibemiae renim- 
tiatum fuisse quidam nostra memoria per errorem scrìpsit^ Qusp sub- 
jicio errorem aperìunt, recens à morte patris Rotberìci, Terdelacbus 
O Brien Rex Momonise Rotberico duodecim obsidibus ei traditis, ob- 
sequium detulit. Anno 1157^ copiis in Tyroniam illatis Innisoniam 
incendio, pomarium ejus eversione^ regionemque universam usque ad 
Kìannacbtam vastatione Rothericus ftedavit. In Momoniam arma 
deinde vertit, et post Aquilonaris Momoniae regnum Terdelacbo O'Bri- 
eno coUatum, à Dermicio Mac Carthio C ormaci filio Australis Momo- 
niae Rege obsides retulit, penes se si Murcbertacbns OXochlen opem 
' Dermicio non feret retinendos. Anno 1 \6S, idem armatus Lageniam 
ingressus, LeithlinniaB subsistens, Ossirìse^ Loigbsiaeque odsides obtinuit, 
Macraibo O'Morrdba Loigbisis regulo in vincula conjecto. Postea 
Tseabbam adortus à Kerinis immensam boum proedam adduxit et classe 
in Tironiam immissà> eam plurimum afflixit. Anno 1 161 bello Midise 
illato, ab Uafoelanìa, Ubbfalgiaque obsides retulit, et Foìlaqum Foilani 
Uafoelanise, Malachiam O Conchobhar Uafalgìse praefecit Tandem 
pace cum Hibemiae Rege Murcbertacho inità, quatuor illi obsides 
tradidit, et Connacise provinciam integram, dimidiam Mediae partem 
ab eo, et prò sua Medise parte centum uncias auri à Dermicio O Moel- 
sacblaino retulit. Haec itaque docent quam tempestive futursB potentise 
fundamenta Rothericus j eceri t, ut cum ipso rege de principatu con- 

MKetingus. 1156. 


so more maleai £ochaidh in the peacefol possession of bis principality. 
Bnt whether it was that old animosides revived in the king's heart, or ' 
that ò^ fuel was added by subsequent injuries^ he deprìved Eochaidh 
of sight, and savagely ordered the execution of three of the chief 
BobJes oi Daiaradia, namely^ the two O'Loìngsìgh, and the grandson of 
CsthasachO'Flaithbheartaigh; though by covenant and the sacred oath 
ile was bound te do injury to none of them. Donnchadh» indignant 
' It this violation of plighted faith and sacrilegious peijury^» summoned 
lùs tioops^ and being joìned by the forces of Ibhbmin and Conmaicne, 
marched at the head of nino thousand men into Tir-Eoghain^ encoun- 
tered the king, who had time to collect only a small number of undis- 
cip]ined troops, and slew him with most of bis followers. Such was 
the melancholy end of a man» who had never before been defeated in 
battle, and who is lauded in the bighest tenns by ali our annalists. He 
vas slain^ A.D. 1 166^ in the tenth year from the death of bis predecessor. 
Rnaidhrì O'ConchobhaiT, son of Toirdhealbhach the great, was next 
proclaimed^ contrary to the wish of the majority of the Irìsh nobles^ 
if we can believe a writer of our own day. But the foUowing facts 
prove that Rnaidhrì had the suffrages of Ireland« Shortly after the 
death of bis father Toirdhealbhach^ Muircheartach O'Brìain^ king of 
Munster, swore allegiance to Rnaidhrì^ and gare him twelve hostages. 
In the year 1157^ Ruaidhrì invaded Tir-Eoghain, bumed Inis-Eoghain, 
destroyed its orcbardd^ and laid the whole country waste as far as 
[Cuaìlle] Kiannachta. Then tuming bis arms against Munster, he con- 
ferredThomond [TuathMhumbain, North Munster] on Toirdhealbhach 
O'Biiain, and marching against Diarmaid Mac Cartbaigh, son of 
CoDchobhaìr^ king of [Deas-Mbumhain] Desmond, compelled him to 
gi^e hostages, which were to he retained by Ruaidhrì, unless Muir- 
cheartach OXochlainn came to Diarmaid's relief. In 1158 he marched 
Ms armj into Leinster, and pitching bis camp at Leithghlinn, received 
tbe hostages of Osraidhe and Laeghis, and took Màcraith O'Mordha, 
làng of Laeghis, prìsoner. He next [in the same year] attàcked 
Teathbha, and carri ed off an immense spoil of cattle from the 
Muintir-Ceirin, while bis fleet barassed and pillaged Tir-Eoghain. 
t 1160 he made war on Midhe, took hostages from Ui-Foelain 
«id Ui-Failghe, bestowing the former ,on Foilau, son of Mac 



[Cap, IX. 

flixisse, ac ejtis potestatem adacquasse vìdeatur. Sed illìco post Mur- 
chertachum decessorem csesum^ Regìs Hibemise titulo illum insìgnituin 
fiiìsse^ et annales Innìsfalenses disertis verbis asserunt^ et qnas subjicio 

Rotherìcus prò ineondi regni auspicio Asroam copiis comitantibus 
profectus KennelconeUenses ad obsides sibi tradendos adegìt : exercitu 
dein è Connaciensibiis, Medensibus» Teafeosibusque conflato stìpatus^ 
comitantibus Tìgernano O Euairk^ Dermicioque O Melsacblain, Dubli- 
nium adiit. Cujus cives eum Hibemise Regem agnoverunt, tantoque 
honore, quanto uUum unquam è decessoribus prosecuti sunt. Pro 
cujus obsequii stipendio quater mille boves ab eo receperunt Deinde 
Vadipontem proficiscenti, comites itineris ei se magno numero tradi- 
derunt. Illic eum Doncbadus O Caraill OrgielliaB Regulus cum su» 
ditionis optimatibus convenite et datis quatuor obsidibus, obsequium ei 
detulit» et ducentos quadraginta boves ab eo retulit. Rotbericus illinc 
tam numeroso comitatu cinctus^ in Lageniam contendit ; ubi OToelano, 
et O Conchauro Falgiensi eum adeuntibus^ ducentos et quadraginta 
boves singulis elargitus est. Ac deinde Findorcham progressus Mac- 
murdium armatum obvium babuit : quem praelio fusum^ et quatuor ob- 
sides futuri obsequii pignus tradere ooactum^ O Eeniseliae tantum 
finibus prseesse jussit. His peractis Mac Gillepatricium, et Ossorienses 
prooeres tectis exoepit, et obsides tradentibus, ducentos et quadraginta 
boves contulit Tum ad eum Momoniam ingressum proceres Momoni» 
<:onflttxerunt. Ille Momoniam Aquilonarem uterino £ratrì suo Mur- 


7 The tlme that intervened between 
1094 and Muircheartach*8 death, was 
not 80 bad as the 72 years preceding, 
Of the latter, Gillamodad. who wrote 
in 1143, says ** Fot Beyentjr-<two years, 
.firom the death of Maelsseachnail the 
prosperous hero (A.D. 1022), there 
waB conyoked no cooncil sweet to the 
people ; because Ireland was without 
a supreme king; until there arose 
Bomhnall of Deny the Ulnstrìons son 
of noble Irehind, and supreme king, 

memorable foi^his battlea» the good 
king Muircheartach of Mimster." 
0*Conor Prolegomena, 11. p. clxzvii. 
From their acoession, as Dr. 0*Conor 
observe», there was a great number of 
coimdls: and great efforts were made 
by the clergy to establish something 
like peace, and to restore the arts. 
Some proofs of their success are found 
in the architectural monaments of the 


F<Mlan, aad the latter on Maelseachlainn O'Conchobhair. At length» 
be made peftce with Muìrcheartach, king of Ireland, and gave him 
foor hostages, on conditìon that he should possess* besides the whole 
provìnce of Connacht, one half of Midhe, and receive from the other 
half, fonr onnces of gold from Diamiaid O'Maelseadilainn. Roaidhri 
had therefore laìd at an early peiiod the foundations of his future 
power, when he was thus able to dispute the crown with the king 
himself, and ahnost to rivai his anthority. Bat immediatelj after the 
death of Muircheartach his predecessor/ he was proclaimed king of 
Ireland, as is evident fixxm the express words of the Annals of Innis- 
fallen, and from the subjcmied iacts. 

Ejiaìdhrì inaugmated his reign by marching with his anny to Eas- 
Roaidh^ where he compelled the Kinelconaill to givo hostages ; then 
i^ombining his Connacht forces with those t>f Midhe, and Teathbha, 
he marched aocompanied by Tigheaman O'Ruairc and Diarmaid 
O'Maelseachlainn to Dublin. He was acknowledged as king bj the 
citizens^ and was received with as great honors as any of bis prede- 
cessors* As a reward for their allegiance he presented to them one 
thonsand oxen. Then tuming towards Drogheda, he was accom- 
panied b^ a iaige acoession of retainers. There he was met by Ponn- 
chadh Q'Cearbhaill king of Oiighialla» and ali the nobles of his land 
who pnmiised allegìanoe, gave fonr hostages» and received in tum a 
pres^Dt qì two hundied and forty oxen. Retuming thence^ with a stili 
more numerous train» Ruaidhri proceeded to Leinster^ where he was 
wekomed by O'Faelain and O'Oonchobhair Failghe, to each of whozn 
he presented two hundred and forty oxen. Pnshing forward his forces 
he enconntered Mac Murchadha at Fidhdorcha ; whom he defeated, and 
compelled to give four hostages, orderinghim also to confine his juris- 
diction within the limits of Ui-Kinsella. Aiterwards he received Mac 
Gilla Patrie and llie lords of Osraidhe in his royal tent, and pre- 
sented to them two hundred and forty oxen after they had given hos- 
tages. The lords of Munster advanced to meet bim as soon as he 
entered the province. Thomond he gave to Muircheartach O'Briain 
his uterine brother, and Desmond to Diarmaid Mac Carthaigb, son of 
Cormac, whose hostages were delivered into his hands> when he bad 
advanced on his march homewards as far as Tir-fiachrach-Aidhne. 


cbertacho O Brien, et Australem Dermicio Mac Carthio Cònnacì filìo 
elargì tus in itinere doraum versus ad Tirfiachaiachaidhne progressus 
Dermitii Mac Carthii obsides recepit. Murchertacho autem anno Do- 
mini 1168 cseso Donallum fratrem substituit 

Postea Tigemanus O Ruairke ut stuprum uxori, et contumeliam sibi 
à Dermicio Murchardide illatam ulcisceretor, copias è suis Brefbensi- 
bus, Lageuiensibus, et Dubliniènsibus conflatas in Okenseliam duxit, 
et Dermicio ultra mare abacto, castellum ejus Fernense diruit, et duo- 
bus dominis Mac Gillepatricio, et Murchado- Murcbadi filio Okenselise 
impositis, septemdecem obsides ad Rothericum retulit. Anno 1167, 
[88] ad regem | Hibemise Rothericum Dermicius Mac Carthius Australis, 
Murchertacbus O Brien Aquilonaris Momoni» rex, omnes Lageniae, 
Ossoriseque proceres, Dermicius O Moelsacblain Mediae, Tigemanus 
0*Ruairk Humbbrunnise^Conmacniaeque O Caru^illOrgialliaB, O'Heo- 
chius Ulidiae regiilus agmina sua duxerunt. Quee universa è tredecem 
peditum, et septem equitum legionibus constabant, legione quaque 
ter mille homines complexà. H sec sexaginta millia bominum Rex 
Ardmacbam adduxit, ubi triduo moratus, naves suas Doriam appulsas, 
ab uno latere Tironiam adoriri jussit: dum in aliud latus impetum ipse 
faceret, ut terra marique Tironenses impetìti manus dare cogerentur. 
UH vero é saltibus et silvis in regìos noctumis aggressionibus ituri 
mutuo se per errorem jugularunt Itaque postridie octo vadibus Regi 
datis in obsequium ejus concesserunt. Ille quatuor obsidibus O Caruilli 
custodise creditis, quatuor in Connaciam adduxit. Quo itinere per 
Kenelconelliam Asroamque babito, ubi pervenite aliis per varias semitas 
ad 3U0S fines dilapsis, Maccartbiam, et O Brianum hospitio exceptos 
illum Cormaci gladio, hunc Terdelachi O'Briani cratere donavit. 

Unius tantum bebdomadse moram Rex domi suse contraxit, cum 
resciret suppetias Anglicas à Dermicio Murchardide adscitas per La- 
geniam magnopere grassatos Okenselia\n armis Dermicio jam vendi- 
casse. Quare sua, O'Ruarki, O Moelsachlini, et Dubliniensium militià 

B The oxen given by Buadhri to the * Probably the drinking cup of Brian 

princes who had submitted to hìm, Boroimhe, which had been taken from 

were intended as the stipend usually ToirdhleabhachO'BriainbyBuaidhrì's 

given by the monarch to bis lìege father in 1151. O'Donovan's Foùr 

men. See Book of Ri^hts, published Masters, p. 1101. O'Conor's Prole* 

bythe Celtie Society, passim. gomena. Il p. elvi. 

Chip, n.] ^ 0AHBKSN8IS BVIB81T8. 69 

Mairclieartacfa O'Brìain beìng slain, A.D. 1168, bis brother Dombnall 
WB8 raised to the throne by Ruaìdbrì.' 

Àfteiwards Tìghearnan O'Ruairc in revenge for tbe violation of bis 
wife, and the iodignity ofiered to bim by Diarmaid Mac Murcbadba^ 
mmheà mìo Ui Kinsellaigb^ witb an anny of Breffiiians> Dublinians, 
lad Leinster men^ and baying compelled Diarmaid to fly beyond tbe 
seasjherazed bis c^istle of Fearna-mor [Ferns]^ and brougbt home seven* 
teen hosti^es to Raaìdbrì> leasing Ui Kinsellaigb under two princes, 
Mac Gillipatric and Murcbadb Mac Mnrcbadba. In the year 1 167^ 
Diarmaid Mac Cartbaigb king of Desmond, Muircbeartacb O'Brìain 
king of Tbomond^ ali tbe Lorda of Leinster and Osraidbe, Diarmaid 
O'Maelseacblainn of Midbe, Tigbeaman O'Ruairc of Ui Brìuin, and 
Conmaicne 0*Cearbbaill ofOirgbialla^ 0*b-£ocbadba of Ulidia^ placed 
their combined force^ under command of Ruaidbrì. Tbe army con- 
àsted of thirteen legìons of infantry and seven of cavalry^ each legion 
sumbermg tbree tbousand men. At tbe head of tbis army of sixty 
tlìoasand men, Ruaidbrì marcbed to Ard-Macba, where he remained 
three days. He ibence moved towards Tir-£ogbain, wbile bis fleet 
sailed roand to Doire, in order to attack tbe Tir-£ogbainians by land 
ind sea, and compel tbem to come to an engagement. But tbey, 
marchiog in different bodies, in tbe darkness of tbe night, tbrougb 
woods and tbickets, to attack tbe royal troops, midtook their frìends 
ibr the enemy, and slew great numbers. Next day they carne in and 
sabmitted to tbe king, giving bim eigbt bostages, four of wbom were 
giren to O'Cearbhaill, and four brougbt home to Connacht. Having 
retumed tbrougb Tirconaill and Eas-Ruaidh, ali bis auxiliarìes de- 
parted by difierent routes to their own territorìes, except Mac Car- 
thaigh and O'Brìain, whom he entertained bospitably in bis palace« 
He presented to Mac Cartbaigb tbe sword of Cormac, and to O'Brìain 
tliebowl^ of Toirdbealbhach. 

Ruaidbrì bad not enjoyed more than one week's peace in bis palace 
after this expedition, when he beard that English allies, who had been 
ilreadj called in to the aid of Diarmaid Mac Murchadha, bad re- 
established bim in the govemment of Ui Kinsellaigb ; and were spread- 
iagdeyastation tbrougb Leinster. Instantly summoning bis own troops^ 
ile marcbed in conjunction witb O'Maelseacblainn, O'Ruairc, and 


munitus Findorckam advolaviU Ibique castris positis^ unam^ hebdo- 
madam substìtit. Interea manipulus extra castra per insolentiam ex- 
currens cum boste congressus^ sex è suis desideravit Tarn exercitus 
è castrìs effasus, bostem pugna profligavit^ trigìnta duobus bostium 
capìtibus in cumulum Regi ob oculos ab O'Ruairko positis. Itaque 
Dermicius Regem supplex adiyit et septem obsides in obsequìo se 
permansurum eì, et centum unciarum auri mulctam O'Ruaarko prò rapta 
uxore tradidil. Altero deinde anno regiìs armis denuo fractas filium 
etiam suum prioribus obsidibus adjonxit. * Anno ll6iS, Keneloniae^ 
sive TironsB prìmores Dorensem S^ Columbaa successorem Atbloniam 
ad Rotberici Regis aulam Gomitata, magnani à Rege boum^ vestium, 
auri^ et argenti prò munere vim retulerunt. 

Apud Hibernos alim indubitatum acquisitse majestatis argumentum 
erat, si provi^iarum reges> ditionum principes, aut eormn legati regis 
designati tecta subirent, obsides ei deferrent^ et ab eo- munera referrent. 
Illa vero officia Rotberico àsiìigulis alicujus noìm per Hibemiam diti- 
onibus vel ultro^ yel per vim praestita fuisse ; quosque voluit per Mo- 
moniam, Lageniam, Mediam^ et Kinelconelliam summa potestate 
ornasse jam vidimus. Ut inter reges summum imperiiim citra obluc- 
tationem consecntos procul dubio referendus sit, non in Regum 
eorum classem rejiciendus, sub quorum ditionem major Regni pars 
non concessit, quando Hibemise summo cum imperio, aeque libere ac 
decessorum ul}us prsefuit. 

Cseterum ille Rempub. optimè moderatus est, gravi pcena improbos, 
et bostium impetus armis sape coercuit. Anno 1167 Rothericò indi- 
cento, magna praesulum, ac procerum vis Atbbuytblacbtam confluxit 
Illic autem se nominatim stiterant Gelasius primas ArmacbanuSy Lau- 
rentius O Tuaitbil Lageniensium Archiepiscopus, Catbolicus O Dubthay 
Archiepiscopus Connacise, pr»ter alios è Clero quamplurimos, Nec- 
non etiam Tigemanus O Ruairk Brefniae, Duncbadus Orgiallice, 
Eochodius O Dunslevus Ulidiae, Dermicius O Moelsacblin Temoriae, 
Reginaldus Reginaldi fllius Dubliniensium, et Duncbadus O Foelan 
Dessiorum princeps, bos cùm plures minorum gentium proceres, tum 
tredecem equitum millia comitata stmt. Ab boc autem coetu tam 
probse leges latae sunt, ut faemina metus omnis expers Hiberniam uni- 
versam tuta peragrare possit, eadem pace Hibemiee tum illucente, qua 

Ckap. IX.] CAKBIUBK8I8 XVXB8U8. 71 

the meo of Dublin» to Fidh-dorchay where he pitched hia camp and 
Temained for one week. A detachment incautiously advancing from 
the camp, fell in with the enemy, and lost six of their men ; upon which 
the whole armj niahed from their entrenchments» and biought back in 
trìumph thirty heads of the conquered enemy^ which they presented 
to O'RaaiTc* Diarmaid himsdlf made his submission, and gave seven 
hostages as pledgea for his fidelity» together with one hundred ounces 
of gold as an erìc for the riohition of O'Ruairc's wife. In the fol- 
lowing year, Diarmaid was defeated a second time by the royal forces» 
and compelled to surrender his son to be kept with the other hostages. 
In the year 1168» the l(Nrds of Kinel-Conaill and Tir-£oghain carne 
to Athlnain, in company with the successora of St. Columba in Poire, 
and after being entertained in Ruaidhri's palace, retumed home with 
rich presenta of cattle, dresses^ and gold, and silrer. 

With the ancient Irìsh it was invarìably a recognition of homage, 
if the provincial kings or toparchs» or their ambassadors, entered the 
palace of the king elect, gìving him hostages» and receiving presenta 
in retom, New that this duty waa discharged towards Ruaidhrì by ali 
the Irìah prìnces of note, Yoluntarily or by force, is clear from what 
we bave seen ; he disposed at pleasure of the crowns of Midhe» Ulster» 
Leinster» and Munster, so that there can be no doubt of his claims to 
be ranked among the midisputed monarchs of Ireland» and not among 
those who possessed only the smaller portìon of the kingdom. He 
govemed the island with a sway as absolute as any of his predecessors. 

He was a wiae ruler, represaing the e?il-doer by severe penalties» 
and the armed enemy by arms. In 1 167» he convoked a great assembly 
of prelates and lorda» at Ath-buidhe Tlachtgha, which was attended 
by Gekaius primate of Ard-Macha» Lorcan OTuathail, Archbishop 
of Leinster, Catholicus O'Dubhthaigh Archbishop of Connacht» and 
a great nomber of the dergy. There were present also» Tigheaman 
O'Ruairc» Prìace of Brefihe, Donnchadh of Oirghialla» Eochaidh 
Duinnsleìbhe of Ulidia» Diarmaid O'Maelseachlainn of Teamhair» 
Reginald son of Reginald of Dublin, and Donnchadh O'Faelain prìnce 
of the Desies, with a great niimber of lords of the smaller principalities» 
and thirteen thousand knights. The laws enacted in this assembly 
were so salntary» that a woman might safely travel through ali Ireland» 


Northumbriam Beda tum potitam fuisse scrìbit, cum Edwinus in ea 
Regem ageret.** ^ 

[89] I PrsBterea ut soUicitudinìs industriam Rotherìcus exercendse juven- 
tuti non substraberet^ anno Domini 1168 ludos Taltinos dedit, 
procursionum carceres in Aittiì [Mullach Ànti], calcem in [Mul- 
lacb Tailtenn] Taltin» cacumine statuens. Sceleratos etiam im- 
pune flagitia forre minime passus est. Anno enim 1168 Medenses 
O Finalani csBàem octingentorum boum muleta, et alia Dalbb- 
nensibus elargitione expiare : Desmonienses etiam prò caeso Murcber- 
tacbo O Brien, centum et viginti supra ter mille boves persolvere coegit. 
Anno 1169 Domnallum Bregach illata Dermicio Medise principi caedis 
authorem, et exilio et Medise quam ambiebat jacturà mulctavit : Occi- 
dentali Media sibi, et Connaciensibus ; orientali, Tigemano O Ruairk 
et Brefnensibus celiata. Anno 1175 Domnallus O Brìen Dermicio 
Tadei; et Mabonio Terdelachi O Brìeni filio ocalos, O Conchauri 
Corcomroensis filio vitam éruit. Qu» facinora Rotbericum in Dom- 
nallum sic exasperarunt, ut copiis in Tomoniam illatìs, Domnallum 
fugaverìt, et ditiones ejus lata rastatione percurrerit. Nec acerbius 
inalienod quam in propriod filios Rotbericus animadverdt. Nam anno 
Domini 1177 Murcbardius filiua in patrem intemperanter accensus, 
ei patri eque pemicìem machinaturua, Mylero Cogano, Anglicisque 
copiis Roscomaniam progressis, ad patris fines populandos ducatuin 
praebuit. Quibus postea fusis, et fugatis, captus Murchadus scelerìs 
poenas oculis patris jussa effossis dedit. Concbaurum majoren^ natu 
filium gravioris alicujus delieti reum insulse Locbcimroensi pater inclusit. 
Sed inde post annum in ea custodia transactum, ab O Flabertis^ et aliis 
ejus fautoribus per vim extractus mul tum negotii postea patri facessivit 
Rotberìco Rege, Angli primum armis Hibemiam infestare coepenmt^ 
quorum iusolentiam ille non raro compescuit. Teruos eorum ìnsultus 
ab eo repressos fuisse jam insinuavi, potius quam narravi. Nunc quo- 
modo illos quarta vice fuderìt accipe. Anno Domini 11 73 Richardus 

€1 Lib. 2, cap. 16. 

b For the relation» of Ruadhrì with cariaarExcidium," by J. C. O Callaghan, 
the EngUsh invadere see the ** Ma- published hy the I. A. Society. 


libicli then enjoyed such tranquillity as Northumbrìa is said by Bede 
to hare had nnder the royal swaj of Edwìn. 

To carrj out bis beneficent plans for tbe education of youth, 
Ruaidlffì annoimced the Tailtin games in the year 1 168, and mark- 
ed the goal of the races at Mollach-Aiti [now Mullaghloyd» near 
Kells], and the starting. point on the summit of Tailtin. Crimo 
he nerer allowed to escape unpunisbed. Thus in the year 1 168, 
he levied on the men of Midhe a fine of eighty oxen for the murder 
of OTinnallain, and simìlar fines on the people of Dealbhna. He 
compelled the kingdom of Desmond to pay three tbousand one hun- 
died Qxen for the murder of Muircheartach O'Brìain. In the year 
1 169, he avenged the assassination of Diarmaid prìnce of Midhe, by 
banishmg the murderer Domhnall Breagach, and cutting him off from 
the sQccession to Midhe, after which he was aspiring ; Midhe he di- 
TÌded into two portions, annezing the West to bis new kingdom of 
Connacht, and givìng the East to Tigheaman O'Ruairc and the Breff- 
Bìans. In 1175, Domhnall O'Briain, having put out the eyes of 
Diannaid son of Tadbg, and of Mathghamhain son of Toirdhealbhach 
O'Briain, and put to death the son of O'Conchobhair of Corcumruaidh, 
Ruaidbrì was so indignant at these enormities, that he marched into 
Thomond at the head of bis army, defeated Domhnall, and laid waste 
his tenitorìes. He was as stem towards the misdeeds of bis own son, 
as of strangers. For in 1177, his son Murchadh, in a pbrensy of 
passion against bis father, conspìred against him and his country, and 
conducted Mylo Coghan and tbe Englisb forces to Ros-Cbomain, to 
devastate tbe land of bis fatbers, But tbe invaders being defeated and 
put to flight, Murchadh was taken, and by the stem order of tbe 
iather deprived of sigbt, to punisb his unnatural rebellion. His eldest 
son, Conchobbar, he also imprìsoned in tbe island of Loch-Cime for 
some great crime. But contrivìng to make bis escape by tbe armed aid 
of the OTlaitbbbeartaigb after one year's imprisonment, he brought 
down afterwards mucb trouble on bis father. 

Boring tbis reign, the Engiish first began to curse Ireland with their 
Mms, but their insolence was often punished by Ruaidbrì.^ I bave 
already touched not in detail,but ligbtly on ihree occasions wben he carne 
in cóUision with them. The foUowing is a fourtb instance. In 11 73 


Strango&a Comes MomoBies depopulationem, et vasdtatem ìnferébat» 
cujus progressus ut Rotherìcmr coerceret, in. Onnoniam copias prorìpit, 
et ctiin comitis exercìtu acie deeertans, emn ita profligavit^ ut comes 
septingentos supia mille desideiaverìt.^ Fostea vero Rothericus cum 
aHquot prìncipum ad hostes defectìone intestimsque filìorum» aliorum- 
que dissidiis se hostium insiiltibuB sustìnendis imparem cesnerety ad 
transactiones cma AngHae Rege ineundas descendit, quarum laibulas 
Hovedemis ad Amium Domini 1175 pagina 546 produciti et smnmam 
Annales nostri verbis bone fere sensum referentibtts complectnntar : 
Catbolicus O Dubhtbay Tuamensis Arcbiepiscopus pacem ^e Anglia 
retulit bis conditionibus cum Anglìse Rege pactam ut Rotb^icus Regis 
Hibemorum potestate^ provinciarum Reges priori dignitate gauderent, 
ita tamen, ut regendi rationes à Rotberico suspensas baberent» et ei 
tributa penderent. 

Et ut Rotberici studium in res, personas^ et literaa sacras non penitus 
tacitum praBtereamus ; à Lipsano S. Mancbiui Moetblensis tbecà aurea 
obducendo> qua omatiorem Hibemia tum non vidit, leghum asmo 
Domini 1166, exorsus est. Praeclarissima quaedam de S. Manchino 
Colganus memorat ad 14 Febru. anno Domini 1176 Ecclesise S. Ber- 
racbi census perpetua Tuaimacbae vili» cigusdam bospitalitise sive mu- 
nicipalis donatione auxit^ prò summo ejus ei^ Deum, et S. Berrachum 
cultu. Tanta prsesulum veneratione tenebatur^ ut nibil arduum, nisi 
illis in consilium adbibitis aggrederetur. Ejus accitu proceres, et 
prsesules Leitbcunnise Tuamiam anno Domini 1171 accurrerunt» ubi 
Catbolicus O Dubbtbay Tuamensis Arcbiepiscopus tres Ecclesias ritu 
solemni consecravit. Magnopere quoque connixus est, ut literarum 
progressu Hibemia floreret Nam prò ejus in S. Patrìcium et liteias 
studio, anno domini 1169 Prof essoris Armacbani salarium annua decem 
[90] boum accessione locupletavit. | Et ad eundem boum numerum et quot- 
annis persolvendum successores suos obstrinxit, eo spectans ut professor 
ille literarum candidatos ex Hibemia Albaniàve Armacbam concedentes 
literarum disciplinis excolere teneretur. 

lUe generis Hibernici ultimus Hibemias Rex fbit. Deo ita statuente, 
ut^ sicut ceterìs mortalium rebus, sic etiam Regnis 43ua Bit periodus. 

^Contlnu. Tigcmaci ad an. 1173. 

CsAP. EC] cambeutsis Mmavs* 75 

Richard» Eiirl StroBgbow, baving aiaiched bis dimj io waste and 
depopvlate Mmiatery Rnaidhrì led bis anny into Mbamba [Om<md]» to 
check themfages (^ the invaderà; bemet tbem in pitcbed battle» and 
gained a deeisive-victory ever the Earl^ s^ying* serenteen bondred of hh 
meo. Bat when, bj the deaertìon of some prìnces to the standard of the 
Bi?adeT, and tbe ìntestkie bfeìla of bis own sons and otbers, he found 
himsdf aaiMe to cope witb the enemy in Uie field> he descended to 
negodatioB witfa the king of England, tbe autbentic record of wbicb 
is gi?en at the year 1175 by Hoveden» p* 546, and a summary in onr 
own annals to tbe Ibllowing efkci, " Catbolicus O'Dttbbtbaighf Arcb- 
hishop of Tnaim, brought home a treaty of peace £rom England, wìth 
these st^olatìons, fìom tbe king of England, tbat Rnaidhrì sbouid 
enjoj tbe power of king of Ireland, and tbe provinoial kings tbeir 
ancìent dignity, witb this restrìction tbat tbeir power sbouid be derìved 
under Rnaidbri» and tbat tbey sbouid pay bim trìbiite." 

Bat in order not to pass over in total silence Ruaidbrì's solicitude 
foT ecclesiastìcal afiairs, lit^nture, and the dergy, he commenced bis 
TeigD, A.D. 1 166, witb a present of a gold sbrino, snperìor to any tbat 
had yet been seen in Ireland, for the relics of St Mancban of 
Moethail. Colgan at Feb. 14, relates many glorìous tbings of St. 
Mancban. In 1176, for bis great Ioto of €rod and St Bearach, he 
granted to tbe churcb of St^ Bearacb for ever, the revetìues of a town- 
land, named TnaimacbaicUì, wbicb was a Baile Bealach and con- 
tained a house of hospitality, or municipal house. So great was bis 
Generation for the prelates, tìiat he never undertook any arduous 
enterprìse witlìout banng prerionsly consulted witb tbem. In 1171 
he invited the lords and prelates of Leath-Cuinn to Tuam, where Ca- 
tholìcQs 0*Dubhthaigb, Archbisbop of Tuaim, performed the solemn 
consecration of three churches. Literature, also, engaged bis most 
anxious tboughts. So solicitous was he for its advancement, tbat in 
bonor of St. Patrick, be gave an additìon of ten oxen to the annual 
salaiy of the professor at Ardi-Maeba, and confirmed the same from 
bis own successors for ever, on condition, that such professor wouid 
be boimd to receive to bis literary lectures ali students from Ireland 


and AJbany. 
He was tbe last king of Ireland of Irish race; God so ordaining it. 


Et illum non sdum peregrini, sed etiam sui filii regno ejecerunt; quo- 
rum major natu Conchaurus patri Connapiae Regnum anno Pomini 1186 
eripuit, ut patrem insolentiam filii declinantem in Momoniam se reci- 
pere oportuerit, et à Connaciae proceribus postea revocatum in Tir- 
connalliam denuo confugere. Antiquarii septemdecem Regni annos ei 
adscribunt^ lìcet post regnum ab ipso initum ad ejus mortem triginta 
duo anni effluxerint Quam longè inter canonicos relatus anno Domini 
1198 appetiit in annis quibus singuli Christiani Reges imperarunt enu- 
merandis Dungallenses Annales secutus adverti Gillemadudum in 
eorumdem enumeratione ab iis Annalibus discrepare. Nam hi Tua- 
tbalio lì, ille 13 regni annos, Domnallo primo, hi 16, ille 17, Loìng- 
secho, hi 8, ille 9, Flabhertacho, hi 7, ille 9, Flanno Siuno hi 38, 
ille 39, Congalacho hi 12, ille 13, assignat Nisi me Gillemadudi 
enumeratio figuris plerumque numerìcis expressa fallat. 

Exstat in provinciali Romano Catalogus non Regum, sed regnorum 
Hibeinise qui talis est '' In Ibemia Catholicus. Rez Coloniensis. 
Connacise. Rex Mivania. Mense. Cathelinae. Ibi hodie non sunt 
reges. Sed tota Ibemia est sub Rege Anglise."^ Postrema ista verba, 
catalogum istum, ante Hibemiam Anglorum ditioni adjunctam, esse 
confectum aperte docent Torta etiam plerarumque vocnm, et 4.recta 
pronuntiatione aliena prolatio summam ei vetustatem vendicare videtur. 
Primus enim character, quo scriptus est, adeo in desuetudinem tem- 
poris diutumitate proculdubio abìit, ut ipse apicum ductus ex scrip- 
toribus longo post tempore secutis ignotus in eum errorem eos indux- 
erit, ut debitse literae multoties aliàm allucinati substituentes, dictio- 
nem alienissimam eiformaverint. Ceterum " vox Catholicus/' supre- 
mum IbemicB Regem, sive Monarcham denotat; sive quod ille quasi 
universalis Rex Hibemise fuerit ; seu potius quod Catholici titulo Mo- 
narcham Hibemìse Pontifez honestaverit. • " Rex Coloniensis," malim 

^ Apud Bebuffum in prazi beneficionun pag 442. 

e There Is no typographical error, if Bex Coloniensis Comachi», 

Dr. O'Conor's edition of Gillamodud Bez Minanise, Men», Cathélinie, 

be correct. Ili hodie non simt reges, etc. etc. 

à In the edition of Rebuff, A.D. p. 482. 

1654, the reading is : — Connacia in the tezt is a misprint 

Catholicus, for Comachiae. 

ChàP. IX.] CAMBft£X8I8 STXBSU8. 77 

that, like ali other things human, kiDgdoma themselves shouid hare 
«D end. It was not foreigners alone, bnt bis own sons who deposed 
bim ; Conchobhar the elder depmed him of the cro¥m of Connacht 
in 1186, 8o that the father was ofoliged to fly to Munster from his re- 
beDiouB son, and again to Tir-Conaill, when he had been recalled from 
exfle by the nobles of Coimacht. The annalista wrìte that he reigned 
serente^i years^ thongh ffom his aecesMon to his death there elapsed 
tiùrtj-two jears. He dìed in a monasterj of Uie Canons Regular in 
1198, which order he had embraced many years before his death. I 
bave adopted in the chronology of the Christian kings the authority 
of the FonT Masters, but I find that 6iila*Modud oecasionally diiTers 
from tbem. They assign toTuathal 11 years, to Domhnall I. 16, 
to Loingsech 8, to Flaithbheartach 7, to Flann-Sinna 88, and to 
Conghalalach 12, while Gilla-Modud's numbers are for each in order, 
13, 17, 9, 9, 39, 13, unless there he some typographical errorin this 
latter enumeration, which is given in figpires.^ 

In a Roman Provinciale, there ìs extant the foUowing catalogne of 
the kings and kingdoms of Ireland : — " In Ibemia Catholicus. Rex 
Coloniensis. Connacise. Rex Minavlae. Men». Cathelin». Hi hodie 
non sont reges. sed tota H ibemia est sub rege Angliae."^ From these 
last words it is evident that the catalogne was drawn up anterior to the 
annexatìon of Ireland to the £nglìsh crown. Its extreme antiquìty* 
may be fairly inferred, from the crabbed and improper orthography of 
most of the words. The character in which it was originally written 
had no donbt become so obsolete in the long- lapse of centuries, that 
the very form of the lettera was entirely strange to persons wrìting a 
long time after, and led them ìnto such errors, that by substituting a 
diffeient for the proper lettor, they often produced a reading totally 
nnlike the oiiginal. Now, the word " Catholicus" denotes the supreme 
king or monarch of Ireland, either because he was as it were universal 
king of Ireland, or rather because " Catholic" was the honorable title 

« Ite date is probably sometinies be- before the latter date. The catalogne 

tween 1152 and 1200, because in the gives 47 aeea m Ireland, a number 

catalogne of Lrìsh eeea, the four different from any in the catalogues 

Aichbishoprìca are mentioned, and cited by Dr. Lanigan. 
alflo Bome sees which became extónct 

78 nAMBiKffifsis «yjaurus. [Cap. jx. 

UltonieiisiB. Veix enim hasc siUabamm parìtate prc^rìus illi appropìn^ 
quatf mutatioDe scìlicet primae sillabae. " Mivaniee" levi :flexione ut 
Menavia» quo nomine Manniam afficimuB. Ut Maoniee R^i^m Hi- 
bernie Regibus ; quod supra contendebam, monmaentum .hoc aniline- 
arare videatur. Magis tamen placet ut hac voce MomonifB regaam 
ìndicetur, fadli scribse lapsu literam M. rertentis in N. Per vterbum 
autem '^Maenae" quin Mediae regniun innuatur non dubito amaauenae 
per cbaiacterum ignorantiam^ n, prò di^ Bcribente^ ut bine judicem in 
fìibemise Pentarcbia«uum bic locum Medi» tribui, ita ut due Momo- 
ràm unum regnum^ Lagenia^ Ultonia^ et Connacia tria regna constitu- 
ant Licet enim altea» è Momoniis, magnitudine Ultoniam^ aut Con- 
naciam superet^ Lageniam ezasquet: cum tamen ad utrìusque clavum 
Rex unus plerumque sederit^ et non nisi rarissime ad utramque admi- 
nistrandam CoUegs admoti fuerint^ ut 4 regum Momoniss catalogo 
liquet» prò uno tantum regno ut plurimum babetni. 

Prseterea Mediae «qua ac provinciarum Reges ad Mon«robtt fast^um 
non raro evebebantur.^ Nec ullias provincia finibus Media- continetur 
cum seorsim ipsa per se regio satis ampia sit, reliquaxum quidem ain- 
gulis finìum spatio longè cedens, sed agrorum pr»stantia etìam prae- 
cedens. Qaare divisio Hibemiae à Giraldo instituta» cum ei Mediam 
inserere omiserit, manca est^ et mutila; Imo tanti ponderis enor in 
ipso suscepti opeiis limine continuos lapsus in ejusdem operìs progressu 
portendit Sane vix quidpiam de Hibemia Giraldus profert, quod non 
[91] vel defectu | aliquo> vel supeErvacanea redundantia laboret. Media vero 
cum extca Provinciarum aliarum fines posita^ et nullius in Hibernla 
Eegis, nisi Monarcb» sdtins Imperiis obnoxia sit, ut unum Pentarcbis 
regnum à caeteris scgunctum per se constitoat necesae est. *' Catbelk^/' 
Nullum in hac voce subsidimn ad conjiciendum Lageniam inainuaà 
video, nisi reliquam tantum è provinoils esse Lageniam quam hoc mo- 
Bumentum non ante protulit. 

In aliquibus Pontificalis Romani exemplarìbus inter Reges unctione 
oblini in inauguratione solitos^ Reges Hibemise coUocari Johannes 

64Top. d. I. c.6. 

' The anthor' s inferences firom this sees are equaUy enigmatìcal, for in* 
Provinciale are rather ingenioiiB tìian «tance, Gledotalensis i^id Fetnmens, 
satisfactorj. The names of the Irish fot GlendalacenBis and Fernen^. 


the Pope gare to the manarch of Iielaad. ^ Rez ColoniMisis*' I would 
read ^' Ultotiìenasy" tbe wor4,to wMck it appxoaches nearest in similarity 
of S7llai>le8» mexely by diaaging the first. '* Mivaziia" bj a slight 
change becomes " MeBavìa," the name of Ito iale of Man ; thereby 
adding probable confinnatìon to what I bave already endeavoured to 
prove; that Man was«n appendage to the Irish crown. But I am mova 
inclined to belktre iJìat the coxrect veaèing is ^ Momonia/' the Jdug- 
dom of MuDster^ and that the acnbe by an easy sUp of the pen had 
wntten N. for M. The word ''Mense,'' means, I bave no doublé 
" the kìngdom ofMidhe/' i.e. " Media," the scribe» tbrough ignorance of 
the chasaeter» having substitatad n for di. This interpietation gives 
Midhe (Meath) a place in the Irish pentarchy; with Leinster, Ulster, 
Connaclikt, and the two Mimsters, which were one kingdom. For 
thoi^fa one of the Monsters is eqoal to Leinster, and larger than 
Ulster or Connacht, yet as both are generally under the sceptre of one 
monaEFch, and Feiy seldom found separate crowns, as is evident irom 
the catalogne of Munster kings, they are almost in^ariably regarded 
as one kingàem.^ 

MoreoFor, the kings of Midhe« as well as the kings of the other 
provinces» were often raised to the throne of Ireland^ nor was it in- 
cluded within the limits of the other provinces> forming, as it does by 
itsel^ a considerable territory, far inferior in size, it is true, to the other 
provinces, but surpassing them in the fertility of its soil. The division 
which Giraldus makes of Ireland» omitting Midhe, is consequently 
imperfect and false : and an error of such magnitudo, in the very com- 
mencement of bis hook, has, as is usually the case, involved him in 
continuai blunders as he proceeds* In almost every thing he writes 
of Ireland there is some flaw or trifling seribbling not to the point. 
MkLbe not being included within the other provinces, and being subject 
to none of them except the supreme king of Ireland, must constitute 
of itself one pf the kingdoms of the Irish pentarchy. With regard 
to " Cathelinse," I see uothing in the word resembling " Lagenia," i«e. 
Leinster, nor any other proof of the identity, except that Leinster is 
the only one of the provincial kingdoms omitted in the catalogne. 

In some copies of the Roman Pontificai, John Selden saw the kings 
of Ireland enumerated among those kings who were anointed with oil &t 


Séldenus vidit^ in qu» Azorìus se Don incidisse estenditi dum ejusmodi 
Regum serìem texens Reges Hibemiae ipìssos facit^ " Comachias." 
Vox hsec integri tatem suam poDoe retinens Connachiam nobis exhibet.^ 
Qui mirantur res gestas alibi Regibus Hibemise adscrìptas bic taceri^ 
noscant regum Hiberniffi non historiam, sed Catalogum hic me molitum 
obvias aliquot eorum res gestas attexuisse^ quo tsedium ex nuda solo- 
rum nominum recitatione lectori obveniens, adjectae narratiunculae ali- 
quantulum lenirent. Prseterea cum aliquot ex Hibemice regibus post- 
hacin scenam prodeuntes lector visurus sit; nolui, quse illic eorum 
gesta in medium prò re nata proferuntur, hic intempestive obtrudere, 
ne iteratioue supervacanea, et libri molem, et legentis molestiam 

Monendus est hic lector scriptores nonnuìlos Regis Hibemise titulum 
aliquibus hic consulto prsetermissis contulisse. Tigemachus Naeme- 
dium Srabhchinni filium Conarii filii Mogholami percussorem Regem 
Hibemise appellata et in pugna Kinathabrensi à filiis Olilli Olumi^ 
tribusque Carbrìis occisum memorat. Sed cum Gillecomanus accu- 
ratissimus Regum Hibemise nomenclator^ a ut alius ullus è quam 
plurimis remm Hibemicarum scriptoribus illum inter Hibemise Reges 
non referat, nec locus inter eos eidem à nobis assignatur ; quando 
scriptoris unici testimonium> in quem etiam fortasse menda ìrrepsit^ 
non tanti sit ponderisi ut quis eo, centra scriptorum torrentem niti 

locselinus Fortchemum quondam Hibemise regibus ascribit. Cum 
vero apud scriptores nostros regum Hibemise nomina soUicite recen- 
sentes^ nullus Rex ejusmodi nomen gerens^ neque in Monarcharum^ 
ncque in Provinciarum Hibemise regum nomenclaturis appareat; et 
Annales nostri omnes S. Patrìcio mortem anno Domini 493 obeunte 
non Forchemum, sed Lugadiiun Leogarii filium ad Hibemise guber- 
nacula sedisse uno assensu praedicent^ non video cur Fortchemus é 
regum Hibemise consortio non sit amovendus.^ Nec dubito quin 
locselini animus ita scrìbentis peregrinatus^ aut rectum ab ilio nomen 
in autographo positum, transcribentium vitio in alienam vocem tortum 
fuori t. 

» In ** Titulis honoris." 66 Part 2. /. IO. $. 5. 67 Vita «. Patricu cap. nltìmo. 


theìr coronation. This fact cannot have been obseired by AzoTÌns, or he 
wQuId not have omitted the Irish in his catalogne of anointed kings. 
" Comachìffi" is almost lettor for letter " Conoachia/' 

Should it seem stiange that many actions recorded of Irish kings 
in other books are omitted bere, let it be home in mind that I am not 
wTidng a history of the kings, but a catalogne of their names, with 
merely examples of the most striking events of their reigns, to relieve 
the ìnevitable langnor and aridity of a naked line of succession. And, 
moreover, as many of the Irish kings are to re-appear in my pages, 
when the snitable occasion arìses, I do not wish to introduce them 
here, lest by unnecessary repetition, I should add too much to the 
volume of my hook and the trouble of my reader. 

My reader ìs also informed that the title of king of Ireland is given 
by some writers to persons whose names I have omitted. Tigheamach 
gives the title of king to Neimhidh son of Sraibhcinn, the slayer of 
Conaire son of Moghlamha, and relates that he was slain in the battio 
of Kinfebrat by the sons of Olili Olum, and the three Cairbres. 
Bnt sìnce neither Gilla-Caeimhghin whose authority is highest on the 
list of Irish kings, nor any other of our numerous body of Irish 
annalista have ranked hìm among Irish kings, I could not presume 
to include him ; because the authority of one writer, who hos perhaps 
been interpolated, can never be of sufficient weight to resist the flood 
of evidence from ali other writers. 

Jocelin names a Fortchem among the kings of Ireland. But as 
such a name does not occur in the careful enumeration of Irish kings 
by our annalists, either as king of Ireland or king of any province in 
Ireland, and as the same annalists unanimously attesi that When St. 
Patrick died, A.D. 493, the king of Ireland was not Fortchem, but 
Lughaidh son of Laegbaire, I cannot discover any solid reason for re- 
taining Fortchem on the royal catalogue. I have no doubt that 
it was a hallucinatìon of Jocelin, or that the true name on the cata- 
logue was transformed into a totally different one by the neglect of the 

Matthew of Westminster at the year 497 and 522, staèes that there 
was an Irish king, named Gillamnr, who was taken prisoner in Ire- 
land (he says) by Arthur, and that ali the princes of Ireland were 



Westmonasterìensis ad annum DomÌDÌ 4^7 et 522 nomen Regìs 
HiberDiae cuidam Gillamurio tribuìt, quo per Arthurum regem in Hi- 
bemia (ut ait ille) "capto, ceetéri principes Hibemise in deditionem 
8unt eoacti ;" hac fabula citra dubium è Monumetensi depromptà. A 
Polychronico, Campiano, et Hanmero similia ex iisdem fontibus hausta 
narràntùr. Séd è Regum Hiberniaè numero ille merito excludendus 
est, quem domestica monumenta Regum serìem etìam accuratissime 
texentia ne quidem nominaut ; ut ei quem alienigenae nobis Regem 
affingant, locns inter nostros Reges non sit temere designandus ; prae- 
sertim cum narrationis istius origo ab ilio scriptore manet, cujus quam 
fluxa fides fuit, tam fragilis est authoritas. Monumetensis enim scrìpta 
" potius in anilibus quam Annalibus numeranda esse" Leslaeus dixit. 
Nam ille ''Regem Arthurum triginta Regna subjugasse, Lucium 
Leonis Imperatoris procura torem stravisse, et in exercitu ejusdem 
Lucii militasse, Regem Greecorum Epistrephen, Regem Parthorum 
Munstenphar, Regem Hispanise Aliafacinam, Regem Africae Hittacum, 
Regem Medorum Bosetum, Regem Lisbiae Sextorium, Regem ^gypti 
Prandusum, Regem Babilonia Mystipsam, Regem Iturearum, Bith- 
£92] inise, Phrygiae, Syriae, | et denique Regem Francorum FoUonem,"^ 
comminiscitur. Verùm quando Hispania, Gallia caeterseque memorata) 
jam regionés ejusmodi nominibus affectos reges sibi un quam imperasse 
non fatentur, nec nos Gillamurium regis Hibemise titulo ìnsignitum 
unquam fuisse agnoscemus.^ 

CaBterum Polychronicon Galfridum egregie impugnat, ut oihnis ul- 
terior opera in eo diluendo supervacanea futura sit.'^ Super cujus 
Galfridi librum legi apud Cambrensem daemones tripudiantes et salti - 
tantes visos fuisse.^* " Contingit inquit spiritibus immundis Melerio 
cuidam insultantibus, ut Evangelium Joannis ejus in gi*emio poneretur : 
qui statim tanquam aves advolantes omnes penitus evanuerunt : quo 
sublato postmodum, et Historia Brittonum à Galfrido Arthuro tractata, 
experiendi causa loco ejusdem subrogata; non solum corpori ipsius 
toti, sed etiam libro superposito longè solito crebrius, et taediosius in- 
siderunt." Ut omittam Alanum Copum cum Ovidii metamorphosis, 

68 Historia Scot. 1. 4. in Rege 46/ 69 Vide Usherum de primor. p. 517. 
W Ibidem. Ti Itiner. Cambriae, l. ì. e. 5, 


thereby rednced to sabmission. Thìs fable bears evident tnarls of 
being Imn Geoffrej of Momnontb» and similar stories are taken from 
the sanie source bj Campion and Hanmer. But bow^ can ibis man be 
admitted among Irisb kings, wbose name never uccurs in tbe careful 
and delalled lists of sovereigns> compìled by native antborities. Would 
it not be entrane rashness to alloir tbis king to be forced on us by 
foreigners, especially wben tbe originai authority for tbè story is bat 
of frail credit and fiìnasy weigbt P Monmonth's wrilings abound> says 
Lesley, more witb fables tban facts^ for be says, " tbat king Artbur 
subjugaled tbirty kìngdoms, defeated Lucius, Lieutenant of tbe £m- 
peroT Leo, and tbat in tbe army of tbe same Lucius, tbere were serving 
Eplslrepbes king of tbe Greeks, Munstenpbar king of Parthians» 
Alia&cina king of Spain, Hittacus king of Africa, Bosetus king of 
the Medes, Sextorius king of Lybia, Prandus king of Egypt, Mys- 
t^psa king of Babylon, the ktngs of Iturea, Bythinia, Phrygia, Syria, 
and in fine Follo, king of the Franks." Wben Spain, Gaul, and ali 
their other nations admit that they were ever goyemed by any of those 
kings, th^i we are ready to admit tbat Gillamur may bave been king 
of Irdand. 

Bat the Polychronicon refutes Geoffrey so triumphantly, tbat it 
woold be only loss of time to dwell longcr on ibis matter. I find 
front Cambrenàs, that hosts of devils were once seen hopping and 
dancing on this hook of Geoffrey *s. " It happened,*' he writes, " that 
a certain person named Meler being infected with evil spirìts, the 
Gospel of St John was placed on bis heart, and immediately ali the 
devils took flight and flew away like birds: the Gospel was then taken 
aivay, and the history of the Britons by Geoffi*ey Arthur was placed in 
its stead ibr experìment sake, but evil &pirits retumed in greater num- 
bers, and not only clung to bis body but even to the hook that was 
laid on him." I need not state that AUan Cope compares Geoffrey to 
Ovid*s metamorphoses or the fictions of Lucian ; that William of New- 
bridge represents bim as making " Arthur's little finger bigger than 
the back and loin of Alexander the Great,** and that Camden stig-- 
matizes him as "a man of no ancient aulhority," who devised from bis 
own brain so many Milesian fables, that he is now ranked amongst 
writers prohibited by the Church of Rome. One fact clearly proves 


aut Luciani figmentis eum conferre, et Nubrigensem dicere, quod 
Monumetensis faciat " minimum Artfauri digitum grossìorem lumbis, 
ac dorso Alexandri magni :" qui, ut ait Gamdenus, " fide non antiqua 
fuit ; tot Milesias nugas ex suo ingenio interseruit, adeo ut jam inter 
prohibitos ab Ecclesia Romana scriptores babeatur."^^ Quantum à fide 
Monumetensi adbibendà Cambrensis abhorret vel inde perspicitur, 
quod bomo gloriae suae gentis ambitiosus Gillamuri nomen scriptis 
suis inserere penitus omiserit. Cum tamen Artburum, Hibemise 
Regibus aliquatenus dominatum fuisse bis verbis innuat : " legitur" 
(inquit) " famosum illum Britonum Regem Arthurum HibemiaReges 
tribatarios babuisse, et ad magnam urbis Legionum Curiam quosdam 
eorum accessisse." Quae Ketingus verbis sequentem sensum referen- 
tibus oppugnat. Speedus (inquit) in Cbronico Hibemiae Regem 
** Artburo Regi tributarium fuisse negat; affirmat quidem foedus inter 
ambos Reges ictum fuisse, ut cum alteruter bostium aimis impetere- 
tur, suppetias alter ìmpetito ferret, quod fcedus jus belli socialis appel- 
lat. Sicut modo usu venit inter Imperatorem et Regem Hispania^, 
quorum alter alteri subvenit, si quando bellum ab boste ìnfertur. 
Non inde tamen fit, Regem Hispanise tributarium Imperatoris esse, 
aut vice versa, Imperatorem Hispanise Regi tributum debere. Pari 
ratione, si Arthurus, et Murcbertacbus Ercae filius, qui Rex Hiber- 
niae Syncbronus Arthuro fuit, belli societatem iniverint, qua uter- 
que se alteri obstrinxerat in belli discrimen adducto subsidio ven- 
turum, non inde tamen infertur alterum alteri tributarium esse." 

David Povellus scribit "Bracbanum, ,à quo terra Braichenoc in 
Wallia denominata est, natum fuisse patre Hulapho Hibemorum 
Rege."^* Sed cum Hulapbus nullus in Regum Hibernise vulgare albnm 
referatur; sicut "Brachonus rex unius partis Hibernise fuisse*' in vita 
S. Canoci dicatur, ejusdem quoque partis pater Rex fuisse iiidubitate 
credendus est.^^ Quaenam porro fuerit illa pars Colganns accurate 
discutit, in vita S. Canoci undecimo Februarii.^* 

^2 In prooeniio. p. 487. '3 Cambriae itinerarium Cambr. /. 1. 6. 2. Tipoyellius 
in notis apud Colganum 24. 75 Januarii p. 323, n. 4, fol. 63. 

8 Either the modem Chester or Irish of Ireland assisted Gortìgorn 
some place on the Usk in Monmouth- and the Brìtons against the Saxons, 
shire. Welch barde state that the before the days of Arthur. 

CflAP. IX.] CàMB&£NSIS SV£&SUS. 85 

how ligbUy Cambrensis thought of the authority of Geoffrey ; for 
he has never mentioned the nauae of Gillamur in his writings^ 
thongh he was most zealous for the honor of bis own country, and has 
inslnuated tbat Arthur had some authority over the kings of Ireland. 
" We read," he says, " that the Irish kings were once tributary to 
Arthur the great kìng of the Brìtons, and tbat some of them bad once 
?isited the great palace in the city of Legion/'s Keating refutes that 
assertion, nearly in the foUowing manner : " Speed>" he writes, " denies 
in bis Chronicle tbat the king of Ireland was tributary to king 
Arthur ; he asserts that a league was made between both kings> by 
whicb when one was attacked by an enemy> the other was bound to 
assist him, whicb league he denominates a defensive alliance ; such 
as for example now ezists between the Emperor and the king of Spain, 
who aid eacb othenr, wbenever eitbec is at war. But a3 it does noi 
ibence fìdlow tbat the king of Spain is tributary to the Emperor, 
nor the Emperor to the king of Spain ; neitber can it be inferred, tbat 
if Moircheartach son of Earc, who was contemporary of Arthur, en< 
tered into a similar league with bim, by whicb eacb was bound to assist 
the other in time of war, tbat Moircheartach was thereby a tributary 
of Arthur." 

David Powell wrìtes tbat Brachan, who has given bis name to the 
terrìtory of Brecknock in Wales, was the son of Halaph, king of 
Ireland. But no Hulapb being found in the common catalogues of 
Irìsb kings, as Brachan is said in the life of St. Canoe to bave been 
king of one part of Ireland^ bis fatber, beyond a doubt, was king of 
the some district. Colgan in. the life of St. Canoe, IL Feb. has a 
leamed dissertation on tbis principality of Brachan. 

O'Dubbagain, I find, cites the authority of the hook of Sabhall, for 
Boedan Mac Cairil],^who was king he says of Ireland and Alba. Boe- 
dan, however, is mentioned in the metrical catalogne of the kings of 
Ulster as banng governed tbat province twenty years. The same rank is 

h Fop a note on this Boedan, see kings of Ireland. It ia clear that so 

voi. 1. p. 165. He must net be con- early as the age of Gillamodud, the 

founded with Boedan the Wise, or Ultonians regarded Mac Gairill as 

Boedan of the Sea, yrho werc certainly monarch. 


Lego apud Oduveganum ex libro Saballi^ ut ipse loquitur, Boeda- 
num Carini fiHum HìbemìsB^ Albanìseque Regem fuisse. Catalogus 
tamen metricus Regura Ultoniae inter illius provincisB Reges eum enu- 
merata et annos viginti regnasse commemorat. Libellus quoque de Syn- 
chronismo monarcharum Hiberoiae, et Regum ejusdem provincialium 
non ultra Ultoniae Reges illum evehit Et Annales Hibemiae mor- 
tem ejus in annum 589 referentes, non alio eum quam Regis Ulto- 
niae titulo exomant. Ita ut facinorum ejus praestantiam supra syn- 
chronos Hibemiae Reges eminentem alieni scriptorì Ultonìensi 
stimulos addidisse putem^ ad illum in eo dignitatis fastigio collo- 
candum. Ut Gillemodudus Momonienses^ similem ob causam^ Feii- 
midium Crintboni filìum Momonìae tantum Regem Hibemiae Regibus 
adscripsisse conqueritur. 

Saxo Grammatieus Hugletem quendam Hibemiae Regibus ingerii, 
sed ut ait Warraeus " Saxonis «notissimae sunt fabulie/''^. Hanmerus 
tradita teste Ketingo, Frotonem quendam Danum Hibemiam tum 
[93] rexisse^ eum Christus in | lucem ederelur.^^ Subjicitautem Ketingus ab 
Hibernicis monumentis asserì Chrintonum Nianir Hibemiae M onar- 
chiam lum gessisse. " Parum vere (inquit Polidorus) quidam tra- 
dunt Analapbum Hibemiae Regem fuisse/*'® 

Caradocus Lancamarvensis Cormacum Culennani filium, Aloicum, 
et ejus filiuni Elermaen Reges Hibemiae vocat.'^^ Sed errorem 
Caradoci Warraeus retexit, dum ostendit Cormacum Momoniae tan- 
tum, et alios duos Osmanorum Dubliniensium Reges fuisse. Godre- 
dus quoque per errorem à S. Lanfranco Hibemiae Rex appellatus, 
Rex tantummodo Manniae, Dubliniique fuit. Peregrinis hominibus 
plerumque non multum de discrimine inter Monarcbas, et Provincia! es 
Hibemiae Reges discernendo sollicitis.^ Sic Regem Cantii Edelber- 
tum S. Gregorius Regem Anglorum,®* et Edwinum Regem Nor- 
tbumbriae Bonifacius et Honorius pontifices, " Regem" etiam Anglo- 
rum appellarunt.®^ 

Scolici scriptores Regum Hibemiae seriem *' Duncono quodam sive 
Donato, seu verius Dunacbe augent/' quem puerum adbuc, et im- 
puberem magis fidis Regni primoribus erudiendum in urbe Dublin- 

76Histo. Dan. /. 6, de A.ntiq. Hibernìae. e. 25, in Lib. 6, p. 113, prjBfat. 
?7 Warraeus ubi supra p. 18, 110, 112, 113. 78 Ibidem, p. 117. 79Beda/. 1, 
e. 3. 80 Ibidem /. 2, e. 10, e. 17. 8i Bucha. /. 6, p. 178. 82Rege 27. 

Cbap.^IX.] CAMB&ENSI3 SVSfiSUS. 87 

•ssigned to ìàm in the syndurontain of the monarchs and proTfaìcial 
ii&gsof Ireland: and the annals of Ireland which chionicle his death» 
A.D. 580^ gìve him no higher title than king of Ulster. It Ì8 
ìùghly probable that the great celebrìty he had acquired abore his 
coatemporary kings, stimnlated some Ulster writer to elevate him to 
ihe raak of inonarch of Ireland. Thus, GillaF-Modiid complatns 
that firom a similar -motive, the Munstermen ranked among the Irìsh 
monarchs, Feidhlimidh» son of Crimhthann, who was king of Man« 
8ter only. 

Saxo Grammaticns says that a man named Huglet was king of 
lieland, bnt as Ware remarks, " every one knows Saxo's fables." 

Froto, a Dane, ìs saìd by Hanmer to bave been king of Ireland, 
wben Chrbt was bom ; bnt Eeating who dtes the^story states from the 
Irish aathcHrities that Crìmhthann Niadhnair was then monarch of 
Ireland. ^'There is no probability (says Polidorus) in what some 
«issert, that Ànalaph was ever king of Ireland." 

Caradoc of Lancamavan, calls Cormac Mac Cuileannain,^ Aloic, 
and his son Elermain, kings of Ireland» But this error ìs refuted by 
Ware who shows that Cormac was king of Munster only, and that the 
other two were kings of the Dublin Danes. Godred is also erro- 
neoasly styled king of Ireland ^y St. Lanfranc, though he was only 
l^ingof Dublin and Man; foreigners generally not taking any troublo 
to distingaish the proviucial kings from the monarchs of Ireland. 
Tbus, St. Gregorius styles Edelbert, who was king of Kent, king of 
the English ; and Popes Bonifacius and Honorius give the same title to 
Edwin, king of Northumbria. Scotch wrìters add to the catalogne 
of Irìsh kings, Duncan or Donat, or more correctly Donnchadh, who 
was entrusted they say, when yet a boy, by his father Gregorius, king 
of the Scots, to the care of the most trusty lords of the kingdom, to 
he educated in Dublin, the principal seat of the kings of Ireland. 
Biu the most prominent facts in this narrative refute the story, for by 
the laws and national institutes of Ireland the crown was electìve not 
hereditaiy. It was never conferred on minors, but on adults and men 

' Hìg preten^ons to the title are not oies it eren to Feidhlimidh for whom 
e^en noticed by GUlamodud, who de- the Munstermen claimed it. 


iensi " Primaria Regum Hibemìcorum sede" coinmissum fuisse 
Gregorìi Scotorum regis jussu tradunt.^ Sed ipsa narrationis capita 
commentum ventate nudante legibus enim ac decretis patriis statu- 
entibus Regnum Hiberuis non haereditate sed electione semper ini* 
batur^ nimqnaxn in pueros ex ephebis nondum egressos, sed in yiros 
adultos^ setateque provectos, non in demortui Regis liberos^ sed in 
cognatione illum attingentis conferebatur.^ Non enim par erat, in 
Regno bellis assueto, ubi fortiores infiirmiorum fortunis inbìabant, ut 
quis ratioue ad suam ditionem moderandam, aut viribus ad tuendam 
non munìtus, rerum summae praeficeretur. Neo dubito quìn ipsi 
Scòti sicut originem^ sic etiam legem de impubere gubemaculis non 
admovendo^ qus in Scotia mille annos (à Fergutii primi obitu, ad 
Kenetbum tertium) immutata perstitit, ab Hibemia deduxerint. Nec 
Dublinium primaria sedes Regum Hibemiae unquam erat, nam Te- 
moria sedificiorum, iucolarumque multitudiue tum instructa, nune 
campestre solum^ usitatior eorum aula fuit Utique Poet» dictum 
ventati semper consonum fuìt, 

" Non indignemur mortalia collera solvi 
Cemimas ezemplis oppida posse mori." 

Prociildubio figmenti bujus fignlus^ Dublinium Hibeniias caput se 
vìvo fuisse conspicatus^ eam condi^nem per anteacta tempora ten- ^ 
uisse sommavi t, Et Gregorio regnandi initium^ ut Scotici scriptores 
volunt^ anno Domini 876, finem 894 faciente, Dani non H iberni 
Dublinium insidebant. Nec Hibemiam per ea tempora puer aliquis, 
sed vir strenuissimus Flannus Siunìus moderabatur, regnum altero Gre- 
gorii anno auspicatus, quod ad octo annos supra triginta protraxit, 
Danis illi non Scotis uUis, multum negotii facessentibus, cum qui- 
bus secundas, et adversas pugnas crebro fecit.®* 

Aliqua mihi suspicionem movent Gregorium ne Scotorum quidem 
fuisse Regem. Holingsedus in sua versione Anglica historiae Scoticae 
ab .Hectore Boaetbio latine perscriptce, se opinari dicit, " Reges ^ui 

83Hector Boetius, /. 10, p. 213, n. 10. WHector /. 2, e. 13, n. 70, et 
/.11, e. 232, n. 50. 85 Warraeus. de Antiq.p. 108, et seq. an. 888, 902. 

k Not certainlj' in the daya of Gregory eince it had been cursed by St. Rua- 
king of Scots or Pietà, A.D. 878-895, dhan of Lothra, 
nor for some centurics previously, 


advaDced in reais, and oot on the children of the deceased king, but 
OH some of his kindred. It wonld have been impolitica in a kingdom 
tom ì>y incessaBt war, where the strong thirsted for the property of 
the weak, that the hehn of state should be entrusted to anv man who 
had not sofficient senso to govem, and strength to defend the king- 
dom. The costom of excludtng minors from the erown which was 
enfotced in Scotland durìng 1,000 years from the death of Fearghus I. 
to Cinaedh (Keneth) the drd was no doubt deiìved from Ireland, 
whadce the Seotch were descended. Dublin, also, was never the chief 
seat of the Irìsh monarchs, but Teambair, which was then^ crowned 
with innomerable edifices and thickly inhabited, was then their usuai 
palace, though itis now only an ordinary field. There is a lasting truth 
in the words of the poet :— * 

" Wliy should we griere that mortai bodies die, 
When gorgeous towns in ruins buried Ile." 

For the concoctor of this fiction, very probably, seeing Dublin the 
capital of Ireland in his own day, imagined that formerly it held the 
same rank. Moreover,. Dublin was in possession not of the Irish, but 
of the Danes in the time of Gregorius, who, according to the Scottish 
authorities, reigned from 876 to 894. And Ireland was govemed at 
that time, nqt by a boy, but by Flann Sinna, a brave man, who 
ascended the throne the second year of Gregoriiis's reign, and during 
his long administration of thirty-eight years was never molested by 
the ScotSy but by the Danes with whom he fought many battles, some- 
times victories, sometimes defeats. 

There are some grounds for suspectìng that Gregorius wns not ever 
king of the Scots.* For Holingshed in his English version of the 
history of Scotland, composed in Latin by Hector Boethius, gives it as 
his opinion, that the kings who are said by Scottish historians to have 
reigned in succession in Scotland, were not kings of Scotland, but 
contemporaneous kings óf Ireland and the Isles. And in vay own 

1 He i» omitted in the Duan Alba- in the line of Pictish kings, published 
nach, but is found in our author's >n the Irish cdition of Nennius, p. 
catalogne of Scottish kings, infrot and 1G7. 


à Scoticis aut in Insii]is adjacentibus, non sibi Buccedentes, ged 
varios siinul eodem tempore regnasse/* Addo ege me non impro* 
babilìter arbitrari scriptores illos, à Pictis Reges mutuasse et suis 
adscrìpsisse. In Hibernica Nii^nii versione penes me Catalogus est 
Regum Pictòrum, cujus partem hic exhibeo, ut lectori constet, vel 
diversos ejusdem nominis Reges Pictis, et Scotis imperasse, vel 
(quod ego contendo) Scotos Pictòrum Reges sibi arrogasse* 

Brudeiis fìlius Melchon (cujus nono regni S. Columbàm in Bri- 
tanìam venisse Beda scribit) regnavi t annis 30 ; Gamad filius Dom- 
nach 11 ; Neckan nepos Verp 20; K,enethus filius Luthrin 19; 
[94] Gamad filius Vaid 7. ; | Brudeus filius Vaid 6 ; Tolorc frater eorum 
12; Talorcan filius Enfret 4 ; Gomad. fil. Donel^, et dimidip anni. 
Druse frater ejus 7; Brudeus iìl. Fili 20; Taran filius Enfìdi 4; 
Breit fil. Derilei 11; Nectonus fil. Derilei 10; Drestus et Alpinus 
conregnarunt 5 ; Onuis fil. Urgust 30 ; Brete fil. Urgust 15 ; Kene- 
thus fil. Viredeg 12 ; Alpinus fil. Urod 3, et dimidio an. Drest fil. 
Tolorcen 1 1 ; Tolorcen fil. Drusten 5, vel 15 ; Tolorcen fil. Urgust 
12, et dimidio. Canul fil. Tang. 5 ; Cuastain fil. Urgust 35 ; Vi- 
danist fil. Urgust 12 ; Drest fiL Constantin, et Talorgus fil. Uthol 
conregnarunt 3 ; Unen fil. Unust 3 ; Urard fil. Bargot 3 ; Bread 1 ; 
Kenethus fil. Alpini 16 ; Domhnall fil. Alpini 4 ; Constantinus fil. 
Aedi 45; Moelcolumb fil. DomnalliO; Culen fil. lUdolbh filii Con- 
stantini 4 ; Kenethus fil. Moelcolumb 24 ; Constantin fil. Culen uno 
et medio anno; Kenethus fil. Dubh. 8; Moelcolumb fil. Keneti 30; 
Donatus nepos vel filius Moelcolumbi 6 ; Macbeathad fil. Finlaigh 
15; Lulach quinque menses ; Moelcolumb fil. Donati postea. 

Jam vero Scotorum Reges non simili, sed eodem «nomine afilìci- 
untur, eo ordine referuntur, quo posteriores Reges in superiori Re- 
gum Pictòrum serie collocati, et pi-aeterea horum et illorum patres 
eadem nomina gerunt. Quod ut piane perspiciatur Scoticorum ali- 
quot Regum nomina hic exhibeo. Kenethus secundus Alpini filius. 

^ In the Irish Nennius the reading is logues, there are discrepancies in the 

in octavo ejus regni babtisatus est a S. orthography of the royal names toc 

Columba, pp. 163, Ixxvi. numerous and trifling to be specially 

n In the Chronicon Pictòrum, but noticed. 

not in the Irish list, ubi supra. In 9 Between this Domhnall Mac Alpio, 

the different yerfiions of thoee cfitn- and the nezt on our list, Conitantin 

Chap. IX.] CAMBRKKS18 EVEB8US. 91 

Opinion, it Ì8 not improbable, that these writers borrowed some kings 
from the Picts and placed them among their own. For the following 
extract from the catalogne of Pictish kings in the Irish version of 
Nennius, now in mj possession, must convince the reader^ either that 
different kings of the same name governed the Picts and the Scots, 
or what seems to he most probable, that the Scots have stolen some of 
the Picti^ kings* 

Brode, son of Melchon, reigned thirty years. It was in the ninth"* 
year of his reign that St. Columba went to Britaìn, according to Bede. 
Gamad, son of Domnach reigned 11 ; Necthan, grandson of Verp, 20 ; 
Reneih, son of Luthrin, 19 ; Gamad, son of Vaid, 7 ; Bnide," son of 
Vaid, 6 ; Tolorc, brother of the precéding, 12 ; Talorcan, son of 
Enfret, 4 ; Gomad, son of Donel, 6| ; Druse, his brother, 7 ; Brude, 
son of File, 20; Taran, son of Enfidi, 4 ; Breit, son of Derilei, 11 ; 
Necton, son of Derilei, 10 ; Drest and Alpin, colleagues, 5 ; Onuis, 
son of Ui^ust, 80; Bréte, son of Urgust, 15; Keneth, son of Vire- 
deg, 12 ; Alpin, son of Urod, 3^ , Drest, son of Tolorcen, \ 1 ; Tol- 
orcen, son of Drusten, 5 or 15; Tolorcen, son of Urgust, 12 J; Canul, 
son of Tang, 5 ; Cuastain, son of Urgust, 35 ; Vidanist, son of Urgust, 
12: Drest, son of Constantin, and Talorg, son of Utl^ol, collea- 
gues, 3 ; Unen, son of Unust, 3 ; Urard, son of Bargot, 3 ; Bread, 
1 ; Kenethy son of Alpin, 16 ; Domhnall, son of Alpin, 4 ;*> Constan- 
tin, son of Aed, 45 ; Moelcolumb} son of Domnall, 9 ; Oulen, son of 
Illdolbh, son of Constantin, 4; Keneth, son of Moelcolumb, 24; 
Constantin, son of Culen, 1{; Keneth, son of Dubh, 8; Moelcolumb, 
son of Keneth, 30; Donat, son or grandson of Moelcolumb, 6 ; Mac-. 
beatbaidf son of Finlaigh, 16 ; Lulach, 5 months, and then MoeK 
colamb, son of Donat. 

Now there is not merely a sìmilarity but an identity of names be- 
tween the line of Scottish kings and part of the foregoing cata- 
logne of Pictish kings, and the order of succession and the names of 
the fathers are in both lines the same. A few names of the Scottish 
kings decide the point. Keneth, son of Alpin ; Donald, son of 

Mac Aed, there are four kings on the these must bare bcen oroittcd bere 
list in the Irish Kennius. Tbroe of by a mistake of the prese. 


Donald US fìliiis Alpini frater Kenethi. Constantinus tertius iìlius 
Kenethi. £thus fìlius Kenetbi. Gregorius Dongalli filius. Don- 
aldus sextus filius Constantini secondi. Constantinus tertius filiua 
£thi. Malcoluinbns filius Donaldi Indulfus filius Constantini tertii. 
DufiTus filius Malcolmi primi. Culenus filius Indulfi. Kenethas 
tertius filius Malcolumbi. Constantinus quartus filius CulenL Cri- 
nius filius Duffi. M alcol umb US 2, filius Kenetbi. Duncanus primus 
Malcoluinbus nepos ex fiìia Beatrice. Macbetbus ejns Malcolunabì 
nepos ex filia Donada. Malcolumbus 3, filius Dnncani. Vides igitur 
utramque Regum classem ordine, et non solum proprio, sed paren- 
tum etiam nomine parem. Ut ovum non tam ovo simile sit quam 
sunt illi Reges iidem. Id tantum in utroque regum ordine diòcrì- 
minis video, quod Donald us sextus, Indulfus, et DufiTus bic memorati 
illic omiUuntur. Et Grimus Duffi filius, bic Kinetbus Duffi filius 
ibi scribantur. Quae diversi tas non tanti ponderis est ut impediat 
quominus Scotos censeamus Reges à Pictis mutuatos fuisse. 

Scotos taraen in Britannia Reges babuisse constat ex Beda di- 
cente : ^' Aedan Rex Scotorum qui Brìtanniam inbabitant"^^ £t idem 
indubitatae fidei monumenta restantur.®^ More scilìcet olim Hibemis 
usitato, qui ditionum paenè omnium dominos ac tribuum cbiliarcbos 
Regis nomine insigniebant, et ab aliis etiam natiouibus nonnun- 
quam frequentato.^ Nam " Reges (inquit Genebrardus) appella- 
bant illa prima specula, quotquot summum in suis regionibus tenebant 
imperium tametsi anguste circumscriptis."® Et Strabo testatur : 
**singulas Pboenissaium urbes Regem babuisse.**^ Et Plinius ait. 
Strategias, et praefecturas olim regna fuisse. Scoti " quem prìmum 
in Britannia locum inbabitai^unt Argatbeliam vocarunt, ad partem 
videlicet septentrionalem sinus Alcuith." Intra hujusce regionis fines 

86 L. 1, e. ult. 87.1n psal. 154, n. 10. «SLib. 16. 8»Lib. 6. ^Hector 
Lib. 1 , f. 7. 

PConstantin and the two next qLulach is omittedherebymistake 

kings must bave been on our autbor's of the press, as is evident from the 

MSS. list of Pictish kings, otherwise comparison made between the Scottish 

he would bave uientioned thera, with and Pictish lines. 
Domhnall, Indulf, and Duff, infra. 


Àlpin^ brother of Keneth ;p Constantin son of Keneth; Eth, son 
of Keneth ; Gregorius, son of Dongall ; Donald, son of Constan- 
tin ; CThistantin, son of Eth; Malcolm, son of Donald; In- 
dnlph, son of Constantin; Doff, son of Malcolm I.; Culen, son 
of Indalf; Keneth 3rd, son of Malcolm; Constantin 4th, son of 
Cnlen ; Grim, son of Duff ; Malcolnmb 2nd^ son of Keneth ; Duncan 
I., grandson to Malcolm by Beatrice bis danghter; Macbeth, son of 
Donada, danghter to the same Malcolm ;« Malcolm, son of Dun- 
can. Hence it is evident, that the two lines agree*boih in the order 
of sQccession and the names of the kings and of their parents. One 
egg is not more like to another than they are. The only difference 
perceptible to me in the royal succession is, that Donald VI., Indiilf and 
Duff, of the Scottish are omitted in the Pictish line f and that Grim, 
son of Duff in the latter, is written Keneth, son of Duff in the formar. • 
But a discrepancy so trifling is no argument to prove that the Scots 
bave not borrowed many of the Pictish kings.* 

It is certain, however, from the authority of Bede, that the Scots 
had kings in Brìtain ; " Aedhan," he says, *' king of the Scots who dwell 
in Britain," and monuments of admitted authority place the matter 
beyond dispute. For it was the custom of the Irish to give ihe title 
of king to the lords of almost every territory and to the chieftains of 
tribes — a custom which was sometimes used by other nations. " For in 
primitive ages (says Genebrard) ali were called kings, who enjoyed su- 
preme power in any territory, however inconsiderable." Strabo also 
attests, " that every city in Phoenicia had its king ;" and Plinius " states 
that formerly military commander? and prefects were kings." Now 
the Scots, having passed over to Britain and settied to the north of 
the bay of Alcluith, in the territory which they called Argyle, lived 
secluded there for a long time under the sway of their own mónarchs." 

r The difference is lesa, ortheiden- li. p. cxxvi. 
tity more evident from other authori- t Bather. that both had the same 

ties, which place Domhnall, Indulf and kings from the conquest of the Picts 

Duff on the Pictiah catalogne. Irish by the Scots under Keneth Mac Alpin ; 

Kennius, p. 166 — 7* but that the Irish styled the mónarchs 

a See Ogygia, p. 488. Irish Nen- firom the latter part of their subjects, 

nius, p. 284. 0*Conor*s Frolegomena, kings of the Picts, See Ogygia, p. 482. 


diu clausi proprio Regi parebant.^* Nam ut ait Camdenus ** in i 
quo appulerunt angulo, diu egerunt/' Quam regiunculam nec Sci 
ticus^ nec alius quispiam scriptor Scotiam appellavit^ ita ReC eorui 
non Scoti», sed Sco^rum Rex diqtus fiiit* Sicuti qui Dania j 
Hibemia imperabant, Rex Danorum, non Danise vocabatur. 

Nimirum Scotias nomine regio ulla designari non potuit^ quai 
Scoti nondum insederunt : dominatio enim loci semper ant^ capescitu 
quam eidem loco à domante gente denominatio adhaereat. Atqi 
regionibus bujus.nominis communionem postea nactis, praeter Args 
tbeliam, et forsitan paucas regiunculas eidem finitiiyias, Pictì, Angli 
quo usque ad sublatos Pictos dominabantur ; Scoti» igitur denom 
inatio, stantibos adhuc Pictis^ in terra extras Scotorum possessione!] 
[95] po^itas cadere non potuit^ | dictis autem terris Anglos et Pictos ìm 
perasse sic ostendo. Terras ad Austrum Glott», ac Bodotriae adja 
centes, et ad Twedam Tinamque amnes protensas Anglis, pe: 
indicata jam tempora paruisse infra opportuuiori loco accuratius incul 
cabo. Et quia res extra controversiam posita est, ipsis ad versarli! 
eam non inficiantibus, unicum duntaxat Camdeni locum id piane 
indicancem nunc adducam, qui dicit : " Scotos uno eodemque tempor^ 
Pictos fere ad intemecionem delevisse, et Nortbumbrise regnum ini 
testinis malis Danorumque incursionibua confeetum corruisse.^^ Tud<; 
enim omnis septentrionalis Britanniae plaga in Scotorum nomei] 
concessit, una cum citeriori illa regione citra Cluidam, et Edeni 
burgfrith; Illam enim Regni Northumbriae partem fuisse, et à 
Saxonibus possessam nemo repugnat. Hinc est quod omnes qui 
Orientalem Scoti» partem tenent, et ' Lowlandmen* id est inferioraj 
vocantur, sint origine Anglosaxones, et Anglica loquantur. Qui Ma 
in nomen Scotorum transierint, nihilminus sunt quam Scoti, se 
ex eadem qua nos Angli Germanica origine.^ Quod ipsi non poi 
sunt non confi teri ; et nos non agnoscere cum" à Scotis Hibemic 
loquentibus «' Saxones perinde ac nos appellentur, et eadem qH 
nos lingua, certissimo ejusde;n originis argumento, scilicet AngU 
saxonica dialecto tantum variata utantur." 

Caeterorum vero Scoti» hodiem» locorum, pr»ter Argatheliaii 

91 Beda /. 1 , e. 1 . p. 90. n Png. 9, in fine, M Pag. 85, 


"Tbey remained long" (sajs Camden) " in tbat little corner which they 
originally occupied.*' Their teiritoiy waa never called Scotia by 
Scotch or any otber writer, nor was tbeir king styled king of Scotia, 
bot king of the Scots ; in the sanie way as the goremors of the 
Danes in Ireland were not called klngs of Denmark, but kings of 
the Danes. 

The'nan)^ Scotia conld never he giren to a territory which had not 
beeu occupied by the Scots ; men always conquer or occupy a territory 
before they can succeed in giving their name to the conquest. The 
different territories comprised under the modem name of Scotland, 
wiib the exceptìon of Argyle and a few little adjacent districts were in 
possession of the Pi'cts or English, previous to the extinction of the 
Picts. So long as the Pictish kingdom stood, the name Scotia could 
not be applied to territories be3''ond the limits of Scottish jurisdiction, 
and bere are my proofs that these territories were under the sway of 
tbe Picts and the English. That the lands immediately south of 
Gioita and Bodotria,* and thence stretching down to the Tyne and Tweed> 
were possessed by the English at the period I bave mentioned, I 
sball demonstrate more at length at a more favorable opportunity. 
But because the matter is beyond ali controversy, according to the 
confession even of our adversaries themselves, let one conclusive ex- 
tract from Camden suffice for the present ; " At one and tbe same 
period of lime, the Scots almost extirpated the Picts, and the kingdom 
of Nortbumbria, shaken to its centro by internai dissensions and the 
mcuTsions of the Danes, crumbled to pieces. Then the whole northern 
Tegion of Britain took the name of Scotland, including the tract at 
tbis side of the Clyde and the Frith of Edinburgh. Ali acknowledge 
I tbat tbis territory was part of the kingdom of Northumbria and pos- 
sessed by Saxons ; and hence the inbabitants of the eastem portion of 
Scotland, who are called Lowlandmen, that is ' dwellers on the plain,* 
areAnglo-Saxonsbyorigin and speak English, and though they are called 
! Scots, they are by no means so, being descended from the same Ger- 
manie stock as are their English neighbours. They cannot deny, what 
^e ourselves confess, that they, as well as we, are called ' Saxons* by 

n Clyde Efitoary and Frith of Forth. 


finitìniasqiie forte i^onculas, imperìoin penes Pictos fìiisse sic os 
tendo.^ " Totam ìllnm trmctoin" (inqoìt Camdeniis) " qui pars Scotis 
orientalis est, Picti diatìssìmè tenuerunt, ut- MoTTÌam> Mamìani 
Aberden, AberloUmety Abeidore, Abemeitli, Strathbolgii, Strathdéc 
Stretheam." Orientalis Scotiie partis possessioni Pictis confirmandi 
non est operonos illaborandum, cum adFersarii rem ita se habuiss< 
ingenue fateantnr. Australe Septentrìonaleqne montis Gi;^pii latu 
Beda Pictis yendicat dicens : 8. Columbam pnedicasse " Verbun 
Dei prorinciis Septentrionalium Piclonun» boc est, eis quae ardui: 
atque bonrentibus jugis ab Australibus eonim sunt regiouibus seques- 
tratL Picti Australes intra eosdem montes -habent sedes."^ Et u1 
non sim prolixius ipsum Boaetliiuni assentientem babeo, cujus bsec 
sunt veiba. '^ Picti eo temporis tennerunt Memiam, Angusiam^ Ster- 
mundium, Gowream^ £rueval]eni^ Perthiam, Fifam, magnasi Cale- 
doniae partem^ Stemelingum, Laudoniam, Marciam, Deerem, Odolu- 
ciam et Dahalos.*' Et Joannes major '' Laudoniam^ et partes illaa 
ultra fretum Scoticum" (ad Austrum scilicet) '' et meliorem portionemJ 
et fertiliorem borealis partis crebro Picti possiderunt ; et numero, et 
viribus (ut auguror) Scotis erant paulo snperiores."^ 

Nunc excutìendum restat quo tempore Picti potestate, suorumquel 
finium possessione exciderint.^ Hector Boetius Pictorum excidiumi 
in annum 839 rejicit. Ego in nlterius tempus sic prorogo* Locu- 
pletes bìstorici, Reges et casus^ post baec tempora, Pictis tribuunt.| 
Annales Ultonienses Kennethum Alpini filium Regem Pictorum an. 
Domini 857.^ Domnallum etiam Regem Pictorum filium Alpini 
anno Domini 861. Constantinum filium Kennethi Regem item Pic-| 
torum anno Domini 875. Et Aedimi seu iBtbum filium Kenedl] 

94 Pag. 84, lib. 3, e. 4. »Lib. i. fol. 12. «De gestis Scotorum, lib. 2, e. 2. 
sfj Lib. 10, fol. 200. 98 Vide Usherum de primor. p. 719. 

▼Tract around Dunkeld. Ordo- does net agree entirelj in our authon 

luch and Dahalios, i.e. Berwick and inference. "For thls Keneth," hi 

the Borders. says, " and bis successors, solong al 

^Another name for the Frith of thename of Pictish kingdom lastei 

^®'*^-^ vere called kings of the Picts (as Ì 

» OTlaherty admits this fact, and more honorable title) by the Briton» 

proves it from the Irish annals, but and also by the Iriah, vho were moie 

Chap. IX.] CAMBftSNSIS EYfiBSUS* , 97 

ihe Irìsli-speakiiig Scota» and that tbey speak tbe same language (a 
decisive endence of common orìgìn), namely» the Anglo-Saxon» differ- 
ìcg only in dìalect'* 

Tbat the oth^ parta of modem Scotland, except Argyle and perhapa 
the adjacent landa, were in possessìon of the Pietà, appears from the 
following fact : " That entire tract of eaatem Scotland (aays Camden), 
namely, Murray, Meams, Aberdeen, Aberlothnet, Aberdore, Abemeith, 
Strathbolgy, Strahdee, Stratheam, was for a long lapae of ages in 
possession of the Pietà." But it is needlesa to dwell on thia fact, the 
possession of the eaatem parta of Scotland by the Pietà, since it ia 
honestly admitted by oor adveraarìea themselves. According to Bede 
tbe southern and northem sidea of the Grampian bilia were occupied 
by the Pietà ; for he relatea, that Sl Columba preached the word of 
God to the northem Fiets, namely, thoae who are shut out from the 
southern regions by those high and craggy mountains. The terrìtory 
of the southern Pietà lay locked up in the mountains. Not to delay 
my reader longer, let it suffiee to quote Boethiua himself who confesses 
the fact : " Ali that time," he writes, " the Pietà held Mearas, Angus, 
Strathinond, Gowree, Eskvale, Perth, Fife, a great part of Caledonia, ^ 
Stiriing, Laudon, March, Deira, Ordolueh, and Dahalia." Johannes 
Major also says " the Picts frequently posseased Laudon, and ali those 
parts beyond the Seots sea^ ( to the south), and the largar and more 
fertile portion of the north, being something inferior to the Scots in 
number, and (as I suppoap) in power." 

Tbe question to be discussed now, is at what timo the Picts lost 
theÌT power and were driven from the possessions. Hector Boetius 
dates tbe event at 839; but I maintain it was later, and for thesc 
reasons, that abundant historical authorities describe Pietish kings and 
tbe fortunes of their realm subsequent to that period.' The Annals of 

doeely connected in kìndred with the kings of the Scots had hitherto under 

Albanian Scots, and knew better than their sceptre only the kingdom of Dal- 

others their condition and progress : riedia firom the Frith of Danbarton 

imd in trath, the Picts though sub- and the Western ocean to the eastern 

}ect«dtotbe eway of the Scots con- limits of Argyle and Breadalbain." 

«tituted tbe larger and better portion Ogygia, p. 483. 
of tbe kingdom of Albania : for the 



regem qtioque Pictoram anno Domini 877 mortuos esse narrat. Nec 
solis Ultoniensìbus Annalibus, sed etiam à Carodoco Lancarvemensi 
Kennetbus ille Regìs Pictorum titulo ìnsìgnitur. Jidem et Annales, 
Kellach^ sive Celsum Abbatem Eìldarìensem anno Domini- 864 
'* dornìivisse in regione Pictorum scribunt/' Caradocus Pictos anno 
Domini 871 à Danis plurìmum vexatos fuisse scribit.^ Et Anna- 
lium Ultoniensiam eandem rem referentium bsec suut verba : '^ Aiu- 
laiph, et Jvar vcnerunt ad Ath-cliatb/* sive Dublinium " ex Albania, 
cum ducentis navibus^ et prseda maxima hominum Anglorum, et 
Britonum, et Pictoram deducta est secum ad Hibemiam in capti v- 
itate."*^ Anno etiam 87^1 Alserius de rebus gestis jaElfredi Regia, 
et alibi, Annales Anglosaxones, Fabius Etbelroredus, Mathaeus Fior- 
ilegus, et Annales Ultouienses, alii Pictoram populationem» alii 
stragem à Danis factam esse docent. 

Quod si qui contensiosius asserere persistant Pictos (ut ante me- 
moratumest) a Kennetbo Scotorum Rege penitus deletos fuìsse, tanta 
[96] hominum | multitudo ex angustis Argathelae finibus iu aciem educi 
non potuit, quse late dominantes Pictos expugnare nedum funditus 
éxtinguere potuit.^°* Nisi Picti, ut ait Camdenus, " a Scotis ex Hi- 
bemia influentibus, ita fuerint obtriti ut circa annum salutis 740" 
(potius 840) '' prffilio funestissimo debellati, aut penitus extincti, aut 
paulatim in eorem ndmen, et nationem concesserint." Nam, ut ait 
Argentreus, ' 'mutatio denominationis non potest cuivis natioui puncto 
temporis evenire. Illa enim nisi longo temjjoris tractu non acquiritur. 
Quando nimirum potentissimus aliquis monarcha viribus, et potentia 
ita prcestat, ut gentem armis domitam in suam ditionem redigat." 
Non itaque recens, sed valde diu post Pictos prostratos, et saltem post 
Gregorium extinctum, natio, et patria Pictorum, in Scotorum, et 

99 Usherus ibidem. loo XJsher. ibidem, loi Pag. 85, Historia Britannica Ar- 
morìcse, o. 10, /. 1. 

y In Ogygia these dates are 862, dates. In 850 defeated ali the forces 

856, 876, 878. of the Piota seren times in one day 

« Led his army into Pictland in and beheaded at Scene, Drusken their 

840, defeated the Piota in 842, from last kiog. Ogygia, p. 482. 
which event his reign over ali Albania 


Ulster chroxiicle the deaths of Kenneth MacAlpin, king of the.Picts, 
A.D. 857; of Domhnall, kuig of the Picts, son of Alpin, A.D. 861 ; 
of Constantm, son of Kenneth, king of the Picts, A.D. 875 ;' and of 
Aed, or Eth, son of Kenneth, also king of the Picts, A.D. 875. 
Canuloc of Lanearavan, as well as the Ulster annals, givo the title of 
king of the Picts to that Kenneth. In the same annals it is stated 
that Keallach or Celsus, Ahbot of KUl-dara died in the country of the 
Picts, A.D. 864. Carodoc writes, that the Picts were dreadfully 
harassed by the Danes, A.D. S7l ; and the annals of Ulster chronicle 
the same event in the foliowiug words : Anlaph and Ivar, carne to Ath- 
cliath (Dublin) from Albania, with 200 ships, and an immense spoil 
of Englishmen, Brìtons and Picts, were brought captile to Ireland ; 
Again in the year 876, Asser in bis history of king Alfred, and in 
other places, the Anglosaxon annals, Fabius Ethelwered, MathaBus 
Flonlegus, and the Annals of Ulster record, some, the extermination, 
others the bloody defeat of the Picts by the Danes. 

But shoald it be obstinately maintained that the Picts were de- 
stroyed totally by Kenneth, king of the Scots (as has already been 
said), it is evident that the narrow limits of Argyle could not send out 
an anny so powerful as to conqaer, mnch less exterminate the inhabi- 
tants of the extensive Pictish terrìtory ; unless it be as Camden states: 
" that the Scots of Ireland poured across the sea and gained so de- 
cisive a victoiy, A.D. 740 (840, rather),* that the Picts were either 
annihilated, or gradaally were absorbed in the name and nation of their 
conquerors :" for as Argentré observes, " the change of a nation's name 
can never be efiected in an instant of time.* Nothing but a long lapse 
of years can fix the new denomination ; when, for instance, some 
powerful sovereign, is so superior in strength and resources, that he 
absorbs the conquered nation within his own dominions." Therefore 
the nation and country of the Picts, could not bave been absorbed in 
the Scotch and Scotland, immediately after the defeat of the Picts, 
but a very long time after, and subsequently, at ali events, to the death 

• See some conjectares on the dis- bùi. bdiii. which do not agree with 
appearance of the Pictish name from our author or O'Flaherty's Ogygia, p. 
history, in Irish Nennius, Appendix 4S6, 488. 


Scotise nomina transierunt. Ut jam denique pateat nec Duncanum * 
Hibernise, nec Gregorium Scoti», aut Scotorum Regem fuisse. 

!Non ignoro, alios etiam Reges bic non memoratos ab aliquibus 
scriptorìbus Hibernise assignatos fuisse : utpote Partbolanum, Gur- 
muntium, Turgesium, et Fselimeum. Quos quando alibi è Regum 
Hibernise albo expungo, eandem rem lectori ob oculos iterato non 

Aliis admirationem, et mihi quoque non raro movit, quod è me- 
mora tis jam Regibus, si non plerìque, saltem quam plurimi, non sua 
sed violenta morte sublati sunt ; £t decessòrem successor saepè saepius 
vita privavi t. Meum autem animum ulterius in hac re perpendenda 
progredientem subiit cogìtatìo, nuUam esse rem è qua mortales 
admirandi ansam magis arripere debent, quam quod tot bomines è 
nibilo, tam uberem messem è minimis granis, tam proceras arbores è 
minuto semine nasci quotidie vident : et diem solis luce, noctem 
lunae ac stellarum fulgore illustrari cemunt.^^^ "Majus miraculum 
est" (inquit Augustinus) " gubematio totius mundi, quam saturatio 
quinque millium bominum de quinque panibus. Et tamen hoc nemo 
miratur, illud mirantur homines, non quia majus est, sed quìa rarum 
est." Quando autem usus jam invaluit, ut baec quotidiana miracula 
crebriori consuetudine frequentata viluerint, et prò miraculis non ha- 
beantur, sic cum inbumana illa Hibemorum consnetudo, aliis quoque 
natìonibus per ea tempora familiaris fuisse deprehéndatur, non est 
tantopere obstupescenda, nec tota tantae inhumanitatis culpa in solos 
Hibernos est conferenda, in cujus consortio, pleraeque alias gentes Hi- 
bemos aequant, aut potius superant.^^^ 

Scribanus itaque vere scripsit : " Si regna percurras orbis singula, 

102 Tractatum 24, in Joannem. »03 philosophi Christiani, p. 120. 

bSpeaking of Malcolm II. A.D. e Trae of the rast majority of Irish 

1004, 1034, O'Flaherty says, "Hune kings, Pagan and Christian, before the 

primum Scotice qua nunc patet, regis accessìon of Flabhearthaeh, A.D. 722. 

titulo augustiorem redditum annales But from that date to the death of 

etiam innuere videntur.'* Ogygia, p. Maelseachlain II. A.D. 1022, aperiod 

488. Marìanus Scotus, contemporary of 300 years, there reigned 17 kings of 

of Malcolm II. gives him the title whom one was killed by bis country, 

of king of Scotia. men ; four fell in battle against the 

Ciaf. IX.] 



of Gregorius. Theve can be no doubt, then, that neither Duncan was 
king of I reland nor Gregorius king of Scotia and the Scotch.^ 

I am aware^ in addìtìon to tfaose already noticed, other kings of Ire- 
land are mentioned by other writerg, such as Partholanus, Gurmund, 
Tnrgesius and Feidlìmidh. Bui as I dispose of those claimants in 
another place, I pass them over for the present. 

It has oflen been a matter of astonishment to me and no doubt to 

otheis, that of the great number of Irish kings, many, if not most of 

them were cat offby a violent death,® and that the successor often hewed 

ìiis way to the throne over the body of bis predecessor. But upon ap- 

plyiog my mind to the more profound consìderation of the matter, the 

thought occurred to me, that there is nothing in this world more worthy 

of admìradon and astonishment, than that the great himian family 

shouid spring from one man ; the overflowing harvest from a few gi'ains 

of seed ; and the lordly tree^ fìrom diminutive seeds ; that the day 

shoiiid be illumined by the brilliancy of the sun, and the night by the 

giory of the moon and the stars. " The govemment of this world,*' 

says St Augustinus, " is a greater miracle than the feeding of 5000 

men vith fìve loaves. And yet no man marvels at the fonner, though 

ali marvel at the latter, not because it is greater, but because it is more 

rare." So powerful is the influence of habit, that these daily miracles 

siiik in oar estimation because of their frequent repetition, and cease 

to be regarded as miracles ; so, when you find that this inhuman habit 

of the Irish was common in ali contemporary nations, our astonishment 

ceases: the whole guilt of the atrocious facts cannot be charged 

against the Irish alone, since most other nations rivalled, if they did 

noi OQtstrìp them in similar barbarities. 

Troly, indeed, hath Scribanus said, '* Examine ali the thrones of the 

l^es; the remainiDg twelve died a 

naturai death: one a monk at Ar- 

^hj another in pious retirement in 

Iona, and a third on a pilgrimage to 

the game place. There were manifest 

figns of improvement in the politicai 

^te of the country until the usur- 

P*tìoii of Brian Boruimhe, as Mr. 

«oore very jnstly observes, destroyed 

ali chance of a Consolidated monarchy, 
by throwing open to the ambition of 
provincial kings, the throne, which 
had hitherto been occupìed exclusively 
by the Niall family, and which, if we 
may judge from previous analogica, 
would soon become settled in one 
branch of that family. 


raros in plerisque eicca perìisse morte reperies. Ita plurimum san- 
guine suo regna purpurant/' Usque adeo veram est quód 

* ** Ad genertim Cereris sine csede et sangnine pauci 

Descendunt Reges.** INTimirum, 
** Minus in parvis fortuna furit, 
Leviusque ferit leviora Deus." 

" Quinquaginta minimum/' inquit Scribanus, '' Romani Imperatores 
alieni omnes, aut sui ferri, aut veneni victima; faerùnt/'^^* Tiberium 
Calligula decessorem successor veneno extinxit.^®^ Clandius cum filio 
Britannico Neronis privigni et successoris fraudo periitJ°® Otho viam, 
quam ad imperium sibi per Sergii csedem stravit. Vitelli© per latus 
suum aperuit.^^ Vitellius à Vespasiani successoris ducibus jugulatus, in 
Tjberem praecipitatur.*^® Dolo Juliani Didi ^lius Pertinax, jussu 
Severi Julianusinteriit.^^ Duo Philippi, pater et filius, imperium c«ede 
Gordiani partum, nece ipsis à Decio successore illatà perdiderunt."® 
Phocas Mauritinm Imperatorem, Phocatem Heraclius, obtruncavit."* 
Nicephoro Phocati Orientis Imperatori Joannes Zimiscus manus intulit, 
cui csedis preemium imperium fuit."^ Romanum Argyropolnm Greecum 
Augustum Michael Calephatus interemìt, et ejus Imperium arrìpuit. 
Alexio Isaaci Angeli filio, vitam, et imperium Mirtilus eripuit. | 
[97] Porrò ut non in-solis Iroperatoribus hujusmodì rabies grassata 
fuisse videatur: si alia quoque regna percurramus, illa hoc furore 
redundasse videbimus."* Non longè itaque abeamus. Nam vicina 
Anglia ejusmodi èrudelitatis exempla nobis abunde suppeditat. Eg- 
bertus Cantiae Rex, Ethelbertum, et Ethelbritum Ermendeni filios 
è medio tolli curavit, ne ipsum, vel progeniem adulti delerent. Lotba* 
rius et Edricus Cantiae quoque Reges, ille vulnero accepto, hic à suis 
peremptus interiit.^^* Eorpwaldus Orienlalium Anglorum Rex occisus 
periit. SigebertuSj et Egricus in acie ceciderunt."* Etheldredum 
vero Sigeberti successorem, et Pendam Merciorum Regem, in preelìo 
Rex Oswinus occidit.**^ Qui Penda Edwinum, et Oswaldum, et 

i04ibidem, p. 118. 105 Ibidem, p. -280. lOCTurfelin. Epita. an. dom. 57. 
I071dem. anno. 71. 108 Anno. 246. 109 Anno. 603. "O Anno. 962. ii»Anno. 
1027. iJSAnno. 1190. ii3Harpsfel. sec. 7, e. 5. lUlbidem, e. 16. "«Beda 
/. 3, e. 18. ii^Harpsfel. cap. 15. 


world; in ùa the greater number how few do you find dyiog a 
Batural death ! Thus the throDe was generally purpled wi^h the blood 
of its occupane" So tme is it, that 

" To Pluto's reakns, through blood and murder foul 
Most kings descend*'— 
ÀDd certainly 

** Fortune, the lowly in ber fnry spares, 
And lighter woes Hght goddess on them sendB.*' 

"At least fifty Roman Emperors," says Scribanus, " fell by poison, or 
bj the sword of an enemy or their own." Caligula cut off bis prede- 
cessor Tiberìus by poison. Claudius and bis son Britannicns fell by 
the treacheiy of Nero bis stepson and successor. Otbo ruabes to the 
imperiai durone over tbe body of bis murdered victini^ Sergìus ; and 
Vitellius secures tbe same prize by tbe murder of Otbo» Vitellius in 
tom had bis throat cut by tbe generals of Vespasianus, and bis body 
flunginto the^Tiber. HoIfìus Pertinax fell by the treachery of Julianua 
Didias,and Julianus bj the orders of Severus. The two Pbilippi^fatber 
^d son, ascended the tbrone by the murder of Gordianus^ and were in 
tum slain by Decius their successor. Phocas slew tbe emperor 
Mauritias, and was slain by Heraclius. John Zimisces laid violent 
liands on Nicephoras Phocas, emperor of the East, and obtained the 
Clown as the reward of bis guilt. Michael Calaphates deposed and 
slew Romanus Argyropolus the Greek Augustus< Myrtilu? deprived . 
Alexius son of Isaac Angelus of bis crown and bis li fé. 

But if we survey other realms^ we sball find that tbis rabid frenzy 
was noi confined to emperors alone ; it raged in other kingdoms. We 
need not go far for examples since England our neighbour supplies 
exampleg of atrocity in abundance. Egbert king of Kent^ murdered 
Ethelbert and Ethelbrit, the sons of Eremenden, but if they grew up 
to man's estate they should slay bim or bis children. Lotharius and 
Une, kings of Kent, were also slain, tbe former in battle, tbe latter 
h his own friends. Eorpuald, king of the East Angles was assasin- 
ated. Sigebert and Egfric fell in battle. King Oswin slew in battio 
Etheldred successor of Sigebert, and Eenda king of tbe Mercians. 
la himself had slain in battle Edwin and Oswald, and togetber 


praeter memoratos jam orientalium Anglonim Reges, etiam Annam 
eorum successorem in pugna trucidavit.^*^ Ethelfrediis, et Edwinus 
Northumbriaj Reges in prselio perempti sunt.*^** Oswinus Bemiciorum 
Rex Oswino, Deirorum Regi vitam et regnum abripuit.*^* Oswji filius 
Egfridus cuin Pictis pwelio congressus periit.*^ Ethelbertus Orien- 
talium Anglorum Rex in sedibus Offae Merciorum Regis nefarie con- 
fossus est, et ejus regnum Offa sibi vendicavit.^23 Sigebertus Occiden- 
talium Saxonum Rex à subulco peremptus estJ** Ceolredus, et Ethel- 
baldus Merciorum Rex, ille horribili morte obiit, hunc è medio sui 
nefariè sustulerunt Berurendo duce, quem ante vertentem annum^ 
regno vitaque Offa spoliavit,^^ In eodem Regno aliquandiu post suc- 
cesserunt Chenelmus porrecto à sorore veneno oecatus ; Bemulphus, 
et Ludicaenus ab Egberto Visisaxonum Rege interfecti: Ultanus 
Berferthi insidiis oppressus est. Regem Northumbriae Osredum, 
Chenredus et Ostricus jugularunt, quos postea regno sigillatim potitos 
sui confecerunt. Horum successor Osulphus suprum insidiis, et hujus 
successor Molo Alfredi astu extinctus est. De Ethelredo suorum 
perfidia sublato Alcuinus conqueritur bis verbis : ** Heu dolor ! donis 
datis, et Epistolis in manus missorum, supervenit tristis legatio per 
missos, qui de Scotià reversi sunt, de infidelitate gentis" Anglorum *' et 
nece Regis" Ethelredi "ita quod Carolus'* Magnus "retractà donorum 
largitate, in tantum iratus est centra gentem illam, ut ait, perfidam et 
perversam, et homicidam dominorum suorum, pejorem^eam paganis 
SBStimans, et nisi ego intercesso! essem prò ea, quidquìd eis boni abstra- 
here potuisset, et mali machinari, jam fecisset."*^*' Etbwoldum deinde, 
et Ethelwaldnm seditio sustulit. Hujus filius Alcumundus in praBlio 
cum Ultoniensibus inito periit. Verum horum aliquibus, sicut apud 
nos Cullenani filio, tam fausta mors obtigit, ut illa in terris Martyris 
nomen in caelis felicitatem setemam iis comparaverit. 

Sed haec frequentandae regum caedis labes, praeter Angliam etiam 
Scotiara infecit. Nam è centum, et octo Regibus quos Scotici scripto- 
res Scotiae imperasse memorant, amplius quam quadraginta, vel suum 

117 Ib. e. 2L iiSBeda /. 2, e. 12. 14, 20. usLib. 3, e. 14. isOLib. 4, e. 26. 
121 Harpsf. 8. 8, e. 9. i22Idein. cap. 10. i23Cap. 13. i24Cap. 14. la^Cap. 21^ 
)96Ma|8mb. de Kegib. /. 1, e. 3, 

^*P ^3 CAHBRENSia EVEftSUS. 105 

lith the above mentioned Icings of the East Angles, their succesaor 
Alma. Etbelfred and Edwin kings of Northumbria were slaìn in 
ktde. Oswin, king of the Bernicii deposed and slew Oswìn king of 
tfaeDeìn. Egfirid son of Oswy was slam in battio by the Picts. 
Ethelket, king of the East Angles, was savagely stabbed in the palace 
of Offii king of the Mercians, and bis crown seized by the murderer. 
^ebert, king of the West Saxons^ was cut off by a swineherd. Ceolred, 
and Ethelbald king of the Mercians, died, the fonner by a horrìble 
end, the latter by the barbarous treachery of bis subjects under the 
command of Beorured^ who, before the lapse of one year, was deposed 
and slaìn by Offa. Of the kings wbo succeeded shortly after in the 
same throne Chenelm died by poison administered by bis own sister^ 
and Beomwnlph and Ludecen by the sword of Egbert, king of the 
West Saxons. Ulstan fell a victim to the treachery of Berferth. 
Chenred and Ostric ass assinated Osred king of Northumbria, and alìer 
enjoying the throne in succession were slain by their subjects. Their 
«nccessor Oswulph fell by the treachery of bis subjects, and bis successor 
Molo by the vìllainy of Alfred. Alcuin complains in the foilowing 
strain of the perfidious murder of Ethelred by bis subjects : " A]as, 
niy grìef, the presents were delivered, the letters were already in the 
bands of the envoys, when the shocking intelligence was brought by 
enToysfix)m Ireland of the treachery ef that people (the Englìsh)> and 
the murder of the king (Ethelred). So indìgnant was Charles (Char- 
leoìagne) against that people, that he took back bis presents, calling 
them a perverse, a perfidious, a rebellious race, the murderers of their 
lords, worse in bis opinion than the Pagan nations themselves ; if I had 
not interceded for them, ali the injury in bis power, ali the good he could 
take from them, was already done." Ethelwold and Ethelwald after^ 
vards fell in a sedition. Alcumund, son of the latter, was slain in a 
hattle against the Ultonians. But the death of some of these victims 
vas as happy as that of our own son of Culeannan, winning for them 
on earth the reputation òf mart3rTs, and in heaven the crown of eternai 

But this foul stain of the murder of their kings, infected Scotland 
i^well as England; of the one hundred and forty kings who are said by 




[981 Inasqnalitas Inique vitio Hibemin vertatur.— Hibernift quomodo montuosa} quomodo 
moUis ; quomodo aquosa; quomodo aylvestris ; quomodo paludosa ; Hibemia terra deserta 
inepte dicitur. — Giraldus pugnantia loquitur. [99] Inepte Hiberniam inriam ftiisse dixit. 
— Hlbemlam prope mare demissam esse falso dixit.— Hibernia quomodo sabulosa. (100) 
Mare Hibernicum navigabUe.— Wickloensis et Arcloensis portus undis inusitatas dotes 
falso ascribit; Quibusdam etiam fontibus dotes inusitatas falso ascriblt. [101] Laos 
HibernisB : endem laudes extenuatee ; fertilis Hibernia. [103] Ultoni» laus ; Aer Uiberniss 
temperatus ; Intemperies Hiberni». [103] Caeli constitutio semper eadem ; perdices et 
phasiani in Hibernia— Hibernia non caret capris. [104] Frequentibus mentis Hibemiam 
infestar! et ab iis arboree incurvar! falso dixit.— Canes v«aat!c! in Hibernia magni ; sicut 
et alia etiam pecora. [105] Non tantum color nlger fùit Hibernis familiaris. 

