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Full text of "Archaeologia Cambrensis"


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The Vaughana of Cora y Gedol 
On some Badnorahire Bronze Implements 
Harieoh Castle .... 
History of tbe Loidabip of Mulor Oymta^ 

or Btomfield (^continKed) 
Cheater Cathedral . •■ ■ 

Moated Mounds .... 
The Rhasnesney Brooie Implements 
Pembrokeshire Gliff-Castlea 
Harlech Castle .... 
Notee on tbe Archnology of the Wrexham 
Neighbourhood .... 
Piesaddfed Urns .... 
Roman Coins, CaraarroniihirG 
Welsh Words borrowed from the Classical 
XiOngnages .... 

W. W. K W. 
R. W. B. . 
W. W. E. Wynne 

J. Y. W. Lloyd . 

Dean of Chester . 
O. T. C. . 

E. L. Barnwell . 

K L Barnwell . 
G. T. C. . 

The Legend of St. Curig . 

Notes OD Watling Street . 

On St. Lythan's and St. Nioholss' Crom- 
lechs and other ReraEuns near Cardiff . 

Correspondenoe during the Great Rebellion 

Sepuldual Monuments in Towyn Church . 

Roman Inscriptions at Lydney Park 

Arrona Antiqua ; Camp on the Llanllechid 
HiU . 


D. B. Thomas . 116 
W.O.Stanley . 126 
W.WymiWilliama 128 

John Rhys , 

M. H. Bloxam 
H. W. Lloyd 
M. H. Lee . 

J. W. Lukis 
W. W. K W. 
M. H. Bloxam 
Jas. DavieB, M.A. 



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HiBtoiy of the Lordship of Mnelor QjmrMg 
{eontwMMd) . . . ■ 

Natunl AotiquitieB 

J.Y. W.Lloyd . 234 
W.WynnWimiuns 241 

R W. B. 


The Monagtery of Pen Rhys, Rhondda 

Valley, Olamorganahire 
Old Monument in Wreiham Church 
The Caergwrle Cup 

Of&'aDyke . . . . 

On PiUar^tones in Wales 
CoiTeepondeDoe during the Qreat Rebellion 

(eotii^ued) .... 

History of Uie Lordahip of Uaelor Qymiaeg 
(eonttniMrf) .... 

Tomen Castle, Radnor Forest 

Esoavatioas at Pant y Saer Cromleoh, 
Anglesey .... 

Twyn y Pare .... 

On some of our Inscribed Stones . 

The Name of the Webh . 

Report of the Carmarthen Meeting 

OBITDABr .... 




RBVIBWB ..... 

Utfl W. LleweUin 255 

W. W. E. W. . 266 

E. L. Barnwell . 268 

W.Trevor Parkins 275 

E. L. Barowell . 899 

W. W. E. W. 


J. Y. W. Lloyd . 325 

R. W. B. . . 339 

W. Wynn Williams 84 1 

Hugli Priohard . 34d 

J. Rhya . 359 

Henry Qaidos . 372 

. 387 

87, 281 

69, 186, 282, 376 

96, 192, 289, 382 

98, 195, 292, 384 

. 199,294 

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The temporaiy Mosenm was placed in a spaciona apartmeat of the 
Com £ixcbaiige. 


Foar atone polished celts, varying from 6 to IJ inches is length, 
from Camac 

Bronze celt, withonl stop or loop; said to have been fonnd near 
Uftraeilles. It is pierced for snapending, and is 6 inches long. 

Paalstab, fonnd nnder the roots of a tree near Glja Ceiriog, Den- 
bighsfaire ; 6^ inches long. 

Socketed celt, baring an ornamental pattern, fonnd in the deer park, 
Ck>ed Marchan, near Bathia ; 3 inches long, and noticed in the 
Arehteohgia Cambreruis, 1860, p. 218. 

Socketed celt, square, and alightl; ornamented ; found at Bosneren, 
near Le Faoo, Finisterre. 

Rev. E. li. Barnwell. 

Three bronze oelt-form implements, with nnnsnallj long slender 
shanks, without stops or loops. The catting edge is eemioironlar, 
similaf to some Irish onee represented in Sir W". Wilde's Cata- 
\oga» of bronze implements, p. 373, fig. 272 ; bnt difiereiit in other 
respects, snch as the stop and shank. These have all been washed 
with tin, and have never been nsed, or even finished after taken 
&om the monld. Thej are all of the same length, six inches, and 
of the same proportions, so that they appear to have been cast in 
the same moald. 

The shank only of a fourth example. 

A remarkably small knife or dagger, about three inches long, and 
proportionably narrow. It has not been pierced for rivets. 

Six paalstabs, all of the same length (6 inches), and evidently from 
the same mould. They do not appear to have been hammered or 
otherwise tooled, bat to be in the same state as when cast. 

A similar paalstab, except somewhat slighter. This has been broken 
in two parts. All the above found together at Bhosnesney, near 
Wrexham. They appear to have been portions of the stock of 
some mannfactnrer of such articles. Similar deposits have been 
found in North Wales. 

Sir R. A. CnnliSe, Bart. 

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Two paalstAba of dark metal, six ioches long, and withont loops, and 
supposed to be Irish. 

Three others with loops, one of them ornamented with the simple 
and common pattern of parallel linea. 

One socketed celt, similarly ornamented. 