GiRALDUS è suorum prseconiis,* et adversarioruin vituperiis capite 
septìmo prolatis, tandem eluctatus ad laudes Hiberniae promendas 
excurrit; ita ut vituperia subinde assuat.^ " Hibemia" (iuquit) •' quanto 
à estero^ et communi orbe terrarum semota^ et quasi alter orbis esse 
dignoscitur, tanto rebus quibusdam natursB cursui incognitis quasi 
peculiaris ejusdem naturae thesaurus, ubi insignia, et praetiosiora sua 
secreta reposuerit esse videtur. In qua sunt multse aliis regionibus 
aliena nimis, et prorsus incognita, suaque novitate valde miranda."' 
Videbatur Giraldus ad bonam se frugem recepisse, et finem calumni- 
andi fecisse. Sed ecce ut ad ingenium rediit et familiarem sibi male* 
dicentiam. "Ab Hibemia" (inquit) "potestne aliqui4 boni esse? 
sugamus mei de petra, et lac de saxo." Et iterum : " Hibemia est 
terra insequalis, et montosa, mollis, et aquosa, silvestris et paludosa, 
vere terra deserta, invia, sed aquosa, interius in colles varios, arduosque 
montes enormiter erecta." Miror cur inaequalitatem Hiberniae vitio 
vertat ; perinde ac si solum, illi solum arriderit, quod in planitiem 
explicetur, vel in montes attollatur. Gratior omnibus (ni fallor) terra 

1 Topo. d. 1, e. 2. apraef, 1. 3Ibid. Topo. d. 1, e. 4. 




[96] Absmrdlj nrged againtt treland, ai a defect, that the goii is not level ; In what Mnie 
Irelaiid is mountainoaa ; toft i wet , wooded ; boggy.— Ireland Maéìy called a desert land. 
[99] Giraldaa contradieti himself { falsely calli Ireland an impaiiable land ; faliely itatea 
that tlne landi are low near the lea ihnrei.— In what lenie Ireland ii sandy. [100] The 
Iriah lea narigable % eertain propertiei fìilselj ascribed to the wa? ei in the porti of 
Wicklow and Arklow.— Unnraal propertiei fals^y ascribed to the wateri of lome foun» 
talns. [101] Olraldas praiies Ireland } detraots from thoie pralaea.— Fertllity of Ireland. 
[102] Priùse of Ulster.— Giraldas itates that the climate of Ireland la temperate ; and 
that it Ts serere. [103] Climates do not change with tlme.— Partridge and pbeaaanti In 
Ireland ; goats in Ireland.— Falaely said that Ireland is inoonimoded by firequent storina, 
and that the trees are bent by them.— Larga honnds in Ireland.— Herds of other animala. 
[106] Otlier colore besides blaok aied in Ireland. 

GiRALDUS describes the climate, soil, and seas, and animals of Ireland 
in a manner both contradictory in itself and at variance with experìence 
and the testimony of other authorities. 

Having indulged in lavish encomiums on his friends^ and violent 
ìnrectives against their enemies, as we bave seen, in the seventh 
chapter, Giraldus comes at length with a bad grace to celebrate the 
praise of Ireland, but in such a way, that he makes even his praise a 
vehicle of vituperation. " As Ireland," he writes, " is cut off from 
ali intercourse with the other and common world, and is, as it were, 
another little world in itself, aboanding in some things unknown to the 
coarse of nature in other countries, it appears to he a sort of peculiar 
treasury, where that same nature hath stored up some of ber most 
precious and singular gifts. There you find many things, which, 
though strange and utterly unknown in other countries, must by their 
novelty excite your admiration." This looks as if he bad repented at 
last, and renounced his calumnies. But mark, how his native temper 
triumphs and his virulence bursts forth fresh, " Can any good come 
from Ireland ?" he asks, " can you suck honey from the rock, or milk 
from the stone P" And again, " Ireland is uneven, and mountainous. 



[Gap. X. 

est, qu8B partim in planìciem effiindìtur, partìm in colles clementer 
assurgiti cajusmodi Hibemiam esse qui eam oculis obibit experimento 

Praeterea dedecorì esse Hibemise autumat, quod '^ montuosa'* sit. 
Nimirum vir exsatiari difficilis, campestrìum duntaxat ameenitate, non 
rerum vicissitudine capitur. Fastidium illi pariti quod Hibemia 
quandoque montibus intumescat, aliquando in patentes campos ex- 
pandatur. Sane nihil jucundum est, quod varietate non commendetur ; 
" MoUem** Hiberniam esse reprebendit, in ea uligines esse frequen- 
tiores forsitan innuens, quas Deum incolis suppeditasse ideo aestima- 
mus, ut in locis lignorum, ad struendum ignem inopia laboiantibus, 
cespites è moUiorì bumo effossi, et ad solem desiccati, lignoram vice 
uterentur. Quod " aquosa" sit Hibemia, ego in laude pono, non ut ille 
in vituperio, propterea quod riguum solum semper veinet, vel quod 
Hibemia pluribus amnibus ad evectionem subvectionemque accom- 
modatis scindatur. Si " silvestrem" ideo Sylvester Cambrensis Hiber- 
niam appellet quod silvis abundaverit; miror cur indigena cespites 
ullibi foco tam frequenter admoverint, si lignorum copia ubique suppet- 
ierit. Sane hodie apud nos rÌEiriora nemora visuntur. Quid reprehen- 
sionis in eo sit quod Hibemia " paludosa" fuerit ? non video. Nibil 
enim interest, si aliqua loca frequentibus Oceani alluvionibus palu- 

Obtrectanti autem Hibemiam esse " terram desertam** apposite 
Staniburstus respondit Giraldum ''alludere parum accommodatè ad 
istum vatis versiculum, Psal. 62, ' in terra deserta invia, et [in]aquosa.' 

4 Pag. 225. 

a Giraldus speaks of bis own day, 
and occasionai references in tbe native 
annals prove tbat Ireland did tben 
abound in woods and foresta. Even 
in Olir Author's time, ''forests many 
mìles long and broad" were stili re- 
maìning in tbose counties which bad 
been the last strongholds of the na- 
tive Irish. trhe woods may be said to 
have shared the fate of the Milesians : 

the allusìon to " the foUowing words" 
in the old song : ** John O'Dwyer of 
the Glens," is not mere allegory but 

fact See Boate*s Naturai History of 

Ireland, chap. xv. ; also Geoghegan's 
History of Ireland, p. 611—77, Dub- 
lin, 1844. Il) our Author*s day, it is 
true, there were no woods or forests 
in that part of Connacht with which 
he was best acquaìnted. 

^"^'' ^- CAMB&EN8I8 EVEBSUS. 1 1 1 

ind boggy and wet, aud woody and marshy — truly a desert land, 
kss, tbongh wet ; and in the interior dìsfigared with various hills and 
enormoas mountains." I am at a Iosa to know why he finds fault with 
the QDeveimess of the Irish soil ; is ìt that nothing pleases his taste 
ktadump of mountains^ or a dead flat P Ali, hut himself, I think, 
ire more pleased with a surface which over expands into smiling plains 
or swells into gentle hills^ snch a snrface as greets the eye of the spec- 
tator in every pari of Ireland. 

He thinks it a great disadvantage that Irelaud is mountainous. His 

taste is so fastidìous that variety cannot please it The amenity of 

cìiampaign country alone can satisfy him, since he is disgusted with 

tbe sveUing hills and exttensive plains of Ireland. Yet nothing is 

really agreeahle, which has not varìety to recommend it. Ireland he 

complains is ioft^ that is I suppose, it abouuds in bogs, which are snp- 

plìed perhaps hy kind Providence to give good fuel, when the turf is 

cut from the soft bed and drìed in the sun^ in a land where.wood could 

liotbepTocored in sufficient quantities to minister 'to the wants of man. 

Ireland, too, is wet, but that in my opinion is an advantage rather than 

a disadvaBtage ; both because many rivers can alone feed the perennìal 

Tardare of the soil, and because they open by their intersections, inlets 

anà ontlets for import and export through the heart of the country. 

Wben Giraldus aays that Ireland is woody, ìf he means that it was 

cofered with forests, is it not astonishing that people take the trouble 

of diggiog and drying turf, when they bave abundance of wood at 

band for fuel ?* At present, certainly, our forests are by no means nu- 

'^SToiis. I am at a loss to know what special disadvantage there is in 

^ swamps of Ireland ? If some tracts are submerged by frequent 

encToachments of the ocean, what is there very singular in that ?^ 

To Iris charge that Ireland is a desert land, Stanihurst very appro- 
pnateljr answers, " that there was not any truth in Giraldus's allusions 
^ the text of the Psalmist 62 : 'Ina desert land, where there is no 
tod no water,' as applied to Ireland. And that in his own day 

^^tliia be intended to insinuate dations from the sea or eren from 
■ ^oat there were no fens or wet landa rirers, it cannot be reconciled with 
I ^^cept what were subjected to inun< undoubted authorities. 



Verum non adeo desertaxn fuìsse eo tempore, (etiam Giraldo teste) 
liquide appare t." Gap. primo ita scrìbit ; '' Poteram quidem ut alii 
aurea forte muuuscula, lalcones^ et accipìtres quibus abundat insula, 
vestrse sublimitati destinasse." Gap. 6, " Gampos frugibus abunde ves< 
tiri docet." Gap. 7, '^Magnam vini vim inHibemiam asportari testatur. 
Passim historia magnam Hibemorum multitudinem in armis esse de- 
clarat. Quibus omnibus in unum collectis consequens est Hibemiam 
non esse desertam. Nisi illam terram desertam esse Giraldus velit 
quee aureis munusculis abundat, in qua incolae agricultur® operam 
navaiit, cum transmarinis mercatoribus commercia habent; quse in 
. quavis insulse portione populis referta est.'*^ Quse, amabo, terra Illa 
deserta esse potest,^ in qua, teste Cambrensi ipso, '* duo millia*' hominom 
ex una Wexfordia in bostes eruperunt,^ in qua " parta Victoria,® hos- 
tium capita circi ter ducenta ad pedes Dermicii sunt delata P*'^ in qua 
[99] " multitudo infinita ' versabatur^ in qua " tria virorum millia,*' | im- 
petum in bostes fecerunt ; in qua " triginta millia" hominum in acìem 
educta sunt P ut me tacente, Giraldum pugnantia protulisse res ipsa 
loquatur. Nec Hibemiam terram esse desertam minus apposite Giraldus 
quam " inviam*' dixit. Perinde ac si sic sylvis aut obturamentis aliìs 
obstructa fuerit, ut pervius per eam incessus non patuerit, cum eam 
sylvse non ita obduxerint, quin pascuis, cerealisque agri copia passim 
abundaverit, ipso Giraldo fatente, " ffficunda frugibus arva, pecore 
montes'* fuisse. Hibemia certe non obsessa, oppressave nemoribus 
sed ad usum, decus et munimentum distincta fuit : è nemoribus enim 
caeduis robora secta, vel ad Ecclesias, vel ad aedes, vel ad naves, alias- 
que operas educebantur ; sylvas prò receptaculis non prò babitaculis 
habebant.^^ Nec enim in antris, aut specubus ut veteres Germani, sed 
in domibus habitandi sedes figebant. Et quomodo '' terra invia'' illa 
dicetur, quae triginta dioecesibus, infinitis templis, innumeris monach- 
orum caenobiis, à conferta hominum multitudine quotidie frequentatìs 
cumulate eulta est P i ' 

Nec magis falso Hibemiam inviam fuisse Giraldus, quàm " interius 

«Hibem. expngnat. /. l, e. 3. «Ibid. e. 8. 7 Ibid. e. 4. sibid. e. 5. 
sibid. e. 13. lOWarraeus de Antiq. e 22. 


it was not a deaeri land appears evidently from the words of Giraldus 
hìmself. In bis firat chapter he writes, " I could bave easily procured 
for your highnesa as others have done, presenta of gold, and hawka 
and falcona, with wWch thìa island abounda;" chap. 6, he atatea 
" that the plaina are clothed with abundant cropa ;" chap. 7, ** tbat 
enoimoaa qnantìtiea of wine werè imported into Ireland." Every page 
of hi» biatory provea that Ireland had an immenae multitude of 
aoldiers ; from ali which it evidently followa, that Ireland waa not a 
deaeit country, unlesa Giraldua means to aasert, that a country which 
aboonded in presenta of gold, and yielded plenteous returaa to ber 
agrìcnltaral popolation, and aupported an extenaive traffic with foreign 
mercbanta, and waa thickly peopled in ali ber borderà waa a deaert 
country. In the name of common aenae, how could tbat be a deaert 
country in which a aingle town, Wexford alone, aent out from ber gatea 
two tbouaand soldiera against the enemy ? in which '* after a victoty, 
the heads of two hundred enemiea were laid at the feet of king Diar- 
muid ;" which waa peopled by " an inntimerable multitude," in which we 
find " tbree thousand soldiera" leading a ebarge againat the enemy 
and not lesa than thirty thousand drawn out in battio array. These 
facta are taken from the lips of Giraldus, so that itneeda no argument 
of mine to conrict bim of contradiction. He had aa aligbt reaaon to 
say that Ireland was a trackless land, as if it had been ao completely 
encumbered with foreat and junglea, tbat there waa no fiicility of free 
tranait.® Yet our aùtbor expressly states that there were abundant 
pastures and tìllage, tbat the fielda were crowned with fruita and the 
mountaina with cattle. Ireland had ber wooda and foresta, not in 
inconvenient exceas, but for ber omament, ber uaea and atrongbolda 
disperaed over ber borderà. They supplìed timber for ber churchea, 
ber houaea and ber abipa, they were retreata in time of danger, not 
the usuai residence of ber aons ; for it was not in boles and caverna 
like the ancient Germans, but in houses that the Iriab lived. And how 
could tbat be called a deaert land in which there were thirty dioceses. 

e See8ttpra,p. 61. Bridgea made evcn dhetdbhach O'Conchobhair. See also 
over the Sinnain (Shannon) by Toir- Jar Connacht, p. 41. 




[Cap. X. 

in colle» varios, arduosque moates enormiter efectam" asseruit.^^ D^- 
bebat dicere terram editiorem in mediocrem altitudinem^ non '* enor« 
onem" celsitatem elatam esse^ jet bujusmodi tumulis leviter edilis^ qui 
se in planitiem sensim demittunt, interiora Hibemisa irequentius in- 
tumesceré quam sublimibus illis montibus, et cacumine coelum^ ^ut ita 
dicam) lambentibus turgescere. Ita se rem babere, et Hìbenuam pera- 
jgprantibus patet^ et Girardus Boatus testatur, ejusmodi collium nomina 
sigillatim exbibens. Montes etiam magis ardaos nomiqat et recenset, 
é quibus prospectus in remotiora patet ; quos licet Pj^rseneis montibus 
ac Alpibus sublimitate cedere fateatur, attamen in editis^morum mon- 
dmn numerum referri oportere contendit. . Imo Giraldum corculum 
saum Staniburstus erroris arguens ait : '' non ita passim imo admodum 
raro tales montes reperiri/'^^ Ad oras quidem marinas pnerupta pro- 
montorìa crebrius à fluctibus verberari^ et alicubi elatiora loca mari 
finìtima in bumilitatem quandam paulatim descendentia littore tandem 
excipi; ac proinde à vero alienissima Giraldum narrare dicentem: 
" Hibemiam esse per omnia sui latera; marinaque littora^ tenam valde 
demissam" Boatus affirmat.^^ 

Nec mìnus à vero, me quidem judice, Giraldu^ aberrat asserens 
Hibemiaia '* Qon tantum circumferei^tias, verum etiam penitimas sui 
partes sabulosas magis babere quam saxosas/' Videtur enim in^ ea 
sententia versari quod Hibemia, quanta quanta est, sabulo tota ambiatur, 
et pulviniis arenstriis illius accessus obturetur» Sed nullum totius orbia 
mare magis esse bujusmodi obturamentis immune quam Hibemicum 
Boatus asserìt ; a^jicitque unicum duntaxat sabulosum dorsum inter 

Y In histor. naturali Hibenù«B Anglìce idiota an. 1652. 13 Pag.225. 13 Topo. 

d. *» e. 4, pag. 36, ubi. supra. 

d gir William Petty computes, that al» 
lowing the population to bave been 
1,200,000 in 1641, it could net bare 
been more than 300,000 at the time 
of the English inrasion. Politicai 
Anatomy, chap. v. — It may be ob* 
serred here, that statements of Stani- 
hurst regarding Ireland in the 16th 

century, are very bad argumenta 
against Giraldus. The dioceses re- 
ferred to are those stili existing in 
the CathoUc division, ezcept that 
Galway has been established, and 
Emly, Eilfenora, Leighlin, and Clon- 
macnois, have been united to others. 


sndiDnnmerable temples and monasterìes, frequented daily by thronged 
coDgregations af the pec^le P^ 

Giraldas had as little grounds ibr amerting that the interior of 
Irelaod was disfigared with varìons hills and enormons mountain^. 
He oaght to have ssld, that the highest land in Ireland rose to a 
modente not to aii enormons altitade, and that the interior of Ireland 
«as stadded with gentlj swelling hills, sloping graduali j to the plain, 
and Qot with those soaring wonntains which seem to kiss the stara. Any 
persoli wlio ima tra^elled Ireland knows that such is the fact, and it is 
attested by Gerard Boate, who gires a detailed list of these hills, with 
their names. He gives also, the higher moantains, which command an 
extensire pro^>ect, and thongh they cannot for a moment he compared 
to the Àlps or the P3^nees, they must be ranked, he contends, among 
liigb moimtains. Even Stanihurst himself calls bis pet to task, and 
isserts tbat these high mountains, far from being common, were 
rery rare ia Ireland. On the sea i^ore, it is true, you oflen find a 
^^ promontory buffeted by the wares, and sometimes highlands 
^^oping gradaally to the strand ; which directly contradicts Giraldus's 
issertion; as Beate remarks, *' that Ireland was very fiat near ali ber 
botders and sea shores.'' He was equally wrong in my opinion, when 
^ mày " not only the coaAs, but also the interior of Ireland was sandy 
nitber than rocky." He appears, as far as I understand him, to assert 
^at Ireland was just round with sand, or that sandbenks blocked up 
tU access to the ports. But Beate asserts that no seas in the world 
sre more free from such obstacles than the Irish seas, there being one 
solitaiy bank stretchiug down from Dublin to Wexford.® *' The 
country," he says, " is proteeted against the fury of the sea, either by 
steep promontories, or by highlands slopìng gently from the beach/' 
He gi?es ihe names and geographical position of these promontories 
^th considerable accuracy. As to the assertion of Gìraldus, that the 
interior of Ireland is rather sandy than rocky, it appears, as far as I 
can understand it, to imply that the centrai tracts of the country are 
«J^ered with sand so friable, that, like a fluid, they yield under the foot 

*"The sea which invironeth Ire- grounds as any in the world.*,' Chap. 
iisasfree from shelves, sandsor v. sec. 1. 


Dublinium^ et Wexfordiam protensum Hibemiae acljacere.^* Univer- 
sam enim ìnsulam alt arduis plerumque promontorìis^ et quandoque 
solo in promineutiam quandam sensim sine sensu se attollente contra 
flactuum impulsus annarì.^^ Promontoriorura vero nomina, serìem, 
et positum non segniter edit.*^ Cum autem Giraldus dicat : ''interi- 
ores Hibemiae regiones magis esse sabulosas quam saxosas :*' quantum 
ego percipio innuere vult penitiores Hibernise plagas arenis sic esse 
dissolutas ut fluidae sint> et incedentium gressibus caedentes, non firmae 
ac stabiles, aut ad culturam habiles. Sed inBolem soli aliam omnino 
esse, et experientia, et Boatus docet> quod alibi kit ex humo subiìiscà, 
alibi ex argilla ; in aliquìbus locis ex hac et Illa constare, et subinde 
ex argilla et sabulo, quandoque è glarea, grunnis, et argilla conflatum 
esse. Nec " sabuletarum" (quorum frequenliam penitimis insulsa re- 
gionibus Giraldus adscribero videtur) usquam meminit, cum tamen 
omnibus terree conditionibus exprimendis accurate incumbat. Quod 
autem Giraldus intimas easdem plagas '' saxeas" esse improperet, ac * 
si saxetis obsitse agricolarum operas refugerent ; aliter omnino se res 
habet.^7 In regionibus Hibemiae non paucis, Boatus ait : longos sax- 
[100] oi'um ordines tenui solo | tegi, tam uberi tamen feracitate, ut frumenti 
optimi, et herbae preestantissimse maximam copiam efiundant Lapides 
enim friabiles sunt, et è calce ; nec ad maroSorìs durìtiem consolidati. 

Porrò in Hibemiae condneud naevos venatus ad Oceanum Hiber- 
niam alluentem transiit, etìam inde maculam haurire contendens, quam 
Hibemiffi tanqnam frìgidam subdole suffundat**® Sciens et prudens 
Solini errorum amplexus dìcentis : *' Mare quod Hibemiam, et Bri- 
tanniam interluit undosum, inquietumque tote anno non nisi sestìris 
pauculis diebus esse navigabile." Cujus solitario suffragio Giraldus 
attractus à ventate declinavit, contra ac ipso freto ilio plus vice sem- 
plice trajecto usu et visu expertus est.^* Ut demirer cur non enibuerit 
scribere, '' Hibemicum mare concurrentibus fluctìbus undosi^simum, 
fere semper inquietum esse, ita ut vix etiam aestivo tempore paucis 
diebus se navigantibus tranquillum praebeat.''^^ Promptissimus nimi- 
rum erat ad id undequaque arripiendum, quod Hibemiss dedecori 

14 Pag.* 40. 15 Gap. 4, sec. 3, &seq. p. ^. 16 Ubi. supr. n Ibidem. 18 Gap. 5. 
19 Topo d. 2, e 1. 20 Page 230. 

Chap. X.] CAHB£KN8IS EYEBSUS' 117 

without any 8oli<fity or consistency and are totally unfit for ctil- 
tare. That snch, however, is not the character of the soil is known 
irom experTence, and Beate himself states expressly^ that the soil 
coDsists in some places of blackish earth, in others of day, and in 
many parts mixed of both together, or of eahrth and sand, and some* 
ùmes of gravel^ day or earth. Though he descends to the most accu- 
rate details in descrìbing ali the qualities of the soil, he never 
mentìons those sandy platns, vhich Giraldus insinuates vere so com- 
mon m the interioT of the island. New with regard to the other accu- 
satioD of Giraldus against those same inland districts, that they were 
sorocky, sohorrid with crags as to defy the labors of the agrìcultu- 
rìst, nothing can he more false* There are, says Beate, in several 
tiaets of the land, long beds of rock, covered over with only a slight 
stratom of earth, bat they are so fertile, that they yield an abundant 
produce of the best com, and the richest pasturage. The rocks are 
fiiableand limestone; but not so solid as the hard marble/ After 
baràig hunted ont ali the plans he could in the mainland of Ireland, 
be thence passes to the ocean that flows around her, expecting to fish 
np even there some charge by which bis cunning could coldly de- 
predate Ireland herself. Against the evidence of his senses, he delibe- 
rately adopts the error of Solinus, who says, '' that the^ea diyiding 
Brìtain^fì-om Ireland is tempestuous, and so rough through the whole 
year round, that itis utterlj impassable, except during a few days in 
sammer." This solitary testimony was so powerful over Giraldus, 
that though his eyes and his experience in crossing that sea more than 
once must bave convinced him it was false, yet he abandons the truth 
and adopts the lie. Amazing, it truly is, how he could write, " the 
Irìsh sea is most agitated with conflicting currents ; and so etemally 
restless, that except on a few summer days, it never allows the sailors 
an easy passage/' But he was always on the eager watch to fly at any- 
tbing that might he to the dìsadvantage of Ireland. Here, however, 

'The passage is "The reasoa dothsowarm the ground and gireth 

theieof is in thoee parts, because the it so much strength, that what it 

Itone whereon the mould doth Uè so wants in depth, is thereby largely 

Wy, is not freestone or any such recompensed/' Chap. x. sec. ▼« 
^U material, but limeetone which 


cederet.^^ In qua re, non solum illi non adstìpiJjatur p^tr^nits ^us 
acerrixQus Stanihurstus^ sed edam adversatur dio^ns : '' Mate Hiber- 
idcum satis tranquìUum esse nisi ventorum tì eu^p^tv^r, et mm solam 
ffistate, sed etkm summa hiexne vectores nitro ckroque navigiure." 
Cui etiam Warseus assenùtur hU verbis :^^ " Ad mare quod attinet 
navigabile esse in ìpsa summa byeme, freque^tes ne^vigaliones ex, An- 
glia, Gallia, Hispania^ etc. 'm Hìbeniiai^y et e2( ea in cateraa regiones 
sufficienter demoastranc'* £adem Boatus diei<t: adjioieiiS boh nisi 
orta tempestate naufragia in e(^ mari, meut in estero OceaSio fieri. 
Ut perfriclsB frontis eutn esse neeesse sit» qui quod ommom oculis 
obvium est impugnat. 

Nihilominus ìHe ad notissima qpiaeqiie redarguenda progréditur.^' 
Dicit enim " esse portum apud Wicfelo, qui in generali marìs refluxu^ 
undas recipit infiuentes : in reversione vero fluctuum, qùas jam> recepit 
emittity et amittit. Et cum totom jam sinum elapsis nifdis refluum 
mare deseruìt/ per omnem tamen aniìractum continna salsèdine fluvius 
influens amarìcatur. E contrario vero contingit m portii |)roximo'apmd 
Arclo, ubi non minus influentibus sinumque replentibus, quam elapsis 
omnino marinis aquis, fluvius qui illabitur innat» dulcedinis saporem 
illibatum et usque ad ipsum- miare impermixtas salsedini aquas obser- 
vat."^^ Sed omnia esse tam falsa quam qusB ^Isissima experìménto 
deprehensum esse testatur Boatus. Et aeque falsum ora» Milfordiae 
finitimas marìs accessu pulsarì, cum ex orìs Dubliniee proximis mare 
se subducit. In hanc quoque classem referenda est ista Giraldi fabtda 
narrantis '^ rupem esse quandàm marìnam, non proóul ab Ardo" cujas 
cum uno latore 8equor influit ex altero refluit. Nec ad veritatem pro- 
prìùs accedere Boatua contendit quse Giraldus prodigìa de fontibas 
congerit ** In Momonia" (si Giraldo credimus) " fons est, cujus aquis 
si quis crìnes atit barbam tinxerit mox canitie infiqiet ; In Ultonia 
fons alius visitur cujus undis sì crines immaduerint, canitiei semper 
expertes erunt.^^ Ih Codacia «Mam cernere est, qui ab bominibns 
epotus non nocet, à pecoribus autem baustus, vel damnum gravius, vel 
interitum adfert. Item alius ibidem in inontis cacumine sublimis, 

/ 21 Antiquit. Hib^jgiic, e. 4, p. 97. MPage,49. a» Topo* d. % e. 2; »*fHlge 
52 & 5^. Giraldus Ibidem. r> Page 56. 

CHA». X] CAMBUMns iiviBn». IIQ 

MB ù Bot sopported hy fitanìhàrst, bis most ardont d^ender, wKa 
èiecHj coatiadicU lum : ^ The Iiuh sea k tranquil enougii^ esoept 
^enìt 18 excited by tibe ftny of the wìndft; it afibrds not only in 
•ommer^ Init eveia in the dcpth of winler, an easy passage to the mari- 
nmfeom boih eoasts." The &ct ìs confiimed by Ware : ** With vegard to 
Ibseii^kis norigable evcn in thedi^hof wmter, as eridently i4>pear» 
Ima te Toyages to Irehind ùom fiaglalid, Gaal and Spaìn» Ao.» and 
ibm Ireland to other legions." Beate glvea the same opink»^ and 
adds, thflt nnlike other pafts of thei ocean, shipwreeks are anknown in 
àe iiish sea;^ ezoept by tempesta.' What a braaen front the man must 
kre had^ to deny what ali knew to he trae by the endence of their 

Nereithdless, he paoeeeds to blunder on the most elmoufl things. 
** ThoPQ ]& a pofft near Wicfclow/' he says^ *' which, in the flow of the t&de> 
lecewes the incoming waters^ and in the ebb of the wares discharges 
ffid loses what it had saceived ; and when the cbbing sea has entliely 
ieseited the whole bay» with ita retìrìng tides» iAie ri ver Ihat discbai^ea 
itself th^re is sah and brachi^ across the entire chaimeL But the 
veiy leveise is the case in the nearest port at Arìclow» where, whether 
fetide be in, fiUmg the whole bay» or entirely out» the rirer preseires 
I tìie taste of the originai sweetness of its waters uuadulterated» and 
^^a its wayes from oommingling with the salt^ down to the sea 
itself." Now, Beate states firom bis own expeneace» that ali this 
.stoiy is of ali others the most false» and equally false it is» that on 
^besbores near Mìlfòrd they bave high tide> when the sea retires 
^mtlieshores near Dublin. To this class of fictions may he ap- 
ptoprìately referred what Giraldus lells of the rock in the sea not far 
^m Aikiow, which he says» has high water an one side and not on 
the another. Beate also refutes the lying prodigìes^ which Giraldus 
coilected regarding the wells. " In Munster (if we believe Giraldus) 
is a wéU> and if any man wash bis hair or bis beard in it> they 

sTea it isa common prorerb In the saeme happen«th also npon othw 

Wlaad, " as ua^Hiet as the Irish etìa», which are ali subject to the dis- 

^/' neverthelesB it is nothlng so bàd aster of tempesta and shipwreoks. 

'ithey BudDe it. Trae it is that Chap. vi. seo. 1. 

soDiediips do peiìsh upoB this» but ^ Lyin^ ptodigiu» That Ibd anoSeni 



[Cap. X. 

sa maris veì accedentis vel recedentìs aestum ìntumescit, et snbaidet. 
Non tamen hactenus quenquam òSendere. potui, qui ejusmodì fontes à 
se visos dicerìt^ aut vi tali imbutos esse animadverterit ; ut ad creden- 
dum adduca! bonum illum vìrum in errorem credulitate lapsum fuisse, 
tam in bis quie modo retulimus, quam in aliis ìnnumerìs narrationibus, 
quas omni penitus Tentate yacuas^ et indubitanter confictas ille prò 
Teris lectorì obtrudit." Haec Boatus in sectione cujus titulum fecit de 
fabulosès fontibus Giraldi Cambrensis. Additque postea Giraldum 
scribere» sibi narratum fuisse fontem in Aquilonari Ultoniee plaga 
versarla qui ligna immissa septenni spatio, lapidis forma, et duritìe 
induit. Sed qnoniam accuratis sdscitationibus de boc fonte nibil ez- 
piscarì poteram, utpote de quo nemo nunc quidpiam certi vel fando 
acceperat» facile me patier adduci ut credam quod in lacum Neacham 
vere quadrai boc fonti nescio cui à susurronibus Giraldnm dementan- 
tibus falso adscrìptum fuisse. 
[101] I ^^^ ^® ì^ rumusculorum bujusmodi pelagum provebamur, orationis 
vela contrahamus, et in Hibemise continentem recepii, quam non tenni 
laude prsestantiam ejus Giraldus attoUat audiamus.^^ ''Multa" inquit 
" in Hibemia notavi aliis regionibus aliena nimis»^^ et prorsus incog- 
nita, suique novitate valde miranda, qu» quanto à estero et communi 
orbe terrarum semota, et quasi alter orbis esse dignoscitnr, tanto rebus 
quibusdam natune cursui incognitis, quasi peculiarìs ejusdem natnrse 
tbesaurus, ubi insignia, et pretiosiora sui secreta reposuerit esse 
videtur."^^ Et in Hibemia laudanda progrediens^ "gleba" inquit 
" prsepìngui, uberique frugum praeventu Felix terra est Foecunda 
frugibus arva, pecore montes, nemora feris abundant."^^ Et alibi : 

aeprsefati. 2, Topo. 27 Topo. d. 1, e. 2. «8 Ibidem, e. 4. » Ibidem, e. 5. 

Irish believed in these prodigies is 
quite evident from the Wonders of 
Ireland in the Book of BaQjmote, and 
other MSS., of which a perfect copy 
has been piìnted in the Irish Nennitu, 
p. 193 to 219. Ourauthor, therefore, 
Bhould have argued differently. He 
should bave acknowledged that it ap 
pearg firom Iiiish HSS, that the ancient 

Irish had similar fabulous stories about 
the miiaculous powers of these wélls, 
but that OiralduB should bave exam- 
ined these wells and tested their 
powers before he ventured to transmit 
such fables to posterity as undeniable 

* I do not give the precise wordt 
of the eztract. 

i ^^'- ^1 CAMBEBKSIS XTEBSUB. 121 

fmmediatdj become grey ; in Munster there is another well, and if 
jpa wasfa in it, jon neret shall be grej : in Connacht there u a 
well of n^ich men maj drink with impunity, but if a beast taste it^ he 
perìshes or catches some dangerous distemper. In the sanie place there 
is another well on the top of a high mountain, and yet it sinks and 
swells with the ebb and flow of die tide. Now I bare nerer had tlfe of meeting one man who said he saw^ any of these wells^ 
or hnew that they possessed such properties ; so that I am indined to 
think that oar good man mnst bave been gnlled by bis own credulity» 
not only in tìiose instances, but in innumerable other narratives, which 
aie de?oid of a particle of truth, and though transparent fietions vere 
attempted to be palmed on bis reader as tiutb." Tbis extract is^ 
(rom Boate's chapter on the fabnlous vells of Giraldus Cambrensis. 
In another place he adds, that Ginddos said, he had been informed 
that there was a well in the northem parts of Ulster, which imparted 
toallwood the form and hardness of stone, in the course of seven 
yeais. But since, after the most diligent inquiry^ I could not glean 
anythbg r^arding this well, nor meet one who had ever board any- 
t^ing certain of it, .1 bave no difficolty in believing that the q^ualities 
ascrìbed by Gìraldus's lying informants to this imaginary well, were 
foimded on those which are really possessed by the waters of Loch 
n-Eathach (Neagh). 

Bat retuming from this océan of wild rumors, let us tnm our sails 
once more to the mainland of Ireland, and hearken to the elaborate 
encomium lavished on it by Giraldus. " Many things," he says, " bave 
I seen in Ireland, entirely strange and totally unknown in other re- 
gions ; which excite admiration by their novelty ; for cut off as it 
were from ali intercourse with that other and common world, and 
/brmìng as it were a little world in itself, even so it aboundeth with 
many things unknown to the ordinary course of nature, being as it 
wereakind ofpeculiar treasure in which nature hath deposited some 
of ber rarest and most precious gifts/' Thus continuing bis pane- 
Eyrìc on Ireland, " Her soil is most fertile ; ber plains are glad- 
^ened with the most lavish fruits of the earth ; her tillage lands teem 
^ih produce, her mountains with flocks, her forests with wild animals ;" 
again, *' this ìsLe is rich in pasturage and meadow, in milk and 


" poBCiiis et pratis» melle et lacte, vinis» et non vinei9^ dtves est insula." 
Veram quas congerit Hibernite laades, easdem mox egerìt, et yehe- 
menter extenuatas tanquam è medio tollit. Instar vaceae> qu» miilc« 
tram magna sui lactis copia 'repletam pedo pulsane in tenam efiàindit. 
&tatim enim post memorata subjungit : " pascnis tameii qtumi frugibus^ 
gramine qnam grano fascundior est insula. Mtdtam fruges ìa herba^ 
plurìmam in colmis* minorem in granis spem promittont. Tritici nam- 
que grana- contracta sunt, et minuta» et va vanni alicujas beneficio 
purganda. Abunde satis et campi v«stìuntur^ et boirea farmuntur, 
solum vero granaria destituuntar;" Veritus mmirum Hibemiam pabu- 
lationis commendatione insignire, nisi pascuorum numero cum frumenti 
frequentia coDato, eandem ei commendationem mox detraberet.'^ 
Magis ingenue Meladixit: ''Juvemam adèo» }uxuriosem befbis non 
modo IsBtis sed etiam dulcibns fuisse» ut sé exìgua parte diei pecora 
impleant."^^ Et Solìnus: '' Juvema ita pabulosa est, ut peeuans^ nisi 
interdum estate à pastibus arceantur, in perieulum agat satietas." 
Candidhis Bacfaananns> 'Mn Hibeniia pascua fere totius Europee uber- 
rima esse.'* Verius Stanihurstus, ** cum Hibemia pastionis magnitu- 
dine paocas regiones conferri, nullas anteferri posse/' asserit. 

Giraldus feracitatis etiam laude Hibemiam spoliare contenditi lectoii 
obtrudens non prò specie, ac ape, quam germinantes, et adultss spicse 
prse se ferunt uberem segetis esse proventum : immemor pugnantia se 
loqui, cum paulo ante frugibuft arva fcBcunda fuisse dixerìt : Hypo- 
necteo prseconio Hibemiam proseeutus» dum proba encomiis annectit, 
et assuit ;^^ redamante plurimorum scriptonun torrente, qui non. manca 
illà et mutila Giraldi fn^ilitate, aed cHunibus numeris absolutà Hiber- 
niam excmiant^^ Ab Orosio enim '< caeli, solìsque temperie magis 
utilis esse quam BriiBnnia;*' et eédem Britannià situ '' foscundior 
esse * ab Iside : in vita S. * Kiliani " focunda ^elns ;*' et in vita 
S. Romoldi, '' Insuk amnimn terrarum gkba foecundior" esse dieitor. 
Quid memorem Staniburstum, cujus integram senitentiam kic apponam, 
quanquam ejus partem antea produxL^^ ''Cum Hibemia'' inquìt 
''caeli salubritate, agi'oriHU fertilitate, ubertate frugum> amsenitate 
fontium, opportunitate fluminum> portuosis stationibus, silvarumpro- 

30 Lib. 3, e. 6, 81 Gap. 15. Histor. Scoti, p. 54., p.. 4. 3> lib. e. 3, 1. 14, 
e. 6. »Serarxu* SturhiB 1, Julii. 34Pag<e 4. 

^'- ^*J QàMBBMHSlB STXBSU8. 13S 

y: and if aot in irìiieyards^ at leaat in wines." Bui Hke the caw 
tkicks and npsets the Tessei which she has just filled with her 
jorerflowÌDg milk, Giraldus virulently assaìls his own elaborate panegy- 
SGs, and extenaates them till there scarcely reuiains a wreck be- 
[Mnd ; for immediately after he subjoins, " this islaad, however^ ìs 
scher in pastorage than in fruita in grass than in graia. The grass 
«ora promises mach; the com in stalk, abondance ; but the grain 
anch less. For the grains of wheat are shrivelled, and small> and defy the 
|o«reT of any man to wiiuiow them.^ There is abundant clothing on 
ftefield; the bams are crammed, but the granarìes are half empty." 
H« was afiraid that the character he had given of Ireland was toc 
lùgb, if he did noi contrast the extent of pasture lands, with the arable 
fst^m, and thereby detract from his encomium. Mela bas been 
Bore candid. '' Juvema aboundeth in pasturages so neh and sweet» 
the cattle fili themselves in a few hours of the day." And Soli- 
ODs, " Jarema is so rich in pasture that the flocks, in the summer timo, 
nostbe dn?en from the fields, through fear of repletion." Buchanan 
lùniself was more candid, " the pasture of Ireland is the richest almost 
in Europe.*' Stanihurst^ with more truth, says, *' that few countries 
tre eqoal and none supaior to Ireland, in extent of pastures." 
OiraldTis endeavours alse to deprive Ireland of the character of great 
agrìcoltural productireness, by waming his readers that the actual pro- 
face of the crop itdls &x short of the promise of grass, of com^ and 
Btttured head ; but bere he appears to fbrget «ihat he had saia a few 
^es hefore, that the tiUed lands yielded rich retums. Hipponax's 
enlogy alcme — a wreath of praise and vituperation he dùlee oat Uy 
Ireland, contrary to the opinion" of the many writers who attributo to 
^ not his starred and imperiect fertility, but richness in ali that can 
make aland fertile. " Both in climate and soil," says Orosius, " Ire- 
'^d is sQperior toBritain." Her geographical position-is "better than 
BritainV according to Isódos. In the life of St. Kilia», *'her 
^ is rich ;" and in the life of St Rumold she is declared to he 

Giraldus appears in his own cir- suited for pasturage than for eereal 
^^^ and bombastic way merely crops ; a conclusion which it would be 
uaert, that Ireland was better difficuU to contest. 



[Cap. X. 

ceritate^ ditìssimis metallorum venis^ pastìonìs magnitudine armentorum 
gregibus, conferri paucsB, anteferri nullae regiones valent."^® Et ex 
Analecte attexo, quod " solo sit laetissimo, et maxime luxuriante^ adeo 
ut, si quid ad foecundandum injiciatur, quasi dedignatum alicubi steri- 
lescat." Davisius in ter alia ex octavo Deuteronomii capite deprompta, 
Hiberniae illud apposite accommodat, quod sit " terra frumenti, et 
hordei." Nec abs re fortassis erit Barnabae Richii testimonium bue 
adducere, qui licet scriptor triobularis, et vappa maledicentissimus 
fuerit, tamen quia Hibernis infestissiraus Hiberniam commendans 
fidem merebitur.^^ " Hibemia," inquit> *' agris iis instructa est, qui 
ad serendum frumentum, et berbam seque accommodati sunt, ac ulla 
EuropsB regio." Praeterea Spenserus scriptor post homines natos-cum 
à Cambrensi discesseris Hibeniis iujuriosissimus, ut qui infimae plebis, 
et flagitiosorum bominum sordibus nationem universam illiniat ad in- 
vidiam genti conflandam, et avitas posséssiones abripiendas, in Ultonias 
laudes orationem efiimdens, soli tantam esse ubertatem ait, ut è quovis 
ei semine mandato, messis copiosa proveniat. Et Cambrensis ipse 
campestribus, quae pascua S. Brigidae vocat, baec adaptat carmina.'^ 


Et quantum longis barpunt armenta diebus, 
Exigoa tantum gelìdus ros nocte reponit.'' 

ri02] I Penes me Spenserus est calamo exaratus, è quo aliqua in edito 
Spensero desiderata, licet extra callem sciens abeam hic exbìbeo. 
** Ultonia*' inquit *' tanta incolarum irequentia, et rerum abundantia 
quandoque diffluebat, quanta quaecunque Angliae portio. Imo ex ea 

85 Page 63. 36 Anglica descript, ffibemi». p. 5. 87 Virgilis. 

i For the life of Marianna an Irish- 
man, founder of the Irìah Monaster3% 
Batisbon, there is an allusion to the 
green fields of Ireland and a descrìp- 
tion of the country, as smiling as the 
portrait of Marianus himself. Speak- 
ing of the great numbers of Irish who 
lefb their country to foUow Marianus, 

the writer, who liyed in the l2th cen- 
tury, says: <<Dulce solum natatia 
patrie, solum onmi genere serpentum, 
ac universis yermihus nodvis seques- 
tratum, montes et cQlles, et valles, et 
saltus venatihus aptos, amaenissima 
fluminum fluenta et virides terras, 
ex purìsfontibus amnes, derelinquentea 


" the richest land in the world."' Stanihurst has been cited already, but 

thoiigh it can hardly be necessary, I gìve the whole passage : "In 

salubqty of climate, m fertìlity of soi], in richness of fruits, in delight- 

fili foontains, in commodìous rìvers, in secure hai'bours, in noble forests, 

in the rìchest metallic mines» in the extent of pasturage> in flocks and 

herds ; few conntries can be compared, none preferred to Ireland." 

The anchor of the Analecta agree^ with this eulogy, " the soil is so 

frnitfal and loxarìant, that as if disdaining artificio! helps, it becomes 

sterile in some places when the farmer manures it." Davis also, 

among many other passages from the 8th chap« of Deuteronomy^ ap- 

plies, with great jostness to Ireland, the words^ '< a land of com and 

barley." Even Bamaby Rich^ himself, though a vile scribe, and most 

contemptible calumniator, may be permitted to tender his evidence> 

because his rabid hostility tò the Irish gives weight to his words. 

'^ Ireland," he says^ *' can boast of lands which, whethei for grass or 

com, are inferìor to no country in Eiinope." Then Spenser, too, the 

man who, with the sole exception of Cambrensis himself> was the most 

virujent of mortals against the Irish, the man, who charged against 

a whole nation the crimes of the dregs of the populace and of the 

most prodigate characters» in order to blast the character of the people 

and rob them of their lands, even he, when speakiug of Ulster, says its 

fertìlity was so neh, thai what seed soever you entrusted to it, there 

was always an abundant harvest Even Cambrensis himself applies 

the following lines to the plains, which he calls the pastures of St. 

Brìghid :™ 

*' The cooling dews of one short night restore 

Ali that the herds in longest dayt devour.'* 

I bave in my possession a manuscript copy of Sponsor, in which 
there are several things not found in the prìnted editions, and among 
others the following : " Ulster," he says, " was as thickly inhabìted and as 
well stocked with wealth as any portion of England. Records of un- 

tamqnam filli Abraham patriarchi in hominum volentiam forma erat spe- 

terram qnam iisdem Deus praemon- dosus ; divinis ac hmnanls litteris, et 

fttrahat» se pnecipìtantes." Vita Mari" eloquentia erat pnsditus/' Ibid. p. 

ani: Bollandists, Feb. 9, cap. 6. 366. 

MarìanoB is deecribed " decoro vnltu, ™ In the Curragh of Kildare. 
crine nitente, et altra Qommmiem 


trìginta marcaruin millia regi cum bello premeretòr subminìstrata 
fuisse è bonse notse tabulis constat." Rursus ìu viain redeo.^^ Hoc 
agmen testium daudat Petrus Lombardus Arcbiepisdopus Armachanus, 
qui ''agros H iberni® insigniter feraces esse*' dicit: *'ita ut minori 
hic cultura, quirni in aliis multis regioni bus proveniant feliciter fru- 
menta omnis generis." Additque '* agros fructificare in compluribus 
i^cis fflne praevià stercoratione : iiuo eam nonnulli agri, priesertim in 
occidente, et meridie, ob nimiam suam pinguedinem non admittunt, et 
tamen sine consueta, in aliis plori sque teAis, anni tertii vel altlsrius 
cujuscunque intermissione patiuntur se quotannis coli."^^ Giraldo 
àutem dicente grana tritici minuta esse Staniburstuà adversatur et 
WarsBus bis verbis : ** raro in vicinis Hibemise regionibus, seu majora, 
sen graviora, quam in plurìbus partibus Hibemiae inveniri possunt." 

Sed quie authorum monumentis bactenus evicimus, rationum nunc 
momentis, idem roborari expedit. Vulgo nunc constat nullibi segetes 
majori proventi à novalibus fnndi, nec triticum majoris esse grani 
quam in Hibemia. Qui ergo fieri potuit, ut iuiquior seges olim è solo 
nondam satis attrito enasceretur, quam nunc tempori» ? omnia enim 
senescere, et yetustate conici, inque deterius mere cemimus, quod in 
hominibus usu venire, testis est Hoi-atius dicens : 

'* JEitas pftrentum pejor avis tuUt 
Noe nequiores, mox daturos 
Progeniem vitiosiorem." 

Contrahit profecto senium fundus, et quo magis assidue vomere prò- 
scinditur, eo magis ubertas ejus reprimitur. Quare quantum temporis 
à Giraldi aevo ad nostrum effluxit, tantum de terrae Hibemic» foecun- 
ditate detractum esi^e oportet. Ut mirum sit, quae minntiora tum 
fueinint grana, non in atomos modo evaserint. Cum autem è centra 
grandiorì nunc utamur, jure merito Giraldus errore aperto teneri cen- 
sendus est, qui a tot scriptorìbus^ et ipsa ratione sic impugnatur, ut 
telis à fronte, à tergo, à lateribus, è rationis, ac tot scriptorum arma- 
mentario depromptis impetitus, confossus, et confectus esse videatur. 
Sed missa faciamus ista,'et Giraldo laudibus Hibemiam prosequenti 

58 Camsnt. de Hiber. p, 863. 39 Page 226. Antìquit. p. 99. 

Chap. X.] CAkBUBNSIS STBBgU#. 127 

doabted aathorìty prove that, when the king was engaged in war» 30,000 
marks were paid by Ulster." But to return to iny sttbject, I dose tbis 
host of aodiorities witb Peter Lombard, Arcbbisbop of Armagb, wbo 
writes» "that the soil of Ireland is pre-eminently fertile producing 
most pleateous crops of ali kinds of grain> witb less cultivatioa tban in 
many otber regions ;** '' the land/' he adds> ''yields good crops in many 
places without any manoce ; and in others, especially in the South and 
West, the soil is too rich to allow the stimulant of manure ; and yet 
without any intermission» without those rests allowed every tbird or 
seeond jear in most other countries, it produces crops every year." 
Ware and Staniborst ciHìtvadict what Giraldus says of the smallness of 
tìie gram : '' Graiu> larger or heavier tban what is grown in many parts 
of Ireland, is rarely found in neighbouring countries/* But in addi- 
tion to this evidence of testlmony, let us produce some of thè evidence 
of argnment. It is now a notorious fact, that no land yields a greater 
qiiantity or larger grain tban Irish lay or fallow. Can it be possible ^ 
ùea, that the crops were less abundant formerly, when the land was 
not redueed^ tban at present P Ali things grow old and are impaired by 
yeais, and become every day worse^ as Horatius observes witb regard 
to man : 

** More vicioTis than their fathers* age, 
Oor sires begot the present race ; 
And yet witb crimes to us unknown, 
Olir 900S shall niark the coming age their own.*' 

Time, certainly, cripples the land, and the oftener it is furrowed by the 
plough, the less prolifìc it becomes.® The Irish soil of to-day is 
therefore less fertile than in the timo of Giraldus in proportion to 
the length of the intervening perioda Amazing it is, that bis sbrivelled 
grain has not dwindled intó atoms before now. Can any man defend 
the flagrant errors of Giraldus, attacked in front and flank and rear, 
hy argument and bosts of authorities, is be not pierced through and 
^atched ? 

But dismissing this topic now, let us listen to the encomiums he 
linshes on Ireland : "Of ali lands," he says, ''this land is the most 

°ThÌ8 is very poasible, and the evi- o This is not true. 
^ence of this argumeut is very weak. 


auditam accommodemus.^^ " Terra*' iuquit '' terrarum hsec omniuir 
temperatìssìma, non Cancri calor exsestuans cowpellit ad umbras, noi: 
ad focos Caprìconi rigor urgenter invilat. Nives hic raro^ et tiinc 
modico tempore d arare ridebis. Aeris clementia tanta est, ut nec 
nebula inficiens^ nec spirìtus hic pestilens^ nec aura corrumpens." Sed 
latum migaem sibi non constai: ut bisulcam linguam ori ejas inesse 
putes> quarum quod una lacinea profert> alterius sibilum è vestigio 
j)roflat.^^ Elogium enim obtrectatio pene sequitur in hsec verba: 
'* hic tener rebus inerat^ sed mundo senescente, natura rerum corrupta, 
et in deterius mutata, nam tanta piuviarum hic inundat ubertas^ tanta 
nebularum, et nubium hic incumbit impuritas, ut vix tres dies vel 
sesti vas continua sereni tate clarescere videas."*^ Et alibi praeterea 
dicit : " quod Ver gignit^ et parturìt, SBStas nutrita et provehit, vix messeni 
pluvialis aquositas colligi permittit. ^olicis enim flatibus, et plu- 
vialibus inundationibus^ prse aliis terris hsec exufierat." Et paulo post» 
'' magnam loci intemperiem'* memorat En quomodo quse sunt é dia- 
metro contraria eodem emìttat ore. Hibemicum " cslum temperie 
feliciter foecundari antea dixit, et aeris amsenitate temperieque tempora 
fere cuncta tepescere, terrarumque omnium esse temperatissimam, in 
qua nec nebula inficiens, nec aura corrumpens/'*^ Nunc ventos, 
nubes, caelum, et pluvias ad Hiberniam omni temperie exuendam con- 
spirantes induxit totamque hujus mali culpam in rerum conversiones 
confort. Dignum patella operculum. Si Giraldo superstite, natura 
seoectute fuit adeo provectà^ amplius quadringentorum exinde annorum 
[103] accessione gravis silicemio frangatur necesse est ; ut in imbrium | ac 
ventorum procellas tota liquescere, ac nova eluvione terram jam pridem 
operie debuerìt. Quando autem ne nunc quidem Hibernia immodicis 
imbrìbus humectatur, nec insolito asstu torretur, sed eadem serenitas, 
et fcBcundìtas^ qua scriptores ante natum Giraldum, illam imbutam 
fuisse dixerunt^ ad haec usque tempora perennent : lucide liquet totani 
deliriorum Giraldi molem buie fulcro innixam sua sponte corruere, 

«Topogr. 4, 1, e. 25. «Ibidem. «Cap. 5. «Cap. 4. 

p The editor has nerer seen this q A very accurate descrìption of 
manuscript copy of Spencer'» State of many Iiish-eummers. 

Chap. X,] CAUB&EN8IS EVSSSUS. 129 

temperate, no scorching blaze of Cancer ever drives you to the shade; 
no sererìty of Capricorn confines you to the hearth. Snow<«falls seldomi 
and rarely rests long on the ground.^* Great is the demency of the 
atmosphere ; no malignant doud, no pestilential exhalation^ no tainted 
gaie." Battheman has not the shadow of consistency: one wouid think 
that he must have had a doublé forked tongue ; demolishing with the 
hiss of one prong, what the other had uttered. Thus depreciatìon fol- 
lows qnick on eulogy in the followìng words : ''Such were things formerly, 
bnt nov as the world waxes old^ the nature of things is changed, cor- 
rupted for the worse; for so unceasingare the deluges of rain, ao enor-. 
moQs the mountains of malignant douds and yapors that even in 
smnmer, you canno t enjoy the undouded sunshine of even thrqe days 
successively.*'** And in another place he adds, " Spring conceires and 
^rings kmh, summer nourìshes and matuies, but harrest, with hispluvial 
aquosity, will not allow ^ou to rei^. No land in the world is so subject 
to the breathings of ^olus and torrents of rain." And again^ he 
mentions *' the great severity" of the climate. Thus^ from the same 
month, do contradictions issue. A moment ago he said that " Ireland 
bappìly was fertilized by the temperature of the climate ; that there was 
a perennial glow over ali things by the mildness and temperature of the 
air; that of ali climes it was the most temperate, where there was 
neither malignant doud, nor tainted gale." But now storms and 
clouds, and sky and torrents, rush like conspirators at bis instigation, to 
n)b Ireland of her temperate climate ; and the whole blame of this evil 
islaid, forsooth, to the charge of a revolution in nature herself. ' But 
ii" Nature had grown grey so rapidly during the life-time of Girai dus, 
she must bave been long ago shattered to pìeces by the weight of more 
ihan 400 years, — the fmieral feast of the old dame is long since over — 
sbe was dissolved in torrents of wind and rain, and a second deluge 
must bave embraced the eart)^. Now, since Ireland is not deluged at 
present with rain, nor scorched by unusual beat, but enjoy s the sapae 

' Giraldus seta fortb with ali the changing. There are frequent records 

pompof rhetoric, what old people say in Irish annals of the increasing au- 

now and bave been saying probably tumnal rains destroying the harvests. 
^ce lìis tìme, that the seasons are 



ac ipsius commenta hoo manubrio teneri. Ut furibas enìm aliquid 
excìdere solvt ad indiciiun ; sic ille hoc jacto fundamento, assertionis 
suce infììTnitatem prodidit. Natura enim in omnibus %\m rebus obeun- 
dìs adtnirabilem constantiam et incredibilem quandam aequalitatem 
immutabili prorsus setemitate tueri Solita est. Et nunc cselum parìter 
naturali se conversione contorquet> et terra suis librata ponderibus im- 
mota jacet : sol^ et astra, nunc etiam terras clarissìmà ut ante luce col- 
lustrant. et caetera eodem quo ante moda à natura gignuntur. Ut 
Aristoteli casterorumque pbilosopborum torrenti ca&lìs incorruptionem 
assignanti nec quìcquam ille solus obnitatur. Sed inìquo fortasse patrisB 
nostrae fato factum est ut Giraldo in ea diversante, ventis omnia ssevius 
solito perflantibus, assidui è caelo imbres deciderìnt ansam Giraldo 
subministrarìnt; iis Hibemiam malis semper affligi. Verum si rem ad 
judicii sui trutinam revocare dignaretur, et omnes terree plagas mente 
obire, nullam deprehenderet, quse non ejusmodi pluviarum assiduitate 
quandoque infesteiur, et è continuiis imbribus ad immodicam diuturni- 
tatem subinde protractis, annonae caritatem plurìes ubique terrarum 
enasci. Qua peste patrìam meam tum exemptam cuperem, cum in eam 
Giraldus pedem intulerat> ut ab intemperie illi adscribenda sibi temper- 
aret, et à fortuito, ac temporario eventu infamiam illi sempitemam non 

Dedecus vero csbIì, sali, solive vitìis Hìbemiae comparare non valens, 
notam illi atram inurere nititur, quod rerum quarundam deficientia la- 
boret: sed irrito conatu. " Perdicum," et ''phasianorum,'* quos ille in 
Hibemìa '' desiderar!" comminiscitur tanta copia est, ut majorem vix ac 
ne vix quidem alibi reperias.^^ Hibemia enim omni alito ad lautiores 
dapes adhilj^rì solito abundat, et incolse aucupiuml scienter exercent. Ut 
miseratio me teneat patrise meae quse Giraldi ganeam bujusmodi avium 

44 Top. d. 1. e. 18. 

8 It would seem that our author did had been founded in Ireland before 

not admìt the Copernican system. liìs time, and thougb a bitter eneray 

, t Strange that Giraldus in his re- to them he admits, that ''givethem a 

marks on Irish agricalture makes no desert and it soon became a garden." 

allnsion to the Cistercian Monks. Anglia Sacra, Y0Ì.ìì,-p,&7l, 
Twelve at least of their monasteries 

^p*^] CAMBB1K8I8 svracrus. 131 

serenitj aod fertility as in tke days of the wrìters previous to Giraldus^ 
ìns enormotts soperstractare of lìes, resiing on his own visionary basis^ 
falls wìth i^ and bis commenta vanìsh at the touch of a weapon eupplied 
bj himself. For as the thief often lets some hìnt escape to his own 
Goademnatìon, so by one of his own prìnciples, Giraldus reveals the 
fklsehood of his positions. Nature^ in ali ber works, miùntains an ad- 
imnble constancy, and an incredible consistency, grounded on immuta- 
Uè eteraìty itself. The heavens stili roll in the revolving course marked 
b)'Batiiie; <èe earth stands'immoyeable, balanced by its own weight ; 
the san and the stars illumino^ now as before^ the earth with their biil- 
limey ; and ali other things are produeed now as in times gene by. 
Can Giraldus outweigh the authorìty of Aristoteles and a host of philoso- 
phers, vrho assert that the heavens are incorruptible ? But, perhaps, by 
the evil destiny of oiir countt}', it so happened that when Giraldus was 
in Ireland^ the wind raged with nnusnal savageness, and continuai tor- 
nnts descended irom the skies to give hhn an occasion for assetting that 
Irehmd was at ali times a prey to those ills. If, however^ he had con- 
descended to examine the matter deliberately, and to take a nrental 
sorrey of ali the regions of the earth^ he could not find one, which is 
9ot sabject occasionalìy to excessive raìns, and by these continuai rains 
protracted to an immoderate leugth, famine has frequently been caused 
io ali regions of the globe. Wouid that my country had not been suf- 
fering frem that scourge, when Giraldus sei his foot in it — then he 
could not bave the impudence to say the climate was bad, nor attempt 
to brand her with eternai infamy, for one transient and fortuitous 

Being unable to find in the soil, seas and climate of Ireland, 
the defects which would enable him to affix the black brand on her 
capabilities, he charges her with being deficient in several things ; but 
*itb as little success as before. The partridge and pheasant, which, he 
says, are unknown" in Ireland, abound bere perhaps more than in any 
otber country. Ireland is well stocked with ali the fòwl that usuali v 

" He also remarked that there were nuraerous bere as in other countries ; 

^ oightingales in Ireland ; no black a fact not at ali surprising, if wliat he 

^n, nor magpies; and generally states be true, that eagles were aa 

•^t the smaller birds were not so common bere as kites in other places. 

132 GAMB&ENSIS SV^ISUS.. [Cap. 1 

autidis non ezsatiaverit^ et cseterìs cibU qui in delìcatiores epula 
expetuntuT ejus mena» appositìs, horum alìtum cupediìs eam non ii 
struxerit; ut palato ejus tum expleto, nobili» insule famam deni 
genuino non roderet. 

In HibemisB fama extenuendà progrediens^ ''eam" (inqui 
" caprìs semper caruisse, et carerò constat."^' Viro fortassis oblivios 
memoria excidìt^ quod ipso narrante intra sepem quss S. Brigits 
ignem obit^ *' per imprecationem vìrginis caprarum foetus pon perv^eni 
unt."^^ Praeterea cognitionem ipsius forte subterfugit hiicus^ qui ì 
S. Patricii famulatu, ac ministerìo victitans^ furto sublatus> per prodi 
gìum in furis alvo balatum edidit^^ Ut non memorem agnoscer 
Giraldum^ in hac re, venerabili se fiedae refragarìi, ot Stanihurstuu 
acerrimo adversantem babere.*® S^è nunc temporis plurimos ca 
prarum greges per arva vagari cemimus, quarum etiam copia, Hibemian 
tritavorum memoria abundasse compertum habemus. Quo autem tem 
poro in Hibemiam importai» fuerint ignoramus. Portasse perdicibui 
et pbasianibus in Hibemiam advolantibus, itìneris se comites adjunx 
erunt. Quantun;i quidem coujectura assequor, Gìraldus campos tantunì 
amaenos, et in planiciem effuso porrectos peragrabat : ad loca ver< 
montibus horrida, vel nemoribus obsita non concessit. Cuiu autem ii 
hujusmodi recessibus caprae plerumque pascerent^ in eas utpotè oculi) 
ejus subductas^ ne tam spurcì animalìs aspectu eontaminaretur, obtutiim 
defigere non potuit. Et religioni duxit vir (si diis placet) quidpiani 
scriptis tradere quod oculis ipse non u&urparet.*^ Nimirum pluris esj 
ocularis testis unus, quam amiti decem. Qui audiunt audita dicunt^ q^ 
[104] vident piane sciunt. | 

Dixit Giraldus Bedam et verbis et sensu secutus Hibemiam "meìh 
divitem" fuisse.^® Sed ante finem capiti eidem impositum, illam inellis 
abundantiam extenuare non dubitavit dicens: " Apes in majori ut ar- 
bitror copia gcaturirent, si non venenosas, et amaras quìbus silvescit 
insula fugerent examina taxos ; vel potius, si non aeris Hìbemici tanta 
cum bumiditate ventositas, minuta corpuscula tam dìsperderet quam cor- 
rumperet."^ ^ Apum vero abundantià Hibemiam circumfluere Staniburstui 

.«.^D?"^?- ^'rJ' ^- ^- ^^ Ibidem, d. 2, e. 36. 47 JoceUn, e. 148. 48 Pag. 
49 Plantus Tit. w Topo, d. 1, e. 5. 6i Pag. 229. 


gmces the costlj banquet, and her mhabitants are export fowlevB. W[hat 
a pitj, mj coimtiy ! that some of these delicìous wild fowl did not crown 
the lascioiis feastÌDg of Criraldus, when hìs board smiled wìth ali the 
viands that minìster to luxary ? Wby were not the delicate birds served 
up P Were they lying on hìs palate, he bad never crunched with bis 
dog-teeth the fame of a noble island. 

Tracking bis coarse of depreciation, we bear bim saying '' goats tbere 
are none in Ireland, and never were." The man, perbaps, must bave 
foTgotten the goat, wbicb, he said, went wìtbin tbecircleof St. Brìgbid's 
fire, " the curse of the Virgin brougbt sterility on the goats." Perbaps, 
too, he forgot the pel goat that foUowed St. Patrick, and remained with 
hìm, and when it was stolén, began to bleat, by a prodigy, in the belly 
of the thief. It is needless to add, that Giraldus is violently opposed 
hy Stanibarst on tbis point, and that, accordìng to bis own admission, 
he is opposed by venerable Bede. Ai the present day numerous flocks 
of goats are seen wanderìng over the country, and that sucb was the case 
Tithin the memory of our great gi*andfathers is ascertained beyond a 
douht. But when were they imported into I reland ? that is a mystery. 
Perhaps when the partridge and pheasant visited us, the goats accom- 
panied them in their flight. If I be allowed the liberty of conjecture, 
Ghuldus never wandered from the open and smiling plains : the moun* 
tains were too craggy, the forests too dark for bis tastes. Now, these 
recesses being the usuai haunls of the goats, bis eyes were never 
offended by the sight of sucb filthy animals, because they never carne 
^thin bis range. Moreover, he made it a solenui obligation (bless the 
n^k) to write notbing but what he saw. For, au eye-witness is better 
tlian teu who depose what they beard. The man that sees knows — the 
hearercan say only what he beard. 

Adopting the opinion and the very words of Bede, Giraldus 
iiad written that Ireland was rich in honey. But, before the dose 
of that very chapter, be must, as usuai, disparage this rich- 
Dess in boney. " Bees," be writes, " 1 am confident, would be 
iQuch more numerous bere, if the swarms bad not an antipathy to the 
bitter and poisonous yew tree, with which this island is overgrown ; or 
^tber tbis stormy and humid climate of Ireland scatters and destroys 
^^e frail little animals." Staniburst, bowever, asserts that Ireland 


«sserìt bis verbis: "Noli in rusticanìs modo aveariis^sed passim etìam fere 
in quovis vacuo silvestri trunco^ et teme cavemis examiiutrepeiiontur.'*^^ 
Quod à Camdeno confirmatur dicente : *' Apum tanta est multitudo ut 
non solum in alveariis, sed etiam arborum truncis/' et terr» cavemìs 
reperìantur."^^ Similia Lombardus narrans : *' constat"(inquit) ''in tanta 
abundantìa apes bic mellificas esse, ut non solum in alveariis^ sed etiam 
in aliis vasis, in cavatis arborum truncis, et in cavemìs. terr» favos dis- 
ponant distentissimos."^^ Quibus omnibus David Rotbus Ossoriensis 
£piscopus accinit dicens : ** non uspiam major apum crescit multitudo, 
quae non in alvearibus solùm, sed etiam in cavemis terree, in tectorum 
suggrundiis, et in cavitatibus arborum abunde mellifìcant." Ut frustra 
Giraldus venenosas, et amaras taxos obtrudat Non enim in Hibemia 
res vita sensitiva quam vegetativa animatae magis veneno vacant Nec 
tanta est in Hibemia vel humiditas vel ventositas,^^ quantum esse 
Giraldum praedicat dicens : " Eolicis flatibus, et pluvialibus inundationi- 
bus prse aliis terris hsec exuberat. Frequentìor et procellosior aliis 
Corus bic regnat, omnes fere occidentales arbores in eminenti positas, 
partim in oppositam vel incliuans vel evertens/'^® Tot autem flatibus, aut 
pluvialibus inundationibus Hibemiam infestari " raro" (inquit Stani- 
burstus) contingit : " alioquin agricolarum labor prorsus inanis esset, si 
per aquam et pluviam quotannis adveberetur tantum incoipmodujn." 
Qui ad arborum inclinationem aut eversìonem respondens,^^ " nibil sane 
minus" (inquit) " quassarì possunt bic arbores ut alibi turbidà aliquà, et 
extraordinarìa tempestate, quod non ita frequenter ob cingi t.^' Ita ut 
insolita illa ventositas, ac bumiditas non impediverit quominus apum 
examina ubique diffusa per qusevis loca vagarentur. 

Quod autem Giraldus dicat " S. Domìnicum Ossoriensem ut asserimt 
quidam, apes in Hibemiam detulisse,'* non dissentio, ita tamen ut certum 
genus apum primus in Hibemiam retulisse dicatur.^^ Nam ante ip9um 

52 Pag. 747. »3 Gap. 3. 64 Elucid. 4. in Jocelinum. p. 130. » Topo, 
a. 1, e. 5. 56 Pag. 228. W Ibidem. «8 Topo. d. 1, e. 10. 

• "Boate's experience agreed to this continued winds and rain. Chap. zzi. 
extent, that Ireland was subject sec. iii; Chap. xxH. sec. vi. Petty 
more than most other countrics to states that from the lOth of Septem- 


«boonds with bees, '' not only in the hìves througb the countiy, bui in 
almost efeiy hoUow tnink in the foresi» and in holes in the earth/' 
wLich Camden repeats» '' so great is the multitude of bees» that they 
are found net only in hiTes, but in the hollow trunks of trees and in the 
hoie» in the earth." LcHnbaid speaks to the same efiect ; '' hpneymak- 
mg bees so aboond hexe, that they build their enonnons combs noi only 
m Mves, imi in other receptades^ m the hollow trunks of trees, and in 
boles in the earth." In addition to these» we may cito Dayid Roth, 
Bi^iop of Oasory, " in no country is there a greater abundance of bees» 
vhich àegmt their rich stores in hives» in boles in the eartl^ in the 
^Yes of hooses» and in the hollow trunks of trees.'* What now becomes 
of the bitt^ and poisonous yew trees of Giraldos : for animai life is no^ 
more safeagainst yegetable poison in Ireland than elsewhere. Neither 
is lielaod so rainy or- tempestnons as Giraldus desmbes ber. " No 
land m the world is so subject to the breatfaings of Eolus and such 
delogesof rain« Of ali winds» the North-west reigns supreme, blowing 
freqaently and fiercely» and either uprooting» or bending to the oppos it e 
dJrectioD» ali trees planted in exposed situations." ^ Staniburst testifiea 
^t storms and inundations of that kind were rare in Ireland» '* for the 
labor of the busbandman would be utterly fruitless» if such damage was 
done erery year by rain and floods ;" and with regard U^ the uprooting 
or bending of the trees» he answers» " that some violent and extraordin 
naiy tempést might» no doubt» in Ireland as elsewhero» shake the trees» 
kt such was noi often the case." These unusiud tempesta and floods 
coold not prevent the bees from fiourishing and swarming over aU parts 

I admit^ with Giraldus» that St* Domhnoch of Ossory, is said by some 
to bave introduced bees into Ireland ; but I contend they must bave 
been apeculiar kind of bees. For long before bis bìrth» bees and honey 
were known in Ireland» as is evident from the authentic testimony of 

ber to the lOth of March, it blows not agree with Giraldus. Boato also 

a kind of stonn for some time or observed " that no.t only storm winds 

other almost every ^di^. Politicai but others also do in Ireland much 

Ànatomj, Chap. viU. See -ihid, his sddomer blow out of the cast than 

obKTTations on the point'S from which out of the west, especially in winter. ** 
the winds generally blew; they do 

136 CAMBEENSIS EVEBStJS. t^-^^- ^» 

natum^ apes et fuella in Hibernia fuisse consiat ex irrefragabili testi- 
monio regulse S. Albaei, in qua ita legìtiir.*^ " Cum sedent ad mensam^ 
adferantur berbsB sive radices aquà lotse in mundis scutellis : item poma, 
cervisia ex alveario mellis ad latitudinem pollìcis. Id est aliquot favi." 
Sanctus autem Albseus floruit in Hibernia simul cum S. Patrìcio et 
aliquot etiam annis ante adventum ejus, sive anteannum 431. S. vero 
Dominicus, S. Davide Menevensi qui anno post Chrìstum natum 544 
vita excessit magistro usus est Apum reprehensioni, pecorum calpa- 
tionem Giraldus adjunxitdicens:^^ "Omnium animalium ferarumque, 
et avium corpora hic quam alibi suo in genere minora repertum iri, solis 
hominibus suam retinentibus majestatem." Cur tacuit etiam prseter 
homines, canes quoque sui generis animalia corporis proceritate super- 
are ?^^ Rectius Camdenus dixit : " animantia omnia fpraeter homines 
et canes illos venaticos, quos Greyhounds vocamus) minora bic sunt quam 
in Anglia." Olim " septem Scoticos canes" (sive quod idem est Hiber- 
nicos) " prselusionis die, ita Roma mirata est, ut ferreis caveis putarìt 
advectos.'*^^ CeeterumGalliseyHispaniaequeanimantium magnitudinem, 
a nostris animalibus exaequari hodie cernimus. Pecorum Germanise 
molem expressit, non iis ad alia collatis, depressit Tacitus ; dixit enim 
tantum "improcera" fuisse, et Lipsius addidit sua tempestate, "ita 
contra fuisse, ut armenta Britannise, et Frisiae palmam fescere audeant 
contra omnia Europae.'*®* Nostri etiam greges, et armenta hodie 
generis sui ex Anglia deductì magnitudinem corporis mole referunt. 
Adeo ut ìnquit Boatus, oves, equi, ac boves in Hibemiam ex Anglia 
relati primse granditatis molem non solum ipsi, sed etiam soboles ab iis 
procreata retineat.** 
L105] Post pecudem universim reprebensam, alia nulla nominatim pecora | 

69Colgan. 13, Febni. p.\328, n. 2. eo Topo. d. 1, e. 19. 61 Pag. 727. 
62 Symach. /. 2, Ep. 76. 63 De moribus Germanorum in illum Taciti locum. 
64 Pag. 89. 

▼ St. Domhnoch settled at Tibraid culti vate neither gardens nor orchards, 

Fhacktna, i.e. St. Fachtna's well, but they rery willingly eat the 

tiow Tyhroughney, in the County of fruit of both, when they get them.'* 

Kilkenny» near Carrick-on-Suir. — Itinerarium, cap. xvii. The Irish it 

Speaking of his own countrymen, would appear were not so deflcient in 

the Welsh, Giraldus says "they horticulture. 


the mie of 8t Ailbe, which provides, " That when they sit to dinneri 
the moDks shaU, on clean dishes^ get herbs or roots washed in water : 
lìkewise apples,^ mead from the hive a thumb's depth. That is some 
combs." St Ailbe fiourìshed in Ireland with St. Patrick^ and some years 
befoie him, naznely^ A.D. 431. 8t* Domhnoch was pupil of St. Pafid 
of Wales, who died A.D. 544. From bis assault on the bees» Giraldns 
neit tnrns against the cattle. *' Ali sorts of animals, wild beasts and 
birds, are mnch smaller bere than those of the san^e species in other 
constrìes; man alone retains ali bis majesty." Why bas he forgotten 
to mentioD that Irish dogs^^ as well as men^ were superìor to animala 
of iheir species in other cottntrìes ? Camden was more correct: "ali 
lirìng things (except man and those bunting dogs, which we cali grey- 
hoands,) are smaller bere than in England." Formerly " Rome was so 
stmck with admiration at seven Scotic (Irish) dogs that the day before 
the sports she had them exhibited in iron cages." Our animals at pre- 
seDt are net inferìor in size to those of Franco and Spaìn. Tacitus 
describes the size of the animals in Germany, but does not make a 
disparagìng contrast between them and others ; he merely says " they 
vere not stately;" but Lipsius states that in bis own day, ''the 
reverse was the case, as the herds of Britaìn and Frìedland could take 
the palm from ali in Europe.'' Our flocks and herds at present retain 
the size of the English species, from which they descend^ so that in the 
rords of Boato, *' the sheep, oxen and horses imported from Englaiid 
into Ireland, not only retain their originai dimensions, but transmit 
them to tbeir progeny."* 

After bis first sweepiug condemnation of Irish animals in general, he 


*It Ì8 very etrange that none of or lap-dog, which belonged to 

oorwrìters haye preseryedthe Irish qneens and ladies of rank. This 

>i^e of the wolf dog, which was so omissìon is the more singular as 

celebrated in the 15th and I6th cen- Glraldus in bis Itinerarium descants 

^68. In the Brehon laws, mention on the merits of the canine species, 

ùmadeofthreekinds of dogs, name- with ali the rellshof a connoissear. 

^7. theCjc,or greyhound, which was Anglia Sacra, voi. ii. p. 842. It is 

lept by kings and princes, and probable that had he seen those re- 

^ feaetaUy belonged to Brughaidhs or markable Irish dogs, he would haye 

■ annerg ; the Arcu, which was kept noticed them. 

J f^ed at night; and the Otrce, «Boateexpressly states, that the '«/nsA 



[Cap. X. 

praeter o?e9 carpita quas " nigras" fuisse dixit : Et '* Hibernos laneis 
tenuiter uti omnibus fere nigris/'^^ Cam tamen paulo post braccas 
** colore plervmqae fucatas*' fìiìsse asserat Lippis autem et tonsorìbas 
notmoi est paonum quemcunque nìgredlne semel imbutum^ aliam nul- 
lam tìncturam ìmbibere posse* Vetus etiam Tigemaci regis Hibemiae 
institutum fuit^ anno laiiuidi 2816 ut plebeiorum vestis unius esset co* 
loris. C^Bierorum ordiuam vestimenta plurìbus ac paucioribus prò 
dignitads grada coloribus distinguerentur : reges ìpsì^ et Qobilium 
clasais regi proxima restitu septem colorìbus distincio uterentu^. Nec 
patem antìqaiuii illum morem Giraldo superstite i^utiquatiun fuisse. 

^' Topogr. d. 2, e. 10. 

breed of kìne, sheep and borses, were 
of Y&ts amali 8ize, Clu^> x, sec. viii. 
but in Bweetness pr Bavoriness it 
doth surpass the meat of England 

y If the dark color of their dress 
were a matter of choice, it might be 
regarded as a collateralproof of their 

Spanish origln. The Celta òf Spam, 
nnlike their French brothera, who were 
fond of gaudjr colora, generally wore 
black clothea "Die manner trugen 
alle schwarze EJeider von gribee, 
haarahln licher wolle." Pmfrong der 
unterauchunger, uber die vearbeuolo- 
ner Hiapaniera, p. 158. *<In the 16th 

C^AP. X.] 



attacb none in particular except the sheep, whìch, he tays, *' were 

Uck;" and that the little wooUens used bj the Irish were almost ali 

black,' though a few moments before he had atated that the bracceo 

were generally colored. But the ** purblind and barben" themselves 

know, that A cloth once tinctured with black, will hot take any other color. 

Tbere was alao an andent ordinance of Tighearnmas, long of Ire- 

land, A.M., 2S16, that the dress of the plebeians should be of one color 

onlj; and the dresses of the other orders^ of more in proportion to their 

naik, seven cdor» being the badge of the king and of the highest order 

of the nobles. This custom» I believe, was not antiqaated in the timo 

of Ginildns. 

oeDtmytheir ganaentB tli^ (the Lrish) 
die with ihe barkes of treee, that 
Englishniea name aldens they use 
ako elder berrìes to colour their wool 
yellow. With the bonghes» barks and 
ieares of the poplar tree bmifled and 
«tamped, they staine their large wide 
shirts with a saffran colorir, which 
aow are almoat ont of ose, and adding 
Uiereanio the rine of the wild arbut 

tree." Good apud Camdeti. The 
dreflsei worn by the children during 
their fosterage, whidi varied with 
their ranks, are described in the 
Brehon laws ; as are alBO the dresaes 
of the wiyes of the different chieftains, 
with their Talue. From these descrip- 
tions it Ì8 quite clear that a variety of 
otiLon and omaments was nied in 
the dresses of persons of rank. 



[Gap. XI. 



[105] Nntrlcum in educsndis alumnis dlligentis. [106J Nutiices obera non alimenta dura 
infantibus praabent.— Prolis deformitas in parentes conferri non debet. [107] Praepostera 
libido Hibemis ignota.— Adertoni liSidines et supplicium.— Mulleram Hibemicarvm mo- 
destia.— DivaricatiB pedibuB mnlieres non equitasse videntur. [108] Goodus wrgnitur.-- 
Goodus male toti genti paucorum vitia ascribit. — ^Ab Anglis Hibemi spurcis moribas 
imbuuntur. [109] Goodus male collectaneorum nozum carpit.— Ullecbus de Borgo pri- 
mns Clanrichardise comes. [110] Nutriciorum in alumnos beneficia. — Peregre atndium 
alumnorumet nutricum enituit. [IH] Belluarum erga AUtritioa.affe^tuSf— Honor alnm^ 
norum erga nutritios. 

Indigenas Hibemise " natura dotibus ad plenum excultos fuisse" Gi- 
raldus affirmat.* Attamen quod efflavit more suo mox resorbens: ** tot 
caecos natos, tot claudos, tot corpore vitiatos, et naturae beneficio destìtu- 
tos^ in alia natione se non vidisse" scribit. Quam rem ego mente 
reputans inde promanasse suspicatus sum^ quod (si Cambrensi credere 
dìgnum est)^ '^ Hibemi cum nascuntur^non accurate nutrluntur^alimentis 
duris sustentantur^ per estera fere cuncta naturae relinquuntur. Non 
in cunabilis aptantur, non fasciis alligantur^ non frequentibus in balneis 
tenera membra foventur, vel artis juvamine componuntur ; nam obste- 
trices aquse calentis beneficio nares non erigunt^ faciem non deprimunt, 
tibias non extendunt» sed sola naturse quos edidit artus, prseter artis 
adminicula prò suo arbitrio componiti'* Altius in hujusce rei reputa- 
tionem me descendentem cogìtatio subiit fieri non posse, ubi nutritiones 
summà contentione ambiebantur^ ibi alumnos tam negligenter habitoa 

1 Topogr. d. 3, e. 10. 2 Ibidem, e. 35. 3 Ibidem, e. 10* 

a In the portion of the Brehon laws 
relating io fosterage, the most minute 
regulations respecting the care, food, 
and education of the children, are laid 
down, and flnes are prescribed for 
anj neglect on the part of the fosterer. 
Alliance by fosterage or gossipred 
between the Irish and Englieh was 

prohibited by many Irish parìiaments. 
Hardiman's Statute of Eilkenny , p. 9. 
Alliance by gossipred ìras hdd so 
sa^red among the Irish, that when it 
was proposed in the Cooncil (^ Treni 
to abolish the church law, whìch an- 
nuls marriages between parties related 
by spiritual kindred (cognatio spirìt- 





tlOG] SoIieUnde of irarses In rearing their foster ohUdren. [106] Thej give thelr breasts and 
Dot hard food to the iD&nts.-— Oeform^j of ehildren not to be attrlbuted to the parenta.— 
[}07] nnnatnral Insta imknowii to the Irish.— Crime and ezecntion of Atherton.— Modesty 
of Iriah vomen. — How they rode on horseback. [108] Censare on Good ; ha unjustly 
attrflmtas to the whc^e nation the Tices of a few — The Iriah infected wlUi flithy custoraa 
Imported firom England. [109] Good's groandless inveotiTes againiit the sodai bond o f 
fbrtarage.— Story of miek Burke, first Sari of CUnrìckard. [tlO] Klndness of fosterera 
to thór foater ehildren.— Examples of this affectlon in foreign countries. [Ili] Animala 
themadres attacbed to what they bare rearad.— Honor pald by foster ehildren to their 

Gi&ÀLSus admits that the natives of I reland are richly endowed with 
bU the ^fts of nature. But withdrawing this eulogy, according to his 
Qsual mode, he adds immediately, " so many persons hom hlind, so 
oany lame, so many deformed, so many wanting some of nature's gifts, 
I nerer met in anv other land/-^ These facts. I at first attributed to 
what Cambrensis tells (ìf ìndeed we can trust him) that " when the Irish 
baby is bom, it is not carefully nursed ; it gets hard diet^ and is aban- 
doDed in almost every respect to the care of nature. They are not 
zocked in cradles, nor bound with swathing clothes, nor are their tender 
Timbs nerved by iirequent baths, nor developed in their proportions by 
arti£cial aid. The midwives never use warm water> to raise the nose, 
Bor io depre$s the face ; nor to stretch the knees. Nature alone shapes, 
(fithout the aid of art, the limbs which she has formed." On more 
mature consideration of the matter, it occurred to me, that in a country 
ubere the nursing of a chìld was most anxiously coveted as an honor,* 

oalÌB), Donagh Mac Congal, Bishop not absolred cxcept at the time of 

of Raphoe, protested agaìnst its abo- death. The remonstrance was sue- 

lition, on the ground that in his cessful : the sponsors of a child or the 

country the tie contracted by that person who baptizes it, cannot, ac- 

^dred was deemed so sacred that cording to the present law in the 

any person striking his spiritual kins- Catholic church, validly marry the 

man vonld be excommun^ated and child or its parents. 


fuisse. Qiioinodo eniin tam ardenter alumnì et natrìcum filii mutuo se 
amore complecterentur, si vagientis alumni tenella setas fomentis non 
mulceretur, et cunis noii exciperetur ? nulla tam inhumana nutrìx est, 
pnesertim in Hibemia (ubi nutrìcibus alumni chariores sunt quam sui 
liberi) quse prius in amantissimi pusionis os durius alimentum qnam 
ubera sua ingereret. Quod sì alumni jam adulti distortus nasus^ cnira 
vara^ et repanda, oculi coclites^ aut cseteri artus nutricis culpa deformi^ 
tate notarentur; nonne omni amore subiate^ odiorum seges mox enata 
foret P nec adeo mente capt» nutrices esse censendo sunt, ut quem 
cuntrabendse amiciti» causa suis uberibus admoverunt^ ob eandem 
negligentius habitum, odium colligere niterentur. Nunc temporìs in 
Hibemia operosiorì soUicitudine infantulìs enntriendis nullibt terrarom 
incunibitur, nec diutius fasciis involvuntur infantes, aut crebrius tepi- 
» dioribus balneis lavantur. Imo egentiores mulierculae non mediocrem 
adhibent solertiam ut sua proles fasciis, prò modulo soo astringatur, 
calentibus aquis sepius abluatur, ne distortio colli, cruris, aut lacerti 
vel sibi dedecori, vel soboli adultos annos assecutse detrimento fiiret. 

Nec in gente prìscls morìbus mordicns adhasrente consuetudinem 
istam nuper enatam esse credimus» sed ej us originem ad gentìs prìmordia 
re/erendam. Lingua enim H ibernica cunamm Qt fasciàram vócabalis 
non instrueretur, si cunarum et fasciarum usus ab Hibemica gente non 
frequentaretur. In superiore Hibemisa regum in^ce iBngusìo Tur^* 
mecho ad H iberni» clavum anno mundi 4867 sedente fasciarum babetur 
mentio. Itaque fabulones istos qui Giraldo ista insusurrarunt nimis 
[106] fuisse petulantes | oportuit et Giraldum cdumniatorem insignem, qui ad 
teneras etiam nnguiculas, et obstetricum ministeria, infra virilem, et 
ecclesiastìcam dignitatem se abjectìssimè demittit, ut inde ansam eliciat 
ignominise Hibemis creandse.^ Quid quod Hibemos " natura" (ipso 
Giraldo affirmante) 'Mnrobur perfectum pulcberrimis, ac proceris cor- 

4 Topogr. d. 3, e. 10. 

b The description given hy Girai- by modem etbnography to the Oeltic 

dus of the Irish of bis day, which race, from "whlch it must be inferred, 

is confirmed by the accounts given by either that the Irish of bis time were 

Froissart, Castide, Spenser, Campion, not Celts, or that modem ethnogia- 

Dimocte, and Moryaon, bas scarcely phers are^ in^ error. See Pbysical 

one of the characteristics, attrìbuted Atlas. 



àe fo8ter-€bOd could not be so careleasly reftred. For how coald tbe 

iester-cbild and tiid aon of the nurse haife so atdent a love for each 

otherif tbe fender ago of the infimi foslerson had not been affeetionaiely 

ittendedB<»rbeenallowedevenacradle? Therenererirasannrse^espe- 

ùHàj in iF^and (whete nnises love their fostersons more tìian their own 

clùidren) that could think of giving ber darling little eharge any harder 

diet than ber own breast Now^ if the fosterson wben grown np^ foimd 

kbad a crooked nose» or crooked or baiidied legs, or eyes awry, or 

107 other defeet arìsing from the negligence of bis nurse, could there 

be a boud of afiection and not rather tbe seeds of batred and enmity ? 

Moieover,' we cannot suppose the nurses to bave been so devoid of 

common sense as to make the babe^ which they had taken to their arms 

Tot a bond <>f friendship, become, by their gross negligence^ a cause of 

eomi^. There is no quarter of the woild where the infant is attended 

; vith more affecdonate solicitade than in Xreland at the present day» 

vbere they are kept long^ in swathing bands» or are more frequently 

lnheà va tepid bath& Even the poorest woman strains every exertion 

to swatbe ber babe according to ber means ; sbe bathes it often in warm 

water, lest a distortion of the neck, or legsor armS, should be a disgrace 

toberself or an injury to the chìld when it arrived at the years of ma- 

tarity. Now, it is utterly incredible that a custom of this kind can be 

of modem ^wth among a people who cling so tenaciously to ancien t 

inaimers. Il; must bave been coeval with the orìgin of the nation itself. 

i Ifcradles and swathing*clothes had been nnknown in ancient times to 

tbe Iiish people, there would not be namès for them in the Irìsh lan- 

page. Yet, under the reign of JEngus Tormach) A.M. 4867, in the 

r^ catalogue of the kiugs of Ireland, swathing bands are mentioned. 

The knaves who imposed this fiction on Gimldus must ha ve been 

sbameless deceivers, and Giraldus himself was an arrant oalamniator, 

: to poke into the little secrets and humble dutìes of the nursery, with a 

i cariosity unbecoming a priest and a man, in order to buttress an in- 

&moas eharge i^ainst the Irìsh. Had he not himself asserted ''that 

tatare &shioned her stoutest models in the tall^ and m<^t beautiful 

P»80Bs, the regolar featnres and glowing complexions of the Irisb." 

And agaìn, " whatever they bave received from nature is of the highest 

i ^^^''•" And in another place^ " the good figures amongst them are 


poribus congruis et coloratissimis vultìbus."^ £t ^' quod in bis naturse^ 
ìììiià optimum :" et alibi, '' qui bene formantur, exqujssitissime.'*^ Quo- 
modo autem tam' eximia corporum species, seu potius (ut Giraldus 
loquitur) '' majestas" in setatis maturitatem asseoutis apparerete nisi in 
iisdem apte formandis, dmn adbuc in prima teneritudine constituerentur, 
solertior nutrìcum industria pnecessisset P 

Cum infautes ''diyis alimentis sustentari" dixit: fortasse commento 
aìnplificare voluit Strabonem scribentem, ^infantes ^* prima nutrimenta 
patrum mucronibus prstenta gustare." Aut illi forsitan in mententi 
venit locus ille Virgilii : 

« Durum a stirpe genus, natos ad flumina primnm 
Deferimus, saevoque gela duramus, et undìs." 

An inianite in Hibemia foeminis ubera lacte distenta è pectore pendent ? 
ferss pullis suis ubera admovent, et mulieres ratione prseditse liberos 
suos à mamillis sugendis removebunt P et duriorem cibum in os eden- 
tulum, ac escas proìnde molerò nesciens ingerent P apagè apagè feri- 
tatene ìstAxtì plus quam belluinam, non solum ab bumanà natura, sed 
etiam à ferina maxime abborrentem. Quomodo usum à barbarìs qui- 
busque nationibus assidue frequentatum, natio Cbristianis instituta 
disciplinis aut ignorabit, aut non exercebit P 

Quod plures oculorum, aut incessus usu destitiitos» aliavo corporis 
defoimitate notatos, in Hibernia cernere tum erat, ''non dubitandum*' 
(inquit) '< si de gente adultera, gente incesta, gente illegitime nata, et 
copulata, gente exlege, tales interdum centra naturse legem naturse prò- 
ducat;^' in parentum, et natalium vitia deterioris liberorum figurse causam 
injurià refundens.^ Non enim semper proles parentum similitudinem, 
vel ore, vel moribus refert. Pnestantissimì patres profligatissimos 
quandoque filios procrearunt. Heroum filios noxas proverbio dicimus : 
et 'è centra, è libidinoso, imo vel incestuoso coitu, etiam sanctimonia 
claros prodiisse constat.^ Neque enim " caecus ille à nativitate" in 
Evangelio, aut parentum, aut sua culpa csecitate multatus est. Deus 
plures sibi gratos plectit, ut immissos cruciatus sequanimiter ferentes, 
setemis gaudiis ipso remuneret.^® Quod si ejusmodi prolium fceditatibus 

5 Ibidem. 6 Ibidem, e. 35. 7 Georgr. 8 Topogr. d. 3, e. 85. 9 Joannis, 
cap. 9. 10 2 Mach. e. 6. 


exquisite.*' Now, how could this surpassing beauty, or rather (to use 
Giraldus's words,) this majesty of person, be found in the grown-up 
man, if the skilful solicitude of the nurse had not watched and fashioned 
the tender age of the child P 

Perhaps, when he said that the infanta got hard diet, he wished 
merely to ainpliiy or illustrate the words of Strabo, " that the first nou- 
rishmeot of the babe was giveu to it firom the point of its father's sword." 
Or perbaps he had the passage of yirgilius before bis mind — 

*■ Strongfrom the cradle, of a sturdy brood 
We bear our new-bom infknts to the flood.' 

Is it in vain that the bosoms of the Irish matrons swell with the nutrì- 
tious food of their babes ? The wild beast itself gives its dugs to its 
vouBg, and could women, gifted with reason, spum their children from 
tbeir breasts ? Weald they thrust hard food into the toothless mouths 
orteach tbem how to masticate it ? Away with this worse than beastly 
savageness, repugnant not only to human nature, but even to wild 
beasts. How could a custom, invariably observed in ali nations how- 
ever barbarous, be unknown or neglected in a country civilized by the 
religion of Christ ? 

Giraldus states that the great number of persons in I reland wanting 
the use of their eyes or limbs, or otherwise deformed, cannot be a matter 
ofsuTprise, if we reflect "that nature sometimes produces such things 
against ber own laws^ among an adulterous nation, an incestuous nation, 
a nation illegitimately bom and married — a nation without any law." 
Batto attributo the naturai deformities of the child*s person to the crime 
of its parents or the illegitimacy of its birth, is false philosophy, because 
tbe cbild does not always resemble the parent either in character or in 
face. The most excellent fathers bave had the most prodigate sons. 
" The sons of heroes are pests," has become a proverb, while, on the 
otber band, men distinguished for sanctity, bave been the issue of a 
libidinous and incestuous amour. The man blind from bis .birth, men- 
tioned in the Gospel, was not punished with blindness either for bis own 
^es or those of bis parents. God often chastiseth those whoni he 



ob flagitia in Hibemos, " non ad interitum, sed ad correptionem/' Deus 
animadverteret, quid inde majoris probri contrabent quam Angli^ quos 
S. Bonifacins Moguntinus Arcbiepiscopns Giraldo magis idoneus aathor^ 
'* spretis Icgibus adulterando, et luxurìando ad instar SodomiticsB gentis 
foBdam vitam ducere" quaeritur, et pnesagit " de tali commixtioue mer- 
etricum sesdmandum esse degeneres populos, et ignobiles^ et furentes 
libidine ferèprocreandos."^^ Quod in Giraldum retorqueo, ut memi- 
nerit, " qui sibi boc sumpsit ut aliorujn peccata reprebendat^ neminem 
buie ignoscere, si qua in re ipse a religione officii declinarìt.*'^^ Nenao 
Hibemus vel caecutiet^ vel ingressu csespitabit^ quin toti nationi mox 
inde calumnia struatur. Ose terse gentes impune ferent, visu^ vel incessa 
orbis abundare. Sed plures apud nos lippitudine, csecitate, aut claudi- 
catione laborasse> ineptus iste calculator deprebendit Retorto sane 
livoris oculo nostrates intuitus est, et pauciores in majorem numerum 
excrevisse latus, calculos male subduxit. Et minutias quasque ad vivum 
rimatus est, in lucro id ponens, quod famse dispendium Hibemis 
parerete ^ 

Quibus non est cur exprobetur, quod praepostera libidine in naturae 
leges impegerint. Capiti cane talia demens probra tuo. Vesana illa 
salacia in alios torqueatur. Unicum illud bujusmodi flagitium de semi- 
viroque bove, semiboveque viro, quod Hibemis Giraldus affixisse 
videtur, ita vivente, et vidente Giraldo convulsum, eversum, et dilutum 
[107] est, ut nihil idoneum babuerit ipse quod retorqueret. | 

In ejusmodi scelerum ignoratione Hibemia versabatur, nec nisi nu- 
perrime, et multis annorum centuriis, post Giraldi excessum, ad ea 
coercenda, leges conditae sunt. Nam sicut medicorum pbarmacis 
nibil opus est, nisi morbis laboraretur, ita leges forre nihil attineret, 
nisi perperam viveretur. Itaque bonae leges è malis moribus procre- 
antur. Solon rogatus quam ob causam non tulisset legem in parrici- 
das respondit : quod non sperasset futurum parrìcidam. Novum 
crimen, et ante inauditum in Hibemia prsBposterus ille veneris eestus 

11 Gap. 10, de pubi, concubina, is Cicero, i^ Praefii. t. ezpug. Hiber. 

e The editor has no means of con- Irish a greaterproportion of deformed 

futing this assertion b^ Giraldus. It persona than in other countries. We 

is certain that subsequent English read frequently in the annais before 

writers did not remark among the the I2th century, that chieftains fre- 


iores, that their patience under the trìals he sends, may be rewarded by 
the eternai joys of heaven. But, if God had sent those naturai defects 
OD the ehildren to punish the crimes of the Irish, " not for their de- 
stnictioiiy bttt their amendment/' what greater disgrace is that to the 
Iri^ than to the Englieb, who, as St Bonifacius, Archbishop of Mayence 
(a better authority than Gìraldas^) complains, "led scandalous lives, 
iodolging against ali laws in adultery and other abominations, like the 
peopleof Sodom." This promiscuoos intercourse^ he predicted, '^ should 
beget a base and degenerate people^ the slaves of sensual passions." If 
a single Irishman iimp or be blinda the whole nation is at once charged 
with the defect> though other nations bave a large stock of blind or de- 
formed, without any disparagement of the national character. By an 
arithmetic peculiar to himself, Giraldus found more blear-eyed and blind 
and lame in Ireland than in any otlver country.^ But he viewed our 
country with a jaundiced eye, and by an error in bis calculations mag- 
và&eà a few into an enormous number. Every little trifle he sifled to 
thebottom, thinking himselfamply rewarded if he could thereby injure 
tbe character of the Irish. 

But there is not the shadow of evidence for charging them with being 
plonged by sensualism into unnatural crimes. That preposterous lust 
must be laid at the doors of others. On thine own head, mad dog, be 
sach enormitìes. The only instance of such a crime, on the man half 
ox, and ihe ox half man, which Giraldus seems to bave charged on the 
Irìsh, was during bis li fé, -and before bis face so refuted and disproved 
tbat he had not one specious word to say in its defence. 

Ireland was ignorant of these crimes, and it was not till lately, and 
nany centurìes after the death of Giraldus, that laws were made to 
lepress them. For as there is no need of medicine where there is no 

«laentlj deprired of flight their captÌTe ezisting so late as the 12th centory, 

HTals, but that barbaious custom was it would corroborate the assertion of 

&ot peculiar to Ireland. If, indeed, Giraldus, but that law had loug be* 

tb '<lex taUonis" "an eje for an fore been modìfled and commuted into 

. Qfe," which is said to bave been pecuniari fine : OgygiOi p. 307. 
«nciently ei^forced, voi. 1, p. 469, were 


orat, non hic enatus, sed exoticus, et à Jeanne Adertone Pseudoepis- 
copo Waterfordiensi huc primum importatus. Homo iste libidinis 
omnimodse foeditatibus Cooper tus, in struprì, adulterii^ et incestus reos 
quam gravissime animadvertebat, et quorum scelerum summam prae 
se ferebat odium> eorum cceno animum contaminatum gessit. Is com- 
primendse libidinis studio (si diis placet) incensus^ author fuisse 
dici tur Hibemise comitiis, ut, lego sancirent, eum morte plectendum 
fore, qui peederastise scelere se macularet; sed laqueo quem aliis 
posuit^ ipso captus est. Primus enim legem ipso rogante nuper latam 
infregisse deprehensu^, poenas in crucem actus morte dedit. 

Eutropius Eunuchus simili prorsus ratione òlim sibi niinam 
struxit.^^ Is enim dum expetit alìquos qui templi defensione se 
tegebant poenis affici^ persuasit Imperatori ut lex ferretur, qua tem- 
pli religio nulli sonti prodesset.^^ ^ Lata lege contigit ut Eutropius in 
Imperatoris ofiensam incidens ad altare confugerit, unde protractus 
capite plexus est.*^ "Thomas" etiam " Cronwellus Fabri Ferrarii 
pauperculi filius^ qui comes Essexise" tandem evasit, ob legem ipso 
poscente latam, et paulo post ab ipso nolatam obtruncatus est, et 
supplicii comitem habuit " Baronem Uungerfbrdium qui crimen 
quoddam non nominandum capite luit."^'^ Cinaedorum, spinthriarum, 
exoletorum, et meritorum puerorum vocibus aures Hibernorum, ne 
dum cogitationes earum vocum notionibus adhuc non foedabantur. 
Hujusmodi lasciviam cum peregrino luxa natio dominatrix iuvexit. 
Quam nominare non solum haeretici, set etiam Ethnìci erubuerunt; 
Suetonio Tyberii turpia referri, audirive nedum credi fas esse negante : 
quad utinam nec in libris legentium oculis obversarentur. Sane Sue- 
tonius, et Lamprìdius plurium reprehensione vapulant, quod sic ad 
vivum libidinosa narrando resecent, ut ea non dicere sed docere vide- 

Quare non mediocris admiratio me tenuit, cur hominem non modo 
catholicum, sed etiam divino cultui sacratius addictum non puduerit, 
etiam scrìptis committere, " quod viri sedendo, mulieres stando urinas 
emittant."^* Non in illius ordinis virum cadebat illa spectare. Et si 
postibula, aut infimss notse mulieres ita se mictu exonerantes aspexisset, 

HSocrates Histor. ifiGoodwin in Anna. an. 1536, et 1640. 16 Ibidem. 
17 Ibidem. 18 Topogr. d. 3, e. 26. 


disease^ 80 laws would be of little usa if there were no evil doers. 
Hierefore good laws ar^ occasioned by bad morals. When Solon was 
asked wbjr he made no laws against pàrricides, because, he replìed^ he 
hdped there would be no parricide. A novel crime^ and unbeard of 
bitberto in I reland, was that unnatural lust not the growth of our soli, 
btttan exotic first imported bere by John Atherton, Anglican Protestant 
bishop of Waterford. This man, who was himself guilty of ali kinds of 
lost, punisbed most severely fomication, adultery, and incest in others, 
éongh his heart was polluted by those very crimes of which he afiected 
so sten) a hatred in his neighbour. In his zeal for repressing lust, he 
orìginated, we are told, in the Irish parliament, a law which niade sodomy 
a capital crime ; biit he was himself caught in the snare which he had 
laid for others. He was the first person committed of having violated 
bis own law, and was executed for the ofience. 

It was in the same way, that the euuuch Eutropius formerly brought 
down ruin on his own head. For, desiring to bring to punishment some 
persons who had taken re fugo in a church, he induced the emperor to 
abrogate by law the rìght of sanctuary for criminals. After the law was 
made, it happened that Eutropius having incurred the displeasure of 
tbe emperor, fied to the aitar, but he was dragged thence and executed. 
Thomas Cromwell, also, the son of a poor blacksmith, but afterwards 
earl of Essex, was beheaded for the violation of a law made at his own 
soggestion, and with him sufiered " baron Hungerford, who was execu- 
ted for some nameless crime." So far were the Irish frora having their 
bearts polluted with thoughts of those crimes, that they had ne ver even 
I beard the names of the degraded ojbjects of unnatural lust. These dis« 
: orders were introduced with the foreign luxury of the conquerors. Not 
only heretics, but even pagans, were ashamed to name these enormities, 
as they denied that Suetonius ought to bave published the crimes of 
Tiberius, or be listened to, much less believed. It were to be wished 
indeed, that they had never been committed to writing. In truth, 
Lampridius, as well as Suetonius, is gravely censured by many, for nar- 
Qting deeds of lust in words so vivid that they appear rather to teach 
than to teli them. 


How great, then, was ^y astonishment to find Giraldus not only a 
Catholic, but consecrated by his profession to the worship of God, so far 


multo minus eorum moribus cseteras Hibemiee foeininas metili. Major 
est mulierum Hibernicanim verecundia^ quàm ttt ad talia se demittant, 
quarum *' familiari tas etiam cum maritis sola est in cubiculis." Con- 
traria profecto consuetudo^ et viris, et fceminis nunc est in usu^ quam à 
majoribus quasi per manus traditam fuisse non ambigo.^^ Rituum enim 
suorum adeo tenaces erant H iberni^ ut ab iis divelli nisi patrtun et 
nostra memoria non potuerit. Ut non urgeam qua ratione ista munia 
viri sedentes obeant: nam te pudor haud violabo, nec tua jura revel- 
lam.2^ Dicit quoque " mulieres, et mares divaricatis cruribus, et tibiis 
utrinque protensis equitare." £go quìdem existimo morem mulieribus 
in equis sedéndi nunc usìtatum^ eundem iis prorsus familiarem Giraldo 
superstite fuisse, ea duntaxat ratione fretus, quod majorum vestìgiis 
Hiberni mordicus insistere assueverint. Si plebe jam aJiquam praepos- 
tero ilio more jumento insidentem Giraldus vidit, non debebat id ad 
omnium foeminarum dedecus torquere, nisi calumniandi causa unde- 
quaque arreptà, Hibemorum famae securim esset injecturus. Ipsissimum 
ilhim equitandi morem mulieribus in Anglia fuisse familiarem ille tacete 
Camdenus asserit. Ut alterutum falsi convictum esse necesse sit. Si 
[108] ^o^ I credere proclivius esset quempiam gentis suae maculas silentio 
tegere, quam falsas eidem affingere.^* " Et proprium stultitiae et alio- 
rum vitìa cernere, et oblivisci suorum." Camdeni vefba, snnt. " Anna 
regis Richardi 2,, uxor Wenceslai Imperatoris filia, prima mulieres 
Anglicas eam insedendi equi formam quae hodie in usu docuit, cum 
antea parum decere, divaricatse perinde ac viri obequitarent." 

Prseterea facilius adducor ut credam maculis à me proximé memora- 
tis mulieres Hibemiae Giraldum fals^notasse, quod Goodus apud Cam- 
denum illas tacitus prsetermiserit, qui alioquin spurcitiarum HibemiaB 
sagacissimus indagator est, et in bubulcorum, subulcorum, opilionum, 
equisonum, sagarum, vemarum, cseterseque vulgi fecis assiduo contuber- 
nio versatus fuisse, et eorum haras, ac viliora tuguriola frequentius 
obtrivisse videtur. Nam eorum inconditos quosque ritus summà dili- 
gentià cumulai, et in eorum inconcinuitatis communionem, gentem 
universam ore infraeni trabit. Fateor ingenue pleraque quae Goodus 
evomuit, me ne fando quidem ante audivisse, quam decimum septimum 
setatis annum paulò supergressus, et in GalHam trajiciens, tenui que 

19 Stanihur. p. 38. 20 Topogr. d. 3, e, 26. 21 CiceroTuscul. 3, p. 2U. 


Chap. XI.] CAMB&8NSI8 EVBBSU8. 151 

foigetdsg «11 decency as to commit to wrìtìng a filthy obseiration on 
Irisb women. (For which the reader is referred to the originai Latin.) 
He also asserts that men and women rìde on horseback^ the same way. 
Bat I am finsly eonvinced that the mode of sitting on horseback now 
piactised by the women, is that which prevailed in the days of Cam- 
kensis ; aed my opinion needs no other support than the nniversal and 
ebstinate adherence of the Irìah to ancient usages.* If, perchance, Gi- 
laldns saw some one homble peasant woman rìding on horseback, like a 
uan, what bat bis insatiable andity of seizing every trìfling opportunity 
of horling bis weapons against Irìsh character, could bave induced him 
to defame ali the women of Ireland ? He forgets to teli us (but Cam« 
deD does noi,) that that very custom was common among the women of 
England. One or other of their testimonies must he false. But a 
vriter, generally, is more inclined to suppress whatever is disgraceful in 
bis own nation, than to make false charges against it ; " for it is peculiar 
to foUy to notice the vices of others and to forget one's own." Camden's 
words are, " Anna, wif0.of King Richard IL, daughter to the Empeior 
Wincealaus, was the first that tanght the ladies of £ngland the modem 
&shion of rìding, in place of their formar ìndecorous habit of rìding like 


A poverful argument for refusing credit to 6iraldus*s calumnies 
tgainstihe women of Ireland, m^^y he taken from the fact, that Good, 
ts qooted by Camden, does not mention them. Good was the most 
scmtinizing coUector of ali the calumnies against Ireland. He was 
eonstantly in company with pig-boys, shepherds, cow-boys, ostlers, old 
hags and sorcerers, and the vìlest dregs of the populace, and must have 
evidently spent many days in their vile sties and cabins. Ali their rude 
babits aie detailed with the most minute accuracy, and then the wbole 
nation is shamefully accused of similar barbarities. I solemnly protest 
that I fiCTer once^heard, even by public rumor, most of these crìmes 
which Good lays to our charge, until coming over to France, shortly 
after my seventeenth year,^ and having then only a slight knowledge 
of the French language, I leamed what they were from a French hook. 

^ See Editorie Introduction to rol. I. p. iv. 



[Cap. XI. 

linguae Gallica^ cognitione ìmbutus^ è libro Gallico eà primum hauserim. 
Obslupescens^ et indignatus ea mendacia patrìse meae affingi^ quse ipse 
in ultimis et incultìoribus Hiberniae plagis genitus ne extremis qiiidem 
(ut ajunt) auribus unquam aitdiverim.^^ Camdenus caliimniarum 
earum primus propalatore dum eos " in extremis Hiberniae delitescentì- 
bus** ascribit^ et Anglicse provincia^ incolas iis inquinarì negat aerem 
verberat.^^ Nam scriptores exterì Hibemos omnes eadem a^stimatione 
metiuntur. Et ubi peregre versamur, ab iis in quorum consuetudinem 
venimus, ejusmodi spurcitiis infecli esse censemur, plerisque vel lec- 
tione/ vel crebra sciscitatione moresr gentium edoctis. Hominibus enim 
sic à natura comparatum est, ut aviditate quapiam rapiantur, ad ea cog- 
noscenda, qua^ in regionibus à se longè remotis geruntur. 

Praestigiis meherculè alibi frequentius quam in Hibemia indulgetur, 
superstitio plurìes exercetur ; fascinatione hominibus, et animalibus, ma- 
gis crebro sanitas, aut maleficiis pemicies quseritur, sagae ad tribunalia, 
et supplicia saepius rapiuntur. Infamise tamen contagio ad nationem 
universam minime serpit Quae bujusmodi rerum innumera exerapla 
Martinus Delrio suppeditat, non dedecoris notam genti ulli affigunt. 
Lege ista vetari documento est, ea longè latèque diffusa fuisse. Cur 
ergo nobis vitio sceleratorum delieta dabuntur P in exteris regionibus 
furtorum qusedam artificia sunt, nec tantum vi ac csede, sed etiam in- 
genioso dolo praedones in viatorum crumenas grassantur. Ut prae illis 
nostri fures idiotae sint : attamen ad furem poBna, ad alium nemìnem 
facti ignominia pervadit ^^ Goodum qui ludum literarium Limbrici, 
anno post Cbrìstum natum 1566, aperuisse dìcitur, Staniburstus per^ 

sa Pag. 789. 89 In disquisitionìb. magicis. 84 Fag. 31 . 

• Man7 of the worst charges made 
by Good, regard principally the Irish 
nobles ; bis accouiit of the state of 
religion is frightful : " of late days," 
he says, writing in 1566, **they spare 
neither churches nor hallowed places, 
but thence also they fili their hands 
with spoil — yea, and sometimes they 
set them on fire and kill the men that 
there Ile hidden.*' Tb? cause he says 

was the incontinency of the priests, 
that is, as he explains it, of the men 
who had seized the revenues and made 
them hereditary in their family, but 
never teck the order of priesthood 
themselves. This was qne of the 
abuses against whìch an Irish bishop 
had protested in the councìl of Trent. 
O'Sullevani HistorisB CathoUcae, p. 109, 
Dublin, 1850. 

lAP. XI. 



was astounded and indìgnant that 8Qcb lies thould be told of my 

\mtry, 1, yfiho though boni in tbe most remote and uncivilized distrìct 

Ireland, bad never once beard the sligbtest inention of any of tbem.* 

imdeD, who was the first to propagate these calumnies, says, it is tnie» 

it they applied only to tbe Irìsb of tbe remote districts> and that the 

ibitants of tbe Englisb pale were entirely free from them. But tbis 

is a weak precaution, because foreign writers apply tbe same moral 

ìdard to tbe cbaracter of ali tbe Irìsb, and wberever we roam in 

le, those witb wbom we associate, most of wbom either by reading 

diligent inqairy, bave formed opinions on national cbaracter, look, 

^on ns as guilty of these enormities. Men are naturally impelled by 

voracious curìosity to know tbe manners and customs of remote na- 

In Ireland, magical charms are certainly less common than in other 
luntnes; superstition is less frequent, tbe injury or deatb of men and 
kimals, is less frequently compassed by witcbcraft and malignant sor- 
; witcbes are not brought up in such crowds to the dock or strung 

to the gibbet. And yet these other nations ha?e noi forfeited their 
litional cbaracter. The innumerable ezamples of those crìmes given 

Martin Delrìo, are not regarded as a stain on tbe fair fame of any 
luntry wbatever, though the fact of laws being made against them 
irores that they must bave been common.' Why are the crìmes of a 

abandoned wretches imputed to our wbole nation ? Robbery and 
left are so consummately organized in other countrìes, that the travel- 

is deprìved of bis effects, not by assassination or violence, but by the 
lost ingenìous craft. Compared to these foreigners our Irish are fools, 
id yet abroad the thief alone pays the penalty of the law, tbe infamy 

bis deeds is not charged against bis nation ! Good opened a school 

Limerìck about tbe year 1566.' It is to him, probably, that Stani- 

'Manj of the superstitions mention- 
by Good undoubtedl^ existed and 
exist; but, as our author justl^ 
rks, thej never assumed so tru- 
lent and barbarous forma as in 
^Dgland or Scotland, or other coun- 

tPerhaps tbat referred to in Robert 

Pajne's descrìptìon of Ireland, p. 8, 
** in which there were 160 scholars, 
most of them speaking good and per- 
fect English." Tracia relating to Ire- 
land, Irìsb Archasologlcal Society. 
Good was an Oxford prìeat, accord- 
ing to Camden. 


Strìngere videtur dicens : '* Qui Hibemos bis conviciis ìnfamant, à n^n- 
dacio contra verum stant." 

Aliquorum animos incessit opinio putidiorìbus hisce morìbus Hiber- 
nos Anglorum culpa imbutos fuisse. Recte ne an secus^ aliorom esto 
judicium. Qui enim ajunt fierì potest ut tam uberem ignominiarum 
segetem navus loliorum measor Giraldus non messuerìt^ qui omnem 
movit lapidem, ut miniu^ae quseque sordes Hibemis infamise cederent P 
è circulis ille rumusculos non segniter aucupatus est, multa praeterea 
visu comporta solerter advertit ; quse scriptis omnia nairiter commissa 
posteritati commendavit, ne sui sevi hominibus tantum cognita futures 
mortales fugerent. Cum autem eorum quse mundo Goodus obtrudit, 
apud Giraldum eadem avidius venantem ne tennis quidem memoria sit, 
quilibet rerum sequus sestimator piane cemit Giraldi cognitìonem ista 
subterfugisse ; ac proinde in rerum natura tunc non extitisse. Quare 
post Anglos Hibemià potito.s, isti spurci mores exorti fuisse censendi 
sunt^ morum sordibus è bellorum assiduitate plerumque contrahi solitis.^^ 
[109] Imo Spenserus '^praecipuos | abusus quibus nunc Hibemia sordet, ab 
Anglis originem duxisse affirmat. Consuetudines enim" (inqUit)'^ 
^'Angliae Henrico se^undo Rege, valde rudes, et barbarae fuermit, 
quibus si bodie quis uteretur, gravi animadversioni obnoxium se prae* 
beret ita ut ad tales consuetudines abolendas, novas leges cudi oporteret." 
Itaque inconditas illas consuetudines à Goodo memoratas ideo fortasse 
in sordium Hibemicarum album referre Giraldus omisit> quod eulpae 
vacuas existimaverìt, utpote à popularibus suis perinde ac ab Hibemis 
usurpatas. Nec enim sperandum erat fere ut Anglorum gens tam 
inculta concinni tate morum^ cujus ipsa expers erat Hibemos excoleret 
In Camdeni residuis (si bene memini) Anglos non nisi Richardo secundo 
Rege colli nuda collarìbus circumdedisse legi. 

Hinc arbitror arctum amoris, et amicitise vinculum^ quo alumni ac 
nutrìcii inter se mutuo colligantur^ à Giraldo non reprebendi ; nedum 
ita graviter accusari, " ut ab eo Hibemiae corruptelaB profluxisse cre- 
dantur." Quae cuìn apud Goodum legissem non potui risum tenere, 
bominis indolem admiratus, novum et aliis nationibus inusitatum neces- 

25 Pag. 44. «« Pag. 47- 

Chàp. XI.] CAMB&BIfSIS BYXB81». 155 

horst allodes in the words, " they who vent theae calumaies against the 
Iiìsh, abet the lie against the trath." 

Some persons are of opinioii that these revolting habita were intro- 
duced into I reland by the fault of the English, with what truth I leave 
it to others to decide. How, they ask, is it possible^ that so abundant 
a harvest of horrors could bave escaped Giraldus — that most careful 
gìeaner of ali rank weeds, who left no stono untumed to collect ali ili- ^ 
odored things, how trìfling soever^ provided they were disgraceful to 
Ireland ? The vague storìes of the fireside he collected most indus- 
triousl j ; bis searcbing eye was always on the watch^ for the many tbings 
that carne under bis own observation ; ali these were scrupulously com- 
mitted to writìng^ for the benefit of posterity, lest the men of bis own 
generation alone shoald enjoy them. Giraldus^ therefore, with ali bis 
Toracioos researcbes for bad tbings, not having made the sligbtest allu- 
sion to those whìcb Good bas publisbed, must, in the judgment of every 
candid man, be admitted not to bave seen tbem, and, tberefore, in 
bis day they were utterly unknown in Ireland. The conci usion is oh- 
vioas — these loatbsome babits must ba?e sprung up in Ireland after the 
English invasion — continuai wars being generally the rankest bot-bed 
of inuDorality. Spenser himself says, in express terms, '^ that the prin- 
cipal àbuses now dìsgracing Ireland were introduced by the English." 
" For," says he, " English babits during the reign of Henry II. were 
rude and barbarous, and, if revived at the present day, would deserve 
severe penalties, and cali for the enactment of new laws to suppress 
them." Perbaps Giraldus neglected to cbronicle tbose barbarous cus- 
toms among the infamies of tbis island, because be believed them to be 
blameless, as being practised by bis own countrymen as well as by the 
Irisb. For it could not be expected that the English people could in- 
troduce into Ireland a code of moral civilization, of which England itself 
appears to bave been, at that timo, entirely destitute. Thus, (if me- 
mory deceive me not), it is stated in Camden's remains, that it was not 
before the reign of Richard II. that the English began to use collars 
around their necks. That was the reason, I tbink, why Giraldus did 
not censure the link of love and bond of friendship between foster-cbild 
and foster-father, niucb less denounce it vehemently as the source of 
the degeneracy of Ireland. It was with difficulty I could refrain from 

156 CAMBaENSIS £T£BaUS. t^AP. XI. 

situdinis genas ideo condemnantis, quod eam aliqui scelere contami - 
naverint. Perinde ac si amicitiam è medio sublatam velit, quod eà 
complures abutantur. Apposite dixit Ovidius : 

** Nil prodest, quod non laedere possit idem. 
Igne quid utilius ? si quis tamen urere tecta 

Comparata audaces instruit igne manus. 
Eripìt interdum, modo dat medicina ealutem ; 

Quteque juTat monstrat, quseque 8it herba nocens.ST 
Et latro, et cautus praecingitur ense viator, 

me sed insìdias, hic sibi portat opem. 
Discitur innocuas ut agat facundia causas, 

Froregìt bsec sontes, immerìtosque premit." 

Hic credo undis quod navium bominumque copiam obsorbeant^ soli 
quod herbas subinde torreat calumniam struet; et neutri quod morta- 
lium commodis cumulate inserviat laudem tribuet. Haereticum illum 
imitatus, quem Emanuel Almada Episcopus Angrensis exoptasse scribit, 
ut è medio sacrae literae sublatae forent,^® quod illinc lites omnes in re 
religionis arripi diceret. Si quis peccati sordìbus adbuc oblitus sacra 
se synaxi munierit non gratìae divinse accessionem^ sed jacturam com- 
parabit ; quippe non res ipsa^ sed non rectus rei usus culpandus est. 
Nec ex artificum maleficiis ars ipsa improbanda est. Sin miuus ars 
militaris destruatur, quia multi duces Remp. nefariis bellis confeceruut. 
Politica eliminetur quia multi magistratus iniquas leges promulgarunt. 
Medicina expellatur quia multi medici vita saepenumero homines devol- 
verunt. Quin etiam (ut inquit Quintilianus) cibos aspememur, attu- 
lerunt ssepè valetudinis adversae causas. Nunquam tecta subeamus^ 
aliquando super babitantes procubuerunt. Non fabricitetur gladius, 
ilio abutuntur homines sanguinariì. Denique quis nescit elementa 
omnia, sine quibus vita non ducitur aliquando nocere P 

Quod si collactaueorum aliquot in alumnos perfidia innotuerit^ aut 
alumnorum ascità sibi collectaneorum colluvie conjuratio in Remp. 
eruperit; non continuo in bunc amicitiae nexum in Hibernia temporis 
diutumitate inveteratum tam acriter invehendum erat. Afflictis et vel 

37 Tristium 1,2. 28 Centra Haddonum. 

Chàp. XL] CAMBBfiKSlS EYfiBSUS. 157 

laaghmg when I met that assertìon in Good, who> by a strange obliquity, 
denoonces this singular tie of relationship^ which is peculiar to Ireland, 
solely because it had sometìmes led to crime. With equal reason be 
migli t denounce ali fnendsbip> because many abuse it Ovidius bas 
iruly written — 

** There ìb no good, wbich maj not be abused : 
Fire Ì8 a good ; jet should the robber plot 

To bare the roof, he arms his band with Are : 
Fhyàc at times gives or destroys our health 

And cnllfl the poisonous or the saving herb ; 
Bobbers and cautions travellers wear a sword 

The first to kill, the latter to defend ; 
To gnard the gailtless, eloquenoe is taught, 

And yet both guilt and innocence arraigns." 

But Good wonld rail against the sea because it sometimes swallows 
Tast nmnbers of men and sbips ; and against the sun because be some- 
times scorches tbe eartb ; nor allow any praise to eitber for tbeir boun- 
teoas munificence to tbe wants of man. He acts like tbe heretic, 
mentioned by Emmanuel Almada, Bisbop of Angers^ wbo prayed that 
the Sacred Scriptures migbt be destroyed in order to put an end to reli- 
gìoas controversies. If a man approacbes the boly comm union in a 
state of mortai sin, he gains no increase of giace, but a deeper guilt. 
The fault lies not in the thing itself, but in the evil use of it. If the 
tradesman commit a crime is bis trade to be abolished P is the art of 
war to be prohibited, because many generals bave fatally used it against 
Ae good of tbe state ? are govemments to be abrogated because many 
magistrates enacted bad laws ? or is medicine to be declared a crime, 
because many pbysicians bave sometimes killed great numbers of men ? 
nay, even food itself (as Quinctilianus remarks), is it to be rejected be- 
cause ithas sometimes been injurious to the health ? are we never to 
cross a threshold because roofs sometimes fell on the inmates P are no 
swords to be made, because men of blood abuse them ? Finally is it 
not a notorious fact, that ali things necessary for tbe support of human 
Hfe are sometimes deleterious ? 

If some foster-fatbers bave been perfidious to tbeir foster-children, or 
li the foster-children bave sometimes mustered the hosts of their foster 
kbdred in rebellion against the state, fosterage itself, that bond of love 
»bicb was so long inviolably observed in Ireland, ought not to be so 



[Gap. XI. 

rei familiaris tenuìtate^ vel semulorum potentià depressis magnatibus 
crebro collactaneorum cuneus tempestive subvenit. Plura hujus rei 
documenta alibi forsan promentur. Unum hic nunc exbibéo. 

UUechus de Bìirgo primus Clanricardise Comes^ Ullecbi hodiemi 
Clanrìcardiae in Hibemia Marcbionis, Galvias Vicecomitis, Emanise^ 
DunkellinÌ8eque Baronis ; in Anglia Santalbanìae Comitis, Tumbrigiae 
Vicecomitis, Sumerhilliae Baronis atavus, vir erat ittf pedibus captus, ut 

[110] vestigia figere, | aut equoinsidere non valuerit, et proinde honori avito 
prò dignitate sustinendo impar fuerit Quare qui proxima eum cogna- 
tione attigerunt in amplam ejus haereditatem protinus advolarunt et per 
agros ejus direptionibus jam ad satietatem grassati, eoque successu 
elati, ad ipsum pecorum reliquiis spoliandum, et in rincula rapiendum 
Duutellinam accurrerunt, ubi stipatus coUactaneis, lecto defixus jacuit, 
et eorum peculio satis prò Ullecbi dignitate tenui vitam in otio toleravit 
Is obaudiens prsdas abactas, prae ira vix sui compos infremuìt, indig- 

% nissìmè ferens sanguinis sibi communione junctos nulla sui miseratione 
teneri, qui orbum incessus, alìmentis etiam orbarunt. Itaque infrendeu- 
tes collactaneos, et de injurià, jacturàque illata gravissime conquerentes 
conspicatus : toUite me inquìt in equum, optimus Deus qui tibiis meis 
vires ademit, easdem forsan denuo suppeditabit, et facultatem prsebebit 
ex immanium illorum prsedonum unguibus pecora erìpiendi. Ille in 
equum sublatus, ei ad duos passus inbssrere non valuit ; frequentius 
tamen in eo collocatus, in porrigendis tibiis diu luctatus, tandem ossibus 
grandem sonum et ab adstantibus auditum edentibus, compages locum 
ac vires pristinas assequuntur. ^stuans enim animi excandescentia 
impetum quondam corporis artubus indidit, quo UUechus in bostes 

1» Vlick, Earl of Clanrickard, He 
was credted by Henry Vili, at 
Greenwich, on the Ist of July, 1543, 
Baron of DunkeUin, and Earl of Clan- 
TÌckarde; and obtained at the same 
tìme from the king, a grant of the 
monastery. De Via Nova, in the 
diocese of Clonfert, with the advow- 
sonB and donationB of ali the rectories 

in the territory of Clanrickarde be- 
longin^ to the Crown. The kìng, 
moreover, defrayed the charges of bis 
joumey, and made him a farther 
grant of a piece of land, Dear Bublin, 
for keeping bis horses and attendante, 
when he repaìred to parlìament or 
council. He did not, however, long 
enjoy his honors, for he died on the 


lerersely denounced. The foster kìndred were often of the most 
material benefit to the afflicted fosterson, when family misfortunes^ or 
Ùe encToachmeiita pf mals^ absorbed the properties of the great lorda 
of the kingdom. Monj examples of this may be given in another 
place : for tbe present let one saffico. 

Ulick de Borgo, first Bari of Clanrìckard,^ great grandfather of the 
present Ulick, Marqnìs of Claflrickard in I reland, Vìscount Galway, 
fiaron of Ui Maine and Duukellin, Count òf St. Alban's in England, 
Fisconnt Timbridge and Baron of Summerhill, was so paralysed in 
the feet, Uiat he could neither stand noi sit on horseback, and was con- 
lequenUy tinable to snstain,with beeoming dignity, the ancient fame of bis 
house. His nearest relatives immedìately intaded bis ampie patrimony, 
and after plundering at pleasare ali his lands, they became so elate 
witb their success, that they pressed forward to Dunkellin, to carry 
off the lemnant of his cattle, and make himself prisoner. Ulick was 
then at Dnnkellin, eonfined to bed and attended by his foster-brethren, 
who snpplied hrm with ali that was necessary to support his dìg- 
iiity in his rétirement. But hearing the spoils that were taken 
from him, he grew stark-and beside himself with rage, foaming 
ivitìi indignation> that they who were bound to him by the closest ties 
' of blood, had hearts so merciless as to deprive him, a cripple, of the 
, necessarie» of life. Seeing around him the eager host of his foster* 
; kiadred, buming with rage, and clamorously resenting the insult and 
&e injtuìes that had been inflicted ; " A borse, a borse,'* he cried, 
''set me on horseback; may not the great God who took away the life 
oC my Hmby restore it again, and enable me to recover my cattle from 
the &Dgs of those merciless thieves." He was set on horseback ; but 
cooM DOft hold his place in the saddle for two paces : many trials were 
■Wide, tin at length after persevering attempts to extend his legs, the 
bones emitted a sound loud enough to be distinctly heard by the 
tttandants, and on the ìnstant the sinews recovered their naturai posi- 
ti» and strength. The overheated intensity of his feelings commu- 

' ^ of October, 1544, and was sue- according to the laws of England. 

\ «ftàed by hi8 only legìtimate son, See Lodge Clanrickarde, and Annals 

! ^^«ta. Hi8 gon Thomas and other of the Four Masters. Ed. J.O'D. 

: *^te were declafed iUegitimate, A.D. 1544, p. 1484, note ». 


illatus, tam valida in pecora rapientes impressione irniit, ut non solum 
prsedam ab iis, séd etiam excisa ipsorum capita retulerit. A quo faci- 
nore provenit, ut et Ullechus à capitibus cognomento dictus fuerit, et 
avitum patrimonium, dignitatemque sibi vindicaverit. Ac tandem ab 
Henrico octavo Comitis Clanrìcardiae titulo insignitus fuerit. 

Nec hac solum ratione . alumnis nutritii eorumque liberi beneficia 
praebent : frequentissime pusiones parentibus orbati, et à patruorum, 
avunculorum, matèrterarum, caBteraeque cognationis turba prò derelictis 
habiti, a nutritiis, et aetatulae tenerioris institutionein, et adultioris 
sustentatiouem nacti sunt.^^ Puellse quoque a nutritoribus ampia 
dote instructae, ordinis sui viris matrimonio scepè collocantur. " Ut 
olim Olympiadem Alexandri magni matrem Philippo suus allor matri- 

mopio coUocavit." 

Denique alumnis ad bellum-proficiscentibus, etquaevis discrimina sub- 
euntibus individuos se comites collactanei adjungunt.^ Nec Pylades 
Oresti arctius, quam illis ad angustias redactis hi affixi sunt. Ut perinde 
sithorum conjunctionem culpae arguere, ac aliarum regionum magnates 
reprehendere, quod numerosiore clientela cingantur, aut fidissimarum 
asseclarum multitudine muniantur.'*^ 

Neque solum in Hibernia sed et alibi nutrientium, et alumnorum 
summa mutuo benevolentia, et fides emicuit.^^ Mardochaeus " nutricius" 
Jisther '* deambulabat quotidie ante vestibulum in qua virgines 
servabantur, curam agens salutis Esther et scire volens quid ei acci- 
deret."^^ Philippus regis Antiochi " coUaetaneus/' cadaver ejus alio 
transtulit : et Manahen Herodis Tetrarch» " coUactaneus" inter doc- 
tores Apostolicos recensetur :^* *' Hellanice" quoque *' qusB Alexan- 
drum magnum educaverat, haud secus quam mater ab eo diligebatur."^^ 
Hellanices vero frater Clyto ab Alexandri latere nunquam in quibusvis 
periculis discessit, *' et apud Granicum amnem nudo capite Alexandrum 
dimicantem clypeo suo texit,^^ et Rhosacis manum capiti regis immi- 
nentem gladio amputavit," ac tandem Clytone occiso '* nutricis absentis 
eum maxime pudebat/'^T Photinus Ptolomsei regis Egypti nutricius 
regni procurator alumno puer fuit.^^ Et Ganymedes nutricius Arsinoes 

29Ju8tinu8 l, 7. sostanihur. p. 42. 31 Esther, e. z. 32 z. Mul. cap. 9. 
83Act, Apostol. cap. 13. 34 Curtius 1, 8. 35 idem ib. sejustinus 1 iz. 
«7 Gasar de bello civili. 1, 3. à« Hirtius de bello Alexandrino. Sueton. in Neron. 
n. 42, & 50. 

Chap.XL] CAMB£EKSI8 ETKB8U8» 1$1 

iQcated some of ìts vigor to bis body ; and Ulick rusbed upon tbe 
enemy wìtb so terrible an assault, tbat be not only retook bis cattle> 
vbich ihey were canyìng off, but also brougbt back in triampb the 
lieads of many of bis enemies. From tbis fact be was surnamed Ulick 
of the beads. By it be recoyered bis bonor» and saved tbe inberi- 
ttDce of bis ancestorsy and was at lengtb created Bari of Clanriokard, 
Bj Henry Vili. 

Bnt tbese were not tbe only services done to tbe foster cbild by bis 
hsier parents and tbeir cbildren* ^ Helpless cbildren wbo bad lost 
dieir parents, and were abandoned by patemal and matemal uncles 
tnd stepmothers, and tbe wbole tribe of tbeir blood relations and 
kindred, were Tery often protected in tbeir infancy and supported in 
manhood by tbeir fosterers. Young women were often provided witb 
ta isxxpìe portìon by tbe same means and formed matrimoniai alliances 
ndtable to tbeir rank^ " as Pbilippus receired tbe band of Olympias» 
aother of Alexander tbe Great, from ber fopter parent." 

Whenever tbe foster son was going to war or exposed to any danger, 
kis foster bretbren were faitbfully at bis side. The friendship of 
Pyiades and Orestes was uot more devoted than theirs in every ex- 
treme of fortune. And if tbe bond of fosterage is condemned, bow 
«an we vindicate tbe great men of otber countries wbo were attended 
by crowds of clients or supported by bands of devoted adherents* 

But I reland is not tbe only country in wbicb the mutuai afiection 
and devotion of tbe foster parents and foster children exhibited itself. 
Mardochffius '* the foster parent of Esther, walked every day before 
the porch of tbe house where the virgins were kept, in order to watch 
mi the safety of Esther and know what might bappen to ber ; Philippos 
Temoved to anotber place tbe body of king Antiochus, bis foster 
brother, and Manahen^ the foster brother of Herod the Tetrach, is 
lanked among the Apostolical doctors. 

Alexander the Great as ardently loved bis nurse Hellenia as his 
Bother; and was ever attended faitbfully in ali his dangers by Clytus, 

^6ood winds up bis assertlon Ireland are ihought to spring from 

' >8ù»t fosterage in tbese words, " To these foster fathers and noverces and 

«nclnde, tìie greatest corruptions of from naught else." The bishop of 



memorati Ptolomsei sororis secundus ab alumna regnante rerum Jsumina 
potìtus est. Neronem in angustiis posìtom nutrìx consolabatur^ et ejus 
reliquias dnae nutrices ejus Ecloge et Alexandra monumento condiderunt. 
Ac proinde majori studio nutrices quam matrem et uxorem prosecutus 
fiiisse videtur^ cùm his occisis illas coluerit. Non mediocrìs etiam 
studii ejus indicium erga Tuscum nutricis .filium fuit^^^ quod alios in 
{111] levem ejus offensam incidentes morte^ illum exilio tantum | multaverìt.^ 
Domitianum cssum " Phyllis nutrix funeravit." 

Rectè nimirum Cicero dixit : '' nutrices et paedagogos jure vetustatis 
plurimum benevolentisB postulare.' *^^ Hinc Poétae fabulmitar Jovem 
Amaltheae nutricis tanto amore captum fìiisse^ ut eam inter sj^era col- 
locaverit Et ckri scriptores pluriuni nutrìcum memoriam posteritati 
commendav^erunt, et ab alumnis summoloco habitas fuìsse judicarunt.^^ 
^neam Cajeta nutrix per tot discrimina rerum ìnsecuta, in Italia se- 
pulturam nacta Cajetfie nomen dedit. Barce Sichsei nutrìx non Sichaeo 
solum, sed etiam ejus uxori Didoni domesticam se comitem assiduam 
prsebuit.^ Eryclasa nutrìx Ulissis ipso etiam absente, cum ejus uxore 
Penelope domi semper hsesit. 

Non hominibus modo summum erga nutrientes studium^ seti etiam 
belluis natura inseruit. '' Civitas est/' inquit Elianus^ <' in Achaià nomine 
Patrae ; in ea puer Draconem parvulum emebat, magnaque cum cura 
educabat, cumque crevisset, loquebatur quasi cum intelligente ludens 
ac dormiens cum ipso^ cum vero ad ingentem magnitudinem draco 
pervenisset, in solitudinem, à civibus est dimissus. Post cum puer 
adolescens factus reversus à spectaculo quodam cum aHquibus in 
latrones incidisset, et clamorem extulisset^ ecce Draco praesto est qui 
alios in fugam vertit, alios interemit, ipsum vero salvum conservai."** 
Simili quoque benevolentia leonem educatori suo gratificatum fuisse 

39 Ibid. n. 35. ^ Idem in Domini num. 17. 41 De amicitia. <2 JEneidos 7. 
«Ibid. 1, 4. Ovidius in Epist. 44Lib. 13, cap. ultimo. 

Raphoe in the council of Trent stated that cows in Ireland give no milke, 

directly the reverse — that fosterage unless their own calfe be set by their 

was the best social corrective in Ire- side alive, or else the skin of the dead 

land for discord and enmities ; one of calfe stuffed with straw, so as it maj 

the reasons perWps why Good, in his carry the lesemblance of a live one ;" 

English View, condemned it : ** most very wondeiful and as trae as most 

certain it is, saith this same Good, of his storìes. 



the brother of Hellenia. In the battio of Granicus, wben Alexander 

VHS fi^ting without ìns hjelmet, Cly tus covered him with bis sbield, and 

CBt (^witli bis sword, tbe ann of Rbosaces, wbicb was falling on tbe 

kìng's bead. Wben he slew bis friend Cljtiis, tbe tbougbt of tbe absent 

nurse was tbe cause of bis most poignant sbame. Pbotinus, foster 

parent of Ptolemaeus king ctf Egypt, was regent of tbe kingdom for bis 

yoatbful foster son. Nero in bis greatest extremity was consoled by 

lùs nnrse^ and it was by bis two nurses Ecloge and Alexandia tbat bis 

remains were deposited in a monument Tbus, wbile be slew bis 

nother and wìfe, be appears to bave bad mucb more a^fectionate feel- 

mgs towards bis nurses. A singular evidence of bis attacbment to 

Tusens, tbe son of bis nurse, is tbat wbile be slew ali otbers who in- 

I corred bis slightest displeasure, be only banisbed Tuscns, Domitianus, 

I éso, after bis assassination, was buried by bis nurse Pbyllis. 

[ Cicero bas observed witb great truth, ** tbat nurses and tutors by 

i the law of seniority are ei^titled to greàt afTection :" bence tbe fiction of 

I &e poets, tbat Jove was so fondly attacbed to bis nurse Amalthea, 

; that be placed ber amo^g tbe stars, and bence tbe numerous examples 

I tecorded by eminent writers of nurses wbo were beld in tbe highest 

consideration by tbeir foster cbildren. Cajeta, tbe nurse of ^neas, 

I ifter attending bim in so many perii s, was buried in Italy, and gave 

I ber name to Cajeta. Barce, tbe nurse of Sicbeeus, was the inseparable 

I companion of bim and of bis wife Dido. Eryclea, nurse of Ulysses, 

iuring bis long absence, never abandoned tbe roof of bis wife Penelope, 

Even tbe beasts tbemselves, by the instinct of nature, imitate tbe pow- 

erful affection of man for bis nurse. iElianus relates, '' that in a city of 

Aebaia, named Patras, a boy bought.a young dragon, and reared it 

vith the greatest care. As it grew up, be conversed with it, as if it 

eould nnderstand him, played with it, and slept with it. But wben it 

bad attained an enormous size, it was tumed out into the wild places 

by the citizens. After the lapse of many years, the boy being a grown 

l&an iraS retuming witb some companions from a play, and being 

«tocked by robbers, screamed aloud, wben, lo ! the dragon appeared-^ 

fispersed some, killed otbers of them, and preserved its benefactor's 

fife.*' There is an example of similar affection of a lion for its master 

wcorded by Plinius. What a savage then a man must be to censure in 


Plinius narrai. Ita ut bene ferrnn hominem illum esse oporteat, qai 
quod natura belluas, institutio gentes docuit in Hibemis vituperat. 

Prìstina etiam consuetudo tulit alumnos tanto nutrìcum, et nutritio* 
rum amore teneri^ nt illum patrem, illam matrem appellare consueve- 
rint Ulpianus enim dixit: '' Indignum mìlitia judicandam esse, qui 
patrem, et matrem à quibus se educatum dixérìt maleficos appella- 
verit/'^^ Hic enim de parentibus illa nomina patrìs et matrìs accipienda 
non sunt : quid enim addidisset, " à quibus se educatum/' dixerit P 
aut quid opus fuisset hac educationis confessione, si notam maleficii 
naturalibus parentibus inussisset P nonne hoc satis esset ad mali ti» 
indignitatem quamvis non esset educatus ab illis. Idem affirmat divus 
Hieronimus bis verbis : *' nutrì ti us, post naturalem pareutem pater/'"*® 
et chara nomina familias appellai, fratrem^ sororem, filiutìd, filiam, ma- 
trem, vitricum,generum, et *' nutricium."*'' Cui Plautus accinit dicens : 

*'Ita forma simili puer et mater sua 
Non inter nosse posset quae maftimam dabat: 
Non adeo mater ìpsa quae illos peperit." 

Virgilius quoque lupam quae Romulo, et Rem'o ubera admovit matrem 


**Gemino8 hmc ubera circum 

Ludere pendentes pueros, et lambere matrem." 

Sicut enim plantae indolem soli cujus succum haurìunt induunt, sic 
infantes ingenium ejusreferunt cujus lac sugunt ; narrai Causinus virum 
quondam è sua societate Jesu, optimis et religiosis moribus imbutum 
remotis arbitris in morem caprse saltare, et currere solitum fuisse, nec 
se continere potuisse quin hanc ludicram spectationem exhiberet, quia 
nimirum caprae lacte fuit enutritus. Sic Halis Hispaniarum rex 
cervse lactè sustentatus, cursu pemicissimo cervos sequabat. Hinc 
Mithrìdates Romanos arguii de crudelilate, aviditateque lupina, nipote 
qui referebanl originem ad homines lupse uberìbus enutrìtos. Sic vulgo 
quando quempiam feris, ac ferocibus moribus prsditum esse innuimus, 
dicimus quod illi Hircanse admoverunl ubera tìgres. Aut alia simili 
forma eum compellamus. Sed Goodo hac digressione compresso, Gi- 
raldum denuo impedimus. 

t < 

*5 Laurent Ramires in 101. Ep. rior, 1. 1, 5, ultimo de obsequio parenti 
praestando. 46EpÌ8t. 1. 47 Epist 9, /. 2. ♦s^neid. 8. 


the Irish a thing, instilled into the beasi itselfby nature, and enforced 
bj education on the Pagans. So powerful was the afiection of the fos- 
tei child foT its foster parents in ancient times, that the usuai name for 
them was father and mother. In the opinion of Ulpianus^ '' a man ought 
lo be disqaalified for the army, who had ever called the father and 
mother hy whoin he had heen educated, malefactors." The words 
ikther and mother, in this passage are not understood of naturai parents, 
for of what use could it be to add, " hy whom he was reared ?*' or why 
éoold this fact of the education appear uecessary if the child had 
maligned its naturai parents P wouid not blood itself, without education, 
be a sufficient aggravatìon of the guilt P St. Hieronymus also asserts 
thal after a naturai parent, the nurse ìs a parent, and in the endearing 
word " family,'* he includes " brother, sister, son, daughter, mother, 
father-in-law, son-in-law, and nurse.*' Plautus does the same : 

"Of form 80 like the mother and her boy, 
That nor the mother who had nursed, nor she 
Who bore hìm, could between both distinguish." 

Viiplius, too, calls the she-wolf that suckled Rpmulus and Remus, a 


" Here by the volf were laid the mortial twins, 
Intrepid on their mother *b dugs they hung.'* 

Fot as plants imitate the qualities of the soil^ whose juices they absorb, 

even so, children acquire the characters of those on whose breast they 

bave been reared. Causinus tells a singular story of a brother Jesuit, 

a iBost excellent and pious man, who, whenever he was alone, used to 

skip and bound like a goat, and that this propensity to this ludicrous 

exhibition could not be resisted, because he had been reared on goat's 

milL Again, Halis, king of Spain, who was reared on hind*s milk, 

equalled the swiftest steed in fleetness. On the same princìpio Mithri- 

tes accused the Romans of wilful cruelty and ravenousness, as 

they owed their origin to men who had been suckled by wolves. Hence 

too, a common expression for a man of savage and ferocious character — 

"Hyrcaniantigers gave thee suck,'* or other similar allusions. But after 

Ais digression against Good, return we once more to Giraldus. 




r|}21^^^i'°^ laniflcils usi snnt.— Mercataram ezercebant.— Lino abnndabat Hibernia.->Tegm!na 
*' eapitum muUenxm Hibemieanim. — Bfecbanic» «rtes ^nd Hibernos in usa. — Yarii opi- 
flces in Hibemia. [113] Fabri ferrarli in Hibernia.—Fabri lignarii. Oomas etecclesiaB de 
Ugno.— Currnum asns Hibernis familiaris. [1 14] Hiberni curm in pugna usi snut.— Cor- 
' mum nomina varia.— Pugna ex essedis.— Navinm nsus in Hibemia. [1 15] In Britannlam 

Hiberni navigant.— Hibernorum in Scotia progenies. [117] Latomi in Hibemia.— Castella 
in Hibernia. [118] Anrifabri in Hibernia.-*Liter« Tnlgnil 0*MoeIchonrÌi ad àactorem. 

" Non lino," inquit Giraldus, " Hiberni, vel lanifìcio, non aliquo 
mercimonìorum genere^ nec ulla mechanicarum artium specie vitam 
• produciint.*'* Pugnantia sane loquitur, dum Hibernos "lanificiis'* 
operam dare negat, cùm paulò ante eosdem braccis, penulisque uti 
affir in averi t. A e si pannus in ovis pelle, sine neudi, texendi, aiit den- 
sandi opera nitro natus esset.^ Non minori dissidio a se discrepai, dum 
Hibernos commerciis uti modo negat, modo ànnuit dicens : *' ad Hi- 
bernos Pictaviam copiose vina transmissìsse, eique animalium coria, et 
pecudum, ferarumque terga Hibemiam non ingratam remìssisse.*^ Ta- 
citusHiberniam negotiationibus fervisse testatur bis verbis : " melius Hi- 
bemisB quam Britannise aditus, portusque per commercia, et negotiatores 
cogniti.'* Quando nimirum Hiberni sui jurfe erant, et ab omni potes- 
tatis aliense jugo liberi, circa vigesimum et centesimum a Christo 
nato annum quo Tacitus floruit.* A primo enim (inquit Giraldus) 
" adventus sui tempore gens Hibemica ad annum 838 quo Norwegenses 
in Hibemica litora appulerunt, et à Gurmundi, ac Turgesii obitu ad 
hsec nostra tempora, ab omni alienarum gentium incursu libera per- 
mansit, et incussa/* 

Lini vero copia Hibemiam cumulate instructam fuisse scriptores 
etiam exteri testantur.* Aiunt enim " lino abundare Hiberniam, quod 

1 Topogr. d- 3, e. 10. 2 Topogr. d. 1, e. 5. 3 Topogr. d. 3, e. 37, et 

46. * Descript. Hiber, impressa Lugdunì Batavo. an. 1627. 




[113] WeoQais naed among tbe Iriah.— Trade in them.— Linen abandant in Ireland.— Head 
dress of Irish women«— Mechanical arts in use in Ireland. — Mechanics and artists of 
Tuioiui kinda. [113] Workeva in iron and wood in Irdaud.— Wooden houMs and 
eharchea. — Cluuriots commonly used in Ireland. [114] Tlie Irish used them in baule.— 
Yirious namea of Charfota— A Chariot ilght.— Shipg in Ireland. [115] The Irish 
ail to Britain; deaoendanta of the Irish in Sootland. [117] Maaons in Ireland.— Caatlea 
in Irdand. [118] Worken of gold, in Ireland.— Letter of Taileagna O'Moelchonaire to the 

" Thb Irisli/* says Giraldus, " bave few comforts of life ; no linen^ no 
manufactare of woollens^ no commerce of any kind, uor any sort of 
mechanical arts." How can he say that the Irish had no manufactares 
of wobllens, in contradiction to his own words, that they wore braccae 
andcloaks. Could the'cloth grow spontaneously on the sheep's back 
ready made^ wìthout ^ewing or weaving^ or closing P As to Irìsh com- 
merce, he denies, with similar inconsistency, his oWn stateraents^ *' that 
Poictiers imported wine in great abundance to Ireland, and received 
^m Ireland in return the hides of animals, the skins of cattle and wild 
beasts." Tacitus testifies that commerce flourished in Ireland. " The 
Irìsb estuaries and ports were more familiar/' he says, " to merchants 
and tradexs than the Britisb."» And this, when the Irish were their own 
masters, and independent of the yoke of foreigners, aboat the year 
120, A.D., when Tacitus flourished. Giraldus himself admits " that 
from the first arrivai of the Irish people, to the year 638, in which tbe 
Norwegians descended on the Irish sbores, and from the death of Gur- 
maiid and Turgesius, down to our own times, Ireland was unmolested 
by the inirasion of any foreign people, and independent." 
Foreign writers attest the great abundance of linen in Ireland. 

^ See I^oore's History of Ireland, of Tacitus, adopted by Murphy and 
^^ I., p. 12, for some remarks on others. 
> different translation of this passage 



[Cap. xir. 

in fila ducunt indìgense, et maglia copia ad alias nationes transferunt. 
Olim quoque magnam lineorum pannorum vim texere solebant^ cives 
ipsi maxiraam partem intra regnum consumebant, quippe qui trìgiiita^ et 
plures ulnas in singulia indusiis adhiberent^ in varias spiras contortis, et 
astrictis* Quorum mauicce largiores erant^ et ad genua usque fluentes.*' 
Quae anno 1566, " nullo fere in usu erant.*'* Quid memorem vnlgaria 
Illa è lino pepla, quorum pluribus spiris mulieres capita obvolvebant, 
aut ricas aliquarum etiam foeminarum operimenta ? nulla enim è 
foBminis erat quae non vel peplo, vel ricà caput obtegebat, praeter ?ir- 
gines, quarum promissi crines ranltis nodis compté astricti, et conspec- 
tioris coloris tsEinià ìntexti, capita pluribus spiris obibant Quod si in 
hunc censum altarium, ac mensarum mappas, varia sacerdotum linea 
gestamina, et sindones quibus cadavera involvebantur retulero, max- 
imam lini abundantiam Hibemiae suppeciisse constabit.^ Sane S. 
Brigida '' linteamen proprìis manibus nendo, et texendo pra^paravit, quo 
sanctissimum S. Patricii corpus obvolvebatur.*' 

In improbando autem Giraldo dicente " nulla mecbanicarum artiunr^ 
specie" vitam Hibernos tulerare, argumentoruift copia me potius impe- 
ditum iri, quam inopia laboraturum pertimesco. Cum nihil opere sit 
confectum, quod artificum manibus non elaboretur: effecta enim pro- 
dunt unde ipsa prodierunt, Non secus ac quam quis viam carpserit 

SGoodus apud Camdenum. OJocelin e. 168. 

t> Lesley, Bishop of Boss, describes 
in nearlj the same terms part of the 
dress wom by his contemporaries the 
Irìsh-speaking Scotch in the 16th 
century. ''Ex lino quoque amplissi- 
ma indusia conflciebant, multis sini> 
bus, largioribusque manicis, forÌ9 ad 
genua usque negligentius fluentia. 
Hjec potentiores croco, alii autem 
adipe quodam, quo ab omni sorde 
dìutius manerent integra illìnebant; 
filo serico, viridi potissimum aut 
rubeo, indusiorum singulas partes 

artificiosissime continuabant." De 
origine, &c. &c. Scotorum, p. 58, 59. 
Sce Good, apud Camden. Holland*s 
Translation, p. 144. 

e The women as well as the men 
make great aqcount of the hair or 
glibbes of their heads, especiallj if 
they be of a golden color and long 
withal, for they show and lay tbem 
out platted to the full length, and 
suffer them when they are flnely and 
trimly curled to bang down; when 
in the mean time they wrap in folds. 

Cbap. XU,] 



" Ireland^" they 9&y, " abounds in linen, whicli the natives spin into . 
tlii«ad, and export in enonnoas qnantitìes to foreign nations. In fonner 
ages, they manufactured very exteusively linen clotbs» tfaegreaterportion 
of wfaiclì was absorbed by the home consuuiption, as the natives 
allowed thirty or more yards for a single cloak, which was woond or 
4ied up in flowing folds. The slée^es also were very capacious, extend- 
ing dovn to the knees.^ But these had gone nearly out of fashion in 
1566." Need I mention the common linen coverìng, which the women 
wear in several wreathes on their heads, or the hoods used by others ; 
foT a woman was never seen without either the veil or a hood on ber 
head, except the unmarried,^ whose long ringlets weré tastefully bound 
np m knotSy or wreathed around the head^ and interwoven with some 
bnght<colored ribband. If to these we add the linens^ for the aitar, 
the cloths for the table, the various linen robes of the priests, and the 
dìToads which were wrapped around the dead, there must bave been 
a great abundance of linen in Ireland. We read of St Brighid ihat 
" she spun ancL wove, with ber own hands, the linen cloths which were 
wrapped around St Patrick's sacred remains."® « 

My difficulty in refuting Giraldus's assertion, '' that the Irish used no 
8on of mechanical arts," for the wants of life, arises from the great 
labor of selecting, rather than from the want of abundant arguments, 
For there is no work made which does not require the hands of the 
anìst who made it ; the efiects themselves reveal their causes, as the 

and Tolls about their heads many ella 

ofthe finest linen or sandal. Thi8 

Hnd of coronet or head tire ihey ali 

vear that are able to get it, after their 

child birth." Good ubi supra, p. 145: 

on their necks they wore chains and 

carkaneth ; and on ,their arms brace- 

lets, ibid. p. 148. With the exception 

ofthe "head tire," the Scotch in the 

IGthcenturyappears to bave been the 

flame. ** Mulierum antem habitus 

'pud illos decentissimus erat. Nam 

^Mi tunicae arte phrygia ut pluri- 

i&Qm confectee amplas chlamjdes quas 

jam dizimus, atqne illas quidem 
polynditas superinduerunt. Illarum 
brachia armillas ac colla monllibus 
elegantius ornata maximam habent 
decoris speciem," p. 58. 

dFor linen veils also, or screens 
used in ancien t Irish churches, see 
Petrie*8 Round Towers, pp. 194, 201. 

«These arguments prove that the 
ancient Irish knew what linen was, 
and used it for many purposes; 
whether so generally as our author 
supposcs, may seems doubtful against 
the testimony of Giraldus. 


CaMBEBNSIS btebsus. 

[Cap, XII, 

vestìgìft progredientis edocent. Ubi autem caputii^ phalingse seu pallii, 
braccsB> et caligee Gìraldus et tunicae ustun S. Bemardus inyaluìsse affir- 
maty ibidem opifices fuisse oportuit qui ad pannum é quo vestes istae 
fiebant faciendum operas contulerunt. Lanam enim necesse est prìmum 
canninari, deinde tingi (caputia enim variis colorum generìbus. fuisse 
Giraldus ait) proximè colui admotam in fila deduci, tum texi, pannum 
postea ad fnllonicam ferrì^ tandem a panni tonsoribus concinna lanu- 
gine exomari, postremo à sartoribus in vestem efibrmarì, Itaque Gi- 
raldo ipso teste habuerunt Hibemi carminatores^ tinctores^ netrìces, 
textores, fullones, panni tonsores, et sartores. 
[113] I Praeterea fabros ferrarios in Hibernia fuisse Giraldus non obscuré 
indicat Quis enim Hibemorum lanceis, et jaculis ferreas cuspides, 
aut ad manus militum armandas, secures optimè '' chalybeatas^" quao 
cataphractariorum lorìcas uno ictu perscinderent cudebat,^ nisi faber 
ferrarius ? fabris etiam lignariìs Hibemos abunde instructos fuisse vel 
inde perspicimus^quod demos habuerìnt^ et Ecclesias è robore confectas. 
Ecclesia enim S. Brigidae '* in altum minaci proceritate porrecta è ligno 
fuit." Et Beda dicit Scotos sive Hibemos '' non de lapide^ sed de 
robore secto/' Ecclesias construxisse. Additque S. Bemardus '^ ora- 
torium à S. Malachia consummatum fuisse de lignis quidem levigatisi 
sed aptè, firmiterque contextum, opus Scoticum pulchrum satis.'* Huc 

TCogitosus e. 35, /. 3, e. 25, in vita S. Mal. 

f This appears to me to be the sense 
in which CUT author nnderstood the 
"caputium" of Giraldus. Moore, 
History of Ireland, voi. T., p. 196, 
calls it a short mantle; whether 
hooded or not it is described as small 
and tight, stretching down over the 
shonlders as far as the elbow. 

sSee the word in Moore, voi. I., 
p. 147, where he calls it " a sort of 
petticoat," According to our author 
in the nezt chapter, it was the same 
as the famous Irish mantle, f aUa]175, 

from which Giraldus manufactured 
the word phalingae. In more recent 
times the phalingsa and caputium ax>- 
pear to have been formed ìnto that 
one garment which excited the wrath 
of the poet Spenser, *' the overslipp 
Irish coat and hood*' of Baron Fin- 
glass. According to Giraldus the 
phalinga was wom under the capu- 
tium in place of the pallium» 

li Giraldus mentions no tunics. 
According to Lesley the anclent Scots 
wore them. *'Brevis ex lana tuni- 

Cbap. XII.] 



fiwt-pimts mark the conrse of a man that walks before jbu. If, as 
Ginldiis admits^ thare were hooded capes' and mantlesS in Ireland, to 
wbàài St Bernard adds tunics,'^ there must bave been some persona to 
jDUiafìietiire the cloth of wbkh those articles of dress were made. The 
wool shoold he first combed, tben djred (for accordìng to Giraldos the 
caputia were of dì^ferent colors) then applied to the distaff and spun 
kto tkread» then wore, then canìed to the fnller, then adomed by the 
doth-cbressers^ with elegant nap, and finally come from the taìlor's 
knds a finìshed article of dress. Giraldos himself^ therefore/ admits 
that Ireland had combers, fullers, cloth dressers^ and taUors.' 

He ìnsinnates also^ not veiy obscurely^ that smiths were not un* 
bown in Irelcmd. For who, pray* but a smith, could manufacture the 
hDces, and iron-pointed arrows of the Irish, or arm the natile hosts 
«ìth those battle-axes " of puxest steel," which elove at a single blow 
tibe breast-plates of the cuirassiers ? Carpenters must also bare been 
common in Ireland, as appears firom the single fact, that the houses 
ind churches were sometimes made of wood. Thus the church of St. 
Bnghid ^' which reared ìts aspiring pinnades to the skies was of wood."^ 
And, Beda asserts '' that the Irìsh churches were made not of stono 
kt of worked wood." St. Bernard also adds " that the oratory of St. 
Maelmaedhog was constructed of planed planks, but elegantly and firmly 
kilt, a very respectable work in the Irish style." We also cito Hove- 

cella, manicis inferius apertis," p. 58. 

" Little jackets they bave of wooUen 

and those yeiy short," Camden, 148, 

ipeaking of the Irìsh. For the ancient 

Irish (Jress, see Harris Ware, voi. I. 

p. 174. Walker's Irish Bards, voi. II., 

Dttblin, 1818. Preface to Bunting's 

hìsh Music, &c. &c. 

^ In latter ages they certainly em- 

ployed many of those tradesmen; 

"they bave many goodly flocks of 

àeep, which they shear twice a year, 

ffld make of their coarse wool, ruggs 

or sliagge mantlcs, caddous also, or 

coTerlets» which are rented into for- 
eìga countrìes," Camden, p. 63; also 
authorities edited by Walker's Irìsb 
Bards, voi. II., p. 44, 53. The 
art of making these coverlets ap- 
peared to be lost before 1672. Politi- 
cai Anatomy, chap. xiii. The Irish 
were then better clothed than the 
peasantry of most other countrìes. 
The women were the dyers, Ibid, 

^ See a long and valuable disserta* 
tion on that church in Fetrìe*s Bound 
Towers, p. 194, et seq. 


accedit quod Hovedeno authore Henrìcus secundas rex Anglise an. 
Domini 1172 Dublinii ''moram fecerit, a festo S. Martini usque ad 
caput jejunii^ ibiqne fecìt sibi construi palatium regium miro artificio 
de virgis levigatis ad modum patri» illius constructum, in quo ipse cum 
regìbus, et principibus Hibemise festum solemne tenuit die Natali 
Domìni/'^ In.fabrili etiam opere plures olim eminuerunt, quorum non 
postremi fuerunt Beoanus S. Mochocmoci pater, et alter Beoanus pater 
S. Kierani Cluanensis, ambo e regio sanguine oriundi. Ut bine li- 
queat Hibemos non semper adeo superbia intumuisse, ut aliquando 
nobili genere orti ad vitam vtibus humilioribus tolerandamnondescen- 

Curribus etiam H iberni seepius utebantnr,* quos fabri lignarìi procul- 
dubio confècerunt. Sedebat multoties in curru S. Patricius cujus 
auriga Odranus fuit.^® Filii Alraalgadii "in dUodecem curribus" Te- 
moriam iverunt.^* Curru quoque S. Brigida crebrius vebebatur, in 
quo quidam animam agens coUocatus convaluit.^^ Conlani quoque 
Episcopi currus ipsa precante cursum obice rotis non opposità dia 
tenuit.^ ^ Dum ipsa quadam vice in bijoigi curru itineraretur, uno 
ex equis collum jugo subducente, alter solus currum sine successione 
traxit, et ut de illa S. Coenlanus ait:'^ 

" Ascendit currum, vehitnr per compita laeta." 

Deinde leprosis cupidis currum concessit habendum : 

<<Largiturque ipsis devota mente caballoe." 

Sanctus etiam Columba " currui insidentem vidit Clericum, qui gau- 
denter peragrabat campum Braeì/'i® , jpgg ^ij^ ^j^g « aliquibus Eccle- 
siasticis visitantibus currum ab eo benedictum ascendit," extremis 
axis foraminibus non obturatis, multam viam progressus est, Dum 
Aidus iter curru ageret, aiterà è rotis inter eunduni perfractà, aiterà 

8 Vita utriusque S. apud Colganum. ^ Vita tripartita 2. part. e. 77. in 
Triad. Thau. lojocel. e. 73. U Jbid. 166. 12 yitanus in ejus vita e. 34 in 
Triad. 13 Ibidem e. 50. in vita metrica, i* Adamnanus /. 2, e. 38. w Ib. 
/. 2, e. 43. 

Chap.X.11] OAMfiRBKSiS EVEllSUS. 178 

deii*s statement, that when Henry II. fixed bis court for some titne in 
Ihblin, 1172> ** from the Feast of St. Martin to the commencement of 
test, he had a royal palace constructed for himself of planed wood, built 
with wonderfo] taste, in which he and the kings and prìnces of Ireland 
lept the solenui festival of Christmas-day." Many persona were 
&Dioas in ancient times, for skill in the working of wood, àmongst 
vìiom not the least eminent were Beoanns, father of St. Mochocmoc, 
ffid another Beoanns, father of St. Kiaran of Cluainmicnois, hoth of 
royal descent, whence it appears that the Irish were not so inflated 
with pride^ that persons of high rank would not sometimes descend to 
the bnmbler arts, as a means of livelihood. 

Chariots also were used by the Irish, and were not constructed, no 
éonbt, witbont the carpenter's aid. St. Patrick often rode in a chariot, 
(hàyen by Odran, his charioteer. The Mac Amhalghaidh drove to Teamb- 
lìr in twelve chariots. St. Brighid also often used a chariot, and a 
; peison wbo was expirìng recovered his healtb by being placed in it. 
The chariot of Conlan, the Bishop, was stopped in its course by her 
mere prayer, without any sensible obstacle obstructing the wheels. On 
«nother occasion, when she was travelling in her chariot, one of the 
borses forced his neck from the hamess, and the other continued alone 
to draw the vehicle ; a circumstance alluded to by St. Conlan : — 

''Berne in her coach along the pleasant roads.*' 
She also presented a chariot to the lepers : 

''Her^steeds, with pious wish, on them beatowa." 

Sl Colomba " saw a cleric sitting in a chariot, driving pleasantly over 
Magh Breagh ;'* and on another occasion " when visited by some ec- 
clesiastica, he ascended a chariot, which had been blessed by him- 
self," and proceeded far on his joumey, without having the ends of 
ibe axles secured in the boxes. When Aedh was driving in his chariot, 
one of the wheels broke down, but the remaining one supplìed the 
place of two and brought him safely to his joumey's end. Laeghaire 


diiarum Totanun vìcem implente, ad itinerìs calcem illsesus pervenit.^^ 
Prssterea Leogarìus vim in ter novem curruum numero superstìtiosè 
ponéns, prseter anoatorum inultitudinem septeim edam supra vìginti 
óurrus non secus ac aciem. ad sìgnà cum hoste conferenda proficiscere- 
tur,^® ad ruinam.S. Patricio moliendam addoxìt; S. Patricio interim 
indemnitatem adepto, ac decente : " hi in curribus, et hi in equis, nos 
autem nomen Dei nostri invocabimus."^^ Eadem bora qua praslium 
apud Monmor de Doirelotbuir in aquilonaribus UltonisB :finibus gestum 
est, " S. Columba coram Conallo rege in Britannia conversatus per 
omnia narravit de bello commìsso, et de rege Cruitbnionmi, qui Echo- 
dius Laib rocabatur, quemadmodum rictus currui insedens evaserit, 
similiter propbetavit." *' Columbanus'* sive Colmanellus *' Episcopus, 
positis equis in curru, et sua nutrix S. Betbina cum suis comitibus 
viam carpebanj/*^* S. Declanus audiens Ballivum S. Patrìcii legatum 
submersum fuisse 'J^' ponite me/' inquit " in curru agore exequias 

Nec modo sanctorum gesta, sed historiarnm etiam monumenta nos 
docent Hibemos pridem curruum usu instructos fuisse. Modchorbus 
sub annum mundi 4700 Hibmiiffi rex, rhedam filli Corbii fortuito 
efiractam instauravit^ unde Mogbcorbuà quasi famulus Cerbi dictus est 
Et bine reges ipsos opificio alicui operam impendisse autumem. Cor- 
macus quoque Ulfbadus Hibemise rex sub annum Domini Ó26. 
tantum agri Tadaeo Keniadi contulisse dicitur, quantum curru invectus 
uno die emensus esset. Itaque sicut è caeteris locis hactenus adductis 
[114] Hibemos currum ad | itinera sic etiam è posteriori S. Adamnani loco 
currum ad pugnas adhibuisse perspicuum est. Nec scientissimi Col- 
^ gani authoritate moveor dicentis : Eochodium illum regem Pictorum 
fuisse, cum in Pictorum regum apud Ninnium albo nullus Eochodii 
nomine afiectus S. Columbae cosevus occurrat. Et prsetereà Cruthniós 
in Hibemiaesse constet, Oduvegano dicente : Dalaraiam a Carriguiske 

16 Vita S. Aldi, njocelin. e. 40. laPsal. 19. iSAdamn. lib. 1, e. 7. 
20 Vita S. Itae. 15. Janu. e. 2. 21 Trias Thaum. p. 202. num. 15. 22 Ke- 
tingus. 23Fol. 67. 

1 By some supposed to be Monaidh- donderry. See O'Donovan's Four 
mor (Moneymore) in county of Lon- Masters, A.D. 557,p. 198. 


also, who attaciied a saperadtieus importance to tbe number of three 
times niiie cbaiiots^ led out an enormoas host of armed men, aceompa- 
lied by tliat number of cbarìots, to coxnpass the ruin of St. Patrick, as 
if they were marching against an anned boat ; but St. Patrick was not 
kJBied ; '' tbose," be said, *' in cbarìotB, and tbose on horses ; but we will 
ivoie tb^ name of tbe Lord/' Àt the same bour tbat tbe battio of 
Monmor of Doire Lotbuir>t . in tbe nòrtb of Ulster, was fought, ** St. 
Colomba who was then in the presence of Oonal, king of Britain, knew 
Ij inspiratifMi, and told ali the cìrcumstances of the battle, and bow 
&e kÌDg of tbe Cruithnians, who was called Eocbodb Laìb, escaped in 
liìs cbarìot after tbe defeat." '* Columbanus, or Colmanellus, bisbop, 
kaessed tbe boraes of bis charìot, and was accompanied on bis jour- 
aey by bis nurse St. Betbina and ber companions." Àgain^ St. Declan 
idten bebeardoftbe death of Ballif, legate of St Patrick, cried out, 
^get the cbarìot ready, tbat I may go to bis funeral Service.''- 

Other monuments of our hi story, as well as of the lives of the saints, 

|R)?e tbat the use of chariots bad been long well-known among the 

Imli. Modcborb who was king of Ireland, A.M. 4700, repaired the 

dìarìot of tbe son of Corb, wbtch bad been accidentally broken, and 

ÌMsice he was cdled Modcborb, wbich means servant of Corb. Kings, 

tbemselves, it would appear from tbis fact, were not unacquainted witb 

the mechanìcal arts. Cormac Ulfada, king of Ireland, about the year 

of OQT Lord, 226, is said to bave granted to Tadhg, son of Gian, 

18 much land as a chariot could compass in one day's drive. But if 

tke fìrst of these authorlties prove tbat the Irish used chariots on their 

joumeys, it ìs equally clear from the last passage of St. Adamnan, tbat 

fte charìpt was also used in battio. Tbe most leamed John Colgan, I 

Bm aware, maintains tbat Eocbodb was king of the Picts,™ but without 

groimds, for the catalogne of Pietish kings in Nennius, has no Eochodh, 

contemporary of St. Columba. It is certain, however, tbat there were Picts 

in Ireland; for the Dalaradians, fromCarriguiske to Linnduachaill," were 

descended,according to 0'Dubhagain,from Cenali Ceamach, and the samé 

^ i. e. maintains that the Picts and chaìll, i. e. Hagheraglin, O'Bono. 

Cratheni were the same. van's JFour Masters, A.D. 699, p. 300, 

BOanaic inhhir uisce in the hook Beeve's Ecclesiastical Antìquitics, p. 

\ ofI«acan, site nnknown. Lìnndoa- 335. 


ad Liaduaòhail, a Conallo Keamàc orìimdam esse. Eandemque 
familìam alio etiam nomine Cruithnios vecari^ quia ConnaUi uxor Con- 
cheada filia Echachi Eachbeoil è CruUiniis Albanie fuit«^^ Prseterea 
Tigemacbus Crutbnios in Ultonia collocat dicens : ad annum Domìni 
707^ '' Cuacbaranas rex Cruthniorum UltpnisB vulneratus est à 
Fincboin."^^ RegioDem etiam Crutbniorum, secunda^ tertia^ quarta, 
et quinta, vita Patricii. Adamn : etiam cap. 36. et 49. lib. primi, in 
Ultonia con9tituant> et illam Usberus Clanoibiam bodiemam autumat 

Sed praBter indicatum S. Adamnani locum, alia etiam documenta 
curruum usum Hibernis Inter pugnandum asserunt.^^ TadsBum Kenia- 
dem plurìbus perfossum vulneribus pugna Crionda-Eincomerensì^ qua 
Cormacbo Ulfbado regnum comparavit excedentem currus excepit^ qui 
nimirum in procintu efat, ut ad pugnandum ubi res exigeret adbibere- 
tur. Sane Dermìcius Kerualli filius Hiberniae rex cum S. Columbas 
cognatis praìlio congressurus, in apparatu bellico currus babuisse dicitur 
bis verbis : *' collecto grandi exercitu in curribus, et equitibus et 
pedestribus in hostem movit."^^ 

Quo autem nomine afficiendus ille currus fuit quo in ria^ et pugna 
Hibemi utebantur nondum comperi. Ignoro enim cisiumne an peto- 
rium^ curruca, pilentum, carpentum, plaustrum, Rbedo, soracum^ epi- 
redum, arcima^ arcera^ benna, essed^, aut tbensa fuerit. Non ignoro 
quidem vocem Hibemicam carppat, sive Carbad qua currum exprimi- 
mus, ad vocem latinam carpentum syllabarum similitudine magis appro- 
pinquare. Nec dubito quin essedarum usus fuerit ab Hibernis inter 
pugnandum subinde frequentatus, quod loci supra producti abunde tes- 
tantur. Nec Hibemìcae voces quibus axis» absìs, et temo, caeteraeque cur- 
ruum partes indicantur, Hibernis essent cognitse, si res vocibus subjectse 
non essent ab iis usitatae. In libello qui Tainbocuailgne sive insectatio 
bovis Cuailgniae inscribitur, pi.igna ex ess^dis pari forma initur» ac 

24 In triade Thauma. ss Pag. 10, 9. a^Ketingus. 27Apud Usherum, p. 

oSee Reeve's Ecclesiastical An- Stackallan Bridge. Four Masters, 
tiquities, p. 343, 337. A.D. 226, p. iii. 

pSome place on the Boyne, near 


family were also called Cruithnìans, because Concheada, daugbter of 
Eocluùdh Eachbheoil, and wife of Conall^ was au Albanian Cruilbnian. 
Tighearoacb also records tbe Ulster Picts, A.D. 707. " C uchuaran, king 
of the Cruilhiìians of Ulster, was wouuded by Fincbu." The territory 
of ibe Picts in Ulster is also mentioned in the second, third, foartb, 
mi £fth life of St. Patrick, and by St. Adamnan. Lib. 1, cap. 36, 
4^, Ussher conjectures that it was what was afterwards called Clan- 
oaboy [Clama Aedha Bhuidhe]. ® 

Besides the passage of Adamnan already cited, other historìcal 
iiocmnents prore that the Irish used war chariots. Tadhg^ son of 
Kian, when piercèd with uiany wounds in the battle of Crinda- 
Kìncomer,' in which Cormac Ulfhada won the royal crown, was 
carrìed out of the deld in a charìot» which was at band, to be em- 
plojed in battle as occasion required: And again, when Diarinuid, 
king of Ireiand, son of Cerbhall« was about to wage war with tbe 
kindred of St. Columba, bis host is said in express tenns to bave 
been provided with chariots : " gathering an immense anny of borse, 
foot, and chariots, he marched against the enemy." 

I bave not yet been able to ascertain the precìse name of those 
ckrìots, which the Iri^ used for travelling and battle. 1 know not 
vbether they were gigs or open carriages, a ealasb, the pilentum 
open at the sides, or entirely coverad in, or waggons, or tbe four- 
wh^eled travelling carrìage, or wicker wains, or tbe epirbedam, or tbe 
Gallio benna, war chariot, or the sacred thensa. Tbe Irish word, 
C4^]tp4C or CAjtbAb, the modem name for a chariot, resembles 
in the quality of its syllables, the Latin " carpentum.''^ And tbe 
essedaewere, I am convinced, afterwards used by tbe Irish in battle, 
asappears clearly enougb from the pasaage already cited. Moreover, 
the Irish language would not bave names for tbe axle, tbe gyre of tbe 

4 For conjectures on the different of them. Benna appears lìke a word 

fibapes of ali these yehicles, the found in Irish dictionaries, for a ve- 

curious reader is referred to the proper hicle. The carriages certainlj used 

tuthorìties. As seyeral of them were in Ireiand were of very cheap con- 

tàopted \3j the Bonians from the struction, Fetrie's Round Towers, p. 

Otuls it is not improbable that the 342. See Harris Ware, voi. II., p. 

irish Celta employed more than one 164. 



Csesar Britannos ex iisdem pugnasse descrìbtt^ dicens:^^ quod esse- 
darli " per omnes partes perequitant, et tela conjiciunt, atque ipso ter- 
rore equorum, et strepitu rotarum, ordines plerumque perturbante et 
cum se inter equitum turmas insinuavere ex essedis dissiliunt, et pedes 
prseliantur. Aurigne interim paululum e prselio ezcedunt, atque ita se 
collocant, ut si illi à multitudine bostium preniantur> expeditum lecep- 
tum habeant. Ita mobilitatem equitum> stabilitatem peditum in prsBliìs 
prsestant^ ac tantum, usu quotidiano/ et exercitatione efficiunt^ ut in 
declivi^ ac praecipiti loco incitatos equos sustinere^ et brevi moderari ac 
ilectere^ et per temonem percurrere^ et in jugo insistere^ et inde se 
in currus citissime recipere consuevetint.^^" Nimirufn v^reTacitusrdixit: 
quod in Hibernfa ^'solum^ caelumque et ingenia cultusque hommum 
band multum à Britanni» difi^runt" 

Sed ut cdeptam rem denuò prosequar^ non magis in cunibus, quam 
in navibus fabricandis fabrorum operee desiidabant. Piscadoni^ et 
navigationi Hiberni adeo addicti erant» ut in navibus assiduo versati 
fuisse yideantur. Frequentior autem piscationis usus inde api^d nos- 
trates fuisse cognoscitur^ quod piscium grandium d^ntibus Hibemonim 
cultiores ensium capulos insignire assueti fuerint.*® "Qui stud^it," 
(inquit de Hibemis Solinus) " cultui dentibus mari nantium bellua- 
rum insigniunt ensium capulos. Candieant enim ad ebumeam clarì- 
tatem. Nam prsecipua viris gloria est in armorum nitela." Absque 
immensa hujusmodi belluarum copiai qusB sine frequenti piscatohim 
numero» ac sedula opera capi non posset^ materies buie omatui minime 
sufiecisset> apud gentem bellicosissimam, in qua nullus nascebatur cui 
in OS in bellici studii auspicium^ patemi gladii mucrone prìmos cibos 
[115] inferro | puerpera non solebat.^^ Solemnia nimirum erancmatram vota 
ut non aliter ac in bello^ et inter arma mortem filii oppeterent. Gre- 

28 De bello gallico, lib, 6. 29 vita AgricolaB. ao Cap. 25. 8i Seldenus in 
mari clauso, lib. 2, e. 2, 

r From the fragments of theBrehon used in Ireland. How they differed 

laws cited in Petrie's Round Towers, in size or shape is not Btated, bnt the 

p. 359, it appears there were at leaBt expense of their cohstniction appears 

three different kinda of boats or ships to bave been the ctame, namely, four 



wheel, the poìes, and the other parte of the charìot. In ihe work 

called Tambocoazlgne, or the pursuit of the cows of Cuaìlgne» a battle 

is desciibed in wfaìch charìots were engaged like the British war 

ciianots dedCTibed bj Caesar : " the wàrrìors in the charìots drive 

hnnd in ali qnarters and hurl their javelins^ and ofteu'throw the 

lines into disorder by the terror of their horses and the rattling of the 

■ wkels ; and when thej succeed in pushing their way into a squadron 

iofhorse, they aligbt and fìght on foot; the charioteer, in the mean 

|tìme, withdraws a short distance from the scene of the battle^ and takes 

11^. a position, whither bis warriors can securely retreat if they feei 

iftemsekes oFerpowered by the multitude of the enemy. Thiis they 

tfflnbine the celerity of cavalry, and the solidity of infantry in battle, 

•nd become so expert by daily exercise and use, that it is quite 

(Bmnmon to see them urge and steer their fiéry coursers in a steep and 

ipitous place, and suddenly stop and wheel them, or run along the 

e and stand on the yoke, and bound nimbly ijito the chariot." Ta- 

jbs has truly observed, ''that the.soil and climate of Ireland, and the 

cter and manners of the inhabitaats dìd not difiermuch from those 


But to continue my task — the carpenter's trade was exercised in the 

tniction of ships,'^ as well as of charìots. The Irish were so ad- 

to fishing and navigation, that they appear almost to bave lìved 

shlps. The extensive fisherìes of ancient Ireland are known from 

common custom of adoming the hilts of the sword s with the teeth 

large fisb. " Those who aspite after eleganòe," says Solinus, " adorn 

hilts of their swords with the teeth of the monsters of the deep, 

ich rivai the ivory in whiteness : for the polish of their armour is the 

lief glory of tbe men/' Without this extensive fishing and sedulous 

ustiy, so immense a quantity of large fisb • could not be taken as to 

ply materìals for those omaments, especially among a most warlike 

tion, where ali the boys in their infancy, received their first food 

s; stz being the charge in 1;he same the Irìah of the 16th century did not, 

it for tbe erecting of a wooden at least in Kerry, emulate the enter- 

eh. See Ogygia, p. 250. ' prize of their ancestors in turning 

'A sad proof I If we believe Philip Irìeh fisherìes to account. 
I^J^ulHvan, HistorìsB Catholic», p. 12, 


berrimas piscium captìones gesta sanctòrum scrìptis tradita exhibent. 
Cambrensis etìam cum alibi, tùm Topog. distinct. 2. cap. 5. piscationis 
meminit. Naves autem Hibemìs plurimum usitatas Solinus descrìbit 
dìcens : *' navigant autem vimineis alveis^ quos circumdant ambitione 
tergoruia bubalorum* Quantocunque tempore cursus tenebit^ cìbis 
abstinent."'^ Et Poeticè Lucanus ; 

" Primum cana salix madefacto vimine parvam 
Tezitur in puppem, csesoque induta juvenco 
Yectoris patiens tumidnm superenatat amnem.*' 

Festus Avienus : 

'* NaTÌgia junctis semper aptant pellibus 
Corìoque vastum saepe percummt Balum.*' 

Hujusmodi limborum usus in Hibernia etiam bodie nondum obsolevit^ 
nam alicubi ad minus hita freta^ aut flumina trauanda^ et nonnunquam 
animi relaxandi gratia adhibentur^ et duorum aut ad plurimum trium 
capaces sunt, et Hibemice, Nimhog, aut Corrocba vocantur.*' Attamen 
ad septem dierum iter ejusmodi scapbas in oceanum progressas West- 
monasteriensis narrat. 

Verum Hibemos postea instructioribus classibus vela fecisse non 


obscure Claudianus indicat dicens : 

" Totam cum Scotus Ibemem 
MoYÌt, et infesto spumavit remige Thetis."S< 

Etenim circa illaipsa tempora " Scotiensis" sive Hibeiuiensis '* exercitus 
stipatus multitudine navium transnavigavit in Britanniam et sub rege suo 
Nial Naoigiallach, Hibemienses bello, et classibus expulerunt babita- 
toreft plagse Aquilonaris Britanni». "^^ Addit etiam Cambrensis, eodem 
" Nello HibemiaB Monarchiam obtinente, sex filios Muredi regis 
Ultoniae, mortui, an. Domini 472, in classe non modica Boreales 
Britanniee partes occupasse. Unde et gens ab illis propagata, et spe- 
cificato vocabulo Scotica vocata usque in hodiernum diem, angui um 

82 Lib. 33 Ad annum 392. 34 Vita 2 et 3, S. Patri, e. 11. 36 Triade vita 
tripartita S. Patricii latina MSS. 


fromthepoiot of their fatber's sword, as a sort of inauguiatioa of the 

iBardal spirìt The most solemn prajer of the mothers was^ that their 

soDs shoald never die except in battle or in arms. In the Lives of the 

Sùnts abo, we h&ve frequent examples of fishing recorded. Cam- 

brensis also, Topog. distinct, 2, cap. 5, and in other places, alludes to 

tiie fishezies. The ships commonlj used by the Irish are described by 

Solinos: "They sail in wicker boats, covered round with ox hides. 

Dming tbe voyage they use no food," or as Lucanospoetically describes 

" At first of sallow bear, the pliant twigs. 

Are shaped into a slender ship, which bears 

Froudly ita sailor o'er the sweUing stream." 

And Festos Avìenus— 

*' On ships encased m firmly-folded hide, 
O'er the high seas they often fearless ride." 

of tfais kind are stili to be seen in Ireland. They are employed 
fi)rferrying over rirers or narrow streights, and sometimes for pleasure 
^ts. Two, or at most three, is ali they can accommodate. They 
«re called in Irish TlAeTi)l)05, orCtt|i|iAcb. Yet in these frail vessels, 
ie Irish vehtored on a seven days* voyage into the ocean, as we leam 
fom Matthew of Westminsten 

It wonld appear clearly irom Claudianus, that the Irish afteiwards 
suled in much nobler ressels, when he says, 

'* The Scot from ali bis Irish shores. 
The ocean vezes with bis hostile oars.'' 

Foritwasabout that very period, that the Scotian or Irish army, sup- 
ported by a mnltitude of ships, sailed over to Britain, under the com- 
>i3Qdof kmg Niall of the Nino hostages, defeated, by land and sea, the 
it^ts of the northem parts of Britain, and expelled them from 
ir territories." Cambrensis also adds " that during the reign of 
«iall king of Ireland, the six sons of Muireadhach, king of Ulster (who 
m A.D. 472) descended in a large fleet and seized the northem parts 
''f Britain.' Whence, the people, descended from them, are to this day 
^H by the diatinctive name, Scots, and stili iiihabit that territory." 


illum ixibabitant."^^ Ad hanc ezpeditkunein.GUd^is alludere videtur di- 
cens : ''Tetri Scotoruin Pictoruinque greges emergunt certatim d6 cairu- 
cis^ quibus trans Scythicam rallem evecti." Carrucae vero Titiles oaves 
siint cono ve! bovino vel equino circumsutse» ut.ànteà dixì.. Hanc vero 
expeditìonem existimat Usberus ìncidisse in annum Domini 431, si ve 
Theodosii junioris (post mortem Honorii) arnium octavum.'^ Portasse 
Beda eandem expeditioinem innuit dicens : '' duabus gentibus transma- 
rinis vehemenier sravis Scotorum à Clrcio, Pìctorum ab Aquilone Bri- 
tannia miiltos stupet gemitque per annos/'^® Qui " advecti navibus caede- 
bant omnia, et anniversarias praedas milite nullo obsistente cogere sole« 
bant." Et postea dicit : '* grassatores Hibemos domum reversos 
post non lougum tempus reversuros/'^^ Scilicet ut ego interpretor 498 
quo Annales nostri narrant Fergusium Ere! Mungramo^i filium cum 
fratribus in Albaniam concessisse, et 'omnibus Albanise (quam hodie 
Scotiam dicimus) regibus generis autborem fuisse. De Fergusii vero 
ac fratrum possessionibus in Albania, et sobole propagata O'Duveganus 
fuse agit^^ Additque centum eorum, et'quinqnaginta in navibus assidue 

^ egisse. Huic Fergusio S. Patricius benedictionem impertiit, et plures 
ab eo reges oriundos fore praedixit.^^ De eodeig Camdenus: " Fer- 
gus filius Eric fuit prìmus qui. de semine Conaire suscepit regnum 
Albania etc."*^ Ut vere Buchananus dixerit : " non semel Scotorum ex 
Hibemia transitum in Album factum nostri Annales referunt'**^ Et 
ad Buchanani assertionem confirmandam Ketingus addiderìt dicens : 
"attexam aliquot prfficipuae notaB excursiones e veterum Annalium 
monumentis haustas, quas in Albaniam H iberni per intervalla fece- 
runt. Ac primum triginta supra ducentos annos post Milesianos in 
Hibemiam appulsos, ^ngusius Olbbuadacbus Fiachi Labhrinni 
filius in Albaniam transmisit, ut stata vectigalia H iberni» regi pen- 
denda Pictis imponeret. Interjecto deinde aliquo temporis intervallo 
Rachtaus Rigdargus Hibemiae rex eodem concessi t, ut incolas vel 

[116] iuvitos solvendo sibi tributo obnoxios redderet. Carbrius | Riafhodus 
multis armatorum copiis comitantibus in Albaniam profectus est, beli um, 
et vastationem Aquilonari Albani» plagse illaturus, ut eam su» ditioni 

3fi Topogr. d. 3, cap. 16. 37 De primor. pag. 606. 38 Lib. 1, cap.J2. 39 jb. 
e. 14. 40 Pag. 51. Jocelin, e. 137- « Tag. 707. « Lib. 2, p. 55. « L^b. i^ 
prope finem. 


Gìraldns, àìao, appears to allude to this expedition : " Black squadrons 
of the Scots and Picts rushed. down from the currachs in which they 
had been wafted over the Scythian valley." The currachs» as I have 
already explained, were wicker vessels^ co?ered over with leather, or 
cow or horse skins. This expedìtion occurred,. accordìng to Ussher^ 
aboat the year 431^ or about the 8th year of the reign of Theodosìus 
tbe yoiinger^ from the death of Honorìus. Probably it is to the same 
that Beda alludes : " During many years Brìtain groaned and wept 
firom the incnrsions of twomost mercilessly sayage nations, from beyond 
the seas» the Scots^ from the nortb-west, and the Picts from the north of 
Brìtain. Descending from their ships, they cut ali down before them, 
and carrìed off their annnal spoil^ without molestation from a single 
soldier :" and again, he says " the Irìsh invaders retumed home^ but 
only to come back veiy quickly," This was in my opinion about the 
year 498, in which our annals record that Fergus, son of Ere Mun- 
gramor; went with bis brothers into Albania^ and founded there the 
loyal stock from which ali the kings of Albania (that is Scotland) are 
descénded. O'Dubhagain gives a detailed account of the possessions of 
Fergus ànd bis brothers in Albania, and of the families sprung from 
them, adding, that one hundred and fifty of them lived constantly in 
their ships. This was the Fergus whom St, Patrick blessed, predicting 
that a long Ime of kmgs would spring from bis loins. Camden also 
says, " Fergusy son of Ere, was the first of the race of Conaire, who 
possessed the kingdom of Albania ;" and this is confirmed by Buchanan, 
who States, that ** our annals record several migrations of the Scots, 
from Ireland to Albania." Keating, too, may be adduced in confirma- 
tion of Buchanan : '^ 1 will now relate, from the monumentai records of 
onr annalists, some of the principal expeditions made at dififerent times 
by the Irish into Albania. And first, about 2f30 years after the arrivai 
of the Mìlesians in Ireland, ^ngus Olmuchadh, son of Fiach Labh- 
rinn^ crossed over to Albania to regulate the stated tributo paid by the 
Picts to the king of Ireland.* Then after auother interval of time, 
Reachta Righdearg, king of Ireland, passed over to compel the inhabi- 
tants to pay him the tribù te." Cairbre Riada, also, at the head 

t Ogygia, p. 88, 206. « Ogygia, p. 259. 



adjungeret. Ex hoc Carbrio Riado qui Dalreudini Bedse dictì sunt, 
originem traxerunt. Macconus item in Albaniam, et Britanniam trans- 
fretavit, ac utramque populatus est, et in Hibemiam regressus, signa cum 
Arturo unico, ad montem[Can]pum] Macrumium contolitubi fuso hostili 
exercitu, Arturoqiie perempto, regnum Hibemiae sibi ven dicavi t. Fa- 
thadus etiam Canonus Macconi filius Albaniam adivit, ibique sede 
in fundis sua^ri^tute partis ^yA., ita copiosa ex ilio scaturivit soboles, ut 
Maccaliniorum familiee, caeterisque gentibus ex eadem familia pullulan- 
tibus generis author fuerit Postea Gollaus Uais illuc se cum fratribu» 
contulit, ubi ampia latifundia consecutus, Clandonellis Hibemiae, Alba- 
niaeque stemmatis initium exstitìt. Crimtòni quoque regis Hibemiae 
Albania os vidit, et arma persensit Nec non et Ercus filius Eochodi 
Mungramori, iEngusii Firti nepos è Carbrii Riadi prosdpià, latissimam 
ibi potestatem, et amplissimas possessiones nactus est, multaeqae inibi 
gentes ex eo propagalae sunt. Nimirum Clanerti, Kenelgabhranì, 
Keiielloami, Kenelcongellì, Kenelangusi, Kenelconcricbi in Ila, reli- 
quseque minorum gentìum familias quas bae germinarunt. Eodem 
etiam ex Hiberaia trajecit Mainius Lamhnius Curki filius, Lugdocbi 
népos, terraque quam is insederat Muighleamhna, sive Campus Lamhna 
nuncup&tur, titulusque illius fnndi domino accrescens fuit olim Mor- 
morlambna. Sed nunc plaga illa, et nomen, et domini titulum mutavit, 
ipsa enim Lenoxia, et dominus, dux Lenoxiae appellatur. Eoganachti 
de Muigbgargìn in Albania à Carbrio Cnitnechano hujus Maini fratre 
originem trahunt, qui post Nellum noviobsidem in Albaniam commigra- 
runt." Hactenus Ketingus. Hibemos autem maximam navium mul- 
titudinem ad tot trajectiones adhibuisse oportuit. 

Per omnem quoque secuti temporis vicissitudinem navium usum, ubi 
causa postulavit, ab Hibernis frequentatum fuisse Annales nostri ere- 
benime narrant. Naufragia enim, et aggressiones, decertàtionesque 
maritimas, tam inter se mutuo, quam cum hostibus sepissimè memo- 
rante et varìas sanctorum in extera regna profectiones, ad religionem, 
pietatemque disseminandam, nec non etiam septennem S. Breudani,alio- 
rumque sanctorum prò terrà incognita indpgandà navigationem. Prse- 

^ Ogjgia, p. 322. was fought is near Atlienry. 0*Dono. 

w Ogygia, p. 330. Magli Mucr- van'sFour Masters, A.D. 195, p. 108. 
iiinihe, tlie pialli in which this battle "^ Ogygia, p. 360, 352. 


of alt immense army invaded Albania, to subdue by the sword and 
deTastation the northem parts of tbat country to his sceptre. From 
this Cairbre Riada were descended the trìbes, called by Beda^ the Dal- 
reudini/ Maccon, also, sailed over to Albania and Britain, and plun- 
deredthem, and on his return to Ireland, he fought the battio of 
Macrom mountain, [rectè plain] against Art^ whom he defeated and slew, 
and thos won the crown of Ireland.^ Fathad Conon, son of Maccon, 
also settled in Albania, and, having won f or himself by his valor a good 
ÌDheritance,became the founder of the Mac Callin [now Campbell] family, 
and of many others which sprung from the same stock. Colla Uais after- 
wards went over with his brethren, and, having acquired a largo properly, 
foQsded the Albanian and Irish families of the Clandonalds.' Albania 
also saw and felt the arms of Crimthann, king of Ireland7 Ere, son 
of Eochodh Mungramor, and grandson of ^ngus Fìrt, of the stock of 
Cairbre Riada, also acquired great fame and very estensive possessions 
in Albania, and was the parent of many illustrious families, namely — 
Clanerti, Kenelgabran, Kenelloarn, Kenelcongal, Kenelangus, Kenel- 
coDcrichi in Isla, and other families of lesser note." Maine Leamhna, son 
of Core, grandson of Lughaidh, also passed over from Ireland, and tlie 
temtory which he occupied was called Maghleamhna, or the plain of 
Leanihain, and the title of the heir to that property, was formerly [called] 
Mormoer leamhna. But the name of the territory and the title of its lord 
are now changed — the former into Lennoz, the latter into the duke of 
LesDox. a The Eoghanachts of Maghgergin, in Albania, are descended 
from Cairbre, brother of Maine, who emigrated to Albania, after Kiall of 
the Nìdb hostages."^ Such is Keating's account. An enormous quan- 
tityof ships must bave been employed by the Irish in ali those voy- 

Id ali succeeding centuries our annals attest that whenever the occa- 
sion required, the Irish were provided with ships. They record sea- 
nghts and maritime expeditions and contests, either between them- 
selves or against the enemy for the command of the sea, as also the 
ffiissions of the saints to foreign countries, to propagate religion and 

^ OgygU, p. 380. a Ogygia, p. 382. 

'Ogygia, p. 470. ^ Ogygia, p. 382. 


terea narrant victoriam anno Domini 920 aut paulo secus partam^ Keal- 
lacbano Buedachani filio Momonìse rege in captivitatem à Danis ad- 
ducto^ Kennedus praeter copias terrestes, ad eum vinculis quibus Ard- 
machse adstrìngebatar educeudum^ classemadomabatapparatu bellico/^ 
et magna epìbatarum numero apprime instxuctam, quae portu propè 
Dundaltium capessìto^ cum classe bostili> in quam prsesidii majoris 
causa Keallecanum intulerunt extemplo pugnam iniit. Falbius vero clas- 
sis imperator navem suam pr^torìse bostium navis lateri admovit, et duos 
gladios dextera et laeva gestans^ in eam prosiliit^ altero funes Keallacb- 
anum malo vincientes proscindens^ altero ictus bostium propulsans. 
Ubi Keallacbanus nexibus solutus vestigia in foris fixit» gladio quem 
Falbii Iseva tenuit correpto^ ad suos viam sibi stemens, in propinquam 
navem desiliit Anno Domini 939 Murcbertacbus filius Nelli, ut puto 
rex Ultonise^ magna classe in Hebrides vectus, post victoriam in iis 
relatam, multa inde bona, tbesaurosque abduxit. Anno Domini 953, 
Donaldus Murcbertacbi superioris filius Orgallìenses navibus in Locb- 
niam, Dabballum, deinde in Emii lacum, denique in Locbuacbter induc- 
tis Brefuenses populatus est, obsidibus ab O'Ruarco relatis. An. Domini 
960, Muracbus O'Kellii insulam.magnam in lacu Ribbio Keallacbo 
Mac Rouoirk Fearcullìae, sive Silronaniorum domino ademit, Muracbi 
navibus spolia inde in Mainecbam importantibus. Eodem etiam anno 
[117] Momoniensium classis Sinnaeum | amnem ingressa Tarmankiarani, sive 
asyli Kerani partem, lubharo ab Occidente adjacentem vastavit. Anno 
Domini 961, Donallus filius Murcbertacbi rex Hibemise praeter 
morem, navibus per montem Fuaìd in Locbannin vebi jussis, lacus 
insulas expilavit. Anno Domini 976, pugna navalis inter Orgiallenses, 
et Tirconallenses in lacu Ernie commissa est.*^ Anno Domini 987, 
Momonienses, et Dani Waterfordienses majorìbus mioparonibus ad 
lacum Ribhium profecti, à Connaciensibus propelluntur. Anno Do- 

4* Ketingus lib. 2. 45 Tigem. continuator. 

e See O'Donoyan's Four Masters, phical error in the Latin text. The 

A. D. 953. latter part of the entry ìsgiven thus in 

d There is probably some typogra- the Four Masters, p. 81, ** and he 


pie^« asd the 9even ye$x^' voyige of St. Brendan and other Btinto in 
search of the unkiiown liuid. They also record a naval victory gained 
abodt the year 920^ by Ceallacban, son of Buadhachan, king of Mun- 
ster, who had been carrìed into captivity by the Danes. Kennedy 
marclimg bis land forces towards Ardmacba> where Ceallacban was con- 
imed, erdered bis fleet ai^onnd the eoast to the bay of Dundalk^ wbere 
ìmg amply provided with Vii the muniments^of war, and a great^ 
asmber of n^trmes, it eacouii^red tbe Danish fleet, to wbicb Ceallacban 
kd beea transf^rred. fo/ greater seeutìty.. Failbbè, àdfìiiral of the Irìsb 
Seet, bore down.on the sbip of the P^sb admiral, and casting ont bis 
gri^Iiiig kons, bound^ oh the boatlle deck^ with two ^0Tds> one in 
either hand. With one he defended bimself agaìpst the a^tacks of the 
eoemy, and with Xì\e other cut the cords tbat bound Ceallacban, who 
18 soon as he found bimseif at liberty, seizèd the sword wbicb Failbbè 
kid in bis left band and bewing bis way tbrougb the enenny, bounded 
Bohart jto bis Irisb sbip. Agaid, in the year 939, Muircbeartacb 
MacNeiU, king of Ulster (I tbink), sajled with a great fleet to the 
Hebrìdesy and after gaining yictories tbere, retumed loaded .with spoils 
I andtreasare* In the year 963, Dombnall, son qi the same Muircbear- 


; tach» lattpcbing bis sbips [boats] on Locbneagb,. on Dabbal in 
I Oirghialla, and tben on Loch Eime and Loch Uachtair, plun- 
I ^red the Brei&ians and took' bostages from O'Ruairc.^ In the 
jear 960, Murcbadb 0*Keallaigh, look Inismor in Loch Ribb from 
Ceallach Mac Ruairc, Lord of Fearul, or Silronain, and brought 
Itome the spoils in bis sbips to Ui-Maine.^ In the same year 
the Munster fleet, sailing up the Bhannon laid waste the dis- 
trìct of Termon Kiaran (Kiaran's sanctuary), adjacent to, lubhar 
on the west.® In the year 961, Domhnall, king of Ireland, son 
of Muircbeartacb, by a singular strategy, carrìed bis sbips [boats] 
over Sliabh Fuaid and launching them on Loch Ennell, pillaged the 
isles of the lake. In 976 a naval battle was fougbt between Oirghialla 
and Tirconaill on Loch Eime. In the year 987 the men of Munster 

*M camed as a prisoner with his bjtt fi^tt ** from the ri ver west- 
5«et into Ui Maine.'' wards, " p. 681 . 

*I>r. O'Donovan translates Ót) ^tj- 


mini 1127. Tordelvachus 0*Conchabor Hiberniae rex centum, et 
nonaginta navìam classem in Moinoniam immisit. Perspicuum igitur 
bine est uberem operandi segetem fabris lignarìis in Hibernia suppe- 
tiisse, qui Ecclesiis, domibus^ currìbns, navibus et reliquis generis 
ejusdem rebus operas impendebant. 

Nec etìam infirequens in Hibernia latomorum usus foisse videtur. 
Nam Temoria vox eit ex Tea, et muro conflata, perinde ac si dixeris : 
murus Teae. Murus autem ex lapìdibus semper conficitur, et ad eum 
struendum latomus adhibetur. Per prima igitur illa Hibemorom tem- 
pora in Hibernia latomi operabantur* Sub ipsam certe Chrìstianismi 
auroram, S. Patricius Ecclesiae Ardmacbanse '* fundamenta jecisse, et 
muros £cclesid& ad longitudinem centum quadraginta pedum/*'*^ pro- 
traxisse dicitur. Cum autem operìs lignei fundamenta non jaciantur, 
ad fundamentum et murum ponendum latomi operam adhibitam esse 
oportuit. Sacerdos quidam Tirconnellensis, inquit Ketingus, sancto 
Columba superstite, templum è lapidibus pretiosìs extruxity aràque 
vitrea instruxit, ac solis et lunse simulachrum in eo colendum expo- 
suit. Non multum postea temporis effluxit, cum sacerdos iste deli- 
quium animi passus, in aerem à dsemonibus abreptus, propè S. Colum- 
bam transiisset: conspectum autem illum S. Columba è dsemonum 
unguibus signo crucis efibrmato eduxit. Cujus beneficii gratiam ut S. 
Columbse referet, templum illud ipsi S. Columbse sacravit, et se 
ipsum monachis aggregante inter quos vitam pie duxit Vides 
lapideum boc templum non nìsi latomorum artificio erigi non potuisse ? 

Domnallus Flanni filiua rex Hibemiae Saigram S. Kirani muro cin- 
xit, uxore Saba fiagitante/^ quse moleste ferebat preestantiores 
quasque Hibemiae Ecclesias muro ambiri et patroni sui Ecclesiam eo 
sive praesìdio, sive ornamento carere. Certe annales nostri loci alien- 
jus in&ignìoris eversionem expressuri, eum ut ita dìcam demuratum, 

«6 S. Evinus 3, parte, e. 78, lib« 2. 47 Eetisgus. 

f ^nètuiSlbb is the word in the mhair in the text, is net correct^though 

Four Masters. The word literalij given bj many. See Font Masters, p. 

signifies vesseh, and bere means boats, 31, A.M. 3503. 

9 The derivation of the word Tea- b Theinferenceisdefendedashighly 


and the Danesof Wateifordembarking mlargeressels [boaU],' sailed fe 
Locb Ribb^ but were defeated by the Connacians. In 1 1 27,Toirdbealbbach 
O'Conchobhaìr, king of Irelaad, dfspatched a fleet of one hundred and 
ninetj shìps [vessels] against M unster. From ali these faots combined, 
it Ì8 evideut that carpenters must bave been snrely employed in Ireland 
in the construction of cburcbes, hoiises, chariots, ships, and other 
Works of a similar nature. 

The trade of masons^ifould also appear to bave been not uncommon 
in Ireland. Thus Temorìa (Teamhair) is compounded of Tea and Mur a 
waU [recte a mound] — namely» the wall of Tea. New walls are always 
made of stono, and biiilt by masons ; and consequently, even in tbose 
Teiy remote ages, there must bave been masons in It is certain, 
that at the first dawn of Christianity, <' St. Patrick laid the foundations 
of the church of Aidmacha» and extended the waUs to the length of 
140 feet." But as no person would speak of laying the foundations 
of a wooden house, the foundations and walls of this church must 
bave been built by masons.'^ Keating also relates» that during the 
life dme of St Columba, a certain priest of Tirconaill, built a 
tempie of precious stones, and erected wìthin it an aitar of glass, on 
which he exposed for adoradon the images of the sun and moon. In 
a short time after, this priest, becoming deranged, was snatcbed into 
the air by devils, but passing near St. Columba, the saint saw him 
and delivered him by the sign of the cross from the talons of the evil 
one. In gratitude for this benefit, the priest dedicated the tempie to 
St Colnmba himself, and joined a community of monks, araongst 
wbom he led a pious life. Now how could this stone tempie bave 
been erected without the hands of masons P 

Domhnally king of Ireland, son of Flann, built a wall around the 
Saighir of St. Kiaran, at the request of bis queen Saba, who was dissatis- 
fied that of ali the greater cburches in Ireland, ber patron's St Kiaran*s 
alone was not enclosed and omamented with a wall of stono.' Our 

probable by Dr. Petrie, Bound Tow- account of the erection of a gtone wall 

en, p. 153. around Saighir is glven in Bome copies 

iHe Ì8 stykd '*heir apparente* ofKeating,andalsoinDubhaltachMac 

Toiir Masters, p. 601 , A.D. 919. This Firbisigb's large Genealoglcal work. 



[Cap. XII. 

èìve mtiris exiitum fuìsse dicunt.*^ Itaqué tot murorum erectio latomis 
ascribi debet. Legimus ** Turgesium Majonensis Ecclesìae templum 
asseribus plumbeis ' contectum in contemptum Dei et sanctorum com- 
burendo déstnmgse;'* Fabrica vero è saxo non constructùm tectum 
' plnmbeum ferre non potuit. 

Posterioribus vero seculis editiores ili», angusftiores, et rotundae tur- 
riculae, in plerisque Cathedralibus Ecclesiis Hibemiae bodie visend» 
constrai è saxo, et prò companilibus baberi cseperunt,' Danis bue ap- 
pulsis.** Din autem post Haec tempora, anno Domini 1125 Ecclesia 
Cathedralis Ardmacliana à S. Gselso tegùlis integre cóhtecta est, post- 
quam per annos centum, et trigintà non nisi ex parte fuisset contecta.*® 
Terdelacbum O Concbovar regem Hibernise, nostri Ànnales tria cas- 
tella condidisse referunt, nimirum Galviense, Culmailense, ef Dunlo- 
dense.** Annalès alii Atblonense castellum ab eo extructùui fùisse 
narrant. Et prìoribus Annalibus referentibus, Rothericus O Con- 
cbobbar Hibemiae rex Tuamae mirabile castellum sedificavit, inde 
fortasse mirandum, quod fomicibus illud munierit, et inusitata qua- 
dam forma exomaverit, non quod illud ex saxo, caetera è robore con- 
ficerentur. Illius castelli rudera etìamnum visuntur, quod Ecclesia 
fiorente Tuamensis Arcbidiaconus prò domicilio babebat. 

Monasteriorum quidem è lapide struendorum initium S. Malacbias 
fecit, dum Benchorense monasterium è saxo primum construxit. Illum 
[118] deinde | in caenobiis è lapide condendis, plures imitati sunt, ac primum 
Donatus O CaiToll Orgalliae princeps Mellifontanum monasterium,** 
Clarevallensi monasterio situ (ut ferunt) valde assimilo, à fundamentis 
excitavit. Plurima deinde caenobia, quorum bic numerum texere 

«Usherus, p. 1173. 49 Trias Tha. p. 300. «o Contin. Tigera. an. 1124. 
61 An. 1129, 1164. 62 Waraeus de Antiq. p. 176. 

^ There is no authentic record of 
tbis statement. See Fetrìe's Bound 
Towers, p. 160. 

1 There is no account in the Irìsh 
Annals of the erection of anj Bound 
Tower before the invasion of the 
Danes; but indirect evidence mai:ed 
them nearly coeval with Christianity 
in the island. See Petrie, p. 5, 10, 11. 

>n See the authorìties, apud Petrie, 
p.,149. ' . 

n Dr. 0'Donovan*s Four Masters» 
p. 1051, A.D. 1125. 

o Whence it has been suppoted in 
the preface to volume I. of this work, 
that it was the residence of Dr. Lynch 
durìng the Fars of the Catholic confe- 


annals also, whenever they speak of the destruction of any dMngiùsbed 
place^ nae the vrords " dismantled'' or deprived of ìts walls* ^gain I 
ask^ how conld fhose waU» be erected without masons P Wé read 
that Turgenus, in contempt of God and bis saints, destroyed by Ère 
tbe tempie of the cbnrcb of Mayo, wbicb was roofad with sbeetg óf 
lead.^ Now a stone bnildmg alone could sapport a roof of lead. 

In later ages, those slender^ high and round pillar towers^ wbicb 
stili stand near most of tbe Catbedral churches of Ireland/began to 
be erectéd of stone and used as belfries, after tbe invasions of tbe 
Danes.* Bnt long after that perioda A.D. 1126, tbe Catbedral cbiircb 
of Airdmacba was completely roofed over with shingles by St. Celsus, 
after having been for more tban 1 30 years but partìally covered.™ Our 
annals also record, that Toirdbealbbacb O^Conchobbair, Idng ofireland, 
erected tbree castles at Galway, Culmaile and Duulo; and according to 
otber autborìties, tbe castle of Atbluain also.'^ The former annals 
likewìse record that Ruaidhri O'Concbobhaìr, king of Ireland, built a 
wonderftil castle at Tuam, wbicb was admired as a novelty, not because 
it was of stone and the otbers of wood, but probably because it was 
provìded with arches, or adomed with some otber unusual style. The 
walls of tbis castle are standing at the preseut day. 1 n the peaceful 
days of the church, It was ibe dwelling of the archdeacon of Tuam. ^ 

Monasteries, I allow, were not built of stone before the days of St. 
Maelmaedbog or Malachy, who first rebuìlt the monastery of Bangor, in 
that style.P The example was generally followed in the erection of sub- 
seqaent monasteries; thus Donnchadh 0*Cearbhaill, prince of Oirghialla, 
built from tbe fonndations,the monasteiy of Mellifont, wbicb in site, they 
say, is tbe countcrpart of the monastery of Clairvaux. Otber monasteries, 
too numerous to be mentioned bere, were afterwards erected by 
different prìnces in imìtation of those models, and delivered up, when 
completed, after tbe most munificent outlay, to become tbe home^ of 
religious men. These various structures, castles, monasteries, and otber 
edifices, are produced bere for the purpose of proving, that there were 

p That is, monasteries on the grand establishments were of stone seyeral 

scale of the I2th and I3th centuries centuries before. See Fetrie's Bound 

were unknown preylously in Ireland; Towers. 
but some of the buUdiDgs in monastic 


supervacaneum esset^ alii prìncipes superioribus exemplis eccitati, 
relìgìosis viris incólenda magnis sumptìbus extruxerunt Itaque cas- 
tellorum, et monasterìoram, ac reliquorum aedificiorum structune huc 
à me ideo coDgeruntur> ut ostendam omnia ista, operas arcbitectorum 
desiderare, qxios si Hibemia non suppeditaret, frustra structiones istas 
quis aggrederetur. Ut^ pontes hic praeteream, quia saxeine an sublicii 
fuerint nondum comperi. 

Auri fabros etiam in Hibemia fuisse non est cur quis dubitet, cum 
vix alios unquam quam calices aureos, et argenteos ad sacra ministerìa 
obeunda per Hibemìam adbibita fuisse in bistoriis nostris legerim.'^ 
£t S. Patrioius in sua familià tres aurifabros> Essuum, Bidum, et Tas- 
sacbum habuisse feratur. Et ipsa reliquiarum^ librorumque aurea, 
argenteaque operimenta documento sunt, aurifabrorum copiam Hiber- 
niae semper suppetiisse. Minutioribus bisce rebus prosequendis ideo 
prolixius institimus^ quod eas vel tanquam parvi ponderisi vel tanquam 
vulgo notas historici nostri praetermiserint ; consuetudinem aliarum 
etiam nationum bistoricos usitatam amplexi, qui similia literis data 
opera non tradunt, nìsi occasio id exigens quandoque suborìatur. 

Tulgnius O Moelcbonrius vir bistoriarum, et legum Hibemicariim 
scientissimus me per literas monuit stata tribunalia ad causas opificum 
mecbanicas artes exercentium decidendas instituta fuisse, magistro 
singulis artìbus assignato, qui damnum ex opificum vel ignoratione, 
vel dolo profectum resarcire abstringeretur. Itaque vel baec una Hi- 
bemicae Reipub, institutio non adeo passim à cultioribus gentìbus 
usurpata, rectum opificiorum exercitium considerate prsescribens, falsi 
Giraldum satis superque arguit dicentem:^^ ''Nulla mecbanicarum 
artium specie vitam Hibemos producere." Prsesertim cum allatis jam 
documentis apposite corroboretur. Praeterea Hib^mis exprobrat, quod 
'' vìrga tantum quam manu gestant> in superiore parte camerata tam 
equos excitant, quam ad cursus invitante' Cum tamen Gratianum 
Imperatorem Ausonius plurimum laudet, quod equum segnius euntem 
verbere concìtaverit, vel eodem verbere intemperantiam coercuerit. 

M Oduveg. M Topogr. d. 3. e. 10. 

Q For abundant proof of ibis asser- splendid coUection of eccleeiastica] an- 
tion, the reader is referred te the tiquities in the museum of the Royal 

: Chap. Xn.] CAMBRBNSIS BVEESUS. 1 93 

worb in Ireiand whicb requìred the skìll of the architect, for who would 
dream of building snch things, if Ireiand had no archi tects. I have 
not alluded to bridges^ because I bave not been able to ascertain whe- 
therthej were of stone or p]anks. 

Workers in ^old were undoubtedly known in Ireiand. Our histo- 
THUis state explicitly that almost ali the chalices used in the celebration 
ofihe sacred mysterìes in Ireiand^ were either gold or silver. St. 
; Patrick himself is'said to have had among bis domestica three workers 
I JB gold— Essa, Bithes, and Tassacb. The gold and silver covers of 
i leiics, and books, are demonstrative evidence that there must have 
I leen at ali times an abundant supply of workers of gold in Ireiand.^ 
I Iflhave dwelt minutely on those little circumstances^ it is because 


éey have been omitted by other historians, either as being of too 
trìfiing a nature, or as being universally known. In this, they have 
mlj followed the example of the historians of other nations, who gene- 
lillj do not commit such facts to writing^-unless some special occasion 
lequire it 

TaileagnaO'Moelchonaire, a scholarprofoundly versed in Irishhistories 
md laws, has informed me by letter that special tribunal s were estab- 
fished in Ireiand for adjucating on ali causes arising from the exercise 
«fmechanical arts. A master was appointed for each art, who was 
lonnd to indemnify the purchaser for any damage arising from the 
foranee or fraud of the mechanic' This single institution of the 
bìsh state, whìch is not generally established even in the most civilized 
bodem states, and which imposed so salutary a check on the trades- 
aan, is, especially when corroborated by the preceding facts, a tri- 
omphant refutation of the calumny of Giraldus, '' that the Irish used 
Ibr the wants of li fé no mecjianical arts." He also makes it a reproach 
to the Irisb^ that '' their mode both for exciting their steeds, 
lod m^ng them to the race, was by a rod only with a goad at the top, 
vbichthey carried in the band." But does not Ausonius pass a glowing 
compliment on the Emperor Gratianus, for urging the lagging pace of 
Ms charger by the whip, or subduing bis sulk by the same correction.' 

IsshAcademy. ^ This argument of our author is 

' See a fragment of the Brehon laws not to the point. Giraldus reproached 

n this sul)ject in Petrie's Round the Irish for having rod$ only, jiot 

Wers, p. 360. whips. 






[118] Giraldi couTitia in Hibernos. [1 19] Hosti hostem infamanti non credendain.--Qaomodo 
Galli leve?. — Galli et Germani non tulerunt suam gentem objurgari. — Aliquad natlones 
barbaree dieta». [120] Ghlamis Hibemlca ; chlamidis Hibemicie commoda.~Pennala pluri- 
bus gentibus communis.— Incommoda pennulse inepte attributa. [121] Nuperum edic> 
tnm eontra pennoln HilMrnice gestationem. [122] Bracoas Hibernic» forma«>^emieitas 
Hibemomm. [123] Nudi et inermes ad pugnam Hilìerni non prodibaot.— In£Emtia Hiber- 
norum bellicosa. [124] Hibernorum . arma.— An Hibemi barbari a barbis et comig — 
Aliae natlones oomttR. [126] Biretum quid.— Caloei Hiberaici.— Tinaia muUobris. 

HACTENUSconvitiorum tantum spiculis Giraldus Hibernos pórstrinxisse, 
ac tanquam ejaculatione missilium pugnam auspicaturus^ acerrimo con- 
gressui futuro prolusisse videtur. Nunc velut torrens perrupto aggere 
obvia quaeque cursu prostemit, simili prorsus maledicenti» impetu ille 
in Hibernos ruit, et è maledictorum armamentario virulenti» tela de- 
prompta caesim et punctim ejaculatur bis verbis :^ " Barbarus tam bar- 
bammo quam vestium^ et mentium cultus eos reddit ìncultos. Gens 
haec barbarti, et vere barbara, quia non tantum barbaro vestium ritu, 
verum comis, et barbis luxuriantibus, juxta modemas novitates incultis- 
sima, et omnes eorum mores barbarissimi sunt. Solam barbariem in 
qua nati et nutriti sunt sapiunt, et tam quam alteram naturam amplex- 
antur. Gens haec est gens inbospita, gens ex bestiis solum, et bestialiter 
vivens, gens agriculturae labores aspemens. Gens haec est gens spurcis- 
sima, gens vitiis involutissima, gens omnium gentium in fidei rudimentis 
[119] incultissima.^ Nondum enim matrimonia | contrabunt,^ non incestus 
vitant, non Ecclesiam Dei cum debita reverentia frequentant Gens 
adultera, gens incesta, gens illegitimè nota et copulata.* 

"Nationis hujus homines, prae aliis gentibus impatientes, et praecipites 
ad vindictam sunt. Pras omni alia gente proditionibus insistunt, fidem 
datam nomini servant, fidei, et sacramenti religionem, quam sibi obser- 

1 Topogr. d. 3, e. 10. 2 Ibidem, e. 19. ^ 3 Ibidem e. 35. 4 Ibidem, d. 2. 
e. 25. 

Chap. Xffl.] CAMBE£NSIS flVEltSTTS. 1 95 




iUSj Invectires of Ginldus against the Iiisli. [119] No credit to be given to an enemy de- 
6miiig bis enemy. — ^In what sense lerity can be iropnted to the Frenoh.— Neither they 
iMT the GennanB patioitly brook insulta offered to their nation — 6o(ne natioai Juatly 
atigmatizedaabarbarons. Ci 20] The Iriah mantle; advantages of that dress.— The cloak 
1 eommon dresa in many eoantriei.— The ineonvenience absnrdly attributed to it. 
D2I] Recent edict against wearing the Iriah mantle. [12*2] Form of the Irish Brace».-— 
SwUtnesB of Aie Iriah. [1S3] They did not go to battle naked and anarmed.— The Iriah 
(Mìa trained to war firom ita cradle. [124] Arm> of the Irish.— "Wbother the hair and 
beards of the Iriah w«re barbarous.— Other nations wore long hair. [126] Form of the Irish 
eap.-Ir^ shoea. — The women'a Itead dreaa. 

GiRAiDus had hitherto applied only the arrows of invective against the 
Inshjthe casting of his missiles^ being as it were only the opening of the 
igbt, the prelude to his most tremendoas charge in the impending 
titt]e. But now like a torrent bursting its banks^ and sweeping 
hm eveiything in its course, he poiirs the full venom of his ma- 
lerolence against the Irish, and drawing his virulent weapons from the 
<|QÌTeT of slander, hurls them right and left in the following fashion : — 
"The barbarous fashion of their beards and dress, and their modes of 
Aental culture make this people uncivilized. This people is barbarous, 
tra})' barbarous — barbarous not only in the fashion of their dress, but in 
^t luDg and luxuriant hair and beard, ali savagely at variance with 
niodem fashions — most barbarous they are in ali their habits. Above the 
Wbatism in which they were bom and reared, they never rise ; they 
ding to it as to a second nature. This people is an inhospitable people, 
«people from beasts and living like beasts— -a people loathing the labors 
i^f agriculture. This people is of ali the most filthy — a people most 
feply bemired in vice, tlie most ignorant people on the face of the 
wth in the rudiments of faith. Marriages are not yet solemnizeà 
«mongst them, incest is not avoided ; the church of God is not attended 
^th due reverence. An adulterous people, an incestuous people, a 
pwple illegitimately bom and married. 


vari volunt,* aliis prsestitam quotidie vìolant, cum cautelas omnes sacra- 
menti, obsidum, amicitise, beneficiorum adhibueris, tum primo timendm = 
tibi.® Prodi tionis pestis hic invai uit, et quasi radices posuit, ita ut l 
vitium patrìae tanquam innatum sìt. Gens hsec est inconstans, varia, 
versipellis, et versuta, sola in instabilitate stabilis, sola in infidelitate 

* Hoc fìrmum servans, quod nunquam firma fldelis ; 
Hoc solimi retinens quod nesciat esse fidelis.' 

Et potìus timenda eorum ars, quani Mars, pax quam fax, mei quam 
fel, malitia quam militia, proditio quam expeditio, amicitia quam 
inimici tia. Hddc est enìm eorum sententia : Dolus an virtus quis in 
boste requirat. Denique baec gens est cunctis fere in actibus immode- 
rata, et in omnibus afiectibus vebementissima, unde et sicut mali deter- 
rimi sunt, ut nusquam pejores ; ita bonis meliores non reperies."® 

Quid amabo aut malignius excogitarì, aut virulentius evomi potest P 
isto convitiorum cumulo, quem in Hibemos Giraldus eructavit ? majori 
sua impudentià quam Hibemorum infamia. Nibil enim valentius ad 
fidem historico adimendam, quam si bostem maledictis laceret. Cum 
ratio suggerat, et concors locupletum autborum assensus astruat, turpia 
de bostibus scribenti non assentiendum esse.^ Nam. aliena vituperare 
ingenuum non decet, nec bostium malefacta maledictis incessere, et 
prdeclara facinora silentio praeterire, Nec tum bistoriam scriberes, sed 
tuorum causam contra adversarios ageres; nec bistorici personam 
gereres sed oratoris, dum studeres hoslem in contemptionem adducere. 
Ut Tbeopompo jure vitio datum sit, quod invidiose nimis, et acriter 
quosdam insectaretur, quam rem ita in studium; et exercitationem ver- 
terat, ut accusare magis, quam bistoriam scribere crederetur. Et Ti- 
meus cum ab bistoria ssepius ad reprebensiones digrederetur, obtrec- 
tator est appellatus. Giraldus rbetoricis pigmentis orationem fucare 

5 Idem. d. 3, o. 20. « ibid. e. 24. 7 Ibid. e. 21, vide e. 22, de Hiber. 
e. l, 2, e. 1 et 87. 8 Topogr. d. 3, e. 27. ^ Bodivus in Mech. Histor. e. 4. 

ft He describes tbe Welsh in nearly sicut et malis nusquam pejores» sic 
the same terms: "Gens etenìm h»c bonis meliores non reperìes.*' De- 
omni vehemens est intentione, unde scriptio Walliae. Gap. 18. 


"The men of thìs nation are the most cbolerìc and vindictive on the 
face of the earth. No nation ever carne near them in treacherj; they 
keep faithfttl treaty with no man ; the sacred oblìgations of faith and of 
an oath, which tfaey expect to he observed towards themselves, are 
yìolated bj them every day against others. When you are strengtbened 
me ali possible securities, oaths, hostages, friendships, and favors con- 
feired, then yoor danger is greatest. That pest of treachery is so pow- 
M, has become so rooted^ as it.were^ that it may he said to he 
indigenous to the soil. This people is inconstant, fickle, foxish, and 
craftj, Constant in nothing but inconstancy^ faithful in nothing bat 

* Ck>nstaot in this alone, that faithful never; 
Nor pledge, nor oath, can flrmly bind them ever.' 

Their crafty words are more to he dreaded than their swords^ their friend- 
fbips than their enmities ; their honey than their hiss^ their malico than 
àeir military ; their faithlessness than their forays, their hostility than 
fteir hand of friendship. For their maxim is this, ' force or fraud, 
b eqaally fair against an enemy.' This people, in fine, is immo- 
ierate in aln^ost ali their acts; the most vehement in ali passions, 
«d hence, when they are bad, the world cannot produce worse-— when 
food, they are the best."* 

Was ever ìmaginalion more malignante virulence ever more unbridled 

&aiì this torrent of invective, which Giraldus disgorges on the Irish ? 

iBore, howerer, to bis own shame, than to their infamy, for nothing so 

inlàllibly blasts the credit of a historìan, as calumnious attacks on bis 

«nemies. Reason itself, and the unanimoas consent of the best authors, 

lay down that credit cannot he given to a man who makes shameful 

Kcusations against bis enemy. For it is unbecoming a superior mind 

to ritaperate what is another's, to ansv^er the evil deeds of your enemy by 

imling words, and to suppress bis noble actions. Such would not he 

iHstorìan but one pleading bis own cause against an adversary : it 

'ould not he a history but a harangue, levelled at the character of an 

«Bemy. Timeus was called a '' scold," because he often descended from 

4e dignity of narrative to invective. Theopompus has been most 

ÌQstly censured for bis envious and envenomed attacks on some persons. 


tentavi t^ et eam notationibus creberrimis ac anapboris operose aspersiti 
ut insulso dìctionis tumore fucum lectori faceret, et deterrimos quo» Hi- 
hemis potius affinxit, quam affixit mores accuratius inculcaret, et in 
lectorum animis aìtiùs defigeret. Aucupem enim syllabarum se praebet, 
qui minuta " verborum aucupia, literarumque tendiculas" in invidiam 
torquet captiosissimo genete fraudis in vocis varietate digladiari. Equitat 
in punctulis, triumphat in apicibus, prò ludo habei à perspecta ventate 
desciscere, dum syllabas ut prisce dicam conscribillat. Quare histori- 
corum subselliis amotus, et oratoris titulo quem aucupatur amisso, in 
obtrectatorum turba tandem cum Tymaeo sùbsistit. 

Joannes Bodinus à Tacito, Csesare, Trebellio, et aliis Gallos levitate 
notatos fuisse graviter molesteque tulit.*** Utque benigna interpretatione 
calumniam a suis averteret, summam animi alacritatem, singularemque 
Gallorum celeritatem levitatis vocabulo ab illis authoribus indicarl 
voluit Et in Bodinum Germani commotius insurgunt, quod illos cra- 
pulae largius indulgere dixerit.^^ Qui si una alteravo labeculà nationi suse 
aspersa excanduismnt ; non alienum est à ratione aut usi tato uationum 
aliarum more, si Hibemi acriter pungantur, gentem suam non. paucis 
maculis, sed co&no probrorum totam oblini. Bodinua, ut cives suos parte 
opprobrii levaret, Syros, Asiaticos, GraBcos, et maxime Scythas, in levi- 
tatis communionem adscribik Possem ego pariter, ad popnlarium meo- 
rum barbariem extenuandam, asserere barbari nuncupationem aliis na- 
tionibus a scriptoribus indi. Normannos Bodinus barbaros, Antonius 
Cleopatrae amoribus Asiseque deliciis irreti tus, seipsum ae Romanos 
barbaros appellavit* Quos etiam Michael Imperator prò barbaris habuit 
[120] I Gallos prseter religion^m ceaterabarbaros fuisse seripsit Agatbias. Ye- 
rum csBterae nationes tantum barbarie? nota leviter perstringuntur ; Gi- 
raldus in Hibernos crabronum instar imporiunissimo barbanse fremitu 
obstrepit, et venenato aculeo sasvit, barbariem toties ingeminans, et per 
partes minutatim inculcans, ut barbaries Hibemorum ocuUs legentium , 



j JO Methodo, cap. 5. ii Ibidem. 

*> Our author must bave felt perso- culated by English writers against Iris 
nally, daring his residence on the con- country, as he alludes so frequently 
tinent, the effects of the slanders cir- to thcm. 


a practice for which he had such a propensity and aptitude, that he was 
looked upon as a virulent maligner, rather than as a bistorìan. Gi- 
raidns labored to daab hb oratory with the rouge of rhetoric, doling 
out copiously his aoaphoras and etymological racks to impose upon bis 
readeis by the nonsenso of his bloated dictiou, and delineate more 
vividly and imprint more deeply on their minds, that most loath- 
some , morti portrait which he has rather invented than imposed on 
the Irish. He is a mere syllable hunter^ straining epithets, tor- 
tiiring words and leiters, and by a most captious frauda edging his 
satire by ferbal antithesis ; he rides on points, and tramples in accents ; 
the most transfarent truths are sported with and sacrificed^ when they 
mar the measure of our syllable-counting scrìbbler. Degraded from 
the ben^ of bistorians, and deprived of that title to oratory, which he 
covetedy he sinks at last with Timeus to the herd of libellers. 

John Bodinus was much incensed against^Tacitus, Csesar, Trebellius 
and otherSj who accused the Gauls of le?ity. To save the character of 
his country, he invented a milder interpretation, namely, that those 
authors expressed by the word levity, the extreme vivacity and singular 
quickness of the Freneh. Bodinus, himself, is violently assailed by 
the Germans^ for saying that they indulged too much in the pleasures 
of the table. If those men flew into a rage for a few light stains 
thrown on their country, the Irish bave reason and the usage of other 
natìons to sanction their indignatìon '^ when their nation is blackened 
oot with a few stains only, but with a torrent of foul slanders. To 
relìeve his country from ali the blame of levity, Bodinus urged that the 
SyxiaDS> the Asiatics* the Greeks, and the Scythians, especially had the 
same failìng. In the same line of defence I could extenuate this bar> 
barìam of the Irisb, by asserting that other nations also, were de- 
nounced as barbarous by authors. Bodinus calls the Normans barba- 
rous 'y and Antonius, demoralized by his amours with Cleopatra and the 
luxurìes of Asia, called himself and the Romans barbarians. The 
Emperor Michael gave the same opinion of them. Agatbias said that 
in eveiything but religion the Gauls were barbarians. But the charge 
of barbarìsm is slightly lurged against other nations. Against the Irish 
it is reiterated by Giraldus like an importunate homet ; barbarìsm is the 
burden of his drone ; barbarìsm the wound of his envenoraed sting — 


apertius observaretur^ eorumque moinorise altius infigerétur, barbarìem 
enim illìs mentium, et mentorum, cTÌnium^ vestìum^ et morum nimis 
acriter exprobrat. Rectene an secus ad lectorìs arbìtrium refero. Modo 
nobìs baTÌ)arÌ8e notas Hibemis à Giraldo ìnustas paulo accuratius excu- 
tientìbus aures referat, ac ithprìmis advertat in barbarie pingenda Gì- 
raldum à D. Thoma longius abscedere dicente : " barbaros esse qui à 
recta ratione, et hoininum communi consuetudine abhorrent."^ ^ Giraldas 
ad laxiores fines barbarise defìnitionem protrahit> et ad mentii capitisque 
pilos, vestiumque formas extendit^ ut spatiosior illi pateret ad calum- 
niandum campus; hac ratione non obscura ignari malignique animi 
indicia promens. Caeterum quando illos hic universim mentium mo- 
rum que barbarie faedalos esse asserit; et alibi exleges, inbospites, spur- 
cissimos, incultissimos, impatientes, proditores, perfidos, et peijuros 
appellat, aliisque turpi tudinibus sigillatim notat, nos tbesi ejus, hypo- 
thesique diluendae eadem opera commodiori loco infra incumbemus. 
Interim si barbaries aliae à Giraldo iudicatee Hibemis adhseserint dis- 
piciamus. Quod si à vestium forma barbariem contraxisse Hibemi 
arguantur, cultissimde quseque per Europam nationes nova quotannìs 
barbarie contaminabuntur. Quandoquidem novis efformandi vestibus 
inventis indies lasciviunt : ut qui seculi superioris veste indutus in pub- 
lic um hodie prodiret^ ludibrio haberetur^ et prò barbaro. Ego autem 
vestiendi rationem Hibernis olim familiarem lectori ob oculos hic subji- 
ciò, ut dispiciat quasnam barbaries eam infecerit. 

Porrò sagum Hibemicum satis insulse Cambrensis depingit dicens :*' 
" Caputiis modicis assueti sunt, et arctis trans humeros deorsum cubito 
tenus protensis, variisque colorum generibus, panniculorum plerumque 
consutis : sub quibus phalìngiis laneis quoque palliorum vice utunlur.** 
Nam voce non latina caputio cucullus denotatur, quem capiti quis 
induat;^*cum fimbriam dixisse debuerit nou è panniculorum laciniis, 
a ut centonibus, ut ille comminiscitur conflatam, sed filis è limbo tenuiter 
contexto sigillatim emergentibus, nunc productioribus, nunc contractìo* 

•12 Epist ad Roman, cap. 1, lect. 5, et 1, Cor. 14, lect. 2, 13 Xop. d. 3, cap. 
IO. 1* Descript, fimbrìas. 


barbarìsm a thonsand thnes repeated ; unìvenal barbarìsm exhibited in 
mmQte detaQ ; Chat the barbarìsm of the Irìsh might he more vividly 
feccedon the eyes ofthe reader, and more deeply^imprìnted on theìr 
memorj — barbarism in mind and morals, in beards, and in clothes, 
is the som of his savage inrective. The justice of the accusation I 
ksre to the reader, if before he descends with me to a minate exami* 
Bition of that leprosy of barbarism whìch Giraldus charges against the 
Iiisb, he listens for a moment and bears in mind that the descrìption of 
krbarì^ gìven by Giraldus is veiy different from the definition given 
bj St. Thomas : ** Barbarìans/' says St« Thomas, ** are those who 
RDoonce nght reason and the nniversal customs of man." Giraldus gives 
afariuoie comprehensive definition of barbarìsm, including the hair of 
I man's chin and head, and the fashion of his dress, in order to bave a 
vider field fbr his calumnious tirade ; but revealing thereby clear Jndi- 
ttdons of an ignorant and malignant mind. His indiscriminate charge 
^nst the Irtsh of foul barbarìsm both in mind and morals ; his spe« 
«al enumeratìon, that they were lawless, inhospitable, most impure, 
nost uncivilized, cholerìc, knavish, traitorous, and perjured, and many 
àmilar loathsome moral impotations, his whole accusation — facts 
I and inferences will he fuUy iuvestigated and refuted in a more 
I ittÌDg place. For the present we will examine whether he can 
sabstantiate his other charges of barbarìsm against the Irìsh. 
Ifthey are to he denounced as barbarìans, merely for the fashion 
of the dress, then the most civilized nations of Europe, are aunually 
plunged into a new barbarìsm, for every yeax fashion rìots in the 
mTention and propagation of new forms of dress, so that if a man ven- 
i tared into public to-day with the dress of the last century, the finger 
of ridicule would he pointed at hìm, and he woald be hooted as a bar- 
barìan. To enable my reader to judge how far Irìsh clothes in ancient 
tìmes CED be taken as proofs of barbarìsm, I will uow give a descrìption 
ofthe common Irish dress. 

Cambrensis gives the foUowing absurd descrìption of the Irish 
niantle: — " They are supplied," he says, " with small and narrow 
Ms falling over the shoolders down to the elbows, and generally of 
liìfierent colors and pieces of cloth ; they wear under them linen ' fail- 
K' instead of the 'pallia.'" Here he uses the word '' caputiuui," 



[Gap. Xni. 

rìbus« prò componentis arbitrio; qiia& pectine discriiuioata^ aliquaudo 
singttla, aliquando in exiguos cirros aut fasciculos contorta è scapulis 
defluunt. Plures nanaque fiznbrise ordines sopeme densantur^ ut colli 
nuditas aptius xnunìatur> lateribus unicus assaitur.^^ £ stratis derepente 
quis exiliens, hoc se sago expeditius obvolvit, quam cubiculari toga, 
ferventius enim moles illa fimbriarum cerricem obteget^ quam; pendu- 
lum è toga collare. Nec in sago ulla manicarum apertio est^ per quam 
iniquiorì aurae ad hominem aditus pat^at. Angli saga nostra '^ mantles*' 
vocant, csitra dubium a latina voce mantelum à Plauto usurpata^ aut 
*' manale" Pliniì : quod argumento est latinos sicut voce, sic etiam re 
voci subjecta usos fuisse. Nec dictionaria Gallica voci '' mante" aliam 
latinam interpretationem apponunt, quam '^ penulam/' utpote quae à 
palili similitudine parum abest. 

Spenserus author est gestatam faisse pennulam a Judaeis/^ Chaldeeis, 
iEgyptiis, Greecis, et Latinis, quse gestatio cum nuUam iis barbariae 
notam inuserìt, iniquissimus erit ille rerum aestìmator habendus^ qui 
gestationis ejusdem consortio junctos, alios barbarie maculatosi alios 
immunes pronuntiabit» Idem Spenserus asse verantius addit ex bujus 
penulce usu plurimum detrimenti ad Rempub. promanare. ^^ Penula 
enim illa inquit, " prsBdo> et flagitiosi omnes^ qui ex hominum oculis, 
ne poenas promeritas subirent, in abditos se recessus subducunt^ domi- 
ti 21] cilìi, lecti> et tegminia I loco utuntur: sinìstr» involuta scuti vicem 
preastat; tot enim implexa plicis^ in eam abit densitatem, ut per illam 
gladius adigi non possi t. Prseterea si latro quid furto sustulit^ penula 

» * . 

16 In Ctfpt. lib. 7, e. 23. 16 Pag^. 36. 17 Pag. 37. 

Q hi& substìtuting the word 
" fimbria" for "caputium," it is cleax 
our author understood Cambrensis to 
express, by the latter word, some 
fringe at the neck of the mantle ; but 
he does net decide the controTersy 
rege^disg the precìse meaning of 
the word phalingoe; he takes it for 
granted (what he had no rìght to do) 
that it was a mantle, like that worn 
in bis own day. 

d It is diflcult tò translate the ori- 
ginai literally, but the meaning as 
understood by our author is clear from 
the following sentence. For other 
versions, see LaDÌgan*8 Ecclesias- 
tìcal History, voi. iv. p. 862. See 
also, Spenser's View of the State of 
Ireland, Dublin Edition of 1809, pp. 
87, 88. 


wfaicfa is noi LìLtin, to signify the hood whìch is worn on the head ;<* when« 
he^old bave called it afnngemade^nol as he saj8, of shreds and patches 
of cloth^ bat of threads hangìng down from a delìcately worked 
ÌMider in rarious lengths^ according to the tastes of the wearer ; 
kept dkeatangled by the comb, and either loose or bound up into 
smiQ knots or in wreatbs> flowing down from the shoulden. For 
nanj of the frìnges were doubled and heary above, to protect the 
aaked neck ; bui on the sides there waa generally only one. As socni 
tt a person arose from bed, he wrapped himself in a twinhling 
ìb the mantle^ and was better protected than by any moming gown, 
kcaiise the mass of fìringe alone gave more warmth to the neck 
tfaan the hanging coUar of a cloak. Neither had onr mantie sleeve 
yes, to admit the hurtful air to the person. The English cali this 
A^ a "mantie** no donbt, from the Latin word« ''mantelum/' which 
tecurs in Plautus, or from the " mantele" of Plinius> which proves that 
Ae Eomans also mnst bave used the dress» or they would not bave had 
&e name that expresses it. The French Dictionaries gìve no other 
^lanation of their word *' mante" than the Latin '' penula,*' which 
il shì^e nearly resembles the pallium. 

iccording to Spenser, the mantie was viom by the Jews, Cha^d^aans!» 
Eg7ptians> Greeksy and Latins. Now, if these civilized nations are 
set, therefore, accused of barbarism, how can the wearing of that same 
èess be pronounced by any impartial jndge, any but the most pre^a^ 
iiced calumniator, to be ^.proof of barbarism ? Was the mantie bar- 
Ittious on the Irishman and not barbaroùs on the others ?^ Yet Sponsor 
pionounces and reiteratesi that the use of this mantie® was one of the 
most deplorable calamities of the state. " That mantie/' he says» " is 
aprotection to the thief and to ali wicked characters, who withdraw to 
vaste placesy from the eye-sight of men, far ftom the danger of law ; it 
ierres as a- house, and bed, and covering; wrapped around the left arm, 
Hprotects like a target, for when rolled in many folds, it becomes so 
ikick, that it is hard to cut through wìth a sword. Moreover, when the 

* This mantie. This is not correct the same as the largo long mantie 

feanae the Phalingceov small Coch- borrowed from the English, and which 

«ff to coTer the head and shonlders, ìb described by Spenser. The ^aIU|05 

«fescribed by Giraldus, is not at ali of the Irish is the Saxon falding. 


id nullo negotìo tegit. £a etiam capiti obductà^ pagos quandoque 
ignotus obambulat. Meretrix quoque distentum alvum, et genitum 
spurìum l^ago abdit, et fovet" 

Hsec Spenserus obtentui habuit^ ad abolendum H ibernici sagi usum ; 
penitus oblitus praestantissimaqusBqueinbominum arbitrio posita semper 
abusui obnoxia esse. Etenim nil prodest^ quod non Isedere possit idem 
quemadmodum paulo ante contra Goodum prò nutriciis agens nberìus 
inculcavi. Huc accedit quod prselatorum in Gallia, et alibi ; et sacerdo- 
tum ubique pallium ad talos deuiissum^ non longa dissimilitudine ab 
Hibernica chlamyde diducatur ; illud multo laxius, hsec arctior. Ut ad 
prava illa ministeria obeunda^ illud hàc sìt longè accommodatius. Spa* 
tiosius enim illud tectum est, laxior vestis, latior lectus, magis amplum 
integumentum, aptius furti operimentum, ilio caput latro commodius 
obvolvet, pellex ventris tumorem opportunius celabit, et spuriam sobo- 
lem implicabit. Itaque quando pallium et chlamis criminum societate 
copulata sunt, ut eandem utrumque abolitionis sententiam (si rectè, et 
cobserenter iste judicabit) subeant necesse est. 

Honesti agricolae, tenuiores opifices, pauperes, mulierculse^ acinfi- 
mum omne vulgus non ad ea maleflcia cblamydes suas adhibebant, sed 
liberorum gregibus noctu sub^emebant, et ìnstemebant ; ìnterdiu vel 
nuditatem suam, vel laceras vestes^ et nonnnnquam etiam satiis cultas 
operiebant ; Nam à gravitate alienum esse censebant extimo aliquo 
talari amictu non indui. Villosas autem fimbrias chlamj'dum oris 
assutas, et ex iis exstantes capìtibus, ad pluviam ut plurimum arcendam 
inducebant Nec sagorum pannus semper levidensa fuit, aut crassioris 
fili. Pro ordinis gradu, sagis è praestantiori, vel viliori panno quisque 
se amiciebat, quas aliquando murice tinctae gestabantur, fimbriis è serico, 
vel saltem tondissimo filo laneo marginem obeuntibus : sagi vero lateri- 
bus simplex, et angustus limbus aimectabatur, sic contextus ut ex eo 
fila pendula fuerint instar fimbriarum, quae è lectorum sipariis de more 

^ The translation is net a transcrìpt g Under ker mantle, Spenser's woids 

of the formar passage in Spenser, the are : ** And when she hath fìlled ber 

most striking instance, perhaps, of vessell, under it [i.e/the^ mantle] she 

narrow-mìnded prejudice and absur- canhidebothherburdenandherblame; 

dity to be met with in the writings of yea, and when ber baetard la berne, 

Englishmen on Ireland. it serves instead of swadling cicuta. 


tbief steaLs aiiythiiig> he has no trouble in concealìng it witli his doak; 
{or, being closely booded over his head, he can pass throngh the vìi* 
lages unknown. The abandoned Temale also can conceal her preg- 
lìa&cy, and protect ' her bastard' under the mantle»"' ' 

Snch were the pretexts orged bj Sponsor for the prohibition of the 
liidi mantle ; bat he has totally forgotten that the beat things, sabser- 
lieot to the wants of man, are liable to he abused. There is nothing 
food, whìch may not become injurìous, as I bave abnndantly proved 
•gainst Good in my vindication of fosterage. Do not the prelates in 
Gaol and elsewhere, and the priests everywhere, wear cloaks descending 
dowDto the heels, and'difierìng in this only fìrom the Irìsh mantle» that 
thektter is not so wide. Ali these evil purposes, mentioned by Spenser, 
eooJd, therefore> he more effectually obtained by this ecclesiastical 
eloaL It would he a more spacious rooC a looser dress, a wider bed, 
«more ampie coverlet, a more safe disgaise for stolen goods, a more 
commodioos covering for the robber*s head, a batter concealment of the 
«gns of the abandoned woman's pregnancy, and a more snug wrapper 
iirr ìts illegitimate offspring. Associated in ali the aptitudes of crime, 
iin the mantle and the cloak he separated in punishment ? if we judge 
lightly, is the one to he abolished, the other admired ? 

The honest peasants, the humble tradesman, the poverty-stricken 
vomen, and ali the lower orders of the people, did not employ their 
ffiantles for these wicked purposes> but they placed them under and 
fiapped them over their larga families at night ; by day they used 
them either to cover their naked limbs, or to conceal their ragged clothes, 
oieren their best clothes; for to appearin public ^ithout some kind 
of long npper gannente they regarded as unbecoming. The hairy 
fiinges attachèd to the hem of the mantle, and projecting particularly 
irom the hoods, were generally useful as a protection against the rain. 
The material of the mantle was not always of coarse or flimsy stufT. 
ItTaried according to the higher or lower rankof the wearer, sometimes 
fine, sometimes coarse, often died with purple, and adomed witb fringes 

And as foT ali other good women, sunshine, they that bave beene but 

vhich love to doe but little worke, a little while in Ireland can well 

W handsome it is to lye in and witness.*' Dublin Edition, p. 89. 
or to louse themselves in the 



[Cap. XIII. 

pendere vìdemus. £jusmodi autem Iknboram non unus sed miiltiplex 
ordo in sttperìbri sagì ora congerebatur^ ut dessitate sua et majori esset 
ornamento^ et colli nuda accommodatius foTeret Ut qui chlaHiides 
Hibemicas è pingui tantum lacerna confici, et pendentes ex éanun orìs 
fimbrias equini» jubsB siinilitudinem referre statuunt, non verìtatem 
sed sttu^ csdumniandi studium prodant. 

Uscrs'bajus eblamidis lege nonnunquam vetitus est, sed postea sic 
recTU^uit, ut ejus gestatio vix unquam ante frequentior fuerit. Nuper 
autem quidam Hurdeus è fabro Ugnarlo ut accepi militum protrìbunus 
absente Petro Stuburs tribuno negotiani olim institore GalvisB domina- 
batur. Is aliquo genio malo correptus, ut sagum a nemine gereretur 
edicto indixit. Nimirum satis non érat Hibemos avita religione, et 
possessione excuti, nisi etìam hoc antiquo gestamine exuerentur. Mox 
cernere erat plerasque foeminas virorum pallia centra decus gestare ; 
graves aliquas matronas opibus rapacitate militum exhaustis attritas 
vestes se pannosas omnibus aspiciendas exbibere coactas, veì è mensis 
tapetes, vel è parietibus perìstromatis laciniam, vel pendulas è tboris 
cortinas abreptas in bumerìs gestare : Àlias mulieres aut lectorum lodi- 
cibus ac tegetibus, vel mensarum mappis, et quibuscunque aliis vetera- 
mentis armos tantum texisse. Ut jurasses Galviam tum scenam quan- 
dam fuisse histrionibus, ac mimis celebrem, qui tanta ludicrarum vestium 
varietate spectatoribus risum moverent.^® Ergo *' pbalingarum," (ut 
Giraldus e voce Hibemica^ efformat) abrogatio non ad omatiorem in 
[122] vestitu cultum ut praì se Hurdus ferebat inferendum instituta est sed 
de industria, ut civibus ludibrio habitis | gubemator cum sociis ora 
cachinnis distorquerent, ut milites non sòlum abrìpiendis penulis ques- 

18 Topogr. lib. 3, e. IO, 

h Carpenter's shop. The Irish held 
the Cromwellian settlers in great 
contempt, because it was generally 
believed that inanj of the officers in 
Cromwell's army hadbeeH mechanics. 
A very curious reference to this fact 
is fonnd in the letter of the Catholic 
Bishops to Col. Feagh O'Toole, dated 

May, 1650/. ** The pressing calamitie 
of this kingdome, wherewìth the holy 
Oatholique Apostólique and Roman 
religion, bis saered Majestie's righi, 
and the just libertìés of us, his loyall 
Bubjects, are like to be trode under 
foote by a company of prophane and 
Mechanical ReMls.*» 


•of sili, or at least with a delicate thread of wooUen, aróitiid ths borden ; 
to the sides of the mantle was attached a plaìn, narrow sekage, so 
voven that the threads should flow down from its borders, like the 
ftìnges whìch are usnally seen hanging from the curtains of a bed. 
But, on the uppermost border of the iirantle, several folds of those 
seirages were arranged^ which> by their swellìng proportions^ were at 
«Dee more ornamentai, and concentrated more warmth on the naked 
aeck. The man who descrìbes the Irish mantle, as a greasy kersey, 
md compares the fringes flowing from its borders to a horse's mane, 
JDay prove bis malignant wit, but not a love for truth. 

The use of this cloak was once prohibìted by law, but it was after- 
vxrds revived^ and became more general than at anj previous perìod. 
Ifot long ago, a fellow named Hurd, who was promoted, I bear, from 
ib carpenter's shop'* to a lieatenancy in the ^rmy, was govemor of Gal- 
vay in the absence of Peter Stuburs, the superintendent of commerce, 
fbo had once been a pedlar. Hurd, under the prompting of some evil 
if int, issued a proclamation that no person should dare to appear in 
die mantle. To persecute the Irish for the religion of their ancestors, 
iDrobthem of their father*s property was not enough, if the ancient 
iress itself were not doomed to the same proscription. But lo ! next 
itjr the unseemly exhibition in the streets of Galway— «most of die 
JB»&en appearing in men's coats — high-bom ladies^ who had been 
|hndered of ali their property by the rapacious soldiers, sinking with 
ihme before the gaze of the public, with their ragged or patched 
l^thes, and sometimes with embroidered table covers^ or a strìpe of 
ì^)estry toij^ down fìrom the walls, or some lappets cut from the bed 
tortains^ thrown over their head and shoulders. Other women covered 
^ir shoulders only^ with blankets or sheets, or table cloths, or any 
^& sort of wrapper they could lay their hands on. You wpuld bave 
taken your oath^ that ali Galway was a masquerade, the unrivalled 
lume of scenic buffoons, so irresistibly ludicrous were the vari ed dresses 
^the pooT women. No, the abolition of the *' phalingaB** (as Giraldus 
pm the word from the Irish) was not intended for the introduction of 
imore becoming fashion of dress as Hurd pretended. It was planned 
fcr the sport of himself and bis associates ; that they might distort their 
^isages and shake their sides at the ridiculous plight of the people, and 


tttm facerent, sed civibus praeter bona laclirìmas etiam elicerent.^^ Ni- 

" Asperìus nihil est humili cum sorgit in altum, 
Nec bellua tetrior ulla est 
Quam servi rabies in libera colla furentis." 

Sed injoriarum Hibemis illatarum reputatio melongiusjusto abduxit 
nunc ad Cambrensem redeo; qui Hiberaos " braccis caligatisi ceu 
caligis braccatis uti scribit*'^^ Apud Hibernos bracca indumentum est 
continuum non intercisum, soccos^ tibialia^ et fceminalia complectens, 
quo uno ductu qui pedibus suris et femoribus induat. Nec enim 
"fluitans** erat (ut ait Tacitus) "sed strictum^ et singulos artus ex- 
primens.'*^^ Ut in eam illud Sydonii quadret ;2^ 

*' Strictius aasut» yestes procera coercent 
Membra virom, patet ila arctato tegmine poples." 

Inguinem tegunt quidem bracete, ita tamen ut piane sudare videantur 
nisi longiora tunicarum peniculamenta eidem obtenderentur. Ho> 
nestius meo quidem judicio quam Helvetii, et Suevi, qui suam 
indecoram vestium formam etiamnum pertinacissime retinenc, qua ìllas 
corpòrìs partes quas honestas jubet esse reconditas, obscenis Prìaporum 
simulacbris veluti femoralium prsssidibus gloriosule exprìmunt et 
oculorum pudicitiam tentant. Quibus potiori jure barbarise macula 
inbsereat quam Hibemis, qui turpitudinem suam propalam non osten- 
tant. Huc accedit qnod Gallia tota braccata à braccis gestatis dieta 
fuerit. Ut ejusdem indutus communio si barbarie Hibernos non peni- 
tus liberet saltem levet : boc autem gestamen ideo tam- mordicus ab 
Hibemis retentum esse sentio, quod iis innata pemicitas in alia veste 
non adeo expedita foret.^^ Cursum enim equi quam vis incitatissimo 
gressu properantis peraìcìtate plemmque adacquante ut in fugientium 


19 Claudia. Entrop. aoTopogr. d. 3, e. 10. 3i De morib. German. 32 Paneger. 


that the soldiers mìght not only make money by the confiscated cloaks, 
but vmng with bis property bitter tears from the citizen. Truly, 

" None are more Aeree, than upstarts raised io power, 
Nor any breast more fell 
Than alaTes, heneatìi whose rod their matien cower/* 

ini Ihare been hurried away from my sabjeet by this reflection on the 
«rongs of Ireland. I now return lo Cambrensis, who says that " the 
hish wear breeches ending in shoes or shoes ending in breeches."^ The 
keecfaes nsed by the Irish was a long garment, not cut at the knees, 
but combining in itself the sandals^ the stocking, and the drawers^ and 
énwnhy one pulì over the feet and thighs. It was not flowing (to use 
awordof Tacitus), but tight, and revealing the shape of the limbs ; not 
unlike what Sidonins describes, 

** A doaely fitting dress their limbs compresses, 
Ko traìling robe their lega conceals.'* 

The breeches cover the groin> but not sufficiently^ if the long skirts 
«fthetanic were not wrapped over them.® This precaution is, in my 
opQÓOTt,more decorous than the custom of the Swiss and Swabians, who 
notaio, even at the present day, a very unbecoming and immodest dress, 
vi are consequently more open to the imputation of barbarism than 
^e Irish, who do not ofiend modesty in their national costume. More- 
wer, ali Gaul was once called Braccata, from the breeches wom by her 
snu, a custom which ought to extenuate if not overthrow the charge of 
hobarism against the Irish. The chief motivo, in my opinion, of the 
obstinate adherence to this dress, is the facilities it aifords for the full 
csercise of their naturai fleetness. They can generally keep pace with 
&e coorser galloping at bis greatest speed ; sometimes they will bound 
i^behind the retreating trooper, and, seizing him tightly by the middle, 
«àther dash him to the ground or carry him off prisoner.' The more 

'Pettystates, A.D. "thatthefoot- quite lost among them." Politicai 
''""tthip, for which the Irish forty Anatomy, e. vi. 
y«ti8 ago were very famous, Ì8 now 


210 cambrensis eversus. [Cap, 

equos assultu quandoque ferantur, et sessores arcte medios complexi 
vel in humum proturbant, vel in captivitatem obducant. Cateri nos- 
tratium ordines braccas ante me natum posuerunt; plebeios ad eas 
penitus exuendas minse judicum, aut mulctae adducete non potuerunt. 
Tandem ante fimestum hoc bellum anno Domini 1641 inchoatum^ 
plebei partim ultro^ partim sacerdotum hortationibus^ femoralibus eas 
mutarunt. In Ultonia. tantum rarior usus tum visebatur. Prseeones 
enim sacri sicut hominum animis virtute sic morìbus cultura expoliendis 
sedulo incumbebant^^ ** Quoties aliquis" inquit Redanus^ '^ nobili 
praesertim^ aut honesto loco natus extremum halitum efflat, confluunt 
quamplures muLieres^ de more potius, quam de dolore, quee femmineo 
clamore et perquam flebili voce omnium aures obtundunt.^^ Ssepe capita 
nudiuìt, crines lacerante frontem, genas, pectora tundunt, manus identi- 
dem in cselos attoUunt, juxta morem ab Horatio expressum> qui conduetì 
plorant in funere, dicunt, et faciunt propè plura dolentibus, hoc cum 
prìmum ad funeream domum accedunt. Intennissa deinde saepe re- 
staurant: maxime cum mortuus efiertur, et ad templum in quo sepul- 
chrum est, funerìs pompa pervenit. Tunc ejulatum ingeminant, cadaver 
(si potestas est) amplexantur, oscula infigunt, et humari aegre permit- 
tunt. Contra hanc consuetudinem ex suggestu declamant fidei prseeones, 
verbisque eam et minis abolere conahtur. Et merito, quia vivis in- 
commoda est, nec defunctis commoda."** Quam apposite igitur seripsit 
Analectes " non aliam excogitari posse, vel efficaciorem viam Hibemos 
in officio perseveranter continendi, quam ut condocefiant per tales 
institutores, quorum et benevolentia ipsis non suspecta, fides erga Deum 
comperta ; et erga regem explorata sit fidelitas : Hac regendi arte, 
et sol orda, magis illi movebùntur ad imperata facienda, quam per 
armatam militiam, vel per ferreas leges municipales, vel per cruenta 
comitiorum statuta. Hoc ipsi agrestiores libere pronuntiaut, plus se 
terreri à furto, latrocinio, rapina^ incendio, ul tiene, homicidio, per 
sacerdotum censuras, quam per sehtentiam judicum capital ium. 

24 In Macha. pag. 264. « De arte. 26 Pag. 160. 

ff The originai implies apparenti^, ter before the conclusion of the war. 
that the author had writtenthis chap- h The editor has made maoj fruii- 

Chip. Xin.] CA.MBRENS1S EVBRSUS. 211 

respectabie ranks of society had laid aside the bracete before I was 
boni, but neither the threats of judges, nor pecuniary fine, could com- 
pel tbe bambler orders to abandon them altogether. At length, however, 
before fliis fatai war broke out in 1641,^ they trere prevailed upon, 
partljby the exhortations of the clergy or of their own accord, to lay them 
asfde. Ulster alone had stili preseired them in a few places. The 
priests in their sermons not only instructed their flocks in the principi es 
ofrirtne, bnt also in the refinements of civilized manners. Redan 
relates, " that on the death of any respectabie person, especially a noble, 
a great number of women assembled, more through habit than from 
gnef^ and stunned the ears of the assistants with loud and most piteous 
wailings of sorrow; They strip their heads> tear their hair, strike their 
Meads, cheeks and breasts, throw up their hands occasionally to 
hmen, in the fashion of those hired moumers described bv Horatius 
isweeping at funerals, ' who said and did more than they who really 
^ept' They generally arrive as soon as possible at the honse, interrupt 
•Bd renew their wailings, especially when the corpse is home out, and 
'ben the fonerai procession arrives at the church where the graVe is 
pwpared. Here they redouble their loud shrieks, embrace the corpse 
(iftìiey are allowed), cover it with kisses, and hardly allow it to be 
feweieà to the grave. The priests from their pulpits constantly de- 
Doonce this custom, endeavouring by prayers and threats to abolish it, 
«od assnredly very jttstly, for it is offensive to the living and of no use 
to the dead."*" There is profound tnith in the words of the author of 
tbe Analecta, " that no more efficacious way could possibly be devised> 
ofrestraining the Irish constantly within the bounds of duty than the 
ttinistry of those instructors, whose benevolence is not suspected by 
^em, whose faith in God is known, and whose Idyalty to the king is 
tiied. By these means and agencies of govemment they can be more 
«ffectually moved to dischatge their duties than by hosts of military, or 
non mimicipal laws> or the bloody enactments of Parliament* The 
meanest peasants themselves declare plainly, that the dread of the cen- 
^es of the church is more powerM than that of capital punishment 

^ mqTÙries to find a copy of this tion of ìt is in the library of the Irish 
*9rk of Bedan*8 ; an unpublished por- College at Salamanca. 


Plusque fonnidare interdictum Ecclesiasticum quam ab igne et aqua 
[123] interdictìonem regìam, plus abstentionem à divinis et suspensionem, | 
quam corporalem in carcere detentionem, vel suspendium. Aliae illse 
miuae aures eoruin feriunt^ corda vix penetrante ista vero qu» presby • 
terorum mìnìsterìo, fiuut prsecordia vulnerante et intima eomm viscera 
contrucidante etc. :" quam rem adversarius ipse Rivius annuere videtur 
cum Analectae narrationes infirmare aggressus, locum hunc nec minimum 

Quid quod ab ipsis Romanis Brace» tanto despicatui habitce non 
fuerinte ut non aliquando latum clavum iis mutaverint.^^ Germanici 
enim legatus, et copiarum Vitellii dux decantatus AlienusCaecina, '' ver- 
sicolore sago, braccas tegmen barbarum indutus, togatos alloquebatur."^^ 
Alexander Magnus Persarum veste et disciplina delectatus^ patrios 
mores exosus est» Ut de ilio dici potuerit ; quod eum " prò patrio 
cultu, barbara bracca tegit/* Miror cur Cambrensis sibi persuaserit 
Hibemos à braccis ferendis barbariem retulisse : cum Britannis suis 
eas gerere solemne fuerite autbore Martiali bis verbis.^^ '' Veteres biaccae 
Britonis pauperis." Sane bracca plurium nationum vestis erat, Persarum 
ut Ovidius jam tradidit.^® Scytharum, Sarmatarume Vangonume Bata- 
vorume et Hebraeorume disparì tamen forma. Diodorus dìcit eam 
vestem fuisse fluxame intonsamque, ac vani colorìs^ qua utebantur frigi- 
diorìs plagse bomines. De Scytbis Ovidius ;^^ 

'* Fellibus et satis arcent malafrigora braccis : 
Oraque de tote corpore sola patent." 

De Sarmatibus Mela. '* Totum braccati corpus, et nisi qua vident, 
etiam ora vestiti." De Vangonis, aliisque Lucanus t^^ 

'' £t qui te laxls imitantur Sarmata braccis 
Vangones, Batavique truces." 

« TacitUB hist. lib. z. M Curtius lib. 6, e. 8. « Lib. 11. Eoist 22 
30 Lib. 6. 31 Tristium lib. 3, El. 10. 32 Lib. 3, cap. 1. 


itself, ìd deterrmg them from theft, robbery, rapine^ bumings, revenae, 
and manslaiighter : and that they fear more an ecclesiastical interdict 
tkn a rojral interdìction of fire and water — and a suspenaion or ab- 
staining from Divine worahip, than of coiporal detention in a prìson or even 
of hMgmg. These oiher threats thunder on their ear, and scarcely go 
totieheart; but those which issue firom the priestbood wound their 

conscieuces and harrow up the very depthsof thebr souls, etc." Reeves 

lùinself appears to bave acknowledged these facta; for while he endea- 
Tonrs to refute the narrative of the Analectist on other pointa, he does 
flot make the least allosion to thia. 

The Romana even were not averpe to this Irish gannent, as they 
«medmea substituted it for the latus clavua. Alienoa Csecina^ the pro- 
àmeà leader of the forces pf Vitellius and ambassador of Germanicus, 
dothed ìq bis many colored cloak, and the barbarian brace», addressed 
4e Romana. Alexander the Great, admiring the Peraian costarne and 
iisdpline, adopted them in stead of those of bis own country, realizing 
in liimself the remark, " that the barbarous brace» sopplanted with him 
h costume of his country." Is it not astonishing how Cambrensis 
coald attribute the barbarism of the Irish to the brace», it being, above 
aUdoiibt, that it was part of the national costume of the Brìtish, as 
Martialis observes, the " old brace» of a poor Briton." More nations 
than the Britons used the brace». It was wom by the Persiana, as we 
ilare aeenfìx)m Ovidius, and, though in different forms, by the Scythians 
the Sarmatians, the Vangones, the Batavians, and the Hebrews. Ac- 
«rding to Diodorus, the dress, as wom by the natives of cold climates 
WS loose, and covered with hair, and of various colora. Of the 
Scythians, Ovidius writes — 

" In skins and brace» wrapt, no cold he léars ; 
Of bis wholefirame, his fiioe alone appears.*' 

The Sarmatians are described by Mela as having their whole bodv 
«en their face, except their eyes, enveloped in brace». Of the 
\angones and others, Lucanus says — 

** With thme Sarmatia's flowing braccse vie, 
And Vangones and Batavians Aeree. " 


Daniel propheta pueros ^' cum braccia et tìarìs inissos fuisse in carni- 
Qam ignis ardentis naixat."^ Quem locum S. Hieronimus addacens : 
^' Feipinalia inquìt, et brace» usqae ad genua perstrìngentes." S. 
Isidorus docet femoralia dici quoque braccas.^ S. Alcuinus dedarans 
quid sint feminalia reteris sacerdotis ait: ''Hujusmodi habitus ita 
notus est in nostrìs regionibus ut ex eo Gallìa braccata denominata sit." 
Nec novum est unam vocem ad plures^ res significandas adhiberì, 
quarum ijlam denotabit^ quam volet usus^ quem penes arbitrìum est et 
jus et norma loquendi. Itaque braccarum usus à tam sacrìs viris, et 
tam variis gentibus frequentatus^ vai omnem braccia barbarìem penitus 
detraxit, vel saltem plurimum remisit 

Verum Cambrensis veritus ut barbarie telum ob improperatam 
vestem, Hibemis non infigeret^ nuditatem iis exprobrat dicens: ìllos 
■' nudos et inermes ad bella procedere, arma prò oneroj inermes dimicarc 
prò honore babere."^ Mandragoram à Cambrensi haustam fuisse 
pportuit, cui ò memoria effluxerunt vestium genera ab Hibemis usur- 
pata, qu83 ipse paulò ante humeravit, scilicet caputia, braccas caligatasi 
ceu caligas braccatasi et pbalingam> quse suiiima restia erat, et Hiber- 
norum leena. Quis crederet Hibemos intra privatos parietes bis nsos, 
et iisdem abjectis nudos ad bellum ptofectos fuisse P Et non solum 
veste, aed edam armis orbos in pugnsa arenam cum hoste descendisae. 
SummsB fttit stultitìsB in publicum sino reste prodire, extrems dementi» 
nuda Intera boati Qdedenda, et se ultrò jugulandos prsebere. Imo centra 
è Solino constat I^ib^nios à teneris unguiculis armorum studio imbtitoa 
fuisse.^ Etenim <^ puerpera inquit quando marem edtdit, primos cibos 
gladio imponi t luariti, inque os parvuli sim^mo mucrone auspicium 

83 Gap. 3. 34 Epist. 128, Ub. 1, O^c. e. 18, Ub. 19, e. % et 22. 35 To- 
pogr. d. 3, e. 10. 36 Gap. 24, 

i Lesley is of opinion that the rum,** p. 58. 

braccae wom by the ancient Scots was k of the Welsh Giraldus also says, 

the same garment as the chlamys or tliat thej fought ** nudi, inermes'^ 

the mantle. De origine, SfC. Scoto- against maìl-clad warrìors. Descriptio. 




The Propfaet Daniel descrìbes the Hebrew boys who were cast into 

\himng fumace, as dressed in braccae, and tiaras, apassage, thusìnter- 
tedbj Su Hieronymus, " in drawers and brace», tight to the knees/* 

lefemoraUa were, according to St. Isidorus, also called braccae. St. 
Emo, also, descTÌbing the drawers of an old prìest, says, " that a dress 
ÙBi kind was so common in our country, that Gaul was thence 
braccata.' " Nor is it by any means astonishing that the same 
should bave difierent signìfications, use, the rule and standard 

laoguage, deciding in which it should he taken.^ The use of the 
idd, by so holy men, and in so many difiFerent nations, must either 

leem it altogether from the ignominy of barbarism, or at least ex- 

hearing, howeyer, that their costume would not fix the charge of 
rism, he reproaches the Irìsh with being naked. *' They ad> 
' he says, ''to battle, naked and unarmed ; arms they regarded 
incumbrance, and to fight without arms, an honor." He must 
dnmk deeply of mandrake, and completely forgotten the difierent 
of dress wom by the Irìsh, which he had descrìbed a few moments 
ì, namely, the hood, the braccae sandals, or the sandal braccai, 
the phalinga, which was the upper garment or cloak of the Irìsh. 
uj man believe that the Irìsh wore this dress in the houses, and 
it off, and marched naked to battle P — nay^ descended into the 
not only without clothes, but without arms P It would bave been 
sive folly to appear in public, without clothes, and excessive mad- 
to expose their naked sides to the enemy's sword, and deliberately 
their throats quiet for the blow."^ On the contrary, it is clear from 

ÌQus that the Irìsh were trained to arms from their earliest infancy. 

ìox when the mother was delivered of a male child, she placed its 

ralliaB, cap. 8. By "inermes," itis 
fest he means that they had not 
defensiye armour used by the 
is. The ancient Gauls fought 

'naked'* in the strict senso of the 
1. ''Longtemps le guerrier trans- 
1, de méme que le cisalpin et le 
ite ayait repoussé Temploi des 

atmes défensives comme indigno dn 
Trai courage ; longtems un point d'hon- 
neur absurde Tavait porte à se dé- 
pouiller memo de ses vétements et a 
combattre nu contro des ennemìs cou- 
vertsde fer." Thierry, Histoire des 
Gaulois, voi. ii. p. 41. 


alimentorum lenìter inferi : Et gentilibus votis optat non aliter quam in 
bello, et inter arma mortem oppetat." Ceumavis idem Molanì Corcagi- 

ensis versu expnmi 

'* Belligeri infiiateB quibus incunabula bellum, 
Et ferro firmata manus, dum nescia ferri 
Gestit in adversos tremulis ululatibus enses, 
Cum mucrone cibos genetrix suspendit acuto. "^ 

Nec armis tantum H iberni, sed armorum etiam omatu capiebantur, 
Ait enim Solinus : " Qui student cultui, dentibus mari nantium bel- 
[124] luarum insigniunt | ensium capulos.*' Haec quia commendationem 
aliquam Hibemorum sapiebant, Giraldus talpa caecior in Solino non 
vidit. Alia antehac à me prolata quae Hibernise probro fuenint, pres- 
sius inculcavit. Et qui cum hoste inermes Hibemos in dimicationem 
venisse mox dixit, calculum dicto citius reducens, arma quibus pugnam 
ineuutes instruuntur enumerata " Tribus" ìnquit " utuntur armorum 
generibus : lanceis non longis, jaculis binis, et securibus amplis, fabrili 
diligenza optime cbalybatis.^ Lapides quoque cum alia defecerint 
bostibus in conflictu damnosissimos^ prse alia gente promptius, et expe- 
ditius ad manum babent." Haec autem arma, quam expeditissimè in 
velitationibus, et pugnis Hibemi vibrabant, ac torquebant.*® Giraldo 
enim teste " una manu, et non ambabus in securi percutiunt, pollice 
desuper manubrium in longum extenso ictumque regente, à quo non 
galea caput in còllum erecta, nec reliquum corpus ferrea loricae tricatura 
tuetur. Unde et in nostris contigit temporibus, totam militis coxam 
ferro utrìnque fideliter vestitam, uno ictu praecisam fuisse. Ex una 
parte equi coxa cum tibia, ex altera vero corpore cadente morìbundo."^^ 
Additque postea " semper in manu quasi prò baculo securim bajulant, 
quaa non ut gladius evaginatur, non ut arcus tenditur, non ut lancea 

37 Idaea togatae constaniiae. pag. 221. 3» Topogr. d.' 3, e. 10. ^ Ibidem. 
4" Ibidem. « Ibidem, e, 21. 

chapHH.] camb&ensis byersus. 217 

iÌTst food (m her hnsband's sword> and gently ìntroduced this first snp* 
port of nature into the mouth of the infant, on the weapon*s point — 
pming at the same time the national vow that the child might never 
die except in war or in arms." The poetical version by Moylan, of 
Cori, my he more pleasing : — 

" The soldier babes war's image earl/ know, 
Their tiny hands aoon nerved to strike the blow, 
Stretch from the cradle with tremulous cries to seize 
The food their mother from the sword^s point gives. 


Bat tbe Irish were not only food of the arms themsehres, but also of 
noamentiiig their armsaa Solinus relates^ ''that those who ai^ired to eie- 
9Bce, decorated the hilts of their swords with the teeth of the moQSters 
flf thedeep.'* But Giraldus» who was toad blind to every thing creditable 
lo the Iiish, did not see that passage ; though he aggravated with ali 
^ rhetoric the charges already produced. But even himselC after 
>iùg how the Irìsh marched naked into battio^ retracts bis own 
vvds immediately» in a description of the arms with which they 
^%ed themaelves. " They nse three kinds of arms : short lances^ 
^<)jVi!lÌDs, and ponderous battle-axes, of steel, tempered with the 
,™start When ali other weapons fail> they buri stones with most 
'**lljprecision agamst the enemy, in quicker succession and velocity 
!">Dany other people/* These arms were brandished, and burled by 
|«6 Irish with astonishing vigor, botb in tbe skirmisb and in the 
wtle. Giraldus describes them ''aswielding the axe> not with two 
"twìthonearm, the thumb extending along the upper side of the 
^ and directing the blow, from which neither belmet springing from 
^ Qeck, Dor tbe iron plates of mail, could protect eitber head or 
"^)- Whence, in my own day, it has bappened, that a soldiers tbigh, 
'^ped on botb sides in mail, was lopped off at one stroke — the tbigh 
^'^ leg fallìng down at one side of tbe borse, the mutilated and ex- 
tnink on tbe other." " His axe," he adda, " was always in bis 
like a walking staff, not sbeathed like a sword, not bent like tbe 
iiot propelled like the javelin, but after a sligbt poising — down it 


protenditur ; citra oinnefxn pra&paratuin parum elevata lattale vulnus 
ìnfligit. A seeuribasitaque nulla securìtas.^^ Si 9ecurum te reputes, 
securìm sentias. Si securìm admittis securìtatem amittis." 

Constat ex Frossardo Hibemi» reges filios suos septennes tantum 
ephebos equestri dignitate in^gnivisse,^® qui bastìludii simulachro ad 
suam augurationem honestandam edìto^ tenuiores hastulas tener» 
ipsorum setatulse accommodatas in panna perfregerunt affixà palo in 
late patentis campi area collocato. Sic Moeltulius Kierrìae Juncosse 
regulus S. Carthagum adhuc puerum in ter equites relaturus^ ense, 
clipeoque equitum symbolis eum armare aggressus est. Tantum igitur 
abest ut Hibemi pugnam non armati civerint^ ut potius rudes suorum 
annos armorum rudimentis iuformaverint 

Porrò Giraldi sedulitatem nìhil effugit^ qui cum in barbari» nota 
Hibemis à vestita^ et nuditate inurenda mirìficè se torqueret, à pilis 
etiam ad eos barbariem accersit Sed ejus causa bine ne pilo quidem 
melior est.^^ Hibemos dicit esse " gentem barbaram tam barbaram 
quam vestium cultu, et non tantum barbaro vestium ritu, verum etiam 
comìs, et barbis luxuriantibus/' Perindè ac si Longobardòs^ asceticos 
eremicolas^ venerandos Capucinos, ìntonsos quoscunque, ac pilorum 
àlvis obsitos in barbarorum album referendos esse senserit Ut debe- 
amus (ilio judice) tonsornm novaculis urbani tatem acceptam referre,** 
et sEistimare Romanos non ante barbariem excussisse^ quam anno ab 
urbe condita 454. P. Tinius Mena primus è Sicilia tonsorem indux* 
erit; adeo ut nemini'sit ultra tonstrinam peregrinandum sui urbanitate 
imbuendì gratià, tonsoribus et lippis magistris.*^ Quamquam omnibus 
Hibemis barba non luxuriaverit, quandoquidem milites mentis abrasis, 
et superiori labri mvstace noù sursum prominente, sed deorsum pen- 
dente ad bellum progrederentnr, ut ea à eultissimo Warraeo exhibita 
liquido exprimit,*^ opinante forsitan cum Tacito cultum et ingenia 
Hibemorum, non multum à Britannis differre, et t;um Cassar hos bar- 
bam in superiore tantum labro alere tradat, Hibemos aléndi mystacis 
consuetudinèm à Britannis mutuatos fuisse. Nam alinndè morem 
hunc familiarem Hibemis fuisse, expiscari non potui. Nec perplexam 

42 Hiber. expug. lib. z. e. 35, 37. *3 Volum. 4, e. 63. 44 Top. d. 3, cap. 10. 
45 Plinius. 46 Antìq. p. 59. 47 De bello Gallomm. 

Ceap.XIIL] CAllBKENaiS SVEB8U8. 219 

^omes suddenlj, a mortai wound. Against theaze there Ì8 no antidoto. 
[I yon tbink joorself safe, you may feel the stioke. Admit the 
battle-aze, and jou banìsh securìty/' 

Yvm Froissart's account it appears» that the kings of Ireland de- 
coiated their joung sons, at the age of seren years, wìth an order of 
hjgiitbood. Oh the day of inauguration a toiunament was held on 
«HDd Wide extended plain. The royal jouths were provided wìth light 
ivelins, accommodated to their tender age> which they hurled at a shield^ 
lixed to a pde. Thus, Moeltul, dkiìeftaui of Corco Liuiehra in Eeny^ 
^en eniolling St. Carthag, as yet a bOy> in the order of knighthood, 
^^ by arming him with the Inoìghtly w«ipon8> a sword and fihield. 
Ibe Imb, therefore, instead of going to battio unarmed> were trained 
ùams from th^r tendereat years. 

NothÌQg, however, can escape the diligence of Ghraldos* Hoving by 
n astooishing per?ersion of ingenidty made both the dress aud the 
Bikeèiess of the Irisib, evidetices of their barbarìsnij he next descends 
^eriticize their barbarotis hair. But bora bis failure is as conspicuous 
Ko&other pointd* "The Iridh/' he says, "are a barbarous people, 
lortttnms both in the fashion of their dtèss, and not barbarons in that 
,lmteTen in their hair and luzuriant beards." As if the Lom- 
and the ascetic hermits, and the venerable Capuchins, and 
sllotliers who use no razors to their wdl«clothed heads and chins, were 
to he classed among barbarìans. 

1/ this be so, the razor must (in bis opinion) he hàiled as the great 

^t of civilization, and the Romans must be regarded as barbarous 

^^ the year of their city, 454, when P. Tinius Mena introduced the 

ht barber from Sicilia. The barber's shop is thus exa]ted into a school 

^orbanity, where barbers deliver their lectures. AH the Irish, however, 

U iH)t wear long beards. The soldìers, when màrching to battle, 

iaved their chins, but preserved on the upper lip a moustache, not 

«rling upwards, but hanging down, as they are clearly represented by 

^mostleamed Ware. He probably thought with Tacitus, that the 

wits and character of the Irish were not very different from those of 

^eBritons, who, according to Csesar, preserved the beard on the upper 

^^one, and that the Jrish adopted the same fashion from Britain. I 

■^^e not been able to discover any other authority for the prevalence 


ìUam sapra labrum superìus silvam non alìter bine et bine promiiu 
tem^ quam solent in fellibus pili longiores Hibemis in usu fuisse usqo 

An iEgiptii prò barbaris Cambrensi babebnntur, qui peregrè profe 
sive bellandì^ sive ìtinerandi causa, quoad domum reverterentur, 
barbam nutriebant, et comam, cujus luxuriem quod Hibemi non re 
cuerìnt protinus à Giraldo barbari conclamabuntur, et si apud Lace 
monios nutritìo comarum ingenuitatis sjrmbolum fuerit, et à promi 
coma Galliae comatae Tocàbolimi defluxerit. Imo etiam ipsi Cambr 
[125] sis I populares bunc morem aride arrìpuerunt, '* Et tanquam moder 
novitates** (ut ìlle loquitior) ampie» fuerunt. Cujus stadio etiamn 
adeo tenentur, ut si natura vitium crines decurtaverìt> vel adscit 
capillo comse longitudinem ementiantur. Itaque si à promissa essa 
Hibemi à Giraldo barbari audiunt, nescio qua ratione barbarìae noti 
suìs absterget, qui in decore ponunt csesarìati esse quam maxii 
Consuetudinem igitur fovendse comae ab Hibemis mutuatosi vel annes 
barbariem imbibere oportuit, vel saltem barbariem Hibemis elu* 
Nisi malit Giraldus promissos capillos barbarìae sordibus ideo pargs 
esse, quod eam sibi consuetudinem sui adsciverint, perìnde ac si 
essent gallinse albte filli, nos viles pulii, et è vetere nostratium n 
novum sibi morem quo glorìentur efformantes, tanquam ex aptatìs 
nostrìs veteramentis glorìolam aucuparentur. 

Licet autem Hibemi comam per scapulas diffluere passi fuerint, : 
tamen aperto capite incedebant, sed bireto caput operìebant,^^ ac ù 
prorsus capitis indumentum quo Galli utebantur gestabant ; '' birei 
scilicet oblongum, ac velut in conum exiens,*' quod Barred Hiben 
dicimus, voce à latina dictione Biretum ut verìsimile est defiexà. L 
ejus erìgo posset etiam referrì ad vocem Hibemicam Barr, qu» coni 
et Eda quae vestem significat Ut Barred perìnde sit ac coms V6 
ceu tegmen. 

Calceis quoque '' anteriore parte in tenuem conum protensìs,"^^ u 
etiam Gallico, Hibemi pedes induebant, soleà duntaxat una suffi^ 
quo magis ad celerem cursum babiles essent. Foeminarum capita t^ 
obvolvebat tenuoris tolse, vel crassìorìs prò mulieris ordine, aut fs^ 

48 Diodor. *^Joanni Boaemi Aubani de moribus geutium 1, 3, cap. ì 
50 Ibidem. 

Caipini] CAHBBENSIS BTER8U9. 221 

oftbe fashion among the Irìsh» nor bave I ever read that they wore 
thoaelong wreathed curia piojecting out at both aidea» like the. long 

Cambrenais date to aay that the Egyptiana were barbarians^ 
wl)o,f]ienerer they departed from home, either on a journey or U>x 
«V, after thdr return leared theìr beards and haìr as luxuriantly as 
ie Irìsh whom he charges wìth barbarìam P what, if among the 
IkedemoQians, long hair waa a mark of noble birth, and Gaul had ita 
Itale "Cornata" from the long hair of her sona P Even bis own 
isQDtryiDen, the Welsh, adopted the &sbion most eagerly, '' embraeing/' 
tobesajs, "the modem norelties ;" and to this day, so fond are they of 
% tkt if nature haa refuaed them long hair, the defect la supplied by 
^ cizrìs. Now, if the long hair of the Irìah provea that they were 
ÌBkoas, how can Giraldus exculpate hia own countrymen from the 
N charge, since the omament of which they are proudeat is the 
kviog hahr ? The cuatom which they adopted from the Irìah, must 
m either inoculated them with barbarìsm, or the Irìah muat he ab- 
md &om the imputatìon of barbarìam, unleas Giraldus mean to aay 
ht the long hair ceased to he barbarous when it grew on Welahmen, 
pii% were sona of the white ben, not filthy chicks, and metamor- 
ff^ that old custom of oura into a new and favorìte fashion, and 
^Bfi^ìt an honor to fit themselves out in our cast-ofi* clothes. 
[ M thoQgh the Irìsh wore their hair flowing down their shoulders, 
|e head was not uncovered, They wore a cap, precisely the same 
dress as that of the Gauls, " namely, an oblong cap, of somew])at 
ical form," which in Irìsh is called, B'^jiltéb, probably from the 
word ** Biretum," though its derìvation could also he Irish, from 
Irish B4|i|t^ a cone, and 6bA a dress, which, in combination, sig- 
a conicaì coverìng or dress. 
l'ile Insila like the Gauls, wore shoes, with long slender conical tops, 
only one sole, for the greater celerìty in running. The women 
OD their heads a cap ^of fine or coarse texture, according to their 
or wealth, which was wreathed into many folds, opening to a 
cmte width, a little above the head, and projecting in back and 
^ The top of the head dress, where the front and back united, was 
a sharp point, but a wide line, according to the genuine fashion of 


tatibus multis implexa spiris^ quss paulatìm elatsB in modicam latiti>- 
dìnem à fronte, et à tergo protendebantur : Anticam^ et posticam 
calantìcae partem quse supra caput eminebat coeuntes exilis summìtas 
non acaminata, sed latior excipiebat,*^ germano muliemm Germanarum 
more^ quibus ^' multiplices pepli grandia olim capita faciebant/' viven- 
tibus et videntibus Munstero, et Jeanne Bosemo Aubano sub annum 
Domini 1520.^' Nondum enim eà mundi mnliebrìs paratura fonninae 
nostrates instructss fuerunt^ quam postea natio dominatrix invexit : Nec 
earum erant adhuc cincinni delicate penduli^ et capronaB. Sudaria nec 
dum gestabaut reticulato limbo^ minutispunctis etglobulis inomata, aut 
pietas crepidas, aut orìs blandi gelasinus. Nec faciem purpurisso polire, 
ant ora cerussa depingere solebant Nam qus pulcbras fuerunt, male- 
bant puram maritis conservare ùàem, quam elegantiam pigmentis 
oculere.^^ Si deformes, animse deformitatem non accumulabant ; non- 
dum bseresis extulit è Tartaro caput, qua fceminas in Anglia factas esse 
tam viliter propudia Robertus Tumerus affirmat, ut emant jam non 
vendant noctes. 

Viri de armorum quam vestium nitore magis solliciti officiosas obse- 
quiorum délationes, et blandiores in occursu prò mancipio se deferen- 
tium salutationes, ut mores hodiemi ferunt ignorarunt Ut rudibus 
potius et agrestibus morìbus praediti fuisse, Romanorum instar (qui ab 
aratro deducti dictatnrse admovebantur) quam barbaris dieendi fuerint.^ 
I taque Hibemos merito Beda venerabilis " gentem innoxiam*' appellabat : 
Perinde ac si cum Malmsburiensi diceret :** '* Hibemense genus homi- 
num innocens, genuina simplicitate nihil unquam mali moliens :" 
Aspemabantur vestitus omatiores, et peregrìnos, quia vestitus insignis ac 
moUis superbi» yexillum est, nidusque luxurise, ne in Dei oBTensam 
inciderent.** Qui dixit : " visitabo super omnes qui induti sunt veste 
peregrina." Cultus enim facit mulieres meretrices, viros androginos, et 
effceminatos. Pretiotiorìs igitur indumenti ignoratio tam profuit Hi- 
bemis ad superbiam amovendam, quam vestium luxus transmarinos 
fastu inflavit. 

^i Munstema 1, 3, e. 27. ^^ Aub. 1, 3, cap. 12. 58 Qrat. de cura religìonis; 
^ Lib, 4, cap. 16. ^ Gest. Begum lìb. 1, cap 3. Sopho. 1, r. 8. 


the German women^ ** whose many folded kerchiefs, in the older dmes^ 
gare enonnoas size to theìi heads." Such was tbeir fashion in the 
lifetimeofMimster^ and John Boemus Auban, A.D. 1520. Our women 
badootasyet adopted those fashion8> which were sabsequently intro- 
bj the domìnant nation ; they knew nothing of those gracefully 
corls^ and bold projecting knots. Their kerchiefs were not 
with borderà of lace, oi bottons, or delicate points, they neither 
ifuiited their slippers, nor adomed their smiles with dimples* They 
linotpolish their cheeks with rouge, nor borrow £ùr complexions 
iiom cerose. If they were handsome> they studied more to be inviola- 
Uy faithlbl to their husbands» than to heighten their beauty by orna- 
meni; if they were not handsome, they did not aggravate the defect by 
èfonnity of soul. As yet that heresy had not raised its infemal head 
k England, by which the English women bave become so depraved 
littt, according to Robert Tamer, they are now rather the sedueeors, 
|ttB Ée seduced* 

The men^ also, who were Jtkore solicitous %bout the polìsh of their 
p^% than the elegance of their clothes» were utterly ignorant of that 
<MQ£bÌDg display òf servility^ and thoae bland salutations brealhing at 
^meeting devoted servicq^ so ^shionable in modem times. Un- 
ii^, rustie manners^ like those of the Romans, who raised plough- 
^ to the dictatorship, and not barbarous manners» characterized the 
^' They well deserved the eùlogy of venerabie Beda, '* an inoffen- 
people," as if he would say with Malmesbnry, "the Iiish people 
3Q innocent race of men^ of genuine simplicity of heart, never 
tùnatmg any evil/' They despised foreign and showy dress^ lest 
ly might incut the displeasure of €rod^ for soft and costly raiment is 
standard of pride, and the nest of luzury. " I will visit," saith the 
%"m ali who are clad in foreign dress." Elegance of dress cor^ 
ts the purity of woman^ and makes man effeminate and contemp tibie, 
absenceof costly dress in Ireland Wtts as efficient in suppressing 
\ as luxurìous dress was in gorgiqg the inso3«nce of forei^ersi 





[126] Frtncipes Anglici perftigiiim in Hibernia naoti.— Hiberni Scoti dlcti, et Bibernia Sootla. [ 
Qbo Myi^<^<> BodB Seotnm Britannm denotat.— Anstrales Scoti in Hlbernia erge 
septentrionales.— Qui scripsenint de Scotis et Scoti» nomine Hil>erni8 et Hlbernte 
tendo'. [138] Molti (Angli in Hiberniam stadii et pietotis gratia oonoes8enint.-Alfiri 
rex Northombriae studuit in Hibemia. [129] Ejus Hibernicnm poema. — Agilbertos Ptf 
ensis Episcopns edncatns in Hibernia — Nationes Tari» in Hiberniam S. CsUmU 
andlendi oansa profeot». [130] Q,aam hospitales Hibemi prisci.— Hi1>ernoniin bo« 
talitas.— Qnot villse hospitalitiae in Hibemia.— Lans hospltalitatis. 

Etsi gens Hibemica vestes peregrinas dìù exosa fuerit, non tam 
in exercenda hospìtalitate hospes ac peregrina fuìt. Ut Giraldi 
perfrictae frontis hominem fuisse oportuerit,^ qui ventati bellum ape; 
ìndicens, Hibemos " gentem inhospitam" appellaverit. Ita nimin 
suum Solinum deperiit^ ut ab ejus setitentia vel manifesta ventate li 
pellente divelli non potuerit : ei nimirum probra Hibemis dicenti (ac 
sufiragariy proba vero de iisdem memoranti Giraldus refragrarì 
dubitat Solini autem lapsus, Hibemos gentem inbospitam vo 
eztenuari vel bine potuit, quod rumusculis peregrinantium ut be 
suscipiantur, aut admirabundè siispiciantur^ ficta et facta prò 
memorantium fidem adhibuerìt Giraldi vero culpam nulla sp 
potest abstergere, qui rem omnium sermone, scriptorumque autho 
testatissimam prudens et sciens impngnavit»^ imo ab ipso alibi 
tam dicente : *' Hospitalitatem sanctos viros prò vìribus, imo longè 
vires in peregrìnos, et advenas infatiganter exercere solitos fui 
Audi alios. ''Hibemia" (Tacitum audis) " valentissimam I 
partem magnis invicem usibus miscuit :*' id est, ut Camdenus inte 
tatur : " In Hiberniam multi proculdubiò ex Hi^ania, Galli 
Britannia se receperunt, ut iniquissimo Romanoram jugo colla su 

» Topogr. d. 3, e. 10. « Topogr. dist. 2, cap. 40. 8 Vita Agrico. pag, 

Chap.XIV.] CAMBUENSIS evrrsvs. 225 




pK] Sazon Prmees foand refage in Ireland — Ireland called Scoila, and the Irlsh ** Scoti." 
027} Epitliets 1^ whidi Beda disUnguJabes Ihe Britlsh Scot— Antliors wbo hare written 
onthemeof the worda Scoti aod Scotia as designating Ireland and the Irish. [128] Many 
Eogiish retired to Ireland ft-om a love of learnlng and piety.— Alftid, king of Nortbumbria, 
taMìa Irehmd. [129] Hi* Irish poem.— AgUbert, blsbop of Paris, educated in Ireland.— 
VirìoBs oations flocked to Ireland to the lectnres ofSt. Catbaldas. [130] The Irish very 
IwqàaUe.— Tbeir hospitality in ancient times.— The nnmber of ettablisbments for public 
ìmpMtj formerly in Ireland ^Praises of hospitality. 

Tbough the Irish people had a long and inveterate repugnance to 

pnàgii dress, jet they never were unkìnd or inhospitable to foreigners 

lAaaselres. Nothing but the brazen audacity of Giraldus could dare 

[Ikpugn a most notorìous fact« by stigmatizing the Irish as an inhos- 

|itible people. The opinions of Solinus had so powerful an inflaence 

Wfirbim, that, even where they were manifestly opposed to fact^ they 

Madopted as bis owu ; be the calumnies of Solinus what they may, 

Ds abets them; ìt is only when Solinus speaks favorably^ that 

disclaims him. The error of the foimer, in charging the Irish 

i>eing inhospitable, may perhaps be extenuated by the source of 

ioibrmation, namely, the relations of travellers who sought for a 

leception^ or extraordinary celebri ty by compounding fact and 

^ Bat there is nothing to excuse Giraldus, who knowingly and 

il)erately denìes a fact attested by the public voice of fame and the 

authority of ali writers, and confinned by bis own admission 

■ another place. " These holy men," he says, " were indefatigable in 

pomg hospitality to foreigners and pilgrims according to their 

Ns— nay, far above their means." Listen to others : " Ireland/' 

?s Tacitus, " had* estensive communication with the most powerful 


*Thi3translation gives the meaning " miscuerit," i.e., indicating net what 

Efte passage of Tacitus, as cited hy Ireland was, but what she might be- 
, fflxfftor; but the true reading of come were she incorporated with the 
^' passage is not "miscuit," but Roman empire. 




[Cap. XIV. 

cerent" Natio igitur profugis ad se tunnatim confi uentibus p^fugìum, 
et praesidium praebens, quo pacto inhospita nuncupari possit non video ? 
Edelfrìdi Northumbrorum regis filii Lanfridus/ Oswaldus, et Oswìus 
Edwini^ qui Edelfrìdum interemit furorem declinantes, cum longo 
asseclarum cunaeo, in Hibemìa corporì, animaeque salutis portum nacti 
sunt^ totos sexdecem annos in ea morati, spatio nimirum qnod Inter 617 
et 633 effluzit Non solum ab hostium injuriis, interim sarti tectique^ 
sed etìam è pagnanismi tenebris ad fidei lucem educti.^ Beda enim illos 
ait '* Apud Scotos emulasse, et Osuraldum baptismatis sacramentinn cum 
bis qui secum erant militibus consecutum fuisse." 

Scotus enim Bedae fere semper perindè est ac Hibemus, et Scotia 
semper ac Hibdmia. Nam cum in Scotorum Britanniam incolentìuiu 
mentionem inciditi particulam mox adjicit discrepantiae indicem. Quod 
vel é titulo quem in operis sui limine capiti primo infixit liquidò con- 
stat; qui talis est. ''De situ Brìtanniee vel Hiberaise, et priscis eorum 
incolis." In capitts vero contestu, incolas Hibemiae non Hibemos sed 
Scotos vocat dieens : " Hibemiam esse patriam propriam Scotorum." 
Ut Scotorum nuncupationem Hibemiae indigenis, quam Hibernorum 
potìus impertiendum indicasse videatur, cum aliud nomen iìs in hoc 
capite non indiderit, nec H iberni» incolas in toto opere nisi semel 
Hibemos appellaverìt. Quod si extra Hibemiam Scoti aliqui diversati 
fuerint, eos è patria peregrino» fuisse oportuit, et Scotorum denoìBina- 
tione non proprie affici : Ut Beda tot adjunctis in aditu libri appositi», 
in operis recessu Scotorum nomine solos Hibemos a se denotasi pne- 
monuerit Nec e&im inaniter Hibemise incolas Scotos tantum» nec 
Hibemiam '* Scotorum" non solum *' patriam/* sed etìam " proprie 

4 OolxtittGt. an. 617. ^ Llb. 3, e. 3. 

i> Camden does not adopt that inter- 
pretation as bis own, but cites it as 
a probable ìnterpretation given by 

e It may well be admìtted tbat 
refugee» from Spain, France and Bii- 
tain, did seek an asjlum in ireland 
from the Roman arma, but that tbey 

carne as outcast exìles to beghospi- 
talitj from the natives, and not as 
invaderà to conquer them, appears 
more than doubtfoi. 

^ Beda says, *' among the Scota or 
Picts^" not deciding which. See 
Lanigan, voi il., p. 417, for some 
notice of the arguments of Colgan, 

Chip. Xiy.] CAMBSBNSI8 £V£BSUS. 227 

pntoftbe Empire» that is as CamdeQ mteq)ret8 ìt.^ '' Many fled to 
Irdaoi no doabt, ùoin Spah}^ 6aal« and Brìtaìn^ to escape the most 
oppiare joke of the Romana." With what tbadow o( jaatice can 
tbitoatioo be called iiÀospitable, which gave an asylum and protection 
tocTOffdsof refogees P® The sons of £delfrid, klng of the Northum- 
baiDs^EaDfirid, Oswaid, and Oswy, flying from the sirord of £dwin> 
lAokdsiam Ed^BrkU were received in Ireland with a laige body of 
étiriblbwen, and fomid tfaere an asylum for their corporal and spin- 
ftH im% durìng hùì sixteen years from 617 to 633. They were 
^resenred safe and soand irom tempogral enemies, and brought to the 
Ì|btQ{ MU) from the darkness of paganism. " They were in esile 
tnumgtiieSoots»"^ says Beda» ^' and Oswald, togetfaer with bis faithfrd 
bd o{ soldiers» receired the saccament of bqitism." " A Soot" is 
llaostalways an ''Iriahman/' and ** Scotìa" Ireknd in Beda's yocabu* 
Nj' For whenever he mentioos the Scota inhafoiting Brìtain, some 
pòomatìng restrictum is employed. And this is erident from the 
Wb prefixed to the first chapter, in the very commencement of bis 
p> "Of the Situation of Brìtain and Iraland, and of the ancient 
phbitaDts." Bat in the eourse of the chapter he does not cali the 
wU&ts of Ireland, Irìsh (Hibemos) but Scots^ which he explains 
1^ ''^at Ireland is the proper country of the Scots." " Scots/' 
fa8^ and Bot Iissh^ was> in bis opinion, the premer name of the 
tolB of Ireland, as he gìves them no other name in ali that chapter, 
nm calls them " Irìsh'* ( Hibemos) exoept once in the whole 
liiswork. Bat if any Scots had settled in some other country, they 
re been stningers to Ireland, and could not, in strìct propriety, 
temied Scots ; for Beda himself, by varions ctrcamstanceS' in the 
^commencement ofhis hook, cantions ns that the Irish alone are to 
» anderetood by the " Scots" in the whole eourse of bis work. Is 
te no significancy in what he says, that the Scots only were the 

h &c., &c., who maintain, with more &Torable to the opinion of Dr. 

lutiior, that Ireland was the Lingard, that the Scots or Ficts re- 
in which the princes found ferred to were thoee inhabiting the 
Beda*s expression appeara north of Brìtain. 


patriam" dixit Nimirum sicut à " patria saltem propria Scotorui 
quamcumque aliam regionem exclusìt; sic à Scotorum appellatic 
saltem propria cujusvis plags extra Hibemìam positse incolas amo 
Proinde non censendus est in Historise progresso, alios Scotorum i 
mine designare quam Ijibemos. Avertat enim Deus ut quia pv 
virum tantum, et litteris. et sanctimonià clarìssimum, lectori velie il 
[127] dere, et | unam vocem tam discrepanti sensu efferre, ut lector dab 
heereat, quam ex eà significationem elicere debeat. Sane inter pi 
stantissimos Ecclesiasticse historiae scriptores venerabilis Beda ji 
mentissimo relatus est. In quorum numero conspirantibus doctori 
suffragìis non coUocaretur, si non cumulate hìstorici partes explesst 
cujus prsecipuum officiuni est in sensis animi exprimendis veibon 
perspicui tatem adhibere, ut legentisintellectus ab ejus sensu percipien 
non distraheretur. Quis enim ferat historicum narrationibus, verboru 
ambiguitate tenebras offundentem ? constat profectò Bedam non sole 
nulla dìctionum obscuritate bistoriam suam obfuscasse^ sed etiam api 
tissima orationìs clarìtate illustrasse 

Itaquecum signatè Bedaindicet solos Hibemiee incolas Scotosà 
nominari, quis alium sensum buie voci affingere audebit P eam in hìsi 
rÌ8B decursu inter legendom offendens, nisi particulà aliquà adjectà, q] 
vocis notionem alio transferat P Beda segregiiis sui exprimendi artif 
cum de Scotis Hibemiam non ìncolentibus mentionem inserita discrin 
illicò caute apponi t. Nam cap I. lib. I. coloniam Scotorum in Aqni 
nares Britannife partes deductam '' Dalreudinos" vocat, cap. ultìi 
" Scotos qui Britanniam inbabitant.*' Et 1. 4, e. 25. " Scotos qui eri 
in Britannia/' et 1. 5, cap. ultimo '' Scotos qui Britanniam incolui 
Ut in Bedse seosu rectè discemendo nullus dubitandi locus relictus i 
qui adeo circum^ectè initio demonatravit, qui fuerint ab ipso Se 
proprie nuncupati ; et deinde signanter innait qui fuerint iis ejusd< 
denominationis communione affines ; ut à Beda dictis liquidò perei! 
endis vix ac ne vix quidem aberrarì possit. 

« Dr. Lanigan, ii., p. 420, com- accompanied Aidan and Finan i 

plained that Dr. Lingard in hia Anglo- England ** Scottish monks ;" it W 

Saxon Church, misleads tbe modem certain that these missionaries eit 

readerby callingthemissionarieswho carne directly from Ireland otÌ 


inhéitants of Ireland> that Ireland was not only the country of the 
Scots, bat the proper country of the Scots. For as by caììing 
lìéaà the proper country of the Scots he excludes every other 
country, so he excludes, irom the proper sìgnification of the word 
" Scots," &e inhabitants of ali other conntries except Ireland. In the 
omrseofhis history, therefore,by the Scots must he always understood 
^h.' 6od forbid, that a man so eminent for learning and holiness, 
ioold iead his reader astray, by using the same word in so vague a 
Mse, that it would be impossible to know what it signified. Venerable 
ieda bàs been jusUy ranked among the most celebrated ecclesiastical 
kistoTÌan»-^a nmk which he nerer would bave acquired by the unani- 
moQssuffirage of the learaed, if he had not fulfilled ali the duties of a 
^tam. Of these the most essentìal is» perspicuous narration, ex- 
Fessing the conceptions of the mind so clearly that the understanding 
vf the reader is not tumed astray from the sense : for who was ever ab! e 
operose a histonan, who shrouded his narrative with obscure phrase- 
i^y? Bada is celebrated for a historical style, not merely free 
hn al) obscarit}' of language, but pre-emìnent for luminous perspi^ 

Beda ha?nig, therefore, expressly indìcated, that the " Scots" of his 
^ SR none odier than the Irish, who will presume to attach any 
^ sense to that word, unless there be found in the course of the 
N^tiresome restcìctive qualificatìon, which gìves it a different appli- 
i* Beda, with that falcato us perspicuity which characterized 
whenever he speaks of the Scots inhabiting Ireland, cautiously 
the difference at once* In cap. 1, Lib. 1, he calls the Scotic 
ny planted in Noith Britain, " the Dalreudini/' in the last chapter^ 
Scots inhabitiBg Britain," and lib. 4, e, 25, " the Scots who were 
kBritam," and lib. 5, last chapter, " the Scots who inhabit Britain." 
re cannot, then, be a shadow of doubt on Beda's meaning, since, in 
very outset, he has so distinctly declared, who were the persons 
ffi he calls Scots, properly, and afterwards as expressly points out 
those were who had a simìlar name. It is almost impossible to 
ive how any person could mistake language so clear. 

sisland of Iona, which waa as much bo-finn or Inis Toide. 
^sh ìsland ai that time, as Inis- 


Huc accedit quod S. Aidanum ab Oswaldo rege acceonsitum^ à Scotìs 
septentrionalibus exiisse Beda dkat.^ ^' Qui diem Paschse Dominieam 
à quartadecima luna usqu« ad TÌcesixuam obserrare solebant." Modieo 
autem post intervallo idem adjicit : *' Gentes Scotormn^ quse AusUalibus 
Hiberniae ìnsulae partibus morabantur^ jamdudum ad admoivtion«m 
Apostolicse sedits Antistitis Pascha Coziqbìco rìtu obàervare didicenint.'' 
Ita ut cujuscunque régionis Scoti septentrionales sint inéols9« ejnsdem 
Australior pars in Hiberaia eollocetur. Imo bine constat Bedam sibi 
quam optìmè constare» et Seotos, et Hibemos eadem sìgnifìcatione fere 
semper usurpare. Ut jam liqueat Oswaldum ac fratres institutionem 
ac asylum apud septentrionales Hibemos nactum fitisse. Ubi Oswaldi 
frater^ ac snccessor ^'Oswius à Scotis edoctus ac baptisatus, ìllorum 
etiam lingua optimè imbutus nibil melius quam quod illi docuissent 

Sed quid in re tam trita verba profiindo ? in hac palestarà plures 
literatissimi scriptores feliciter desudarunt^^ et Scodiun ac Hibermam ; 
Scoto» ac Hibeones idem olim sonuisse luculenter evicerunt. Quod 
cumulate prastat Staniburstns in appendice^ Moiamis in natalibus sane- 
torum Belgii. Serarius in notis ad vitam S. Eiliani. Camdenus passim 
in cborographia Britannisà, Petrus Lombardus Arcliiepiscnpus Atma- 
chanus in Commentario de Hibemia, David Rotbus EposeopoisOsatmaisis 
in Hìbemia resurgente ; Hugo Carellus Arefaiepiscoptts Armachanns in 
vita Scoti, Edwardns Maihero in vita S. Aidant, Tiiomas Messinghamus 
in Florilegio Sanctorum Hibeomise, Aaonymus aliquiìs in appendice ad 
vindicias Hiberniae, Thomas Jaimus in notÌB ad Lmtprandum, Jacobus 
Usbierus in primordiis Ecclesiarum Bzitannkarum, Joannes Colganus 
sparsim in Trìade Thaumathurgà, et actis sanotoiiom Hibenùas. In 
eadem etiam arena non segniter decertarumt Joann^ Waddii^^ sacer- 

6 lib. 3, e. 3. 7 Beda, lib. 8, cap. 26. 

f AmoDg the foUowing Ust of Irisb pref^oe tohis wQik, dfititled *' Seconda 

authors, a place ought to bare been pars cursus medici," &c., A.X>. 1647, 

giventoNiallO'GlassanofTyrconnell, dedicated to Pope Innocent X., he 

Councillor of the most Christian King discusses very ably severa! points in 

(of France) Professor of medicine in theecclesiasticalantiq.uitiesof Ireland. 
the University of Toulouse, &c. In the 


In coofiimatioD af theae vìews we must add, tbat according to the 
express testimoBj of Beda, S. Aidan carne on ihe iuvitatìou of king 
Oswild, from the Nortkem Scots, '* who celebrated the feast of Easter 
fìoiQtite 14th moon to the twentieth." Beda adds a little further on, 
"M the nation of the Scota, who inhabited the Southern parta of the 
Ijiisd of Irdand, had long ago leamed to celebrate the Pasch by the 
ammal rìte, by the admonition of the Apostolica! See«" Hence, 
jAereier yoa place tfaat country whìch was inhabited by the Northern 
Seots, the Soathem part of that same country must he placed in Ire- 
kà. iid tbis is an addittonal proof of Beda's consistency in the 
applicràn of bis terms, using invariably the words " Irish" and " Scoi" 
as synoDjmous words. It was among the Northern Irisb, therefore, 
tbtOswikiand bis brothers were protected and educated, "it was 
liiere that Oswy, bis brother and snccessor/' was educated and baptized 
^ the Scots, and acquiied a profound knowledge of their language, 
asd was 80 pleased with what they had taught him, that he wished for 
wbing better. 

Bat ù it not a waste of time to dwell on this trite subject P tbis con- 
ftweisybasahreadyelicited the arduous and successfullecturesof many 
schokrs>^ who bave proved to demonstration that Scotia and 
^Kre in ancieat times other Barnes for Ireland and the Irisb. 
Kirisàbly proved by Stanìhurst in bis appendix, by Molanus in bis 
^rals of the Saìnts of Belgisma^ and by Serarìus in bis notes to the 
Be of St. Kilian. Camden^ in bis Topography of Britain, passim, 
^eter Lombarda Archbishop of Aim.agb, in bis Commentary on Ireland, 
fcrid Rothe, Bishop of Ossory, in bis '* Hibemia Resurgens," Hugh 
Hac Caghwell, Archbishop of Armagb, in bis life of Scotus, Edward 
Hailiew, in bis life of St. Aidan, Thomas Messingham, in bis Florilegìum 
^Irish Saints, an anonymous writer in his appendix to the " Vindiciae 
Hibemia," Thomas Jaimus, in his notes to Luitprand, James Ussher, 
®liis"Primordia Ecclesiarum Britannicarum," John Colgan, passim 
"^ àe Trias Thaumaturgas, and his *' Acta Sanctorum," bave also 
fioved the same fact The same field of controversy has been also 
^'tcessfully occupied by John Wadding, a Wexford Priest, against 
^«nipster, by Philip O'Sullivan against Camerarius, and more trium- 



[Gap. XIV. 

dos Wexfordiensis contra Demsteruin^ Philippus O'Sullevanas contra 
Camerarìum^ et omnium uberrime StephanusVitus^ quorum opera calamo 
tantum exarata, nec dum prselo commissa penes me habeo. Qui hujus 
argumenti uberius cognoscendi desiderio tenentur, in bis fontibus sitim 

Ego intra instituti sermonis oras quas bac digressione transilivi pedem 
[128] referam, et plura bospitalitatis specimina exbibebo: quorum primum | 
Beda mibi subministrat dicens :^ " Erant in Hibemia multi nobilium 
simul et mediocrium de gente Anglorum, qui tempore Finnani et Col- 
manni Episcoporum, relieta insula patria vel divinai lectionis> vel conti- 
nentioris vitae gratia ilio secesserant. Et quidam mox se monasticae 
conversationi fideliter mancipaverunt ; alii magis circumeundo per 
cellas, magìstrorum lectioni operam dare gaudebant. Quos omnes 
Scoti libentissimè suscìpientes vìctum eis quotidianum sine pretio, libros 
quoque ad legendum et magisterium praebere curabant." Non igitur 
unum, alterum, aut pauciores aliquot Anglos, sed plures ac multos hos- 
pitio etiam gratuito Hibemi exceperunt. E quibus multis aliquorum 
nomina è re nata passim Beda edit. Scilicet Edeltum et Edilhìm 
fratres; £cbertum> Vicbertum, Willibrordum cum duodecem sociis 
Hewaldum nigroim, et Hewaldum album martyres, Ceddam^ Addam^^ 
Betti," Accam,*2 Trumherum,^^ Tudam,'* Genigilsum,^^ Vicbertum,^^ 
et quemdam anonymum.^? Et prsBterea triginta^^ S. Colmannum in Hi- 
bemìam comitatos :^^ Ceaddam, et pneterea Suitbertum, Willibaldom, 

8 Ibidem cap. 10 & 11. » Lib. cap. 21. lOLib. 14, cap. 3. " Lib. 3, e. 21. 
i3Lib.3, cap. 13. Lib. 5, cap. 2. 13 Lib 3, cap. 24. "Lib. 3, cap. 26. 
siLib. 5, cap. 13. 16 Lib. 5, cap. 10. n Ibidem. 18 Lib. 4, cap. 4. w Be- 
pa, lib. 4, cap. 3. 

« See voi 1., p. 95, note. White*8 
Works were the means of making a 
reputation for many authors. Her- 
mann Crombach, S.J., in bis life of 
St. Ursula, A.D. 1647, inserts copious 
eztracts from a dissertation of White 
on the same subject. Tom. ii., cap. 
xì., p. 299, et seq. The other Irìsh 
Jesuits who, down to the year 1647, 
had exercised themselves in the eccle- 
siastical history of Ireland, are thus 


mentìoned by NisU 0*GlaB8an, " suo 
hoc pio munere functi simt Inter 
Jesuitas, Barnabas Eserneos, Christo- 
phorus a Sacro Bosco, Gulielmus 
Malone, Henricus Fitzimon, Faulus 
Sherlogus, Petrus Waddingus, Bich- 
ardus ConvsBus et Stephanus Yitus.*' 

h Bishops of Lindisfarne or Holy 
Island, called in Irish, Inis Miodcoitt. 

1 Afterwards appointed Bishop of 

Chap. XI7.] 



phsDtly than ali others, by Stephen Whtte,* whose manuscrìpt works^ 
wU were never printed, are now in my posaession. He exfaausted 
bis séject These autborìties can satìsfy those who may be anxioas 
to stiuij this controversy in ali ita detaìla. 

fietìiming now from thia digreaaion into which I bare been drawn, I 
wlilcooibe myaelf to my own deaign^ to prove, by many other exam- 
pH ^ bospitality of the Irìab ; and of thoae the firat will be taken 
km fieda. *' There were«" he aaya, " many noblea and men of re- 
fectableiaakof the Anglo-Saxon nation who, in the time of Biahopa 
Frnan and Colman,^ left their own native ialand and retired into Ireland, 
eitbet k the aake of aacred leaming or ieading a more holy life. Some 
iiomediately devoted themaelves faithfnlly to the monaatic profeaaion ; 
kt others went abont from cella to cella, aaaiating at the lecturea of the 
different teachera. They were ali moat warmly welcomed by che Iriah, 
vk sttpplied not only ali the wanta of life gratuitoualy» but alao booka 
toread^and mastera to inatruct them. It waa not» therefore, one or 
two, or a few of the Anglo-Sazona, but great crowda and numbera to 
^m the Irish eztended thia gratuitoua hoapitality. Beda givea us, aa 
lùs subjects require aome of the namea of these Saxona. For example : 
Mthaod Edilhem^ bis brother; £cbert,<) Vicbert,^ and Willìbrod,^ 
^)à& twelve aaaociatea, Hewald the black and Hewald the fair 
Martm:"» Gedda, Adda, Betti,° Acca,® Trumhere,P Tuda,« Genigilaus, 

j The monk by whose influence the 
inonastery of Iona at length adopted 
tlieCatholic discipline of the Pasch. 
Theterm used by Beda for the Anglo- 
Saionsresidentìn Ireland ìs generally 
"peregrimis," i.e., •*pilgrim;" not 
"stranger," as J. A. GUes renderà it 
in ìài tranalation of Beda. 

^ Went from Ireland and preached 
^ /ears among the heathens of 

' First bishopof Utrecht. 

^ Companies of Willibrad, and mar- 

tyred by the Saxons (Germane). 

"It is not said that they were in 
Ireland; but they were priests sent 
by bishop Finan to assist Diurna» an 
Irishman, first bishop of the Mercians 
and Midland Angles. 

o Bishop of Hexham, frequently 
mentioned by Beda. 

P Third bishop of the Mercians, &c., 
taught and ordained by the Irish. 

q Bishop of Lindisfame ; educated in 
the south of Ireland. 


WinilMddtim, Lebuìnum, Worenfridnm, Adalbertum» et Willeìcam ac 
alios quorum nomìnibus historìam spargìt.^^ His adde quod Eadfrìdnm 
quem Eadberto anno Domini 698 in Lindisfamensi episcopatu sue- 
cessisse,^^ è Dunelnensis Ecclesise historià à Targato conscripta» et 
Florentii Wigomiensis annalibus Uaheems scripsit^^^ post sex annos in 
Hibemia studiis impensos, Aldelmus epistola salutavit»^^ qu» apud 
Ushasrum decima tertia esi.^^ Quid quod S. Giraldo ejusque tiibus 
patribus, ac ter mille monachis eum in Hibemiam accomitatis bospitium 
Hibemi prsebuerìnt,^^ Eletbrense, et Mayonense monastmom illìs 
elargiti P quorum posterìus non esiguo tempore, sed plurìbus saeeulis 
Anglorum incolatu frequentabatur P etenìm S. Adamnani tenqpore 
'' centum Saxonum sanctorum babitaculum fuit."'^ Et Beda '^ grande 
de modico efiectum, ac ab Anglis inoolis" se vivente iababitatum fidsse 
affirmat^^ S. quoque Segresia 8. Giraldi soror tot sanctimoniales in 
Hibemia sibi audientes babuìt, ut centum ex iis, et ipsam una vice 
pestilentia sustulerit^^ 

In Hibemia etiam Alfirit Northumbri» rex tamdiu moratus est, dum 
vir in scrìpturìs doctissimus evaderet."^ Quem idem Beda dÌ4^t: 
Non paucis temporibus in regionibns Seotorum lectioni <^>eram 
dedìsse, ob am<M*em sapienti», i^ontaneum passum exìlium." Et alibi : 
" In insulis Scotoram exulasse.** Eandem quoque rem carmino pin- 

" Seotorum qui tum versatua incola terris, 
Cffilestem intento spirabat corde sopbiam. 
Nam patrÌ9 fines, et dulda liquerat arra 
Sedulus ut Domini mysteria disceret exul." 

Eundem Alfridum Malmsburiensis narrat:** "factione optimatum 
quamvis seniorem, regno indignum existentem, in Hibeniiam seu vi 

aoColganus 1 il Martii Sylloge, pag. 129. »Colg. 13. n Marti! Usberas 
de primordiis, pag. 1164. ^Usherufi, ib. p. 964, lib. 4, cap. 4. ^Vita S. 
Girald. cap. 15. 26 Apud Colganum, lib. 4, cap. 26. 27 Vita S. Cutbert, 
cap. 24. 28 Vita Metrica S. Cutbert, cap. 21. 2» De gestis Regum lib. 5. 

>* Manj of the foUowing names are bishop of the Mercians and Lindis 
not found in the places referred to by farne, educated in Ireland. Beda 
the author. Ceadda is St. Clrnd, Ecc. His., lib. iy., e. iii. 


Vktoty and one whose name is not given ; and, raoreover, thiity who 
acemapanìed Sc. Cc^nian to Ireland; then Ceadda, and Snidibert, 
WiKHkìd^ Winibald, Lebain, Worenfnd, Adalberta Willericns, and 
manj otbeis, -wiioae namas are mentioned in bis bìstory.' Moreover, 
AJdefan'a letter, the Idlb in Ussber, was àddressed to Eadired^ wbo, 
aHa sa jears spent in beland» sacceeded Eadbert in tbe yeai 698, in 
the See of lindiafiune» aeoofding to the hiatory of the cburdb of Dur- 
barn by TuTgpet aod tba aimala of Wìgbom^ qooted by Ussher. Dìd 
aot the Inab aho fomd tb» monasteiies of Elethre^ and Mayo> for 
Si. Gemld, and hia three fethera, and the three thoiUMOid monks who 
acooi»piBÌed tbem ii^ Ireland ? The Ma^yo Monaatery was inbabited 
àuBDg raany oentnriea by Anglo^Saxons. £ven in the time of St. 
idamnan it was the dwelling of one hundred boly Saxons; and Beda 
says, tJbat in bis own day freim po(« beginnings it becanie great, and 
was inbabited by natti^ee of £ngland. S. Segresìa^ also^ si»ter to St. 
Gerald, had a great nunib» of niina aubject to ber in Ireland. Herself 
aod one hundred of the sistera were eut off at the aame time by the 

àì&ià, long of Noftlnimbria» resided ao long in Ireland^ that '* he 
bccaBie most leamed in the Bcriptures." Beda says of him» " that 
cmbadng Tolontary esile for the love of wiadom, he devoted bis 
time doiing many years to stiidy in the coimtry of the Scota/' and in 
anotber place " that he bad been an esile among the Scota." He ex- 
presses &e same faet in poetry — 

" In Scotia*8 isle, from civil cares apart, 
Wiadom divine he sought with e^mest heart. 
Hia home and coantry feared not io veaign 
To leam from atrangera» mysteriea divina.*' 

William of Malmesbury, relates of the same Alfrid, " that being ex- 
cluded from the throne, by a faction of the nobles, though he was the 

•CiU an Ailither, church of the 80, 166, 171, and Petrie's Round 
pilgrims. See Lanigan, voi. iii., pp. Towcrs, p. 141. 



seu indignatione secessisse ; ibi et ab odio germani iutuin^ et magno 
otio literis imbutum^ omni philosopbiaB composuisse anìmum. Quocircà 
Imperìì habenas meliorem sBstimantes qui quondam expulerunt, ultrò 
expetiverunt. Necessitas medelam ad preces refudit.^® Nec eos ille 
sua spe frustratus est. NaVn per decem et novem annos, summa pace, 
et gaudio provinciae praefuit" Eundem etiam Harpsfeldius memorata 
'' invitatura ex Hibemia a proceribus ad regnum capescendum, ubi exul 
sed magno suo bono delituerat, literis sacrìs prsesertim egregie ìbidem 
animum excoluit ; in quarum cognitione insìgniter profecerat, et admi- 
nistrandee Reipab. magis inde accommodns^ atqueidoneus redditusest.*' 
Ut bine perspicere sit Anglos non solum literis, moribus, ac virtutifous 
suos imbuendi cognitionem, sed etiam Reipub. suie melius administrandae 
radon em ex Hibemia hausisse. 

In Onellicse prosapiee tabulis apud Oduveganum proditum est bujus 
Alfridi matrem ex ea familia progenitam Fionam nomine, Colmanni 
Midise regis filiam fuisse, et Alfridum Flanni Fioni etiam nomen, à 
matris nomine deductum retulisse. Qui non sui tantum literis exco- 
lendi causa in Hibemiam venit, verum etiam ut sanctis Hibemiae 
deprecantibus limace qui in aurem ejus irrepsit, et capitis humoiibos 
[129] attractis ìntumuit | educto, molestia, et morbo ex ea re contraete immu- 
nis efficeretur. Precationibus igitur ac jejuniis cum aliquandiu incum- 
beret, tandem voti compos factus, Hibemiam accurate peragant, et 
Hibemorum mores accurate advertens singularum ditionum inoolas, 
alios uno vitio, alios alio laborasse, plures etiam probiorìbus institutis 
ac moribus imbutos fuisse videns, singulas Hibemise plagas incolentium 
laudes, et labes in carmen Hibemicum retulit, cujus initium est : 
Roidbeat in Innis Finu Fail etc.^^ '' Marcus natione Brìto, ediicatus 
vero in Hibemia apud beatomm M edardi et Sebastiani anachoreticam 
exercet vitam, singularis nostro tempore unicse Philosopbus sanctitatis." 
Sulgenus Menevensis anno Domini 1070 Episcopus. 

30Seculo 7, cap. 27. «^Ericus Antisìodorensis, lib. 1, e. ult. vitae S. Ger- 

t A poem witli this title, attributed of it was published some years ago by 
to Alfrid Ì8 stili extant. A translation the late I. C. Mangan. 


' eldest 8on he retired^ either by compulsion or from indìguatìon into 
I liébnd, where he was protected from the wrath of bis brethren^ and 
oeliveied himself up in such perfect tranquillity to stndy, that he bacarne 
well vosed in ali philosophy. Hence, the very men who had expelled 
i him before, betieving that he- was best quali fi ed to reign^ proffered 
; tbeir imsoiight allegiance. Nor were their hopes frustrated^ as he 
^ goremed bis provìnce in profound peace and happiness during nine- 
i leen jears." Harpsfeld also relates of the same king, " that he was 
ikinted fìrom Irelaud by the nobles to ascend the throne; and though 
ibe had been an exile, he had stored bis mind richly^ especially with 
aacred kaming, bis signal proficiency in those literary pursuits had 
I prepared him for the more pradent and successful govemment of bis 
lÌDgdom." The Anglo*Saxons, therefore> acquired in Ireland not 
cffily the means of instructing their countrymen in lettera, morality, 
1 axidvirtue, but also the art of a more perfect form of civil govem- 

In the genealogical tablesof the family of 0*Neill, given by O'Dubba- 

|Bm, it Ì8 recorded that Fiona, the mother of this Alfrid, was of that family, 

«mely, daaghter of Colmann, king of Meatb, and tliat the name 

Al&ed Flann Fionp was derived from bis mother's name. His object, 

aceoi&g to O'Dubhagain, in visiting Ireland was not literary solely, 

Int he hoped by. the prayers of the Saints of Irelaud, to he delivered 

fiom a tamor in the head, and its accompanying lllness, which had been 

tsought on by a snail which had crept into his ear, and attracted the 

liQmors thither. Having prayed and fasted for a considerable time, he 

:it lenglh obtained his wish, and making a diligent survey of the Island, 

k stndied closely the character of the inhabitants of ali the pro- 

lisces, some of whom he found infected with one vice, others with 

tnother, but seeing the general prevalence of good morals and good 

insdtndons, he composed a poem in Irish metro " Ko]b1)eAC ]i) )i)]f 

T]VV TP^I V^ descriptive of the virtues aud defects of the inhabitants 

«f the different provinces of the Islanda Moreover, " Marc, a Briton 

^y birth," says Eirc of AuxeiTO, "but educated in Ireland, leads an 

aiochoretical life at SS. Medard and Sebastian's, an eminent philoso- 

pW, of remarkable sanctity in our day." To the same effect Sulgen, 

bishopofSt. David's, 1070, 


" Esemplo patnim commotus amore legexkdi 
lyìt ad Hibemofl sophk mirabile olarosi 
Eftmosam gentem eoiiptaris at^ue magìstris 
Ac moz scripturas multo meditamine sacraa 
Legis divinse scrutatur saepe retractans.32 
Ast ubi per denos tricens jam plax^idus annos 
Cbngregat immensam pretioso pondere maE(sam 
Protìmu argata thesanrom mente redcmdenfi.'* 

*' Quia in Hibemìa S. Wollibrordas scholasticam eruditionem vigaisse 
audivit,'^ in Hibemiam veloci cursu contendi t, quatenus céu prudentis- 
sima api» mellifluos pietatis carperet flores, et in sui pectoris alVeario 
dulcissimos virtutum favos construeret^ ìbique duodecem annòs, inter 
eximios simul pi» religionis,*^ et sacrse lectionis magistros, futurus 
multorum populorum praedicator erudiebatur."** S. Sampson in Hi- 
bemìa commoratus, et patruus ejus Umbtafel S. Magloriì pater Abbas 
factus est^ et in eadem aliquandiu diversati sunt rex Deii'orum Osriacas^'^ 
Bemiciorum Lanfridus, Cornubiae Constantinus, S. Petrocus, Gildas, 
Gildas Albanicus, et Badonicus S. Cadrocus, " SS. Genorius et Betheus 
cum aliis quibusdam religiosis Britonibus, qui S. Finniano propter vitae 
sanctitatem adhaeserunt," cìim eo in Hibemiam " completo peregrìna- 
tionis suae anno trigesimo" redeunte venerunt.^^ Quinquaginta quoque 
monachi Britanni socii fuerunt in Hibemia S. Mariani : Ut infinitos 
Britones non memorem, qui S. Patricium in Hibemia è paganismo 
educendìs adjuvarunt.*® 

Sed quid in singulis Anglis enarrandis qui citra sumptum in Hibemia 
et alti et literis egregie i^ormati sunt diutius immoror ?'' Praeter 

32 Alcuìnus lib. 1, vitaB S. Williberti. 33 Ushaerus de prim. p. 525, et 532. 
34 Beda lib. 3, e. 1. 35 Colgan. 1 1 Martii. 36 trshaer. de prim. pag. 563 et 564. 
37Colgan. 29 lainu. ssBeda Mb. 3, cap 7* 3»Colgaau8 24, lanua. in notìs, 
num. 1. 

" Latdgan, voi. iii., p. 160. It would but of the general fact there can be no 

be tedious, and in some cases impossi- doubt, that Ireland during some cen- 

ble, tD establìdi, hy anihentic history, tories a1>tracted toher schools fbreign. 

that ali the foreigners mentionedby era £rom almost every country in 

our author were educated in Ireland : Europe. For popular proofs of ihia 

CBAP.xiy.] càxbsensis bysiustis. 289 


Witli love of leamìng fired, he seeks that shore 
Where, as of old, tiie lamp of science beams, 
Welcome to ali. Soolia*B sireet soli he treacte 
The scholar's home *. in meditation deep 
Imbibes the lectures on the law divine. 
The oraclea of God. Full thhrteen yeara 
Of intdlectiial toil hia mind em*ich 
With prìcéless treasore*, hiyed with pioos care." 

" St. Willìbrod," alsoy " hearing that the leaming of the scbools 
fiounsbed in Ireland^ flew rapidly thither, to feast on the mellifluous 
flowers of piety, like the most industrious bee, and to hive within bis 
breast the neh dropping combs of virtue. There durìng twelve yeara, 
was the future Apostle of many nations educated by the most eminent 
«astere of religìous piety, and sacred leaming." S. Sampson also 
»joiimed in Ireland^ and bis uncle Umbrafel, father of St. Magloire, 
wasmade abbot : there also resided, for some time, Dagobert king oi 
the FrankSy^ Osri» king of the Deiri, Lanfrid of the Bemici^ and 
Coastantin of Comwall, together with St. Petroc, Gildas the 
ì, and Gildas Badonicus and St. Cadroc. SS. Genorius and 
s, with other holy Britons who were disciples of St. Finnian for 
of life, retumed with him to Ireland, after the completion of 
^ ihirty years pilgrimage. St. Marian had also fifty Britìsh monks 
los associates in Ireland, not to mentìon the immense number of 
Biitons, who aided St Patrick in emancipating Ireland from Paganism. 
Bnt it woold he an endless detail to coiint up ali the English who 
v^e |i[mtmto!isly snpported and edncated in Ireland. Far, even from 
tl)e other nations of Europe, scholars crowded thither. Thus Agilbert, 

the reader may consult Moore, invokes the prayersof Roman, French, 

KcGeoghegan, Dr. Lanigan, &c., &c. Egyptian saints buried in Ireland. 

^ of the most interesting evidences Extracts from this litany were pub- 

*the subject is a litany by Mngus, lished by Colgan ; and inserted by Dr. 

fl« Caldee, A.D. 799 (extant in MSS. Petrie, in bis Round Towiers, p. 134, 

"^the 12th century,) in whìch he with some judicious remarks. 


Agilbertum Gallum Parisiensem Episcopum, " Qui legendarum gratià 
scripturarum in Hibemia non pan-o tempore demoratus est.* Plures 
etiam è caeteris Europ» nationibus eo confluxisse testis est S. Cathaldi 
vita Carmine conscripta bis verbis : — 

** Undique conveniunt proceres, quos dolce trahebat*^ 
Discendi studium, major num cognita virtus, 
An laudata foret ? celeres rastissima Rheni 
Jam vada Teutonici, jam ?lesernere Sicambri : 
WXììt ab extremo gelidos Aquilone Bosemos, 
Albis, et Arvernì coeunt, Batavique frequentes, 
Et quicunque colunt alta sub rupe Gebenna.^i 
Non omnes prospectat Arar, Khodanique fluenta 
Helvetios : multos desiderat ultima Thule. 
Certatim hi properant diverso tramite ad urbem 
Lismoriam, juvenis primos ubi transigit annos." 

'' Quinquaginta Monachi patria Romani, quos vel actioris vitse, vel 
scripturarum peritiae tunc in ea multum florentis desiderìum in Hiber- 
niam traxerat/^ navi deferebantur, ut ibi vivant sub magisterio quorun- 
dam sanctorum patrum, quos vitse sanctitate, et monastica^ disciplina^ 
rigore intellexerant esse conspicuos ; quorum decem ad S. Tinnanum, 
totidem ad S. Sensanum^ totìdem ad S. Brendanum, totidem ad S. 
Barreum, et totidem ad S. Kieranum trabebat vocatio." Duodecem 
peregrini fuerunt socii S. Sinchelli in Hibemia ; ad quam in centum 
et quinquaginta cymbis, seu scaphis peregrini Romani in comitatu 
SS. Elise, Natalis^ Nemani^ et Corcuntatui advecti sunt. Centum et 
[130] quinquaginta Romani^ et Itali S.Abbanumin | Hibemiam comitati sunt^ 
et decem viri, decemque virgines ex partibus transmarinìs venerunt in 
Hibemiam cum S. Boeethio.^^ Ut jam exploratum sit ab hospitalitate 
Hibemos nequaquam alienos fuisse, apud quos tot hospites à symboli 

40 Idem in notis ad vitam S. Germani num. 11. 4i Bonaventura Moronius, 
Cathaldi ad lib. 1. 42 Colgan. S. Marti! cap. 20, pag. 533. 43 Ibidem pag. 539. 
Ibidem. Ibidem. 

▼ Agilbert, after studying in Ireland, w See the authorities referred to in 

had been appointed bishop of the West note u. supra. p« 238. 
Saxons. Beda Ecc. His. iii., e. 7. 


a Gaol, bishop of Paris, and those mentioned in the metrìcal li fé of 

Cathaldos : 


FilgrimB for science, boub of erery clime 

Flock there, to know if ina ime excellence 

Snipass or not the glory of his fame. 

0*er the broad Bhine Teutones and Sicambri poiir 

Boemi firom the ùozen banks of Elbe ; 

BataTÌans and Averni, throng in baste 

And those who dwellbeneath CeTennes' wild rocki 

Helyetii leave the banks of Aar and Rhone, 

And polar Iceland monms ber eziled sona. 

Lismoreby yarìons rontes they aeek, Linnore, 

Graced by the rising glories of bis youth." 

monks, Romans by birth> sailing in one ship to Ireland» whithei* 
I tiiej were drawn by the desire either of a more austere life, or of a 
i^y of the Scriptures> which theu flourished there, placed themselves 
ttder the care of those saintly brothers, who they had heard were 
^^i^t for holiness of life, and the austerity of their monastic rule : 
otàe fifty, ten went to St Finnian, ten to St. Senan, ten to St, Bren^ 
^iten to St Finbar, and as many to St. Kieran." St. Sinchell, also, 
^in Ireland twelve associatesi foreigners; and St. Elias, Natalis, 
«emanand Coreuntat, were accompanied to I reland in 150 vessels by 
J^an pilgrìms : one hundred and fifty Romans and Italians followed 
tt Àbban also to Ireland,^ and ten meu and ten virgins accompanied 
& Boethins thither. The hospitality of the Irìsh is evidently proved 
w ibis great number of foreigners. 
According to Stanihurst, the Irish are the most hospitabìe of men, and ^ 
«ebighestcompliment youcould pay them, is to visit their houses without 
invitation, or to accept one where it is offered*"* Even Bamabas 
Picbhimself, the most shameless calumniator of the Irish, citing Stani- 
■Bist's character of the ìrish in the English description of Ireland, 
"stures with malignant ingenuity ali the favorable passages into a bad 
■Hise, and never hesitates to add accusations to those which Stanihurst 
made against Ireland* But these words of Stanihurst, " Irish 


diversabantur. Imo Stanihurstus ait : '' bomìnes esse boiqpitalissixnos, 
quibus nulla in re magis gratificari possìs/* quam vel sponte ac volun- 
tate eorum demos frequentare^ vel ìllis invitatum condicere." Sed et 
Barnabas Ricbius obtrectator ìlle profligatìssìmus Stanihursti verba in 
Anglica Hibernìse descriptione Hibernorum dotes enarrantis in eum 
sensum criticus importunus torquet» ut de laudibus quibus ille Hibernos 
omat, bic detrabere; et si quse vìtuperia gentis in medium ille proferì, 
bic nova cumulare non dubitet. Cum autem ille dixit : " Hibernos in 
bospitalitate eminere :* '*^ hsec verba ita bic amplificat :** piget me inquit, 
Hibernos suo jure expoliare ;** ut enim illis quod aequum est tribuam, 
sequè sunt sui cibi, ac potus liberales, ac qusecunque alia Europ» 
natio." Proinde Speedus nationem '' bospitibus perbenignam" 
appellat. Et Lombardus rem proprius attingens, " ab Hibemis bospi- 
talitatem usque adeo coli ait,*® ut praeter cultiorem urbium magnificen- 
tiam, in bospitibus tractandìs quet occun'unt rurè domus nobilum seu 
potentiorum, tot se ofierunt quasi bospitia publica ad transeuntes quojsque 
gratis excipiendos." Nec illustrium solum virorum, sed et plebeiorum 
domus bospitibus advenis, incognitis etiam patent, ut de gente universa 
illud Claudianì non dubitem pronuntiare : 

« Nil negat, et aese vel non po^centibua offert." 

Sane hanc posteriorum temporum consuetudinem, per praeterita etiam 
saecula, ab Hibernis usurpatam fuisse nemo inficias ibit, qui secnm 
animo vel modico reputabit quasi tradita per manns à majoribus insti- 
tuta Hibernos aegerrimè unquam ponere, imo etiam bospitalitatem per 
continuam superiorum temporum seriem, à majoribus nostris frequen- 
tatam fuisse. '' Ketingus passim in Historia demonstrat, et in prae- 
fationis limine abundè testatur dicens : optimates Hibernos è Milesio 
et Anglia oriundos publica convivia indicere» et quasi praeconis voce 
promulgare solitos, se ad quosvis hospitio et epulis excipiendos non 
modo paratos, sed etiam praestitutos esse. Quae consuetudo nulli 
praeterea totius Europae nationi nota nedum frequentata fiiit. Con- 
vivas autem singulos non nisi donis cumulatos dimittebant," 

Per anteriora tempora bospitatoris dignitas alibi non usitata, iis tan- 

44 Pag. 33. 4» Decript. Hibern. e. 2, p. 9. 46 Pag. 111. 

Chap. 117.] 



bspitalitj is preeminent/' he amplìfies in the foUowing st} le. " I 
wooldkashamed/' he says, " to rob the Irìsh of their due; to do them 
foli justice, thej are as liberal of their meat and drink as any natìon in 
Europe." Speed also descrìbes them '' as most kind to foreigners/' 
and Lombard, striktng off their character more in detail, says, ** hospi- 
Uiit? was so cultivated by the Irish» that besides the elegant munìfi- 
fiiDceofthe cities in the entertainment of foreigners, every nobleman's 
ir geQtleaum's house in the country, might he considered as so many 
bels, where ali travellers were welcome and gratuitously supported." 
Uns is trae not only of the respectable families, but also of the people, 
^ mtt closed their door against the unknown stranger, realizing 
^QghoDt the whole land the verse of Claudianos. 

«Nought deny, and offer themselvei unasked.' 

for a moment on the deathless tenacity of the Irìsh for the 
fKientinstitutions of their fathers, and who can doubt that this hospi- 
ftjof modem times^ pxevailed in -former ages ; there are historical 
(»ofs of the nninterrupted exercise of this virtue by our ancestors. 
h^ establishes the fact in several parts of bis history, and gives a 
àà»fc testimony in the very commencement of bis preface, " the 
ioids, both of Milesian and Anglican race, appointed days for 
foglie entertaiaments, and proclaimed as if by herald*s voice, that they 
not only prepared, but fixed a day, to lodge and feast ali 
rs-'* This custom was not merely un usuai, but unknown in other 
iiries of Europe. The guests, even, were never allowed to depart 
ut costi j presents. 
In former ages» the Hos^italler,' an officer* in Ireland, was selected 

*TIie reader irill find a cha- 
istic account of one of thoee 
ÌQ Hardiman's notes to the sta- 
ofKilkenny, published by the 
Arehaeological Society. "Tracts 
gtolreland," voi. il., p. 85. 
was the biAócAclj whose duty 

**«t0 8upplytheking's household 

with provìsioDs» &c. fte», and to pro- 
vide entertatnment for travellers. It 
Ì8 generally said that he was a royal 
or public officer, but it may well be 
questioned whether a charìtable insti, 
tution such as that over which he pre- 
sided cottld ezist except under the im. 
mediate superintendenceof the church. 



[Cap. XIV. 

tum in Hibemia confeiebatur qui è nobili genere oriundi erant. C uju» 
dignitatis canditatum oportuit septem pagis, et septem armentis instruc- 
tum esse; armenta vero singula è centum let viginti bobus Gonfiata 
fuerunt. Debuit habere prseterea septem arationes^ et aedes ita collocatasi 
ut è quatuor viis accessus ad eas patuerit. In sedibus vero ejus una 
sus, oviSj et bos cacabo impositie semper igni assandae admovebantur, ut 
cibi semper inpromptu essent, qui quocunque temporis punclo adveni- 
entibas apponerentur. Par quoque pecorum nunierus mactatus in 
procinctu erat, qui lebeti assandus ingereretur. Eadem pecorum 
quantitas praesto erat quae mactaretur. Stata quoque cibatio cuilibet 
ordini assignata fuit, in qua si vel minimum desideraretur^ hospitatori 
muleta protinus ìrrogabatur. Et quantum ille de jiista cujusvis cibatione 
detraxit; tantundem illius immuni tatibus subductum est. Varia potus 
genera in diversis cjrathis administrabantur, è vitreo cypho vinum^ ex 
sereo aqua^ ex argenteo serum lactis, è ligneo cervisia, et ficulneo lac 
bibebatur. Ketingus author est nongintas hujusmodi villas (ut ita 
dicam hospitalitias sive municipiahospitatoribusdestinatas in Connatia: 
In Ultonia totidem, in Lagenia triginta supra nongintas, in Momonia 
triginta supra mille fuisse. H iberni nimirum audientes se prsBbebant 

The prìnces, it is trae, had their man- 
gal lande, bj which they supported 
their own household and the duties of 
regal hospitalily, but neither the in- 
quisitions nor any other soorces of in- 
formation justifj the belief that these 
mensal lands were the chief support of 
that vast system of hospìtality men- 
tioned in the text. 

K But neither of Pagan institutìon, 
nor entirely unknown on the conti- 
nent. Digby in hìs Mores Catholici, 
Book 7i e. ix., proves evidently that 
*<no ancient Legislator (Pagan) ever 
proposed a hospital for the poor and 
infirm, or a hospice for the stranger 
and destitute," and none but those 
who wish to go astray can imagine 
that pagan Ireland could bave founded 

institutions, the very names of which 
were unknown to the lang^uages of 
Greece and Bome. Institations rery 
like those of Irish b]A6cAcb at home, 
were founded by the Irish in France 
and Germany before the 9th century, 
principally for pilgrims, and on the 
route to Home. They were called 
** Xenodochia," or ** hospitaUa»" or 
« diversoria." See Bollandists, Feb. 
9, p. 361-362. They were endowed 
by the Irish ** Scotorom nonnulli ad 
eos excipiendos per eam viam quae ad 
Urbem ducit constituerunt domos hos- 
pitales cum redditibus suis." Baroniua 
Annales, A.D. 845. Antwerp, 1618, 
voi. 10, p. 32. Some of these estab- 
lishments were at Fulda, Erford, Co- 
logne ; but they werechiefly in France 

Chap. HV.] 



exclosirelj /rom the nobility. The candidate for the office sbould be 
possessed of seven vìllages and seren herds, each herd consisting of one 
bondnd vmì twenty oxen. He should also bave seven ploughed lands^ and 
\Ài boa» so situate that there might be access to it from four high 
mèi, The spit before bis fire was uever unprovided with a sheep, an 
oi^iod a pig, readj at ali boaro to be seryed up for everj peroon that 
cime. The same number of animals were slaugbtered and dressed^ fit 
It a ffloment's wamìng to be cooked in the pota. The same number 
iis abo kept at hand^ ready for the butcher. The entertainment was 
faed by law, for eveiy order of the people» and if there was the slightest 
de&cieoey the hospitaller was punished, instantly« by fine ; the curtail- 
meotofhis priyileges being always in proportìon to the amount of 
iDJunr inflicted on bis guest. Different kinds of drink were served up 
bdiferent vessels ; wine in glass; water in copper; whey in silver; 
meadin wood, and milk in wood of fig-tree.* There were, according to 
Keatiog, ninety of those establishments ofhospitality, or as I may cali 
^em, municipal hotels, assigned to the hospitaller in Connacht ; the 
ttmeDumber in Ulster; ninety-three in Leinster; and 1030 in Mun- 
ger. For, the Irish knew and obeyed the admonition of the Apostles, and 
àeprecept of St. Peter, that Christians should use hospitality one 

15 bang the direct road to Berne. 
"£niit antem ad levamen itineris 
{■onuii istomm utriusque sexus pere- 
V'^moi in Germania multiB erectffi 
^ amplissimae domus hospitales 
1^ tamen et opulentiores in Gal- 
■leaspatres concilii Meldensis ap- 
)^t Scotoram hoepitalia." Baro- 
li ubi sQpra, and Crombach, 8. J. 
* SS. Ursula et Sociis. Tom. I. cap. 
P- 226. When Charles the Bald 
pted to plunder those hospitals, 
same Conncìl of Meaux protested 
st the sacrìlegìoos destmction of 
established with so much ex- 
'^^ by a foreign nation. " Qusb 
''"^m natio sumptibus immensis 
^nì olim construenda." Facts of 

this kind may prepare the reader for 
receiving witbout scepticism the ac- 
counts of domestic Irish hospital es- 

* In the details of the Xenodochia, 
some allowance must be made for the 
colorìngs of bardic fancy and the ex- 
aggerations of popular tradition. The 
bAlle h\A6cAc}), Ballybetach or Betagh 
land, assigned to each house is be- 
lieved to haye contained the thir- 
tieth part of a barony, or four plough- 
lands, each consisting of four quar- 
ters, i.e. 480 acres of the large Irish 
measure. Hardiman*s Statute of Eil- 
kenny, p. 4, 5. O'Donovan's Four 
Masters, A.D. 1225, p. 218. 



[Gap. XIV. 

Apostolorum monitis, Petri jnbentis ut Christiani sint " Hospitales 
invicem sine marmùratione :*'*^ Pauli dicentis : " Hospitalitatis nolite 
oblivisci, per hanc enim placuerant quidam angelis hospitio recejHis ;" 
Abraham scilicet, et Loth praeter alios.*® Imitati quoque sunt Hibemi 
[131] Romanos, apud quos et hospitalitatis exercitatìo assidua, et | cominen- 
datio celebrata fuit ab Oratorum principe, qui dicit \^ " sibi quidam 
videri valde decorum esse, patere domus hominum illustrium illustrìbus 
hospitibus. Idque etiam Reip. esse ornamento, homines extemos hoc 
liberalitatis genere in urbe nostra non egere"**® Rectè mijhi Lombardus 
censuisse videtur " gentem Hibei-nicam inhospilam ideo dictam, quod 
non habuerit passim hospitia, in quibus ut sit alibi pretium persolven- 
dum est/' Atqui eultissima Hispaniarum natio hac ratione inhospita 
erit, raritas enim summa diversoriorum est à cibo et potu adeo male 
instructorum, ut itinerantibus edulia deferre aliundè necesse sit, aut 
fame in hospitiis torquerì. 

47 1 Petri, 4. 48 Hebr. 13. 49 2 Offici. M Cap. 12. 

b In the Inquisitions, see Ultonia, 
Yol. n. p. XXX. it ìs said, "We do 
fjnde within this country (Monaghan) 
certain other lands called Termon or 
Sanctuarj lands possessed by laymen, 
and appoìnted first (as it should seem) 
for maintenance of hospitality, which 
have been free from the inipositions of 
the Mac Mahons (chiefs of the terri- 
tory) hearing certain rents and 

charges to the archbishop of Armagh 
and the bishop of the diocese for tìbì- 
tation," &c. The rents paid to the 
archbishop or bishop were almost no- 
minai. Ordnance Memoir, p. 50. 
Also in the same inquisitions» Ferma- 
nagh, p. xxxii. the lands belonging to 
certain churches are called **hospitall*' 
lands. Of the thirty churches endowed 
with such lands in Fermanagh two- 

Chip. HV.] 



tovardsanotherwìtboutmuTniarìng/'and also of St Paul^ '' Hospitality 
donotfoiget; for by thb^ some beiug not aware of it, bave entertained 
angeV'^ namely^ Abraham and Lot among otbers. The Irisb had 
also die example of the Romans, wbo were remarkable for tbeir bospi- 
talitr,<>aQd were commended for it in tbe following strain by the prìnce 
of orators, " tbat to bim ìt appeared very becoming, tbat the palaces of 
iOogirious man, should be always open to ìllustrious guests." The 
eostom was an honor to tbe Republic^ tbat foreigners enjoyed tbis 
iniid of liberality, in onr city. Lombard's conjecture^ in my opinion, 
is coirect, "tbat tbe Irisb people were said to be inbospitable, 
kcaose they had not» as in otber countries, botels in wbicb the guests 
nie ohììgeà to pay." Bnt in tbis case, Spain itself, a most civilized 
natioD, must be denounced as inbospitable, wheré botels are so rare 
md so bftd]y provided witb meat and drink, tbat tbe traveller must 
eièer carry bis provisions along witb bim, or be tortured witb bunger. 

M had not near a bally betogb eacb ; 
&e others had eacb a ballybetogh or 
ixire; and ìf ali the counties in Ulster 
^aproporti<»ial number of churchea 
'"i^ed similarly, there would be iu 
trince about nìnety *' hospital 
the nnmber marked in the text 
^Keating. These lands granted in 
^tothe chupch for hosjrftable and 
«tber^ttoususes, would, whenfSùthfolly 

administered, realize ali that poets ahd 
tradition teli of ancient Irish public 
hospitality. If the Biatatih were a 
rovai officer, why is he not mentioned 
in the very numerous array of such 
offlcials in the Tribes and Customs of 
Ui-Maine ? p. 87, 93. 

o Not public — the rich gare the daily 
''sportula'* io tbeir poor clients, 




[131 J <ìtddp6cu8, quid bestia. — ^Pageere quam honestum : pecora Romaniiin pretio Ibemnt. 
[132] Caeozelia Giraldi. Hibernos belluin» turpitudinis falso argnit. Vera Emi Lacus 
origo. [133] Quando campanula lapidea incepta->ErnÌB fluxit ante S. Colambam.~Et ante 
S. Patricinm.— Ptolemeus Ernium habet in tabulis. Loch Neach et Banna fuerunt tempore 
Ptolomei. [124] S. Grl^nus, de semiviroque, bove, semiboveque viro quid ccnsendum. 
[135] Quam suspecta veritat istius monstri.— Giraldi tergiversatio, ab anias flagitio mali 
ignominiam genti conflat. [136] Giraldus non historicus sed accusator.— Vari» monstro- 
rum species.— Coitns muUeris cnm capra videtur esse falsus. [137] Mnlièr bartkara.-^Agri- 
cultnram Hibeminon aspernabantur. [1S8] Viri sancii arabant.— Asperiora loca arajdo 
tissa.— Giraldus sibi contrarius. 

SicuT hospitalitatis laudem Hibemis Giraldus ademit, sic non pecorum, 
sed bestiarum vivendi rationem affingit.^ Ait enim : " Hibemica gens 
ex bestiis soliim, et bestialiter vivens." Debebat dicere (si non inju- 
riosius, quam intelligentius loqui mallet) pecoribus eos vivere, ac 
pecuarios esse. Bestiae enim nomine non cicures pecudes, sed ferociores 
quaeque, et immaniores belluse indicantur : utpote malait ille à vocabuli 
proprietate procul abire, quam conviciandi ansam, quam ubique aucu- 
patur non arriper^ : non sentiens eruditos quosque lectores ejus verba 
sic percepturos, ut ex ursis et leonibus, et si quee sunt s^viores ferse, 
Hibenios vivere innuere videatur, ejusque loquendi rationem mox 
sibilis excepturos, quod ex Africa in Hibemiam ìmmaniora illa ani- 
manda putidus loquendi artifex imprudens transferat. Romse potìùs 
in cavea bestìas quam in Hibernia collocale debuit. Quod sì Hibernos 
bestias appellet, meminisse i]lum oportuit^ se ac suos bestiarios esse. 

» Topogr. d. 3, e, 10. 

» A very faitbful and espressive many centuries since the Englishcon- 
image of the state of Ireland during nexion. 




1»] Vhat are eattie, what wild beasts ?— The tending of cmttle b respectable mode of lif« ; 
l»iAbihigh esteeiB fagr the Ronuns. [1833 Ferrerse aflécution of Giraldaa: accutes the 
Iròh bìaeìj of beaatlj tarpitade.— Trae orlgln of Lough Erne. [133] Stone belfiries, when 
^oed^-The Erne was flowing before the day» of 8t. Coinmba ; andbefore 8t. Patrick's; 
it il mirked on Ptolemy 'a maps. [134] St. Grellan : story of the half ox, half man— or half 
iBui half 01. [135] Theexiatence of snoh a monster verj doubtful.—Incooaistenoy of Gi- 
niàut b» efaargea npon a whole nation the infiunons orlme of an individuai. [136] He it 
mberacalnmniator than a hiatorian ; different kinda of monatera. [137] The hairj «ro- 
nu-Agrienlture not negleeted hy the Iriah. [138j Sainta tilled the earth.— Even 
nUtnetatitted 1^ the plongh in Ireland. Giraldaa erer inconaiatent. 

NoT content wilh robbing the Irish of their character for hospitality, 
Giialdus asserts that their mode of life was like not cattle, but beasts. 
"This Irish people," he sajs, "live by beasts only aud bestially." Had 
^sobjectbeen to speak clearly and not malignantly, he oiight to bave 
said ikt they lived by cattle, and like cattle^ the word " beasts" signi • 
l^^Dgpioperly noi lame animala^ but ali wild and ferocious brutes. But 
^e opportunity was too tempting ; propriety of expression was sacri- 
»ced lo bis malignaiit love of caluinny^ which he sought every occasion 
to indulge ; it was no concern to him that every scholar would under- 
^d bìm to mean that the Irish lived on bears and lions, and other 
animals. He cared not if they ridiculed this forni of expres- 

l>y which a clumsy constructor of words foolishly transports those 
animals from Africa to the shores of Ireland. It was in the deus 
^ Home, and not in Ireland, he ought to bave placed those creatures. 
'^iitif he needs must cali the Irish, beasts, let him remember that he 
s countiymen are gladiators exhibiting at funeral solemnities* and 

le spectacles, and fighting with those beasts, to which they were 


ac bustiarios gladìatores^ qui quasi ad bestias damnati cum iis pugi 

Sed ut bis me trìcis expediam^ probro ille Hibemis serio dat, qui 
gregibus et armentis abuudaverint ; et eoruin se proventu plemmqj 
paverint. Nec alia tamen ratìone innocui illi terrarum aureo secu 
incolae vitam tolerabant. Et Isaac^ Jacob^ et Jobus pecorum cop 
circumfluebant^ Moyses^ Saulus^ et David pascendae pecudi sedo 
incumbebant^ nec tamen " ex bestiis" illos, aut bestialiter vixisse qui 
piam unquam dixit. Ipsum pastorale negotium abjectius et hiimiliu 
nihilominus honestum et insons, imo voluptatis non expers semp| 
habitum est. Pastores tamen *' ex bestiis," aut ** bestialiter" virei 
nunquam die ti sunt.^ Portasse probro Romanis dabit quod bobulcd 
ad Imperatoris dìgnitatem avexerint^ et pecus in pretio habuerint, u 
qui bene de Repub. meritos boum honorario numerabantur, hisc 
Livii verbis id liquido testantibus. " Consul" inquit, *' advocata coi 
cione P. Decii non csptas solum ante, sed cumulatas nova virtul 
laudes peragit:^ et prseter militaria alia dona, aurea corona eum, < 
centum bobus, eximioque uno albo optimo auratis comibus donat." i 
posteainhistoria C omini ; " Consul conclone advocatà laudatum Tribù 
num decem bobus, aureaque corona donat."^ Denique post expugnatd 
Carthaginem, '* ante omnes Scipio Laelium prsefectum classis, et omj 
genere landis sibimet ìpse aequavit, et corona aurea, ac triginta bobu 
donavi t"* Scribit etiam Varrò illustrissimum quemque antiqui^ 
pastorem fuisse, et à plurimo pecore plerosque apud vetustissinK 
laudatos fuisse. An igitur quia Romani pecora magni aestimabunt 
Giraldo " ex bestiis/* et " bestialiter" vixisse dicentur ? volup 
nimirum illi fuit extra latini sermonis terminos ferri, ut in vocui 
captiunculis convitiorum spicula venaretur, quibus Hibemorum famai 
[132] foderet. | 

Praeterea artis oratorìee simiam se Giraldus prsebuit, cacozelià quadan 
iseu imitatione valde insulsa, et loco |opico, qui à conjugatis dìcitai 
argumentum depromere aggressus, instar hoc exemplum a Rhetoribu 
adduci solitum, sapientiam habet in animo defixam, ac proinde sapien 

a Malerian. Maz. lib. 2. 3 Lib. 7. ♦ Lib. 26. * Lib. 2, de re rustica 

Chip. IT.] CAMBESNSIS SVBB8178. 251 

Bat passing over those trìfles, the Irìsh are gravely charged with 
baring a great abundance of flocks and lierds, and with generally sup- 
poiting themselTes on theìr produce. But was not this the mode of 
lìfe of the innocent inhabitants of this earth durìng the golden age ? 
Isaac, Jacob» and Job, had abundance of cattle. Moses, Saul, and 
Dan'd carefull j tended their herds, and jet no person has ever re- 
proached them with living by beasts and bestiali j. The pastoral li fé 
itself, thoQgh humble and low, has been always regarded not only as 
bonest and innocent, but as by no means devoid of happiness. Yet 
sbepherds bave never been said to live by beasts and bestially. No 
àoubtbe would condemn the Romans who raised herdsmen to the dig- 
nity of Impera tor, and set such value on cattle, that they were deemed a 
meei portion of the reward given by the Republic to deserving citi- 
zen. Livius gives clear testimony to the fact. " The consul having 
siunmoned an assembly, passed a glowing eulogium on P. Decìus, not 
only for bis former deeds, but bis firesh accession of renown ; and be- 
àdes other military honors, he presented to him a golden crown, and 
one kndred oxen, among which there was one superb animai, of the 
pffirest white, and with gilt homs." And again, in the history of 
Commi, ''The consul having called an assembly, complimented the 
tribune, and presented him with a golden crown and ten oxen." Fi- 
DaUv. after the conquest of Carthage, " Scipio extolled above ali others 
Lslios, the commander of the fleet, and shared with him equally ali 
tie hoBOT of the war, and presented him with a gold crown and thirty 
oxen." Varrò also asserts, that ali the illustrìous men of ancient times 
vere shepberds, and that many of the most remote ages were celebrated 
for the abundance of their flocks. Will Giraldus then presume to say 
^at the Romans " lived by beasts and bestially,*' because they set 
S'^t value on cattle ? But he could not resist the pleasure of trans- 
gressing against the propriety of the Latin tongue, if he could hunt out 
«^en among bis quibbles of words, some arrows of slander, to wound 
^^e character of the Irish. 

Besides, Giraldus was aping the orator, and by an affected and ab- 
*^d imitation endeavoured to point his argument, by that figure of 
^netoric which rhetoricians cali "conjugata,'* as in the following ex- 

*^ple; "He hath wisdom implanted in his mind, and there fere is 


est> qtiare sapienter se geret. Eodein prorsus modo ille argutatur : 
" Hiberni ex bestiis vivunt," ergo bestialìter vivunt, voce " bestiis" ideo 
potius quam " pecoribus" adhibita ut majorem atrocitatem eo vocabulo 
denotatam inessegenti innureret^ ac lectorem non sentientem ad deterri- 
tnam sententiam de Hibernis imbibendam, hoc admoto ciinìculo 
alliceret. Nihil pensi habens à vocis proprietate^ et narrationis ventate 
effraenius aberrare^ modo in Hibernicae gentis infamiam id redundet. 
Penitus autem ejus sensum indaganti patebit illum hujusmodi argu* 
mentum efibrmare voluisse : Hiberni pecuarii sunt^ ferarum igitur ritu 
degunt: Id enim ejus loquendi ratio non obscurè pr» se fert Nam 
quod ex bestiis vivant, bine modica vocum inflectione, bestialiter vivere 
intuli t £ vocabulorum allusione^ seu potius illusione^ fucum lectorì, 
calumniam Hibernis faciens. Sed quis mentis compos piane non per- 
spicit, funes illum ex arena prius nexurum, quam duas illas sententias 
apta consecutione connexuruoi ? 

Prima fronte sensum hunc ex ejus verbis elicui, ut perinde fuerìt illi 
dicere> quod Hiberni bestialiter vixerint^ ac nefando cum bellois coita 
se contaminaverint : eò enim orationem ejus tacite irrepsisse mihi 
persuadeo. Primum quod istam interpretationem illa verba vulgo 
ferant ; deinde quod rationes iste omnes excogitaverit ad quamyis pessi- 
mam notam Hibernis inurendam : denique quod disertis verbis scribat,^ 
" gentem Hibemicam eo- vitio prsecipué laborare." Et suum semi- 
bovemque virum^ semivirumque bovem ad nauseam usque legentibas 
creberrime obtrudat ; et lacum Emium amaenis agris^ ad poenas de simili 
fiagitio exigendas^ superfusum fuisse contendat 

Ut vero à posteriore conviciorum fabricà^ quam molitur evertendà 
initium ducam:^ "Est," inquit, "lacus in Ultonia" (Emus Camdeno) 
** cui mirabilis, ut aiunt^ casus initium dedit. Fuit in terra illa, quam 
nunc lacus obtinet, gens ab antìquissimis temporibus vitiosissìma,^ et 
prsecipuè vitio coeundo cum bestiis, pr» omni alio Hibemiae populo 
ìncorrigibiliter involuta; fuerat autem in ore populi verbum celebre, 
quod quam cito fons terrse illius ( qui ex reverenda de barbara super- 

fi Topogr. d. 2, e. 21. f Pag. 732. 8 Topogr. d. 2, e. 9. 


wise, ÌD what maketh him act wìsely." That was the model of 
ìiistrifliDg quibble. "The Irìsh li?e hy beasts/' therefore they live 
bestìa&j, the w<Hrd " beasts ' being substituted for cattle* aa conveying 
a more atrocious calumny against the Irìsh people^ and craftily mis- 
lecdio^ the incautìoas reader to fonn the blackest opinion of the coun- 
try} The infamy of Ireland was the grand object towhich Giraldus 
ontnigeously sacrìficed the proprìety of language and the truth of bis 
kistory. It ìs evident on a diligent study of the passage^ that the 
sense intended was the following argument : " The Irish lead a pasto- 
ni life, therefore they lire like wild beasts." Such appears clearly 
enomgh to be the meaning of bis words. From the fact of their living 
bv beasts, he infers^ by a slight change in the expression, that they 
lived bestially ; deceiving bis reader, and calumniating Ireland by the 
allasioD, or rather Ulusion. But e?ery man in bis senses must know 
Omt Giraldus could as easily make a cable of a spider*s web as estab- 
iì^ a logicai connexion between bis two propositions. 

When I first saw these words, they struck me, as being equivalent to 
die horrìd imputation that the Irìsh were guilty of unnatural crìmes ; 
SQch, I am convinced, is the foul accusation suggested to the reader, 
l)y the words, " the Irìsh live bestially ;" first, because that is the or- 
dmaiy sense of the expression ; next, because he concocts ali possible 
grounds of the most heinous charges against the Irish ; and finally, 
because in express terms he asserts, that " the Irìsh are specially prone 
to that crime.'' He obtrudes on bis readers with loathsome pertinacity 
tbe fabled thing, that was, hai f man half ox, or half ox half man, and 
asserts that a delightful plain was engulphed under the waves of Loch 
Keagh, in punishment of similar crìmes. 

I shall commence with a refutation of the last grounds of bis ca- 
lumny. " There is a lake,'' he says, ** in Ulster (Eme, according to 
Cainden) which had its orìgiu, they say, in a most singular event. On 
tbe land which is now the bed of the lake, there had been, from the 
most ancient times, a tribe of most wicked people, incorrigibly addicted, 
Wond any other tribe in Ireland, to an unnatural crime ; there had 

^GiraLdos, as our author himself plainest language his abominable ca- 
admits a few sentences later, does net lumny. 
^^\j insinuate, but state in the 



[Cap. XV. 

stitioDe sibi exhibita, operculum habebat, et signaculum) dìscoopertus 
reìinqueretur ; tanta statini inundatione exuberaret; ut totam provin- 
ciam> et gentem simxil dilueret, et deleret. Mulìere autem aquam inde 
hauriente^ et fontem non signante, tanta scaturigine fons exuberavit, ut 
ipsam statini cum ^ero^ totam que gentem illam^ et pecora tanquam 
diluvio quodàm particulari^ seu provinciali in bora submergeret." 
Credo equidem, nec vana fides^ viram istum^ ut leviter dicam^ captandis 
quibusvis rumuseulis extenuandse Hibemorum famse inservientibus 
inbiasse^ quem tam futili fabella lìbrum suum inquinasse non puduit, 
quse à ventate tam remota est^ quam quod remotissimum. 

Non enim è puteo lacum Emium^ sed post victoriam ab H ibernile 
rege Fiachro Labhrinno de Emis gente Firbolgis terras illas tum inco- 
lentibus reportatam, ex bumo repente exsiliisse, et per amplissinram 
illud agri spatium sese difiudisse nostri faistorici tradunt. Fiacbo autem 
ilio in ea dignitate^ circa mundi annum 2930 collocato, longe ante 
Cbristum natum, non par est credere Deum in ver» fidei expertes tam 
gravibus pc&nis animadversurum fiiisse. Imo supplicio isto plexos 
CbristianeB fidei luce perfusos fuisse Cambrensis ipse piane profitetur 
dicens : " Quod piscatores aquae illius turres Ecclesiastìcas, quse more 
patrise arctse sunt, nec non et rotundse, sub undis manifeste sereno 
tempore conspìciunt/* Quod documento est, ante scita Catbolicas fidei 
ab istlus plagse cultoribus bausta fuisse, quam ìpsos Emi lacus suo 
gurgite hauserit. Nihilominus ista ipsa exordia Emio lacui à memoratis 
supra historicis assignata tribuit Amerginus Amalgadii filius, Moelruoni 
nepos, in libro quem de praestantiorum in Hibemia locorum Etymologià 
[133] scripsit, I et coram Dermitio I^erualli filio Hibemiae rege (cui erat à 

e See O'BonoTan's Four Matterà, 
A.M. 3751, p. 47. The arguments of 
CUT autlior are directed bere partly 
against Giraldus, bui in so confused 
a manner that there is no slight diffi- 
culty in understandìng him. It is 
apparently supposed in this place that 
Giraldus, as weìì as Camden told the 
story of Loch Eme, and not of Loch 

Keajj^, though it isevident, that Girai, 
dtts speaks of Loch Keagh. His ac- 
count of the orìgin of that lake agrees 
with bardìc traditions, except in one 
material point ; for no hard or tradition 
has ever mentioned unnatural crimes 
as the cause or occasion of the enip- 
d This is an ** argumentom ad homi- 


beco a sc^ of oraculiur tmdition among ibe people> that whenever a 

ceitiiiiweU in the dìstrìct (which from this barbarous superstition was 

kepti^ou^ly cor^r^ aiHl aealed) should be loft uncoveredj it would 

OYedof immedifktdy, uiimdate the province^ and dxown ali tbe peopl^. 

AcertuB woman bappening to come to the well for water, forgot to 

dose it, and matantly the flood burst forth» sweeping away berself and 

her soB, aad in one sbort bour overwhelming in a partìal or provincial 

daioge, ali tbe people and tbeir flocks and berds/' Notbing. I am ùrvnìy 

posoaded, but tbe avidity of tbis man to catcb up OYery dying runioff, 

disgracefol to Irisb cbaracter, could bave induced bim to defilé bis 

pages with as groundless a fabrication as ever found its way into 


Loch Eme did not 9prìng hom a well, but started snddenly from 
tbe earth, and acqording to tbe narrative of oor annalists, overflowed a 
vast tnict of country, after a victory gained by Fìach Labbrìnn, king 
of Ireland,^ over tbe Emians, a tribe of Firbolgs who then inbabited 
tiiat country. Now as Fiacb was king long before tbe birtb of Cbrist, 
«boat the year of tbe world 2930, it is not probable tbat God woold 
àfiict so tremendous a punisbment on Pagans. £ven Cambrensis bim- 
sdf plainly intimata tbat tbe victims of tbat scourge must bave b^eii 
Ckistiass. '^ Tbe fisberman," be says, " in clear weatber plainly sees 
beo^atb tbe ws^ves tbose cburcb towers, wbicb» according to tbe style of 
tbe country, are slender and round ;" wbicb proves tbat tbe inbabitants 
of that district must bave been instructed in tbe Christian faitb, before 
tbej were engulpbed in Locb Erne.^ Nevertbeless, tb0 origin of 
Loch Emo assigned by tbe bistorians already cited is also adopted by 
Amergin, son of Amalgaidh, grandsun of Moelruan, in bis work on the 
etjmology of tbe prineipal places in Ireland, wbicb he recited in pre- 
tence of Diarmuid, son of Kermbeoil, king of Ireland (to wbom be was 
krd), and tbe otber nobles of Ireland, in tbe convention of Teambair, 

Bem'* against Giraldus, who had as- ancient period/' supposing the account 

Bgned the eruption of the lake to a of Giraldus to be true, but at a period 

"reiy ancìent period." Our author long after the establishment of Chris- 

P^es that it could not be at a <* very tianity in Ireland. 


possi) cseterisque Hibemise proceri bus Temoriam in coetum coeuntibus, 
sub annum Domini 500 recitavìt> adjiciens non nuUos opinari locum 
illum nomen ab £mà quadam in eo mersà mutuatum fuisse, quae 
Meabhee decantata illius Connacise reginee famula^ et cum aliis 
domesticìs ejus ministeriis obeundis^ tum praesertim domins suse 
couiendse ac pectend» addicta fuit. Meabha vero illa fìlia fuìt 
Eochodi Fedhadchì regis Hiberniae^ qui sub annum 3952 ab orbe 
condito, regnandì, et vivendi finem fecit. Ut tempus illud antiquissi- 
mum, quo initium fluendi Emum fecisse Giraldus statuita ad antiquiora, 
et longè anterìora tempora à locupletioribus eo testibus produci 

Imo antiquitas, quam Emo Giraldus comminiscitur cis annum Cbristì 
octingentesimum sistet. Nam tempore hunc annum antegresso, vel 
paulo circiter,* " non de lapide" (ut ait Beda) " sed de robore secto'* 
Ecclesias Hibemi construebantj quas in mediocrem tandem altitudinem 
educi, et intergirìni etiam parìetes ex asseribus fieri solebant '^ Ora- 
toria/' enim ait Cogitosus, " Ecclesise Kildarìensis divisa erant parietibus 
tabulatis."^® Qui licet " Ecclesiam" illam dicat " multum minaci prò- 
ceritate porrectam fttisse/' exiguas tamen illas orbiculares arctasque 
turres Dani Hibemiam Giraldo authore anno Dom. 898 primum in- 
gressi, primi erexisse dicuntur ; non ut prò campanili, sed prò speculo 
haberentur, unde prospectus ad longinqua late protenderetur. Postea 
tamen usus invaluit ut campanis in earum culmine appensis, Campa- 
nilium vices gererent : Tametsi non è media Ecclesia fabricà extautes 
fomicibus innixae in altum tendant, ut modo sit, sed ò coemiterìi solo in 
idoneam ahitudiuem extoUautur. Vel nominis enim etymon illas 
indicat illi usui accomodatas fuisse ; Cloctheach enim perinde est ac 
domus campanae, voce " Cloe" campanam, et " teach" domum signifi- 
cante. Cujusmodi nuUam in Hibemia vix modo cemimus, nisi in 
Ecclesiarum Catbedralium, aut praestantiomm Abbatiarum coemiteriis. 
Ut in tractu ilio terrsB, quem Emius operi t, Cathedralem Ecclesiam, 

d Lib. 3, e. 25. io Vita sanctae Brigid» e. 35. 

e Not by any Iriah authoiity, nor origin of the Towers. See Petiie*» 
does CUT author giva bis own opinion Eound Tower*, pp. 5, 10, 11. 
absolutely in favor of the Danish 


ami the year A.D. 500. " Others/' he says, " are o( opinion that the 

nune of the place was derìved from a person named Erna, who was 

drowsedìn it. She was handmaid to Meabha» the. famous queen of 

Counackt, and besides ber other household duties was specially em- 

plojed in eombing the queen and adoming ber head-dress." Now 

Uahhi, being danghter to Eochadh Fiadladch, king of Ireland, who 

éued his leign A.M. S962, cir. " that yery ancient orìgin/' assigned 

kf Giraldns to Loch Eme, must, on the authority of the most respect* 

Ék fajstorìans, be referred to a period much more remote than that 


" Tbe ancient date/' assigned by Cambfensis for the flowing of the 
hk% must be broi^ht so low even as the year of our Lord 800. For 
iowu to, or at least near that epoch, the Irìsh '^ buìlt their churches 
(iccording to Beda) not of stone, but of planed wood/' and raised 
Éem only to a slight height, dividing them with walls of uprìght wood. 
IThos, according to Cogitosus, 'Uhe oratories of the church of Kil- 
vere dinded by wooden partitions ;'* and though he says that the 
h itself was raised to an enormous height, the Danes, who made 
first descent on Ireland, according to Giraldus, about the year 8dd> 
ttid^ to haye first erected those small, slender, cylindrical towers^ 
noi {« belfrìes^ but watch towers/ whence they might command an 
MteDsre prospect of the surrounding country. In course of time^ the 
pabm was introduced of hanging bells in the top of them, and using 
as belfries, not towering, as at present, over the centro of the 
h, and restìng on arches, but raised to a suìtable height from the 
d piane of the cemetery. It ìs evìdent, from the etymology of 
name, that they must bave been used as belfries, the Irish word, 
loicteach," signifying literally " beli house," from " Cloe," a beli, 
"teach," a house. None of them are over found in I reland, ex- 
t in cemeteries of cathedral churches, or of the more celebrated 
ys,K and therefore we must suppose a cathedral, or at least an 

'The most absurd hypothesis ever fate it sufficiently. 

tted on a theme most fraitful in s A condttsive proof that towers and 

d gpeculations. The eites of churches were built by the same 

iinjr towers la deep valleys &c, con- hands. It is to be obserred tbjKt our 



vel saltem Abbatialem collocare prius , necesse sit, quam ejus formae 
turrìm in eo fùisse ostendatur : Itaque turres istse lapsum Giraldi pro- 
dunt Nam ut furibus aliquid forte ad indicium, sic mendacibus solet 
excidere ad agnitionem* Non dubito quin Giraldo id usu veneriti quod 
de Hectore Boetbio Buccananus narrai dicens: " Eum in Scoti» 
descriptione quaedam parùm vereprodidisse,^^ et alios in errorem indux- 
isse, dum ìpse quibus ea inqairendi dedit negotfuih nimis creduliis 
eorura sententiam temere yulgavit." 

Sed ad hanc Giraldi narrationem labefactandam exploratiora profe- 
runtur.^^ Sanctus enim Columba sic Emio benedictionem impertiit^ ut 
et piscibus lacum foBcundavérit, et effecerit ut Càtaracta vel subsiderit, 
vel se coarctarerit, quo faciliori saltu supra eam salmo fèrretur. Atqne 
bino extra conttovetsiam positum est, Emium alveo suo, S. Columba 
superstite decurrisse.^^. Imo Emium eundem tenuisse cursum> in vita 
S. Patricij, S. Evitius indicat, qui latUs Emii séptentrionale diris 
devovens, piscibus illud orbavit, ut poenam de Domino plagae lacui 
à Septentrione adjacentis hac ratione sumeret Nec in patrocinium ac- 
cerso quòd in Ptolemaei, qui sub annum Domini 153 floruit, tabulìs 
ErniuB eadem forma, et loco, ac a nuperis choiógraphis statuatur- Et 
in '' Erdinis'* prò Emìi.accolis à PtolemsBO habitià, yocis Emii ves- 
tigia non obscure visantùr. Caetetum è quibus. Hibfernicorum annali- 
bus Camdenus eruerit culpam delieti, quod tantse inundationi causam 
prffibuit, in H»brides collatam fuisse, me piane iattìt. Penes ipsum 
aut potius fabulatorem ista ei nuntiantem fides esto. Somnia fuerunt 
ista proculdubio ineptientis cerebri, nbn ex annalibus, sed ex deli- 
ratione quadam haustà. E quibus etiam Giraldi verbis Camdenus 
elicuerit Emium, lacum illum esse, qui àgris tam late se instraverit, 
penitus ighord. Cum Cambreiisis ipse* licet nomen lacUs non proferat, 
ex eo tàmeh " Bàniiiae flumen erumpere" dicens, Loehneacbum sat 

" Lib. 1, p. 13. " Odonel. in vita S. Columb., lib. 1, e. 82. Js Part. 2, e. 

autìiOT appears to deny h«j«, , what he evem io. the earliest ages of Chris- 

had maintained in Chap. xii., that be-, tìanity, some Irish churches were bmlt 

foro the invasici» of the Panes, and of etone. 


abbey on tfaat old tract, now covered hy Lodi £rne> belore we admit 
thatoBeof those towers was seen there. Thus eren the towers tkem- 
selres lise in evidence against Giraldus. Por the Jiar, like the thief, is 
often detected hy something that escapes from him. Giraldus, I am 
coumced, lealized what Buchanan says of Hector Boethius, " hy too 
creéémsiy adopting the accounts of those whom tie had employed to 
mke inqoirìes, and rashly publishing their statements in his descrìp- 
tioD o( Scollando he has destroyed. In some points^ the véracity of his 
iston-, and led others into error." 

Clearer evidence stili can be produced tO refute this narrative of Gi- 
taldas. St Columba blessed Loch Eme, and made it abound with 
fisfa, and either lowered or shortened the cataract to facilitate the pas- 
age o( salmon, that leap over it. The £me, therefore, must bave been 
feiniig down in its channel during the time of St. Columba ; and from 
iStEras life it would appear that it held the same course in the 
jÉmeofSt Patrick, who cursedits northem bank^ and banished ali the 

tfrom that side^ to punishthe chieftain of thedistrict. I need not 
Ptolemaefns's maps^ compiled aboitt the year 150^ which mark the 
fate in the forni and place assigned by modem geographers ; and in 
fefeii, the name of the people which he places thef e we may not ob- 
scttrelviecognise some resemblance to the word Erne itself. Càmden 
xm ée aathority of some Irlsh annals, which I bave not been able to 
^oi^er, relates that the crime which caused the inundation was com- 
ìtted in the Hebrides ; but on him, or the scribe who gave hfm thè 
miation, the credit of the story rests. It n'as, no doubt, the fiction 
some bewildered brain, not a fact recorded by our annalists. I àm 
V at a loss to know, from what words of Cambrensis, Camden in- 
that this lake, which overdbwed so large a tract, was Loch Érne, 
e Cambrensis, though he does not give ùie name, indicates clearly 
ngh that it must bave been Loch Neagh,* by sàyìng that " the 
Bann flows from it," the rlver which to this hour is the outlet of 
b Neagh. Now that the Bann "was flowing, if I may so speak, ih 

^Whj, then, it may be asked, has nach asngns the ertiption of Loch 

Ifcauthor sapposed through ali his Neagh to the year A.D. 65-73. See 

^fflent, that Giraldus dìd speak of Irish Nennius, p, 195. 
korigin of liOch Neagh? Tighear- 


[134] signate indicata | utpote è quo Banna emanat. Porro Christianismo 
apud nos vix ex ephebìs^ ut ita dicam egresso^ Bannam amnem extitisse, 
hsc carmina è vita metrica S. Brigidse deprompta docent. 

" Hinc iterum rectis properando gressibus ibant 
Flttminis ad rìpam cujusdam nomine Bannae."'^ 

Et in Ptolemsei tabulis, lacus et flumen eodem situ collocantur, quem 
labulse quoque recentiores exhibeut. Ac proinde ante Hibemiam 
Christiana luce perfusam^ utrumque é fonte suo prorupisse oportuit. 
Ita ut tota hsec narrationum strues ad tenebras Hibemorum fam» 
ofiundendas excogitata in commentum^ imo in fumum abeat. 

Nec equidem infìcias eo plures populos graviori supplìcio delieta luisse. 
S. Grillani vita insigne documentum perfidiae pcenà quam acerbissima 
multatse suppeditat. Kianus quidam è Firbolgis orìundus^ in Muigb- 
sachnolia, quse nunc Maneacba Connaciae regio est, regem agebat. Hic 
centra Manium Magnum in ilHus fìnes irrumpentem ter mille homines 
ensibus, scutis, et cassidibus armatos in aciem eduxit, Sed S. Grillani 
opera utriusque acerbitatem sopiente, manus non contulerunt. Imo 
pacem et pacta à S. Grillano indicta utrique amplexi digrediuntur. 
Kiano viginti septem obsides à Manie referente, ut ad promissa prae- 
standa Manius obstringeretur : et Grillano in se recipiente Kianum 
a pactis observandis ne latum quidem unguem recessurum. Verum 
Kianus unius ex obsidibus facinore sic exasperatus est, ut obsides, et 
Manium, comitesque è medio tollere statuerit Quare Manie et 
comitibus ad epulas invitatis insidias struxit, è quibus in inermes, et 
securos ac epularum tantum voluptatem animo volutantes, insidiatores 
ex improviso insilirent, eoque impetu omnes jugularent. At S. Gril- 
lanus Kiani consilium dìvinitus resciens, vultu ac manibus in coelum 
sublatis, precatione quam accuratissima adhibita, à Deo impetravit ut 
Kiano perfidise poenas dante, periculum ab insontibus averteretur. Nec 
mora ; terra se diduxit, et omnes ad immanem illam stragem accinctos 
absorpsit, ac postea coiens in uliginem, et palustria concessit, hodieque 
invia est, incedentinm gressibus ita csedens, ut in eà nec homines, nec 

" Trias Thaum. 


the yoQthfal prime of Irìsh Chrìstianity, is evident from the following 
lines ìb the metrical lìfe of St. Brìgfaìd : — 

*' Once more with hasty steps bende the Bann 
Their course straight way they take." 

Titelake and rìver hold the same position in Ptolemaeus's maps, as in 
éese of modem geographers ; and consequently both must have been 
inring iirom their fountains before the light of Christianity beamed on 
«elaDd. This whole story^ concocted with the evident design of 
Hosdìng the gloiy of Irelaod^ thus disappears^ and vanishes like 

Oéei, and nomerous examples, of punishments stOl more severe^ I 
lo iK>t intend to deny. The life of St. Grillan gives us a signal in- 
itacQ of the most awful chastisement of treachery. There was a cer- 
ila king, named Kìan^ of Firbolg race, in Magh Seachnol/ which 
il oow Maineach, in Connacht. Maine Mor, having invaded that 
■RÌtory, the king rose up against him at the head of three thousand 
pRn, armed with swords, shields, and helmets ; but St. Grillan stood 
lnveeii the armies, and, calming down their fary, prevented an en- 
f^enkoit. Maine,^ as security for the fulfilment of bis promises, gave 
tvoitj-seren hostages to Kian, while Grillan took upon himselfto he 
Mcmìty for Kian*s fidelity. But Kian, incensed by some crime committed 

one of the hostages, plotted the ruin of them and of Maine and of ali 
bfollowers. Invitìng them to a solemn banquet, he organized a trea- 
OS pian for suddenly iutroducing a band of armed men, and as- 

inating at one blow ali his unarmed guests, while they were indulgìng, 

lOQt thought of danger, their festive cheer. But St. Grillan, being 
d by heaven of the black design, raised up his eyes and hands to 

, and hy most fervent prayer obtained that Kian should suffer the 

isbment of his crimes, and his innocent victìms be secured from 

.'That i8 ''tenitory of the old Comiacht Fora full account of his 

e," Eirbolgs (so called) who pos- life, property and descendants, eee 

iMaineach orili Maine before the Trìbes and Customs of Ui Maine — 

U18. passim. 
^ADcettor of the O'Eeallaighs of 



[Gap. XV. 

peondes' vestigia' ^gere pòssint- S; vero Grillanus patronus est 
Meanachise, et singularì veneratióiie òòlitur, in Eòclesia parochiali de 
Kilcuani» in DicBcesi Clonfortensi 17 Septembris. Peculiari cui tu eum 
O'Kelliorum familia Manli illius propago prosequebatur, et ejus Pedi 
simulachrum in labaro depictuni gestabant. Nostra memoria pedum 
S. Grillani summo in honore habitum* est : sed haec forsan extra cur- 
riculuni : ad institutum me recipio. 

Apologum istura de semiboveque viro, semiviroque bove a Cambrensi 
sublestà fide narrari parum abest quin mihi persuadeam:^* ejus enim 
veritas, etiam Giraldo spirante in dubium revocata fuit. Nam illius 
iniqui tatem in os sibi exprobratam fuisse conqueritur, nec tamen ulla 
purgatione falsi maculam eluit, sed ad diverlicula confugit. Putabam 
eimi in hsec, aut similia verba prorupturum : licet nairationis illius 
promulgandae me autborem non invitiis fatear, cudendae tamen artifi- 
cem fuis?e me pernego. Dixi enim "parum ante adventum Anglorum, 
ex coita viri cura vacca, in montanis de Glindelochan, vitulum virilem 
bos edidit, qui a juncturis quibus et manus a brachiis^ et pedes a tibiis 
porriguntur, ungulas bovis expressas prae se ferebat :^^ prò naso, praeter 
duo foramina narium, nullam eminentiam habens. Verba ei nulla, 
mugitum tantum prò sermone reddebat. Et fere per annxun inter alios 
vitulos piatrem lactando sequeretur : tandem quia plus hominis habebat, 
quam pecoris^ ad humanos convictus transferebatur. Praeterea fuit 
animai erectum, et bipes." Ejus itaque imaginem verbis ad vivmn 
expressi, ne cui in suspicionem falsi venirem. Bene est, abunde est, Gi- 
raldus munus suum (si diis placet) ad amussim explicuit. Sed cur eadem 
defensione non usus, cum talis ei culpa improperaretur ? Cur potius 

i»l. Praefat. expugna. '«Topogr. d. J, e, 25. 

i See this story nearly in the same 
terms in Tribes and Customs of Ui 
Maine, p. 12. 

mA townland of that name was 
granted by 0*J^eallaigh to the Mona»- 
tery of Cluainniicnois, ibid. p. 98. 

" See a full accouDt of his tributes 
from the race of Maine, in the Tribes 

and Customs of Ui Maine, p.l3, 14, 81 . 
That little tract contains more valua- 
ble information on ancient Irish eccle- 
9ia8tical coBtoms than any other work 
pnl4Ì9]bued by our learned societies. 

o"St. Grelian presides over tlìeir 
battles. i,e. the crozier of St. Grelian 
or some.BUch is in tl^e ^ndard of the 


r. InsUmtlj the earth opened beneath the feet of the soldiers 
vbowere lyiog in ambnscade» and swallowed them up ; after which the 
spotììeGimea marsh or bog, and is to this day impassable, afibrding 
secare £N)diig to neither man nor beast.^ S. Grillan is the patron of 
Ui Maine, and is honored with special devotion in the parìsh church 
of £iIlaaÌB,°^ in the diocese of Clonfert^ on the 17th of September. He 
h been at ali times especially honored by the family of O'Keallaigh,'^ 
èsceodaDts of Maine^ who bore on their standard, an image of bis 
pstoral sta£^ Within my own time the pastoral staff itself was held 
ìd special ?eneralion.v But I wander from my subject Return we to 

Tbe story he tells of the creature that was half man half ox, half ox 
Jialfman, I am strongly inclined to believe, is a fiction; for it was 
CBlled ioto questìon even during bis life time. Thus he complains that 
ìieiaseharged to his face with the shameful calumny ; but instead of 
sfutiDg the imputation, he had recourse to evas^ons» I expected that 
jtevoold u;^ the foUowing or a similar apology : ''^Ithough I honestiy 
mfess that I bare extensively circulated the story, I finnly deny that I 
hmifii it I stated that a short time before the arrivai of the £ng- 
Ha cow brougbt forth a monster, half calG half man^ in the mountains 
ofOìe&dalough. It had cows hoofs^ wherè the hands and feet should 
^ km the legs and arms. It had no nose, no projecting bone, 
A)tiiiiigbat the two nostrils. It bad not the faculty of speech; nothing 
taabellow. For nearly a whole year it was allowed to follow its 
,^ like the other calves of the herd, but at last it was brought into 
^an society, because it was more like a man than a beast. Besides» 
^ walked erect and on two legs." I bave described the thing most 
«««rately lest any person might suspect my veracity. Good ! conclu- 
at^e, Giraldus had for once (bless the mark) done to perfection what 

"?<rffly Many,'* ibid. p. 81. Re- P" Iti the year 1836 it was in pos- 

^ of this kind frequently used as session of a poor man named John 

Ittdardg by the Irish prìnces were Cronelly, senior representative of the 

^ cAc1)Ac)), ì.e. prseliator, ibid. Comharbas (^successors) of the saint, 

^- ibid. editor's note. 


efiugia quain alienissima consectatus est P sitam accuratam fera de* 
[135] Bcrìptionem ab ilio | exhibitam* pressius adhuc, et plurìbus locu- 
pletiorìbusque testibus adductis, exaggeraret, obtrectantium fauces in 
primo congressu, extra dubium obturasset^ et locum nobis saspicandi 
non reliquisset falsa illum deprehendisse qaae delatores nairamnt, ac 
propterea pudore adductum à mendaciis ad semiiloram accusationes re- 
tundendas admovendis abstinuisse^ palinodiain autem ideo non cecinisse» 
ne temeritatis ignominiam in eadem re prìmum asserendà, et mox in- 
ficiendà contraberet. 

Nec hujus facti veritatem per se> veì è suorum Anglorum aliquo 
cognoscere potuit, ut quod ante Anglos Hibemiam ingressos, ipso 
fatente gestum erat. Dixit enim palilo sapra rem banc " pamm ante 
adventam Anglorum" contigìsse. Unde via mibi ad augurandum ape- 
ritur banc et superiorem de bellua duos aureos dentes babente narra- 
tionem ex eoclem filo pendere. Et ut illam belluam " non multo vel 
biennio ante adventum Anglorum/* sic etiam ferara banc " parum ante 
adventum Anglorum" apparuisse scribit:^^ diversas res verbis paulo 
mutatìs, sed eodem sensu pronuntians. Cum autem belluam illam 
cbrusodentam bistorici nostri anno Domini 743, ut antehac dixi, 
Giraldus ''non multo ante adventum Anglorum/' anno Domini 1172 
Hibemiam aggressorum extitisse referat : istud *' non multo ante" vel 
^' parum ante" Giraldi, centenos aliquot annos denotare citra injuriam 
interpretabi^ur. Itaque vivos monstri sui testes laudare non potuit. 
Ut miram fuisse bominis sedulitatem oportuerit, qui rei tantum auditee 
speciem, minutias ejus quasque verbis prosecutus spectatoribus videndam 
quasi eam ipse oculis attente obiisset exhibuit. Mirificé nimirum 
delectatus erat, suam qualem qualem eloquentiam in ignominia Hiber- 
nis confiandà collocare. In qua re quam studiura ejus intentum et 
immane, tam fuit opera inanìs. Nam scriptores nostri belluam illam 
aureìs dentibus omatam celebri commemoratione, semibovemque [virum] 
semivirumque Giraldi bovem alto silentio prosecuti sunt* Ut in bellnse 
tantum tempore simplex Giraldi lapsus, in fera bumana duplex error 

»^ Topogr. d. 2, e. 10. 

Cbap. IF.] CAMBBEN8IS IVmSVS. 265 

hewas IwDDd to do. Bat why dìd he not make some defence of tbis 
kHwhen bis yeracity was called into question P why had he recoune 
to themost inconsistent subterfages ? if to Ibis delineation of the mon- 
ster,bei)ad added the stili moreTivìd corroboration of many witnesses 
wky seen it, he would have at once imposed sìlence on bis accasers^ 
and màà bave left no room for U8 to suspect tbat he found he bad 
imposed npon by bis infonnants, and was, therefore, asbamed to 
more lies to rebat the accusation of bis opponents : a retractation 
Ile voQld not make ; it wotild degrado hìm as a man who was capable 
•f assertmg and denying the same thing in the same breath. 

Tlie trath of tbìs fact could not he ascertaìned personally by bimself 
01 by mj of the Englisb, because, accordlng to his own account, it 
occQired before the English came to Ireland. His words are as quoted 
tbore, " the fact occurred shortly before the arrivai of the English," 
vbce I would bazard a conjecture> tbat this story is of the same web 
>s liis hìstoiy of the sea monstèr with the two golden teeth ; tbat is, 
tkwhen he says " the monster i^peared not long or about two years 
liefi}re the coming of the English ;" and again, that the other monster 
"vas 8een shortly before the same period," he merely uses different 
^of words to express the same thing. Now, as the monster with 
^golden teeth appeared, according to our annalists, not a few years 
the arrivai of the English in 1 172, but in the year 743, as we 
already seen, it is not unfair to conclude, tbat the '* not much 
Klbre," or '* a short time before" of Giraldus may include some 
wndreds of years. He could not, then, bave any living witnesses of 
^ fact. What amazing industry the man exhibits in thus giving a 
^t detùled description of a thing known only by report, painting it 
^ ^ readers, as if he bad himself most carefully examined it. But 
vas his most delìcious amusement, to employ ali his eloquence, 
asitwas, to heap ignominy on Ireland. But his failure in execu- 
^as as signal as the design was fell and ruthless. For, while our 
expressly record the famous animai with the two golden teeth, 
y observe a profomid silence on the half man, half ox, or half ox, 
^" man of Giraldus. In the former, he fell merely into an error of 
^^^\ in the latter he committed a doublé mistake, in the date and 


fuerìty quod alieuum illi tejnpus assignaverit^ et quòd eam omaì&o 
extitìsse scripserit. 

Piaeterea solent crìmioum rei judicibus prò tribuiiaii sdscitantibiis 
aliena ferro responsa, ne auis responsìombus legum laqneis irretiti, 
capitis sibi perioulum creent. Pari prorsus ratione Giraldus rectom 
respondendi viom dedinans ambage» adhibet. lUiun enim qiuestioni 
subjieientes, an in rerum natura memoratus ille alter Minotaurus 
unquam extiterit P responsum flexionibus eluditi et de facto perenne- 
tantesad Dei potentiam a-vocat, in Dei potestate sitom esse dicens, ut 
ejusdem bifbnne animai in terrìs progigneretur. Quam rem persuadere 
opeiiodus nitimr, longos ìoga^ de re si^ervacaneà instituens ; perìnde 
9C si divinam potentiam exhaustam es^e velit> à quo nìbil posse fieri, 
quod jam non factum sit contendere videtiir, Potuit Cambrensis quid- 
piam furto toUere, potuit quempiam sica obtruncare, potuit alienae 
conjugi stuprum inferre, continuove latronem iUum, bomicidam, et 
adulterum appellabo ? me sic ratiòcinantem merito diceret mente 
captum, et sannis si non con?iciis, et flagris etiam ad satietatem merito 

Ut autem de bomine isto ferino ita se res babeat, quemadmodum à 
Giraldo memoratur, quid tum postea ? ista falsane sint an vera susque 
deqoe fero. Id autem ìndigne fero quempiam sui compotem bine 
adduci ut credat " gentem Hibemicam boc vitio precipue laborare."^^ 
Quia subulcus aliquis vel bubulcus, aut opilio ih prseruptorum montium 
recessu tetenrimse su» libidini babenas flagitiose laxaverit, an dedecorìs 
è fiiagitio coQtracti contagio ad omnes Hibemos emanabit P quis integre 
mentis bemò uni cuipiam scelerum se volutabro immergenti popolares 
ignominise societate conjunget P nemo in dialeoticae rudimentis tjrro- 
cxnium unquam posuit, quem fugit ab individuo adspeciem non rectè 
consequentiam duci. Debuit meminisse Giraldus quod una birundo 
[136] non fiaciat ver, nec unus bomo | civitatem. Quod si quis judicem uno 
tantum teste instructus adeat, causa proculdubio cadet ; in judiciis enim, 
eadem unius ac nullius testis ratio ducitur : Nam " in ore duorum ant 
trium testium stat omne verbum."^^ Asserentis veritas non roboratur, 
nisi plura adbibeantur firmamenta. Quis nisi è dolis conflatus ilio 

»» Topogr. d. 2, e. 21 >» Math. 18. 


the existeoce itself of the human brute. Criminals, when brought be- 
fore the jodgmHit seat, generaUy avoid direct answers to the questiona 
put to éem, lest their own words might inveivo them in the trammels 
of tbeJtw, and expose their heads to the block. Sueh precìsely is the 
coarse adopted by Giraldus. He does not answer direcdy. He erades. 
Tot vhen directly interrogated whether this second minotaur really 
crei existed on this earth ; he tnms the quostion, and finswers a qaestion 
of fa-t bj an appeal to the omnipotence of God. ^ God/' says he, '^is 
abJe to produce such a bi-fprmed xnonaier/' a point which he prores ai 
greatlengtb: but to what purpose P doea he mean to say that the omni- 
potence of God is exhausted^ if it has not prodoced ali that it could 
predace ? Cambrensis could steal ; h^ could plunge hia steel into a 
mao'sheart; he could ravish the wife of another^ but can I> therelbre, 
S3\^ he was a thieC an assassin, an adulterer P Jf I reasoned in this 
fashion, I would justly pass for a madman ; and would he ridiculed, if 
mt piioished and flogged to my heart's contenta 

But whether Giraldus be right or wrong in bis account of this mou- 
sler, what then ? be it true or false^ it is a ipatter of indifierence to me. 
But I cannot repress my indignation, that any man in his^^ensesshould 
ùenoe infer, " that the Irish people were remarkably prone to that 
crime." If a cow-boy in the mountains^ or a swine herd, or shepherd 
mduìge$ bis abominable lusts, are the whole people of I reland to be 
imoheà in bis infamy P Can any man of sound sense charge upòn a 
»hoIe eommunity the disgraceful crimes of one of its members P the 
iQerest tyro in dialectics knows that it is illogical to reason from the 
individuai to the species; a general conclusione regarding a species, 
cannot be drawn from particular premises regarding an individuai only. 
Giraldus ought to bave remembered that one swallow does npt make 
s'immer,nor one man a city. If the pleader canpresent only one witness 
tothejudge, be loses bis cause; one witness, in judicial decisions, is 
legarded as none ; " for in the mouth of two or three witnesses every 
^^oid may stand." The truth of an allegation is not established without 
iBore than one corroboration. Who but a treacherous knave would use 
^W argument of the wily Sinon ? from a single crime "learn what thev 
ali are." Not content with asserting that the Irish were very much given 
^^ ihis nameless abomination, he adds, " that they were romarkablv so,'' 


fraudulenti Sinonis argumento utelur ? crimine ab uno disce onines. 
Non satis habuìt Giraldus asserere Hibemos non nominandae turpitu- 
dini addictissimos esse, nisi etiam adjiceret eos illa Venere " praecipue" 
capi perinde ac si diceret illud flagitium inter scelera Hibemis familiarìa 
familiam ducere ; aut ab omnibus illud ita frequentar!, ut ubique sit 
late difiusum, aut denique Hibemos prae caeteris gentibus ea peste 
infectos esse. Ut jam in Hibemorum causa non exploratce fidei testem, 
sed acerrìmum accusatorem se praebeat, qui elephantum ex musca 
faciens, unius delictnm ita verbis amplificai, ut ejus infamìam ad omnes 
extendat. Non igitur candidi narratoris, sed acerbissimi adversarii 
partes obit, qui Hibemos non leviter eo vitio tinctos fuisse, sed illud 
meduUitus imbibisse contendat, nulla tam temerarise accusationis pro- 
batione in medium prolatà, praeter unius bomuncionis turpissimum 
factum. Ut operam ludat Giraldus, qui omnium Hibemorum famam 
unica obtusiore sagittà confodere, ac confi cere nìtatur. 

Nulla gens est è qua non nemo simili se scelere contaminavit. Cui 
tamen in mentem unquam venit de infamia facti gentem universam 
arguere ? Plurima ejus rei documenta Delrio exhibet dicens : " Monstra 
in Saxonise silvis, semihumana facie capta sunt an. 1240,^° forte ex 
nefario hominum ac ferarum coitu nata. Sic peperit olim bello Masico 
Alcippe elephantum : Sic anno 1 378 apud Helvetios alia leonem : Sic 
anno postea 1471 quaedam Papiae Cattum, Brixiae canem alia. Denique 
varia hiijusmodi leguntur apud Cardanum de varietate, et Lemnium 
lib 10." £t paulo post : '' Saxo Grammaticus, cum duobus Magnis 
Upsalensibus Episcopis narrant Gothicos reges ex urso, et virgine 
nobili originem ducere. Et Joannes de Barros Psegusianos, et Siamitas 
Indiee gentes à cane, qui cum muliere corpus miscuerat. Petrus Chieza 
tradit illos Andinos solìtos ingentibus simiis se commiscere, et natos 
inde foetus caput bumanum et pudenda habere ^ csetera simiis similes, 
esse, et mulierem Indam in provincia Anlaga ex cane tria monstra 
peperisse."'^ Hujusmodi exemplorum copia hisloriae prodigiosae 
abundant. E quibus baec paucìs accipe. Anno Domini 854, foemina 
quaedam gemellos enixa est, puerulum scilicet et canem ad dorsi spinam 
inter se connexos. Anno Dom. 1 1 10. Leodii sus porcellum edidit, 

»«DÌ8qm Magica, lib. 2, qu. 1, 4. *»Liber gallicus impressus Antwerpia 
1574, Ub. 2, e. 4. 

Chap. X7.] cambeensis evehsus. 269 

(bxséj indmating that it was an ordinaiy crime amongst them, or so 
common, that it should be strictly termed a national crime, or in fine, 
that tk Irìsh were more addicted to it than any other nation. Thus, 
filìererer the Irìsh are concemed, be is not an honest witness, but a 
finient calunmiator, who magnifies a fly into an elephant, and so ex- 
^ptàtes the crime of an individuai as to in voi ve a whole nation in bis 
Mmj. No^ be is not a candid bistorìan^ but a most malignant calum- 
aktor, who, witbout any proof of bis rasb accusation, save the isolated 
ttseofone abandoned wretcb, defames the whole Irìsh nation as being 
pi merely slightly infected, but deeplj plunged in the abomination. 
Vain attenipt ! Giraldus, with one blunt arrow to wound and murder the 
tàkne of Ireland. In every nation some persons bave been guilty 
ol Ùàs crìme ; yet no person ever dreamed of throwing the infamy of 
ik deed on the whole people. Delrìo gives us many examples of the 
kt ''In 1240," he says, "monsters with a half human face were 
cught in the forests of Saxony, the issue, perhaps, of an unnatural 
ntercoorse with animals. Thus, in ancient times, durìng the Marsian 
^, Alcippe was delivered of an elephant. In 1378 a Swiss woman 
vasdelivered of a lion ; in 1471 a woman of Pavia of a cat, and another 
ttEiescia, of a dog. Many similar things are recorded by Cardanus ' de 
^sneute/ and by Lemnius, Lib. 10." Again, he adds, " Saxo Gram- 
naticas and the two Magnuses, bishops of Upsal, relate, that the 
%s of Gothland sprung from a noble woman and a bear. Ac- 
conling to John de Barros the Peguans and Siamese of India were 
(iieissae of a woman and a dog. Petrus Chieza relates that there was 
omiatural intercourse between the Andini and a large species of ape, 
<nd that the issue, except human heads and pudenda, were like apes. 
AnlDdìan woman, of the province of Anlaga, brought forth three mon* 
^ from intercourse with a dog." History is full of prudigious 
i&oiLsteTs of tbis kind. Take the few foUowing instances : In the year 
^54 a woman was delivered of twins, a boy and a dog connected together 
t>y the spine. In 1 1 10, a sow brought forth at Liege a monster with a 
imman head and face, the other parts of the body being like its dam. 
In 1290 a woman, in the town of Constance, was delivered of a lion 
^th a human head. In 1433 there was born of a woman a monster, 
(>f human form down to the waist, the lower parts perfectly resembling 


«aput, et faciem hnmanam, reliquos corporis àrtus ad porcelli formaài 
gerente. Afitio Ddm. 1:2290 foemina Constantisis léoiifém partu fìidit 
capite humanò. Anno Domini 1493 mulier biformem edidit prolem, 
superiore pane tinibi}ico tenus hominem, inferiore canem itareferen- 
tem, ut villos, cajidanl, et caninos pede» habuerit. An* Dom. 1^4, 
propè Verotiam pttlhis^ à jumento editusest, facie ad homìnis, reliquia 
artubus ad equi ^imilitudinem éfformatis*** Sub anntìtìi iDom. ^14 
quidam fuit humano corpote, sed canino capite. Quid multis mcrror ? 
similium narrationum seriem quam longissimam texere poàsem. Niillus 
tamén unquam, ab nefariaruili hominum spurcitiis, ullàm dedecoris 
maculam èòrum nationi affixit. Ut ille jure mentissimo exsibilandus 
sit, qui ob unius Hibemi delictum, omnes Hibernos non quacunque, 
sed immodicà propensione ad turpissimam cum belluis c'onsuetudìnem 
ferri assevéraverit. 

Verum ille alio etiam documento, licet non óm nino simili, éffatiim 
suum firmare aggreditur mulierem dicens,^* fae'dos caprsb amplexué 
nitro paSsam fùisse. In qua re nàrranda, tamquam in campo aliquo 
amseno spatiari faclt orationem suatìi. Et ut voluptàte se velut suem 
in volùtabiro* talia narrantém perfundì non obscuré indicaret, versus 
invita Minerva, àed exangtles et exòssos cudit. Imitàtorem hac in re 
scarabeorum se praebens, qùibus summa felicitas est in coeno volutari. 
Sed ego fidem ejus dictis prsestandam nego, sì pròductis tabulis ea non 
[137] ^^Jciat: tanta enim | consuetudo mihi cum ejus; fallaciis contracta est, 
ut sicut tantum dumtaxat quis habet fidei, quantum pecunise in arca 
repositee ; sic ille nihil fidei, nisi prò testimonii quod profert preestantìa 
per me relaturus sit Dominum illius caprae Rothericum regem Con- 
natÌ8B facit, qui cum etiam Hibemi» rex esset, ac proinde hostium 
Giraldi coryphaeus; par est credere falsas de ilio delatìones vulgo 
sparsas ad hostium aures pervenisse : et sicUt auditis aliquid semper 
nóvuà adjiciit author ; sic famam hanc, quo per plurium ora vagabatur, 
eo majòri incremento auctam, à Giraldo exceptam, et scriptis manda- 
tam fùisse, qui ad caprarum etiam amorés nimis demisse descendit, ut 
eit iis quidpiam expiscari valeret, quod ad affundendam Hibemorum 

»»Lib. 5, e. 4. «» Topogr. d. 2, e. 22. 



a dog in hair, uil, feet and shape. In 1254, near Verona, a mare 
broQgk forth a foal with a human head, and in 914 there lired a thhig 
viùahoman body and a dog*s head. It ia useless to cite more ezam* 
ples. There is abondance of them at band. Yet no nation hias ever 
beenckrged with those infamous crìmes of some of its sons.^ What 
cfloiemptuoiu ridicule can meet the demerita of a man who urges the 
oiiDeofooe Irìshman as proof that ali the Irish were not simply prone 
botinuDoderately prone to ali those unnatural enormities ? 

To establish bis position he prodttces another instaoce^ though not 
ofendrely the same kind, namely, that a woman had voluntarily 
tsimOar crime with a goat. The narrative of this affair opens a 
delightfol £eld for ali the copiousness of hi» rhetori& We must Buspect 
ìkt ii was bj no means an unpleasìng taak, since, like the sòw in the 
miid, he dwelt so long on bis subject, as to compose someverses on it«^ 
bmwithoat poetic inspiration^bloodless, boneless* In this he imitates the 
àém to which the mire is as a luxurious bed of down. But credit or 
hoDor he shall not bave from me if he does not produce bis authorìties ; 
I foilhaveiiowbecome so (amiliarìzed with bis mendaci ty^thathenceforward, 
man wbose credit is measured by the quantity of money lying 
, bis aathority shall weigh with me according to the value òf 
^fitaesses. Rnàidbri O'Concbabhair, king of Connacht, he assures 
%^ì]ie owner of this goat, but, as king of I reland, thè gteat leader of 

enemies of Giraldus wòuld naturally be made the rictim of cà- 
ious reports among bis enemìes. A report ìs generally embellished 
iijadditions as it passes from mouth to mouth, each contributhig some 
'ittlecircumstance, and tbus ibis story of the goat carne in its magnified 
^to the ears of Giraldus, who comàiitted it to writing, and descended 
^()i&any disgusting deCails on the lasci viousness of goats, to discover, if 
P<«$ible, some materials for aspersing the character of the Irish. 
%OD(ì a doubt, if thetre had been any issue from the abominable inter* 

'I* may be reasonably doubted tells of such tbings as existing in 

Mer in relating this fable of the Wales and other countries, see bis 

*^uman monster Giraldus was in- Itinerarium. Anglia Sacra, 20, 40, 

^?ing hi8 hatred of Ireland, for he 825, 826, 860, 874. 


famte maculam faceret. Qnod si ex hoc brutali congressu fcetus aliqnis 
prodiret, mox in propatulo facinus collocaretur, ad Hibernos pudore, 
et probro afficiendos. 

Et si autem ejus rei veritas esset quam exploratissima, ex ea tamen 
hec vel minimam labeculam Hibemi contraherent. Imo Giraldus ali- 
quorum objurgatione vivens vapulavit, ob hanc, et sequentem narra- 
tionem suae Topographiae insertam.^^ E mulieris cujusdam mento 
(Cambrensì narrante) barba, è pectore umbilico tenus coma» et è dorsi 
spina lanugo extabat, non absimilis jubse pulii equini primum setatis 
annum agentis. 

Cur autem Cambrensis mulierem barbatam pto monstro habuerit 
me prorsus fugit Cum hac saltem tempestate, muUeres frequentissime 
visantur barbam gestantes, quam véì volsellis vellunt, vel forcipe ton- 
dunt, vel novaculà radunt, ut crescentis barbse luxuriem coercerent. 
Quis scit an matris animo cum prolem è viro susciperet, forma pulii 
equini obversaretur ? usu enim venit fceminis, ut ejus rei quam cum 
viris coeuntes cogitatione volvunt, similitudinem aliquam soboles re- 
feraté Joannes Damascenus author gravis memorat. Carolo quarto 
Imperatore puellam exhibitam fuìsse, totam pilis instar ursse opertam, 
sic natam quod mater in viri amplexu versata obtutnm in hirsntam 
S. Joannis Baptistae imaginem lecto affixam intentius defixerit F(b- 
minam nobilissimam puerulum nigmm iBthiopi simillimum è candido 
viro susceptum ab adulterii suspicione Hipocrates liberavit, quod 
proles picti ^thiopis ad thalamum appensi similitudinem retulerìu^* 
Ita ut Giraldi conatus hanc è brutali coitu progeneratam fuisse tacite 
insinuantis prorsus inanis fuerit. 

Sed tempus est ut orationem bis spurcitiis et quisquiliis ezpeditam 
referam ad discutiendum, verenè an secus Hibernos agriculturae operam 
navasse Giraldus neget bis verbis: ''Gens bsec agriculturae labores 
aspematur."^^ Credibile non est bomines bospitalitati mortalium 

" Topogr. d. 2, e. 20. •* Hier. super Geo. »« Topogr. d, 3, e. 10. 

* Oar autboT in these argumeots that those monslers were so common, 
adopts tbe general opinions of bis day, and were the fruita uf unnatural crime. 


coQise, Giraldas would have emblazoned the fact to overwhelin the 
Irishwitfa in&mj. 

Bntvere the fact indabìtable, the Irìsh character was stili unsullied 
bydiesKghtest taint Even during bis own life time, Giraldus was 
semplj censnred for this and the following narrative : '' there was a 
foman/' he sajrs, " who had heard on her chin and thin hair on ber 
keisty and a sort of down along the spine of her back, not unlike the 
arane of a jearling colt."* 

Bat on what grounds Giraldas regards a strange woman of that kind 
u a monster I am at a loss to discover. Women, even at the present 
day, are veiy often seen with beards, which they either pluck up with a 
tweezers, or clip with a scissors, or shave with a razor^ to prevent it 
finm growing. Who can say that when the 'woman conceived, the 
ima^e of a Ibal was not present to her imagination ? for it usually bap- 
pens, that the child bears some resem bianco to the object of the 
VDffian's thoaghts, at the time of conceptìon. John Damascena a grave 
ttthor, relates, that a yonng girl, covered ali over with hair, like a bear, 
vaspresented to the emperor Charles the Fourth. She was so from 
krbinh, because at the time of her conception hermother was looking 
inMy at a grìssly image of St. John the Baptist, which was in the 
éambei. A certain noble lady being delivered of a black child, like 
io Itiiopian, thongh her hasband was white, was absolved by Hippo- 
fiates from the slightest suspicion of adtdteiy, on the grounds that the 
tliOd resembled the portrait of an Ethiopian which was suspended in 
knuptial chamber. The insinuation of Giraldus, therefore, that this 
isman was the issue of unnatural intercourse, is utterly groundless. 
But it is a relief to tum from this loathsome and disgusting subject 
discussion of another subject of Giraldus, that the Irìsh neglected 
JgncQlture. ''This people,** he says, "despises agricul turai labor.*' 
i^o can believe that a people, the most hospitable that e ver lived, 
^ so wretched a supply of com, that they had nothing to present to 
Èir guests but victuals without bread ; the family table itself without 
y, is most insipid ; the hospitable board is stingy and disgraceful. 

'See in Boate's Naturai History, •* the horny girl,»* born in the city of 
119, an account of Anne Jackson, Waterford of English parents. 




[Cap. X 

addictissimos tanta frumenti laborasse inopia, nt obsonia tantum o 
vivìs, nullo pane adhibito apposuerint^ cum domestica etiam pran 
pane Tacua sint quam insulsìssima, et advenis apposita penitus sordea 
Sane sicut advenarum famem pane, sic sitim z3rto extingaebant j 
culentis itaque poculentisque è farro conflatLs, magnam ìllis framc 
vim alicunde subministratam fuisse oportuit. Fuisse autem Hibernì 
summa fertilitate insignitam optimi authores non scripsissent,^^ i 
Surius " Insulam omnium terrarum gleba foecundiorem." Nec Bart 
lomaeus " Anglicua frumentariis copiis uberrìmam ;" nec Joannes Ma 
** Brìtanoìa non minus fertilem ;" nec Joannes Boaemus Aiibai 
'^ terram insigni fertilitate pneditam ;"^^ nec Joannes Dav^isius " terr 
frumenti, et hordei" ex Deuteronomio appellaret, nisi experimei 
deprebendissent omni frugum àbundantià Hibemiam circumfluzisse, 
uberrimum segetiim proventum quotannis erudisse. Cum utriusq 
sexus in Hibemia decimus quisque Deo sacratius colendo addiceret 
Cum "nullus pene terrae angulus fuerit, qui perfectis Monachis, 
Monialibus non repleretur," et decima terrarum pars illLs alendis ass 
naretur.^® Quomodo victum ex attributi sibi terr» portione ì 
eliciebant, si non in eà colenda desudabant P Nec arandi cognitio \ 
latuit, quibus arationis instrumenta suppetierunt Nec ìis instramei 
[138] profani | homines, et famflise, ac prolis alendae solicitudine impli 

»M Julii S. Bunnad de prop. lib. 13, «« Historia Scot. lib. l,c.9j 
moribus gentium, lib. 3, e. 26. Pag. 285. *» Jocel. e. 174. 

9 Man7 notices of tbe erection of 
mills are found in retj ancient Irish 
documents. According to Camden. 
the Irish of the 15th ceutury, " feed 
wìllingly upon herbs, and watercreeses 
especìally, upon mnshrooms, sham- 
roots and roots, so that Strabo, net 
'without good cause, said they were 
' eaters of herbs,* ^^<pàyét for which 
in some copies is falsely read -je^Xv^àyM 
'great eaters/ Theydelight also in 
butter tempered with oatemeale. In 
milk, whey, beef broth, andfleshoften- 

times without any bread at ali. | 
for the com they bave, they lay ij 
for their horses provender, for w] 
verily, they are especially card 
The ancient Scots of Albany, U 
States, were very abstemious, " 
prima statim luce, neque merìdie, 
sub vesperam mensam sibi tan| 
apponi volebant, eamque valde . 
cam.** De Moribus Scotorum, | 
" Pane aUi ex frumento, ex legd 
bus alii, ex avena non pauci i]l 
utebantur," ibid. Stephen Whif 


lAP. XV.] 



; the stranger faad bread to allay his h unger, and beer to quench 
tlùnt, aiid so lavìsh a profusion of solid and lìquid farìnaceous food 
id not be sapplied without a great quantity of corn.' The best 
ithorities attest the great fertility of I reland. Surius says, '* it was 
i&ost fertile land on the face of the earth.'* Bartholemy, an 
iman, '^ tbat it had the rìchest crops of corn." Johannes Major, 
itit was as fertile as Brìtain.*' John Boaemus Auban, '' that it was 
id of most remarkable fertility/' and John Davis applies to it the 
of Deuterooomy, '' a land of wheat and barley/' which qualifica- 
Irdand never could bave received, if experience had not proved 
iit was rich in ali tbiB fruits of the earth, and lavishly poured forth 
harvests. Again, as every tenth^ child of either sex was 
Ij consecrated to the service of God in Ireland, and as almost 
corner of the land was filled with holy monks and nuns, for whose 
a tenth of the land was allotted, how could they live on the 
of their assigned portion, if they did not labor in tilling it P how 
tbey be ignorant of ploughing, when we find them supplied with 
18 ? nor can it for a moment be supposed, tliat laymen who had 
le for a family, and were solicìtous about the cares of thìs li fé, 
lì^iect i^rìcultural operations practised by others who had 
ali private property. Now, it is a well known fact, that men 
inost eminent sanctity worked with their own hands in tilling the 
i; thus St. Etchen having lent his ploughshare, the oxen continued 
tw the plough, and thoagh there was no ploughsbare, the earth 

lui eztraordìnary account of Jrish 
ice, " crebro experti sunt 
^eiteramm nationum quod pleri- 
'iHwtrates viri et foeminae, cum ip- 
t, nt saepissÌDie contigit, sive 
Itis causa siye alia, triduum integ- 
integris viribus, nihil prorsus 
[^tnsque gostient, ac nihilomìnus 
Ita omnia peragant, sive iter 
lo, sive iniLitando, sive aliter la- 
pido. In quadragesima videas pas- 
plorimos utriusque sexus robore 

corporis parum aut nihil fracto, extra 
diem dominicam bis tantum caetera 
hebdomada gustare modicum panis et 
aquaa aut seri lactis.'* Apud Crom- 
bach Vita SS. Ursulae et Sociarum, 
Tom. 2, Ub. 6, cap, xi., p. 299. Pei- 
haps these statements circulated on 
the Continent may bave suggested the 
wretcbed commissariat designed for 
the Irish soldiers in their wars for 
James II., Destruction of Cyprus. 
t Tithes, in the strict sense of the 



[Gap. XT. 

caruisse censendi sunt, quae illi usurparunt, qui rei familiaris solicitudìnì 
uuntium remiserunt.^® Viros autem sanctimonia claros vel bine per- 
spicuum est terrae colendse incubuisse ; quod S. Etchaenus aliquo 
vomerem ejus mutuato, bobus tamen progredientibus, et aratrum vomere 
vacuum pertraheiitibus sulcos duxerit, et eodein unum è bobus aratro 
subductum^ hospitibus alendis elargito, cervus è nemore accun'ens jugo 
collum ultro inseruerit, ei se officio tanquam quod vis cicur animai 
accommodans.^^ S. Aidus quoque in egenum stipem ab eo poscentem 
bovem jugo extractum contulit, tres tamen reliqui arandi opus praesti- 
terunt, licet impari onere, uno tantum laborem divinitus perferente, 
quantum alii duo ferebant. Alia vice vomerem inopi stipis loco erogavi t, 
nibilominus solum aratro proscindebatur. Prseterea imbribus large 
decidentibus, S. Aidi messores operi sedulo incumbentes, non secus ac 
si sub sudo versarentur pluvia non humectavit 

Nec scio quo pacto in regione agriculturam vel ignorante, vel negli- 
gente, victus aut vestitus tot Monachorum catervis suppeditaretur, qui 
diversa coenobia incolentes per Hibemiam seculo septimo difiiindeban- 
tur. Centum et quinquaginta Monachi S. Natbali; totidem S. 
Maidoco, S. Moncheno et S. Monennte totidem virgines parebant: 
trecentis monachis S. Fehinus ; octingentis septuaginta sex Carthagus, 
mille S. Gobanus, mille quingentis S. Lasreanus imperabat. Tria 
monachorum millia in disciplinam se S. Brendani tradiderunt, totidem 
S. Finiano audientes erant; idem piane numerus ad S. Congellum 
erudiendus confluebat, et par etiam multitudo S. Giraldi se societati 

»o Colgan. 4, Febr. " 3, Febr. 

term, were net paid in Ireland before 
the English inTasion ; but the church 
possessed extensiTe grants of land and 
rents from the earliest ages. We read 
frequently of the first fruits of animala, 
&c. &c., thu8 tlie firstling lamb, pig, 
and foal in Ui Maine, belonged to St. 
Grellan's church. Tribes and Customs 
of Ui Maine, p. 13. Among his tri- 
butes, ibid. are reckoned " the first 

bom of every family, that are ali bap- 
tised by me," ibid. 

" There were probably several sainta 
of this name early in the 6th century ; 
one of them was son of ^ngus king^ 
of Caiseal, and his festival was kept on 
the 31st of July, at Ellmanagh in KiU 
kenny, from whom the name of Klllen- 
nani in that district. 

V Bishop and patron of the diocese 

ffciP. 17.] 



|aited mìo fìirrows behind them : on another occasìon, haring unyoked 
ime of bis oxen firom the same plough, and gìven ìt for tho/Support of 
wmestnngersy a stag rushed from the forest, and thrusting hìs neck 
ktotheroke^ toìled as calmly at his work as any domestic animai. 
Stiid, liso, having given one of his team of oxen to a poor man who 
relie( the other three stili continued to plough, but with unequal 
; ose of them, miracolously^ exerting a power equal to the other 
Another time, havìng given his ploughshare in alms, the earth 
torned into furrows beneath his plough, and during heavy rain that 
in faanrest, his reapers were as dry as if there had not been a cloud 
ihe heaTens. 

, Ifagrìcaltare were unknown or neglected in Ireland, how could the 
lADeroasand thickly peopled monasteries of I reland in the 7th cen- 
tey be provided with food or clothing ? Under Natalis^ there were 
Wmonks; under St Maidoc/as many; 600 under St. Tehin,'^ 876 
r St Carthage,* 1000 under St. Goban/ and 1500 under St. 
/ while ] 50 nuns obey ed the rule of St. Monchen* and St 
nna.*» St. Brendan® had 8000 monks under his rule ; St. Fen- 
30OO scholars; St. Congall^ the same number; and in St 
V community there were 3000 also, not to mention the almost 
ff^^ number of monasteries of lesser note, but those alone that 
fsefmtà for the multitude of their inmates.» But why dwell any 

R3i)i:foimded many monasteries ; 
'^. See Lanìgan lì., p. 333. 
*Abbotof Fore, Westmeath, A.D. 

'Of Lianore ; died A.D. 637. Car- 
■the elder of Saiger, lired before 

^Kaoy saìnts of the name in the 

<!®tar7j this was probably the 

ot of the old Leighlin, A.D. 630, 

"Of old Leighlin, died Aprii 18, 


[*ForseTeral gaints of that name, 


••OfFochard in Louth, A.D. 630, 

ài, or rather A.D. 617, see O'Dono- 
van's Four Masters, p. 169. 

^Two Tery eminent saìnts of that 
name, Brendan of Clonfert, died A.D. 
577; Brendan of Birr, A.D. 571. 

<1 Of Clonard, in Meath, died A.D. 

eOf Bangor; died A.D. 601. 

' Of Mayo of the Sazons ; supra. 

8 It may be questioned whether tho 
early orders of Irish monks had as 
great an influence in promotìng agri- 
culture as the Cistercians and others 
of later date. 


aggregaverat; ut infinitorum pene minorìs notse coenobiorum numennn 
non enumerem quae maxima monachorum frequentià celebrabantur. Sed 
quid in bis ambagibus morari patiar orationem P majores nostros cum 
terra rationem naviter babuisse id documento est^ quod in senticetìs, et 
vix perviis prserup\orum montium jugis, et clivis^ sulcos etiamnum hodie 
videamus^ vestigia scilicet laboris olim in agricólatione ab indigenis 
obiti, qui campestribus arvis vel ad satietatem subactis, rei tantisper 
quiescere pei*missis, ad asperiora illa segeti férend» accommodanda 
operas contuleri^nt. Sive quòd tam immensa fuerit hominum m Hiber- 
nia mnltitudo, ut per òmnem terram ubique se diffuderit, babìtationis 
angustiìs plnres ad remotiores illos recessus compellentibus, et ad eos 
aratro findendos industriam illorum exacuentibus,*^ adeo ut arationis 
negotio omnis Hibemiae angulus ferbuerit. Ut jure merito priscos 
Hibemos, apud Boatum sui posteri praestantissimos agrìcolatores ap- 
pellaverint, qui nullam agri partem cultura vaccare permiserant. Cui 
rei iuculentum Giraldus ipse testimonium perbibens, suo se gladio 
jugulat bis verbis. " Glieba praepingui, uberique frugum proventu felix 
terra est, foecunda frugibus arva."^^ Et pai dò post : *' abunde satis, et 
campi vestiuntur, et borrea farciuntur/* Num uber ille proventus 
sponte natus est ? an è facto semente prorupi t ? an non solum assiduo 
agricolarum labore ante dissipatum fuit, quam tantam frugum copiam 
efiuderat, quae et campos vestivit, et borrea farcivit ? Ut vìdeamusduo 
contraria eodem ore proferri : ab Hibemis manum stivae non admotam 
fuisse, et Hibemiam segete quam uberrima floruisse. Itaque videntur 
in bomine ratio et furor per intervalla dominari : ita ut illa ad animi 
clavum sedente vera prompserit; bac mentis gubemaculo admota, 
calumnìas Bvomuerit. Tota profecto ejus oratio sibi non convenit, imo 
collidentibus sententiis plerumque sic sestuat, ut Euripus quidam con- 
fligentibus inter se fluctibus agitatus esse videatur, ac proinde sine ullo 

*2 Histor. naturalis Hiber. pag. 83. ss Topogr. d. 1, e, 4. 

h Wboever has ascended some Irisb gires a probable explanation of the 

mountains must have observed the fact : it is simply absurd te imagine 

fact stated in the text ; the traces of that the farmer would voluntarily 

the ploiigh or spade at some distant retire from the rich plains te the bleak 

ages. Neither of the causes assigncd sides of the mountains ; and there is not 


longer on these trìfling fiicts P A most conclusive proof of the great 
agrìcultural industry of our fathers is foundod on the fact^ that even to 
the present day troces of the plough are seen in the fastnesses, and on the 
declivities and summits of the mountains, the remains of the native 
agricoltoial lahors of ancient times» when the people, after reducìng 
the kfwhind, or in order to let it rest tot a while, red^imed the more 
hairen tracts for the production of com. Or perhaps it was the super- 
ahnndant population of the country that spread ìtself over every corner 
of the land^ being compelled for want of room to occupy even the most 
solitary deserts, and by strenuously plying the plough to support life^ 
thus made ali Ireland one field of busy agrìcultural industry.^ It was 
net without reason, therefore» that Beate represents the Irish of bis 
day, as extolling highly the great agrìcultural skìll of their fathers, who 
could not leave even one spot of waste land. Even Giraldus bears 
conclusive evìdence to the fact, though it directly contradicts hìmself. 
" The land," he says, ^' ìs blessed wìth the rìchest soil, and the most 
plenteous harvests : the fields teem with produce." And again, '' the 
plains are rìchly clothed, and the granaries well stocked." Did this 
rich produce sprìng spontaneously ? or was not the seed sown P must 
not the soil bave been thoroughly drilled by the agrìculturalist, in 
order to yield abundance so great as to ciò the the plains and cram the 
granaries P He evìdently lays down two contradictory assertions in the 
same breath — the Jrish never applied a band to the spade, and yet 
Ireland yìelded crops in the greatest plenty. Sense and rage appear 
to bave ruled bis mind altemately — when the first was master, he spoke 
truth ; but disgorged bis calumnìes under the domination of the other. 
His whole langiiage is a tissue of ìnconsistency ; so utterly ìncoberent 
and disjoìnted wìth contradictory assertions, that it looks like Euripus 
tom wìth contending waves. Its own inherent weakness needs no 

tbe abgbtest authorìty in our bistory wars wbicb desolated the country, the 

for believìng that at any period the weak and timoroas fled to the moim- 

population was so numerous that the tains and bogs, and untll the Btorm 

plains wouid not be abundantly suffi- passed away, endeavoured to support 

cìent for their support. Their trae cause life by the scanty produce of patches 

appears to be, that during the fìrequent of barren land. 


alio vitio, sine adversarìo, languentibus omnibus ipsa per se corruat 
Legisse nunquam videtiiT ista Catonis cannina. 

*' Speme repngnando tibi tu oontrarius esse, 
[139] Conveniet nulli, qui secum dìsaidet ipse." | 

Regulam etiam jurìs non vidit qnas prascipit,^^ '^ Contraria allegante! 
non esse audiendum." 

»* Regu. 146, . , 


dverse argument to drag it baseless to the ground. It falls of itself. 
lìieaelines of Cato must never bave met bis eye, 

** Labor connstent wìth thyself to be. 
Or neyer hope wìth others to agree." 

Hewaseqnally ignorant of that legai maxim^ '' A witness contradicting 
iiiiDseJf must not be heard," 




[139] Hibemi quomodo non spurci— viiia variarom gentium. [140] Hibemos fidei mdimen- 
tornm nescios teiao dizit.— Hibemi fldem in Britannia propaganint. [141] St. Faraniifl 
quid in Britannia egit. [142] Coenobia in Britannia ab Hibernis instituta.— Monasieriam 
Bfailrosense.— Ripponense.— Oetlilingense. [143] Gsenobia Monialinm.— Monasterinm 

Non tamen convitiandi taedio Giraldus capitur^ adjicit enim : " Gens 
haec est gens spurcissima^ gens vitiis involutissima^ gens omnium gentium 
in fidei rudimeutis incultissima, nondum enim decimas> vel primitias 
solvunt, nondum matrimonia contrahunt^ non incestus vitant. non Eccle- 
siam Dei cum debita reverentia frequentant;^ gens adultera, gens incesta, 
gens illegitimè nata, et copulata, gens exlex." En ut omnes obtrecta- 
toris partes cumulate impleat Cum ad Hibemos aliquo- nominatim 
scelere perstringendos aditus ejus orationi maledicendo nunquam 
fatigatse aegre patuit, eam ad generalia theseos avocamenta laxat, et ab 
edicendà speciatim spurcitià, quae Hibemos inficerò possit tacite flectit. 
Forsan Hibemos prò " spurcis" ideo habuit quod pretiosà veste 
comptuli non fuerint, gemmis non fulguraverint, margaritis non micu- 
erint, auro non coruscaverint, cincinnos calamistris non inusserint, 
unguentis illos non obliverint, à pavone plumas ad levitatem capitis 
augendam non mutuaverint, oSores è veste non sparserint, quibus teeta 
quse subierunt sic perfunderentur ut eo felicis Arabiae suavolentia ger- 
mina commìgrasse diceres ; aut è belluorum odoratis recrementis putori 
suo remedia non mendicaverint, ad oscula salutantium pedibus infigenda 
se ad humum non arcuaverint Prseterea forsitan Hibemos spurcitìae 
arguit, quod supellectilem habuerint domesticis tantum ministeriis 
obeundis, et advenis quotidiano pene hospitio excipiendis accommo- 

»Topogr. d. 3, e. 19. 



« \ 





.iithy ìmtAU ; lìon ot diffeKDt natioiui. {140} The Irtsh 

.ilice of the mdiments of faith : they propagated the ftith in 

.>a I aots in Brìtaln. [149] MonasterlM foonded in Bittala by the 

.rieg of Uelroae: Ripon: Gethingen. [143] Convents of nuni. Mo- 


«iiBcs, never tired of invective, proceeds in the following strain ; 

''tìiispeopleìs a most fìlthy people, a people uaost deeply plunged 

Ance, a people the most ignorant of ali others in the rudiments of 

U; tky pay no tithes or fu'st fruita ; they celebrate not the marriage 

«Bfraft; they do not avoid incesta nor frequent the chnrch of God 

-^keomìngreyerence; au adulterous people^ an incestuous pe<^le, 

tpeople imlawftilly married and begotten^ a people without any law," 

^kshec'arry ont in ali its parts bis impeachment of the Irìsh* 

wriaring exhausted, with malignant patience^ the vocabulary of 

Wfb agamst si>ecial crimes, he recreates himself in the sweeping 

i^ities of faìs theme^ and makes a tacit transition from the detail 

rfiidividttal enormitìes. 

^(ìrliaps he means the Irìsh were filthy because they were not 
"M in costly garments ; neither glittering with genus^ nor sparkling 
^eostlystones, nor radiant with gold, nor crisped with the curling 
'^«nordaubed with oìntments^ nor making their heads more light, with 
««Wrowed plumes of the peacock, nor breathing from ali their clothes 
"■o^sinsuch profusione that whatever house they entered appeared 
"^^gnated with ali the imported scents of Arabia Felix ; neither did 
""'y^therank refuse of brutes to duU their own ungracious odors^ 
^i^Wdown to the ground to kiss the feet of the man that saluted 
^^- Oritmay be, that the Irish are called filthy, because they had 
stature but what was suited to domestic purposes, and for the 


datam, nec adhuc perégrinas lautitias hospitibus exhibuerint ; nondum 
palatia ex Punico marmore in ccelum eduxerint, nec tessellata pavi- 
menta calcaverìnt, laquearìa cnistis ac segmìnibus insititiis venni culata 
non usurpaverint ; necdum per gradus tomo ductos sinuosis circumvo- 
lutionibus inerrantes in superiora tabulata nixi fuerint; nondum 
cupediis ex ultima India importatis gulam provocaverint^ nondum 
condituras illas ad ingluviem irritandam excogitatas adbibuerint; nec 
exoticis obsoniis ventrem distenderint. Timi enim Hiberni simplicem* 
et apertam illam ingenuitatem nondum exuerunt. Domus ab imbribus, 
ardoribus^ ac tempestatibus munimentum^ non pompse ostentatio fuit ; 
veste se tegebant, quae frìgus arcebat, non superbiam evulgabat ; cibo 
parabili^ et copioso famem non bulimiam explebant. Sed Hibemis 
exterss potestati postea obnoxiis ssevior armis luxus incubuit, in epulis, 
vestitu^ et sedificiis à gente dominatrice invectus, et mores antiqui 
eorundem opera antiquati fuerunt. 

Pergit tamen Giraldus maledictis Hibemos incessero et quod *' vitiis 
involutissimi sint ' inculcare. Quod si propensione quadam illos in 
certum aliquod vitium ferri dixisset, a vero non penitus aberrasset. 
Hominibus enim ita comparatum est à natura, ut in malum singuli 
proclives sint. A qua conditione ne quidem unius diei infans immuni- 
tatem nactus est. Nam ut ait poeta, vitiis sine nemo nascitur. Optimus 
ille est qui minimis urgetur.^ Quid quod ipse "justus septies in die 
cadat." Vere poeta dixit nemo sine crimine vivit : etenim *' non est 
homo justus super terram, qui faciat bonum, et non peccet." Si ^'dix- 
erimus quoniam peccatum non habemus, ipsi nos seducimus, et veritas 
in nobis non est.*'^ Cum autem è sìngulis hominibus gens quseque 
confata sit/ ut universa natio hausta è singulorum vitiis contagione 
inficiatur necesse est. Ita ut Munsterus non injuria pronuntiasse 
[140] videatur, Judseos invidia, Persas | perfidia, ^gyptios àstutià, Grsecos 
fallacia, Saracenos saevitià, Caldaeos levitate, Afros varietate, Galles 

* Prov. 24. ' Eccles. 7. * Jean. e. i. 

a By thismode of defence our author manj other places, namely, the supe- 
appears to admit what he denies in rioritj of the invaders in the days of 


hospitable entertainment of strangers every day. As yet they had not 
pronded foreign delicacies for their guests ; no palaces of mock marble 
soaiìng to the skies, no tessellated pavements, nor ceilings inlaìd with 
camngsand fretwork: they were not obliged to grope their way to upper 
stoc'es on tomer wroaght stairs, winding up in mazy circumgyrations ; 
Ùey did not provoke their appetite by spices imported from the farthest 
isdies; nor whet glutton voracity by pnngent condiments, noi dis- 
tend a pannch wilh exotic delicacies. The Irìsh of that day had not 
ibandoned their plain and unostentatious simplicity. Their house was 
a sbelter against rain, heat^ and storm, not a display of pomp ; their 
àiess was a protection against the weather, not a profession of prìde ; 
aodgood and abondant food satisfied the wants of nature^ not the 
cravings of gluttony. But when the Irìsh became subject to a foreign 
power, the tyranny of luxury, worse than that of arms^ destroyed the 
mm simplicity of their habits, and established those of the invaderà, 
in dress, food and edifices.* 

S^ pm'suìng bis tndn of malignant invective against the Irìsh, 
Giialdus asserts that they are most debased by vice. Had he merely 
saia that they were natnrally prone to one particular vice, there wonld 
^ some trnth in his assertion ; for men are so formed by nature, that 
eacìi bas his own bad propensity. Such is the general law, from which 
Rechila one day old is not exempt. '' No man," saith the poet, "is bom 
^ithoat faults ; they who bave the least are the best." Does not even 
^ejust man fall seven times in the day ? Truly hath the poet said, " that 
''Oman lives without crìme," for there is no just man upon earth, that 
W good and sinneth not ; and ** if we say thatwe bave no sin, we deceive 
oii^selves, and the truth is not in us/' Nations being composed of 
^^dividuals, the national character must he infected by the contagion of 
^6 vices of private men ; and hence Munster does not appear unjust 
^Whe States that the Jews were remarkable for envy, the Persians 
■or treachery, the Egyptians for cunning, the Greeks for lying, the 
^tfeus for cruelty, the Chaldeans for levity, the Afncans for fìckle- 

I ^^^^ over the natives, in the coni- to prove such superiority at that time, 
^^^andiefinementsof whatis called at least in dress, food, dwellings, 
^^zatìon— yet it would bc difficult &c. &c. 


gulà> Longobardos vana gloria, Hunnos crudelitate, Suevos immunditii 
Francos ferocitate, Saxones stultitià, Pictavos duritià^ Scotos libidini 
IJi^panos vinolentià^ Brìtannos irà^ Normanno^ rapacitate laboras» 
Itaque ii^ihi adniiradonem non movete si parìter populares mei uq 
aliquo vitio sordidi ess^ dicerentur. Sed aggere ilio vitiorum eos nò 
leviter tii^tps, yerum alte immersos esse, est à ventate tam alienum 
quam exploratum est, ista probra non è verìtatis sed livori s, ac invidi^ 
pena deprompta esse. Giraldus enim Hibemorum na^vos sic attolleii 
verbis, et amplificare assuescit, ut qui per se minimi fuerint, dicendo r\ 
immodicam elati magnitudipem, maximorum prse se speciem ferant 
Non secus ac si vitra illa quibus res eminus prospicientibus grandiore 
apparent,^ oculis semper admota gestaret, ut modicie res in immeiisun 
tumorem turgescere viderentur. Recte Cassiodorus '' quicquid ex in- 
vidia dkitur veritas non putatur." 

Giraldus taraen obtrectandi libidinem hic compescere detrectans, ad 
Hibemos majoribus convitiis ferendos gradum facit, addens Hibernicam 
^' gentem onmium gentium in fidei rudimentis inculti ssimam ;^ nondum 
decìmas, vel primitias solvere, nondum matrimonia contrabere> non in- 
cestus vitare, non Ecclesiam Dei, cum debita reverentia frequentare. 
Faciliori negolio Giraldus ad credendum lectores adduceret, si tantum 
in summà fidei rud^mentorum.ìgnorantià Hibemos versare affirmaret: 
et non àdjungeret, non unam duntaxat gentem, aut centenas ; sed quot- 
quot sunt per orbem terrarum diffusae. Imo illas gentes, quibus adhac 
fidei lumen non illuxit, minori harum rerum inscitia teneri quam Hi- 
bemos. Itaque qui non modo unum Deum, sed plures, et istos è ligno, 
aut lapide confectos, ex auro vel aere conflatos ; aut solem et lunam acj 
stellas, creaturainvé aliam, non creatorem divinum cui tu prosequuntur, 
qui in furta, rapinas, et caedes impune ruunt, qui faedis mulieram am- 
plexibus, in propatulo, sine cognationis discrimine ferarum more se prò 

5 Lib. 1, Epist. 8. e Ubi sup. 

*> These are not the Anglo-Saxons, man's supremacy over nature. The 
the nohlest specimen we are told, of national characterìstics in the tex . 
the human animai that ever exercised however truly they may embody t"^ 

Chap.XYI.] cakbrsnsis sykrsxjs. 287 

ness, the Ganls for glattony, the Lombarda for vain gìory, the Huns 
foi cnifilty, the Saevì for filth, the Franhs for feiocity, the Saxons for 
8tapi%,^the PictaTÌans for harahneas, the Scots for lusU the Spaniards 
(oièàùmg, the Brìtoiu for anger, and the Normans Ibr n^>acity. Il 
is, tberefore, no matter of snrprìae to me, that mj own countrymen 
^o^à be accQsed of lahorìng under some particular vice ; but that 
Aev ever were not cQightly tainted but immersed deeply in that gulph 
flf ?ices, is as false as it is certain that malice and envy, and not the 
fo^e of trath, were the motivo of the accuser. Giraldus is so accnstomed 
to exaggerate and magnify the faults of the Irìsh, that the slightest 
staius Me swelled into monstrons proportions in bis pages, as if he 
^wajs held to bis eye one of those magnifying glasaes which make 
small distant objects expand apparently into enormons bulk. For, 

Cassiodorus hath truly said, '* that what envy says is not taken as 


Bflt Giraldus, far from striving tò repress bis rage for ealumny, goes 
^ to urge more serious charges agamst the Irish. " Of ali nations," 
be says, " the Irish is the most ìgnorant in the rudiments of faith : 
tliey pay neither tithes nor first fruits ; they do not solemnize maniage, 
^w avoid incest, nor frequent the church of God, with becoming reve- 
rence.*^ He would probably gain more credit from bis readers had he 
^^ereiy asserted that the Irish were profoundly ignorant of the radi- 
iflente of faitb, witbout adding that they were not inferìor to one, nor 
to one handred otber nations, but to ali the nations on the face of the 
^- But suppose a nation, which admits not one, but many Gods, 
^d those made of wood or stone, or cast from gold or brass, or who 
^«ore the sun and stars, or any otber creature in place of the Creator, 
^h indulge with impunity theft, robbery, and murder, who riot in the 
P'i^lic, promiscuous and incestuous intercourse of the sexes, like the 
"^asts of the field, or who devour human flesh served up in tbeir ban- 
1^6ts, such a nation, according to Giraldus, is better versed than the 
Wsh in the rudiments of faith. In otber words, he assures us that a 

?%dice8 of Munster's day and race, e Ali these charges are fully dis- 

^ ceptainly very far from being cussed in other portions of thia work. 
?fiaerally true at present. 


libidine polluunt. Qui humanas carnes mensse prò cibis appositas avide 
devorant^ Christianse religionis institutis melius informati Giraldo 
babentur quam Hibemi. Perinde ac si persuadere conaretur oculis 
captum visu^ aut pede mutilatum incessu melius valere, quam qui 
pedibas, et oculis integris sunt. Aut cervos per aera volatu ferrì^ veì à 
piscibus terram vomere scindi. Ut nomo nisi qui peponem prò corde 
habetj non piane sentiat dictis ejus fidem penitus abrogandam esse, qui 
pudore non pertunditur tam à ventate abborrentia scriptis mandare. 
Nolo mese nationi ex aliarum gentium depressione laudem «urgere. 
Alioqui plures gentes recenserem etiam Christiana religione non tenuiter 
imbutas, in tìdei scitis magis hospites> et peregrinas quam nostrum. 
Hoc autem urgeo par non esse ut quis credat viros summà eruditione 
ac sanctimonià claros ad Christi doctrinam per plerasque^ Europse 
regiones propagandam, salutis pabulo suis civibus subducto, è patria 
migrasse. Et affirmat Yepez, " Hiberniam habuisse tantam virorum 
illustinum copiam, ut sibi multis retentis, vicinis nationibus abunde 
previdero potuerit."^ Ejus nimirum incolse Salomonem audierunt 
monentem^ " Bibe aquam de cisterna tua, et fluenta putei tui :" Tum 
véro, " deriventur fontes tui foras, et in plateis aquas tuas divide.** 

Silebo in praBsentia, quam uberi proventu, plurimi nostratum in pie- 
risque coutinentis regìonibus, fidei sementem fecerunt. Intra Bri- 
tanniae majoris limites se oratio coercebit, cujus nulla fere regio est, 
quam nostrates vel fidei rore irrigarunt, vel vitia silvescentia excidentes, 
virtutibus non excoluerunt S. Columba Pictos è paganismi tenebris 
ad Christianismi lucem eduxit. S. Aidanus ab Oswaldo rege accitus, 
salutis portum comitibus eum è patria prosecutis opem ferentibus,^ 
Deirorum, et Bemiciorum regna incolentibus primus aperuit Et 
non modo tenellam setatem, fidei, ac literarum rudimentis informavit,^^ 
[141] sed adultos etiam bene actae vitSB j exemplo, et assiduis bortatìonibus 
ad virtutum studia excitavit. Ea porro regna regionibus ab H umbro 
flumine ad Golottse Bodotriaeque sestuaria protensis deflniebantur, in 
varias hodie regiunculas, et nomina dìstributis, quse smit comitatus 

' Tomo 2, Chr. e. 5, Bene. an. Dom. 611. • Prov. 5, ver. 15. » Beda lib. 
31, cap. 4. 10 Ib. cap. 3 & 5. 


blind man can see, and a lame man can walk better than one who is 
sound both in eye and lìmb ; that stags fly tlurough the air, fishes cleave 
theeaitìi, and the ploughshare furrows the deep. Is it not evident to 
eTenr man who has a heart and not a gizard, that our accuser is utterly 
nnwartlij of belief when he is not ashamed to advance charges so ex^ 
taragandy false ? If I wished to raise the character of my country 
1|^ depreciating others, I coold name many nations which were not 
^lorantof the Christian faith, and yet were inferior to the Irìsh. Is 
itsot,! insist, ftbsurd to suppose that men highly eminent for sanctity 
ndleaming, wouM go forth to propagate the religion of Chrìst through 
iBost of the regions of Europe, and leave the inhabitants of their own 
islaDd withont the bread of salvation P Yepez asserts, ** that so great 
was die number of iUustrious men in Ireland, that while she kept many 
ithome) she was ab]e to provide abundantly for the wantsof the neigh- 
boanng nations." Her sons obeyed the admonition of Solomon^ 
"Dnok water out of thine own cisteili and the streams of thine own 
peli ;" and then, '' let thy fountains be conveyed abroad, and in the 
ireets divide thy waters/' 

Omittìng for the present the plenteous harvest of faith sown and 
gatheied in most countries of Europe by very many of our countrymeni 
Icon^myself to Great Britain alone, of which there is hardly a 
siDgiedistrìct where Irishmen dìd not either plant the faith, or reform 
deprared morals, and cultsvate virtue. St. Columba raised the 
Kcts'^fi^oiiì the darkness of Paganism to the light of Christianity. St. 
iidaD, OD the invitation of king Oswald, was the first that opened the 
weQ of salvation to the inhabitants of the kingdoms of the Deiri and 
P^micii, in whicli work he had the zealous co-operation of many of bis 
{OQ&trymen^ Not only were the children instructed in the rudiments 
of faith and leaming, but the adults themselves were excited both by 
^ exhoTtations and the living eloqùèncé of bis own pious life, to the 
pactice of virtue. These kingdoms included the whole tract from the 
8«mbeT on the South, to the Friths òf Forth and Clyde on the 
*«rtli. At present they aro divided into the foUowing districts : York^ 

^St. Columba, A.D. 563, converted mo^ern Scotland, beyond the Gram'< 
•«^orthem Picts, that is the inhabi- pian hills. 
^ of the north-eastem tract of 


;anuk, Cid 

svia, Tìfei 

Nec popal 

f^*^ ^'*'*^BSÌdB"« prima solum institntìwie à nostrale 

^^iof '"*' aùW i'^^^ triginta totos annoa desudanlibus, via 

^Mi ^ 0ÌB» "I*^ imbibOTal.'^ Tanto enim tampona E|«f 

^ V '^''''-^o», et Colmannus, alio in alterioB vita functì lon 

A»^*""* riodis'"""'^^'''^ Episcopatus dignitate ful«erunt." Ti 

'*''''' iAeia ^ Hibemoinm discipline almnno, post ipsos 

jU*'" gpjjeojjatus fastigium elato, Cutbberto etiam trimn prioK 

^'■^ . ^ujse successoiem Eatam in ejnsdem Episcopatus aàaàt 

"'l^l^ftiiB licet domo,'^ et natalibus Gallus, in Hibemia laDM 

. j^ ne litens excultus Conwalcbo Saxoniim occidentalium n 

^_]Bsmi sordes elnit QiJb officio regi pnestito, de toio iff 

^nui bene meritiis est, quod nunc distrahitm' in regiunculas ni 

pietas, Sarisberia, Exoiuia, Bothonia, Wells, Wincestrìa, et Hampsta 

Ad orientales Anglos eomitatuum hodie Suffolciee, Norfolcix, Cu 

Iffi^, et Elice incolas cam Farsffiui perrenÌMet, " à rege Sigebi 

^norifice suscepiiis, et aolitnm sibi opns evangelizandi exeqnt 

multos et exemplo virtutìa, et incìlameuto sennonis, vel increduloi 

ChrìBtnm convertit, vel etìam credentes amplius in fide, atqoe O 

Christi confirmarit." Taiq prospero eventu, ut ipso rex se monte 

■ggregaverit, et in CDobenburgense monasterium, nunc Burgcastle^i 

diderit, ab ipso in Suffolcia condìtum, et à S. Fursaeo disciplìnis opà 

institutum. Ut Fotenas non satis babuetit tum Tiventes ad b(«ii 

Irugem vocoie, niai etiam nondum natorum commodis inservìret . 

" Beda llb. 3, cap. 26. ■' Ibid. e. 87. " Idem.Ub. 3, cap. 7. 

« Beniida and Darà when they had man, wlio converted tìie Sonthi 

obtùned tbeir foli growth eitended Pietà in tlie reign of Theodoùue. ' 

from tlte Forth to the Hnmber, and ia protiable tliat there were mi 

from the eastem eea to the vestem. British Pictieb Cbiistìans in U{ 

Candida Casa, now Whithorn in Wig- territ^ries, ss they bad not bi 

tonalùre, had been the Sec of St. Ni- yeara under the swa; of the Saxoc 


lime, Diuiiam, Richmond, Lancashire, Ciunberlaad, Westmoreland, 
Noithumbedand, Berwìck, Coldingham, Cunningham, Melrose, Edin- 
krgh, Dimbor, Haddù^tou, March, Teviotdale, Asandale, Nìdsdale, 
Gallonji Kyìe, and Clydsdale.® To Irìshmen the inhabitants of ali 
those regions owe not onljr the first seeds of faith, bui their spiritual 
jB^m in Christian virtue dorìng thirty years, the period in which 
Jààm, FinaD, and Coiman» succeeding each other in the see of Lindis- 
loe, deroted their lives to the good of their converta. Tuda, their 
PKcessor, was an Englishman, but a dìsciple of the Irìsh, and Eata, 
IBccessor of Tnda» was socceeded in the administration of the same 
iBakpnc bj Cuthbert, a coontryman'of Aidan, Finan» and Coiman. 

Agilbert, a Cani by birtb and family, after being instructed in faith 
md learaing in Ireland, converted Conwalch, king of the West Saxons, 
bm the darkness of Paganism. The conversion of the king was the 
(fi^Qceofgieat blessings to ali his kingdom, which is now divided into 
Uìùmj, Exeter, Bath, Wells» Winchester^ and Hampshire.^ 
I Fith regard to the East Angles» comprising the present districts of 
^Ik) Norfolk» Cambridge» and Ely ; as soon as St Fursa arrived 
ItoQog them» '' he was honorably received by king Sigebert, and then 
^B^QiBràig his usuai exercise of preaching» he converted many infidels 
toCbist, both by the example'of his virtue and the fire of his discourse» 
tndabconfirmed the faith of many believers» and infiamed their love 

Ciinst" So great was his success that the king himself embraced 

Qionastic li£e» and retired to the monastery of Cnobersburgh (now 
castle) built by himself in Suffolk» and govemed by the best rules 

Si FoTsa^ who was as provident for the interests of generations yet un- 
hni as he was zealous for the reformation of living disciples.^ Peada, 
*^of the king of the Middle Angles» and a largo train of his nobles» who 

j niieinoreprobable opinion Ì8, that p. ccvi. 

-vasatleast bomin Ireland. " Om- 8 The names though not ali correct, 

i^ùdem Angli q^ui ad nostrani us- indicate wìth sufficient accnracy the 

^tem de S. Cuthberti patria region intended by the anthor. 

^onemfecenmt unanimi consensa i^St. Fursa arrived in England» 

ensem fiiiase contestantur." — A.D. 637. circiter. 
'^opProlegomena. Epis. Nuncup. 


Finnanus Pendatn regis Mediterraneorum ADglorum filium^^^ et 
multos ejus proceres illum in Northumbriam comitatos lustrali unda 
perfusos, à dsemonum castris ad Christi sìgna traduxit : et civem saum 
Diumam Episcopali infoia insigni tum^ ad reliquos patrìs Pendae im- 
periis audientes à dsemonum cultu^ ad veri numinis venerationem 
adducendos inisit* Diurna vero ille Merciorum,^^ Lindisfarorum, et 
Mediterraneorum Provinci» primus Episcopatum capessivit, qnem 
Episcopatum posteritas deinde dispescuit in Dioeceses Lincolniae^^^ 
Wigomiae, Lichfeldiae, Herefordise, Eliae et Legecistri». Cellachus 
Dìmai sui civis vita functi munere functus est : cui ea se dignità te 
abroganti Trumberus Anglus suBTectus est, ab Hibemis,^^ et literis 
cxcultus et Episcopali ordine initìatus.^^ S. edam Finnanus Sigiber- 
tum Orientalium Saxonum regem, et itineris ejus in Nortbumbriam 
comij;es coelesti lavacro expìavit.'^ Ad regni autem ejus incolas ex 
Èrebi faucibus abripiendos, et in securitatis libertatem asserendos Cedd 
profectus est.^*^ " Juvenis olim in Hibemia** ad literarum et virtutum 
studia promotus, et tum denique ad Episcopi dignitatem à S. Finnano 
evectus, à quo totus pendebat, non enim nisi eo consulto, graviorìs 
quidpiam ponderis, in suscepto munere aggredi consuevit^^ Ceddus 
itaque fidei splendorem pridem eliminatam postliminio restauravit, et 
ditionis Orientalium Saxonum Episcopatum ìnivit. Regnum autem 
Ostro-Saxonum intra eos fìnes constitit, quibus bodie Essexise, Midel- 
sexiee,^® et pars comitatus Hertfordiae circumscribuntur.^* In Lon- 
dinensium Antistitum album à nuperis scriptoribus Ceddus relatus est. 
In quo Episcopatu longo ante illum temporis intervallo, Augerìus 
quibusdam Augulus domo Hibemus piteivit. 

Neque vero solum Episcopis per Britanniam majorem instituendis, 

et Dioecesibus stabiliendis nostrates incubuerunt, sed eorum etiam, et 

dìscipulorum suorum opera, plurium fundamenta ccenobiorum jacta 

[^^2] sunt; ad | quae, purioris vivendi rationis hauriendae causa, plurimi con- 

1* Ibid. e. 19. 1* Ibid. e. 21. i« Ibid. e, 24. ^^ Harpsf, seculo 7, cap. 22. 
18 Beda Ub. 3, cap. 24. i» Ibid. e. 22. «o BedaUb. 4, e. 3. «» Lib. 3, e. 22. 
" Camd.p. 113. " Godwin. " Colgan. 7. Febr. 

iDonbtful, see Lanigan, voi. u, J As almost ali those details of the 

d. 6. cónversion of the Anglo>Sazons by 


tccompanied him to Northumbrìa, were baptized by St Finan and 
broQgbt orer firom the camp of the evil one to the banner of Christ. 
Diurna, a cotmtryinan of St Fìnan*s, was consecrated bisbop, and sent 
by him to convert the other subjects of Penda from the worship of the 
deni to the adoratìon of the trae God. Dioma was first bishop of the 
l^finceofthe Mercians, of Lindisfame^ and of the Middle Angles, 
tiueli in after ages was divided into the dìoceses of Lincoln, Wigom, 
lichfield, Hereford, Eìy, Leicester. He was sacceeded by bis coun- 
ftrman Cellach, who, resigning bis dignìty, was succeeded by Trumher 
«Q Anglo-SaKon, who had been educated by the Irish, and was raised 
by them to the episcopal rank. St Finan also baptized Sigebert, king 
oftlieEast Angles, and the train that accompanied him to Northum- 
biia. Cedd was solicited to save the East Saxons from the jaws of 
beli and transfer them to the liberty of Christ When a young man 
beìiadmade a great proficìency in leaming and piety in Ireland, and 
WMsoon raised to the epispopacy by St. Finan^ to whom he was so 
closely attached, that he never undertook any important exercise of bis 
niàl duties withont bis ad vice. To Cedd, therefore, is owing the 
i^ralion of the faith among the East Angles, and the origin of their 
bisbopric. The kingdom of the South Saxons comprised the modem 
<^trì€is,Middlesex and Essex, and a part of Herefordshire. Modem 
^ters assert that Cedd was bishop of London; but long before bis 
^e, the same see had been fiUed by Augerins, or as some write the 
ittme, Augnlus, who was also an Irishman.^ 

l'ile instittttion of bishops and the foundation of bishoprics were not 
fte only Services of our countrymen to Great BritainJ Many great 
^nasteries were also established by them or their disciples, to which 
peat nuni^ers flocked to leam the prìnciples of a more holy life. 

'^hmissionaries are transcribed from named) appears to be the contesta 

^a, it must strìke the leamed reader between the Irish and other mission- 

^ modern Englìsh histories do not aries regarding the paschal question, 

P^^ to the Irish Apostles that premi- which ultimately led to the retirement 

"«'it placete which they are entitled. orexpulaion of the Irish from many 

Jfle chief qiuse of this hìstorical in- ofthe infant churches foundedby their 

l'astice (besides one which need not be zeal. 


fluxemnt, quorum deinde multi per Britanniam late diffusi^^^ alia 
pietatis domicilia condiderunt, è primis illis tanquam è fonte rivulos 
emanantia. S. Fursseus monasteri! Cnobersbargensis Sigiberti regis 
secessu nobilis author erat, quod Anna rex, aliique postea proceres 
augustiorìbus eedificiis, ac donariis amplificarunt.^^ Cujus monasteiu 
administrandi provìnciam Fursesus in Galliam discedens, " Fratri suo 
Fullano, et presbyteris Cubano, et Dicullo" demandavit Quorum 
postremus Boschamensi monasterio sibi ac paucis fratrìbus in Sussexia 
constructo,^<^ uberem sanctimoniie messem, aspero vivendi ritu fecit. 
Lìndisfemense monasterìum Aidano curuite positum quam plurìmis in 
ilio eruditionis, et meliorìs vitsB disciplinam capessentibus diu florait. 
Deinde quem supra memoravi Ceddus, Osvraldo Deirortim rdge con- 
cedente, Lesdngense monasterìum " in montibus,^^ àc remotis" extruxìc» 
" et religiosis morìbus juxta ritum Lendisfemensem, ubi educatus fuerat 
instituit" Praeterea "in civitate quse lingua Saxonum Itanchester 
appellatur, sed et in Illa quai Talburg cognominatur, quorum piior 
locus est in rìpa Pimte amnis ;^^ secundus in ripa Tamesis, coUectum 
examen famulorum Chrìsti disciplinam vit» regularìs docuit." Atque 
bine profecti sunt proculdubio '' fratres,^^ qui in monasterìo ejos erant 
in Provincia Orìentalium Saxonum circiter triginta/' cum pmsulem 
suum in monasterìo Lestingensi è vivis excessìsse accepissent.^^ Frater 
autem Ceddi C eadda dictus Abbatis munere post fimtrem è medio sub- 
latum in Lestingensi monasterìo functus est, qui postea dignitatem 
Epìscopi consecutus virtutibus Episcopo dignis impensius incuboit. 
** Erat enìm discipulus Aidani, eisdemque actibu8^ ac morìbus, juxta 
exemplum ejus, et fratrìs sui Ceddi^ suos insti tuera curavit auditores,** 
qui Episcopatui Eboracensi cedens, Lestingeam secessit, et a Wilfero 

«4 Beda lib. 3, e. 19. « ibidem. »? Beda lib. 3, e. 3, 26. »» Ibid. e. 23. 
«9 Ibid. e. 12. 30 Ibid. e. 23. " Ibid. e. 28. 

kOr Bosanham, four miles from preachìng, according to Beda, the 

ChicheBter, stili retains ite name. The savage natives paid very little atten- 

monaetery wa« surrounded by sea and tion. 

foreBts ; it was very unall, ihere being l In the archdeacoDry of Cleaveland, 

only five or six brothers, to whose Yorkshire, not far from Whitby. The 


These disciples^ dispersing themselires over the country^ like streams 
fromthe founuiiì, fonnded many simìlar establishments in Brìtain. 
The monasteiy of Cnoberabiirgh, which was honored as the asylum of 
lÓDg S^eber^ was fonnded by St. Fursa» and was afterwards enlarged 
and eoricbed wìth princely monificence by Anna» the king^ and many 
oftkiMbles. Fuisa» when retiring to France» entrujsted the govem- 
isaBtofthe monasteiy to bis brother Fullan» and the priests Gobban 
«sd DichnìL The latter erected the monastery of Boacham, in 
Siusex,^ for hìmself and a few brethren» and acquired a high reputation 
ht sanctity by bis extnuiTdinary aosterìties. The monastery of 
Imdìsiknie, which was fonnded by St Aidan^ was for many years the 
Borserjr of eminent saìnts and leamed men. Cedd» of wham I bave 
alreadj ^ken, fonnded the monastery of Lestingham»^ with the aid of 
Oswald, king of the Deirì. " He builtit in a mountainous and solitary 
distrìct, and govemed it by the religious rules of Lindisfame, where he 
^dbeen educated." Again, *' in the city^ which is called in the Saxon 
toagae, Itanchester^'^and also in Talburgh»*^ the former on the banks of 
tbe Pant, the latter on the Thames, communitìes of the servants of 
ChrLst embraced the regular discipline of the cloister.*' From these 
esublishments, no doubt, ** the brothers came» who to the nimiber of 
ftboQt ihirty were in the monastery in the province of the West 
^^sm," when they heard of the death of their bishop in the monastery 
o{ Lestingham. C eadda» brother to Cedd» succeeded him in the 
gorenunent of the monastery of Lestingham» and beìng afterwards 
laised to the episcopal dignity, was eminent for ali the virtties of bis 
iùgh office. For he was a disciple of St* Aidan» and over made it a 
^ndy, to imitate him and bis brother Cedd^ in bis life and conduct» and 
ÌQ the leligioos instractions of bis flock. Resigning the bisliopric of 
York he retìred to Lestingham» and received from king Wilfer a 

old Saxon cbnrchthereissaidby some situate on the estreme point of the 

^ be one of the oldest churches in the promontory of Dingy hundred.. 

^gdom» perhaps the originai bidld- n Tilbury, the seat of Gedd, while 

H of St. Chad or his brother Gedda, he was convertisg the East Sazons to 

"'Now FroAhwell in Essez» according Christìanity. 
^CaiDdeD, he thinks Itanchester was 


rege monasterìo Etbearnensi donatus est.** Ad hoc Winfridus Ceda 
Diaconus Episcopatu exclusus, " redìit, ibique in optìma vitam conve 
satione finivit" In hoc etiam monachatum inivìt, " Owinus monachi 
magni meriti^ et pura ìntentione supemse retributionis mondum der 
linquens, dignu8que per omnia, cui Dominus specialiter sua revelaret/' 

'^Mailrosum/ inquit Harpsfeldius, ''condidit Aidanus ad ripa 
Twedse fluminis^ in quo^ Eatà viro omnium mitissimo, ut uno de dot 
decem pueris Aidani,*^ quos primo Episcopatus sui tempore de natioi 
Anglorum, erudiendos in Christo accepit/* Abbatis officinm obeunte, I 
Cuthbertus noster severioris vitae tyrocinium posuit. In hoé Drithelmi 
asperìorìs poenitentiee ineundae causa se recepii.*^ Ex hoc Genigii 
presbyter 'Bedae familiaris in Hibemiam concessiti ibique '^ solitarìi 
ultimam vitae setatem, pane cibario, et frìgida aqua sustentavit "^^ I 
ilio " surgente apud Anglos Ecclesia monachi erant veteris illius insti 
tu ti, qui precibus vacarunt, et manuum labore victum queesierunt." 

Ripponense in Eboracensi comitatu monasteri um,*^ (hodie Kippon 
Hiberuis Alchfridus rex elargitus est, et post illos in patriam profecto; 
Wilfrìdo illi plurima jactationis perpessione alterì Athanasio'^ qui stai 
florens, monachi^ se Lindisfamensibus adjunxìt ; à quibus maximal 
pietatis et literaturae copiam hausit,*^ ut postea in Archiepiscopm 
Eboracensem evaserìt, et sede sua detuvbatus, Selsenense coenobion 
ex Edelwalchi regìs dono extruxerìt, ac tandem non in hoc, sed in ili 
sepulturse traditus fuerìt. In quo Edilwaldus presbyter miraculìs claru 
multorum annorum moram contraxit.*^ Cujus monachi tantam cub 
Deo gratiam inierunt, ut eorum precationibus, et jejuniis,^* S. Oswald 
rogante^ ad pestem eos demetentem comprìmendam adductus, aegri' 
valetudinem, sanis sospitatem impertierit. S. Aidanus in insula Fero 
(hodie Cocquet) duobus passuum millibus Bamburgo, Lindisfanii) 
novem dissita, asceteriam instituit, à S. Cuthberto, et Edelwaldo im- 

Mlbid. Ub. 4, e. 3, 6. 3» Ibid. e. 3. a* Ibid. lib. 7, e. 35. 35 Ibidem 
»« CàmdeD, p. 692. 37 Beda lib. 3, e. 25, lib. 5, e. 20. • ^ Camden. p. 210 
»» Ibidem. *o Idem e. I, *i Idem lib. 4, e. 14. 

•» Ad Barve **at the wood" now * Melrose, on the Tweed. 

Barton upon Humber, Lincolnshire. fl Eight miles south from Chichester 


t of the monastery of Ethbearn.^' His d^acon Winfrìd, beìng 
iàven from the bisboprìc> retnnied bere also, and dìed after a-most 
leSigioiis life. Owin loo, a monk of great sanctity^ embraced the 
Wmsk life there^ and as he renonnced the world firom the pure 
tspinitioii after eternai bappìness, the Lord thought biin a fit subject 
wiiom he mtgbt reveal bis most special seciiets. 
'Aidan/' according to Harpsfeld, " foonded the monastery of Mel- 
on the banks of the Tweed, where our countryman St. Cuthbert 
initiated in the austeri ties of monastic life, under the Abbot £ata> 
mildest of men, and one of the twelve Saxon youths whom Aidan 
fiist chosen to instruct in the faith of Christ in the commencement 
Us episcopacy. Drithelm retired to the saine monastery, in order 
embrace a more penitential life. From it, also, Genigils, a prìest 
fnmà of Beda*s, retired to Ireland, " where he lived an anchorite, 
il his death, without any food but bread and cold water. M eirose, 
the time that the churcb began to be propagated among the English, 
tenanted by njonks of tbat old order, who devpted their lìves to 
irer, and supported themselves by manual labor." 
Kog Alchfrid granted to the Irish the monastery of Rìpon (to-day 
in Yorkshire. After their departure for their own island, it 
im to Wilfrid, celebrated like another Athanasius, for his extra- 
j^mj sufferings. In tbe flower of his age he had entered the 
nasteiy of Lindisfame, where he attained sucb a proficiency in 
ing and piety, that he was raised to the archiepiscopal see of 
'^à. Beìng expelled from his see, he erected by the munificence of 
ig Edelwach, the monastery of Selse,^ but after his death, he was 
ied in Ripon, Bipon was also, during many years, the residence of 
«ìlwald, a holy priest, who was famed for bis miracles. So gi'eat was 
'^e grace qf bis monks in the eyes of God, that when at the request of 
^ngOswald they fasted and prayed, a plagile, which was exterminating 
«e inhabitants, was arrested ; the sick were beai ed, and the sound 
*ed from the contagion. St. Aidan also founded in the Isle of Farne 
(Cocquet,) two miles from Bamborough and nine from Lindisfame, a 
«nnitage, which was the favorite retreat of St. Cuthbert and St. Edil- 
, and was visited by Gutfrid, who, during the life of Beda, was 
t of Lindisfame, tbe place of his education. Tmmher, who was 



pense cultam, aditam à Gutfrido Ecclesia^ Lindìsfamensìs in qi 
educatus erat, Abbate Beda superstite.** 

Trumheris ab Hibernis literarum et virtatum lima expolitus Getl 
lingense monasterium (hodie Oilling in Richmnndia) monachìs, 
austeriorìs vitae disciplina prìmus exornavit | 
[143] Nostrates autem non modo viros sn'asionibus, etexemplis ad se dirà 
cultui obstringendos ; sed etiam foeminas addoxerunt tam fausto erent 
ut brevi plures earum turmie^ compltura coenobia insederint.^ Heins 
primam omnium in Northumbria Monialium institntionem amplexai 
S. Aidanus sacro flammeo velavit ; quas postea Hartenense monasterìa: 
à se constructum aliquandiu incoi ai t^ deinde ad civitatem Calcaria 
Anglis Colchester, hodie Tadcaster concessit.** Cujus Abbatissa; 
Hilda egit, quse 8. Aidaniaccitu è Gallia in Britanniamprofecta,^adSe}: 
tentrionalem plagam Wiri fluminis unum annum cum paucis moniaiibu 
substìtit. Sed illinc digressa^ et Abbatisss^ munere in memorato mona; 
torio perfuncta/® Strenechalcense monasterium (hodie Whitby/^ v 
Whitebay in comitatu £boracensi) condidit. In quo Celebris illa < 
Paschate disceptatio^ magna partium contentione agitata est^ et £lfle( 
" regis Oswii filia primo discipula vitae regularis, deinde etiam magist 
exstitit."** In hoc etiam quidam Cerdmon morabatur, tantam api 
Deum gratiam nactus/^ ut canendi, et carminisi vemacule pangen 
peritiam divinitus obtinuerit, ut quamcunque sibi materìam inculcata 
in concinum carmen suo marte redegerit.*® Hacanense qnoqt 
ccenobium à superiori novem milliarìum intervallo remotum Hilda coi 
didìt, et monìalibus, ac severioris vitse institutis prima insignivit Sumd 
vero pie tate moniales illud incolentes insignitas fuisse vel hoc indie 
est, quod Deus Hildse manes in ipso efflatie animse puncto stipantibi 
Angelis multa luce perfusos Begu è monialibus uni videndos exhibuen 
Si base Begu sit Bega Hibema,^^ quam Camdenns in Cumberlandi 
miraculis claruisse dicit, adhuc non comperi. 

S. Ebba Coludense, sive Coldinganense monasterium excitavit, ( 

« Lib. 5, e. 24. " Lib. 4, e. 23. ** Camden, p. 569. " Beda, lib. 4, e. 2| 
*« Idem. Usherus deprimat. p. 921 . *7 Camdén, p. 585. *» Beda, lib. 3, e. 2J 
♦»Ibid. e. 24. 50 Lib. 4, e. 25. " Pag 630. 

«■ "Erom Lindisfarne the prospect command the town of Berwick of 
is beautiful ; to the northward you an arm of the Bea, about seven mia 





icted in learning and piety by the Irìsh, was the first that placed 
Dkiyof monks in Gethlingen (Gilling, near Richmond J whom he 
cted in ali the ansterities of the cloister. 

Iieexhortations and example of our cottntr3rmen9 which brought 

^rsomany men to the servìce of Chrìst, were equally powerfol with 

women, who;, in a short timo, peopled many dififerent monasterìes* 

jioa, who was the first nun in Northombrìa» having received the veil 

St. Aidan, dwelt at first in the convent of HarUepool, her own 

m, bat afterwards passed to the town of Calcarìacester^ oalled 

le Saxons Colchester, the Tadcaster of the present day. There 

dwelt under the Abbess Hilda, who had come from Gaul to Britain 

[iorit^on of St. Aidan, and lived for some time with a few nuns in 

ict Qorth of the rìrer Were. But departing thence^ she govemed 

conrent of Tadcaster for some time, and at length founded the 

feQt of Strenechalche> (or Whitby or Whitebay ) in Yorkshire, where 

controversy on the Paschal question was discussed, and where 

i the daoghter of king Oswy, first embraced the religious life, 

ras afterwards abbess. There also dwelt Ceadmon, so eminently 

ed by Grod ; that he appeared to bave acquired by Divine iuspira- 

tiie gifte of music and poetry, moulding at pleasure in exquisite 

in bis native tongue, whatever subject was proposed to him. 

|iecoi]rent of Hackness> also, nine miles distant from the former, was 

by Hilda, who established a commuuity there under striet 

Stic roles. How signal must bave been the piety of the nuns of 

coBve&t, appears from the fact, that at the very moment of St 

l's dead), her soid, radiant with the most brilliant light, and sur- 

|Qded by angels, was seen by Begu, one of the nuns. I bave not 

tQ able to ascertain, whether this Begu, be the Irish Bega, who, 

Ning to Camden, was celebrated in Cumberland for her miracles." 

[St Ebba founded the convent of Colude or Coldingham,^ and 

l^^rthe same distance to the south, 
^^ew Bambrongh Castle on a bold 
ontory. On the one band you 
}^^ a river of the open sea ; on the 
^% a narrow channel about tcn 

miles in width.** Glles' Bada. 

■ It Ì8 most probable they were the 

* In Berwickshire. 


sanctìmoniales in ìllud ìnductas piis religiosae vìtae legibus vincivit.** 
In dubium non voco comitem illam exilii fratrìbus Oswaldo, et Oswio 
regibus in Hibemia fuisse, ac sugceptae illic fidei sociam,*' ubi sep- 
temdecem annorum spatio (quo penes Edwinum patris interemptorem 
regia dignitas fuit) versata, prsestantissima quseque virtutum documenta 
proculdubio imbiberat, quae postea uberrime ad disciplina alumnas 
efiudit. E quibus Edeldreda virgo/^ et Egfridi regis conjuz Elgeiise 
seu Eliense coenobium extruxit, et in eo virgines Deo sacratas in suam 
societatem coaptatas optimis institutis informavit.^'^ Caeterum Ebbas 
monasteri um sicut Edelburgae, et Hildae duo domicilia, unum virorum, 
alterum fceminarum suo ambitu compi ectebatur.^^ Quam consuetu- 
dinem ad illas à diva Brigida defluxisse mihi persuadeo.'^^ Intra 
cujus ccenobii fines, aedes aliae viros, alise fceminas continebant,^^ pari- 
etibus tantum intergerinis segregatse, et ita contiguae, ut utriusque 
familìse usibus idem templum inservierit ; ut è Cogitoso et Colgano 
percipere est. 

In Ebbae autem monasterio plures è nostratibus babitandi sedem 
fixisse vel inde liquet,^^ quod Beda vix alios illud insidentes memoret, 
prseter Adamnannm nostrum, et presbyterum illum Hibemum, cui 
conscientiae labes Adamnanus per confessionem aperuit.^® Cum ex 
Hildae domicilio, praeter alios viros clarissimos, quinque etiam Epis- 
copos prodiìsse narret. In Conedinganensis autem coenobii praefecturà,** 
S. Ebbam alia Ebba, sed longo temporis intervallo secuta est, quae 
cum cseteris sociabus majori pudicitiae quam vitse servandae ardore 
flagrantes,*^ oris decorem praecissis naribus deturparunt, ne forma Danos 
qui in illarum sedes jam irruerant, ad obscoenos amplexus alliceret.^3 
Quae res illos rabie sic transversos egit, ut eodem incendio tecta, et vir- 
gines obvolverint. 

" Beda Ub. 4, e. 25. m Beda Ub. 2, e. 20. " Lib. 4, e. 19. " Camden. p. 
361. M Beda lib. 4, e. 25. ^^ Lib. 4, e. 7. " ibid. e. 17. Vita S. Brig. e. 
^. w Append. ci. «o Beda lib. 4, e. 25. •» Ibid. e. 23. «« An. Dom. 370. 
«» Camden. p. 682. 


established a community of nuns under the pious lules of monastic life. 
I bave no doubt that she accompanìed the royal brothers, Oswald 
and Oswj, in their exile to Ireland, and there imbibed the principles 
of the trae faith^ durìng the seventeen years reign of Edwin^ the 
murderer of ber father. On ber return she manifested ali those ex- 
alted virtues which she bad acquired^ and communicated them in full 
measore to ber disciples, one of wbom» Edeldreda, virgìn and wife of 
king Elfired, founded the monastefy of Elge or Elien (Ely)^ and 
assocìated with berself, under the same boly discipline, virgins conse- 
crated to God. The establishments of Ebba, as well as of Edelburga 
and Hilda, included two convents — one for men, the other for women, 
within the same iuclosure — a custom derived, as I finnly believe, from 
St Brighid, wbose monastery at Kildare was divided into two parts, one 
for men, the otber for women, separated by partition walls, but so near 
that both communities attended religious worshìp in the same church. 
Snch is the account given by Colgan and Cogitosus. 

That Ebba's monastery was the retreat of many of our countrymen, 
would appear from the single fact, that its only inmates mentioned by 
Beda were Adamnan, and that Irish priest to whom Adamnan confessed 
bis sins ; while speaking of St Hilda's, he mentions, among many other 
illustrious men, fi ve bishops whom the establishment bad produced. 
After a long lapse of timo, the convent of Coldingham was govemed by 
another Ebba, who, with ali ber sisters, preferring death to the violation 
of their chastìty, disfigured their faces when the Danes broke into 
their monastery, lest their beauty might provoke the lust of the savages. 
The Danes, transported with rage, when they looked ou the bleeding 
virgins, set fire to the convent, and bumed them ali beneath its 

n This chapter, though containiDg fidthfally the aggression of the Irish 
nothìng new is one of the most effec- on the paganism of the Anglo-Sazons, 
tÌTe in the whole work. It epitomizes twelve centurìes ago. 





Qui flnei Scotonim in Biitannia.— Quando Scoti sedes habere in Britannia eaepemnt. 
Piotavi» et Dalrtetasreges. Locnt patriae Scotomm in Britannia. [14ò] Scoti Hibemte et 
Britannis pognaverunt oum Egfrido.— Ezignarum domini ditionnm reges dicti. [146] Non 
apnd Scotos Britanni» 8ed apud Scotos Hibemis Oswaldns et Osvrinas edacati sunt. 

Porro Coldingamense monasterìum^ Mailrosense, Candid» Casse, et 
Abricomense licet in hodiern» Scotìse finibus collocata visantar, tractnm 
tamen illuni totum intra ditionis Anglorum metas tum eKtìtisse cnm 
ìUa coenobia erigerentur certo certius est^ Etenim " Oswaldus'* (inquit 
Bada) " omnes natìones et provincias Brìtannise quse in quatuor linguas, 
id est Britonum, Seotorum, Pictorum, Angiorum divisae sunt, in ditione 
accepit."^ Ut eum proinde '* victoriossimuni" appellet ; qui teste S. 
Adamnano» *' totìus Britanni» Imperator à Deo ordinatus est." 

Oswius autem Oswaldi frater '' Pictorum ac Scotorum gentes quae 
Septentrionales Brìtanniie fines tenent maxima ex parte perdomuit, ac 
tributarias fecit.^ Etiam gentem Pictorum maxima ex parte regno 
Anglorum subjecit"^ Praetereà, *' Candida Casa locus est ad provinciam 
Beruiciorum pertinens."^ Huc accediti quod ad Cbrìsti nati annum 
688 Thurmuinium Theodorus *' Episcopum fecerit ad Provinciam Pie» 
torum."^ lUe enim '' in eos Episcopatum acceperat,^ sed inde posteà 
recessit cum iis qui erant in monasterio Ebercumi, posito quidem in 
regione Anglorum,® sed in vicinìa freti quod Anglorum terras Pioto- 
rumque disterminat*'^® freti scilicet illius quod " Edinburgicum" 
Camdenus appellat, ipsissimum quod *' antiquitus gentem Brìtonum à 
Pictis secemebat." 

» Lib. 3, e. 4. Ibid. e. 7. « Vita S. Colum. lib. 1, e. 1. » Beda lib. 2, e. 2. 
* lib. 3, e. 25. 6 Ibid. e. 4. « Lib 4, e. 1 2. f Ibid. e. 26 8 Pag. 113. «Se- 
da, Ub. 1, e. 10. »o Pag. 674. 





^ Tenitor; of the Scota in Brltain : when dld they flnt Aoqvire settlementf there: the 

lingsftfDafaieUaDd PietUnd.— Place of the eonntrj eftbe Scoto In Britaln. [14&] The 

Scoti of Irdand «nd Britftln fonght agaiost Ethelflrid.— The lords of small territories were 

tiIUlJngt. n^ Oewald and Oswy were edoeated not among the Britiah bat the Irisb 


TfiouGH the jnonasterìes of Melrose, Coldingham, Candida Casa and 

AWcom are included in modem Scollando that whole tract of territory 

laswithin the limits of Englìsh dominion, wben these monasteries were 

erected. " Oswald," as Beda infonns us, " brought under his sceptre 

tf the tribes and provinces of Britain, which spoke four diFerent lan- 

pages, the BritisL, Scottish, Pictish, and English." Hence he was 

Jtyled " tbe most victorious," and was, according to St. Adamnan, 

"oTàained hy God, ruler of ali Britain.*' Oswy, the brother of Oswald, 

"sabdaed nearly ali the tribes of the Scots and Picts, who held the 

nortliem parts of Britain, and made them tributary. The kingdom of 

; tìie Picts itself he brought in great part under the English sceptre.*'* 

'^," Candida Casa is a place in the territory of the Bernici." In 

^e year 688, moreover, we find Theodore appointing Thrumuin 

'*l)ishopof the province of the Picts." For, having accepted the epis- 

«opal charge over them, he afteiwards retired thence with those who 

*ereiii the monastery of Abercom, situate in the English territory, 

: but near the strait*» which divides it from the Picts. According to 

C&mden, the name of the atrait was ** Edinburg,*' the ancient boundary 

^tween the Picts and the Britons." 

*^gaid, A.D. 971. But even eo being a pari of Scotland proper. 
^aa the rdgn of David ; it is men- «> That is the Frith of Forth, 

^^ in royal proclamations as not 


Atqui bine lector edisce^ nec ante, nec per ea temperai eas ditiones 
Pictis nedum Scotis cessisse.^^ '' Quod enim à Tsesi ad Scoticum 
fretum pertingit," inquit Camdenus,*^ ''pars erat optima regni Ber- 
niciorum : et regnum Bemicìorum à flumine Tyne ad mare Scoticum 
porrigebatur" ait Ranulphus Cestrensis apud Usherum, qui plurìbus 
scriptoribus, et aliquibus etiam Scotìcis adductìs memorata jam confinia 
Scotise et Bemicae astruit. Ita ut olemm, et operam perdant, qui summa 
dimicatione persuadere contendunt, Scotos iis tum ditionibus dominatos 
fuisse.^^ In quorum potestatem ii fiues ante annum Dom. 960 (teste 
Camdeno) non devenerunt. 

Imo '' Picti " ipsi non nisi post Britannos à Romanis derelictos/ 
circa Christi nati annum 444^ '* In ex trema parte Insulae pritntìm^ 
et deinceps quieverunt,^* et omnem Aquilonem extremamque Insulae 
partem prò indigenis ad murum usque capessiverunt. Quando impu- 
dentes grassatores H iberni domum reversi sunt post non longum tempus 
reversuri."** Ut signate tempus non indicci,^* quo H iberni seu Scoti 
sedes in Britannia fixerunt. 

Non mediocri quidem temporìs intervallo Scotos in Britanniam post 
Pictos migrasse Beda insinuat dicens:^* "procedente tempore Bri- 
tannia post Britones, et Pictos^ tertiam Scotorum nationem in Pictorum 
parte recepit." Ut probabili coujectura ad sentiendum adducamur, 
iliud spatium temporìs saltem ad centum annos processisse : ncque tum 
quidem satis stabiles aut firmas sibi sedes vendicasse, cum Beda dicat 
" illos in parte Pictorum, et inter Pictos'* consedisse. Ut non peculi- 
arem aliquam ante à Pictis segregatam ditionem comparasse, sed Pictis 
immisti vixisse videantur,^'^ scilicet in " Glottse seu Alcluithae parte 
Septentrionali." Nimirum Argii quam alìqui Argaliam vocant: vel 
potius Dalretam, ut eam appellat qui de AlbaniaB divisione circa annum 

Il De prim, de p. 1003, et sequ. " Pag. 689. »» Beda. Ub. 1 , e. 14. " Ibid. 
e. 12. »6 Ibid. e. 14. »«Lib. 1, e. 1. »' ibidem. 

A Lothian, the most remote of the land on condition that its inhabitants 
Saxon conquests, was in 971 trans- should be permitted to retain their 
ferred by Edgar to the crown of Scot- (Saxon) language* laws, and customs^ 

chap. xvn.] 



The reader must hence clearly perceìve that these terrìtories were 
not at that time in possession of the Picts, much less of the Scota. 
'' Fot/* according to CamdeD, '* the beat part of the kingdom of the 
Bemicii lay between the Tees and the Scottish sea." Ranulph of 
Chester/' quoted by Ussher, also says> " that the kingdom of the Ber- 
nicii extended from the river Tyne to the Scottish strait /' and from 
nameroas aathorìties» some of i^ich are Scottish^ Ussher so clearly 
defines these ancient boondarìes of Bemia and Scotia, that it is only a 
waste of time and labor to contend obstinately^ as some persons do^ in 
proving that the Scots in those days possessed these terrìtories. Cam- 
den proves that the occupation did not take place previous to the year 

It was only after the abandonment of Brìtain by the Romans, about 
the year 444, that the Picts themsehes ''first settled quietìy in the 
extreme part of the ìsland/ and, as natives,^ occttpied the whole 
northem and extreme part of the island as far as the walL*'^ At this 
time it was '' that the audacioas Irìsh invaders retumed home, but only 
to come back in a short time." Thns he does not precisely fix the 
epoch of the settlement of the Irìsh in Brìtain. 

Yet«he insinoates in another passage, that the Irish occupied a part 
of Brìtain not long after the Picts. " In course of time," he writes, 
" Brìtain received, besides the Brìtons and Picts, a third nation,' the 
Scots, who settled in che terrìtory of the Picts :" whence we may proba- 
bly conjectnre, that the interval may bave extended to one hundred 
years.' The Scotic colony coold not bave been at first very powerful 

e This statement of the quiescence 
of the Picts before the Saxon conquest 
does not agree well with other author- 
ities : see in Irìsh Nennius, additional 
notes, p. xxxvii. a conjectural expla- 
nation of it. 

à These words " prò indigenìs" 
though not in Beda are in Gildas 
whom he transcrìbes. 

eBiiilt by the last Boman legion 
seni to Brìtain ; it ran hear the Val- 


lum of Seyems firom the Tyne to 
Solway Frith. See a different opinion 
in Ussher, Antiquìties, p. 316-7. 
Edit, 1687. 

'But when did the Picts themselves 
first settle in North Brìtain ? Our 
author from this and the preceding 
paragraph appears to think it was only 
after the retrcat of the Bomans. lin- 
gard, A.D. 354, maintains more pro- 
bably that the Picts were under 



[Gap. XVn. 

Dom. 1176 libellum edidit.*® De Kinnadio sive Kennetho secando 
Pictorum debellatore ita scribens : " Kennadius biennio antequam per- 
venìt in Pictaviam, Dalrietae Regnum suscepit." Ut ubi '* Pictaviae" 
nomine Pictorum, ita " Dalrietae" Scotorum primas in Albania sedes 
designavit, Cantiram videlicet, Knapdaliam, Lomam, Argateliam, 
Bruin-Albain, Baruid-Albain, cum vicinis Insulis. Nec ea regio quam 
Alcluitbae sinus alluit, patria esse S&torum potuit.^^ Cum Beda viro 
sola Hibemia ''propria Scotorum patria" fueriu Itaque nulla alia 
[145] sedes a Scótis [ insessa potuit esse aliter quam " improprie patria Sco- 
torum," nt quam apposite Beda ditionem Alcluithse finitimam, non 
'* patriam Scotorum" sed '' locum patrise" Scotorum appellaverit. Quare 
liquido constat Bedam non obscuris, sed conceptis verbis, duas. Scotorum 
sedes constituere, quarum altera eorum " propria patria" sit, altera 
tantum " locus patriae '' et Hibemiam illis ab eo . ** patriam," 
ditionem Alcluithae à septentrione adjacentem bis "locum patris" 
designar!, quam regiunculas supra memoratas esse, vel ociili in tabu* 
lis Geograpbicis perspiciunt: quse tam exiguis arctantur limitibus, 
ut suo ambitu tantum incoi arum numerum amplecti nequeat, in quo 
justus exercitus ad hostes pugna vel excipiendos vel petendos contrahi 

Imo licet Scoti Britanniae, et Picti eadem ab Anglis subjectione 
diu tenerentur, nullam tamen opem Scoti Pictis intulisse memorantur 
ab Egfrido Northumbriae rege bello impetitis, sed soli Picti (nisi gre- 
garios aliquot milites, aut sine nomine vulgus iis auxilìo Scoto- Bri- 
tanni fortasse submiserint) cum Egfrido pugna congressi vitam ei,^^ et 

J'Usherus de prim. p. 611. "Lib. 1, e. 1, infine. " Beda. lib. 4, e. 2, 

another name, the Meastse and Caledo- 
nes, who, durlDg the two preceding 
centuries, had been the terror of the 
Bomanized Britons. There were six 
tribes of these Meaetae, ibid. A.I). 146, 
a number which comes very near that 
of the Gmithni or Picts, who vent 

from Ireland te Albania according to 
the IrishNennius, p. 51, The Flcts were 
according to Beda " transmarini'' and 
had had come directly from Ireland, 
driven out, it is very probable, by the 
Eiremonians or Scotti, in the first cen- 
tury of the Christian era. 

LP. xvn.] 



Consolidated, silice Beda represents it " as placed in the territory of 
Picts among the Picts," and not occupying a distinct territory^ 
livisg among the Picts in Pictish territory^ namely, the northern 
of Àlcloith or of the Clyde, that is Argii, or Argyle, or rather 
lieta, asit appears in a work written about the year 1176 on the 
ÉioD of Albania. Speaking of Kinnad, or Kenneth the Second, 
|Qeror of the Picts, it says, '' Kennad had ascended the throne of 
rìeta two jears before he inraded Pictland ;" Pictland bere evidently 
ignatmg the Pictish ; and Dalrìeta, the originai territory of the Irish 
Albania, which included Cantyre> Knapdal, Lome, Argyle, Bruin 
in, or Bread Albain, and the adjacent islands. The territory 
àeà by the gulf of Alcliiith conld not he the country of the Scota, 
luse in Beda's time, Ireland alone ** was the country of the Scots," 
therefore auy other settletnent of theirs could not he otherwise thàn 
poperly " called the country of the Scota.'* Thus, Beda himself 
significant precision, calls the territory near Alcluith, not "the 
ìtTj of the Scots," bnt " the place of the country of the Scots," 
riouslj inteuding, not to insinuate, but to declare expressly that the 
^taheldtwo territories, o»e "their proper country," the other, the 
ofthdr country.^ Ireland was tbeir country; " the place of their 
fttn" was the tract north of Alcluith, including, as a glance at the 
pifres, the little districts already mentioned. Their extent was 
inconsiderable^ that they could not aocommodate a population dense 
igh to aupply a respectable ariny eìther lor attack or defence. 
Thougb the English long held the Scots of Britain as well as the 
in subjection, the Scots are not said to bave giren any assistance 
the lattar when attacked by Egfrid, kiiig of Northumbria. With the 
ception of a few common soldiers, of the lowest orders, supplìed 
rhaps by the British Scots, the Picts entered the field alone against 

Itis trae that Beda calls Ireland 

tonfai country of the Scots, but 

fthe Irish colony which gare the 

of kìngs to Scotland had been 

H there since A.D. 502, more 

i 230 jeun before Beda was wrìting, 

he might, perhaps without impropri- 
ety, cali their new territory a country 
of the Scots. See Ogygia, pp. 322, 
470, and 0'CoDor*s Frolegomena, 1. 126, 


non modicam aviti regni portionem ademerunt^ suaque ac Scotorum 
colla è servitutis jugo eduxeruut. Ut iidem Scoti Pictìs, et non armis 
suis acceptum referre debuerint^ quod in libertatem asserti, et a tri- 
buto immunitatem nacti fuerint. Negat enim Beda, Scotos signa .cum 
Anglis contulisse, postquam ab Ethelfrido prodigati sunt^anno Dom. 603 
ad 734, quo Beda scribere, et vivere desiit.^^ Ut totos triginta supra 
centum annos ab armis feriali fuisse videantur. Nec eam etiam pug- 
nam, nisi Scotis ad eos ex Hibemia confluentibus committere posse vi- 
dentur, Beda teste, qui in istius ultimi capitis titulo, " Scotorum 
gentes" ab Edelfrido contritas esse, et in primo cap. libri primi *' Sco- 
torum gentem" in Hibemia Pictos reperisse dicit. Non enim par est 
existimare tam fidum historicum non nisi eadem signifi catione voces 
easdem protulìsse : nec vir duplici animo Beda fuit, ut duplici vocum 
ambigui tate fucum lectoribus faceret. Itaque regionis ejusdem incolas 
bos esse Scotos oportet, quos Edelfridus prodigavi t, et quos in Hiber- 
nia Picti offenderunt. Et copias cum Edelfrido decertantes ex Hiber- 
nise et Britannise Scotis conflatas esse Beda innuit, cnm *' Scotorum 
gentes'*potius in certamen cum Edelfrido venisse, quam " gentem" scrip- 
serit. Ad quam rem accuratius inculcandam adjecisse Beda videtur, 
" Quemquam Regum Scotorum in Britanniam adversus gentem Anglo- 
rum usque ad hanc diem, in prselium venire ausum non fuisse.*'^^ Quod 
si Scoti illi ad pugnam istam incundam, ''in Britanniam'' venerìnt 
quem fugit, eos " extra Britanniam" versatos fuisse ? Scotos autem 
extra Britanniam positos non alibi quam in Hibemia collocari vulgo 
notum est Ut extra centroversìam positum sit Scotos ad bellum hoc 
Edelfrido inferendum ex Hibemia profectos fuisse, duce quidem 
Aidano, Scotorum qui fuerunt in Britannia Rege : sequum enim erat ut 
emissse à se coloni» fines Hibemi quam latissime producere niterentar.'' 

*» Lib. 1, cap, ult. " Lib, l, cap. ult. «'De prim. pag. 710. 

^ It maj appear strange that the are not conclusive. Aidan had thirteen 

author should so zealously endeavour years before in the Meeting of Drom- 

te prove that the Irish Scota were de- ceat, obtained an acknowledgment of 

feated by Ethelfrid ; but bis arguments the independence of the British ScotF, 


Eg&id, and having defeated and kìlled him, wrested from his sceptre a 
ktg^pordon of his father's kìngdom^ and emancipated themselvefrand the 
Scoti &oin slavery. It was to the Picts and not to their own anns^ that 
ée Scots owed thìs recovery of their independence, and exemption from 
tribnte.' For, according to Beda, there was no battle between the Scota 
ii)(i£]]g]ish, from the defeat of the formerby Edelfrid in 603 to 734, 
fkperiod of Beda's own death. The Scots would appear, therefore» to 
lare had a long respite from war — darìng one hundred and thirty years. 
Ihej coiild not fight even that one battle probably wìthout help from 
IieliDd; for Beda in the title of the last chapter, records that " the 
«Ita of the Scots" were defeated by Edelfrid, while^ in the first 
dupter of the first hook, he says that the Picts found the " Nations of 
(be Scots" in Ireland. It is highly improbable that so accurate a 
kistorìan would use the same words in a dififerent signification ; or that 
a Biost candid and truth-loving man, would perplex his readers by 
■elas and ambìguous variety of expression. The Scots, therefore, 
éom Edelfrid defeated, and whom the Picts attacked in Ireland, must 
kre been of the same country, and the plural form itself, " the nations 
<( the Scots," used by Beda, instead of the '' singular," insinuates that 
^tnny which fought against Edelfrid must bave been composed both 
^\rà and British Scots.^ A stili more evident confirmatìon is taken 
^ !iie words by Beda, " that down to thls day no king of the Scots 
Urentined to come into Britain to fight against the English nation." 
iiSQredly, if the Scots come into Britain to fight that battle, they could 
lotkre been in Britain^ already, dtid it is a notorious fact, that outside 
ktaii), ihfs Scots were found nowhere except in Ireland. It is incon* 
Nable, therefore, that Scots went from Ireland to fight that battle 
Wt Edelfrid, under the command of Aidan king of the British 
s, in order to extend as far as possible the colonies which they had 

I vonld therefore be less likelj to "foreigners," Ub. i., e. rii. "not 

'aid from the mother country. on account of their being scated out of 

[^Beda might as properly describe Britain, but because they were re- 

BritUh Scots "coming lijto Bri- mote from that part of it *which was 

u he has designated them possessed by the Britons.*' 


Ushaerus ait manuscriptum habere " in Brìtannia»'* non ''^ìn Britanniàm/' 

ut impressi libri exbibent. Quse verba etiam non obscurè innuunt Regem 

Scotoram^ qui erant in Britannia> Scotorom copiis ex Hibemia ad 

Anglorum fines bello adoriendos profectis preeficì solitum fuisse^ ut ejus 

auspiciis bellum gereretur, cujus finium propagandorum causa belliim 


Nec admirationem ulli moTeat tam parum popolosi tractus dominum 

Regis titulo ìnsigniri. Eà enim tempestate apud Hibemos^ qui exiguis 

ditionibu^ quas modo Baronias vocamns potiebantur Reges vulgo sala- 

tabantur,^* veteri aliorum gentiumritu, quae " Regis nomen tribuebant, 

ei, qui uni oppidulo prseesset. Sic rex Ulysses qui dominabatur Ithacse, 

quam voluti nidum saxo affixum^ propter exiguitatesn sui> Cicero, non 

injuria vocat Sic Nestos Pyli rex; et in Palestina Josue triginta 

reges patibulo affixit.^^ Et imperante Nerone^ Cottius in Italia regna- 

bat Alpium Cottiorum Rex dictus, in quibus non nisi viculi erant, 

et vasta montium spatia/'^^ Imo Spondanus ait : ** Usitato more dlvin» 

scriptursa cujusque oppidi dominum regem appellarì," Et Csesar ait : 

[146] «< In Cantii partibus quinque reges prsefuisse, ac Catinulcum | regem 

dimidiaB partis Euburonum, Teutomarumque NatiobrigQm Regem 

Sanò apud hosce Scotos Britannise tantum inquilinos^ tam ang^tos 
fines in alieno insidentes, Oswaldum et Oswium^ aut eos comitantium 
turmas rectam in fide institutionem, aut ìncolumitatis asylum reperisse 
credibile non est. Nec enim cadebat in Oswaldum regia dignitate, et 
sanctimonia spectabilem in eos apud quos vit» perfugium et animse 
salutem nactus est armis ssevire. Nec par est credere Oswjum optime 
de se mentis tam malam gratiam reposi tnrum fuìsse, ut illis qui eana 
ex bostium laqueis et dsemonum, faucibus eripuerunt, vel trìbuti, vel 
subjectionis jugum ìmponeret. Quomodo autem in tam proxìmà R^s 
'nimici vicinia tuti esse poterant ? cum in continuo timore versarentur 
ne qui patri vitam et regnum ademit, ad eos quoque vita spoliandos in- 

^^Boziusde signis i^les. to 1 signo 49, lib. 11, cap. 9. '^ Josue cap. 12. 
«e Epit. Bar. an. 1, nu. 5. »? De Bell Gal. 1. 5, 66, lib. 7. 

^ Or ratber would suggegt that Beda Scots and to them alone. See Ussher, 
inthepassage cited, referred to the Antiquitates, p. 371. Ed. 1687, 


planted. -Ussher states that the reading in the manuscript was, " in 

BmiÌD," net the prìnted version, " into Brìtain." That leadìng woold 

sflggest that the kings of the Brìtìsh Soots uaed to command the com- 

bined forees of his own kÌBgdom and Iselaad in the inrasion of the 

£it^ tenìtony.^ It «as meet that he shonld oommand, sìnce it waa 

lórdie extension of his ktngdom the wai was nndertaken. 

It is bj no means surprìsiag that the lord of so smal!! a tmct should 

; k styled king. For in that age, such was the title gÌTen in Ireland to 

: ile lords of those small terrìtorìes now called Baromes. Such alau was 

ilfae ancient costoni of other nations, which often gave the title of king to 

&e lord of one little town. Thus king Ulysses ruled over Ithaca, 

viiich is so extremely smalla that Cicero happìly compared it to a bird's 

[leston the top of a rock. Nestor was king of Pyla. Josue hanged 20 

lings in Palestine^ and during the reign of Nero there was a chìeftain, 

|Ryled Cottìus, king of the Cotdan AIps^ thoùgh his kingdom consisted 

jMlv of a few hamlets and vast tracts of mountain. Spoudanus also 

ferves, '' that Scripture usually gives the title of king to the lord 
n of one town ;" and Caesar also writes, " that there were ^^e kings 
Kent," and that Catinolous was king of half Euburo, and Teutomar^ 

• It is ìncredible that it was among these Scots^ mere settlers in 
fliitain, occupying so small a tract in a strange country, that Oswald 
^ Oswy, and the largo suite of their attendants, had found a secure 
ivlam and initiatìon into the Christian faith.^ Surely it cannot be 
posed that Oswald would tamish the lustre of his crown and his 
igh religious character by a savage war against the saviors of his lìfe 
of his soul. Nor can it be belìeved that Oswy would make so 
eons a retnm to his greatest benefactors, as to impose tributo and 
slave's yoke on those who had saved him from the snares of his 
mies and the jaws of hell. Moreover^ what securìty could they 
bly enjoy in the immediate vicinity of so powerful a king^ their 
om foe : they should bave lived in perpetuai apprehension of falling 

OnraiLthor's objectinthischapter centurj, and thereby to secare for 

been to point out the Tery nar- the mother country the fame of ali 

^limita of the Scottish domìniona the eminent Scota who had flourished 

Brìtain before the dose of the 8th down to that period. 

312 CAMBftBNsis BTsssus. [Cap, xvn. 

sidias tenderei, prmaertim cum " non erat Bntannise provincia, qm 
non Edwini spectaret nutnm, parata ad ubaeqnium," qni ut ut Bedi 
" omnes Brìtumiffi finea aubditione accepit."^' Qui accnratins istE 
pendet non in Scotomm BrìlanniEe finibus eoa hffisisse affirmabit,' 
à vicinio, et potentissimo r^e c^itis qnotidie diacrìmen iis impendebai 
sed ad Scotos Hibemiie recessisae, utpote ab hostis ditione remotiorei 
et extra potestatia illiiia limitea poaìtoa. Nec adeo mentis impate 
fuisse censendi aunt ut periculum pr^ foribus habentes, ulteriua 
perfugium non perrexerint. 

" Maimsb de gestia Resum lib. 1, e. 5. " Lib, 2, e. ». 

Chìp.IVII.] cambkbnsis evbrsus. 313 

into the hands of the man who deposed and mordered their father^ and 
vrbYoiild murder themselves, especially when evexy province of Britain 
was at the beck of Edwin and ready for his conimands. " He held 
Duderhis sceptre," says Beda^ "ali the lands of Britain." An attentive 
examination of these points must convince every person, that it was not 
ioiJbaDia, in the immediate neighbourhood of a most powerful monarchi 
wk might every day get them into his power and slay them, that they 
tooi refuge ; but among the Scots of Ireland, who were more remote 
from the kingdom of their enemy and less exposed to his vengeance. 
It woold be inconceivable madness on their part not to fly to a more 
distant asjlum fìrom a spot where danger was at their door. 




[14Q Conversio majoris partU Angli» aS. Colombie moAasterlif promanaTlt. [147] Abin- 
donenae monasterium et Blalmsburiense ab Hibemis initinm duxit.— Ibi Alddmus educa- 
tus.— Glastoniensi monasterio initium Hiberni dederunt.— S. Tatbaens docnit In Wallia. 
[148] S. Tathnus institnit canonicos.— Ozoniae Hiberni instauratores.— Hiberni dodi 
in Angliam navigant.— Petrocns in Hibernia literis imbutns.— Monasterium PoUeTestanwn 
a 8. Modwenna conditum, et Streneshalamense monasterium et Burtonense.— Sancti et 
sanctce ex Hibernia in Wallia. [150] Ultanus Lindls farnensis.— Qnn beneficia.Britannis 
Hiberni praestiterunt.— Mutua beneTolentia Britannomm et Htbemomm. 

NuNC ut quse Beda de monasteriis ìncboatis^ Episcopìs institutìs^ et 
religione^ nostratium opera per Britannìam majorem; ac praesertìm 
Angliam propagata profert testatiora fiant ; haec ut quae sunt Bedae 
scriptìs maxime conformia adjungo^ è memoriali status antiqui £cclesias 
Britannicse opere posthumo Richardi Broghtoni Sacerdotis Angli, et 
antiquarii praestantissimi edito Anglice anno Domini 1650. " A. S. 
Columbae monasteriis (inquit) felix conversio majoris partis Angliee 
promanavi t^ Ut S. Gregorius lytrQ prò captivis Anglis persoluto, 
fidem eos Christianam edocuit, ad Angliam spiritali emolumento affici- 
endam : Sic Aidanus ' multos prsetio dato redemptos, suos fecit discipu- 
los^ atque ad sacerdotalem gradum erudiendo atque instruendo provexit.' 
Ita ut plerique primi Anglici nostri Episcopi, ex ejus disciplina, 
monasterio, et regula prodierint. S. Wilfridus Archiepiscopus Ebora- 
censis ex ejus Lindesfamensi monasterio emicuit Ejus vero discipuli 
fuerunt S. C eadda, et Ceddus fratres, Bosa, Finnanus, Tuda, Bosìl, 
Eata, S. Cuthbertus, et alii cum Eadbero, et Tumberto ; quorum ope, 
ac eorum quos in discipulos adsciverunt ; maxima pars AngliaB Cbrisd 
fidem amplexa est. 

" Difficile est numerum monasteriorum inire,^ quae ipso ac ejus 

» Pag. 155, 159, et sequ. Capgrayi in vita S. Aidani. * Pag. 161. 

Chaf. XV'm.l CAMBMNSia BVSBSUS. 315 



[146] Conrertion of the greftter part of EngUnd effeeted hj raonks of the Colnmbiaa order. 
[\4ÌQ Hoiuuiteries of Abiagdon nnd Malmsbory founded by the Irish.-— Aldelm educated 

bythem Honastery of 01a«tonbnry also founded by the Iriah.—St. Tatharas tAight in 

Wales. [143 *• Tathcoa Inetitoted oanonB.^Ozford rwtored by the Iriah.— Ireland oallod 

Scotia.— Johannes Erìgena. [149] Threelearned Irishmen sai! to England.— Petroc wag 

ednc^ed in Irdand.-'Menasteries of PoUeaw^rth.-^StreneBhalm and Bnrton foanded by 

8t. Modvenna.— Iriah Saints ; men and iromen in Wales. flSO} Ultan of Lindisfurne 

Benefits conferred by Ireland on the Britons. Mutual benevolence of the Britons and 

In confinnation of Bedas account of the foundation of the monasteries 
and episcopal sees, and the propagatìun of the Christian faìth, by our 
coontiymen throughout Great Britain, and eapecially England, I now 
subjoin some extracts from the memoir on the Ancient State of the 
British Church> a pósthumous work of Kichard Broughton^ an English 
priest and most eminent antiquarj. It was published in English A.D. 
1650. It foUows Beda most faithfiilly. '' It was by the monasteries 
of St. Columba that the happy conversion of the greater part of England 
was efiected. For as St Gregorius paid a ransom for English slaves and 
taught them the Christian faith in order to confer spiritual benefits on 
England, so Aidan ransomed a large number and made them his 
disciples, and after educating and instructing them, raised them to the 
prìesthood. Thus most of our first bishops had been brought up under 
his discipline, monastery and rule. From his monastery of Lindisfame 
arose St. Wilfìrid bishop of York : and among his disciples were the 
brothers St. Chadd and Gedda; Bosa, Finan, Tuda, Bosil, Eata, St. 
Cuthbert, and others with Eader and Tumbert ; it was by the exertions 
of tbese and of their disciples that the chief pan of England received 
the faith of Christ. 

*' It would be diflScult lo recount the number of monasteries built by 


discipulis curantìbus exstnicta sunt. Scìlicet Lindisfamense, Mail- 
rosense, Laistengenense, Eadbamense^ Brawense, aliaque. Monas- 
terìum Sreuechaldense S. Hilds fiiit à S. Aidano institutum.' Vix 
aliud ÌD Britannìa monasterìum^ prò Apostolicis et sauctis vìris celebri us 
erat Lindisfarnensi. Ordo S. Columbae plures in Anglia tam hoinines> 
quam provincias fide imbuita Multo maxima pars Anglise è paganismo 
ad veram religionem à sanctissimis^ et doctissimis S. Columbae discipulis 
adducta est." Hactenus Broughtonus. 

Caeterum è plurìbus BedsB locis depromi poteste ad salutis iter nos- 
[147] trates, | non solnm dictis, sed etiam factis> facem Angli» praetulisse. 
Ut qui summam cibi abstinentiam, et opum despìcientiam sìbi indixer- 
unt, necessariis tantum suo usui adhìbitis, supervacanea in segenos 
contulerunt : munia sua et regìones pedìbus incedentes» non eqiiis 
insidentes obierunt ad locum aliquem appulsi^ non ad inania colloquia» 
sed ad monita populo exbibenda se converterunt. vAd quse excipienda * 
populi frequentes confluxerunt» nec ad discedendum ante adducebantur, 
quam fausta precatione sacerdos illos in genua procnnbentes prose- 
queretur. Hi venerationem illìs^ bis monita salutis illi exbibebant 
Quse contentio ad posteritatem quoque promanabat. Ut dici jure 
potuerit, sicut populus sic sacerdos. Sed mores antiqui illi paulatim 
antiquati sunt^ et in deterius prona humanse indolis conditione ita 
ferente prolapsi. 

Tandem ex amsno bistoriarum Bedse viridarìo pedem efferamus, et 
ex aliorum scriptorum bortis tanquam fiores» beneficia excerpamus apud 
Britannise majoris incolas à nostratibus collocata; et csnobia» colle- 
giaque ab iisdem instituta^ Episcoporum sedes constitutas, et studia 
literarum amplificata commemoremus, Abindonia monasterìi Abindo- 
ensis sedes S. Abbano nostrale nomen sortita est/ quasi Abban Dnn» 
seu Dun-Abban^ id est Dunum, sive oppidum Abbani^ qui Reginam loci 

«Pag. 168. *Colganu8l9. 

* Barton upon Hmnber ? Lincoln- Colgan, March 16. See Ecclesiastical 

shire, foimded by St. Chad. HÌBtory of Ireland, toL ìii. pp. 14, 

^ Dr. Lanigan denies that this can 22. His chief reason for denjing 

bave been the fÌEimouB St. Abban, that St. Abban was in England, name- 

whose acts bave been published by ly, that South England was then under 


him and by bis dìsciples ; namely, Lindisfame» Melrose^ Lestingham^ 
Eadbaren/ Brawen, and others. Wbitby, tbe monastery of St. Hilda, 
was establisbed by St. Aidan. In ali Britain tbere was bardly any 
monastery more famoua for apostolic and boly men tban Lindìsfame. 
Tbe order of St. Cohmiba converted many men and many provinces 
in England. For tbe greater part of £ngland was brougbt over from 
Paganism to tbe trae religion by tbe rery boly and leamed disciples of 
St Columba." Tbus far Brougbton. 

From many t>tber passages of Beda it is evident tbat our countrymen 
were as zealous by example as by preacbìng, to ligbt tbe Anglo Saxons 
in tbe way of salvatìon. Tbey bad bound tbemselres to tbe severest 
abstinence and contempi of tbe worid's wealth^ never possessing more 
tban the necessaries of life^ and giving ali tbeir superflons property to 
tbe poor ; tbey never travelled on borseback, but wbenever duty called 
tbey journeyed on foot ; not to entertain tbeir bosts witb frivolous con- 
versations, but to instnict tbe people in some salutary trutbs. Tbe 
people tbronged around tbem in great numbers, and would not consent 
to separate witbout falling on tbeir knees to receive tbe parting prayer 
and blessing of tbe priest Tbe people reverenced tbe priest; tbe 
priest «ommunicated to tbem tbe maxims of salvation ; a boly rivalry 
wbicb descended to posterity ; confinning tbe proverbi like priest like 
people. But tbese ancient babits bave by degrees fallen into disre- 
pnte, and are every day deteriorating under tbat fatai propensity of tbe 
boman cbaracter to lapse from bad to worse. 

Tuming from tbe sweet and flowery pages of Beda*s repository, we 
now go among otber wrìters to gatber^ like flowers in a garden, tbe 
blooming wreatb of eulogy on tbe benefits conferred by Irisbmen on 
tbe inbabitants of Great Britain ; tbe monasteries aud collages tbey 
founded, tbe Episcopal sees tbey erected^ the scbools tbey extended 
and improved. Abingdon^ tbe site of tbe monastery of Abingdon> was 
so called from our countryman, St. Abban, Abban Dun or Dun Abban,^ 

tbe Pagan Saxons, proves nothìng ; suppose, to a great age, he might bave 

for, supposing, with Dr. Lanigan, that been, as Colgan states, at AbingdoD, 

Abban died early in the serenth cen- when a young man, in the fir«t quar- 

tujy, and that he Ured, as ali accounts ter of the sizt^ century ; and there 



ad vìtam^ incolas ad veram religionem vocavit.^ Hunc eremitani fuisse, 
et ei loco nomen trìbuisse alìqni scripserunt " apud OanìdeDUm,"^ qui 
ait monasterium istud " in eam magnificentiam paulatim excrevisse^ ut 
Inter Britanni» monasteria, cum opibus^ tam amplitudine vìx secundis 
acquiesceret." Òamdenus etiam merito dìxit^ " Malmsburiense monas- 
terium originem suam Hibemis debuisse." Malduljphus enim '* Scoto 
Hibemus** (rerba sunt Camdeni) Tir summa eruditone, et singulari 
vit» sanctitate nemoris amaenitate captus, qUa hic sub colle succrevit, 
eremitdcam vitam ibi duxit. Postea ludum aperiens, et ?um auditoribus 
monasticse vitae se devovens> csnobium SBdificavit.^ Hinc à Maldolpho 
ilio oppidum Maildiilf burg prò Ingilbome dici csepit, Bea» Maildulpbi 
urbis, et postea contraete Malmsburie."® Quo in loco, addit Malms- 
buriensis, ^'Aldhelmus à primo sto infantise, liberalibus literamm 
sttidiis eruditus, et in gremio sanctee matris Ecclesìae nutritus vìtam 
duxit." Qui deinde Abbas fuit " Monasterii quod Maildui urbem 
nominant, vir undequaqne doctissimus. Nam et sermone nitidus, et 
scripturarum tam liberalium, quam Ecclesiastìcarum erat eruditione 
mirandus."^ Ac denique Occidentalitim Saxonum quadriennio Epis- 
copus è vita migravit 

Celeberrimo quoque Glastonensi monasterio initium Hibefììos dedisse 
autbor est Camdenus dicens : " Primis temporibus viri sanctissinii hic 
Deo ìnvigilarunt, et prsecipuè Hibemis qui stipendiis regiis alebantur, 
et adolescentes piotate, artibusque ingenuis instruebant Solitariam 
enim vìtam amplexi sunt, ut majore cum tranquillìtate sacris literìs 

^Mar. 6,12. «Pag, 202. 'Pag. 177. «De Geatìs Regum Ub. 1, e. 2. 
Seda, Ub. 5, e. 19. » Ibidem, Pag. 165. 

Ì8 no reason to belìeve, but the con- «^ It is called by Seda " Maidulphi 

trary, that the Saxons had at that urbsr'byothersMaldubury, Maldun- 

timepuBhed their conquests to Abing- burg. See Camden. 

don. « Glastonbury, or Glastonia Hiber- 

« St. Maidulph died about the year norom, " one of the earliest foixzid&- 

675. See Dr. Lanigan, voi. ili. pp. tions of the Irish in Britain ; anterior 

96, 100. probably to the Sazon conquest. 



thatis the Dnn or town of AbbaD^ who restored the queen of that dis- 

tiìcttolife, and converted the inhabitants from Paganism. He was a 

kn&it, and gare his name to that place, according to some authorities 

ed hj Camden, " who says that in course of time that monastery 

1066 to sach magni ficence, that in wealth and extent it was hardly 

SBeQQd to any in England." The sanie wiiter has tnily recoided " that 

ktemonastery of Malmsbuy owed its oiigin to the Irìsh."^ For Mal* 

ÌAdph, an Irìsh Scot (sach are Camden's words,) a manof extraordinary 

^inming and singular holiness of life, being struck with the delightful 

bosition of a grove that was at the base of a hiU, lived there an iwchorìte. 

fin afterwards commenced a school, and having devoted himself with 

[iDliis scholars to the monastic life, they founded a monastery. Hence 

of its old name Ingilbome^ the place began to he called 

idolpbiirg; the city of Maidolph (Beda) and afterwards by contrac- 

1, Malmesbury. '' It was bere/' says William of Malmsbury, " that 

Melffl lived firom his tenderest infancy, was instructed in ali the 

boches of polite leaming, and nurtured on the bosom of Hojy Mother 

èarch." He was afterwards Abbot of a monastery, which they cali 

(bcity of Maildue.<^ ''He was a most leamed man, a perspicuous 

Ùr, and admijrably versed in ali liberal and sacred books/' Durìng 

tkefour last years of his life he was Bishop of the West Saxons. 

Tliemost celebrated monastery of Glastonbury was also founded by 
dieirish. " In primitive times," according to Camden, "most holy 
B>en, prìncipally from Ireland, kept their heavenly vigils there. They 
vere sapported at the royal expense, and instructed youth in piety and 
tiie liberal arts. They embraced the solitary life that they might 
ie?ote themselves with greater peace to sacred leaming, and exercise 
^emselves to carry their cross by an austere mode of life."® To these 
i^niaynotbe uninteresting to add the testimony of Osbome of Can- 

^ Camden for the great fame it Lord, ìt was believed, had founded 

VQoyed with ancient writers, who it; and there toc, they maintained, 

it ' the fountain of ali religion was the tomb of St. Patrick. See 

%land ;' * the mother and tomb Lanìgan, voi. i., p. 327. 

Saints,'" &c., the disciples of our 


vacarent^ et severo vìtse genere, ad crucem perferendam se exercevent."^® 
His ex Osbeiiio Cantuariensi non piget adjungere *^ qaod peregrìnandi 
consuetudo Hìbemis adhuc vefaementer maneat, quia quod aliis bona 
voluntas in consuetadinem^ hoc ìUis consuetudo vertit in naturam. 
Quorum multi, atque illustres viri divinis ac liberalibus literis nobiliter 
eruditi, dum relieta Hibemia, in terra Anglorum peregrìnaturi venissent^ 
locum habitationis suas Glasconiam elegerunt;^^ propterea quod asseta 
civili multitudine sequestratus^ et humanis usibus accommodatus." 
Sanctus etiam Congellus in JBrìtanniam navìgavit, et constituit ibi 
monasterium in quadam villa in regione Heth. Sanctus vero Brendanus 
in Britanniae regione monasterium nomine Ailech, Ecclesiam Bledach 
dictam in regione Hetb condidit.^^ 

Tatbaeus quoque in Moumothensium Venta, " rogatu Garadoci regis 
scbolarum studium aliquando rexit, confi uentibns undique scbolarìbus ad 
erudiendam scientiam septem disciplinarum."^^ Praetereà Broughtonus 
dicit Tathseum nobili genere in Hibemia, ortum et percurrente per 
universam Hiberniam fama ejus, confluxisse undique juvenes ad hauti- 
endam ejus doctrinam ; qui in Britanniam trajiciens assumptis secum 
octo discipulis Carodocus rex utriusque Guentoniae, certior famse quse 
de ilio sparsa est factus, venerandum Doctorem invisit, eumque quam 
[148] vehementissime precatus est ut civitatem | Guentam peteret, ìbique 
scholam citra moram moderaretur. Doctissimus Tatbaeus postulationi 
regis obsecutus, utpote cupidus talenti sibi commissi ritè disseminandi, 
proximam urbem adiit, et literarum studiosos ad eum undique commi- 
gran tes instituere csepit. Ita ut plurimos disciplinae su» alumnospostea 
celebres habuerit. Quorum unus gloriosissimus Gadocus erat, filius 
regis, sancti Guedelenis plurimorum in Britannia Monachorum Abbas, 
et demum Beneventi Episcopus in Italia. Itaque Tathceus docendi 

10 Àpud Usherum in sylloge, p. 164. ^^ Ex yita S. Congelli apud Ushse, 
p. 956. " Ushaerus, p. 955, et 1126. isUshserus primord. pag. 92, ex vita S. 

'Uncertain where this Heth lay; *Hemu8thavebeenacontemporary 
more probably it was in Bretagna, of St. Fatrick's. Lanigan i., 490. 
which wasTisitedbj St. Brendan. 

Chap.XVIII.] cambkensis eveksus. 321 

terboij, " that the habit of gomg to foreign countrìes stili forma a 

po«'er/iil trait in the Irìsh, so that what good wìll makes a habit in 

otlierpeople, in the Irish is changed from habit into nature. Many of 

tliem, meo of great renown, nobly preeminent in liberal and sacred 

leasing, after leaving Ireland on a pilgrimage through the land of 

Eii^and, selected Glastoubury as the place of their dwelling^ because 

itwas far remote from the busy mnltitade^ and adapted for the uses of 

mail." St Congal also travelled \o Britain and fomided a monastery 

>Aere in a viUage in the distrìct of Heth. St Brendan founded in 

;Sritain a monastery called Ailsah^ and a chmrch called Bledach in the 

ftenitoiy of Heth.' 

I Tathaeus^ also^ at the request of king Carodoc, presided over a 
1 at Venta,^ in Monmouth, and was attended by crowds of scholars 
^ aD qnarters, to be instructed in the seven liberal arts. Broughton, 
07er, records that Tathaeus was an Irishman of uoble birth^ whose 
e being spread throughout ali Irolaud^ yomig men flocked to him 
m ali parts to imbibe his doctrìne. Taking with him eight disciples, 
pe ciossed over to Britain^ where Carodoc, king of the two Guentoniae^* 
iharing of his great renown, vìsited the venerable doctor^ and entreated 
lùn most eamestly to go to the eity of Venta^ and immediately pre- 
side oFer a school there. The very leamed Tathaeus complied with the 
%'s request, as being desirous of dispensing the talent commrtted to 
^] and comingtothe city, he began to instruct in leaming, students 
^0 flocked to him from ali parts : so that he had under his care a 
^ great number of pupils, who afterwards became celebrated. One 
^thosewas the most glorious Cadoc, son of king Gundleus, abbot of 
>«5y monks in Britain, and finally bishop of Beneventum,*^ in Italy. 
^ Tathaens continued to teach bere to the last day of his life, and 
«senred to be buried with honor." He cites in the margin, Voliberus 
«thelives of the Welsh Saints, Cosgrave on St Tathaeus. Antiqui- 

*Caerwent in Welsh, supposed to ^A mistake probably for a place 

"the same as Chepstow (^Saxon). called Beneventa m England, sup- 

^it ìs the castle whìch gave his posed by Camden to be the same as 

the &inous Strongbow. Wedon in Northamptonshire. 

'Goineath, Venedotia, Guinethia. 


munus ibidem ad nltimum vìtSB diem prosecutus est, et sepelki cum 
honore meruìt. Citat autem in margine Voliberum de vitìs sanctorum 
Wallise, Capgravium in S. Tathaeo. Antiquìtates Cantabrigenses lib* 
1, p. 148> additque alibr^TathsBum honc^ collato sibì à rege Caradoco 
agro^ Ecclesiam in S. Trinitatis honorem construxisse^^^ et Consilio 
Laudanensis Epìscopi duodecem canonicos ibidem Deo servientes 
instituisse. Sanctns etiam Brandanus in Brìtannia triennium egìt^ et S. 
Talmachus quandam belluam bominibus et pecoribus exitialem è Bri* 
tanniae finibus ejecit : 8. quoque Cadrò è incendii flammas late Londini 
grassantes precibus coercuit* 

Sed bsec nunc missa faciamus, et rationem exbibeamus, qua nostrates 
Oxoniam exulantea Musas primi addoxerunt. Nimìrom Alnredus rex 
studiorum ibi sede ac domicilio collocato,^ ^ Joannem nostrum Scotum 
JBrigenam '^ eo misit jussìtque" ( Pitsium audis) '' ut Academià jam 
restituiti, omnium primus ibi bonas literas publice doceret." Queni 
Scotum ideo dietum aliqni scrìptoTes.autumant;^^ " quod in Scoda, id 
est Hibernia, ad quam frequens erat nostratinm" (inquit Harpsfeldius) 
''hoc, et superiori saoculo, ad ingenium excolendum, disciplinasque 
hauriendas concursus, versatus fuerat.''^^ Additque Cajus ''cetate 
Alfredi regis Hibemos vulgo dictos luisse Scotos> eamque ab causam, 
ubicunque apud Orosium occurrebat Hibemus, Aluredus vertis 

Videre profecto apud UshffirumestAluredum, sive Alfìredumhunc in 
Saxonica sua Orosii versione,^^ Hibemiam vocare Scothlandiam, et in 
Saxonica Bedse interpretatione ab Alfredo etiam elucubrata, et nuper 
in lucem emissà per Abrabamum Whelpcami^^ ubi Beda lib. 1, cap. ÌO, 
dicit Pictos extra fines omnes Britannise Hibemiam pervenisse, vocem 
Hibemiam Saxonice vertit '' Scotland." Alibi in eodem capite Hiber- 
niam exprimit per Heoralande postea bis,^^ in hoc etiam capite ad 
Hibemiam Saxonice exprimendam voce tantum latina Hibemia udtur, 

i* Pag. 152. 16 Colganus 26 Febr. p. 414, in notis n. 2. Ibidem. Idem. 6, 
Marti!. "Pag. 168. i^^ Saeculo 9, e. 12. isAntiquit. Cantabri. lib. l,p. 
223. w De prim. p. 731. «o Catabrig. an Dom. 1643. «iPag. 23. 

* Caerleon upon Usk ? *» This name does not appear in the 

" Bretagne more probably ; Britaìn common Irish Calendars. 
according to Ussher. o Mabillon, the BoUandists, and Dr. 


tates Cwtobrigenaes, L. I. p. 148, adding, moreoyer, that St Tatheus 
banng Teceiyed a grani of land fìom king Carodoc, erected a churcli 
to the Holy Trimty, and by the advice of the bishop of Landon,^ es- 
tòlished in it twelve canons devoted to the serrice of God. St. Bren- 
kispent three years in Britain,'» and St. Talmaeh^ hanished from the 
W of Eritain a beast that was destnictiire both to men and cattle. 
ItCadioe*!^ arrested by his prajers a conflagration whìch was 
^|reading orer London. 

:■ Bat dismissing thìs subject, let us recount how our coun- 
l^men first restored the muses to theìr seats in Oxford. King 
jtkied haring establishcd there grounds and edifices for a college, 
^oQT conntryman, John Scotus Erigena, and ordered hìm (as 
s says^, the college being now established, to commence public 
8 on nsefol leaming/*** He was called '' Scotus/' according to 
e wiiteiSy " because he had lived in Scotia, that is, Ireland, whither," 
Harpsfeld, '' both in this and the preceding century, our students 
Docked to cultirate their genius, and acquire knowledge." Caius 
', "that in the time of klng Alfred, the Irish were generally called 
K and for that reason, wherever the word Hibemus occurs In 
^Bs, it is rendered by Alured '* Scotte." 

proFes that this Alured, or Alfred, calla Ireland '^Scot- 

in his Saxon venóon of Orositts, and also in his Saxon trans- 

m of Beda, which has lately been published by Abraham Wheloc : 

where Bed^ states, Lib. I. e. 10, that the Picts went to 

4 a place entirely beyond the bounds of Brìtain, Ireland 

tfuìslated into the Saxon word '' Scotlasid." In another part of 

same chapter he twice translates '^ Hibetnia" Heorlande, and 

>etimes uses in the same place the Latin word " Hibemia" itself 

the Saxon version, merely adding the Saxon words " Scotta 

ande/' that is, the Island of the Scots. And in numerous other 

es of Beda, where the word Hibemia occurs, the same ex- 

^n mVT^taìp against Colgan, Alfred, and that probably he never 

«t St. Cadroc was a Brìtish Scot, sojoumed in that country. The John 

'I>r. Lanigan, yol« iii.. p. 100, whom Alfred inyited over from France 

F'^^ttconclusirdy, that John Scotus was a Saxon. 
*"aeTer received in England by king 


de SUO adjiciens Saxonicas hasce voces " Scotta eolonde" id est Sco- 
toTum Insula. Et non solum hic, sed in multis prseterea Bedae locis, 
eodem prorsus additamento vocem '^ Hibemiam" à Beda solitarie 
positam cumulat. Nimirum lib. 3, cap. 19, p. 209, lib. 4, cap. 3, p. 
267, cap. 25, p. 337, cap. 26, p. 345, et in tiiulo lib. 1, cap. 1, p. 7, ut 
jam non miror Giraldum dixisse : " Albaniam nunc abusive Scotiam 
dici;" ipso scilicet superstite, sub aiinum Dom. lldO, in Dialogo de 
sede Menevensi, et citatur à Joanne Prisio in defensìone historiae Bri- 

tannicae p. 74. 

Sed ut eò unde ista me abduxerunt redeam,^* £rigena noster non 
tantum educatione, sed etiam Nicholao Papa ipsi cosetaneo testante» 
" Scotus genere fuit," aut " Scotigena ;" ut eum Anastasius per eadem 
quoque tempora superstes appellat.^' Scotus etiam est Malmsburìensi, 
Hovedeno, et Westmonasteriensi nempe Scotus ex Hibemia; bis ut 
supra monuimus, Scotia ab Aluredo, et creberrìme insula Scotorum 

Erigena vero perìnde est ac Hìbemigena, quod malo alienis quam 
meis verbis ediscas.^* " Joannem Scotum Erigenam" (inquit Edwardus 
Maitbew) '' Hibernum fuisse insinuare videtur ipsum nomen Erigena, 
quod virum de Hibemia ortum signi Beare dicitur. Nam Hibemia 
Insula hòdie idiomate Hibemico Erin vocatur. Nec verisimilitudine 
caret, quod notant Abrahamus Ortelius in suo Theatro orbis terranim, 
in suis tabulis Geographicis, et alii nonnulli, Anglicum nomen " Ireland" 
olim Anglis fuisse Irinland sive Erinland. Quod si verum sit, vox 
L149.] Erigena non minus significat Hibernum, quam | vox Angligena Anglum, 
et Francigena Francum.*** Huic igitur quem Aluredus rex et " sibi, 
liberisque adbibuit prseceptorem, et quo tanquam geniali sidere" (ut 
loquitur Lelandus) '' Academìam Oxoniensem adomavi t :" et tam docti 
regis eruditio, et Academise tam nobilis erectio accepta referrì debet, 

» UshsTus in sylloge, p. 65, et 535. '^ De gestis Regum. lib. 2, e. 4, n. 88. 
<^ De scrìp. Anglis. ^nolict. p. 166. >^ Fitsius ubi supra. Antiquit. Oxonies. 
lib. 2, p. 195. 

'^Becauseitwasonlyabout thetime ways **8iiie addito" howerer» but 
of Giràldus that North Britain began Scotia minor» and sometimes Scotia 
to be generally called Scotia, not al- nova ; Ireland being for many ages 

Chip. XVni.] CAMfiEENSIS BVEESUS. 325 


planatoiy additìon is constantly made in the S&xod translatìon. Lib. 
d,c.I9,p. 209; Ub. 4, e 3, p. 267; e. 26, p. 337 ; e. 26, p. 345; 
lod in the title, lib. 1, e 1, p. 7. So that Giraldas had good reason 
to saj" Albania was in bis day improperly called Scotland."^ The 
passage occors in bis dialogue on the See of St David's, about the 
jnr 1190» and iscited by John Price in bis Defence of British Hìs- 
[ter, p. 74. 

I Bnt retnniing to the sabject from which I bare strayed, Erìgena 
|ns Irìsh not only by education, but» according to bis contem- 
jpranr, Pope Nicolas, an Irìsbman by birth, *' Irìsh boro," as he is 
ipHBed by Anastasius, wbo flourìshed at the same perìod. William of 
jpltlmsbuiy, Hoveden, and Matthew of Westminster, also make bim a 
Ittt, that isy a Scot from Ireland ; Alfred having, as I showed already, 
fece called Ireland, Scodand, and very frequently the I sland of the 

Erìgena, means the same as " Irìsh boro," a fact which I prefer 
Ipsenting to you in the words of another, that '* John Scotus Erìgena 
i^js Edward Mathew) was an Irìsbman, appears from the very name 
[Krigena, which is said to mean a native of Ireland." Nor is it at ali 
^bable, that Irìnland, or Erìnland, was the old English name of 
Ireland, as it is marked in " the Theatre of the World," and Geogra- 
pUcaièarts of Abraham Ortelius and others. " In that case, Erìgena 
tsclearly means an Irìsbman as Angligena, or Francigena an English- 
^ or Frenchman." This was the man, therefore, who was chosen 
F^eptoT by Alfred for himself and bis children, and who, in the words 
^Leland, illumined the Academy of Oxford by bis genial star ; to 
puom is owing the erudìtion of a learoed kìng, and the foundation of 
oillnstrìous a university ;" and it would be almost impossible to find 
ne man of bis day at ali equal to bim in ali useful learoing. Hence, 
^ se?end cities contended for the honor of Homer's birtbplace, 

*^ards known on the Continent as late as the year 1626, Edward Fitz- 

"^ nmply or " Scotia migor," gerald, colonel in «he Imperiai serrice 

''Scotia Tetos.'* North Britain was and count of the Empire, who was an 

^ ttldom called Scotia before the Irishman, is described in bis epitaph 

^ofthe deventh oentury. Gene* in the church of the FranciscanB at 

^umnm 1150. Edit. Parìa. So Heidelberg as <' Scotus natione." 




qui in omni meliori doctrìna yix sui similem quemquam in illa setate 
per terrarum orbem habuerit."^® Ut sicul plnres urbes de Homerì 
natalibus contenderant, sic Oxonia^ et Cantabrìgia> atri earum ille 
ascribendus fuerit, in disceptationem vocaverint. 

Ad hunc Regem Aluredum" (verba sunt Westmonasteriensis) 

tres homines de Hibemia venientes, solitarìam prò Ohristo vitam 
ducere cupiebant.^^ Construxerunt namque sibi de Irìbus coriis bo- 
vinis et dimidio naviculum quandam brevissimam sine omni naris in- 
strumento^ qui adjuncto sibi unius septimanae victu, clam mare sunt 
ingressi quocunqae fortuna concederet ire disponentes. Qui Domino 
ducente, septima subb ingiessionis die, in Comubia applicantes, prò 
miraculo, et novità te inaudita regi prsesentabantnr.^^ Nomina autem 
eorum erant Dubsane, Mancbetus, et Manslinos.^' Qui apud Ushse- 
rum vocantur^ Dufflanus, M acbaetus, et Magilmumenus. Quorum pos> 
tremum Ushserus dicit " fuisse artibus frondentem, litera doctum, ma- 
gistrum insignem.*' Ut proinde judicem bospites suos literìs imbuisse,^^ 
ut eruditionis ricem hospitii beneficentiae rependeret. Quam rem 
cumulate multo ante praestitit *'Petrocus Comius" (Harpsfeldinm 
audis) " qui cum vigintì totos annos, in Hibernia divinis lit^s operam 
dedisset, sacris bis meroibus abunde instructus patriam repetit> et in 
caenobio non ita procul à Sabrino flumine, quae didicerat ab aliis,*<> in- 
genue et liberalìter communicat, inter quos illustrìores fuere Credanus, 
Mechanus, et Dachanus." 

Et ut extra Harpsfeldum oratio non evagetur : '* Conditum est" 
(inquit ssBCulo nono) " sacrarum virginum apud Polliswicthum jnxta 
sylvam Ardeniam, in Castrensi Dieecesi per beatam Modwenniam esano- 

26 Pitsius ibidem. Antiquit. Cantab. p. 211. 27 Antiquit. Ozonien. p. 196, 
et sequ. '« An Dom. 891. 29 De prim. 732. 3» Pag. 42, e. 27. 

' It ìs unquestionable that the fa- proved, though rery oftea asserted hj 

mous tTohii Scotus Eiigena vas Irisfa, fingUih vriters. 

but that he had any conjiezion wlih > Fame writes the naiiie of theae 

either Oxford or Cambridge» or any three leamed men different ways ; for 

school in Bngland, Ì8 net satisfactorily which see Dr. Lanigan, voi. iii., p. 

chap. xvhl] 



Bo Oxford and Cambridge dispute to which of them Erigena be- 

According to Matthew of Westminster^ '' three men carne to Alfred 
fiom freland intending to lead a solitary life in honor of Christ. Con^ 
«tetiog a reiy small boat for tbemselves of three cow-hldes and a half, 
«iout any of the appliances of a ship^ and taking in one week's 
pyision, they pushed out secretlj to sea, resolved to settle wheresoever 
ifetone might lead them. On the seventh day nf their voyage, by the 
ftidance ofheav^ci, they made land in Comwall, and on account of the 
jtencolous and unheard-of adventure, were presented to the king. 
|iieir ntmes were Dubsane, Manchete and Mainslin/' or as they are 
0kà by Ussher^ 'Duflan, Macb<Btus> and Magilmumen/ the last 
fàìo, according to the same authorìty, " eminent in the arts^ leamed 
|i \mks, and an ìllustrìous teacher/* he and bis associates probably 
|totTucted their guests and repaid their hospitality with leaming. In 
p8 manner, Petroc,* of Comwall^ hìghly distinguished himself. For 

ting deyoted himself to the study of sacred leaming durìng full 
Dtyyears in Ireland> he retumed home rìchly stored with these 
iKred treasures, and in a monastery not &r from the river Sevem, 
p^h and liberally dispensed around him what he had leamed from 
-iflieis, of whom the most Ulustrious were Credan> -Mechan, and 
Stili confining oorsekes to Harpsfeld^ we find " that in the ninth 
tnry a eonvent for holy rirgins was founded by St Modwenna at 
llesvorth," near the forest of Arden in the diocese of Chester. St. 

• He adcx^ts the forms, Diifflan, 
:beathath and Magìlmimen. In 
ie's Sound Towers, p. 323, la 
t^en an iUnstration of the tombstone 
Soibne Mac Maelhumai, a famous 
nìieand anchorite at Cluainmacttoifl. 
.D. 890, 891. It is there stated, 
Suibne was one of the three Irish- 
presented to Alfred, which can 
^} be reconciied with the Sazon 

Chronicle, A.D. 891, where Soibne is 
mentioned as dlfferent from the three. 
There may be a elencai error, Mac 
Maelhumai, being changed ìnto Ma- 

t From whom Pet]:ock8tow^ or Pad- 
stow, in Comwall, is named. See 
I^anigan, voi. i., 493. 

» In Warwickrfiire near Tamworth, 

328 cambebnsis evbrsus. [Cap, xvm» 

biom.'^ Illi dìvam Editham Alfredis regis sororem, quaB ibi usque 
ad nostra tempora religiose colebatur praefecit Ipsa vero apnd aliud 
monasterium^ quod prope Streneshalium condidit versata est: Modwennae 
discipula fuit diva Athea^ et diva Ositha. Ad hanc Modwennam dicitur 
Ethelwolphus rex filium Aluredum deplorato quodam morbo implici- 
tum curationis gratia in Hibemiam transmisisse^ quse eodem postea 
referente : " ccenobium Streneshalamense beneficio Aluredi regis re- 
parasse traditur, et aliquandiu incoluisse."^ Bartonense vero mo- 
nasterium ait Camdenus : " Modwenniae Hibemise mulieris secessu 
quondam insigne fuit^ et in hoc tractu ejus sanctitas celeberrima est."'' 
Tumuloque ejus ibidem posito versiculi à Camdeno recitati^ prò Epi- 
taphio inscripti erant. Idemque illam elogio '' alibi'* exomat. Quam 
et Edwardus Maithew scribit '* in modico flnvii Trents Insulse ora- 
torio in honorem S. Andre se constnicto^ septem annis anachorìtice 
vixisse."'^ Additque Ushserus ab illa " septem in Scotia, sive Albania 
constructas fuisse Ecclesias, Chilnecassensem^ Dundonaldensem, Dun- 
bretenensem^ Strìveliensem^ Dundenensem^ Dunpelderensem, et 
Lanfortinensem." Ut vere Broughtonus affirmaverit,'^ multa illam 
sanctimonialium csenobia condidisse> quorum unum centum et quin- 
quaginta sanctse virgines incolebant.'^ Viri etiam ea informante mo- 
nasticis disciplinis imbuebantur, è quìbus S. Eugerium cemens '^S. 
Modwenna bonse indolis adoptavit in filium, et summo studio enutrìens, 
fide ac moribus reddidit eruditum/''^ Denique Westmonasteriensis eam 
''crebris miraculis claruisse scribit."'® Ita ut Matthew merito dixerìt : 
" S. Modwennam in Hibemia ortam, Angliain sua sanctitate, ac praecla- 
ris mentis, ac miraculis insigniter illustrasse."89 

Imo plures alii è nostratibus in Anglia,^^ Walliaque claruerunt^ ac 
nominatim S. Brendanus qui Lhancarvensi monasterio post Cadocum 
prsefuit. Sancti Modomnocus, Barreus, Maidocus, Senanus, MoUagga 

»» Gap. 13, p. 175. M Ibib. e. 14. ss Stradford Shire, p. 441 . " Uvarmuth 
Shire, p. 419. "5 Julii. p. 913. wPrimor. p. 706. «5^ Ubi. sup. p. 165. 
38 Ad annu 1201 • ^ Ubi supra. p. 906. «o Ushsros de prim. p. 533. 

^ Andresey, probably ; a amali island gan, ili., p. 41, for the conflictÌDg 
in the Trent not far from Burton. See opisìons on the life and time of St« 
Ussher's Antiquities, p. 368, and Lan- Moduenna. 

Chaf. XVin.] CAMfiRSNSIS EYSBSVS. 329 

Edith, sister to tdng Alfred, was appointed Abbess, and ber memory 
wasreligiously bonored tbere down eren to our own day. Modwenna 
kself reàded in anotber conveut founded by berself near Strenesbal. 
8S. Athea and Ositba were ber dìsciples* It was to ber, wbile yet in 
hkaàf that kìng Etbelwolf is said to bave sent bis son Alured, to get 
\k cured of some mortai disease : sbe '* afterwards, according to tbe 
^e anthorìty, rebnilt tbe convent of Strenesbal/ by tbe aid of king 
^yfred, and dwelt tbere some time/' Tbe monastery of Borton-on- 
feieiìt, Camden says, ''once bonored as tbe retreat of Modwenna, a 
^Ij woman from Ireland, and ber sanctity was famous in tbe wbole 
pmij aroond.*' He publisbes tbe monumentai verses, wbicb were 
^red tbere on ber tomb, and bimself, in anotber part of bis work, 
»brates ber fame. Edward Matbew tbus writes of ber, " tbat sbe 
seven years as a bermit in a little oratory, built in bonor of St. 
won an ialand in tbe river Trent.'* Ussber adds, ''tbat sbe 
ded seven chnrcbes in Albania or Scotland, namely, Cbilnecas,^ 
donald, Dunbriton, Stirling, Edinborougb, Dunpelder,^ and Lan- 
^ Brogbton bas, tberefore, troly said, " tbat sbe bad founded 
pmj convents of nuns, one of wbicb was inbabited by one bundred and 
% lioly virgins." Men, also, were under ber care brougbt up in 
i&niasdc discipline ; amongst wbom was St. Eugerius, wbose good dis- 
positioDs made St. Modwenna adopt bim as ber son, and educating bim 
wtii great care, sbe made bim perfect in faitb and morals. Sbe was 
ons for miracles, according to Mattbew of Westminster. '' Bom 
Iieland," says Edward Matbew, '* Modwenna poured over England 
e baio of ber sanctity, miracles, and illustrious merits." 
Many otbers of our countrymeu rose to distinction in England and 
Vdes, and especially St. Brendan, wbo govenied tbe monastery of 
iiancanren after Cadoc. SS. Modomnoc,' Barry,» Maidoc,^ Senan,* 

*In Galloway. ney, south-west of tbe county of Ril- 

^ A bill in Lothian. kenny. 

^Supposed by Ussber to be a place «Bishop and patron of Cork. 

^ Drmdee. ^ Bisbop and patron of Fems. 

i 'Domnoc wbo settled at Tybrough- « Of Inniscatthy. 


et S. Scotinus^ aliique qui literìs a S. Davide imbuti/' multa miracula 
per Brìtanuiam edidenmt. S. Burìena, cujus et nomen et memoriam 
Comwallise viculus Saintburìeus adhuc retinet '' S. Ivse quoque mulieris 
Hibemicse oppidum Santìvea nomen suum acceptum refert" PadsCon 
quoque a S. Pirano Hibemo nomen mutuata esl/^ £t Saintbees in 
Cumberlandia nuncupationem suam '^ a S. Bega pia et religiosa Hiber- 
nica virgine^4s quae vkam. illic solitariam egit," nacta est. Nimiram 
[150] eorum nomina grata posteritatis beneficio/^ iis loci» adbssenmt^ { qu« 
vivi insederunt. Ut merìtormn quae apud incoia» collocarunt^ memoria 
recordatione quam longissima foveretur. 

Pene mihi è memoria Ultanus noster excidit^ qui in Lindìsfarnensi 
ccenobio " polite atque concinne libros sacros exscribere solebat,^^ vir 
singolari piotate^ quod et post mortem ejus et Deus ostendit* Defuncti 
enim manus (cum ossa post aliquot annos à tumulo eruerentur alibi 
reponenda) fratri cuidam perienlose segrotanti repentinam salutem suo 
attactu attulit." S. Finnanus in Britannia majorì stagnum aie arefecit, 
ut in bumo per quàm decurrerat^ plores modo civitates extructs visau- 
tur. Insulam Echinum^ passerum, policum^ et seipentum infest&tiane 
liberavit^^ Saxonum copias à Brìtonibus prolio aggrediendis desistere 
renuentes, montis mole oppreasos delevit. 

Exploratnm igitur est nostrates per multas in Britannia majori pio- 
vincias fidem propagasse, plures literìs excoluisse ; plurimos monasticis 
discìplinis cumulate instituisse> plura cssnobia tanquam virtutam pales- 
tras erexisse, complures etiam Epìscoporum sedes inchoasse, ut eum à 
ratione aversìssìmum esse oporteat, qui viros tanta vitse sanctimonia, et 
literarum scìentia conspicuos, suis civibus in prima barbarie, et morum 
pravitate tanquam luto inbaerendbus, ad pollutos alienigenanim mores 

♦> Colgan in actis Sanctomm Hiber. Camden. p. 136. <« Idem p. 140. 
« Ibidem. « Idem p. 630. " Harpsf. saeculo 9, cap, 14, p. 177. *« CJolgan. 
ad 23 Feb. 

^ See Lanigan iìi., 83. there was a church named after Piron, 

* From whom Tescoffin near the wfao is supposed hy aome to be the 

city of Kilkenny derives its name. same as St. Eieran of Saiger. 

^Padstow was so called from the ^For an accouat of the biblical 

PetrocjbetweenPadstowand St. Ives MSS. of the Irish school preaerved 


Mokgga^^ S. Scotinas/ and otber dìsdples of St. David, worked many 

miracies in Brìtain. S. Barìena's name and memoiy are stili preserved 

in Saintbury, a little bamlet in Cornwall, end St. Iva, an Irìsh woman, 

ks beqaeathed her name to the town of St Ives. Padstow is so oalled 

ftm St Piron/ an Irìsbman, and St. Bees in Cumberland bad its 

nane from St. Bega, a hoìy and religious vh^n, vtho led a solitary life 

i Cbre. Tbe gratitude of posteritj perpetoated the memory of their 

jinstsm the names of the places which they inbabited durìng life ; that 

tÉej-might live tbrougb long ages in tbe afiectious of the people wbom 

Itiej had served. 

jl Our coontrymany Ultan, had well nigh escaped me. It was 

à the monastery of Lindisfame that he used to transcrìbe tbe 

^ed books, neatly and elegantly.^^ He was a man of singular piety, 

pich Grod manifested after bis deatb. " For when bis relics were raised 

pm the tomb some years after bis deatb to be deposited in anotber 

|ÌBC6, bis band was applied to one of tbe bxotbers wbo was dangerously 

P, and instantly restored bim to bealtb." St Finnian also draìned a 

pvsh in Great Brìtain so tborougbly, that many towns are now built 

in the space ihroi^ wbidi it flowed. He also freed the island of 

ÌSn from sparrows, bugs and serpents, and annibilated a wbole army 

s^Sffions, by bvurying them under a mountain as they were advancing 

^pDDst the Britons.'' 

itis dien proved to demonstration that our countrymen propagated 

fcdth in many provinces of Great Britain, that many of them in- 

cted her in leaming, many more bad abundantly supplied ber with 

nastic institutes, and fbunded many monasterìes, which were tbe 

^ schods of virtue ; finally, that they laid tbe foundation of most 

hei episcopal sees. Oan «nything be more irrational than that men 

hìghly eminent for sanctity of life and leaming, should devote their 

es to raferm and refine the barbarons depravity of strangers, wbile 

Sogland and at home, the reader is Irìsh in the conversion of the Anglo- 

erred to Dr. O'Conor's Frolego- Saxons. 

la, and Westwood's Faleographia ^ St. Finnian, it is said, spent many 

fccra. They are the most enduring years in Wales, before he established 

*onument8 of the primitive church bis famous school at Clonard. 
i^Ireland. and of the influence ofthe 


debito nitore poliendos operam suam collaturos esse conseret ; ingratie 
autem ìndolis indìcium est in eos quibus majores tui suam pene omnem 
institutionem acceptam referunt maledictis debaccharì. 

Quod si prò human» inconstantìae conditìone, longa temporum tìcìs- 
situdo nonnullam à prima morum prsstantià declinationem parìat; 
meminisse debuit obtrectator^ non eum bonilatis tenorem res omnes 
retinere^ in qua primum condits sunt^ sed cuique rei suam periodum 
esse ; regna etenim et Respub. suas conversiones experiri ; nihil nnqnam 
in primo quem fixit gradu dia perstitisse ; omnia in deterius sensim 
sine sensu prolabi. Ut is imitatorem Chami agat, qui optime de se 
meritorum nsevos propalare quam celare malit. Itaque quis Giraldmn 
Cbami personam induisse, ac summse ingratitudinis infamìam subiisse 
negabit P^^ qui Hibemos majorum snorum ad fidem^ virtutem^ et literas 
duces^ ac magistros conviciis proscindat, et prò benefactis maledicta 
reponat P In Anglos enim, et Cambros ceu Wallos institutiònis bene- 
ficium Hibemi contulerunt. Et ad '^ utram gentem, Trojanamqae 
nobìlitatem generis" originem Giraldus refert 

Quae officia nostrates Anglis prsestiterunt paulo uberius ; quae Cambris 
pressius supra commemoravi. In utraque re latìus potuit oratio excur- 
rere: sed eam de industria coercui, veritus ne prolixitate fastidium 
lectori crearem. Ut autem quam arctis inter se amiciti» vinculis 
nostrates ac Britanni olim mutuo coUigabantur paucis perstringam, 
hoc tantum dicam nullum fiiisse necessitudinis genus^ quod genti nostrae 
cum Britannis non intercessit.^^ Hibemiam è Britannia primos incolas 
recepisse nonnidlorum est conjectura ;^^ à Brìtano Hibemo Britones 
originem duxisse historìci nostri memorant. Eodem morum cultu, 
ingeuiorumque similitudine utramque nationem imbutam fuisse, è 
Tacito^ et ipso Giraldo percipi potest.^^ In utraque lingua tanta est 
vocum multitudo easdem syllabas^ et signifìcationes referentium (Ore- 
veus Primas Hibemis quingentas cumulavit) ut non nisi duo rivuli ex 

*^ In ejus vita operibus annexa p. 817. ^^ Camden. p. 728. <* Ushserus de 
prìm. p. 821. M In vita Agricol» In deBcrìptione Cambrìae. 

* It ìs clear from this and from se- knew nothlDg of that high degree of 
Teral other passages that our author civilization which yìsionaries of tho 


fteir own coantrymen were plunged in the mire of primitive barbarism 
td profiigacy ; it proves an uDgratefol heart, to launch into foul in- 
rectives against those to wbom your ancestora owed ali the radiments 
of their ciriUzatìoiì. 

What, thoagh in the long lapse of ages, the iuherent instability of * 
kman affi&irs may have pioduced some falling off from their first palmy 
icivilization^ the calumniator oaght to have home in mind that ali things 
lionot retain the healthfol vigor of their prime. Ali things have their 
&t; kingdoms and repuhlics have their revolutìons; nothing over re- 
kaiDed in the state in which it was first founded ; ali things degenerate 
9if little and little. Who hut a Cham wouid expose instead of con- 
Ming bis best benefactors P Can any man deny that Giraldus is a 
CiiaiD, and has incurred the infamy of the most foul ingratitude P— ^ 
^who repays blessings by maledictions^ and calumniates those who 
'Me the teachers and guides of bis ancestors in faith^ in virtue> and in 
jkming ? The Irish conferred the grace of enlightenment on both 
|$nglish and Cambrians or Welsh^ and Giraldus traces bis own de- 
'icent from both nations and their Trojan nobility. 
The Services of the Irish to the English have been already given in 
M; and their services in Wales have been more briefly noticed. I 
conldhave been more copious on both subjects if I had not purposely 
nùmeà firom wearjdng the reader by greater prolixity. But compre- 
leDdmg now in a few words the old bonds of frìendship between our 
-«ountiymen and the Britons^ I may say that ali the ties that bind na- 
ilon to nation were contracted between them. Ireland was originally 
peopled fìx>m Britain^ according to some ; Britain was peopled by the 
Rescendants of Brito^ an Irishman^ according to our own native annal- 
w Their manners^ and the character of their minds^ were the same^ 
Itsappears from Taci tus,* and from Cambrensis hìmself. Their lan- 
fJages have so great a number of words^ identical both in elements 
Midsense (Creagh, Primate of Ireland, collected 500 of them), that 
% may he regarded as two streams from the same fountain> Need 

centmy claimed for pagan Ire- * See OT)onovan'8 Irish Grammar, 
; he belioTed the Irish were like and Latham's English Language, 
*óp neighboursj the Brìtons, who appendiz, on the aflinity of the Welah 
*^ conslderably below the Gauls in and Irish, illustrated from the grom- 
me scale of civilization. matical structure of both languages. 


eodem fonte scatorientes censendì sint Quid memorem frequens con-* 
nubìorum couimerciuin,^^ et crebenimas virorom literis, et pietate. 
illustritim nitro citroque commigrationes, et literas^ ac vit» sanctimoniaia 
hìc vicissim^ et illic discentìum et docentìum ? Non possum igitur meo 
' calculo non approbare laudatissimam illam Brìtonani> et Hibernomm 
eonsuetudinem se matno fratres etiamnum appellantium* Qaippe qui 
tot yincnlis astrìcti sunt, ut potìorì jure mutua fratrum nuncupatione 
utantur, quam ìUi Pompei milites^ qui cum ipso res in Asia gereret^ ab 
Albanis in monte Caucaso habitantibus fratres fuerunt salutati/^ propter 
[151] commune nomen Albanorum. | 

Quare qui tam inveteratum amicitiae fsedus radicitus evellere con- 
^endit, tanquam improbus odiorum disseminator mibi ex historicorum 
numero proscribendus esse vide tur. . £t quia probris in majorum suorum 
amicos benefactores, ac socios sseviens ingratìtudinis maciUam contraxit, 
aequum est ut contumeliìs quas in Hibemos evomit fides abrogetur, quo 
nec quicquam oblatrante mcurum probitas nullo unquam tempore 
Hibemos defecit. Licet vulgi purtem ut ubique gentium aliqoibus 
temporibus scererum contagio quandoque corripuerit. 

^^ Camden. ubi supra. Hanmer. p. lì, ut fatetur in prefatione instit. Chr. 
^' Hamner, p. 8. 


Chip. XVm.] 



I mention theìr frequent inteTmarriages, and the ceaseless intercourse 
of meo eminent both for sanctìty and leaming, passing from one shore 
tu the other, masters or dìsciples, altemately, in both countries, of in- 
ectual and spiritual life. I approve with ali my heart tbat most 
blefeeling which makes the Briton and the Irìshman stili regard 
other as brothers. The numerous ties that bind them together 
them a better right to he called brothers than those soldiers of 
pej, who, sernng nnder him in Asia, were salated as brothers by 
Albanian inhabitants of Mount Caucasus, merely on account of 
common name, Albanians. 

he man who endeavours to eradicate this deep-rooted feeling of 
erly fìiendsbip, ought, in my opinion, to he expunged from the 
of historians, as a malignant sower of discord. And if caliunniat- 
the benefactors and associates of his own fathers, he has branded 
iimself the stain of ingratitude^ can it be jnst to believe his accusa- 
against the Irish, amongst whom, whatever the calumniator may 
immorality was never triumphant, though, as in ali other countries, 
of the humbler classes were occasionally corrupted by the con- 
ionof crime ? 




L15I] Conorenaimn sparcitl», a Giraldo 'Hibernis omnibus adsciiptae. [153] 8.Benutfdnia 
nudo bonum, Giraldus e malo majus malam eliolt. — Conorenses ad bonmn frugem se i«oe- 

pemnt.— Giraldns S. Bernardo contradioit^S. Blalachias Conorenses erudiit. [153] Quid 
8. Malachias Archiepiscopus egerit. Qusa Legatus prsstiterit. [154] Giraldus labea, 8. 
Bemardus laudes Hibcrni» eyulgare contendit. — Quomodo Hibemi non barbari. [155] 
Hibemi nondom Cbristiani matrimonimn inierunt.-^Meaetamm et Caledoniomm mores. 
[156] Henrici IL libidines.—Libidines Henrici VIIL 

Non dubito quin Giraldus in vita S. ^Malachias à S. Bernardo con- 
scrìptà legerit S. Malachiam Episcopatui Conorensi gubemando admo- 
tum, cum Episcopi mania prìmum obire aggrederetur, " tum intel- 
lexisse non ad homines se^ sed ad bestias destinatum^ nusquam adhuc 
tales expertus fuerat,^ in quantacumque barbarie nusquam repererat 
sic protervos ad mores^ sic ferales ad ritus, sic ad fidem impios^ ad 
leges barbaros, cervicosos ad disciplinam^ spurcos ad vitam, Cbristiani 
nomine, re Pagani, non decimas, non primitias dare, non legitime inire 
conjugia, non facere confessiones." Non tam ovum ovo simile est, 
quam bis ea sunt, quse Cambrensis in Hibemos effutiit Cum boc 
tamen discrimine, quod bic nova exaggerationis accessione illius dieta 
cumulaverìt, et Conorenses S. Bemardus " spurcos," Hibemos Giraldus 
" spurcissimos" dixerìt. Imo non solum rem, sed ipsa etiam verba è 
divo Bernardo bausisse videtur, ut in memorato cap. 19, videro est. 
Data tamen opera reticuit iis increpationibus à viro sancto Conorenses 
duntaxat perstrictos fuisse: et quod S. Bemardus ad exigui tractus 
incolas arguendos protulit, Giraldus ad universa^ gentis contumeliam 
nefariè traduxit Hanc quoque perfidiam majori cumulavit, quod etiam 

1 Gap. 6. 






Filtfay habits of the people of Connor, ascrlbed by Oiraldas to «11 the Irith. [169] St. 
.Bernard dnwB good from evil: Ginldas from evll dr»ws givftter evU. The people .o' 
Coimor refonned themselTefl.— Giraldos contradlcte St. Etornard.— St. Malaohy Instructed 
tbe people of Conor. fl&S] Actions of St. MMÌachj wbUehe wm arcbblshop: hls zeal m 
legate. [154] Giraldus labore to pabllsh the crlmes { St. Bernard the merita of Ireland.— 
Tbelrish were not barbarons. [1S5] The Pagati Irish fonned contraots of marrÌage.-> 
Xonlx of the Meata and CaledooU. [156} Lust of Henry IL and of Henry VIIL 

EKALDus, no doubt^ read in St. Bernard's life of St. Mdacfay^ that 
BD the latter after being appointed to the bishopric of Connor, began 
aacise bis epìscopal functions, " he then dìscovered that ìt was not 
I^Boibat to beasts he had been sent; in ali the barbarism which he 
Nreteneouutered^ he had never met suoh a people^ so profligate in 
^rmorals, so uncouth in their ceremonies, so impious in faith^ so 
US in laws, so rebellious to discipline, so filthy in their life, 
istians in name but Pagans in reality ; they n^ither paid first fruits 
tithes, nor contracted man*iage legitimately, nor made their confes- 
There is an obvious, a striking similari ty between these words 
tbe invective of Giraldus; with this single difference, that the 
rexaggerates the picture with a new addition, to heighten the words 
àe former ; St. Bernard says the people of Connor were " filthy/* 
ali the Irish were " most filthy" according to Giraldus. He has not 
adopted the sense but almost the identical words of St. Bernard^ 
iippears from chap. 19, already cited. But he deliberately suppresses 
Hct, that the people of Connor alone are thus severely censured by 
Wy man, and thus malignantly tums to the infamy of the whole 
^ what St. Bernard had confined to the inhabitants of one small 



[Cap. XIX. 

Conorenses, è vitiorum Olonim volutabro emersisse, et ad bonam se 
frugem recepisse tacitus praeterierit. Quod si qiiis ^ivi Bernardi sensum 
penitius hic investigare non gravetur, perspiciet profecto virum sanctum 
spurcitias Conorensibus non magis ascribere, qiiam aliis adimere, dum 
dicit : '' Nusquam adhuc tales expertus fuerat, nusquam repererat sic 
protervos etc. Nimirùm indicans S. M'alachiaui aliis etiam populis 
erudiendis ante incubuisse, qui minus erant quam Conorenses incondi- 
tatibus istis inquinati. Dudum enim Archiepiscopus et Primas Arma- 
cbanus, " Vices ei suas commisit." Ut non solum Dioecesem sed etiam 
caeteram pròvinciam Armachanam probioribus moribus excoluerit; et 
fortasse ad totam Hibemiam cultioribus institutis informandam sollici- 
tudinem extenderil;,^ Primate Armachano universam Hibemiam sua 
potestate complexo. '*Jure" enim ut Analectes ait, ''et usu olim 
receptissimo Archi^scopus Armaehanus ^ qnolibet septennio visitabat 
totum regnimi, caeterosque Metropoli tanos ad suum tribunal evocabat, 
judicabal et lites causasque graviores devolutione, appellatione, aliisque 
Juris praeeminentiis, aut facti remediis terminabat Primatiali authori- 
tate." Certe Hibemiam olim à Primatibus creberrime obitam Annales 
nostri referunt. Cum igitur S. Malachiam singulìs Hibemi» regìonibus 
percursis, et eorum incolìs proba institutione infonnatis ad Conoreiises 
optimis disciplinis excolendos accessisse S. Bemardus insinuet, omnibus 
Hibemis mores longe minus fiaedos aBsignare quam Conorensibus intel« 
ligendus est. Divo Bemardus res à S. Malachia gestas enarranti 
ri521 necessitas imposita est vitia quse ille sustulit, oratione | prosequendi, ne 

«Pag. 228. 

' The diocese of Connor over which 
St. Malachy was placed in 1124, ln« 
cluded, according to the Synod of 
Bathbreasal, the present diooeses of 
Down, Connor, Dromore, and the 
north east part of Derry as far as the 
rìver Ree. St. Malachy's immediate 
predecessor was the first who had held 
this union of epìscopal sees. 

*> He had been ordained priebt, at 

the age of 25, five years before the 
canonical age, and appointed Vicar by 
St. Celsus the primate. St. Bernard 
gives an account of his hibonn, aad 
of the abttses suppressed, and the re- 
forma introduced by him, while he was 
Vicar-general of Armagh. 

^ It is certain that St. Malachy had 
opportunity of knowing the state of 
religion ia the south at least durìiig 

CiAP. HX.] 




ilemtoiy.^ By a atUl greater aggiavatìon of perfidy, he does not men*- 
lion that the people of Connor emerged from the thraldom of their 
fices, and devoted themselves to a more perfect life. Whoever takes 
jfte trouble to weigh attentively the words of St. Bernard, must perceive 
jkt if the holy man ìmputes great vices to the people of Connor, he 
by the Tery fact exclude others from a participation in their goilt. 
Kever," he says, *' had he met sach a people, so prodigate, &c. &c./' 
imatiog that St Malachy had lahored in the instruction of other 
le who were not defiled with the enormities of the people of Connor, 
least in an equal degree. St. Malachy having heen already dele- 
by the archhishop of Armagh, the primate, must have lahored in 
rming not only the diocese, hut the province of Armagh,^ and had 
haps even extended his pastoral solicitude to estahlish more perfect 
itations throughout the whole Irìsh church, as ali Ireland was under 
JQiisdictioii of the archhishop of Armagh. " For,*' in the words of 
Aathor of the Analecta, " hy a law and custom formerly in force 
arclibishop of Armagh visited the whole kingdom once ev^ry seven 
summoned the other Metropolitans to his court, and decided 
itroversies, and the more important cases, by devolution, appeal, 
the other prerogatives of law or practical remedies, by virtue of his 
itial authority." Our annalists certainly record very numerous 
tuions of Ireland by the primates. St. Malachy, therefore, having 
ioed ali parts of Ireland, and instructed their inhabitants in salutary 
ipline, carne among the people of Connor to work the same refor-^ 
tioD, and found among them, as Bernard declares, a state of morals 
more revolting than what he had witnessed in any other part of 
'lasd.^ St Bernard, having undertaken to Write the life of St. 
achy, was hound to state the vices which he teformed, otherwise he 
old be condemned as a faithless historian, whd had not don e full 
ice to the memory of him whose life he had proposed to transmit 
posterity. The duty of a truly faìthful biographer has been accom-^ 

iredden^ at lismore, between the 
of his vìcar-generalship of Ar- 
and his promotion to the see of 
Lhaor. But inferences like theae 

drawn by our author are |)tteHle ili 
the estreme, as he adduces no proof 
that Giraldus had ever read a word oÉ 
Bemard's life of St. Malachy; 


probi scrìptoris partes non explevisse argueretur. si cujus vitam posteri- 
tati transmittendam suscepit, ejus virtutes prò dignitate non commemo- 
raret. Verum iUe scriptoris integerrimi offici um cumulate praestitit 
Ejusenim enaiTatioscelerum quibus Conorenses inquinabantur non iis de- 
decori sed honori cessit. Utpote quibus quanto tui-pius erat f agitiorum se 
laqueis irretire, tanto fuit gloriosius se iisdem expedire. Majus '^ enim 
gaudium erit in caelo super uno peccatore psenitentiam agente,^ quam 
super nonaginta novem justos." S. Bemardum igitur suscepti operis 
necessitai ad unius populi labes evulgandas, et'laudes illi etiam accu- 
mulandas compulit. Voluntas seu potius invidia Giraldum impulit 
unius Hibemici populi crimina non ad ullam ei famam sed ad infamiam 
omnibus Hibemis conflandam torquere. Ili e bonum è malo elicuit, hic 
malum angustiis coercitum finibus latius diffudit. 

Quid multis P en tibi S. Bernardi verba Couorensium resipiscentiam 
exprìmentia. Malachia in plebe sua eradienda laboriosissime desu- 
dante/ " cessit duritia, quievit barbaries, et donius exasperans paulatim 
leniri caepit, paulatim correptionem admittere, recipere disciplinam. 
Fiunt de medio barbarse leges, Romanae introducuntur, recipiuntur 
ubique Ecclesiastìcae consuetudines, contrarise rejiciuntur. Reaedifican- 
tur basilicae, ordinatur clerus in illis. Sacramentorum ritè solemnia 
celebrantur, confessiones fiunt, ad Ecclesiam conveniunt plebes, concu- 
binatus honestat celebritas nuptiarum. Postremo sic mutata in melius 
omnia, ut hodie illi genti conveniat, quod Dominus per prophetam dicit : 
qui ante non populus meus nunc populus meus." 

Ista quaBSo qui vis sequus arbiter paulò accurati us perpendat, et cam 
improperiis in Hibemos à Cambrensi congestis conferat. Ac advertat 
8. Bernardo teste, "hodie" id est 1152 quo ista scripsit, priscas 
Conorensium spurcitias penitus abstersas fuisse. Giraldum asserere 
"nondum," (id est ut ego interpretor, ante annum 1169, quo Adrianus 
quartus Papa fato functus est, ad quem de Hibemoram fsedis moribus 
querela delata esse dicitar) Hibemis incultos, et insulsos mores excussos, 
fuisse, ut vides hunc negantem, illum aientem, et illum buie recla- 
snautem. Utrius autem S. Bernardi ne, an Giraldi testimonium sit 

' Lucas 15, T. 7. * Ubi siipra. 


plished to perfection by St. Bernard. Under bis pen, tbe crimes with 
wbìcb tbe people of Connor were cbarged tum to tbeir credit more 
than to tbeir disbonor ; because the more sbamefully tbey were bound 
down by tbe cbains' of crime, tbe more glorìous it was to emancipate 
tbemselves. " Tbere is greater joy in beaven for one sinner tbat dotb 
penance tban for ninety-nine jast" St. Bernard^ in tbe discbarge of a 
strìct duty, was obliged to publisb tbe vices and commemorate tbe 
praìse of one territory ; bat Giraldus^ tbrougb mere caprice or ratber 
envy, was nrged to tum tbe crimes of one portion of tbe people of 
Ireland, not to its credit, but to tbe infamy of tbe wbole nation. One 
drew good from evi], tbe otber magnifies a sligbt locai into an univer- 
sa! evi]. 

Bui wbat more P bere is St. Bemard*s descrìption of tbe reformation 
of the people of Connor. Malacby having labored most strenuously in 
instmcting bis flock, *' tbeir obduracy yielded, tbeir barbarism was 
softened down, and the exasperating family began to be more tractable ; 
to receive correction by degrees, and to embrace discipline. Barbarous 
laws were abrogated, and Roman laws introduced, tbe customs of tbe 
church were every wbere admitted, and contrary customs abolisbed. 
Churches were rebuilt and supplied witb priests. Tbe rites of tbe 
sacrameDts were duly administered ; confession was practised ; tbe 
people attended the church ; and concubinage was suppressed by tbe 
solemnìzatìon of marriage. In a word, so completely were ali tbings 
changed for tbe better, tbat you can apply to tbat people now wbat tbe 
Lord said by bis prophet, " tbey tbat were not my people, are now my 

Let any unprejudiced judge weigh these words attentively ànd com*- 
pare them witb the exaggerated calumnies of Giraldus against tbe 
Irìsh. Mark St. Bernard 's words, "to-day," tbat is in the year 1162, 
wheB he was writing, tbe former immoralities of tbe people of Connor 
had completely disappeared. Giraldus asserts tbat tbey had not : *^ not 
yet," he says (tbat is, as I interpret it, before the year 1159, the date 
of Pope Adrian s deatb, to whom tbe calumnious representations were 
made on tbe character of the Irish), not yet bave the Irish reformed 
their barbarous and abominable morals. Here one denies wbat the 
otber asserts, and again the first repeats bis denial ; but wbether tbe 


locupletìas ? quivisi judex esto. Verum reponet aliquis^ unius tantum, 
nec spatìosse ditionis incoliS pravos mores S. MalacbisB opera melìoribos 
permutarunt, ita ut Terìtas Giraldi dieta nondum penitus destituerìt, 
fsedos illos mores cseterse genti ascribentis. Retorqueo non unam 
plebem, sed plures populòs, nec plures modo sed nationem universam 
imbre salutaris doctrinte S* Malacbiam irrigasse : statim enim ac illum 
sacro tantum Presbyteratus ordine S. Celsus *' qui Malacbiam in Dia- 
conum,^ Py^sbiterum, Episcopumque ordinavit" initiaverat^ idem " vices 
suas ei commissit seminare semen sanctum et dare rudi populo, et sino 
lege viventi, legem vite, et disciplinae, suscepit ille mandai um in omni 
alacri tate. Et ecce linguae sarculo csepit evellere, destruere, dissipare 
de die in diem factitans prava in directa, et aspera in vias plants. 
Diceres ignem urentem in consumendo criminum vepres, diceres securdm 
ve] asciam in dejiciendo plantationes malas, extirpare barbarìcos ritus^ 
plantare Ecclesiasticos.® Vetemosas omnes abolere superstitiones, seu 
quaslibet ubicumque deprebéndisset malignitate immissas per Àngelos 
malos. Denique quidquid incompositum, quicquid indecorum, quicqaid 
distortum obviam habuisset, non parcebat oculus ejus : sed velut grande 
grossoFt è ficu, et gicut pulverem ventus à facie terree, sic coram facie 
sua ejusmodi nitebatur totum prò yirìbus exturbare, ac delere depopulo 
suo. Et prò bis omnibus tradebat jura Ecclesiastica optimus legislator. 
Leges dabat pleq^ justiti«p, plenas modestiaB, et bonestatis ; sed et 
Apostolicas sanctiones, et decretai sanctorum patrum, praecipueque con^ 
suetudines sanctas JlomanaB Ecclesia?, in cunctis Ecclesiis statuebat 
Nam minime id ante fìebat in civitate quidem* Ipse vero in adoles- 
centia cantum didicerat, et in suo c^^nobio mox cantari fecit, cum 
necdum in civitate, seu in Episcopatu universo cantare scirent vai vel- 
]ent : deinde usum saluberrimum confessionis, sacra^nentum confirma^ 

*Cap. 7, «Cap. % 

^ A cu^ious oollateral proof of the im- publication of the Irish Archaeologìcal 

proYementeflrectedbySt.Malachy inali Society, "Primate Cotton's visita- 

|r«laod||iaybededucedfromachronO' tion,*' p. 96. Por nearly a centoiy 

logicai list ofsacrileges coll^cted in a after the year 1129, there isnotre^ 



miknty of Ginldus be as good as Su Bernard's, I leare my reader to 
éctetmioe. It maj be urged, bowerer, tbat tbe salutarj labon of St. 
Halachy re£Nrmed tbe depraved morals of one distrìct» wbicb was by no 
jpems extensÌYe, and tbereforo Giraldns may bave been justified in bis 
iiKiq)ti(m of tbe dejnavitj of otber parta of tbe kingdom.<^ I answer, 
fm aofc One distrìct» bat maoy, not manjr, but tbe wbole nation tbat 
|pcopiously watered witb tbe fertilizing teacbing of St. Malacby. 
Ivassoonas be was raìsed to tbe order of tbe priestbood by St. 
pm, who OTdained bim deacon^ priest and bìsbop, be was appointed 
l^ar bj St Celans io sow tbe boly seed, and to givo to tbe rude and 

Eis people tbe law of life and discipline ; wbicb oonunission be 
ly nndertook. Bebold bim now day after day, plocking np and 
g down and scattering witb tbe boe of bis eloqaence ; making tbe 
ed ways straigbt, and tbe rougb ways plain. He is a raging fire, 
g down ali tbe rank weeds of crime ; an axe or a batcbet level- 
all bad plantations, uprooting barbarous customs, and planting 
of the cbnrcb. Tbe old soperstltions be swept away, and ali 
, wherever be met tbem, wbicb be found to bave been introduced 
the malico of tbe &llen angels. His eye never spared disordor, 
^iecdronij or irregularity of any kind , but as the hail sweepeth the 
figs from the figtree, and tbe wind sweepeth tbe dust from tbe 
of the eartbj so did be strain ali bis migbt to remove from before 
face and eradicale among his people ali abusea of the kind. In 
place, witb tbe wisdom of a good legislatore he estahlisbed the 
of the cburch. Ali his ordinances breathed justice, and moderar 
and propriety, and witb these he estahlisbed in ali the churches 
apostolical decisions, and the decrees of the Holy Fathers, and 
Uy the customs of the Holy Roman church. For that had not 
n done before even in the city. In his youth he had leamed music, 
à now he revived ecclesiastical song in his monastery, for neither in 
city nor in any part of the whole diocese were they able or willing 

a single outrage agaìnst eccle- pabbc offences, many of which were 

penons or property ; though io flagrant aa to prove that the people 

the two preceding centuriea andtheirchiefshadlostmuch oftlieir 

bad been at leaat twenty such former respect for religion. 


tionis, contractum Gonjugìorum ; quce omnia aut ignorabantiir^ aut 
negligebantur Malachias de novo instituit." 
[153] Posteà vero Archiepiscopos Armachanus renuntiatus gregem suam, | 
ad.summi pontificis legati fastìgium evectas gentem universam è perdi- 
tionis prsecipitio ad certum salutis iter segregiis monitis eduxit. Quod 
hoc pacto sigillatim ac sìgnanter percipi poteste Arehiepisc^patam 
iniens negotioruin compages mìsere convulsos oifendit Cleri disciplina 
dissolutior, laicorum vita laxior, iiobiles aliqui non jam protervia, sed 
ferocia intumuerant^ et Antistitis opibus inbiautes, eju3 etiam vitse 
insidiabantur.^ Sed illos ad officium protervos, ad obsequiam ferocientes 
ad tranquOlitatem hortationum et mansuetudinis assidaitate flexit. Ut 
''intra triennium" (verba simt S. Bernardi) ''reddità retributìone sa- 
perbis, et libertate Ecclesiae restitutà^ paisà barbarie, et reformatis 
ubique morìbus Christianae religionis, videns omnia in pace esse/' 
Armachano se prsesulatu abdicans, Dunensem Episcopatum capessi- 
verit.^ Dunum vero '' universi conflnebant ad eum, nec modo mediocres 
sed et uobiles et potentes illius se sapientisB, et sanctitati instruendos, 
corrìgendos, ac regendos committere festinabant 

Legatina vero mania obiens, totam Hibemiam sna cura complexus 
est. Quae igitur in tota Hibemia jacere vidit improborum tnmultìbus 
perculsa et prostrata excitavit ; Ecclesiastici ordinis autfaoritatem con- 
sti tuit, pravas opiniones abolevit, libidines compressiti religionem 
propagavit, omnia quie delapsa jam fluxerunt, severis legibas vincivit. 
Denique quae ordo Ecclesiasticus perdidit ornamenta dignitatis, et prae- 
sidia stabilitatis postliminio restituit. 

In sede Armachana, Hibemiee Ecclesia^ capite, disciplina Ecclesiastica 
nutabat, et inveterato ma)o diu invalescente virus ad estera membra 

7 Gap. 9. 8 Gap. 10. 

• It does not appear that the culture feeling of the people. But tbat eocle- 

of church music in Ireland in andent siastical chant had not been so neglect- 

times ever obtained such ìmportaoce ed as some bave asserted, is proved by 

as might reajaouably be expected from the authorities cited by Dr. Xanigan, 

the musical tastes and deeply-religious Ecc. History, voi. iv,, p. 65. Beda*s 


tD mg* St Malachy also rerìved the most salutaxy practice of con- 
fessione and the sacrament of confirmatìon, and the solemnìzation of 
iDaiTÌage, ali of which faad been either unknown or neglected/ 

Being raised to the archiepiscopal see of Àrmagh, he was appointed 
legate to the Pope^ and in his new dignity he labored^ by his admira- 
)k cooncils, to conduct his flock, that w, the whole nation, from the 
ptedpice of damnàtion along the sure paths of salvation. These are 
leuiled and strìldng proofs of his zeal. When he entered on his 
Ifiscopal chai^» he fòund the whole state of afiairs in frightful disor- 
|er; laxity of discipline among the clergy, profligate morals among the 
Ikty, and many of the nobles not only insolente but ferocious, coveting 

la&d of the Archbishop and plotting agaìnst his life. But by per- 

ering in a mild conrse, his ezhortations won over the obstinate to the 

of daty, and calmed down their feroci ty. " In the course of three 

says St. Bernard, *' he gave retribution to the proud and liberty 

the charch, and having extirpated barbarism and re-establìshed the 

Cnds of the Christian faith, seeing ali things in peace, he resigned 
! archbishoprìc of Annagh, and retired to the see of Down. Here 
lewasvisited by immense crowds, not only of the middle classes, but 
"tf the nobles and powerful, who hastened to his feet to be instructed, 
^ected, and goremed by his wisdom and sanati ty." 

In discharge of his legatine functions, ali Ireland carne under his 

pi^icitude. The havoc and disorders caused by the ruìnous tumults of 

fle wicked, were repaired by him, throughout the whole country ; he 

^nsolidated the auchority of the ecclesiastial order, aboHshed bad 

^inions, suppressed luxury, propagated religion, and infused by his 

fierere laws a yigorous life into the dìsorganized and tottering system. 

1^ fine, he restored the lost splendour of the ecclesiastical dignity, and 

thebul^arks of its strength. 

The discipline of the ohurch was set at nought in the see of Armagh, 

^SKTtion that ecclesiastical music was canonical times of singing psalms at 

linown except in Eent, Lib. iv., e. home," Ibid. J^ib. iii., e. 27. 

i does not prove that the Irish mis- ' For the meaning and extent of 

voaarìes had not ìntroduced music these reforms, see Dr. Lanigan, voi. 


^the churches founded bythem; iv., pp. 67, 72. 
f"f it Ì8 certain they observed "the 


piofeuxit. "Nam" (S. Bernardum audìs) ''quomodo tam morbidi 
capitìs membra valerent P" £t paulo ante : " Inde tota illa per nni- 
versam Hiberniam de qua multa superius diximus» dissolatio Ecclesi- 
asticse disciplinse, censurae enervatio^ religionis evacuatio." Inde Ala 
ubique prò consuetudine Christiana sseva subintrodacta barbarìes» imo 
paganismus quidam inductus sub nomine Chrìstìano. 

Verum hydrise tot malorum capita unias S. Malachite tanqnam 
alterius Herculis solers sedulitas amputavit. Ab eo enim, '' Opus*' (ut 
S. Bemardus loquitur) " exercetur legationis multis in locis, celebrantur 
couventus multi ; ne qua regio seu portio regionis, legationis fructu, et 
utilitate fraudetur. Seminatur per omnes agros^ non est qui se abscondat 
ab opere solicitudìnis ejus. Non sexus^ non aetas^ non conditio, non 
professio reputatur. Ubique semen spargitur salutare, nbiqne intonat 
tuba salutaris et cselestis. Ubique discurrìt, ubique irrumpit evaginato 
gladio lingule ad faciendam vindictam in nationibus, increpationes in 
populis. Terror ejus super facientes mala. Clamai inquiens : nòlite 
inique agere ; et delinquentibus nolite exaltare comu. Religio ubique 
piantatura propagatur, fovetur. Oculi ejus super eos, et cura ejns ad 
necessitates eorum. In conciliis quae passim celebrantur, repetuntur 
antiqusB traditiones, quas tamen bonas fuisse constiterit, abolitas vero 
negligentia sacerdotum. Nec modo voterà instaurantur, cuduntur et 
nova, et quiecumque promulgavejit tanquam cselitus edita acceptantur, 
tenentur, scripto mandantur ad memoriam posterorum.** 

Obsecro candide lector, ut ista tacitus animo parumper evolvas et 
gedulo cum Giraldi dictis componas. Cujus illud "Nondum" quid 
aliud sibi vult, quam eas spurcitias à Giraldo memoratas, post homines 
natos ad Giraldi dies Hibemis adhaesisse : ncque tum quidem elutas 
fuisse, cum iis auferendis S. Malachiam plurimos labores exantlasse S. 
Pernardus affirmaverit Ut obgannire S. Bernardo, et mendacii ca- 

'Eefers te the usuipation of the sus had been married men; St Cel- 

8ee of Annagh durinft nearly 200 sus who was of that family, secured 

years by onefamily; many of those by the influence of bis last will the 

usurpers were not bishops ; eight ^of emancipation of the See in the elee- 

them immediately preceding St. Gel- tion of St. Malachy. 

;hap.xix.] cìlMbbensis xvxbsvs. 347 

ìe head o( the Irìah church, and as the inveterate evìì had been of 

long standing,' it8 poison spread over the other memben: "far what 

^ealth conld he," asks St Bernard» " in the members of so sere a 

P" " To that," he says a little after, '^ we may trace tbat total 

oniversal destruction of ecclesiastical discipline, of which I bave 

}keii already: the inefficacy of censures; the nnllity of religion." 

lence arose that savage barbarism, which supplanted the forms of 

[brìstian life, a sort of paganism, in tmth, introduced under the name 


Bat Malaehj, like another Hercules, wilh prudent sagacity, ampu- 
[led the hydra head of those multiplied evils. In discharge of bis 
ity as legate, he visited many places and convoked numerous synods, 
stany terrìtory or part of a tenitory should he deprived of the ad* 
e and fruit of the legatine authority. The seed was scattered 
[er €veiy field ; there was none that could escape the vigilance of bis 
|Iicitude. There was no distinction of age or sex, or conditìon or 
fession* In ali places the sacred seed was scattered ; in ali places, 
|e life-giving and heavenly trumpet resounded. He is present every- 
lere, everywhere he charges with his naked sword to do vengeance on 
ie nations, and correction on the people* The evil doer sbrunk in 
)r before him. He cries out, saying, ** do not act wickedly, and to 
|ose wbo sinned, exa]t not your hom. Everywhere relìgion is 
ited, and propagated and nurtured. His eye is over tbein, and 
teir wants are bis care. In the councils which he held, the ancien t 
iditioDS if laudable and useful, were revived, which had fallen into 
tanetude by the negligence of the clergy. Not only were the old 
istored, but new ones were establisbed, and ali that he promulgated, 
fm received as the dictates of heaven, adopted and committed to 
writing for futiure ages." 

I entreat the candid reader to dwell silently for a moment on these 
^oids and carefully compare them with the statements of Giraldus. 
Does not his " not yet" evidently imply that ali the enormities enume- 
lated by him had been at ali times cbaracteristic of the Irish down to 
Ms own day, and had not even then been eradicated, though St. 
Malachy, according to St. Bernard, had exerted stupendous energy to 
abolish them. Does he not seem to contradict St, Beniard and charge 



[Gap. XIX. 

lumniam impingere velie videatur.® Gìraldas Hibernicam " gentem 
omnium gentium in fidei rudimentis incultissimam" esse praedicat. S. 
Beraardus vero " Sacramentorum" in Hibemia " rite solemniacelebrari, 
confessiones fieri, ad Ecclesiam plebes convenire/' et S. Malachìae 
opera ''reformatos fuisse ubique mores Christianse religionis*' asserit. 
Contxa tamen hiscere Cambrensis audebit, fidei rudimenta eos ignorare, 
qui confessiones, Ecclesias, et Sacramenta frequentant. Et non uno 
tantum in loco, sed ubique Christianse religionis instìtuta imbiberunt. 
Nam "religio ubique plantatur, propagatur, et fovetur. Nulla regio Hi- 
[154] bemise, nulla regionis portio fructu, et utìlitate | legationis fraadabatur. 
Nonaetas,non sexus,nonconditio, nonprofessio quempiam abscondebat à 
sollicitudine" S. Malachìae. Non scio quomodo apertius «xprimi, a ut 
explicatius inculcari potuit S. Malachise doctrìnam non solum ad 
quascunque Hibemiee regiunculas, sed etiam regiuncularum angulos 
pervasisse. Aut omnem hominum ordinem, aetatem, et sexum religionis 
Christianse institutis ab eo cumulate excultum fuisse, tamen utGiraldus 
S. Bernardo integre reclamaret, non regionem, non aetatem, non sexum, 
non ordinem à fidei rudimentorum ignoratione eximit, sed gentem uni- 
versam ejusdem ignora tionìs caligine involvit. 

Ille Hibemos ait : " Nondum decimas,^^ vel primitias solvere, non- 
dum matrimonia contrahere, non incestus vitare, non Ecclesiam Dei 
cum debita reverenda frequentare." Ut eum divo Bernardo data opera 
obloqui, nemo tam stultus qui non videat, nemo tam improbus qui 
fateri non cogatur. Nam ille asserit in Hibemia decimas, vel primitias 

9 Top. d. 3, e. 19. loTop. d. 3, e. 19. 

^That is, according te Dr. Lani- 
gan, they contracted marriage '* per 
sponsalia de futuro**, and net "de prae- 
senti,'* voi. iv., p. 72, or in the dis- 
order of those times neglected some of 
the ceremonies of the marriage con- 
tract; an omission whichwould expose 
them to the imputation of not con- 
tracting marriage at ali, in the samc 

way as ' their non-payment of tithes 
and first fruits, made it be believed 
that they made no provision for the 
church. But for some account of dìs- 
orders certainly existing in Ireland 
similar to those described by Giraldns, 
see Destruction of Cyprust p. 250, edi- 
ted by J. C. 0»Callaghan, Esq. Iridi 
Archaeological Society 


him with the crime of falsehood P Giraldus ìbbìsU, " that the Irìsb 

nadon is of ali others th e most ignorant of the rudiments of faith." St. 

feniard answers» '' that the rites of the sacraments were duly adminis- 

tered in Ireland, that confessions were made^ that the churches were 

fireqaented by the people^ and that by thezeal of St. Malachy Cbrìstian 

morality was universally restored." Yet, Giraldus haa the audacity to 

Av that persons who firequented confessione and the church» and the 

jacraments were ignorant of the rudiments of faith> and this when the 

^recepts of the Christian religion were received, not in one place, but 

tbroaghont the whole ìsland. *' For, religion was every where planted 

and propagated and nurtured. No region of Ireland, no part of a 

iegion, was deprìved of the fruit and advantage of the legatine autho- 

Bty. Neither sex, nor age, nor condition, nor profession, screened an 

Individuai firom the zeal of St. Malachy." Can any words state more 

•Àrniy, enforce more energetically, that the preaching of St. Malachy 

Nras not confined to any small distrìcts in Ireland, but had been heard 

«reo in the recesses of the smallest distrìcts. Is it not clear, that every 

' lank^ age and sex was perfectly instructed by him in the precepts of 

the Christian religion ; and yet Giraldus contr^dicts St. Bernard on 

«ery point, exempting neither rank, age, or sex in anj district from 

ignorance of the rudiments of faith, but wrapping the whole nation in 

^e mnrky darkness of ignorance. 

" The Irish," he says, " do not yet pay tithes, nor first fruils. They 

I do not solemnize marriage,*» nor avoid incesi,* nor frequent the church 

I of God with becoming reverence.'* Here ihe blindest must see, the 

, aost prejudiced must confess, that Giraldus deliberately contradicts St. 

' Bernard. The former says the Irish pay neither tithes, nor first 

fruits; the latter "the cnstoms of the church are every where received, 

&od contrary customs condemned ;" Malachy " having established in ali 

tbe ehurches the Apostolical canons, the decrees of the Holy Fathers, 

4nd especially the customs of the Holy Roman church." Giraldus 

s«ys, " they neither contract marriage, nor avoid incest." St. Bernard 

^ They married wlthin some of the ther appears to bave sometimes mar- 
forbidden degrees of consangTiìnity ; ried the widow of bis deceased brother. 
andin ancient times at least the bro- See Lanigan, voi. iv., p. 69. 


non solvi : hic " consuetudìnes Ecclesiasticas ubique recipì, contrariai 
rejici/' Malachias enìm '* apostolicas sanctiones, et decreta sanctomm 
patnim, prsecipueque consuetudines Sanctse Roman» Ecclesia?, in 
cunctis Ecclesiis statuebat/' Ille non matrimonia contrahi, non ìncestos 
vitari : '' bic celebri tatem nuptiarum concubinatum benestare.'* Et 
Malachiam " contractum conjugiorum instituìsse." Ille Del Ecclesiam 
cum debita reyereiitia ab Hibemis non frequentari : hic '' Sacramen- 
torum rito solemnia celebrar!, ad Ecclesiam plebes convenire." Ut 
Hodie anno nimirum 1153, illi genti conveniat quod Dominus per 
prophetam dicit ; " qui ante non populus meus, nunc populus meus.*' 

Nihilominus S. Bemardum adbuc impugnare non veretur, superiora 
maledicta pluribus cnmulans in hsec verba : ^ gens haec barbara est, et 
vere barbara, et omnes eorum mores barbarissimi sunt, et solam bar- 
bariem in qua nati sunt, tanqnam alteram uaturam amplezantur."^^ 
Ista fortassis bausit ex divo Bernardo, in primo vitee S. Malacbi» aditu 
dicente : quod '^ Malachias noster ortus Hibemia de gente barbara qm 
de natali barbarie traxit nihil, non magis quam de sale materno pisces." 
Hic ad Rhetoricam auxesim de more suo se Giraldus vertit ; non ali ter 
ac Rhetores in exaggerationibas prò impudico scorta torem, prò hilarì 
scun*am, prò laeto luxuriosum, prò fare sacrilegum, prò homicida par- 
ricidam appellant. Ita Giraldus è S. Bernardi uno aut altero verbo 
male percepto ansam arripuisse videtur toties barbariem ingeminandi, 
et Hibemis exprobrandì ; cum meo quidem jadicio illius tantum ditionis 
incolas in qua S. Malachias in lucum editus est, S. Bernardus barbarie 
notet. Dum enim eum " Hibemia ortum" patrìam, et " è gente bar- 
bara*' populum seu regionem indicat :^^ in vicinia nimiram urbis Arma- 
chanse, aut saltim in provincia Armachanà, ut qui ex Odochartorum 
familia oriundus Conallum Gulbanum eundem, quem S.Columba generis 
authorem habuerit. Cum enim Armachanse sedis administratio penes 
eos ea tempestate fuerit, qui per vim digni tatem iniverunt, et prò 
libidine non ex legum scitis officio suo functi fuerunt : non est mirum 
è gubemantium iniquitate licentiam non mediocrem ad finitimos popu* 
los emanasse. Nec potuit aliter fieri quin quo motu Ecclesi» Hiber- 

1» Topo. d. 3, e. 10. »» Trias Thaum. p. 299 et 481. 


i tnswefs, " the solemnization of marrìage has now removed the staili of 
coDcabinage :" and again, " St Malachy estahlìshed the marrìage con- 
tncl" Giialdus coxnplams, " that the Irìsh did not frequent the 
di&rch wkh becoming reverence ;" but St Bernard declares, " that the 
rites of the sacraments are duly administered, and the people assemble 
ÌB the chorch/' so that at present, that ìs in 1153, we may say of that 
|eopIe, what the Lord once said by bis prophet, '^ they who before were 
iotmy people are now my people/' 

Stili he has the impudence to assail St. Bernard, and aggravate bis 

■fcnner calimmies in the foUowing strain : — " This people is barbarous, 

pA really barbarous, and ali their customs are most barbarous, and to 

Vìe barbarìsm m whieh they were bom, to that alone they cling as to a 

liecond nature." Perhaps he borrowed this from St. Bernard, who says 

fh the conunencement of the life of St« Malachy, '' our Malachy was 

{km in Ireland, of a barbarous people, which had its ali from its native 

jhibarism, as the fish fìrom its mother sea." Giraldus, as usuai, moulds 

(iùs by a rìietorical auxesis, employing the trìck by which rhetorìciaus 

fbaggerate, and represent the unchaste as debauchees, the gay as buf- 

ffcons, the good tempered as luxurìons, the robber as sacrìlegious, and 

Ile nturderer as a parrìcide. In the same way, one or two expressions 

of St. Bernard, whose meaning was misconceived, suggested apparently 

to Giraldus this multiplied repetition of barbarìsm and invective against 

! fte Irìsh ; though, in my opinion, St. Bemard's charge of barbarìsm 

[ ^pìied only to that terrìtory in which St. Malachy was bom. The 

■ words, " bom in Ireland," teli the country ; the word» " of a barbarous 

people/' the family or terrìtory ; namely, the neighbourhood or at least 

; tìie province of Ajrmagh,^^ because he was of the family of the O'Dohertys, 

[tectè OMorgairs,] descended from Cenali Gulban, the ancestor of St. 

I Columba. The see of Armagh being at that time in the hands of 

j those who took violent possession of its honors, and who discharged 

tìieir duties according to their caprìce, not according to the dictates of 

«w, it is not astonishing that the wickedness of the rulers should bave 

^According to OTlaherty, he was also at 1138, where the death of Gil- 

»aof Mughron O'Morgair, a famous lachrist O'Morgair, bishop of Clogher, 

professor at Armagh, who died A.D. is recorded. The former was probably 

^102. See Genealogies of the Irìsh the father, and the latter the brother 

8aint8,by the O'Clerys, and also Annals of St. Malachy. 
of thePow Màsters, at that year, and 


nicee caput quateretur, eodem reliqua membra multom ìnclinarentur.^^ 
Fiogamus etiam ad eum quem Giraldus dicit gradum in Hibemia 
barbarìem elatam fìiisse : nomie illam penitus sublatam fuisse è S. 
Bernardo discere potuit P asserente '^ barbarìem quievisse^ barbaricas 
leges de medio sublatas fuisse." Et alibi : " Barbarìem pulsam fuisse.'*^ ^ 
Ut nemo jam nonvideat, Giraldum turpi dissensione in moribus Hiber- 
norum exprimendis à divo Bernardo dissidere. In qua re uterque 
contraria prorsus vìa incedit. Si quo elogio ille Hìbernos exomavit, 
illud vituperio mox commutata in cauda (ut aiunt) venenum habens; ut 
protrusa e lectorum animo laude, vituperimn in memoria fìrmius resideat. 
Hic vitia gentis primum efiert, coramendationem deinde subjicit, ut 
lector obliterata delictorum memoria, virtutum recordationem menti 
arctius affigat. Solent enim oratores quee postremo proferunt audien- 
[155] tium animis acrius ingerere, utaltius imbibita | tenacius haereant. Ita 
ut ambo contendere videantur, ille ad famam HibemiaB deprimendam, 
hic ad extoUendam : ille ad labes ejus, bic ad laudes in vulgus emit- 
tendas. Ut quantum Hibemi ob nominis honorem sibi Giraldi 
scrìptis abreptum, Giraldo jure succenseant; tantum ob patriam ab 
obtrectatorum calumniis vendicatam, magno .divo Bernardo merito 

Non possum adduci ut credam Hibemos jam Christianos, spreto 
connubii vinculo, in promiscuam libidinem ultrò irruisse, qui nondum 
Christianis adscripti, mulieres suas tanti aestimarunt, ut eas non ante 
Pictis nuptui dederint, quam pacti fuerint, ut in rege statuendo, major 
generis materni ratio quam patemi duceretur P Nonne Solinus author 
est in Hibemia ''puerperam si quando marem edidit, primos cibos 
gladio imponere mariti,"^^ Ut bine ediscas Hibemos ne tum quidem 
Platonica^ Reipub. cìves fuisse, nec mores tum tulisse, ut in obvios quos- 
que amplexus vulgo iretur. 

Exstat libellus de lUustrìbus Hibemise faeminis quem Gillemadudus 
prolixo etiam poemate complexus est, in quem plures regum H iberni» 
uxores relatae sunt, quee ante hac post Hibemiam Christi leges am- 
plexam floruerunt. Itaque apud Hibemos suum cui que uxori maritum. 

»8 Cap. 6. '< Gap. 9. '^ Gap. 25. 


soon difhsed a inarked depravity araong the neìghbourìng people. 

And how was il possible that the shock under which the head of the 

Insh chaich was reeling would not he sorely felt by the other members ? 

M grantàng^ fot a moment, that Irìsh barbarìsm had ever sunk to the 

jepth depìcted by Giraldusi does not St. Bernard teli him, that ìt was 

cGmpletely removed by St. Malachy P '' Barbarìsm," he says, " was 

i^ked, and barbarons laws abolished." And again, " barbarìsm was 

■knished/' which evidently prove that Giraldus was flagrantly at varìance 

jpnth St Bernard in bis descrìption of the morals of the Irish. ^ Both 

|roceed in this matter in directly opposite ways. If Giraldus ever 

tows any praise on the Irish, he immediately neutralizes it by 

sare, leaving behind him (as they say) the poisoned tail, expelliug 

favorable impression from the minds of bis readers, that the calumny 

iiy sìnk the deeper in their memorìes. But St. Bernard places first 

e faults of the nation, and then adds their eulogy, that the memory 

their faults may he obliterated from the minds of bis readers, and the 

e of their virtues he more faithfully retained. Such is the usuai 

tom of orators — to reserve for the dose what they wish to impress 

^ore deeply on the minds of their audiences, that by sinking deeper 

ÌDto the heart, they may make a more lastìng impression. There is a 

«rt of rivalr}»" between them : one depreciating, the other extolling : 

•eoe publishing the praise, the other the invective ; so that the same 


which j usti fy the indìgnation of the Irìsh against the defama- 
, pen of Giraldus, compel them to reverence the great St. Bernard 
ffc his vindication of their country from the calumnies of its rìvals. 
f Xoihing can induce me to admit that promiscuous lusts were indulged 
*iid that the marriage tiewasdisregarded by the Irish after their conversion 
to Chnstianity, when I refiect that this same people, when yet Pagans, 
paid sQch respect to their women, that they would not allow them to 
HJtermarry with the Picts, wilhout the express stipulation^ that the 
fflaternal line should be preferred to the patemal In the Royal succes- 
^ Does not Solinus himself testifv that " when the mother was 

'The mie applied to doubtful cases time. See the originai story in Irish 

I ^y ; it was fkithfully obserred ac- Nennins, p. 127, and Appendix, p. 

; Mng to Beda, down to his own Izxi. with some remarks, ibid. p. Ir, 




[Gap. XIX. 

et saam cuique viro uxorem fuisse coustat. Alioqui frustra in con- 
gerendis opibas alienee proli ullus desudaret. £t frustra Hibemi de 
certi generis rege sibi praeficiendo solliciti essent, si foeminse omnibus 
sui copiam impune facientes, de incerto patre soboiem susciperent. 
Historici nostri in sanctorum, et procerura genere commemorando 
accuratissimi sunt. Nec in enarranda materna prosapia segnes se 
praebent, veritatis ratione tam sanctè babità, ut si natales etiam sanc- 
torum aliqua labes infecisset, eam evulgare, non dubitaverint. Libros 
enim ediderunt, de sanctorum ac procerum màtribus è quibus scire quis 
possit è conjùgìo non adulterio^ incestu, aut concubinatu, plerosque 
sanctos, et magnates piocreatos fuisse. 

Nec mibi quispiam obgerat à S. Lanfranco, et S. Anselmo Archiepis- 
copis Cantuariensibus Hibemos argui/^ quod illicitis libidinibus efiraenè 
se tum poUuerint. Id malnm latius ea tempestate serpsit : " Nec solum 
in Hibemia, sed etiam apud Angle Saxones et Scotos in Britannia 
invaluerunt. Ut cum Duplexio levitatis vitium a suis Gallis avertente 
mihi dicere liceat,^^ quod indubitatum sit malitiae argumentum labem 
plurìbus nationibus communem, uni soli aflSgeré.** Suprema etiam 

i< Apud UshenriHn in SyUoge, p. 27> 36. ^^ Ibid. p. 37. ^^ Memoin dea 
Galles, lib. 1, e. 11. 

which prove that the Irish were net 
more exempt than their neighbours 
f]X)m poliandria. 

*° Alluding evideutlf to the aathor- 
it7 of St. Jerome, who expressly 
States of the Scots and Attacots, " de 
Kepubiica Flatonis, promiscuas ux- 
ores, commnneè libéros habent,'* £p. 
69, ad Oceannm. And agaitt : "Sco- 
torum natio uxoires proprìasnon habet* 
Nulla apud eos conjux propria est» 
sed ut cuique libitum fuerit pecudum 
more lasciviunt." Adv. Jovin, lib. il. 

'^ Of course the Christian religion 
must have .aboHshed, or at least ea* 
deavoured to abolish ali customs op* 
poaed to the sanctii^y and stability of 

the marriage contract ; and Christian 
writers speaking according to the 
ideas and institutions of their ovn 
times, would verj naturally ascribe to 
their Pagan ancestors some obsenrance 
of marriage less revolting than prò- 
miscuous concubinage. These writers, 
however, bare handed down snfiS. 
ciently revolting anecdotes of their 
Pagan ancestors, as of Meadhbh, 
«lueen of Connacht, and Clothra, her 
sister; of Conchobhar Mac Nessa, 
king of Ulster; of Lughaidh Biabh- 
dearg, monarch of Ireland ; of Cathair 
Mor, monarch of Ireland, &c. Accord- 
ing to Camp^on, who wrote in the year 
1571, the Irish evcn ihen " mach 

Chip. XIX.] 



liellvered of a male child> she gave ìt its first food from the poiut of its 
àtkr's sword/' evidentlj proving that the Irish even in those tiroes 
vere not eitizeiis of the Platonic Repnblic,"^ and that the promiscuous 
Itercoarse of the sexes was not part of their moral code. 
-Wehave extant a historj of the illustrìous women of Ireland, which 
ÉHbeen also inade the subject of a long poem by Gillemodada. It 
Pmds the wìtos of many Irish kings, both before and after the con- 
pion of Ireland to the law of Christ.* Every wife, therefore, must 
pe had ber own husband, and every husband bis own wife in Ireland ; 
èvliat would otherwise he the use in laying up property for another 
ps children P or how could the Irish he so jeaìous in selecting their 
from a certain family, if promiscuous intercourse were pennitted 
women^ and the patemity of their issue thus left uncertain P Our 
is are most careful in detailing the genealogy of our nobles and 
And in tracing the matemal line, they are also so rìgida that 
^ a sacred regarìl for tmth, they do not shrink from recording any 

ton the legitimacy even of the saints. Their books on the mothcrs 
i saints and the nobles, prove that most of these saints and nobles 
^ begotten in lawful marriage, not by adultery, incest, or concu- 

Siiould any man obj«ct to me, that the Irish are charged by S. 
10 and Anselm, Archbishops of Canterbury, with defiling them- 
by the most licentìous lusts,® I answer, that the e vii was not 
5nedto Ireland. " It prevailed not only in Ireland, but among the 
lo Saxons and Scots in Britain," so that I may say with Duplessy, 
exculpating bis countrymen from the charge of leviiy, thatnothing 

iKdthe honoTirable state of mar- 
either in contraets, unlawfìill 
3ga, the IieTiticall and Cannoni- 
degrees of prohibition, or in 
ementes at pleasure» or in om- 
og sacramentai solemnities, or in 
inìng either coocubines or har- 

ìioi iriyes. Tea, even at this day 
the Cleargie is fainte, they can 

Iftmtent to marrie for a yeare and 

*y of probatioD, and at the yeare's 

end, to return ber home upon any 
light quarrellB, if the Gentlewoman's 
friendes be weake and nnable to 
avenge the injurie." Jlùtorie of Ire» 
land, Dublin, Ed. of 1809, chap. vi., 
pp. 22, 23, 27. 

<^For some observations on these 
lettera of Lanfranc and Anseim, thè 
reader is referred toLanigan, voi. ìii., 
p. 477. 

p Bleeding afresh. The progress of 



[Gap. XIX, 

authoritas Ecclesiastica in Hiberaia, olim licentius fluctiiabat, ut non 
mirum sit si Reipub. administratio vehementius laxata fuerit, cuna à 
supremo etiam Ecclesiastico magistratu vitiis babenae laxat» fuerint : 
Et ut non longè abeam, mala illa omnia S. Malachias ut anteà memo- 
ravi radicitus evulsit. Ita ut ista vulnera denuò recruduisse falso 
Giraldus improperet. 

Itaque non sunt Hibemis ascribendi Caledoniomm, aut Meatarum 
mores, "Quorum hi" Dione authore " juxta murum incolunt, qui insu- 
lam in duas partes dividit. Caledonii post illos sunt. Possident utrique 
montes asperrimos. Et communibus utuntur uxoribus, liberosque 
omnes alunt. Argetocoxi Caledonii uxor Juliae Augustae ipsam mor- 
denti^ quod ipsae impudente! cum viribus versentur dixisse fertur ; 
nos multo melius explemus ea quae naturae necessitas postulata quam 
vos Romanae. Nam aperte cum optimis viris habemus consuetudinem, 
vos autem occulte pessimi homines constuprant" Ut lector bine obiter 
comperiat, eam Britannise partem quam hodie Scotiam appellamus^ nec 
Scotorum coloniam, nec religionem Cbristianam recepisse, ante anno 
Dom. 189,'^ " quo Britanniam vallo à mari usque ad mare à Severo 
prsecinctam fuisse" Beda scribit. Susceptam autem à Severo expedi- 
tioneni in Caledoniam incidisse in annum 208 Ushaerus tradit, ad quem 
etiam annum quae Dio supra memoravit referenda sunt. 

Quae hactenus produximus liquido evincunt S. Bemardum probrorum 

cumulos à Giraldo in gentem Hibernicam aggestos oris sui spiritu 

difflavisse ; nec minus eodem halitu alia dissipasse convitia Giraldi 

[156] dicentis ; | quod Hibeniica natio fuerit, " gens adultera, gens incesta, 

J^In Epitome indie. Chonol. p. 1079. 

reason and civilization has been slow 
in ali countries : regulations which te 
US appeax so equitable, obvious and 
simple, reqnired the eflforts of civil 
and ecclesiastical authorìty daring 
several centuries to introduce and 
establìsh them. It is net withìn the 
range of possibility that St. Malachj 
eould, during bis comparatively short 

career» bave corrected ali the yìces 
of the people and irregular discipline 
of the church of Ireland, of which he 
complained to St. Bernard ; and it is 
but reasonable to belìeve that mach of 
them remained in the tìme of Giraldus, 
and even to a mach later perìod. 

^ There is no solid reason for sappo- 
sing the ìnhabitants of Ireland to have 


ibut barefaced malice can inipute to one uation alone a crime that is 
conuDon to many. Besides the supreme ecclesiastical authorìty in 
Ireland, was formerly irregularly Tacillating, and is it surprising, that 
lidie frame of civil society should be violently dìsorganized^ when the 

{pme ecclesiastical magistrate relaxed the reins to licentiousness ^ 
fit to dose this topic : — ali these disorders were, as I have al ready 
1, completely eradicated by St. Malachy. Giraldus calumniously 
presents the wounds as reopening and bleeding afresh."^ 
The Irìsh, therefore» are not to be charged with the immorality of 
Caledonians and the Meatae.*^ The latter, according to Dion, 
relt aear the wall which divided the island into two parts. The 
ledoQÌans dwelt beyond tbem. The territory of both was rugged 
mtains. Their wives were common and ali the children supported 
the public* The wife of Argetocox the Caledonian, when reproved 
[Julia Augusta, for this outrageous immorality, is said to bave replied, 
^8 comply with the promptings of nature much better than you, 
lan women. We cohabit publiclj with the best men ; you are dis- 
9red in private by the most debased." Il is clear from this testi - 
DJ that the part of Britain now called Scotland, was neither 

fverted to Chris tianity, nor occupied by any colony of Scots before 
vear 189/ " when Severus," according to Beda, " fortified Britain 
Eia Wall from sea to sea." Ussher assigns the expedition of Severus 
Caledonia to the year 208, the period to which the preceding 
tation from Dion also refers. 
Jtrom ali we have said, it is evident that St. Bernard scattered to the 
fcds the monstrous calumnies of Giraldus against the Irish, and with 
fé same breath^ subverts the following charge among qthers, " that 
p Irish nation was an adulterous nation, an incestuous nation, a na- 
»n illegitimately bom and married." For St. Bernard says nothing 
either incest or adultery, but merely that some of the Irish were 
lawftdly married or living in concubinage. Though the authority of 

free from the vices of their Pagan and Britons as being nearly the same ; 

ghbours ; both because contempo- and because it is highly probably that 

authorities and our author him- those Meatas and Caledonìi were of 

when it suits bis purpose, describe the same stock as the mass of the 

' manners and customs of the Irish primitive population of Ireland : the 


gens illegiùme nata et copulata." Gum S. Bernardas Hibemos aliqaos 
ìllegitimìs tantum matrìmoniis, sive concubìnatu^ non adulteriis, aut 
incestu faedatos fuisse dixerit. 

Quanquam ìsta crìminum agglomeratio jam est à divo Bernardo 
funditus eversa^ non abs re tamen erit Giraldum sciscitari, cur non 
erubuerit adulterii scelus Hibemis exprobare ? quo regem suum vehe- 
menter inquinatum fuisse non ignoravit P qui Eleonorse a rege Galliarum 
post susceptam.prolein repudiata, ac suspicione habiti cam quodam 
Turca clandestini coìtus Jaboranti, matrimonio copulatus^^^ nefariis 
pellicum amplexibus se fidemque coujugalem polluebat; diutumis 
Rosamundse Clifibrdae amoribns sic irretitili», ut ad eam su» uxoris 
oculis et insidiis subducendam, Westokìse labyrintbum multis ambagibus 
occursu recursuque inexplicabile fabricari curaverit. In ejus tamen 
ady tum filo ducente Regina penetravit. Zelotypia nimirum magis est ad 
indagandum ingeniosa, quam sollicitudo quascunque ad celandum cauta. 
Sed buie adulterio tanqnam minus nefario quod scortum maritali vinculo 
non esset cuiquam ìnnexnm non acquiescens, pravae libidinis consuetu- 
dinem cum Rafi Beverlii uxore habuit. £t ex bis pene tot spurios, 
quot è legitima uxore liberos suscepit. Regis itaque morìbus populi 
mores sunt potins metiendi quam paucorum labes in totam gentem 
efiundendas. Nam^^ 

*' Mobile mutatur semper cum principe rulgus." 

Populus se instar maris babet, quod reges tanquam venti quo volunt 
impellunt. Illicitae quoque venerìs dedecore rex Joannes se contami- 
navit^ qui Regin» Is^bellte " non legitimè copulatus erat,** eam enim 
Hugo cognomento Brunus comes de Marchia, per verba de presenti in 
suam receperat, antequam regi Ànglornm desponsaretur." Romani 
Bletonesios publico judicìo postularunt quod hominem diis immolavis- 

>oRicfaar. Baker in Henr. 11. >i Claudia. "Westmon. an. 1202. 

Caledonii being as the name suggests, Cruithne. 

the old Gaoidil, Guidìl, Celtae, &c., "That is, no còIoBy of that dorai- 

and the five or six trìbes of Meatte, nant race in Ireland, which were cali- 

being the more recent inunigrants ìnto ed Scotti, had gone over before thls 

Scotland, known in Ireland as the date to Scotland ; but cur author has 

Chìp.XK.] cambuknsis bvkbsus. 359 

Se Bernard is a triiuophant vìndlcation of ireJand against this long 
catalogae of caliiiiuii«8> it may not he oat of place to ask Giraldus^ 
ìfhj he was not ashamed to accuse the Irish of adulleiy ? was he not 
teli aware that hìs own kìng was a profligate adulterer ?' 

Eleanor was divorced by the king of France after they faad issue. 
Sbe was sospected of a secret criminal intercourse with son^e Turk, but 
HcDiy married her^ and then YÌolated his marrìage ?ows and disgraced 
ilimself by associating with abandoned women. So enslaved was he by 
loBg amour» with Rosamond Clifford, that he had constructed for 
f at Woodstok, a labyrinth so full of windings, that it was impossible 
know how to enter or return, in order to remove this concubine from 
pbe sight and the machinations of his wife. The queen, howevef, dis- 
ered the thread that led to the interior ; for jealousy is more inge- 
US in disco.Fering, than precaution can he in concealing. But not 
tent with this adultery, where his paramour was unmarried, he in- 
ed his abandoned lusts with the wife of Ralph Beverly, and had by 
liii these a& many bastards as his wife bora legitimate children. Is it 
^ more just to judge the morals of a nation by the morals of its king, 
kbao to impate to a nation- the crìmes of a few of its members. ? For 


The thou^htleiw mobs ehange idwajs with their king." 

The people are like the sea, the king. like the winds, can drive them 
jÉere he pleases. King- Job» alsowas tainted with the disgraceful crime 
lifadoltery. *^ He Was not the lawfìdj husband of his Queen Isabella, for 
jh had bèeB co&tracted by ' verba de presenti' to Hugo, sumamed 
pnme^count of Mai^h^ before she was betrothed to the king of England." 
IThe Romans brought the people of Bletonum to. trial for having oiSered 
|i linman sacrifico to the Gods, though they themselves buried alive, 
from some religious superstition, two Greeks and two Gaulish women. 

ly recorded many emigrations of " Giraldus himself recorded in 

races from Ireland, seyeral cen- the blackest colours the vices of his 

ies earlier. But it does not suit his king, Henry II. but not untll after 

l'^^ent bere to acknowledge these that monarch's death . 



sent^ cum ipsi duos Grecos, ac totidem ex Gallia mulieres in foro Boario 
etiam per sacrorum superstitionem Yiventes defodissent. Ad Romanorum 
consuetndinem Giraldus accedere videtur, dum nostratibos ea vitia 
exprobrat, quibus sui famam suam indignissimé macularunt. Crediderim 
Giraldo è memoria excidisse quod sui acerrimos adulteriis patronos 
exhibuerunt, qui Dermicii Murchardidìs ftagitiosissimo adulterio etiam 
armis patrocinati sunt. Qui enim delieti psenas scelesto justè irrogatas 
non sol um ab eo per vim amoverunt ; sed etiam in supremam potes- 
tatem merita illum animad versione plectentem, bellc^m momenti opem 
tulerunt; nemo eos sceleris communione scelerato adjungi diffitebitur, 
qui eos viderit sceleratum scolerà sceleribus cumulantem impense 
adjuvisse. Ut jam aeqaus rerum aestimator discemere possiti qusenam 
gens magis adultera sit; eane quae potentinm etiam adulteria bello 
comprimere nitebatur, an ea^ quam non pudait adulterio impunitatem 
armis comparare ? 

Quod si ad secuta prsesertim annorum nostrorum tempora Giraldus 
vitam produxisset proculdubio sibi temperasset ab improperando> 
Hibernis quod fuerint " gens incesta, gens illegitimè nata, et copulata;** 
prae timore ne quod in vulgus Hibernicum evomuit, in suae nationis 
principes potiori jure retorqueretur. Nam post homines natos» in 
mortalium neminem ista convitia magis apposite quadrabunt, quam in 
Henrioum Vili, qui tam effrsenè libidinibus indulserat, ut nonsimplici 
se *' incestu/' sed multiplici conspurcaverit. Àlierius ^enim uxori, et 
duabus ejus filiabus stuprum intulit, et fili» sue ex ea suscept» '^ìlle^ 
gitime copulatus/' prolem ex ea '' illegitimè natam" snscepit Imo in 
veneris genycseo ita innutritus est, ut Franciscum Brìannm, hominem ea 
tempestate non illepidum sciscitatus quod peccatum videretur matrem 
primum, deinde filiam cognoscere P responsutn ab eo retulit, quale gal- 
Jinam, deinde puUum ejus comedere. 


in the ox foram. Giraldus imitates this conduct of the Romans, 
reproaching our coantrymen with those verjr vices to which his own 
countrjmeu were most (oul]y enslaved. One would think he had com- 
pletely forgotten that his coantrymen had sìgnalized theinselves as the 
patTons of adultery by taking the field in defence of the most abomina- 
ble adaltery of Dennod Mac Murrongh. They not only protected him 
by anns from the punishment justly awarded to his crime, but even 
assisted him in his rebellion against the supreme authority which in- 
flicted it. Can any man doubt that they were accomplices in the 
crìmes of the wretch, when he sees them aiding him in his headlong 
career of iniquity, adding crime to crime P Any candid judge can easily 
decide which is the more adulteroas — the nation which rose in arms to 
punish the adulteries of its potentates, or that which secured impunity 
by its arms to the adulterer. 

Had Giraldus lived in later ages, and especially in our own days» he 
must have hesitated to cali the Irish nation "an incestuous nation, a 
nation illegitimately bom and married," lest the calumny which ho 
flung on the common people of Ireland might he retorted with eifect 
against the first men of his nation.^ Frum the days of Adam was there 
ever a man, to whom the charge applies with such justice as to king 
Henry Vili., who, in the indnlgence of his unbridled lusts, committed 
not simple, but the most aggravated " incests." He dishtmored another 
man's wife and ber two daughters, and then " marrying illegitimately" 
his own child by that woman, had by ber a child '' illegitimately bom." 
So deeply was he plunged in the mire of impurìty, that having asked 
Francis Brian, a wit of the day, " what sin it was to cohabit first with 
the mother and then with the daughter," he was answered, " the same 
as to devour the ben first and then ber pullet." 

< For a refutation of the unjust in- Bernard, the reader is referred to Dr. 
ferences drawn hy modem EngUsh Lanigan. Ecc. His. voi. iv., p. 34. 
writers from the authority of 6t. 



[Cap. t\ 




[157] LegeB a S. BlAlachia traditie.— Leges in Bibernia ante et post ChristianiBmnm.— Lef 
Hibemice script». [158] Vari» legam species diete Brehon laws. [109] Vòlaininalegìl 
Hibernicarum.— Lingua Sazonica etiamnum ediscìtur. — Hibernicse linguce cognitio 
antiquites Hibernicas eruendas pemtilis, e lingu» desuetudine ignoratio ejnsdem orìt 
[160] Fatres LoTanienses ab interita linguam Hibernicam vendicant.— Synodua et conci 
firequentabantur in seculo undecimo. 

Sed convitiari pergit Cambrensis, Hibemos " gentem exlegem" app 
lans; quibus verbis cum duo subsint sensus, quorum altero ea i 
protulerit ignoro. Vel iis igitur verbis indicare voluit^ Hiberaos n 
potuisse legibus coerceri ; vel legum omnium expertes> non secus ae 
Nomadicam vitam agerent> ex libidine non ad praecepta legum orni 
factitasse. Sane regem suum Henricum secundum isto aculeo punge 
potius debuit, qui legibus se omnibus eximere adomans '^ fedt abjur 
in Anglia obedientiam debitam Papae Alexandre a puero duodeno 
hominem senem."^ Sub Christianse religionis in Hibemia exortum 
Patricius leges condidìt Ecclesi&e Reiquepublicse administrandae a 

1 Westmo. ad an. 1168. 

* A nation without law. Spenser 
made nearly a similar assertion in 
1596. Speaking of the strict ohe- 
dience of the English nation to fheir 
laws, he writes of the lawless condì- 
tion of the Irish thus : — 

Ireneus. **Bat with Ireland it is 
farro otherwise ; for it is a nation ever 
acquainted with warres, though hut 
amonget themseWes, and in theìr own 

kinde oC militaiy discipline, trayn 
up, even fipom their youthes, whi 
they bave never yet been taught 
lay aside, nor made to leam obedien 
unto lawes, scarcely to knonAr the nax 
of law, but ìnstead thereof have i 
wayes preserred and kept their ovri 
law, which is the Brehon law. 

Eudoxus, "What is that whi< 
you cali the Brehon law? it is a wo 

Chap. XX.] 






(7] Lati iastìtitUd by Bt. lCal»eliy.— Laws In IrelMid befor« as well m alter the iatrodao» 

tioo of Chrìstianity.— Laws written in the Irish language. [158] Varions kinds of laws. 

Called Brehon lavs. [159] Volumes of Irith laws.— Attention now paid to the study of 
the Saxon Umguage.>-A knowledge of the Irith langnage IndispensaUe fbr the elucidation 
of Irhh antiqoltiea.— Ignorance of that language contequent on ita disuso. [160] The 
Franciscan Fathers of Loavaln are rescuing the Irish language from min.— Synods and 
Conncils held in Ireland, duiing the cAeventh century. 

Iroceeding in bis calumnies, Giraldus asserls ihat ihe Irish were a 
fnation without laws." The phrase is ambiguous, and I know not in 

tat sense to under^tand ìu Either he means that the Irish could not 
restrained by any laws, or that like the Nomadic tribes, they had no 
«WS, but shaped their morals by their lusts, and not by moifal rules* 
We latter charge could he pointed wìth greater tnith against bis own 
g, Henr}^ 1 1., who attempted to exempt himself from ali law, " by 
ing ali Englishmen from the age of twelve to the old man, to abjure 
P^ul obedience to Pope Alexander." After the establishment of 
Riristianity in Ireland,* St, Patrick adopted laws admirably adapted for 

tote US altogether unknowii." 
^ irn. " It Ì8 a rule of right un- 
►ritten, but delivered by tradition 
m one to another, in whlch often- 
8 there appeareth great shew of 
ity, in determining the right be- 
eene party and party, but in manj 
gs repugning quite both to God's 
and man*s i as for example in the 
of murder, the Brehon, that is 
irjudge, will compound betweenc 

the murderer and the friends of the 
party murdered, which prosecute the 
action, that the malefactor shall give 
unto them, or to the child or wife of 
him that is slain, a recompence which 
they called an Eriach. By which vilde 
law of theìrs, many murders amongst 
them are made up, and smothered. 
And this judgc, beiog as hee is 
called, the Lord*s Brehon, adjudgeth 
for the most part, a better share unto 



[Gap. XX. 

commodatissimas. Illum Jocelinus refert '* inagnum volumen quod 
dicìtur Canoin Phadruig id est Canones Patrìcii scrìpsisse^ quod 
cuìlibet persona seu secularì^ seu etiam Ecclesiasticae ad justitiam exer- 
cendam, et saluterà obtinendam satis congrue convenìt/'^ Bemardus locu- 
ples testis est Hìbernos à S. Malachia legum frsenos sic recepisse, ut ad 
oinnes in Hibemia homines et loca, prseclara ejus institutio pervaserìt. 

« Gap. 186. 

his Lord, that is the Lord of the sojle, 
or the head of that sept, and also unto 
himselfe for his judgement a greater 
portion then unto the plaintiffe's or 
parties grieved.** Vieto of the State 
of Ir eland, Dublin Ed. p. 6, 8. 

Gampion, howerer, who wrote a few 
years earlier, 1571, and who, even 
though his hatred to the Msh was 
equall 7 intense and unnatural,acknow- 
ledges that these Brehons were rude 
Latin scholars and acquainted with 
the Givil Instltutes. His words are : — 

" Without either precepts or obser- 
vation of congruity, they speake 
Latine like a vulgar language, learned 
in their common schooles of Leach- 
craft and Law, whereat they begin 
children, and hold on sixteene or 
twentie yeares conning by roate the 
Aphorismes of Hypocrates and the 
Giyill Listitutions, and a few other 
parings of those two faculties. I bave 
seene them where they kept schoole, 
ten in some one chamber, grovelling 
upon couches of Straw, their hookes 
at their noses, themselves lying flatte 
prostrate, and so to chante oat their 
lessons by peece-meale, being the 
most part lustie fellowes of twenty- 
five yeares and upwards." 

** Other Lawyers they have, liable 
to certaine familìes which after the 

custome ofHhe country determine 
and judge causes. These consider of 
wrongs o£fered and received among 
their neighbours, be it murder, or feU 
lony, or trespasse, ali is redeemed by 
composition, (ezcept the grudge of 
parties seeke reyenge :) and the time 
they bave to spare from spoyling and 
proyning, they lightly bestow in par- 
lying about such matters. The 
Breighoon (so they cali this klnd of 
Lawyer) sitteth him downe on a 
banke, the Lords and GenUemen at 
variance round about him, and then 
they proceede." Historie of Ir eland, 
chap. VI. 

Were it not for these passages in Gam- 
pion*s work, and a few others in the 
writings of Davis and Ware, it mìght 
be difficult to satisfy the Englìsh 
reader by the evidence of English wii- 
ters themselves, that the Lrish Brehons 
had schools of law, or that the Brehon 
laws had been committed to writing. 
But, fortunately for the cause of truth, 
one MS. of these laws which had 
been in existence during the great 
plague in Ireland (1350), is stili 
extant in rather good preserva- 
tion, and proves beyond any possi- 
bility of doubt that Spenser's asser- 
tion was grounded on sheer ignorance 
or intentional falsehood. Davis, in 

Chip. XX.] 



the guremment of church and slate. He compiled, according to Joce- 

lyD, a large volume, which was called CAiyÒ]i) Pb-^^t^^lS»** *** ^®' 
"tbe Canoas of St« Patrick/' which prescribed rules suitable to ali 
persons, lay and ecclesiastical, to practice justice and work out their 
ttlraùon. St. Bernard clearly testifies that the Irìsh bowed to the 
kfs of St. Malachy^ so meekly that there was no rank nor place which 

Ìbs first letter to the Bari of Salis- 
àarji meutions an ancient Boll, con- 
ig an account of the various ar> 
ies payable to Maguire, chief of 
lanagh, hy the subordinate cliìef- 
Qs, or heads of tribes within his 
icìpality. The Boll was kept by 
Pfirislane^ the principal Brehon of 
country. It was written on both 
ìdes in a fair Irish character, and it 
with great difficnlty he could be 
ailed upon to snffer it out of bis 
to be copied. See Davis*8 
Jracti, 8yo, Dublin, 1787, p. 253, 
^ Collectanea de Rebus Hibernicis, 
Lfol I, p. ] 59. See also the Statute of 
pkenny, edited by Hardiman, for 
pe Irìsh Archaeological Society, p. 
B6, 17. note «». (J. OD.) 
[ ^ Which was called Canoin Pha- 
fnàg. This account is taken from 
j?ocelyn'8 Life of St. Patrick : ** Mag- 
ìBQiq etiam volumen quod dicitur Ca- 
^A Pkadruig, id est Canones Fatrìcii 
, tcTipsit; quod cuilìbetpersonie, seu sec- 
[ alari, seu etiam Ecclesiasticae, ad jus- 
tlti&m exercendam, et salutem animse 
jBbtinendam, satis congrue conyenìt." 
Trias Thaum, p. 214, col. 1. The 
,»ork bere referred to by Jocelyn is 
Ihat which is called Cain Pkadruig, 
^Lex Patricii, by the Irish Aunalists. 
8ee the Annals of Tighernach at the 
jear 737, and the Annals of Ulster at 

the years 782, 796, 805, 810, 822, 824, 
835. See also Trìbet, &c., of Uù 
Fiachrach, p. 74, note b. In the pre- 
face to the Seanchus Mor, preserved 
in the Library of Trinìty College, Dub- 
lin, H. 3, 17, it is stated that St.Patrick 
changed the laws of the Pagan Irish, 
80 as to make thcm not repugnant 
to the purity of the Gospel, and 
called the code so changed by the 
name of Seanchus Mor, A good copy 
of this work, wMch was once in the 
possession of Duald Mac Firbis, is 
preserved in the Library of T.C.D., 
H. 3, 17, and there are fragments of 
older copies of it made in the begin- 
ning of the fourteenth century in the 
samè library, H. 2, 15, and a large 
fragment in the British Museum, 
Harl. 432, Plut. xlviii. E. This 
fragment consists of forty folio pages, 
in beautiful preservation, andcontains 
the fuUest preface to the work as yet 
discovered. (J. O'D.) 

'^ThelawsofSt, Malachy. This argu- 
mentis not sufficienty to thepoint, be- 
cause St. Bernard is nearly as severe in 
hls censure of the Irish people as Girai- 
dus himself. Moreover, it is well known 
that in Malachy's time every e£fort 
was made by the heads of the Irish 
clergy to reform the discipline of the 
Irish Church, which had become very 
lax, in consequence of certain barbar- 



[Cap. XX. 

Nam à S. Malachia inquit : " ubique semen spargi tur salutare^ gladio lin- 
guaB. Religio ubiqtte plantatur, propagatur, fovetur, non sexus, non aetas, 
non conditio,non professio se absconditab opere solici tudinisS.Malachiae 
nulla regio, nulla portio regionis, legationis ejus fructu, et utilitate 
fraudatur." Et alibi : " omnibus tradebat jura Ecclesiastica optimus 
legislator, leges dabat plenas modesti» et honestatis." Et postea: 
" repetuntur antiquae traditiones, quas bonas fuisse constitit, nec modo 
voterà restaurantur, cuduntur et nova." Non exieges igitur Hibemi, 
qui se intra legum gyrum nitro receperunt. Nec etiam tura legum 
inopia laborabant Hibemi^ cum è paganismo nondum emergebant. 
Etenim jam tum comitia tertio quoque anno indicebantur ; ad qu« 
reges, magnates, et literarum cuneus Temoriam confluebant. Ubi 
communibus suffragiis leges ad Reipub. administrationem accommodatas 
ferebant: quarum aliqu» aliis post Hìbemos Christianismo imbutos 
latis annexae in pluribus magnse molis voluminibus etiamnum extant. 

Tres Obuirrecbani fratres, Tarrananus Episcopus, Boighajachus 
judex, et Moeltulius poeseos, reique antiquariae peritus, Cathaldo Fin- 
gbini fìlio in Momonia regnante, anno post Cbristum natum 686, aut 
non multo secus, è juris peritorum scriptis, legum etiam undiqùe à se 
decerptarum accessione cumulatisi unum opus cònflarunt, ^' Brathaneim- 
hadh" dictum, quod perindè est ac judicia sacra; denpminatione 
nimirum à potiori operis part^ desumpta quae circa res Ecclesiasticas 
versatur. Sunimam operis isti versus Hibemici paucis complectuntur. 

" Eagluis, flatha agus filidh, Breitheamh dhios gach dligh, 
I^a bruigh foaibh dar linn, na saoir agus na gabbainn." 

ous encroachments of the laitj ; to 
check which the heads of the Irish 
Church were glad to arali themselves, 
even of the intervention of theEnglish 
monarch. How far they were deceived 
in their calculations at this period their 
sttbsequent history amply shows. (J. 

* JEvery wJiere pianteci. But the De- 
cessi tjofplantingit at so late a period 

as the time of Malachy (who died in 
1148) shows that the>disciplineof the 
Irish Church had become loose and 
irregular. St. Bernard's words clearly 
show that greafc lawlessness had ezìst- 
ed both before and during Ma^achy's 
time. (J.O'D.) 

* Called Breatha Neimheadh, or sa- 
cred decisions. That this ìs not the 
true interpretation oi Breatha Neimh^ 


Bdnotrecei?e his ìnstitutioiis. By St. AJali^chy ''the salutary seed 
ras erery where scattered, with the word of his tongue." According 
oSt Bernard, " Religion was every where planted«<^ and propagated, 
pd nartured. Neìther sex» nor age^ nor rank, nor profession was 
JERened from the zealous labors of St. Malachy. No region, no part 
ftaregion, was deprìved of the fruit and advantage of the legatine 

tority." And again, '' oar most wise legislator prescrìbed eeclesias- 
kws 1m ali: laws brealhìng moderation and virtue." Finally, 
lui the old traditiona, ìf found to he laudable, were revived, and not 
■lyweie the old renved, but new ones were introduced." The Irish 
nid not be a people withoat laws when they thns voluntarily einbrace 
kpath of kw. Bnt even before the Irish had emerged from Pagan- 
^, there w»6 mo want of law among them ; trìennial conventions being 
M at Tara, where the kings, nobles, and leamed orders enacted, by 
Kunon consent, wise laws for the govemment of the kingdom. Some 
fthese laws are stili extant, bound up in many immense volumes, with 
plaws enacted after the establishment of Chrìstianity. During the 
tp of Oathal, son of Fìnghin, king of Munster^ in or near the year 
16, the three O'Buirrechans, brothers, namel}', bishop Tarannan, 
ibighaladi, a Brehon^ and Moeltuile, an eminent hard and historìan^ 
finpiled from the works of Brehons and many laws collected by 
knselves, a volume calledBtteAc1)AMe-|fÌ7eA6/ or " Sacred decisions," 
We given to the work because the greater part of its conlents re- 
Wed ecclesiastical matters. A summary of that volume is compressed 
ito the few following Irish lines : 

Wa btlU]5lj fOAibl) b^tl l]1)1), 1JA rAO]|l A5Uf 1)A 5AbbA]l71)." 

O'Beiny has amply proved in ^^^^* ^' Judgments relating to the 
short Essaj on the Brehon lawg, Nemeds, chiefs, or dignitaries, pre- 
^ before the Eoyal Irish academy ^^"^^^ i^ the Library of Trinity Coi- 
nè 28th, 1824, and published m ^®^®» Dublin, H. 3. 18, and in the 
eiiTransactions, voi. xiv., Antiquù ^"^^^h Museum Bibl. Cotton ; Nero, 
». p. 28. et sequent, -^» ^" P- ^^^ ^^^*' ^^* A. (J. O'D.) 
feere is acopy of the Breatha Neimh- 




Qnse hunc sensuni ferre possunt. 

•« Quod 8it jus cleri, satrapae vatisque, fabrique 
Nec non agrìcole, liber iste docebit abunde." 

A Hi prseterea jurìuin libelli in unum opus coaluenmt^ quòrum prìmum 
Meillbfareatha Hibernicè dicimus^ ad imperilos à deceptione liberandos 
accommodatum, Constantiuo Centimacho Hiberniie rege (qui subannum 
Christi nati 181 mortuus est) à Modainio Tolbani filio confectum. 

Alteri juris operi " Fiondfuith" nomen est, à Fithico Fiorgothió uno 
è Temoriae jurisconsultis editus, Coimacho superioris Constantìni filio 
ad clavum Hibernise sedente qui fato fiinctus est anno Domini 252. 

Tertium appellamus " Ainteachtbreath/' Jurium miscellanea nullo 
ìnter se vinculo nexa complectens. | 
[158] Quarti titulus est " Anfuighilbreath.*' Ac si diceres judiciorum 
reliquisB quibus " Fothamor" adjungitur, quod perinde est ac si diceres 
fundamentum magnum. Tendit autem ad judicem illum magistrata 
privandum qui gratia non lege ad ferendam sententiam ducitur. 

Quinti " Fothabeag" inscriptio est, qui docet qua radono divisionem 
inter se instituere debent qui sunt ex eodem genere. 

Sextum '* Aidbreatha" dicimus qui de furtis agit. 

Septimum " Corasfìue'^ nominamus; qui vinginti quinque rationes 
praescribit^ quibus qui eodem genere orti sunt inter se mutuo convenire 


' Meillbhreatha, There are copies 
of this tract preserved in the Library 
of Trinity College, Dublin, H, 3, 18, 
and in the British Museum, Egerton 
90, Plut. clxvì., H. It is stated iu 
the preface that St. Patrick approved 
of these Decisions, baving first purged 
them of afew Pagan peculiarities, and 
gave them their present appellation of 
Meillbhreatha f that is* sweet, góod, or 

just decisions or laws. (J. 0*D.) 

' Cormac, A copy of laws ascribed 
to this famous monarch and hisBrehons 
is preserved in the Library of Trinity 
College, Dublin, E, 3, 5, and in the 
Stowe Collection of MSS. now in the 
possession of Lord Ashbumham. See 
the Stowe Catalogue, and Petrie'i 
Antiquities of Tara Hill, pp. 40, 41, 
42. (J. 0»D.) 


Whicb may be thus translated, 

" Churchmen, chiefbains and poets, Brehons knowing each law 
The Brooes, next after them we are sure, the artizans and the smiths." 

Otber law tracts were also compiled into one volume ; the first was 
j5e|llbìieAcl)A/ a work intended to guard the unlearned against 
eption. It was compiled by Modan, son of Tolban, in the reign of 
onofthe Hundred Battles, who died inyear of our Lord 181. 
The second compilation of law was cali ed lp]or)byo)z})- It was 
ited by Fithrich Fiorgoih, one of the Brehons of Tara, during the 
ign of Cormac king of Ireland,* gi-andson of Con of the Hundred 
ittles, A.D. 252. 

The third was called 2l]t)ceAcbcb|teAcl)A,* a compilation of miscel- 
teous documeiits not hearing on each other. 

The foiirth was '^ 2li)|ru]3l)]lb|ieAcbA/'* which may be interpreted 
jupj3lementary decisions," to which was annexed the ^^ Ipozì)^ njÓit/' 
" great principle." Its drift is, that ali judges should be degraded 
)in their oflSce, if their decisions were swayed by favor against law. 
.The fifth was " y^ozì)^ b^S/^ containing the principles to be followed 
ff persons of the same kindred in the distribution of property. 
The sixth is called " 2l]bb|ieAcl)A/^^ which lays down the law on 

|The seventh is called " CojiAf ]:it)e/^* which propounds twenty-five 
bffients why- those who aie of the same kindred should combine 
[gether in mutuai love, or (which propounds twenty-five principles 
lating the mutuai harmony of persons of the same kindred.) 


\}Ainieacht-bkreatha. Thereareva* of this and the next Tract in the 

miscellaneous laws of this kind British Musemn. Nero. A. vii. 

erved in the Library of Trinity (J. 0*D.) 

Bge, DubUn, H. 3, 17, and H. 3, ^Aidhbhreatha, copy in H. 3, 17, 

►and in the British Museum, Eger- and H. 3, 18, Lib. T.C.D. (J. O'D.) 

^, Plut. ClxYÌi. and in the Bod- i Coras Fine, i.e. Law of the trìbe, 

library at Oxford, Rawlinson, copy in H. 2, 15, and also in 3, 17, 

(J.O'D.) T.C.D. (J. O'D.) 
ill-hhreatha, There is a copy 



Extatet aliud quadripartitum opus "Gain" Hibernicè, "mulcta*''latinè 
dictum^ cujus prima pars in muleta universim^ et muleta Eeelesiastìcà 
exponenda versatur. Altera docet quibus paenis coercendi sunt qui 
eaede se, vel alio quovis nefario faeinore inquinant: Tertia modum 
praescribit quo pignora praehendantur, et retineantur. Postrema de 
testibus, et testimoniis agit, ae de ratione qua furtum indagari debeat. 
Hoc autem opus CassiliaB peractum fuit, Felimidio Crimthoni filio Me- 
mouiae gubemaeula moderante» qui post regnum 27 annos admìnistratum 
annum Cbristi nati 845 et vivendi finem feeit. 

Huic operi aliud adnectitur "Eidgheadb" dictum à Cormacho 
Arturide filioque suo Carbrio HibemisB quondam regibus elueubratum, 
de seeleribus quae quis per imprudentìam, aut alio quovis modo patrat^ 

His subjicimus alium juris librum " Dula" nuneupatum, trìbus 
partibus constantem, quanim prima regi bellum inferri et plures alios 
injurias per vim fieri vetat. Docet prseterea quae sint tutelae ac Asyli 
jura» qua paena sint affieiendi qui sanguinem fuderint ii quibus praesen- 
tibus et annuentibùs seelus quodpiam admissum est; qua forma in 
scriptum paeta referri debent. In boe libro eonfieiendo Cormacus rex 
supra memoratus et alii elaborarunt. 

Altera pars, de rebus Ecclesiasticis agit, ac praesertìm de jure sepul- 
turae, vetatque avitum sepulchrum à quopiam deseri. Deinde praecipit 
armenta de satis abigi, et quid de rebus agendum sitj in mari, aut terra 
fortuito repertis tum variae leges attexuntur. Prior pars C omini Fodui 
filii Facbnai opus : Posterior C ormaci et Carbrii Hibemiae regum 
quorum paulo ante mentionem feci. Ultima pars praBseribit bonorem 
qui deferri debeat regi. Episcopo, et literatorum praesidi, ordinique, ac 
denique diuturno agrorum possessori : rationem etiam indicat qua 
injuriam cuiquam eorum illatam resareiri oporteat. Hujus operis praeter 
caeteros author est Rognius Rosgad«u;h Uganii regis Hibemise fìlius. 
Alias etiam res liber ille complectitur. 

■* Cain, or fine. This Ì8 a mistake Cain (whioli Jocelyn erroneously 

of our author's, and not of Mac Fir- translates Canones) is technically uaed 

bi8*8, for in the Fdneaehus or Lair to sìgnify lex or law. See note i. on 

dialect of the Irish, with vhìch the Cain Phadruig supra, (J. OD.) 

lattar was well acquainted, the word " Appended, It may bare been 


Tliere is extant, also^ a work divided into four parts, which is called 
in Irish '^ Ca^Oj"™ or ** fine." The first division treats of fine in 
general and of ecclesiastical fines. The second explains the penalties 
to be enforced against crìminals gnilty of murder or other atrocious 
jitibces. The thìrd prescrihes the forni for receiving and retaining 
^ges (secnrities). The fourth treats of evidence and witnesses, and 
Ae judicìal process or ìnquirìes regarding robbery This work was 
iompiled at Cashe)^ during the reign of Felimidh son of Crìmhthan, 
ftiogof Mnnster^ who held the sceptre during 27 years, and dìed in the 

I inotfaer work called 6>]b5beAbb> ^^ appended to the preceding.*' 
jbwascompiled by Cormac son of Art^ and bis son Carbry, kings of 
fbland^and treated of crimes committed thruugh imprudence or other- 

I To these may aìso be added the law treatise called '' 43uIa/^^ which 
IlDsisted of three parts. The first propounds the law against making 
^on the king, and many other ofifences committed by force. It also 
Itoches the prinleges of sanctuaries and protections^ the penalties 
^ùnst those who sdied blood^ and those who were present at and 
Kppiored any crime : it prescribed also the* legai forms of covenants. 
jEng Cormac, with the aid of other scholars» made this compilation. 
f The second part treats of ecclesiastical matters^ and especially of the 
iw of sepulture^ prohibiting any person from abandoning the burial 
lice of bis fathers. It then orders the herds to be kept from the 
led fìelds^ and promulgates various laws on the mode of disposing of 
^ÌBgs accidentally found on land or sea. Comin Foda, son of Fachtna, 
^sauthor of the first part: Cormac and Carbry> kings of I reland > 
f^t&Ày mentioned, compiled the second. The last dimion explains 

ipied next in successìon after it, in Feadha^ &c. &c. There is a curìous 

MS. in which Duvald Mac FirbÌB copy of these in H. 3, 17, T. C. D. but 

d these tractd, but it has no natu- not under this title. The second part 

connection with it as far as regards is by far the more curious, as it points 

ect or date. (J. O'D) out very curious relations between 

^^, i.e. Duil Hosgadhach, Duil the church and the laity. (J. O'D.) 



[Gap. XX. 

" Gain fuìthribhe" alterius libelli nomeii est, latifundìorum, et lougae 
possessionis jura continentis, Gatbaldo Fìngbini Alio Momoniae regnum 
obtinente conscripti. 

Leges in Hibemia ante paganismum H iberni s excussum latas errori- 
bus omnibus paganismum redolentibus S. Patiicius purgavit, et legum 
pene omnium summam tribus '' Antiquitatis magnse" partibus com- 
plexus est. 

** Gui Drubbartaigh bearro'* tìtulus libri^ qui jus marìtimum prose- 
quitur ; docetque quid . de ocaeani ejectamentis fieri debuerit quae 
emolumenta è navibus percipi debebant, aut quibusvis aliis ocaeani 
eventibus. Prsescribitque leges, iis qui in alieno fundo> vel aucupium 
exercent. Nimirum ut vel certam volucrum, et plumarum iis detrac - 
tarum partem fundi domino conferant, vel in illius agros venationis, aut 
aucupii gratia pedem non inferant. 

In alio libro cujus titulus Hibernicns est '* Gain lanamhna mor et 
" Gain lanamhna beag" leges proponuntur quibus diversa paria mutuis 
commodis inservire, et obortas inter se controversias sopire debebant. Ea 
vero paria sunt rex et Regina, vir et uxor, pater et proles. Ecclesia et 
monachi etc. In " Fuidfaeainechais" cumulus legum promiscue con- 
[159] geritur nullo inter se nexu | copulatarum. " Gainborachta" tradit 
alienos boves nec mactandos nec furto subducendos esse. 

Postremus juris Hibemici liber poStis leges indicit ; et edicit qua 
ratione poèmata fieri debeant: et praecepta tradit, ac figuras in iis 

P Cain-Fuithrìbhe, There is a con- 
siderable fragment of this preserved 
in the Library of T. C. D., H. 3, 18, 
with a preface, giving an account of 
the time, and cause of ite composition. 
(J. O'D.) 

*» The Great Antiquity, This is the 
Seanchus Mor, which the compiler of 
the Annals of Ulster, thongh a most 
profound Irish lawyer, rather incor- 
rectly translates Chronicon Magnum at 
the year 439. A full copy of this ancient 
and curìous work is preserved in H. 
3, 17, T.C.D., and two fragments in 

H. 2, 15, transcribed before 1350. 

' Cai Druhhartaigh Bearro, No 
law tract under this head has been 
yet identlfled ; but varìous fragments 
bare been found relatìng to the rights 
to things thrown ashore by the sea, 
in H. 3, 17, and H. 3, 18. T.C.D. 
(J. O'D.) 

' Cain Lanamhna, jfc. These form 
a section of the Seanchus Mor already 
referredto. (J.O*D.) 

^Fuidh Feineachais, There are va- 
rìous compilations of heterogeneous 
subjects answerìng to this descrìption 


the honors due to the king, the bishop, the literary order and their 
preadent, and finally to the old landed proprietor : it also prescrìbes 
ihe mode of redress for any injuries that may have been inflicted on 
tbem. This work was the compilation of several persons, especially 
Roighni Rosgadhach, son of Ugoni, king of Ireland. It coraprises 
oèer subjects hesides those I have recorded. 

CA]i)fa]r|t]bbe* was the tille of another work, containing the rìghts 
•«f landed property and long possessìon (prescription ?) It was written 
4m^ the reign of Cathal, son of Finghin, king of Munster. 
Y Ali the laws made in Ireland during the Pagan period, were expur- 
Ipted of their Pagan errors by St. Patrick, who compiled a collection 
«f iiear]y ali the laws in bis '' Great Antiquity,"^ a work divided imo 

Cu] b|tttbI>A]tCA^5l) beA|t]to'^ was the naval code, which prescribed 
Ke nses to be made of things cast up by the sea, and the toll to he 
Ikrìed on ships and other things regarding the ocean. It also lays 
Pftwn the law for those who hunt on the property of another, namely, 
fbt they should either pay to the proprietor of the soil a certain 
fBuniber of birds, or a quantity of their feathers, or not dare to enter bis 
^laod either to fowl or hunt. 
Another Irish work, called "C^]i) l^ry^nfyx)^ n)ò]i and "Ca]1) 
n)ATi)ljT)A beA5," contains the laws regarding the intercourse of equals, 
iw they were to contributo to each other's interests, and arrange any 
troversies that might arise beiween them. The equals were the 
g and queen, the husband and wife, the father and child, the church 
dmonks, &c., &c. 

The pu^b^e^ijecljA^f,* is an indigested mass of laws on various 
ìlQhjects. The Ca]1) bojtAcbcu" decides that the cattle of another man 
liDostnot be either killed or stolen. The last body of Irish laws con- 

i I 

fese^7ed in the MSS. H. 3, 17, H. 3, to correspond withthe Breatha Comh- 
and H. 2, 15, T.C.D. the first of aithceasa or Neighbour Laws, of the 
•inch was once the property ofDuvald MSS. H. 3, 5, and H. 2, 15, in the 
^ Firbis who furnished our author manuscript library of Trinity College, 
•itii this list of the Irish laws above Dublin, in which there^arevery mi- 
in the text. (J. 0*D. nate laws relating to herding and 
*The Gain Borachta, This seems common of pasture. (J. 0*D.) 



[Cap. XX. 

faciendÌB adhiberì solitas. Prseterea satyras^ et sencomia componendi 
modos aperìt. Ita tamen ut qaae paena satyrìs quemcunque per 
injuTiam rodenti irroganda sit edoceat Ad hoc opus concinnandum 
operas contulerunt Aithirnius, Ailgerachus^ Seanchius Torpestius, et 


Vidi ego plura è pergameno spissa legum Hibemicgrum voluinìiia, 
et in illis textum charactere grandiori conscrìptum lineis modice dis- 
junctis faciliori vocum interpretatione minutioribits literis inserta. 
Uberiora commentaria per paginam diffusa textum obibant eadem 
omninò ratione qua textum et glossam in librìs utrìusque juris aspici- 
mas. Ex bis superìores titulos ante aliquot annos decerpsit Duvaldns 
Virbisius. Leges illae jampridem tribunalibus exclusse in desuetudinem 
penitus abiissent nisi pauci admodum innato quodam lìnguse patrìae ab 
ìnteritu vendicandsB studio capti iis addiscendis incubuissent ; operam 
ultro impendentes ad illam ruinss subducendam, quam illi multoties 
Angli intentabant, eam comprimere lata lege saepius aggressi. Non 
multum à Carthaginiensibus abeuntes^ qui senatus Consulto cavernnt 
"ne quis Garthaginiensis aut literis' Grsacis^ aut sermoni studerei. " 
Rerum etiam vicissitudine ita ferente^ ut sicut Imperia, sic communìs 
loquendi forma, et consuetudo suo quasi confecta senio contabescat : 
atque ut ex ccnrporibuis placent potius quse vigentis florem aetatis prsB se 
ferunt, quam quse caducam quandam authorìtatem adepta sunt, sic in 
quotidiano loquendi usu qui sermo postremo loco successiti ille pluri- 

'Justinus, lib. 10. 

* Laws of the Poets, There is a 
ÌAw relating te the poetB preserved in 
H. 3, 17, and in varioua other MS. in 
the Library of T.C.D., and the Sean- 
chus Beug in the Book of Ballymote, 
contains curìous laws reiating to them ; 
and a most coriouB olaseification of 
them according to iheir dignìties and 
privilegeB. The king of Munster ìb 
set down as l^e chief Ollurnh or Foet 
laureat of ali Ireland ! (J. O'D.) 

"^ Duvald Mac Firhis, For some ac- 
count of this remarkable man, see 
Introductory remarks to Tribet, ^c, 
of Ui Fiachrach, According tot^ithe 
tradition in the coontry he was most 
wantonly murdered by a dmnken 
member of the Crofton family at 
Dunflin, near Dromore west in the 
Co. of sugo, A.D. 1670. See Ut 
Fiachrach, Introductory Remarks, pp. 
TÌii. and ix. and Ogygia Vindicated, 


tainsthe laws on poets/ preacrìbing how poems ^ere to be composed, 
and expoonding the rules and figures usually used in the compositìon. 
fini m explaining the laws of satire and panegyric, it prescrìbes the 
leoalties to be enforced against unjust and libellous satires. This 
compilati(Hi was the joint production of Aithimi, Ailgerach, Seanchan 
Tiapest, and others. 

I saw a great number of thìck volumes of Insh laws^ with the text 
làtteo in large characters, and a large space between the lines^ to 
^it more conveniently in smaller letters a glossaiy on the meanìng 
ittbe words. The page was covered over with copious commentarìes, 
^ted between the text, as are usually seen in compilations of canon 
licinl law. Some years ago, Duvald Mac Firbis^ transcribed from 
lese books the titles which I bave gìvrai. As the laws themselves 
e been long since excluded from the courts» they would bare 
en iute oblivion, if a small number of persons,^ iuspired by an innate 
Bai to saye theh: native language from min, had not resolved to study 
km, and thus by their voluntary exertions^ rescue from the fate to 
Web the English so often attempted to consign it by their probibitory 
ud penai enactments. Their policy resembled the decree of the Oar- 
thagiaian sanate, "which prohibited ali Carthaginians from leaming to 
f eak or read the Greek language/' Such is the ìnstability of human 
lÓQgs, that language, like empires, even the common form and custom 
if speech itself, should sink under the weight of years and fade away ; 
fcr as the eye is more pleased with a youth in the flower of bis age, 
fian with him on whose frail frame age has set its venerable seal, so 
toregard to the vehide of daily intercourse, the language last intro- 
iiced is more respected and honored by men. It is thus ihat the 

IP- ix. X. The traditional details were eTidently Duvald Mac Fìrbis, 

toc miinterestìng to be eyen Taileagna O'Maelehonaire, [TuUy 

ted at bere. It was one of Conry,] and some members of the 

occurrences that disgrace the Mac Egans, O'Dayorans, Mac Clan- 

itory of this ìll-starred land. cys, and O'Breslens, who were here- 

(l O'D.) ditary Brehons and prafesaon of the 

^SnaUnuTHber ofpersons. The per- Feineachas or ancient Irish laws. (J. 

«OMhere allnded to by our author O'D.) 


mum apud homìnes honoris obtìneat, ac dignitatìs. Hoc pacto è 
pristino splendore linguam Hibernicaip, Anglica detrudere contendit, 
nisi H iberni nonnulli qui linguam vernaculam non è librìs acceperunt, 
sed à natura arripnerunt, non à magistro didic.erunt^ sed à nutrice hause- 
runt, non in scholis perceperunt, sed in cunis cuna lacte ebiberunt, eam 
retinere maluissent^ quam alienam è sexcentis chartis^ commentariis, et 
praeceptoribus potere, et omni dimicatione contendissent, ut usus ejus 
adhuc fioreret. Non secus ac olim caenobitse Tavistokenses in Anglìa, 
studium suum ad linguam Saxonicam fovendam contulermt^ qui *' prae- 
lectiones Saxonìcas in suo monasterio instituerunt, ne hujus linguse 
cognitio intercideret/'^ Imo nostra etiam memoria linguae Saxonicae 
cognoscendse a plurìbus insudatur. Portasse nostrates illi tam acres 
linguae patri» sectatores persuasum habent, non alia lingua Hibemìae 
incolas in extremi judiciì die responsuros quam Hibemicà, ut de sua 
lingua ille Brito ajebat apud Camdenum.® Magnam certudinem lectori 
et memorabilem commendationem sibi Camdenuspeperit: quod linguai 
Britannic8e, et Saxonicae sedalo incubuerit. Hinc enim ea quae literis 
mandante non è riviilis^ sed è fontibus illum hausisse perspectum 
habemus : si quidem nulla est exploratior narratio^ quam quse veteris 
memoriae monumentis vemaculà patri» cujus rei priscae in lucem pro- 
ducuntur lingua exaratis eruitur. Quod si nullum aliud emolumentum 
ex Hibemicae linguae cognitione perciperetur, quam ut res antiquitus in 
Hibernia gestas nobis enucleatius aperiret, plurimum profecto prae- 
staret aliquos semper superesse qui penitiore idiomatìs Hibemici 
scientià imbuerentur.^ Quare non meliori studio Hibemiae antiqui tatis 
oblivione sepeliendae illi arsisse censendi sunt, qui linguam Hibemicam 
abolere tantopere contenderunt. Nam sicut caeteris mortalium rebus 
temporis diutumit^s, sic linguis dissuetudo iuteritum. Numae Pompilii 
libros dudum post ipsius tempora repertos, Tagis sortes, Etruscorum 
auguria^ et lintea volumìna nomo in teli exit. Et Polybius tradìt conventa 
quae Romani primo bello Punico cum Cartbagìniensibus transegerunt, 
[160] ubi ducentis annis nondum elapsis eorum inspiciendorum occasio | ad 

sWelocus in praefat. ad Bedam Camden. p. 144. « Spelman in praefat. ad 
Cocil. Panbiìt. p, 17. ' Qualis est nunc doctissimus Johannes O'Donovanus 

(M. K.) 


English langaage is laborìng to deprivo the Irish of its ancient splen- 
dor, if some Irìsfamen who have not received their native language 
ftm books, but absorbed it from nature, who bave not leamed it from 
Basters, bat imbibed it from their nurse, wbo bave not picked it up in 
idools, bat dnink it in witb their mother's milk, had not resolved to 
letain it, rather than leam a stranger tongue from six hundred com- 
•entanes and schoolmasters. The grand object of their zeal has been 
p keep it alive, like the Anglo Saxon monks of the monastery of 
Iflfistoci, who fonnerly took the English language under their protec- 
^D, "and established Saxon lectures in their monastery, lest the 
kowledge of the language might be lost." £ven in our own time 
^y persons are laborìng strenuously to acquire a knowledge of the 
OD. Perhaps those countrymen of ours who patronize the Irish 
igaage so zealously, believe that the Irish are to answer at the lasi 
gmeDt in the Irìsh language only, as the £riton, according to Cam- 
kt, believed of bis own language. It a£fords great confidence to his 
^der, and reflects great renown on bimself, tbat Camden had dili- 
pntly studied both the English and Saxon languages. It enabled him 
|d draw his writings not from the streamlets, but from the fountain 
^, and thus impart to his narrative that high autbenticity which can 
^/ound only in those venerable documenta, written in the vemacular 
jiDguage of the country, whose ancient history is to be published. 
Jlere no other advantage to be derived from the knowledge of the Irish 
jbigaage, than the great light it would throw on the ancient history of 
fteland, it would stili be most desirable, that we should bave at ali 


pes some men profoundly versed in the Irish idiom. How ardently 
ibust these men bave bumed to obliterate the ancient history of Ireland, 
"liolabored so strenuously to abolish ber language. For as time is 
tiie great destroyer of ali other mortai things, so disuso destroys a lan- 
|Dage. No person could understand the books of Numa Pompilius, 
Wùch were discovered a long time after his death, nor the divinations 
i^Tagis, the Etruscan auguries or the linen volumes. And Polybius 
*^tes, that when the Romans, in deciding some controversy, about Iwo 
Iniidred years after the first Punic war, were obliged to examine the 
freaties then made with the Carthaginians, the documents could not be 
Mderstood. In the same way, no person can understand the ancient 



[Gap. XX. 

controversiam aliquam decidendam exorta est^ non fuissc percepta. 
Simili prorsus ratione si usus idiomatis H ibernici è medio tolleretur^ ad 
monumentonim veterum Hibemìcorum ìntelligentìam nuUus penetrare 

Cseterum ea linguae Hibemicae concinnìtas est, ut primis labiìs lec- 
tionem ejos degustantes, ad penìtiorem illìtts cagni tionem comparandam 
attrahantur. Vidi plures linguae Hibemicae legendse cognitione tenuiter 
imbutos^ tanta lectionis illius voluptate delinitos fuisse, ut libros Hiber- 
nicos vix sibi è mambus evelli passi fiierìnt^ nisi parentum objuj^ationi- 
bus ad magis qusestuosa studia curam vertere cogerentur. 

Speramus fore ut lingua Hibemica Reverendorum ordinis S. Francìsci 
patrum CoUegium Lovaniense incolentium opera denuo revirescat^ qui 
abstrusiora vemacula monumenta indies non solum è tenebris in lacem, 
sed ex ìdion^tis obsoleti squalore ad latini sermonis nitorem educunt 
In qua re prae .cseteris indefatìgabili studio admodum Reverendus pater 
Joannes Colganus sacrse TheologiaB professor emerìtus^ ac scrìptis de 
patria optimè mortalium meritus desudat. Ex bujus collegiì praelo 
plures Hibernico charactere libros prodiisse jam vidimus. Et ab eodem 
Hibemicum grandius Dictionarium^ quod eorandem patrum aliqui 
molirì dicuntur^ brevi emissum iri confidimus. Ita ut quantum Angli 
Monacbis suis Tavistokensìbus ob linguam Saxonicam servatam de- 
beant tantundem Hibemia patribus suis Lovaniensibus ob rubigìnem 
Hibemic» linguae abstersam obstringatur. Nisi etiam beneficio maj(MÌ 
patriam suam bi devinxerint quod tum cum tota gens ad ultimas 
angustias redacta in indubitato pereundi periculo versaretur, " minime 
passi fuerint eadem terrà quse civium suorum corpora tegebat, rerum 

^ A copious Irish IHctionary. No 
guch work has been publìshed and 
nothìng has been discovered to show 
that ìt was evea commenced. The 
largest work of the kind which was 
published by the Franciscans was 
Michael O'Clery's Glossary, a small 
octavo volume, printed at Louvain 
in 1643. In the preface to thìs little 

work, O'Clery gives the names of 
the prìncipal Irish scholars, some of 
whom were living or lately deceased, 
who had written Glosses, and such of 
whom as were living he was anxions 
to stimulate to undertake a more co- 
pious work than his own. The names 
mentioned by hìm are Boethius Boe 
Mac £gan. Torna 0*Mulconry, Me- 

Chap. XX.] 



Irish documents, if the use of the Irìsh language be destroyed. Such> 
however^ Ì3 the elegance of Irish language, that how lightly soever a 
person sips of it, he is drawn on to acquire a more profound knowledge. 
I have known many persons who had but a very slight acqiiaintance 
with Irish books ; stili so great was the delight they found in reading 
them, that they coold hardly hare erer let them out of their hands, if 
the reproofs of their parents had not forced their attention to more 
profitable studies. 

The labonrs of the Rererend Fathers of the orders of St. Francis, 
in the college of Louvain, will, we hope, once more rerive the Irish 
language. They are not only bringing to light every day the more 
abstruse vemacular documents, but translating them from the rugged 
obseurìty of an obsolete idiom into elegant Latin. In this undertaking, 
the indefatigable zeal of the Very Hev. Father John Colgan, professor 
emeritns of Theology, stands nobly pre-eminent among ali the writers 
on the-history of our country. We have already seen many books 
printed in the Irish type, at the press of this college, and we are ex- 
pectìng soon from the same source a copious Irish dictionary,^ which 
some of the same fathers are saìd to be compiling. Thus, if the 
English must thank their monks of Tavistok, for the preservation of 
the Saxon, the Irish owe similar obligations to the Louvain Fathers, 
for the preservation and refinement of the Irish. Perhaps of the two, 
the benefit conferred on Ireland is the greater, since those fathers 
stood forward when she was reduced to the greatest distress, nay, 
threatened with certain destruction, and vowed that the memory of the 
glorious deeds of their ancestors, should not be consigned to the same 
earth that covered the bodies of ber children. May the wisdom of 
God be ever praised and adored, for inspiring those fathers with the 

laghlin Moder O'Mulconry, Lewy 
O'Clery, John O'Mulconry, and Flann 
son of Corbry Mac Egan. None of 
these scholars, howerer, bave left us 
any work in the shape of a Dictionary, 
and 0*Clery*8 own little vocabulary 
may be considered the first attempi 
of the kind after Comac's Glossary. 

We are stili ^left wìthout a perfect 
dictionary compìled, as it ought to be, 
from our ancient and modem MSS. ; 
and it appears very likely, from the 
depressed state of the country, and the 
increasing apathy of the natives, that 
the present generation will pass away 
without secing one. (J. O'D.) 



[Cap. XX. 

etiam a majorìbus prseclarè gestarum memoriam obnii.'' Ut divini 
numiois pnidentiam admirari^ et venerari debeamus^ quse mentem iis 
patribus immiserita cum Hibemi fortunanim omnium, et avitorum 
agrorum jacturam fecerìnt, quominus avìtae quoque famse detrimeDtum 
patiantur impedire. 

Sed ista me non sentientem longius adduxerunt ; nunc in viam ad 
interrupti sermonis telam texendam redeo. Ac prìmum doceo jurìs 
H ibernici scientiam, ab Hibemis " Fenecbais" universim appellari, ab 
Anglis '' Brehonlaw," vocabulo è voce Hibemica " Brehumh" judicem, 
et Anglica " Law" legem significante, satis insulse ut aliquorum fert 
sententia conflato. 

Deinde sciscitor quo pacto ille populus exlex esse potuit, ad cujns 
mores sive instituendos, sive restaurandos creberrìmae leges, et decreta 
cudebantur ? Etenim post Hibemos ad bonam frugem à S. Malachia 
revocatos, saepe ssepius indicta sunt comitìa multo principum et Autis- 
ti tum numero frequentata. Ut si quse faecula populi moribus (post 
diligentiam in iis excolendis à S. Malachia adbibitam) adhaeserat ab- 
stergeretur. Anno salutis 1 1 52 vivo adhuc S. Bernardo laudum 
Hibemise per ea tempora praecone prsestantissimo, Kenenusam omnes 

■ Ahsurd comhination. The term 
Brehon law means literally judge law, 
which is rather an odd compound; 
but hy the word Brehon the English 
wrìters meant an Irish judge, so that 
in their minds Brehon law mcant the 
Law of the Irish Judges, in contra- 
distinction from the statute and 
common law of England. The oldest 
mention of the Irish laws, under this 
tìtle, is found in the statute of Eìl- 
kenny, enacted in the fortìeth year of 
King Edward III. A. 1367, **Que 
nul Englois soit reule en diffinition de 
Marche ne de Breon, que par raison 
ne doit estre lei ein malveis custume." 
Statute of Kilkenny^ pp. 16, 17, edit, 
Hardiman. (J.O'D.) 

» The most ardent encomiast of Ire- 
land, This certainly is net the case. 

St. Bernard justly became the most 
ardent encomiast of the excellent, 
zealous, and virtuoas prelate, St. 
Malachy, but the most vehement 
censurer of bis countrymen, the 
Irish, who, we must ali con- 
fess, were then tolerably lawless ! 
The candid and truly enlightened 
Dr. Lanigan, after drawing a sad pie- 
ture of the lawless state of Ireland in 
the time of St. Malachy, renmrks, that 
** several of the Irish princes and 
chieftains had imbibed the spirìt of the 
Danes, sparing neither churches, nor 
monasterìes, nor ecclesiastics, accord- 
ing as suited their views; a system 
which was held in abhorrence by their 
ancestors, and which often excited 
them to unite, in defence of their 
altars, against the Scandinavian rob- 

Chap. XX.] 



resoke, that the ancient glory of I reland should iiot be entombed by 
the sanie convulsion, which deprìved the Irish of the lands of their 
fathers and of ali theìi property. 

Bat I bave been imperceptibly drawn into a long dìgresaiou on this 
subject Let us now resumé the thread of our discussion. I observe^ 
in the first place, that the knowledge of Irish laws was called by the 
Irish " Fenechais," and by the English " Brehon Law," from the Irish 
word, hjie]zì)eAn), " a judge," and the English word "law," a very 
absurd combination* according to some tastes. 

In the next place^ I ask with what justice that people could be called 
" a people without law," for whose instruction or reformation^ laws and 
enactments were so often made P After the general reformation of 
the Irish, efiected by St. Malachy, many other assemblies were held 
and numerously attended by bishops and princes. Whatever stain 
may bave remained on the character of the people after the 
searching zeal of St. Malachy> must bave been efiaced by their 
councils. In the year 1 152, durìng the life time of St. Bernard, who 
had then becomethe most ardent encomiastof Ireland,^ ali the bishops 


Bui grantiiìg that the Irish were 
as lawless as St. Bernard describes 
them from the dictation of St. Mala- 
chy, it Ì8 but fair to compare what he 
says £i the civilized Bomans, whose 
conduct he had witnessed with bis own 
eyesy at the same lawless period : — 

" Who ÌB ignorant of the yanity and 
the arrogance of the Bomans ? A na- 
tion nuTsed in sedition, cruel, untract- 
able, and scomìng to obey, miless they 
are too feeble to resist. When they 
promise to serve, they aspìre to go- 
yem ; if they swear allegìance, they 
watch the opportanìty of a reyolt; 
yet they yent their discontent in loud 
clamomrs, if yonr doors or your comi- 
sels are shut against them. Dexterous 
in mischief, they bave neverleamt the 

science of doing good. Odious to 
earth and heayen, impious to God, se- 
ditious among themselyes, jealous of 
their neighbours, inhuman to stran- 
gers, they love no one, by no one are 
they beloved ; and while they wish to 
inspire fear, they live in base and con- 
tinuai apprehension. They will not 
submìt; they know not how to go- 
vem ; faithless to their superiors, in- 
tolerable to their equals, ungrateful 
to their benefactors, and alike ìmpu- 
dent in their demands and refusals. 
Lofty in promise, poor in execution : 
adulation and calumny, perfidy and 
treason, are the familiar arts of their 
policy," &c. Hi invisi terrae et caelo 
utrique injecerc manus. De conside- 
rai, lib. iv. e. 2. ' (J.O*D.) 



[Gap. XX. 

Hibernise prsesales in coetum coierunt, " ad Ecclesiastìcae disciplinae 
refonnatìonem^ (veteris scrìpti verbasant) et repurgationem, moresque 
popoli reformandos." Nec multum postea temporìs effluxìt^ cum anno 
post Christiim natam 1157, Antistitum et procerom consessus Ecclesi- 
asticanun, et civilium legnm vìolatores censurìs Ecclesiasticis debitisqne 
psenis pleidt.^ Proximo deinde anno Episcopi viginti quinque in 
Mediani concesserunt,^ et Christiano O*0onairche legato Apostolico 
praesente, sufiragia tulerunt, '' Pro Ecclesiastica disciplina, et morìbus 
in melius nratandis/'^ Anno postea 1162 viginti septem Episcopi ab 

^Apud Colganum 19 Martìi, p. 
Martii, p. 777. 

654. J' Ibidem, s ibidem, p. 655. 9 28 

^ Synod of Kells, This great na- 
tional synod was held at Kells, in 
Meath (net at Drogheda, as the An. 
nals of the iFour Masters incorrectlj 
state), in the year 1152. It was pre- 
sided over by Cardinal Paparo (as 
Legate of Pope Eugene III.), who 
dìstributed the palliums broaght by him 
from Rome to the four several arch- 
bishops of Ireland, according to their 
order of precedency, of Armagh, 
Cashel, Dublin, and Tuam, to procure 
which distinction for the metropolitan 
heads of the Irish Church had long 
been a favourite object with St. Ma- 

Besides the distribution of the pal- 
liums, the chief afEairs that occupied 
the attention of this synod were some 
enactments against simony and usury 
as well as against the prevalence of con- 
cubinage among the laity. There was 
also promulgated among the acts of 
this Council an order from the Cardi- 
nal, in virtue of bis apostolic autho- 
rity, for the payment of tithes. 

The Four Masters state that at this 
synod rules were enacted for putting 
away concubines and lemans from 

men, not to demand payment for 
anointing or baptizing, not to take 
money for church property, and to 
pay tithes punctually. Keating has 
extracted the following brief account 
of this synod from the Annals of the 
Church of Clonenagh, in Leìx : 

** Mìlessimo centessìmo quinqua- 
gessimo secundo anno ab incamatione 
Domìni nostri Jesu Christi bìssextile 
et embolismali anno, nobile concilium 
in vernali tempore, ad Dominicam 
Isetare Jerusalem, apud Ceanannas ce- 
lebratum fuit: in quo prsesidens D. 
Joannes Cardinalis PrsBsbyter Beati 
Laurentii in Damaso, inter vigenti 
duos Episcopos et quinque electos, et 
inter tot abbates, et Priores ex parte 
Beatorum Apostolorum Petri et Pauli, 
etDominiApostolici Eugenii,8Ìmomam 
et usuram omnibus modis extirpayit, et 
damnavit, et decimas dandas Aposto- 
lica authoritate prsecepit. Quatuor 
pallia quatuor Archiepiscopis Hiber- 
nise, Dublinensi, Casssilìensi, Tuam- 
ensi et Armachano tradidit. Insuper 
Armachanum Archieplscopum in Pri- 
matcm super alios, ut decuit ordina- 
Yìt. Qui etiam Joannes Cardinalis 

Chap. XX.] 



of Ireland assembled at Kells,^ for the reibrmation (as the old annaiist 
sajs) and restoratioD of ecclesìastical discipline and the amelioration 
of the morals of the people. Noe many years later, in 1157, a mixed 
assembly of bishops and nobles,^ enacted ecclesiastioal censures and 
other penalties against the violators of the laws of church or state. In 
the next jear, twenty-five hidiops met in Meath,*^ and in the presence 
of Christian O'Conaiurche, apostolica! legate, passed laws " for the 
refoimation of morals and of ecclesiastical discipline.'* Afterwards, in 
the jear 1162, twentj-seren hisheps, hesides ahbots and others sum- 
moned from the clergy, met at Ciane/ in Leinster, under Gelasius^ 

protìnns post peractum concilium iter 
airipuitp et nono Ealendas Aprilis 

*^ A mixed auembly, ffc, Thls a»- 
flembly met at Mellifont in 1157 (net 
at Dn^beda, as the F«iir Masters 
haye it). There were present seyen- 
teen bishops, together with the legate 
and the successor of St. Patrick, and 
a yast nnmber of persona of varìous 
ranks. Among the kings was Mur- 
cheartach Uà Lochlainn, Tìgheaman 
Uà Bnairc, Uà h-Eochadha, king of 
Uladh, and O'Cearbhaill, prince of 
Oiiyhiaìla. The prìndpal object of 
this assembly was the consecration of 
the church at Mellifont ; but after the 
eonsecration was over, the whole as- 
sembly, lay and derical, proceeded 
to enqoire into a diarge of murder 
bronght against Donnchadh O'Mai- 
Icachlainn, king of Meath; and on bis 
beìng fonnd guiltj, he was first ez- 
commonicated hj the clergy, andthen 
depiiyed of hìsprincipality by the mo- 
narch, with the consent of the other 
princes ; and bis brother, Diarmaid, 
was established in bis place. (J.O'D*) 
'^ Twewtjf-fioé hishopSy &c. This synod 
was held at a place called Bri-mie 

Taidhg, in the térritory of Iveleary, 
near the town of Trim, in East 
Meath. It was enacted at this 
synod that Derry should be raised 
to the rank of a regolar episco* 
pai see. The Four Masters remark 
that the bishops of Connacht, who 
"were going to attend this synod, were 
plundered and beaten, and two of 
their people Idlled at Cuirr-Cluana, a 
place on the Shannon, near Clonmac- 
noìse (in the Eing's County), by the 
soldiers of Diarmaid O'Maileachlainn 
[then recently set up in place of bis 
dex>osed brother as] king of Meath, 
and that they then retumed home. 
This fact is left untranslated by Col- 
gan in bis Annals of Derry. Trias 
Thavm, pp. 309, -505. fJ.O'D.) 

* Ciane, in the county of Kildare. 
It is strange that our author has bere 
omitted to notice the most curious 
enactment of this synod, by the 
dergy of Ireland, namely, «*that no 
one should be a Lector or professor of 
theology, in any church in Ireland 
who was not an alumnus of Armagh." 
See Triag Thaum, p. 211, 309, and 
Annals of the Four Masters, A.D. 
1162. (J.O'D.) 



[Gap, XX 

Armachano Primate Gelasio Cloeniam in Lagenia, praeter Abbates, 
aliosque de clero accitì, '' Multa circa clericalem disciplinam^ et mores 
salubri ter decreta sancì vemnt." Anno quoque reparatse salutis humanae 
1166 legati Apostoli acci tu/ ^ Oasseliam à clero concursum est, et 
Concilìnm ibidem babitum. T^mplum etiam solemni precatione con- 
[161] secratum est, duodecem Episcopis legatura accomitatis. | Anno post 
virginis partum 1167, ordines regni ad Comitia Atbbuytlocbtiae, a 
Rotberico Hibemiae rege indicta, frequentes confluxerunt, et praeter 
optimates plurimos, ac tres Arcbiepiscopos, tredecem etiam equitum 
millia eo accurrerunt. Ante vero quam comitia dimissa sunt, optiuiae 
leges ad prospiciendum Reipub. administrationi latae; et quae ante 
desuetudine obsoluerunt ad usum revocatae, ac immunitates Ecclesiastica^ 
omnium calculis comprobatae amplificataeque sunt. 

Hinc elicimus consuetudinem apud Hibemos proculdubio tunc inva- 
luisse, ut simulatque aliqua diflScultas in Ecclesia, aut Repub. derepente 
oriretur. Ecclesiastici, et Reipub. ordines capita et Consilia contulerint, 
quo malum antequam ejus initia multum progrederentur amoverent. 
Annon statim pene ac in Hibemiam Angli pedem intulerunt, Armacham 
ab ordine Ecclesiastico concursum est ? et ibi " statutum ut Angli 
ubique per insulam servitutis vinculo mancipati, in pristinam revocentur 
libertatem ?"^^ Ut nesciam quo pacto tam multae maculae gentis illius 

10 Annales Inisfal. Colga ad 28 Martii, p. 778. ii Cambr. Hib. exp. lib. 1, 
cap. 8. 

f To Cashel, Thi» synod is net 
mentioned in the Irish Annals, and it 
Ì8 very probable that it is a mistake, 
for the assembly which assembled at 
Cashel in 1134 to consecrate Cormac's 
church. (J.O'D.) 

' Athbuidhe Tlachtgha, now the 
town of Athboy, near the bill of 
Tlachtgha, now the bill of Ward, in 
the county of Meath. (J.O'D.) 

^ Knights. This should be horsemen, 
See Annals of the Four Masters, A.D. 
1167. Moore makes the whole num- 

ber 30,000, but this is certainlj a mis- 
take. (J. O'D.) 

* Statesy 8fc, revived. The Four 
Masters state simply : " They passed 
many good resolutions at this meeting 
respecting yeneration for churches and 
clerics and controul of tribes and ter- 
rìtories, so that women used to trang- 
yerse Ireland alone [i.e. unaccompa- 
nied by their protectors] and a resto- 
ration was made of bis property 
which had been taken from the suc-^ 
cessor of Patrick by the Ui^Failghe 

Chap. XX.] 



primate ofArdmacha, "and enacted many salutary canons, regarding 
morals and ecclesiastica] discipline.** In 1166 ihe clergy were con- 
\ókeà to Caiseal' by the apostolic legate, and a council was held. The 
(burch was solemnly consecrated, twelve bishops assisting the legate. In 
fceyearll67, alltheordersof thekingdommet in great numbers in the 
^inbljof Ath-buidhe Tlachta,* convened by RuaidhnO*Conchobhair, 
iiogof Ireland. It was attended by thirteen thousand knights,^ besides 
fxay great chieftains and three archbishops. Before its dissolution, 
licellent laws were enacted for the welfare of the kingdom, statutes 
ì|bìch had fallen into desuetude were revived,' and the liberty of the 
l^arch was unanimously approved and extended. 
, A custom had by this time grown up^ in Ireland, that in ali sudden 
toergencies of church or state, the lay and ecclesiastical orders should 
|eet and consult together, how the evil could he best arrested and 
iiSed at its birth. Was there not a council at Ardmacha^ immediately 
)(ter the landing of the English P did not the clergy there decree that 
t the English who were kept as slaves, throughout the whole island 
Éould be restored to their former liberty P'* Is it not incredible, that a 
|eople who liad such vigilane guardians, who watched the incipient 
«buse, should yet bave contracted so many foul stains on their reputa- 
? Bishoprìcs, moreover, were more numerous™ in Ireland in those 

U the intercession of the aforesaid 
foga. (J.O'D.) 

^ Had grown up l Had not this cus- 
^exìsted from the remotest period 
theneyer the interests of the laity 
^cre concemed ; but after the English 
ÙTasion the heads of the clergy met 
At Caiseal, and consented to receive 
^17 II. of England as their sover- 
^) vithout the consenta and even 
pitk(mt the knowledge of the king of 

tkndf or many of the provincial 
ces. (For facts directly contrajy, 
Lanigan, rol. ìy., p. 201, and 

tes at the end of next chapter. 
F'K.) For this they repented them 

I 25 

soon after. (J. O'B.) 

* A Council at Ardmacha. "yVhere is 
the authority for this? (J, 0*D.) 
Giraldus : not a good authority it is 
trae for facts said to bave occurred in 
the north of Ireland. (M.K.) 

^ Bishoprics more numerous, This 
is rery true, for previously to the 
synod of Bath Breasail in 1 1 18, al. 
most every distinguished church and 
monastery in Ireland had a bishop. 
But the complaint made by Giraldus 
was, that the Irish bishops were gener- 
ally taken from the regular or monas» 
tic clergy, and that they were habitu- 
aliy indolent, and not at ali as actire 


morìbua iafaterere potuerint, quEe Um perspicacea speculatoreshabuiti 
eas ubi prìmum erupermt comprila endas. Huc accedit quod in plui 
Epiacopatus olÌm Hìberaìa quam nunc dissecta fuerìt ; et cantini 
plai'ca Episcopi saluti populorum invigìlaverint, qui crebras itinera 
molestias boni communis causa impigrè aubieruut. Ut bine cunsl 
cum domi quicscerent aedulaui operam Institnendo gregi suo narasg 

iiL _„:_ 1 -atione quam maxime, ut quia sacro etiam Episc^ 

iorum se negolìis solUcitius ingereret, et in suscep 
a ae pneberet. 

Ile taken fi^m the foundation In faci, though it v 
is remark of Gi- not hold good at the preseiit i 
not without some (J.O'D.) 


àvs than at present ; a greater number of bishops watched over the 
spirìtoal welfare of the people, and as they often encountered with 
alaerìty the fatìgaes of a joaniey for the common weal, surely they 
knist hare labored strennously for the instruction of theìr flock when 
lev were at home in their dioceses. For nothing can he conceived 
abhorrent to common reason, than that a person exalted to the 
d order of bishop, should zealously intrude in the business of 
irs, and neglect his appointed duty to bis own flock. 


388 CAMBRENSIS EVERSUS. t^^**- ^^^I- 



[161] S. Cormaens Momon!» rex. [162] Genealogia vicecomitis MuBcris.— TerdèlTachl Hiberid 
regis lans.— Marchertachi regia lana.— Ratisponense chronlcon. [163] Rex Conchanms. — 
Abbas Ratisponensis obtinet subsidium ab Hibemia. — Concbanms 0*Brien rex Momoniae. 
[164] Terdelvachns O'Brien MomonisB rex. — Gregorins Hibemns abbas Ratisponensis. — 
Biarianns Hibernus prsBceptor AdriansB pap» IV. [166] Hibemi celebres Adriano contanei. 

QuoD si tempora paulo anteriora cogitatìone percurramus, et populi 
mores regum morìbus metiamur, morum spurcitiem Hibemis falso 
adscriptam fuisse deprehendemus. Lectori ob ociilos è S- Bernardo, 
Annalibus Innisfalensibus^ Tigernacique Oontinuatione tanquam in 
tabula proponam quibus morìbus S. Cormacus Macchartius priinum 
Desmoniae, deinde totìus Momoniae rex excultus fuerit, ut bine eorum 
quibus imperavit mores ediscantur. 

Anno Cbristi nati 1127 Terdelacus O'Concbaurus HibemiaB rex 
Cormaco agris exiito, Donatum Cormaci fratrem in Australis Momoniae, 
in Aquilonari autem regno Concbaurum O'Brien substituit :* *' Quare 
Cormacus rex pulsus regno, ad Episcopum Malchum confugit, non 
tamen ut ope illius regnum recuperaret, sed magis prìnceps devotus 
dedit locum irae, et necessitalem in virtutem convertii, privatam eligens 
ducere vitam regium fastigium deponens, quasi unus ex pauperìbus 
fratrìbus expectans potius Domini voluntacem, quam per vim recipere 
regnum, nec voluit prò suo bonore terreno, sanguinem bumanum fon- 
dere qui centra se clamet ad Deum de terra. Itaque traditur regi 

1 S. Bernard in vita S. Malachiae, e. 4. 

• Bishop of Lismor, who had ac- those days. 
quired an extnordinarj reputation in 

Chap.XXI.] cambrbnsis evbesus. 389 



ri] St. Cormac king of Manster. f 162] Genealogy of Visooant Muskerry.— Eulogy of Toir- 
dfaealbhftch, an Irish king: and of king MairohMitach.— Chronlcles of Ratisbon. [163] 
' King Conchobhar.— The abbot of Ratisbon obtalns money from Ireland.— Conchobhar 
i O'Brìain, king of Mnnster.— Gregorins, Irish abbot of Ratisbon.— Marianus, an Irishman, 
I preceptor of pop« Adrian IV. [165] Cclebrated Irishmen oontemporariei of Adrian. 

p we examine the perìod ìmmediately preceding, and estimate the 
lorals of the people from the character of their kìngs, we shall be 
pnvinced that the charge of prodigate immorality made agaìnst the 
pish was calumnious. Let us place hefore our readers, from St. 
Bernard, the Annals of Innisfallen and the contìnuation of Tighearnach, 
\ moral portrait of S. Cormac Mac Carthaigh, at first king of Deas- 
«kmba and then of ali Munster. We may thence estimate the 
^àaracter of bis suhjects. 

f In the year 1127, Toirdhealbhach O'Conchobhair, king of Ireland, 
iving expelled Cormac from bis territitories, gave Deas-Mbumba 
Donnchadh, Cormac's brotber, and Tuath-Mbumba to Con- 
lobhar 0*Briain. " King Cormac thus driven from bis kingdom, 
ired to bisbop Malchus,* not to imploro bis belp for the re- 
ery of bis kingdom, but rather, pious prince that be was, to 
k»w to the storm, and make a merit of necessity ; preferring to 
K^e as a private man, renouncing the pomp of royalty, and, in 
Se humble guise of a poor brotber, waiting patiently the will of the 
tord, rathei than recovering bis crown by violence. He would ne ver 
pnsent to purchase bis earthly dignity at the expense of human blood, 
ftich would ciy out to God against bim from the earth. A poor 

^ He had been sent to Lismor by siastical knowledge and discipline. 
p« CelgUB to perfect himself in eccle- 


paupercula domus ad habitandum^ et Malacbias in magistrum ; ad vie 
tum panìs, cum sale et aqua. Ad haec per singulas noctes lachrimis sui 
lectrum suum rigabat^ sed quotidiano aquse frigìdse balneo male calei 
tem extinguebat in carae libidinem." 

Paulo autem post Concbanrus O 'Brian, quem anteadixi Aquilonari 
Momonise regnum Hibemiae rege conferente retulisse " videns qm 
facta sunt, repletus est zelo^^ et bine quidem indignans prsedonm 
libertati, et insolentiae superborum, inde miseratus regni desolationes 
et regis dejectionem," cum fratre Terdeluaco, *'descendit ad cellula! 
pauperis." Cui Cormacus, " accedente mandato Episcopi, et Malachi 
Consilio, vix tandem acquievit." Etpostea Cormacus, "pulsis prsedon 
[162] bus reduci tur | in sua, cum exultatione suorum, regnoque restituiti 
suo." Qui deinde S. MalachiaB, fratrumque tanto amore tenebatur,! 
eum è patria bostibus irruentibus eversa, ''cum centum et viginti fis 
tribus" in Momoniam concedentem quam laetissimus exceperit, ilb^ 
comitibus necessaria omnia abundè subministrans. " Ibracense quoqi 
monasterium'* quod incolerent iis extruxit :^ " adducta incontinen 
animalia multa ad usus fratrum ; multa insuper in auro, et argento a 
sumptus aedifìciorum prò regia liberalitate collata. Ipse quoque en 
intrans, et exiens cum eis sedulus, et officiosus, habitu quidem rex, u 
animo discipulus Malachiae. Et benedixit loco illi Dominus propb 
Malachiam, et in brevi factus est magnus rebus et possessionibus » 

Scribit clarissimus Warrajus suo judicio boc fuisse monasterium quo 
in comi tatù Corcagiensi, Cormacus ille " Canonicis Regularibus S 
Auguslini circa annum 1134 in honorem S. Joannis Baptistae con 
struxit:^ et Dermicius ejusdem Cormaci filius, et successor posses 
sionibus ditavit, circa annum 11 73 ; quod a multis annis, antiquaJ^ 
priore nomine monasterium de Antro S. Finborri, et Gille-Abbe\ 

' Ibidem, » Cap. 6. * Antiquit. Hibernia, p. 196. 

• The site of this monastery is not our author has it, is the same as Ive 
clearly ascertained. Dr. Lanìgan ragh, a barony in the county f 
thinks that Ibrach or Ibracen as Kerry ; might it not be tJiberchon ù 

Chap.XXI.] CAMBBBNSIS etsbsus. S91 

iwelling was therefore assigned to the king, and Mael-maedfaog^ was ap- ' 
pointed his master; bis food was bread, and salt and water. Moreorer, 
flfeiy night he watered his couch with his tears, and repressed by a 
loldbath every day the intemperate ardor of carnai concupìscence." 
^ In a short lime, Conchobhar O'Briain, whom we saw receivirig Tuath- 
ICliQmha from the hands of the king of Ireland, ''hearing what 
p& done, was influenced with zeal and indignatión àt the 
jkentiousness of the robbers and the insolence of the proud ; pitying, 
poreo?er, the desolation of the kingdom and the deposition of the king/' 
^went down with his brother Toirdhealbhach " to the celi of the poor 
bther." Cormac, after a considerable resistance. obeved the order of 
|e bisfaop and the advice of Mael-maedhog^ " and going forth, dis- 
psed the bands of robbers, and was brought home, to the great joy of 
Kb subjects, and re-established on his throne." Henceforward he was so 
|eroted a fìiend of St. Mael-maedhog and of his monks, that when an 
kvasion of the enemy had compelled them to fly from their own coun- 
l|y, he received St. Mael-maedhog with open arms in Munster» and 
lunng sapplied abundantly ali their wants, " founded for them the 
ttomtery of Ibracen."*^ A largo stock of cattle was instantly pre- 
«CDted for the use of the brethren, and gold and silver in royal profu- 
iOQ for the expense of the baildings. The king himself often asso- 
«ated with the monks, like one of themselves, ever atténtive and soli- 
àtoQs for their interests ; a king in dress and hearing, but at heart a 
.lisciple of Sl Maelmaedhog. For Mael-maedhog's sake God blessed 
!^t place; in a short time it became great in treasures, in posses- 
fions, and in illustiioas men. 

According to the illustri ous Ware, this was the monastery founded in 
t^ecounty of Cork by Cormac, " for the canons regular of St. Angus- 
^òie, about the year 1134, in honor of St. John the Baptist; it was 
tfterwards rìchly endowed by Diarmuid, son of the same Cormac, in 
1172. For many years the old name, monastery of the Grotto of St. 
rinnbharr, has been obsolete, and it is now known as Gilla Abbey, so 
called from Gilla iEda, a celebrated abbot of that place, who died 

'be county of Kilkeimy, part of which Munster. 
formerlybelonged to the kingdom of 


dicitur, à Gil-iEda nimirum magia ibi nominis Abbate, et postea 
Episcopo Corcagiensi qui obiit anno 1173." Dermitius autem ille 
Connaci filius fundasseanno Dom. 1172 fertur monasterium Maurense 
si ve de fonte vivo,* quod '* Monachis Cistersiensibus repletum est ex 
ccenobio Baltinglassensi." 

Cseterum Cormacus "duodecimo regni," et Christi anno 1138, a 
sicariis propinquorum qnorundam opera immissis occisus est ;^ malevo- 
lorum invidia virtutum ejus splendorem non ferente. Id tamen im- 
probi homines assequi non potuerunt quin in sanctorura album relatus, 

Non possum nobilissimo viro Donato Macchartio dìgnissimo Muscriae 
Vicecomiti non multum gratulari, quod genus ab hoc Cormaco recta 
serie ducat ; ipse namque filius est Connaci, nepos Dermicii, pronepos 
Tad«i, abnepos C ormaci junioris, abnepos C ormaci, trinepos Tadsei, 
qui patrem habuit Cormacum, avum Dennicium magnum, proavum S. 
Cormacura. Ut buie familise rebus gestis longè clarissimse non possim 
omnia fausta non ominari quae a tam preclara radice propagata fuìt. 

Non erit abs re fortassis hic advertere " Dermicium" illum S. Col- 
maci filium,7 et successorem a Cambrensi " Corcagiae" et " Duvenal- 
dem" O'Brien ^' Limbrici" regem appellarì ; cum hic Aquilonaris 
Momoniae, ille Australis rex certo certins fuerit. Utrique niminun 
illudere homo insolens voluit, dum vastiora regnorum utriusque spada 
ad arctas duarum urbium angustias insultando contraxerit.^ Facem 
Anglis in irrìsionibus hujusmodi praeferens, quorum '' productum ad 
Ligerim in Francia imperium tantum fastum genti à natura sua superbae 
attulerat, ut Carolimi VII. Biturigum, id est unius civitatis regulum 
per deridiculum vocitarent.*' 

Quinquaginta oirciter annos ante Momonise regnum à S. Cormaco 
initum, Terdelachum 0*Brien Hibernia? regem S. Lanfrancus Cantuari- 
ensis Archiepiscopus bis effert elogiis, in literis ad ipsum datis sic eam 
compellans: "Tot tantaque bona de magnitudinis vestne ergabonos 
pia humilitate, centra pravos districta severitate,^ circa omne hominam 

*Ibid. p. 19. •Catalogus Reg. Momon per Oduv. Catolog. SS. Hiber. 
patrii. Filzfinon. ' Hibemia expug. lib. 1, e. 53. * ]pioru8 Franai, lib. 3, e 
42. ' Apud VàhaBrum in Sylloge, p. 71. 

Chap. XXL] 



bishop of Cork^ A.D. 1173."<^ Diarmuìd, son of Connac, is also said to 
bare founded the monastery of Maur, or de fonte vivo, " which was 
fiopplied wìth Cistersian monks froin the monastery of Baltinglass.'^ 

I cannot but congratulate the most noble and worthy Donnchadh 
llac Carthaigh, Viscount Maskerry, thathe is descended in a direct line 
from Cormac ; he is son of Cormac, grandson of Diarmuid, great grand- 
300 of Taidhg, grandchild's grandson of Cormac the younger^, graud- 
cbild's grandson of Cormac, great, great grandchild of Taidhg, who was 
wm of Cormac, grandson of Diarmuid Mor, and great grandson of St. 
Connac. When I reflect on the noble deeds of this, the most illus- 
iious of ali our families, I cannot but augur the most promising fruit 
ftom the scion of so noble a stock ' 

It maj be useful to observe bere that Diarmuid, son and successor of 
8t Cormac, is called by Cambrensis king of Cork, and Donihnall O'firiau 
king of Limerick ; though it is certain the former was king of South, 
tiie latter of North Monster. The impudent man intended to insult 
theiD, by contemptuously confining the wide boundaries of theìr king- 
km to the narrow circuit of two cities. To him the English are in- 
debted for their talent in dispensing such disparagìug titles, " thus 
wlien they had pushed their conquests to the Loire, in Trance, their 
oatural prìde was swoUen to such a degree that they contemptuously 
ttvled Charles VII. king of Bourges, or petty king of one city." 

About fifty years before the accession of St. Connac to the throne of 
Munster,St. Lanfranc,Archbishopof Canterbury, in a letter to Toirdheal- 
bhadh O'Briain, king of Ireland, addresses him in the following compli- 
wentary terms : " We bave leamed from Patrick, our brother and fellow 

*For some remarks on this abbey, 
and on the rule adopted by its monks, 

see Dr. Lanigan, voi. ir., p. 92, 106, 


' The site of the monastery of Maur 
(ilagh ut) is net identified by our 
ordinaiy authorities. 

'One generation is left out bere by 
our author, for the person whom he 
addresses was Donnchadh Mac Car- 
thaigh Viscount Muskerry, General of 

the Catholics of Munster in 1641, who 
was created Earl of Clancarthy in 
1658, and died in 1665, was son of 
Cormac Og, who was created Baron 
of Blarney and Viscount Muskerry in 
1628, (from whose brother, DomhnaJl 
Spaineach MacCarthaighof Carrigna- 
var is descended,) who was son of 
Cormac, chief of Muskerry, son of 
Taighd, &c. The title was attainted in 
1691. See Pedigree of Count Mac 



genus discretissima equìtate frater et coepiscopus noster Patrìcius nar- 
ravit, nt quamvis vos nunquam viderimus, tanquam visos tamen vos 
diligamus, ut tanquam visis, et bene cognitis salubriter consulere, et 
sincerissimè servire cupiamus." 

Murchertachum et O'Brien, qui Terdelachum patrem in regno proxime 
secutus est, bis verbis S. Anselmus alloquitur. " Gratias ago Deo de 
bonis multis, quae de vestra celsitudine audio. ^^ Inter quae est hoc, 
quia gentem regni vestri, in tanta pace facitis vivere, et omnes boni 
qui hoc audiunt^ Deo agunt gratias^ et vitse vestras diatumitatem 

Reverendus admodum ac felicis memorìse pater Stepbanus Vitus è 
societate Jesu, sacrae TheologiaB Doctor, et ejusdem professor emerìtus^ 
utpote quam in scholis Ingolstadii^ Dilingae^ et Mussipoti, aliisque 
Germaniae locis quindecem annos docuit, vir omni pene erudi tionis 
genere impensè cumulatus aliquandiu penes se habuit vetustum coenobii 
Scotorum Ratisbonensis Chronicon ; et ex eo quae è sua fore censebat 
excerpsit. | Quae Chronicon illud prolixius et verbosius, Vitus contrac- 
tius narravit, luxuriem ejus resecans, et quae supervacanea erant mfssa 
faciens ; ita tamen ut à sensu ne latum unguem abscesserit : et eadem 
omnino locorum, et personarum nomina quae in autographo erant 
usurpaverit. Nunquam ego scriptum vidi anachronismis magis inqui- 
natum, attamen è patris Viti apographo ea desumam quas regum 
Hibernorum pietatem, et liberalitatem luculenter aperiant. Hoc 
solummodo praefatus Patrem Vitum asserere plagiarium aliquem scul- 
pello adhibito ubi haec verba " ex Scotia seu Hibemia Insula" offen- 
disset, posteriores voces, "seu Hibernia Insula*' protinus abrasisse, 
non ita tamen penitus delevisse quin abrasarum vocum vestigia adhuc 
visantur, nimiram ut hoc fuco lectorem ad credendum adduceret, de 
Scotia Britanniae sermonem in eo monumento non de Hibemia insti tui. 

10 Ibidem. 

Carthy by Monsr. Laine, p. 72 to 79, » And not without gaining some- 

and the Pedigree of Mac Carthy of thing more than empty glory for 

Carrignavar, given in the Circuit of his country ; for before the middle 

Muircheartach Mac Neill, printed for of the 17th century, the Scots of 

the Irish ArchaBological Society, p* North Britain had succeeded in re- 

64. (J. 0*D.) coYeringezclusiveposflessionoffleTeral 


Uop, somany and so signal proofs of the pious humility of jour gi'eatness 
towards the good, and of your inexorable severi ty towards the wicked, 
<Dd your most prudent justice to ali classes of persona^ that though we 
kve ne?er seen you, our love for you is not therefore the less, and we 
desire to offer you salutary counsel and to serve you most sincerely, as 
if vou had been our familiar and well-tried friend." 

St. Anselm^ also^ addresses in the followìng words Muircheartach 
iO'Briain, son and immediate successor of Toirbheabhach : " I give 
Éanksto God for the many good things which I hearofyour Highness, 
•nd especially for the profound peace which the subjects of your realm 
hijoy. Ali good men who hear this give thanks to God, and pray that 
|e may grant you length of days." 

\ The Reverend Father Stephen White, of happy memory, member of 

ée Society of Jesus, doctor and professor emeritua of theology, who 

%iight during fifteen years in the colleges of Ingolstad, Dilingen, 

WurbuTgh, and other places in Germany, a man of profound and 

ibost unìversal erudition, had in bis possession for some years an old 

tbonicle of the monastery of the Scots at Ratisbon, and extracts from 

ti wkt he though t might suit bis subject. He briefly gives the sub- 

«tauce of the verbose and diffuse document, lopping ofF its exuberance, 

fiid discarding ali irrelevant topics, but stili adhering strictly to the 

fcnse, and retaining the identical names of places and persons which 

wcurin the autograph. I never met a document so full of anachron- 

Kms, but it contains the following evident proofs of the piety and 

inuniiìcence of the kings of Ireland. Be it observed, however, by way 

of preface, that Father White says, some plagiarist, meeting the words 

"from Scotia or the island of Ireland," erased with a knife the latter 

words, " or the island of Ireland," but not so perfectly that traces of 

ihe erasure were not distinctly perceptible. The object of the plagiarist 

^as to appropriate to the Scotia of Britain, what the document attri- 

! ^utes to Ireland.^f 

1 * the German monasteries originally pressed or otherwise niined, or ap- 

1 'ounded by the Irish. About the pe- propriated to the use of the Germans. 

I ^ of the Reformation, almost ali See in the Bollandists, Feb. 9, a most 

: ^^ houses had, in Catholic as well interesting history of the origin of 

' '^s Protestant statcs, been either sup- those monasteries by a contemporary . 

396 cambeensis eveesus. [Cap, xxr, 

Nunc subjuiigo Apographì verba : '' Isaacus, et Gervasius qui nati 
erant in Hibernìa stirpe nobiliore^ atque egregie à pietate, literis, elo- 
quentia instructi^ qiiibus conjuncti sunt alii duo Scotìgense B iberni, 
Conradus Carpentarius^ et Guillelmus ad Hiberniam pervenerunt, et 
salutato HiberniaB rege Concbur O'Brien cognomento Slaparsalach, 
causam ei adventus sui exposuerunt ; qui eos bumaniter excepit, atque 
post aliquot dies in Germaniam honorifice remisit onustos ingenti vi 
aurì, argenti, et pretiosorum aliorum donorum. Alii principes Hiber- 
nise amplissima in Germaniam revertentibus munera varii generis 
contulerunt Isaacus autem, et Gervasius missi erant in Hiberniam 
tanquam legati à Dionisio Scoto consecrati Petri Ratisbonae Abbate 
petituri subsidium, et eleemosinam à regibus et principibus sui soli 
natalis. His pecuniis ex Hibemia submissis emit Abbas aream novo 
monasterio extruendo commodam ad Occidentalem partem Ratisbonse, 
quod" opus politum evasisse apographum his verbis ezprimit : " Scien- 
dum est quod nec ante nec post tam magnum claustrum tam nobili 
structura in turribus, parietibus, columnis, testudinìbus tam cito erectum 
et paratum ad plenum sicut istud claustrum, quìa abundantia divitìarum, 
etpecuniae regis Hibemiae, et aliorum Principum erat sino mensura." 

Porro Concbaurus ille 0*Brien, qui sumptus ad Ratisbonense S. 
Jacobi coenobium suppeditavit, Momouiae tantum, non universse Hiber- 
niae rex erat, cui Slaparsalach tanquam agnomen adbaesìsse libellus 
etiam 0*Brìenorum stirpem in familiarum quasi ramos diducens edocet. 
Titulum regis Hibemiae ab hujus Cbronici scriptore fortassis ideo 
retulit, quod legati eum in illa ditione ad quam appulerunt late domi- 
nantem conspicati, titulis quam honorificentissimis omaverint, ob illius 
magnificentiam, totius Hibemise regionibus potestatem ejus definitam 
esse rati. 

Concbaurus autem ille in Annalibus nostris initium regnandi anno 
post partum virginìs 1127 fecisse, et peregrinati onem Kildariae anno 

^ This was the first monastery of north of Ireland ; Denis, or tts the 

the Irìsh at Ratisbon, erected about name is written bj others, Domnus or 

the year 1068. It was govemed sue- Dominicus, was from the south, and 

cessively by siz abbots, country men ofthe family of the MacCarthaigha* 
of the founder Marianus from the 


Tbe foUowing are the words of the iranscript : " Isaac and Gervase, 
who were bom in Ireland of noble families, and were eminent for 
pietV; leaming and eloquence, carne to Ireland in company witb two 
other Irish Scots, Conrad Carpenter and William, and having paid their 
respects to Conchobbar 0*Brìain, king of Ireland, sumamed Slaparsa 
kh, explained to him tbe object of tbeir joumey. They were kìndly 
welcomed, and after a few days were bonorably sent back to Germany, 
loaded witb ricb presents of gold and silver, and otber ptecious gifts. 
They received also from otber Irisb princes, on tbeir way, abundant 
^sents of difierent kinds. Now Isaac and Gervase bad been com- 
Éissioned to make tbis joumey to Ireland, by Dionlsius tbe Irisbman, 
Ibbot of St. Peters^ at Ratisbon, to beg alms and assistance from tbe 
fogs and princes of bis native land. Tbe money sent from Ire- 
kndpurcbased for bìm a commodious site for a monastery on tbe 
testem side of Ratisbon ;'' and wbat a noble constniction it was tbe 
«py tells in tbe following words : " Now be it known, tbat neitber before 
tOT since was tbere a more noble monastery, sucb magnificent towers, 
talls, pillars, and roofs, so rapidly erected, so perfectly finisbed, as in 
Aiis monastery, because tbere was no bound to tbe wealtb and tbe 
ffloDey sent by the king and tbe princes of Ireland."* 

Xow tbis Conchobbar O'Briain, by wbose munificence tbe monastery 
of St. James at Ratisbon was built, was not king of Ireland, but of 
Mnnster only, and tbe same was sumamed Slaparsalacb, as is proved 
from the hook of pedigrees, which traces ali tbe brancbes of the 
O'Briain family. The author of the chronicle probably gave him the 
titleofkìng of Ireland, because when the deputies landed and travelled 
'^ough the extensive territory tbat obeyed bis sceptre, they gave him 
t^emost exalted title, supposing from bis extraordinary magnificence, 
ihai he must bave ruled over the wbole kingdom of Ireland. 

This Conchobbar began bis reign, according to our annals, in the year 
'l'^7, and died on a pilgrimage to Killdara in 1142. He sent, says 

'Aid was sent from otber quarters king 100 marks worth of skìnsor furs, 
^' One of the monks penetrateci the price ofwhichcompletedthecIoi8- 
^ far as Eiow in Russia, and brought ter and roofed the church. Bollan- 
*iometo Ratisbon as a gift from the dists, Feb. 9, p. 369, e. iv. 


Domini 1142 obeuntem vita excessisse dicitur, quem scriptor hic ''per 
magnse nobilitatisi ac poteutise comites cruce signatos^ et Hierosolimam 
petituros, ad Lotharium regem Romanorum ingentia munera misisse 
tradii :" Qui non potuit alias esse^ quam Lotharius secundus Impera tor 
fato functus anno Christi nati 1138. Ut eam Conchauri largitionem 
in ea tempora incidisse oportuerit, quibus ille in regno Momoniae S. 
C ormaci coUegam egit. 

Sed author meus prosequitur dicens : " Christianus Abbas monasterìi 
Scotorum S. Jacobi Ratisbonae vir nobilis, ex stirpe primaria familiae 
Maccartbi in Hibemia, jam exbaustis thesauris olim Ratisbonae sub- 
missis à rege Hibemise, videns suos inopia laborare subsidii bumani^ 
rogatu fratrum suorum ut novum repeteret levamen egestatis, concessit 
in patriam suam Hibemiam, ut a rege ejusdem Christianissimo, ac 
devoto Donato O'Brien dicto, (jam enim vita functus fundator consacrati 
Petri, et monasterii S. Jacobi Scotorum rex Concbor O'Brien) et ab 
aliis Hibemiae magnatibus impetraret eleemosinas. Quem rex Donatus 
cum regina uxore et principibus Hibemiae, feliciter expeditis suis 
negotiis reditum in Germaniam parantem oneravit ingentibus thesauris. 
Sed Christianus in Hibemia spiritum Deo reddidit, et honorifice sepultus 
est ante altare S. Patricii Ecclesiae metropolitantae Cassellensis." 

Verum nuUus per ea tempora Donatus O'Brien, aut Hibemiae, aut 
Momoni» rex fuit. Donatum Maccarthium Desmoniae tum rex fuisse 
forte hinc elici potest, quod anno post Cbrìstum natum 1127 Australis 
[164] Momoniae rex à | Terdelvaco O Connor Hibemiae rege renuntiatus, 
post Cormacum è medio sublatum, Desmoniam fortasse sibi vendi- 
caverit, cum eà, superstite Cormaco excluderetur. Tadaeo autem Mac- 
carthio, et Terdelvaco O'Brien in Momoniae regno, post Conchaurum 
é vivis ablatum collegis, Donatus Maccarthius, anno post deipar» 
partum 1144, in vinculis apud Tadaeum fratrum obiit. Qui Tadaeus 
regnum adeptus emulum etsi fratrem vinculis coercuit. Ut videas 
authorem vel in nomine, vel in cognomino allucinatum fuisse : cum 
debuerit vel Donatum Maccarthium dicere, vel Terdelvachum Obrien, 

^ The tract publìshed by the Bollan- that he retumed to German7 after 
dists, e. 4, intimates apparentlj, one visit to Ireland, but in e. 6, it 


this wrìter^ presenta of immense value to Lotbaire^ king of the Romans^ 
** by some lords of great rank apd power, who had taken the cross and 
were^n their way to Jerusalem." This must have been the emperor 
Lothaire the Seconda who died in the year 1138, and the presents must 
bave been Conchobbar, wbile he was colleague with St. Cormac 
in the throne of Munster. 

But to continue the narrative of our author, " Christian, Abbot of 
the Irish monastery of St. James at Ratisbon, being of a noble family, 
descended from the princely stock of the Mac Carthaìghs in Ireland, 
finding that ali the treasures sent by the king of Ireland to Ratisbon 
were exhausted, and not being able to get any aid from mortai for bis 
brethren, resolved at their request to make a journey to Ireland, bis 
own country, to get relief once more in bis distress, and charitable help 
from the most Christian and pìous king Donnchadh O'Briain, and the 
other great lords of Ireland^ as king Conchobhar 0*Briain, the founder 
of the consecrated monastery of St. Peter, and the Irish monastery of 
St. James, was already dead. King Donnchadh and bis queen, and the 
lords of Ireland, instantly gare a gracious ear to bis petition, and were 
preparing to send him back to Germany with enormous treasures, but 
Christian yielded up bis soul to God in bis native land,^ and was 
honorably buried before the aitar of St. Patrick, in the metropolitan 
church of Caiseal." 

But at this period there was no Donnchadh O'Briain, king either of 
Ireland or of Munster. Donnchadh Mac Carthaigh was then probably 
king of Deas-Mhumha because in the year 1127, the king of Deas- 
Mhomha, whohad been appointed by Toirbhealbhach O'Conchobhair, 
after the death of Cormac, perhaps took possession of Deas-Mhumha, 
from which he had been excluded during the life of Coimac. But after 
the death of Conchobhar, when Taìdbg Mac Carthaigh and Toirdhealbhach 
O'Briain were coUeagues on the throne of Munster, Donnchadh Mac 
Carthaigh died in 1144, a prisoner to bis brother Taidhg, who would 
not spare a rivai from prison, though he was bis brother. Our author 
therefore must have mistaken either the name or the surname. He 
should have said either Donnchadh Mac Carthaigh, or Toirdhealbhach 

records bis death as given in our called in German ** weiken," l.e. 
text. Ecdee. "Bxèt, rol. iv., p. 156. consecrated. 
The monastery of St. Peter*8 was 


quorum postremus cìtra dìibìum Momoniae regem tum egit» ut proinde 
ab ìlio munera Cbrìstianus proculdubio retnlerìt. In Momonis regum 
albo Terdelvacbus ille Tadaeum Maccartbium quadrìennem regni 
collecram habuisse, et in Annalibus^ vitam ad annum Domini 1165 
protraxisse traditur, tum denique Dalgassiae regno in Mnrcbertacbum 
filium collato, Kildaluam se cessìsse^ ut ibi peregrinationem obiens, 
animae saluti prospiceret ; sequenti tamen anno regnum denuo capessi- 
visse legitur. 

Hunc autem anno Domini 1150, aut multo secus à memorato Chris- 
tiane aditum fuisse quse dehinc è Chronico Ratisbonensi sabjicio 
insinuare videntur: "Vir magnse virtutis genere Hibernus nomine 
Gregorius ex ordine Regularium Canonicorum S. Augustini impetravit 
à Christiane admitti in ordinem S. Benedicti, qui Ch ristiano extincto 
apud Jacobi Ratisbonae in Abbatis munere sufiectus, Romam ab Adriano 
Papa consecrandus petiit." Interim monachis se aggregavi! ''egregius 
clericus Hibemensis nomine Marianus, vir doctissimus, qui multo tem- 
pore Parisiis publice septem artes liberales, aliasque professus fuit. 
Et erat ibidem praeceptor ejus Adriani, qui tunc sedi Apostolic» praeerat 
Romse cum Gregorius admissus esset ad audientiam Adriani, qui in ter 
alia illum interrogavit de Mariano suo quondam Parisiis praeceptore. 
Magister Marianus, inquit Gregorius, bene valet, et apud nos Ratisbon» 
seculo derelicto vivit Monachus. Adjecit Papa, gratias Deo. Ncque 
enim novimus esse in Ecclesia Catholica sub Abbate talem, qui excellat 
dapientia, prudentia, ingenio, eloquentia, bonis moribus, humanitate, 
dexteritate agendi, aliis divinis donis sicut magister meus Marianus etc. 
Gregorius Ratisbonam reversus à monachis urgetur, ut prò recuperandà 
pecunia quflB apud Hiberniae regem mansit in deposito proficiscatur. 
Qui in Hiberniam appulsus, cum cognovisset vita functum Donatnm, 
accessit ad ejus successorem Murchertachum O'Brien, cui Abbas exhibuit 
literas Conradi regis Romanorum. Rex Hibemiae gavisus de adveuta 
Abbatis, habuit ipsum honoriGce, tradiditque eidem totam, quse deposita 

^Dr. Lanigan adopts the opinion, proposes a few solid suggestìons in 
that this Toirdhealbhach 0*Brìain was support of that opinion. Ecc. History, 
the king intended by the writer, and voi. iv., p. 156. 


O'Biiain, the latter having been at that lime, certainly king of Mun- 
8ter,^and no doubt the person froin whom Christian received the pre- 
seots. The catalogne of the kings of Munster states that Toirdhealbhach 
RigDed joint]j wìth Tadhg Mac Carthaìgh, during four years; our an- 
alists record bis death at 1 165 ; he resigned the kingdom of the 
Bdgais to hìs son Muircheartach^ and went on a pilgrimage to Kill -da- 
lia for the good of bis soul, but on the following year retumed and 
Rsumed the sceptre. 

The siibjoined extract from the chronicle of Ratisbon, probably 
fo^es that he must bave been visited by Christian in or near the year 
050. "An Irìshman, named Gregorius, a man of great virtue, and of 
le order of the cai^ons regular of St. Augustine^ was received by 
ftristian into the order of St Benedict, and being elected abbot of St. 
kaes at Ratisbon> after the death of Christian, went to Rome to he 
Énseorated by Pope Adrian/' Ii^ the mean time, " a distinguished 
kish ecclesiasticy named Marianus, had entered the monastery, a most 
limed man, who had given lectures at Paris on the seven liberal arts 
IMlother subjects, and had among bis pupils thìs Adrian, who then 
Ila sitting in the apostolical chair/' When Gregorius was admitted to au 
ndience at Rome, Pope Adrian asked him, among other things, for 
ttne news of Marianus, bis old preceptor at Paris. " Professor Mari- 
teos," answered Gregorius, " is well, and has abandoned the world, aud 
fcnow living witb us a monk at Ratisbon." " God be praised,'' answered 
àe Pope. " I know not in the Catholic chiirch an abbot who has such 
t man under him, so eminent for wisdom, prudence, genius, eloquence. 
In morals, humanity, tact, and other divine gifts, as my master 
■arianus, &c." When Gregorius retumed to Ratisbon, he was pressed 
ky^ismonks to go to Ireland for the money which lay in the hands of 
Vie king. Accordingly he sailed to Ireland, and having leamed that 
le king was dead, he applied to bis successor Muircheartach O'Briaìn, 
^vbom he showed the letters of Conrad king of the Romans. The 
PJg of Ireland was delighted at the visit of the abbot, and after 
*ceiniig him with honor, gave him ali the money which had been de- 
fosited in the hands of the archbishop of Caiseal, and which was stili 
^ considerably augmented by the munificence of the other princes 

•f Ireland. With this money the abbot bought many farms, towns and 




[Gap. XXI. 

fait apud Casselensem Archiepiscopum pecuniam, quae adhuc valdè 
augebatur liberalitate reliquorum Hiberniee Magnatum. Quibus pe- 
cuniis emit Abbas plarìma prsedia, oppida^ villas, et in ipsa urbe Ratis- 
bona multas areas^ domos, et sumptuosa eedificìa. Et super bsec omnia 
snpererat ingens copia pecuniae regis Hiberniae ; et cogitavit Abbas 
Gregorius abundè prospicere tempio de sacra suppellectile, et construxit 
novum ex lapide polito magnifìcum, et vastse capacitatis cteDobium, 
diruto antiquo quod ruinam miuabatur." 

Caepti semel erroris luto autbor continenter inbaerens, Murcbertachum 
hunc ad regis Hibemise dignità tem efiert. Cum tantum Momonise 
regno, patri suffectus regnum ad annum Christi 1167 in Annalibas 
nostris produxisse dicatur. Nisi malìs Murcbertachum Maclocblin hic 
innui, qui anno Domini 1157 rex Hibemi» renuntiatus, anno Dom. 
1166 regnare, et vivere desiit: temporis certe ratio postremum hic 
ìnsinuari admittit, si caetera in eum quadrarent. Adrìanus enim Ponti- 
fex ultimum spiritum, anno post virginis partum 1169, emisi t. Itaque 
bas in Hibemiam itiones in Adriani quarti tempora incidìsse, et domi 
reges nostros virtuti, peregre Hibemos naviter incubuisse cemimns. 

™The diploma of Frederic II., 
A.D. 1212, confirms the privileges ai- 
ready conferred on the monasteries of 
St. Jame8*3 and St. Peter at Katisbon, 
by hi8 predecessors, Henry III., Hen- 
ry IV., Clothaire and Frederie^ I.: it 
mentions expressly about seventy 
different properties held by those 
monasteries, exclusive of eight vine- 
yards, seven mills, four dependant 
chapels, three fisherjes, and some 
forests and rights of pastnrage. None 
but ** Scoti" were entitled to enter 
those monasteries, *' ibidem solum- 
modo Scoti ìnhabitantes et nulli alii," 
and again, '* Solis Scotis tantummo- 
do de bonìs suis prout melius et uti- 
liu8 poterint dìsponere lioeat," See 
Ward's Vita S. Bomoldi, p. 205. 
A diploma of the Emperor Sigis- 

mnnd, dated 1422, recites and con- 
firms the act of Frederic ** in omnibus 
et singulis suis tenoribus punctis, 
clausulis, etc^ etc. prout scrìpta, seu 
scriptas sunt." But in the preamble 
he describes the monastery as " con- 
ventus monasteri! Scotonun et Hiber- 
nicorum de M^jorì Scotia," whenoe 
it ìs ìnferred by some that the Scotch 
as well as the Irish were then en- 
titled to the monastery. Irish writers 
deny the inference, because the diplo- 
ma confirms that of Frederic, tFhich 
cerlainly referred to Irish alone ; be- 
cause the particle ''et** might be 
taken not as a copulative, but as 
explanatory ; and finally, because the 
Irish being cert'ainly caUed Scots in 
the fifteenth century, espedally in 
Germany, the clause ** de Majori 

Chap. XXL] 



villages, and mauy plots of ground, and houses, and sumptuous buìld- 
iugs in the city of Ratisbon itself.*" But as there stili remained a large 
qaantity of the money of the king of I reland, the abbot Gregoriua 
resolved to piovide abundantly for the fumishing of the tempie, and 
bailt a new cloister of polished stone> and a monastery of immense prò- 
portions, after throwing down the old one,° which was falliug to ruin." 

Stili adhering to bis originai error, our author bere gìves Muirchear- 
tach the title of king of Ireland, though our anualists make him only 
successor to bis father on the throne of Munster, and assign bis death 
to 1167. Perbaps it may he Muircheartach Mac Locblinn, who was 
proclaimed king of I reland in the year of our Lord 1157, and reigned 
to bis death in 1166. If ali other circumstances concurred, we may 
consistently with chronology, maintain that he was the king referred to 
in the chronicle ; for Pope Adrian breathed bis last in 1 159. Now, as 
these joumeys which took place in bis day evidently prove that Irish 
kings at home and Irish ecclesiastics abroad were zealous in good works, 
is it not impossible to believe that pope Adrian would solemnly 
bave charged the Irish with depravity of morals P Would not the 
fear alone of being denounced as ungrateful bave deterred him from 

Scotia" may very well q.tialify both 
the preceding words, the sense being 
that no Scota but those of Scotia Ma- 
jor, were intended. It is mnch moie 
probable, however, that Scotch and 
Irish held some of those monasteries 
in common in the 15th and 16th cen- 
turies. Lesley, bishop of Boss, in 
bis work published, A.D. 1578, says 
of those establìshments, ** quorum 
mnltiB nostra memoria Scoti prsefue- 
runt, uti et nonnullis adhuc prssunt" 
De moribus, etc., Scotorum, p. 177. 
But Hargrave an EngUshman (apud 
Fitseum, A.D. 1484) speaking of 
Ireland, says, "nonnulla quoque 
famosa coenobia in Alemania con- 
struzit, qiue usque in hodiemum 
diem solos HibemicoB, ut fertur ad- 


B The new building at Batisbon was 
on a most respectable scale ; the old 
one ezcept the towers (preter tur- 
res) was thrown down, and rebuilt 
anew from top to bottom with square 
blocks of cut stone; it was loofed 
with lead ; the pavement was of polish- 
ed stone, diamond shaped, &c., '* qua- 
dris et politis lapidibus construens 
plumbo contexit; pavimento quadrit 
etiam lapidibus superficie tenus lievi- 
gatis ornato, nec minus claustro ca- 
pitellìs sculptis ac basibus * * * insuper 
aquaeductis omarit." Bollandists, 
Feb. 9, p. 372. At Eichstadt the 
Irish had a round church " {oTcam 
cydic» et rotundse, quod a Dominico 
sepulcro nomen habet." Ibid, p. 37L 



Ut non credibile sii Adrianum Pontificem tesùmonium exhibuisse, quod 
Hibemi moram foeditate tum laboraverìnt ; quem potius ingratitudinìs 
subeundse timor ab injuria Hibemis irrogandà coercere debuit. Rationi 
enim adversalur ut insti tutionis à Mariano H iberno perceptse benefìcio, 
non aliam gratitudinis vicem summus Pontifex rependeret, quani prae- 
[165] ceptoris sui nationi ignominiam, | mansuro scriptb infigere. Cuui 
praBsertim Hibemos in peregrìnis regionibus virtute ac literis ita excul- 
tos viderit, ut in aliis eruditione ac virtute imbuendis operam viriliter 

Nemo est in Christianae religionis arcanis vel mediocriter versatus, 
qui non religioni ducat è patria sua se tum efierre, cum in ea fidei 
rudimentorum ignoratione, morumque feritate passim laboraretur, et 
uberem virtutum, religionis, ac morum sementem in alieno solo facere* 
cum in natali solo earum rerum ariditas, ac sterilitas late domìnaretur. 
Nec credendum est quos relìque virtutes omarunt, cbarìtatem defecisse ; 
cujus justum exercitium in eo versatur, ut quis à seipso ac suis ante 
incipiat, quam ad remotiores beneficentiam extendat.^^ S. Paulus 
** optabat anathema esse prò fratribus suis qui erant cognati sui secun- 
dum camem." Profecto Hibemi non è patria, " turmatim" ut meus 
author loquitur, in exteras regiones ad virtutes, et literas peregrè dis- 
seminandas sese efianderent, nisi ea idoneis institutoribus redundaret. 

Non est dubium quin summus Pontifex rem hanc suis ponderibus 
apud animum debite librans decreverit nostrates non potuisse alibi 
docere quod domi non didicerint. Nec nescire potuit, ipso Pontificatum 
gerente, vel paulo ante, Dionisium, Isaacum, Gervasium, Conradum, 
Guillelmum, Marìanum praeceptorem suum, Christianum, et Gregorium 
Ratisbonae, Maurum cum duodenis aliis Monachis in Maniuggheusi 

>» Ad Rom. cap. 9. 

• The historian of this monastery, judico, quod sic procul a patria, so- 

the mother, as it was called, of most lius Dei juvamine, sine alicajos ter- 

of the Irìsh monasterìes in Germany, reni prìncipis, sine alicujas antistitis 

proudlj writes *« digriium admiratione adjutorio, sancti viri et simplìces pere- 

Chap. XXI.] 



naligning tfaem P It is ntterly abhorrent to reason, that the only 
mrkofhis gratitude for the service of bis Irish preceptor Marianus 
àoM be to transmit to posterìty a defamatory character of that pre- 
or s native country ; especially when he must have seen Irìshmen 
mg in foreìgn countrìes to such eminence in leamìng and piety, as to 
pe selected for the ardaous honor of instructing others. 
I Every person who has eren a slight knowledge of the. Christian re- 
|ioD, is very well aware that it would be a crime to desert one's 
)mtry, when it is plunged in savage deprayity and universal ignorance 
itbe rudiments of faith, and to go plant an abundant haiTest of virtue 
nreligion on a foreign soil, while barrenness and arìdity wastes the 
Iole extent of bis nativa land. The men who were so eminent for ali 
ier virtues, assuredly cannot be supposed deficient in charity, which 
qoires that its fmits should begin at home, with ourselves and our 
pds, before it extends its beneficence to others. St Paul desired to 
lome an anathema for bis brethren according to the flesh, nor would 
ke Irish have gone out in " crowds/* as our author says, " to instruct 
pign nations in virtue and leaming> if there was not abundance of 
ftlic instmctors left after them at home." 

*tiiepope, after duly weighing those facts, would certainly have come 
Itbeconclusion that the Irish could not teach abroad what they had 
Pleamed at home. He must have known, that either immediately 
kre or during bis pontificate, Dionysius, Isaac, Gervas, Conrad, 
fc preceptor Marianus, Christian and Gregorius at Ratisbon,® Maurus 
U twelve other monks, in the monastery of Maniurgghen, and 

inni de finibus Hiberniae, in suburbio 
wisponensi ad honorem Dei Jacob 
Dvide et prudenter ecclesiam con. 
lerant atqne adjutorioDei viventis, 
lio et auxilìo Calìxti Fapae, ac 
^peratoris Henrici Majoris, ita 
im fecqpint ut neque ìmperator, 
le Katisponensis episcopuR neque 
Bavariae, nec urbis ejusdem prse- 

fectus nec unquam aliquis hominum 
praeter Scotos veraciter dicere potest ; 
hsec est mea plantatìs, hsec est mea 
institutio ; jure hsereditario hanc do- 
mum Dei, hoc sanctuarium possum 
possidere," cap. 29, see the diploma of 
Frederic IL for the confirmation of 
the singular privileges enjoyed from 
the beginnìng by thcse monasteries. 




[Gap. XXI. 

coenobio, Macarium, ac diiodecem socios Herbipoli sanctìmonia, litera- 
rumque scientià floruisse. 

In ipsà Hibernià DioBcesis nulla Episcopum, nec Parochi a curionem 
desìderabat ; coenobia monachis cumulate instructa, et vetera restaurata, 
novaque excitata fuerunt. Continuata Episcoporum ac monasterìorum 
series in libris relata fidem facit nullo tempore, veì Episcopo», vel 
monachos defecisse.^^ Quanta vero sacerdotum copia Hibemiss sup- 
petierit, vel bine conjecturà quis assequi potest, quod anno Dom. 1143 
quingenti Presbyteri in coetum coierunt, praeter duodecem Episcopos, et 
Muredacbum O'Dubhtaicb Tuamensem Antistitem. Catbplicum aatem 
Tuamensem Arcbiepiscopum,^^ "virum gravem, et (ut illa ferebant 
tempora) eruditura," ad concilium Lateranense anno post Chrìstum 
natum 1179 Romae babitum comitati sunt ex Hibemia profìciscentem 
Laurentius Dublinensis^* Archiepiscopus, Constantinus Laonensis, 
Bricius Limbricensis, Augustinus Waterfordiensis, Felix Lismorensis, 
Episcopus. Qui si greges habuissent efFeratis moribus quales Hibemis 
universis aliqui affingant, non erant digni qui ad tam dissita loca evocati 
in concilium de arduis orbis terrarum negotiis adbiberentur. Cum 
paucos quorum instituendorum curam susceperant> cicurare vel ignor- 
arunt, vel noluerunt. Nec saltem eos Pontifex ille acciret, qui Henrico 
secundo Hibemise sibi vendicandae, ad illius incolas cultioribus moribus 
imbuendos, potestatem fecisse dicitur : ut vel bine suspicio mihi non 
levis oboriatur Alexandri tertii Bullam seque fictitiam esse, aut saltem 
subreptitiam, ac illam, qiiam ab Adriano quarto Alexandri decessore 

1' Cent. Tigernaci. i» Warraeus. . »* Notae Picardi in Neubrig. p. 752. . 

^ The principal Irish monasteries in 
Germany besides the two at Ratisbon, 
were at Nuremberg, Vienna, Erfort, 
Eichstacht, Wurtsburgh. The Scotch 
obtained exclusive possession of Wurts- 
burgh about the year 1595. Nurem- 
bergh according to Gaspar Bruschius, 
was held 278 years by the Irish from 
1140 to 1418, The Eraperor Con- 

rad III. 

Tradidit Hibernis patribug qui sorte beata 
Cseperunt sanctum religionis iter. 
Oucentis dccies septem, bis quatnor annis 
Hoc tenuere suo jure monasterium 
Frigus atHibernum, praecordia frigida tandem 
Arguii, inque dies crevit in bisce tepor. 

There is, as far as ttie editor is 
aware, no proof that any monastenr 
in Ireland was subject to the German 

CuAP. XXI.] 



Macarìas, wìth his twelve assocìates at Wurzbiirgi were celebrated for 
their sanctity and learaing.^ 

At home in Ireland eveiy diocese had ita bishop, eyerj parìsh its 
prìest, old monasterìes were repaired, new ones were boilt, and ali 
abiindantly snpplied with monks. The wrìtten catalogues of sees and 
monasterìes prove the uninterrupted succession of bishops and monks. 
So great was the number of prìests in Ireland, that 500 of them assem- 
bled in council in 1143, with tweWe bishops and Muireadach O'Dubh- 
thaich, archbishop of Tuam. Catholicus» archbishop of the same see, a 
pmdent, and a leamed man (for hisage) was accompanied to the council 
of Lateran, 1179, by Lorcan, archbishop of Dublin, Conn of Kill-da- 
Ina, Bric of Limerick, Augustine of Waterford, and Felix of Lis* 
mor.^ If their flocks were plunged in that hideous barbarism charged 
against ali the Irìsh by some writers, how could they he worthy of being 
called to a distant place to sit in council on the important interests of 
the Catholic world, men who either could not or would not beai the 
infirmities of those whom they were bound by duty to protect P That 
pope, at ali events, would not summon them,^ who is said to bave made 
over the dominion of Ireland to king Henry to improve the morality of 
the Irìsh. This fact alone justifies a strong suspicion that the Bull 
attrìbuted to pope Alexander is as spurìous or at least as surreptitious,' 

hooses except a Benedictine monas- 
tery of St. Mary in Boss, which was 
YÌsited by the abbot of St. James, 
(Wursburgh) in 1378 ; if a MSS. in 
mj possession can be depended on. 
The hìstory of these monasterìes fonnd- 
ed by the Irìsh in Germany is a very 
interesting subject. 

*> According to some accomits more 
than sìx Irìsh bishops attcnded that 
coimcil, see Lanìgan, voi. iv., p. 238, 

' If that argoment were good, gene- 
ral councìls could nevcr be held, at 
the precise time when according to 
oor author^s own Catholic prìnciples 

Bach coundils are most requìred, name* 
ly, in times of general disorder, be- 
cause then according to him no bishops 
could leave their dioceses. The very 
disorders of Ireland would be on the 
contrary a reason why some of ber 
bishops should attend a general coun- 
cil, to state them and enact a remedy. 
Moreover, ali Catholic bishops are 
and must be summoned to general 

' There is no reason for assuming 
that either bull is spurìous ; and it is 
quite clear that of Alexander III. at 
least, was not surreptitious. 



[Gap. XXI, 

idem Henricus de Hibemià suse ditioniadjungendà retulisse perhibetur.^^ 
" Nec S. Laurentius Dublinensis Archiepiscopus privilegia quaedam 
coDtra regisc dignitatis honorem zelo suae gentis ab Alexandro impetrasse 
ferretur/' sì idem Alexander Henrìcum ad Hib^miam sibi antea subJD- 
gandam sua authorìtate armasset. Nec Laurentium ad legati dignitatem 
eveheret, quem scivit arma tulisse contra Henricum in '^obsidioM 
Dublinensi ;"^^ et alios ad bellum ei fnovéhdum incitasse. Nec faeli 
tam pugnantia in summum Pontificem caderent. Nec S. Laurentioi 
vir sanctitate tam eminens, et supremo Ecclesie rectorì summe obse 
qufiosus, Pontificum diplomatibus si talia tum in rerum natura extitissent 
unquam literis, Consilio, et armis^ tam aperte obtineretur. Itaqa 
plurimae mihi sentiendi causee sunt infra memorands, Bullas ejusmoj 
nunquam à summis Pontifìcibus emanasse. 

" Cambr. Hib. exp. lib. 1, e. 22. »« Ibid. e. 22. 

* Dr. Lanigan, voi. iv., p. 248, ap- 
pears to doubt the concession of apy 
tuch prìvileges ; but it is quite clear 
that the bull cited by himself, ibid. p. 
243, containt a clause which would 
anno7 the irascible and tyraonical 

Henry ; after takiog under bis pn 
tection the church of Dublin, &c. t 
the Pope adds : "si quae igitur in fi 
turum ecclesiastica, secularìsve peri 
na hanc nostrsB constitntìomB pag 
nam scieus, contra eam temere Temi 

CflAP. XXI.] 



«s that by whicb pope Adrian is said to bave annexed Ireland to the 
domiuìons of king Henry. Neither could it ever be reported that St. 
Lorcan, archbisbop of Dublin^ bad, in bis patriotic zeal, obtained 
»me privileges irom pope Alexander^ derogatory to the dignity of the 
pwD,^ if the anthority of the same Alexander bad already anned Henry 
|r tbe conquest of Ireland. The pope would never bave niade St. Lorcan 
lis legate, wbo be knew bad taken the field against Henry at the siege 
pfDubliQ, and encouraged others to take arms.^ Tbe pope could not 
^re been gailty of sudi inconsistencies. Nor could St. LorcaQ himself> a 
jfrelate so eminent for bis piety, and so obedient to tbe supreme Pastor 
if the church, ev^er bave so openly resisted by bis letters, bis council, 
pid bis arms, those bulls of tbe Pope, bad they really existed/ There 
ire most abundant reasons, therefore, for believing that those bulls, 
thich I am about to produce, were never issued by the popes.^ 

litteiDptet, Bacando, tertiove com- 
l^nita, nisi reatum sunm digna satis- 
jpione correxerit, potestatis honoris^ 
^iignitate eareat" 

'That was in 1171 a year before 
^oander issued bis bull, and before 
™e bull of Adrian was published, see 

^ He would not resitt the just use 
of the power sanctioned by those bulls, 
but he should and did resist the abuse 
of such power, and the evils consequent 

^ No solid reason wbatsoever has 
been adduced against the authenticity 
of those bulls. 







Bulla Adriani qaarti. [167] Hibernia a legatis refonnata, Gelasias prlmas, Christianns le^atas, 
Giraldus legatus.— Malcbus Lismorensis. [168] 8. Imarus.— Michael rir Sanctus — GII- 
bertus legatas.— S. Ghrlstlanus.— Edanus eptsoopag.— GlllaBdha Corcagietisis epiaoopus. 
^lAater 8. Maìachisa.— Soror S. Malachiae. [169] Arunculus 8. Malachi».— Congainas 
abbas.— Mores Hibemorum ex vita 8. BfalachieB, et 8. Lanrentii.— Academia Armacbana ; 
episcopi laici Armachani, licet nxorati, litterati. [170] Legati In Hibernia.— Ratisbonenaes 
ab Hibernis instituti. [171] Num summi pontiflcis sint insularum domini.— Komani 
ebeu ! nunquam Hibemlam vicerunt. [172] Nulla mentio solutionis pensionis prò Hiber- 
nia.—- Nec annus nec dies est in bulla.— Diu suppressa.— Bulla centra legem natnrae et Jas 
gentium. [1733 Yarii bulle errores.— Nuntii solemnes non impetrarunt bullam — Nec 
Sarisberiensis impetrasse videtur. [174] Sarisberiensis cnm pontlfice colloquia, impemtores 
alii et reges pontiflcnm ceneuris conflxi. nunquam tamen Hibemi.— Sarisberiensis ad 
pontlficem non missus. [175] Petrus Blesensis tacet bullas istas— Alienum erat a probitate 
Sarisberiensis bullam extorquere.— Gulielmus IL Henricus I. decessores Henrici II. in 
ecdesiam injuriee. [176] Stephani regis in eedesiam injuriae.— Reges Hiberniae officiosi 
erga summos pontifices et episcopos.— Investiturie ratio — Westmonasteriensis errores 
deteguntur. [177] Est lex natura se deféndere — ratio conrertendarum nationum a pontl- 
fice usitata— Damna belli.— Fides bello non est inducenda. [171] Monitis, mlnis, et cen- 
suris nvtiones ad bonam frngem reTocantur non armis— pravee consuetudines panlatim 

Adriani quarti, et Alexandri tertii Bullas uberem convitiandi segetem 
Giraldo subministrasse nonnulli autumant. Ego vero compertum 
babeo plurimis eas vitiìs laborare, ac plerasque, illarum narratìones 
ventate destituì: eariim autem nsevos sigillatim exbibebimus, quo facilius 
evellantur. Ac primum Adriani quarti Bullam sub lectoris oculos 

" Adrìanus Episcopus servus servorum Dei, charissimo in Christo 
filio Illustri Anglorum regi salutem et Apostolicam benedictionem. 

" Laudabiliter et satis fructuosè de glorioso nomine propagando in 
terris, et aetemse felicitatis premio cumulando in coeli's, tua magnifi- 
centia cogitat, dum ad dilatandos Ecclesise terminos, ad declarandam 
indoctis, et rudibus populis Christian» fidei veriiatem, et vitiorum 




[Iffi] Bnll of AdrUn lY . IW\ Inland reformed bj the legates.— Primato OeUslns.— ChrUtUn, a 
legate.— Ginldos, a legato.— MalcliasofLismor. [168] S. Imar.— Michael a holj man.— 6il> 
bert a legato.— St. ChrisUan.— BishopEdan.— OUlhaedba Bishopof Cork.— Mother and sistor 
o(St.Mael-maedhof . [168] Undeof St. MaeLmaedbog.— Congan abbot— Morais of the Irlah 
fromtlieliTes of SS.Mael-maedhog and Lorcan.— College of Ardmaeba.— Lay biahopg of Ard- 
wicia- leamed, thongh married. [170] Legatos in Ireland — Ratisbon instructed bj the 
Ush. [171 J Are the popes lorda of the Islanda ? — The Romana never conquered Ireland. 
[172] The payrnent of Peter pence for Ireland not mentloned in faiatory.— No dato of day 
or year to the bull of Adrian— it waa long auppreaaed— It ia againat the law of nature and 
Un law of nationa. [173] Varioua errerà of that bull ; it waa not obtained by a aolemn 
embaa«y; John of Saliabury it wonld appear did not obtain it. [174] Conreraationa of 
John of Saliabury with the pope ; other kings and emperora» but not the Iriah, punished 
l^ythe censnres of the pope.— John of Saliabury not aent to the pope. [175] Peter of ^ 
Bloit does not mention thoae bulla — Ineonaiatent with the honeaty of John of Saliabury 
to extort auch a bull.— William IL and Henry I. predeceaaora of Henry II. oppreaaora of 
thechnreh. [1763 King Stophen anoppreaaor of the church.— The kinga of Ireland do- 
cile to the popea and bishops.— Manner of the inTestiture of Ireland.— Errerà of Matthew 
of Westminater refìited. [177] 8elf>defence a law of nature.— Mode of converting nationa 
foUowed by the popea. — Horrora of war.— The fUth ougbt not to he propagated by war. 
[178] Nationa are recalled to the paths of duty, not by arma, but by admonitiona, threata 
ud cenanres. — Bad onatoma ahould be aboUahed gradually. 

'^ouEpersons think that the bulls of Adrian IV. and of Alexander IH.» 
supplied abundant grounds for the invectives of Giraldus. But I am 
confìdent that these bulls are full of errors, and that most of their state- 
nients are utterly groundless, an assertion whìch can be more easily 
s^bstantiated by examining their blunders in detail. But first^ I pre- 
sentAdrian's bull to niy readers. 

"Adrian, Bìshop^ servant of the servants of God^ to bis most dear 
^^ in Christ, the illustrious king of the English, greetiug and Apos- 
tolica! a benediction." 

" The design of your greatness is praiseworthy and most useful, to 
fxtend the glory of your name on earth, and to increase the reward of 
your eternai happiness in heaven, for as becomes a catholic prince you 
'"teiid lo extend the limits of the church, to announce the tnith of the 


piantarla de agro Dominìco extirpanda, sicut Catholìcus princeps in- 
tendisi et ad id convenientius exeqiienduin, consilium Apostolicae sedis 
exigis, et favorem, in quo facto quanto altiorì Consilio, et majori discre- 
tione procedis, tanto in eo feliciorem progressum te (praestante Domino) 
confidimus habiturum, eo quod ad bonum exitum semper, et finem 
solent attingere, quse de ardore fi dei, et religionis amore princìpium 
acceperunt . Sane Hibemiam, et omnes Insulas, quibus sol justitis 
Christus illuxìt, et quse documenta fidei Christianse ceperunt, ad jus 
beati Petri, et sacrosanctse Romanse Ecclesiae (quod tuaetiam nobilitas 
recognoscit) non est dubium pertinere. Unde tanto in eis libentius 
plantationem fidelem, et germen gratmn Deo inserimus, quanto id à 
nobis intemo examine distrìctius prospicimus exig^ndum. Significasti 
quidem nobis (fili in Christo charissime) te Hibemiae Insulam, ad 
subdendum illum populum legibus, et vitiorum piantana inde extirpanda, 
velie intrare : et de singulis domibus annuam unius denari! Beato Petra 
velie solvere pensionem; et jura Ecclesiarum illius terra illibata, et 
.integra conservare. Nos itaque pium et laudabile desiderìum tuum 
cum favore congruo prosequentes, et petitioni tu» benignum impen- 
dentes assensum, gratum, et acceptum habemus, ut (prò dilatandis 
Ecclesiae terminis, prò vitiorum restringendo decursu, prò corrigendis 
moribus, et virtutibus inserendis, prò Christian» religionis augmento) 
Insulam illam ingrediaris, et quae ad honorem Dei, et salutem illius 
terr» spectaverint exequaris; et illius terrae populus honorifice te 
recipiat, et sicut dominum veneretur : jure nimirum Ecclesiarum illi- 
bato, et integro permanente, et salva Beato Petro, et sacrosanctse 
Roman» Ecclesi» de singulis domibus annua unius denarii pensione. 
Si ergo quod concepisti animo effectu duxeris prosequente complendum ; 
stude gentem illam bonis moribus informare : et agas (tam per te quam 
per illos, quos ad hoc fide, verbo, et vita idoneos esse perspexeris) ut 

» The copy of this bull in Fordun's made the pope more anzious toreform 

Scotichronicon, reads bere, «*in ex- barbarous countries," &c. &c. The 

tremo examine,*' i.e. the last judg- words in the Vatican copy given by 

ment. The sense in that case would our author, refer to the pope's self- 

be, *' that the dread of the strict ac examination on bis duties. 
count to be rendered at the last day, 


Christian religion to an ignorant and barbaroas people, and to pluck up 

the seeds of Tice from the field of the Lord, while to accomplish your 

design more effectually, you implore the council and aid of the Apos- 

tolic See. The more exalted your views and the greateryour discretion 

b this matter, the more confident are our hopes, that with the help of 

God, the result will he more favorable to you ; because whatever has 

itsorigìn in ardent faith and in love of religione always has a prosperous 

end and issue. Certainly it is beyond a doubt (and thy nobility itself 

has recognised the truth of it), that I reland, and ali the islands upon 

which Chrìst the sun of justice has shone^ and which have embraced 

the doctrìnes of the Christian faith, belong of right to St. Peter and the 

Holy Roman church. We therefore the more willingly plant them, 

with a faithful plantation and a seed pleasing to the Lord, as we 

bow by internai examination, ^ that a very rigorous account must he 

rendered of them. Thou hast communicated to us, our very dear son 

in Chrìst, that thou wouldst enter the island of Ireland to snbject its 

people to obedience of laws, to eradicate the seeds of vice and also to 

niake every house pay .the annual tribute of une penny to the blessed 

Peter, and preserve the rights of the church of that land whole and 

entire. Receiving your laudable and pious desire, with the favor it 

inerìts, and granting our kind consent to your petition, it is our wish 

and desire that for the extension of the limits of the church, the checking 

ofthe torrent of vice, the coiTectionof morals, the sowing of the seeds 

of virtue, and the propagation of the religion of Christ, thou shouldest 

^ter that island, and there execute whatever thou shalt think condu- 

cive to the honor of God, and the salvation of that land, and let the 

people of that land receive thee with honor, and venerate thee as their 

l^ord, saving the right of the church which must remain untouched and 

entire, and the annual payment of one penny from each house to St. 

Peter and the Holy Church of Rome. If then thou wishest to carry 

into execution, what thou hast conceived in thy mind ; endeavour to 

fonn that people to good morals, and both by thy self and those men 

vhom thou hast proved duly qualified in faith, in words and in life ; let 

tbe church of that country he adomed, let the religion of the faith of 

Christ be planted and increased, and ali ihat concems the glorj^ of God 


decoretur ibi Ecclesia, plantetur, et crescal fidei Christianae religio, et 
ad honorem Dei, et salutem pertinet animarum, per te taliter ordinentur 
ut à Beo sempiternse mercedis cumulum consegui merearis, et in terris 
gloriosum nomen valeas in seculis obtinere. Datura Romse etc." 

Quis non videt aliquem vel supina inscitia, vel non ferenda raalitìa 
infectum Adriani Pontificis auribus ista insusurrasse ? aut potius Adriani 
nomen accusationibus à se maligne fictis tanquam velum obtendisse ? 
sed et verba Adriano afficta mendaciorum accessione cumulat Mathaeus 
Westmonasteriensis dicens:^ "per id tempus rex Anglorum Henricus 
nuntios solemnes Romam mittens Papam Adrianum adhuc novum, cujus 
gratiam confidenter obtinere speravit, utpote Anglum, ut liceret ei 
Hibemiam hostiliter intrare, et eam sibi subjugare, atque homines illos 
bestiales ad fidem Christi decentius revocare, Ecclesiaeque Romanse 
fìdelius inclinare." 

Nunc quid ponderis delationes istae Pontificibus obstnisae habeant 
excutiamus. Verba quas Adrianus protulisse fingi tur innuunt in Hib er- 
nia desideratam quam maxime tum fuisse Ecclesiasticam disciplinain, 
[167] rectam | Reipub. administrationem, et morum probitatem. Imovitiis in 
eà passim indultum, et omni morum dissolutioni fraena ubique laxata 
fuisse. Verum ante jam evici, si de populi cujuspiam moribus è regum 
vivendi ratione conjectura fieri, aut sententia ferri debeat, plurimos in 
Hibemia reges fuisse quam optitnos, plerumque scriptoribus ad id 
monstrandum productis; regibus etiam iis de industria prsetermissis, 
quorum laudes domestici Annales praedicant. Quod autem Prìncipum 
suorum moribus nationes quseque se accommodent docet illud Claadiani 
Carmen : 

*' BegÌB ad ezemplum totus componìtur orbìs." 

Prsetereà è divi Bernardi de S. Malachia scriptis ostendi tantum ab- 
fuisse ut Hibemi per ea tempora vitiorum volutabro -impliciti fuerint, 

^It is DOW generally admitted by and 12th centurìes undoubtedly were, 

Irish historians, that however great the picture of anarchy drawn by Pope 

the effoftsoftheirishclergy toreform Adrian is hardly overcharged: ali 

their distracted country in the llth that canbe said is, that thosedifiorder» 

Chap.XXIL] cambeensis eveasus. 415 

and the salvation of soiils^ be so ordaÌDed by thee, that thou mayest 
deseire io obtain from God an inerease of your everlastiog reward^ and 
a glorìous name on eartb in ali ages. Given at Rome, &c.y &c." 

Is it not evident to every one, tbat the person, who whispered such 
thìngs into Adrian's ear, must bave been either grossly ignorante or 
ìntolerably malignant P or ratber tbat be used Adrian's name as a 
cover fbr bis malignant and calamnious fabrications P ^ but tbe words 
attrìbuted to Adrian are yamisbed witb a blacker bue of falsebood by 
Matthew of Westroinster. " At tbat time," says be, "Henry king of 
the Englisb, seni a solemn embassy to Rome, confidently bojting tbat 
Pope Adrian, an Englisbman, who bad been lately elected, would 
favor bis design, and permit bim to invade I reland by force of arms, 
and subdue it to bis sceptre, and bring back that bestiai people to a 
more correct faitb in Cbrist and a more faithful obedience to the 
Roman Cburch," 

Let US examine now tbe - respect due to tbe information palmed on 
tbose Popes. Adrian is made to say tbat ecclesiastical discipline, and 
ci vii govemment and morality were then at a frìgbtfuUy low ebb in 
I reland ; nay that vice prevailed universally, and no check was put on 
tbe wide-spread dissolution of morals. But if an estimate or conjecture 
can be formed of the morals of a nation, from tbe cbaracter of its kings, 
I bave already proved on the authority of writers, that a great number 
of the Irish kings were most virtuous men ; I deliberately abstained 
from mentioning tbose kings whose fame is recorded only in our native 
annalists. Now tbat the people do conform to tbe cbaracter of their 
sovereign, Claudianus teaches us in bis poem : — 

** The king's example sways the wills of ali." 

Moreover, I bave shown from tbe St. Bernardi life of St. Mael-maedh- 
og, that so far from being plunged in the abyss of vice, the Irish at that 

were by no means confined to Ireland, baxbarism to a foreigner), Irìsh dis- 

tbongh from the peculiar civil and orders must have been considered 

politicai iofitìtutions of tbe country more oatrageous and revolting. 8ee 

(which would in themselves appear Macaria Excidium,p,'2i2,2SO,&e.Scc, 


Ut potius omnis sexus^ aetas^ et ordo ex iis emergens ad FÌrtutes obviis 
ulnis amplectendas se converterit. Insuper £piscopos quibus popu- 
loTum saluti prospicere incubuìt suo officio prsBclaré functos vel bine 
elicere licet> quod promptissimè ad capita^ et concilia conferenda^ ut 
leges emendandis moribus accommodatas conderent crebrius accurrerìnt. 
Nec dubito quin curìones etiam egregie suas partes adiinpleverìnt^ cuiu 
in similibus etiam officiis se gnavos prsebuisse videantur. Nam Annales 
nostri memorante prseter Antistites, tria Ecclesiasticorum millia, Pres- 
byterorum scìlicet, Monachorum, et Canonicorum Concilio à Cardinale 
Papyrone anno salutis 1152 indicto interfuisse. Et quis crederei tam 
numerosum clerum curìonibus in eum numerum non relatis Hibemiae 
suppetere potuisse P 

Sane plures è clero sic mentis tum claruerunt^ ut eorum commendatio 
scriptorum industria ad posteritatem transmissa sit. SS. Celsus, Ma- 
lachias, et Laurentius in Martyrologium Romanum relati sunt. Gelasii 
Archiepiscopi Armachani vita redolens sanctitatem à patre Colgano 
actis sanctorum Hibemiae inserta est^ ad 28 Martii.^ lUe silicemio, et 
jejunii& fractus "vulgi opinione" (Cambrensem audis) "vir sacer vac- 
cam candidam cujus solum lacte vescebatur secum quocunque venerat 
circumduxit.*' Cbristiani quoque Lismorensis Episcopi virtutes adeo 
coUucebant, ut Wion et Menardus eum suis Martyrologiis adscripserint, 
qui in setatis flore Cistersiensibus se aggregans> fuit " aemulus virtutum 
quas viderat à S. Patre suo Bernardo, summoque Pontifico viro venera- 
bili Eugenio, eum quo fuit in probatorio apud Clarevallem."' Is post- 
quaìn legati Apostolici mimus viginti annos et amplius egregie obvisset, 
"ad Odomense Cistersiensis ordinis coenobium in Kienensi comitatu 
situm se terrena aversatus contulit: eum aliquot ante obitum annos 
Episcopatu se abdicasset. Ibique sepultus est 1186. Illoenimadhuc 
superstite/ Felix Lismorensis Episcopus (ut jam ante monui) ad 
Lateranense concilium concessit. Non etiam dubito qujn legatine 

* Hibern. expug. lib. 1, e. 30. ' WarraBUS de coenob. Cisters. pag. 67. * Idem, 
in antiquìt. p. 211. 

« For tbe exertions of St. Celsns to kings, see Annals of Ulster, AD. 
suppress the turbulence of the Irìsh 1107, 1109, 1113, 1126. Ali the sa- 

Chap.XXII.] cambeensis eykrsus. 417 

period, of every age, sex and condition, had rìsen from their vices and 
embraced with their whole beart the opposite virtues. One fact alone» 
the alacrìty with whicb the bishops frequently met to consult together 
; k the enactment of laws for the reformation of uiorals» proves that 
they,whowere in duty bound by their office to watch over the salvation 
of ihe people^ did worthily discharge that duty^ and when we find the 
ioferior clergy zealously engaged in the same good work, they must 
^vond a doubt bave punctually fulfiilled their more immediate obliga- 
lÙDs. Our annals record for instance, that besides the bishops, three 
ftoasand ecclesiastics, that is Priests, Menks» and Canons, attended 
at the council held by Cardinal Paparo in 1152. Now the whole 
ixish church^ evidently, could uot supply so largo a number of ecclesi- 
•stics, exclusive of the parochial clergy. 

In tratb, many of the clergy were so eminent in tbose times, that 
^r fame has been diligently transmitted to posterity by historical 
iKords. SS. Ceallach^^ Mael-maedhog and Lorcan are in the Roman 
Jiartyrology. The life of Gelasius Archbishop of Ardmacha, a most 
My mm, is given in Colgan s Acta Sanctorum at the 28th of March. 
-£i&aciated by fasting and vigils, he was reputed a saint by the people> 
(kccording to Cambrensìs) and never used any food but the milk of a 
,«lnte cow, wbich accompanied him wherever he went. Christian, 
^ishop of Lismor, was also so remarkable for bis piety, that Wion and 
Menard bave placed him in their Martyrologies. He embraced the 
Cistercian order in the flower of bis youth, and zealously emulated the 
nrtues whicb he had seen practised by bis spiritual father St. Bernard and 
tiie yenerable Pope Eugene, with whom he had lived in the noviciate 
^ Clairvaux. Having faithfully discharged the duties of Apostolic 
^ate during more than twenty eight years, he renounced the world 
8nd retired to the Cistercian monastery of Odorney situate ^n the 
w>unty of Kerry, where abdicating bis episcopal functions some years 
>)eforebis death^ he died and was buried in the year 1186. He was 
stili alive (as I bave already remarked) when .. bishop of Lismor, 
^isted at the council of Lateran. I look upon it as certain that Chrìs- 

^ relics in Ireland were employed live in peace and gire their unfortu- 
contintially to adjure the princes to nate country rest. 

! 27 


quoque potestati Christianus cesserit^ cum ad ejustnodi recessum se 
receperit, ac proinde se legati negotiis subduxerit.* Praesertim cum 
desìgnatus ei successor esse yideatur quidam " Giraldus Ecclesi» Ro- 
manae clericus, ad Hiberniam legationis cujusdam vice transmissus anno 
Dom. 1 185," quo Cambrensis Hiberniam adiverat. 

Frater etiam bujus Christiani Malcbus nomine vir memorabilis fuit, 
ut qui Malachiae beneficio liberationem a morbo, et deemone adeptus, 
rebus mundi caducis nuncium remittens, Cistersiensem ordinem iniverit. 
Malchum etiam alium (quem annales nostri ]VJoelmonachumO*LoiugsigIi 
appellatum, anno Domini 1159 obiisse referunt) Episcopum Lismoren- 
sem multis omat encomiis divus Bemardus. Ait enim, '^ quod senex 
erat plenus dierum, et virtutum," et quod '' sapientia erat in ilio/' 
quodque " illi tanta collata sit gratia, ut non modo vita, et doctrìna, sed 
et signis claruerit."^ Quorum aliqua S. Bernardus recenset. Hunc 
Waterfordienses Episcopum sibi praefici flagitantes, in sua ad S. Ansel- 
mum Cantuariensem Episcopum epistola laudabili commendatione 
prosequmitur, dicentes 'J " Eum esse natalibus et moribus nobilem. 
Apostolica, et Ecclesiastica disciplina imbutum, vita castum, sobrìum, 
humilem, literatum, in lege Dei instructum, in scripturarum sensibus 
cautum, modestum etc." Causa vero Waterfordiensibus Episcopi pos- 
[168] cendi fuit, quod ut inquit Edmems, jam secula | multa transierint,® in 
quibus eadem civitas absque providentia, et cura Pontificali consistens, 
per diversa tentationum pericula jactabatur. 

S. Bemardus author est Imarìum S. Malachia institutorem " sanc- 
tum fuisse hominem, et austers admodum vitae, inexorabilem castiga- 
torem corporis sui, cellam babentem juxta Ecclesiam in qua manebat 
jejuniis, et obsecratioiiibus serviens die ac nocte."^ Eundem Colganus 
appellai ''beatum Imarum Huaheedbagain, qui construxit Basilicam SS. 
Petrì et Pauli Armachae: et Romse in sancta peregrinatone animam salu- 

sCambr. Top. d. 3, e, 32. »Ibid. e. 3, f SyUoge epist. ffiber. p. 92. « Ib. 
p. 141. 9 Vita S. Malach. e. 2. 

'The factof there haying been a against our author's assertion, that 
•ucceraion of papal legates in Ireland Adrian and Alexander issned their 
before the English inyasion, tells bulls in ignoiunce of the i«al state of 


' dan also resigned bis legatine authority<^ before his retreat, and relieved 
hifflselfthereby from tbe onerous duties of legate; especially as we find 
ose Giraldas, apparently appointed bis succesdor, a clerìc of tbe cburcb 
ofRoioe, comingto Ireland as Apostolical Legate* in 1185, tbe year in 
vhich Cambrensis carne over. 

Malchus, brotber to Cbristian^ was also a man of distinguisbed 
jDerìts. Being cured of a disease and freed from tbe power of tbe 
èril by the good offices of St. Mael-maedbog, be renounced tbe fleeting 
iDods of tbis life^ and embraced tbe Cistercialh order. Tbere was 
mother Malcbus bisbop of Lismor wbo is praised in tbe bigbest terms 
èf Sl Bernard. He is tbe same as the Moelmonacb O'Loingsigb, of our 
«mais, who died in tbe year 1 159. Ofbim St. Bernard says, "tbat 
ikevasan old man full of yearsand virtnes, and tbat wisdom was in 
Ìbiq, EDd tbat so signal were tbe graces bestowed on bim, tbat be was 
Inied net onìy for bis life and doctrine, but also for miracles/' some of 
thicb are related by St. Bernard. Tbe people of Waterford wisbed to 
fee him as tbeir bisbop, ai^d in tbeir lettor to St Anselm, arebbisbop 
If Canterbury, describe bim in tbe following bigbly laudatory terms, 
•thathe was Doble both by birtb and rirtue, deeply versed in Apos- 
Mical aud ecclesiastical discipline, in morals, ebaste, sober, bumble, 
kmed and instructed in tbe law of 6od, cautious in bis interpretation 
•fscripture, modest, &c., &c.** Tbe motive of tbe people of Water- 
M in asking bim for tbeir bisbop, was according to Eadmer, tbat tbeir 
city had now during many centuries been exposed to various perils of 
temptatioD, owing to tbe want of tbe residence and patemal care of a 

St. Bernard gives tbe following cbaracter of St. Imar, preceptor of 
StMael-maedbog, "be was abolyman, of most austere life, inexorably 
severe towards bis own body, and living in a celi near tbe cburcb, 
*here he spent day and night in pitiyer and fasting." Colgan calls 
fc "the blessed Imar h-Haedbagain, wbo built the churcb of SS. Peter 
®d Paul at Ardmacba, and had made a pilgrìmage to Rome for tbe 
salvation of bis soul in the year 1 134. 

li^l Assaredly the legates wo.udd tbe^ were commifiBioned by the pop>e 
aot haye concealed those evils which to eradicate. 


tari, anno post Christum natum 1134." Michaéli cuidam S. Malachia 
precationes, semel ac iterum sanitatem impetrarunt.^® Quare "is illieo 
adhaesit Deo, et Malachia^ servo ejus timens ne deterius aliquid sibi 
contingeret si denuo' ingratus tanto inveniretur, et beneficio et miraculo. 
Et nunc ut audimus praeest cuidam monasterio suo in partibus Scoti». 
Et hoc novissimum omnium quod ille (scilicet Malacbias) fundavit 

Gilbertus Limbricensis Episcopus, et in Hibernia Legatus Apostoli- 
cus, convocatis Episcopis,^^ et principibus terree (nimirum Hibernia) 
" vim erat facturus S. Malachise" ut Armachanum Archiepiscopatum 
capesseret. Et posteà, " Innocentio secundo significavit, quod jam non 
posset prae senio, et debilitate villicare." Ut proinde summus pontifex 
Malacbiae " commiserit vices suas,^^ per uuiversam Hiberniam, Legatum 
ìllum constituens." Gilbertus ille ut suse sedulitatis in legati munere 
obeundo specimen ederet,^^ opusculum edidit Epistolis Hibemicis ab 
Ushero insertum ad omnes Hibemiee tam sacros quam profanos ordines, 
sui officii monendos accommodatissimum. 

S. Malacbias " gennanum habuit Christianum nomine vinim bonum,'* 
plenum gratiae et virtìitis. Episcopus erat, illi quidem secundus in 
celebri opinione, scd vitee sanctimonia, et justitise zelo forte non impar. ' 
De quo ad annum Domini 1138 quatuor magistri apud Coìganum. 
" S. Christian US Hua Morgair Episcopus Clocherensis, Doctor eximius 
in sapientia, et religione, lucerna lueens suis praedicationibus,^* etsanctis 
opeiibus populum clerumque illuminans servus Dei devotus, et pastor 
fìdelis Ecclesise, obiit 12 Junìi, et sepultus est Armachae in monasterio 
divorum Petri et Pauli." 

Nec dedecet ut inter viros celebres illorum temporum referatur 
Edanus ille quem Cbrìstiano fratri S. Malacbias in Episcopatu suffecit 
" à Deo enim designatus erat, quia annulum aureum quo desponsandns 
erat praevidit in ejus digito Malacbias."^® Nec ab honmi Episcopus 
ille consortio excludendus est qui quosdam dissidio avulsos, pace inter 
eos inità conciliavit ; aut alter Episcopus Corcagiensis, " queu) Ma- 
lacbias hominem pauperem, sanctum tamen, et doctum misit in Catbe- 
dram, clero, et populo collaudante*"^^ Hunc existimo Gill--^dam 

»o Trias Thaum. p. 303. " Ibid. e. 7. » Ibid. e. 11. "SyUoge, p. 78. 
"VitaMalach. e. 10. "Trias Thaum. p. 482. "Vita S. Malach. e. IO 
i7Ib. p. 1930 infine. 



Ànother persoD, named Michael, being several times cured hy the 
pravers of St. Mael maedhog, " at*length deFOted himself io God and 
bis serrant St. Mael-maedhog, fearing that something worse might 
kappen to him, ii* he should prore ungrateful again, of so great a favor . 
ind miiacle. At presenta we hear he is superior of a monastery in some 
pan of Scoda, the last of the foundations of St. Mael-maedhog.** 

Gilbert Bishop of Limerick, and apostolical legate in I reland, con- 
jiBked an assembiy of the bishops and princes of the land, and was about 
^ force St. Mael-maedhog to accept the archbishopric of Ardmacha. He 
Uterwards sìgnified to Innocent II., that age and infinnìty couipelled 
Inmto resign bis stewardship; and therefore the pope delegated hisautho- 
ÙY o?er ali I reland to St Mael-maedhog, and appointed him bis legate. 
fiillibert, has left Us, as a monument of bis zeal in discharging bis lega- 
Ime fanctions, a little work, higbly instrnctive for ali orders, lay and 
Kciesiastical in Ireland in the discharge of tbeir duties. It is prìnted 
h Ussher in his collection of Irìsh letters. 

" Hiere was a brotber of St. Mael-maedhog named Christian, a good 
San, full of grace and virtue, a bishop too, not so high in public estìmation 
iKbis brotber, but in holiness of life and zeal for justice, perbaps not bis 
Bferìor." Colgan gives the foUowing character of him from the Four 
Mast«rs: — ''St. Christian Uà Morgair* bishop of Clogber, arenowned 
<kctor in leaming and holiness ; a sbining ligbt in bis preaching, a 
^con to priests and people by bis holy life, a devout servant of God, 
tnd faithful pastor of the cburch, he died on the 12tb of June, and was 
turied in the monastery of SS. Peter and Paul at Ardmacha." 

£daD, wbo was appointed by St. Mael-maedbog, successor to bis brotber 
Christian, also deserves to be classed among the celebrated men of that 
H^\ "he was predestined for that dignity by God, because St. Mael- 
ttaedhog foresaw on bis finger the gold ring with wbicb bis troth was to be 
plighted." We may also rank amongst ihese, that bishop wbo bad the 
|ift of reconciling ali enemies, and the bishop of Cork, wbo thougb so 
poor, was leamed and holy, and was raised to the episcopacy by Mael- 

«Daedhog io the great Joy of clergy and people. " I tbink, he must 

'Our author sometimes gives the is found in some only of the Irish ca- 
^i^^eof Saint to holy men, whose name lendars. 


fiiisse^ qui pnmum *' magni nominis Abbas» poslea Corcagiensis Epis- 
copus obiit anno Dom. 1173."*® 

^quum est ut viris tam claris tres ìllos £piscopQS adsociem S. 
Malachiam '' in villam Fochart^ quem dicunt locum natintatis Brigids 
virginis comitatos.*'*^ 

Nec ab iis segregetur jurenìs ille quem ''Zachieum alt^um" S. 
Bernardus appellata '' et prìmum conversum laicum Suriensis monasterìi 
fuisse,^^ testimonìum habentem ab omnibus^ quod sancte conveisatus 
fuerìt Inter fratres, secnndum ordinem Cisterciensem" asserìt. 

Sed et ex hoc numero S. Malachiae mater non est amovenda, qus 
tametsi *' fuìt genere magna, mente tamen quam sanguine generosior,^^ 
satagebat in ipso initio viarum suaram notas parrulo facere vias vit», 
hanc pluris illi existimans, ventosa scientia literattirsB secnlarìs. Bibebat 
ille prò lacte de pectore materno aquas sapienti» salutarìs." Qiiscum 
sollicitudine simili ei qua S. Monica filii sui S. Augustini saluti invigi- 
labat Malachia? institutionem prosecuta sit, non absimili commendatione 
afficienda esse mihi videtur. Nec etiam soror S. Malachia, sua faic 
laude privanda est, quse licet fratrem instar uxoris Tobias objurgaverit, 
quod vili mortuorum sepeliendorum officio fungeretur^ tamen à fratre 
increpita resipuisse videtur et ad bonam se frugem recepisse :*^ quando 
quidem iteratse ssepius à fratre precationes non modo immunitatem ill« 
a pcenis quas post mortem passa est, sed etiam ut coelitum csetui aggre- 
garetur, impetravit 

Et quia in iis memorandis qui S. Malachite sanguine juncti erant 
[169] sermo I noster versaturi ^on tacitum praetereamus ejus "avunculum 
virum divitem, et potentem, qui locum Benchor, et possessiones ejus 
tenebat, et inspiratus à Deo confestim in man u Malachiae omnia dedit 
et se quoque :"^^ opibusque sapienter spretis, vitam arctiorem in nepotis 
consortio et obsequio lubens amplexus est, pietati deindè vacans. 

Conganus etiam Abbas non modicum Hiberniae lumen, non debethic 
silentio praeteriri, S. Bernardi (ut ipse loquitur) " reverendus fraler, el 

i8Ibid. p. 1947. '9 Warraeus <3e antiq. p. 147. " Vita Malach. p. 1950 in 
fine. »> Ibid. p. 1954. " ibid. e. 4.' " Ibidem. 

' Many truly honeet and holy men in those times, as there bave been 
there undoubtedly were in Ireland in ali other Christion countrics in 



been Gillàseda, who was first" aD abbot of great character, and 
aftenrards died bishop of Cork, A.D. 1173. 

With tfaese ìllustrìous men, we may also name the three bishops who 
«ccompanied St. Mael-maedhog to the town called Fochart, saìd to be 
thebirth-place of the nrgin St. Brìghid, and also that other young man, 
^om St Bernard calls ''another Zachaeus/* and who according to the 
«me Saint, '' was first a lay brother in the monastery of Surìum, and had 
tte imirersal character of having lived an edifying life among the bre- 
tìiren according to the Cisterclan mie." 

St.Mael-maedhog smother must notbe omitted, ''who, thoughof noble 
iment, was nobler in mind tban by blood, and took care to teach ber 
iiiaDt son in tbe beginning of his ways, the ways of ]ife, believing that 
ttswas of more importance, than the empty knowledgeofseciilar liter- 
tture. He drank as milk fi^m his mother's breast, the imction. of 
ttlatary wisdom." Her solicitude for the education of ber son being like 
iat of St. Monica for St. Augustine's salvation, she is in my opinion en- 
Meò. to a similar eulogy. The sister of St. Mael-maedhog also must not 
k deprived of her fame, for though like the wife of Tobias, she reproved 
ler brother for undertaking the humble duty of burying the dead, yet, 
iIk appears to bave profited by his rebuke and to bave repented ; since 
fa earnest prayers after her death not only liberated her from the pains 
she was sofiering, but also brought her into the choir of the blessed. 

As 1 bave mentioned somany members of St Mael-maedhog s family, 
Imay add his unde, a wealthy aud powerful man, who held the glebe- 
bds of Bangor and ali its possessions, but under the inspiration of God, 
iostanily gave np ali and himself too into the hands of St Mael- 
maedbog," thus wisely despising wealth and embracing a more austere 
Hfe under the rule and in the company of his nephew, and devoting 
himself topiety.' 

Congan, the abbot, must not be omitted among the great lights of 
Ifeland. He was " the reverend brother and devout friend," at whose 
tequest, St Bernard undertook to write the life of St Mael-maedhog. I 

tiie moat disordered times. Ireland, could not, perhaps, bave the estensive 
bowerer, was not one but many king. influence whicb it woold exercise if 
; and the yirtue of individuals there was but one government. 



devotus amicus,"^^ cujus maxime hortatu vitam S. Malacbìse scrìptis 
mandare aggressus est. Eum puto Abbatem mouasterii Suriensìs fuisse. 
S. Bernardus enim nan*at, quod S. Malachias supra memoratum alterum 
Zacfaseum '' apprehensum manu tradidit Abbati Congano^ et ille fratri- 
bus*' dicti scilicet monasterii, ut ex verbis ibi proxime sequentibos 
facile percipitUT.^^ Quod monasterium ubi situm fuerit nondum com- 
peri. Monasterium quidem de Shrowl ad Enium flùmen in Comiuti 
Longfordis Warraeus collocat, quod licet Suriensi vocum similitudine,'^ 
magis quam quodvis aliud Hibemiae monasterium appropinquet, quo» 
minns tamen bsc duo nomina in idem monasterium cadere censeam 
bine impedior, quod idem Warrsus è Chronographis Cisterciensibos 
illud monasterium dictum de " Benedictione fundatum fuisse" 1150 
aut 1152 tradat.^^ Quam vis alibi ante dixerit anno Domini 1200 
" Monasterium" de flumine Dei " fundatum fuisse."^® Et monasterium 
Suriense ante S. Malachiam anno Dom. 1148 mortuum, condituiD, et 
Abbate monacbisque instructum fuerit. Cseterum Conganus fertnri 
Warrseo vitam S. Malacbis'^ epistolas quasdam ad S. Bemarduin, et 
gesta divi Bernardi scripsisse.^^ 

Quid multis P sola S. Malacbiae vita quam scrìpsit S. Bernardus, Uud 
multos in Hibemia utriusque sexns. et ordinis cujusvis nominatim sup* 
peditat, qui non solum honestatem, et probitatem, sed etiam pietateiB 
impensè coluerunt^ ut documento sint^ nationem Hibemicam non adeo 
morum cultura tum vacasse, ut illius cultioribus tantum moribus imbu- 
endae causa, patria et avitis possessiouibus per vim ab advenis, quocunque 
authoritatem, indictà causa conferente spoliari debuerint. 

Percurrenti quoque S. Laurentii Dubliniensis Archiepiscopi vitami 
liquido patebit mores bominum in Hibemia per ea tempora non usque 
adeo eulta institutione abhorruisse. Quod si non pertimescerem tsdiiun 
lectori creare, possem è domesticis Annalibus seriem satis prolixam 
eorum sigillatim texere, qui vita recte instituta, insignem sibi conimeli- 
dalionem a posteritate compararunt, et quae bactenus è peregrinis 
authoribus producta sunt meo quidem judicio confinnare, ac Hibenios 
perversae institnrioiiis infamia purgare potuerunt.^® Prwsertim cum 

3* Praofat. vitaB S. Malachoe. p. 1929. " Warreeus scriptor. p. 36. " Anti- 
quit. Hib. p. 172. «abiidem. " Coenobit. Cist. p. 77. "De scrip. Hib. p. 
36. '0 Trias Thaum. p. 632. i 


ihink, he must bave been abbot of tbe monastery of Surium. For, St. 
Bernard states that St.Mael-maedhog took tbat " second ZacbaBUs" of 
wliomwe bave spoken abore, and leading him by tbe band, gave hìm up 
the abbot Congan and be to bis bretbren of tbe said monastery, às ìs 
dearlv perceptible fìrom tbe words immediately foUowing. Wbere tbe 
DODasteTy was sitoate I bave not been able to discover. Ware places 
ibe monastery of Sbroul on tbe River Inny, in tbe county Longford, 
ht thougb tbat name resembles Surium, more tban any otber monastery 
n Ireland, tbey canuot be identica!, in wy opinion, because Ware on 
theantbority of tbe Cistercian annalists assigns tbe foundation of Sbroul, 
lAich was ciriled '< de Benedic tiene'* to tbe year 1150 or 1152 ; tbougb 
k had stated in anotber place tbat tbe monastery " de Piumino Dei," 
«as foanded in tbe year 1200 ; and tbe monastery of Surium,^ was 
ibunded before tbe deatb of St. Mael-maedbog in 1148, and tenanted by 
aonks and an abbot. Congan is said by Ware to bave written a life 
•r St. Mael-maedbog, some epistles to St. Bernard, and the life of St. 

Bnt wby dwell on tbis point P St. Bemard's life of St. Mael-maedbog 
dona gìves tbe names of man j persons of ali ranks and sexes, wbo were 
tot only correct and moral but remarkably pious, evidently proving tbat 
Ae Irìsb nation was not so devoid of morality as ibat tbe sole pretence 
oftheir moral reformation could justify a band of foreìgners in robbing 
tliem violently of tbeir country and patema! estates, no matter what 
aothority sanctioned it, if tbe cause was not previously examined. 

A cursory glance at tbe life of St. Lorcan, Arcbbisbop of Dublìn, 
dearly shows tbat tbe morals of tbe Irish peojDle at that period, were 
not 80 removed from refined civilization. And, if I were not afraid of 
tiriug my readers, I could produce from our native annalists a long list 
of characters, wbose regular and holy lives acquired for them a high repu- 
tation with posterity and which would confirm, I am salisfied, the autho- 
tities already adduced from foreign writers, and vindicate the Irish from 
the foul stain of demoralization, especially as at that period, letters were 
2ealous1y taught and learned in the cathedra! churches, colleges and 
toonasteries, each of which was provided with at least one professor. 

' See Lanigan's conjectures on the p. 130. 

lite of this monastery, Ecc. Ilist. iv. 




[Gap, XXn. 

literìs ediscendìs^ et docendis, in Cathedralibus Ecclesììs, Academiis, et 
ccenobììs tum passim indulgeretur^ uno saltem prselectore in singulis jam 
memoratis locis constìtuto. Quorum nomenclaturam Annales Dostrì 
sparsim, Colganus conjunctim edit. Armacham studiìs tunc floruÌ!>se 
vel hinc ediscas^ quod in concilio quinque supra viginti Epìscoporum, 
Abbatum plurium aliorumque de clero^ Gelasio primate prsesidente,'' 
''communibus sufiragìis sanciretur ne ullus in posterum per totam 
Hibemiam^ in aliqua Ecclesia ad sacrse paginae professionem^ sire ad 
Theologiam publicè docendam admittatur, qui non prìus Armacbanimi 
Scholam^ sive Academiam frequentaverìt." Nec de liteianim pregressa 
in hac Academia promovendo magis erant solliciti prsesules quam prìn- 
cipes. Nam Rodericus Hiberniae rex ** summoperé cupiens in Academia 
Armacbana studia promovere, honorarià, annuàque decem bovum pen* 
sione stipendium Archimagistrì illius scholee adauxit, et dato diplomate, 
suos successores ad eandem pensionem quotannis solvendam obstrixit,^' 
ea conditione, ut studium generale prò scholaribus, tam ex HibeiDia 
undequaque, quam ex Albania adventantìbus Armacbae continuaretur." 
In Hibemià profecto tanta tum babita fuit literaturse ratio, ut licei 
in sede Armacbana,'^ *' octo extiterint ante Celsum viri uxorati, literati 
tamen fuerint/' Ac proinde illos, qui Episcopatum legitimè inierunt, 
[170] apprimè literìs | excultos fuisse oportuit. Sanctus Bemardus quendam 
fuisse ait Armacbae, " magistrum famosum in discipliuis quas dicoot 
liberales/*^* Mauritium Arcbiepiscopum Cassellensem Cambrensis 
" virum llteratum, et discretum vocat." Nunquam ad literas addiscen- 
das SS. Malacbias, Gelasius,^^ Laurentius, ac csBteri Episcopi à me 
hactenus bparsim nominati, prseter Malcbum Lismorensem è patria 
finibus pedoni extulerunt : domi ad éruditionis, et sanctimonise fas- 

3» Trias Thaum. p. 309, an. 1162. 3» Ib. p. 310, an. 1169- 33 Vita S. Ma- 
lacb. e. 7. 34ibid. e. 1. 35 Top. d. 3, e. 32. 

^ Tbis canon was made in the synod 
of Ciane, A.D. 1162. That was the 
last national synod held before the 
English invasion, nor does there ap- 
pear te bave been afterwards any na- 
tional synod strìctly 80 called until 
the synod of Thurles, in 1850. 

i St. Bernard states expressly that 

they were not ordained : they were 
laymen who made the landa andre- 
venues of the see their family pos- 
session. This disorder continued long 
in Ir^and, as elsewhere. It is ^' 
portant to remark bere, that many 
laymen seìzed upon the landsappro- 
priated to Bishoprics, Preceptories, 

Chap. XXI.] 



The annalists givo in dìfferent places, the succesaion of the professors, 
bat aU are catalogaed bj Colgan. Ardmacha must have been a great 
seatof leamìng, since a council of twenty-five bishops, together with 
many abbots aod other ecclesiastics, nnder Gelasius, the primate» '' una- 
BÌmonslj decreedy that thenceforward do person should be allowed to 
gÌTe public lectores on sacred scrìptures or theology in any part of Ire- 
btnd, who had not previously studied in the school or nnirersity of Ard- 
nacha.*'^ The kings were not less zealous for the advancement of learn- 
ing in that unirersity, than the prelates themselFes. Thus Ruaidhrì 
kag of Ireland, being most solicitous for the enoouragement of leaming 
in the university of Ardmacha, increased the salary of the chief professor 
\j a Doble gift every year of ten oxen» and bound bis suecessor, by bis 
njal letters, to pay the same pension yearly, on this condition^ that a 
university should be maintained at Ardmacha open to scholars from ali 
parts of Ireland and Albania." 

So great was the estimation in which leaming was then held in Ire- 
land, "that though eight married men had occupied the see of Ardmacha* 
before Ceallach, they were ali leamed," and of course, those who were 
legitimate bìshops must bare been eminently versed in li teniture. Su 
Bernard says, that there was a certain person in Ardmacha who was a 
celebrated teacher of the liberal arts, as thev are called. He also 
praises Maurice, archbishop of Caiseal as a leamed and prudent man.** 
8S.Mael-maedhog and Lorcan and Gelasius and the other bishops whom 
Ihave mentioned, with the exception of Malchus of Lismor, were edu- 
cated at home : it was at home that the former, toiled to the summit of 

^bey and parìgh'churches, and employ- 
eJpriests todo the eccclesiastical dutìes, 
and that these laymen had generally 
the title of Bishops, Masters, Parsons, 
Officials, Coarbs or Erenachs. Good, as 
citcd byCamden, states, that in the sìx- 
teenth century ** the priests (so called) 
W their children to succeed them in 
their churches, for whose illegltimation 
they are diapensed with. These will 
nottate the order of priesthood, but 
conunit the charge to the ourates 

without any stìpend, that they may 
live by the hook, that is, upon some 
small gift or oblation at the baptism, 
unction and burìal, wherewith God 
wot, they live most bare and miser- 
able." This, however, he says was 
the case only among the wild Irish. 
See the complaint of an Irish bìshop 
in the Council of Trent on this sub- 
ject, O'SuUevani Historiae CathoUcae» 
pp. 109, lì 9, Dublin, 1850. 


tìgium ìUi: domi ad summum scientise probitatisque^^ gradum hi 
eluctati sunt, perinde ac si ipsis diceretur : ^' fiibe aquam de cisterna 
tua, et fluenta putei tui." 

Niinirum vere dixit scriptor vetiis, quod "in Armach summum 
studium literale manet semper."^^ Nam studia literamm ita continen- 
ter in illa Academia flonierunt, ut ne rabies quidem Danorum per sacra 
et profana caedibus^ et incendiis furiosissime grassanlium cursum eorum 
interruperit, Annalibus nostrìs eorum nomina sigillatim referentibus, 
qui per illa etiam funestissima tempora, erudiendis mortalibus ibi prae- 
fìciebantur.^^ Ita ut cum Hibernos à studiis tenaciter consectandis 
bella non averterint, animos ad ea rebus pacatis imbibenda acrìns 
adjecisse nemo dubitaturus sit. 

Summi Pontifices paterno quodam stadio in Hibernos tum afiecti ad 
eos assidue rectà institutione informandosi Gilbertum Limbrìcensem 
Episcopum^ S. Malacbiam, S. Cbristianum Episcopum Lismoreusem, 
S. Laurentium Dublinensem, et Matbaeum Henaeum Casselliensem 
Arcbìepiscopum, omnes Hibernos, legati dignitate insigniverunt. Quos 
si dotibus ad id mumis idoneisomatos fuisse compertum non haberent, 
profectò in tam ardua re illos authoritate sibi non pene exsequarent. 

Quid quod Henricus ipse rex, ad rudiores mores Hibemis excuden- 
dos, non alios adbibuerit, quam prsesules Hibernos Cassiliam (utè 
Cambrensi jam protuli) in coetum coalescentes ; paucis è suis tanquam 
procuratoribus eorum contubernio adjunctis ? Itaque Hibemi qui 
morum spurcitiem à suis dedocebantur, alienis ìnstitutoribus ad eam 
dediscendam non ìndigebant. 

Colganus author est Murchertachum, Marianum,^® Clementem, 
Joannem, Isaacum, Candidum, Magnoaldum, et alios plures sub id 
tempus Ratisbonam commigrasse ; et illius incolas, accolasque virtutum, 
et doctrinse rore irrigasse. Nemini autem in mentem venire debei 

36 Prover. 5. '^ Vita S. Patr. nondum edita, ^s Ushenia de prim. ^^' 
89 In indice. Chronol. actorum SS. Hiber. an 1152. 

k This argument proves clearly carry their designa into effect against 

enough, perbaps, that the pope be- the #ishes of their turbulent flocks. 

lieved there were in Ireland eccle- The pope clearly saw that nothing but 

siastics well qualìfied by zeal and a strong monarchialgovernmentcould 

learning to reform the land ; but it reform the Irish : he thought that this 

''>e8 net prove they had the power to could bave been effectedby appointing 


leaming and holiness, and that the latter won theìr high character for 
?iitue and eradition ; so that we may say of them^ " drink water from 
tbycistem and the streams of thy well." 

An ancient writer has stated with perfect truth, that " the chief liter- 
ary establishment was always at Ardniacha." Colleges were maintained 
there so constantly^ that even the havoc of the Danes, on everything 
Sfu;red and profane, theirhurningsand massacres, and furious incursions 
BCFer interrupted them. Even in the very worst of times, the names of 
(he head professors of that establishment, are chronicled by our annals. 
And if the Irish manifested such zeal for leaming even in the tumult of 
war, can any man douht, that in times of peace, they culti vated it 
mach more vigorously ? 

The popes, with a patemal zeal for the Irish of those days, ap- 
pointed as legates, to perfect their ecelesiastical system, Gilbert, bi- 
shop of Limerick, St. Mael-maedhog, St. Gillachrìst, bishop ofLismor, 
St. Lorcan, of Diiblin, and Matthew O'h-Enni, archbishop of Caiseal. Now 
if the popes believed those men devoid of the qualities required in the 
arduous honor of legate, would they bave ever conferred on them a 
power almost eqnal to