Portion of bronee dagger from Ooraedd Wen, near Selattyn. This 
tnmnlns is snppoGed to be the barial-place of Gwen, one of the 
sons of Llywarch lien, of the sixth century, A full aconnt of the 
opening of this nioand, and the discovery of remains of a man, 
probably more than six and a half feet tall, baa been given by 
Mr. W. Wynne Ffonlkes in the ArcJueologia Cambrensit, 1851, 
pp. 9-19. 

A singnlar and perhaps nniqne stone knife and two flint arrow- 
heads, fonnd in connection with red and other ware on Moel 
Fenlli, near Bnthin. The knife has been mdely ornamented, and 
is of so soft a stone as not to be of mnch nse as a tool. See A rehm- 
ologia Cambrensit, 1850, p. 88, for an acconnt and illustration of 
it by Mr. W. Wynne B'fonlkes, who discovered them daring bis 
examination of the great work on Moel Fenlli. 

Major W. Comwallis West, Bnthin Castle. 

A wooden ressel or cap fonnd in a tarbary near the Castle of Caer- 
gwrle. It is elaborately carved and richly inlaid on the exterior 
with thin gold, in various patterns. The gold leaf, which is ex- 
tremely pare, is beaatifully tooled. The principal ornamentation 
consist^ of zigzag parallel lines and deeply indented borders, ei- 
Botly similar in this respect to the gold Innettes which have on 
several occasions been foand in Ireland, and may be assigned to 
the same date. Its having been fonnd near Caargwrle Castle may 
be thonght t« confirm the snggestion that that isolated eminence 
was occupied by a people anterior to Roman times. It was ex- 
hibited at the bociety of Antiquaries, Jane 5, 1S2S, and an ac- 
curate engraving of it is given in the appendix of vol. xxi of the 
Arehceologia,'p. 543. 

Rev. Canon CnaliETe. 

Four flint arrow-heads, Gnely chipped (Irish). 

A gold torqne. 

Two silver armlets. 

Gold penannnlar rings, by some considered as money. 

A fragment of the well known oorelet, found near Mold in 1633, now 
in the British Museum. Two representations of it are given in 
the Archmologia, vol. xxvi, p. 428. The same indented bands as 
those of Mr. Cunlifie's cnp enter largely into the system of oma- 

Stone bead, or button (British). 

Bronze celt of the paalslsb form, six inches long ; fonnd in North 

Frederick Potts, Esq. 

Flint arrow-heads, fonnd near Llandderfel. Col. Tottenham. 

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A collection of email gold ornaments and seraral patarae from Etrns- 
can tombs. 

CoUetrtion of bronse Btotnettes from Italj. Among them is one of 
Mercnry fi^m Pompeii. 

A lar^ ampbois. 

Baa relief in tern cotta, both from Italy. 

Qlass, Samian ware, a bone skate and aaiidal from the bed of the 
The followinf^ Roman remains were foand in Cheater: 

A pair of gold ear-rings. 

Three glass beads. 

Leaden stamp (clatdivs). 

Bronse statnette. 

Part of a small fignre of Tenns in terra cotta. 

Several tiles stamped with the number of the twentieth legion. 

A lar^ number <k vases and fragments of pottery. 

Frederick Potta, Esq, 

Roman lamp. 

Fragment of Samian ware, with dog and chevroD pattern, fonnd on 
Moel Fenlli, 1850. 

Major W. Comwallis West. 
Fragment of cinerary nm, with otbor pieces of potteiy and bones, 
foand at Uillbnty. J. Baiy, Esq. 

Fragmenta of Samian, black, and other ware. One of the Samian 
fragments ia stamped with the potter's name. 

Scored donble fl ne tile, used in. the walls of rooms. 

Square flooring tiles. 

A mass of concrete of brick, part of a flooring. 

PieceB of roagh lead, slags, and charcoal from an ancient smelting 

place, pmbablj a Roman one. 
Bronie needle or bodkin. 
Bronze pin 

Two brooches of nnuaual pattern, which have lost Uieir pins. 

Two others of more simple and ordinary type ; one of them ia iden- 
tically the same as that given in plate yii, fig. 11, ia vol. i of Pen- 
nant's Waien. 

Three brooches of the long fonn, simitar to that figured in Pennant, 
plate viii, fig. 10. 

A pendent heart-shaped ornament, similar to that given by Pen- 
nant, plate ix, fig. 17, and which he calls an amnlet, suspended 
from the necks of children to protect them from certain evils. It 
is inlaid with red and blue enamel. The lower part of the shank 
is pierced, the head being large and slightly convex. All the 
above are of bronze. 

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A copper ornament, with blue and red ennmel, edged with little pro- 
jecting knobs, Bome of which are pierced. 

In addition to the above were exhibited various rings of brsRS, 
ivory, and bronze. An iron pin and nails, and a large tooth of a 
wild boar. 

The chief portion of the above, together with a Riomnn altar was 
fonnd in X828, dnring the levelling a part of Ofia's Dyke. Abont 
18?0, the men digging for the foundation of a new house found 
the floe and other tiles and concrete floor ; and during the present 
year were discovered remains of walla, strongly cemented with 
bard mortar, and the fragments of Samian and other ware above 
mentioned. All these articles were fuund in undistarbed ground, 
so that it is evident that the dyke had been thrown np over the 
Bite of a Roman dwelling. The lead and st^s were fonnd at the 
foot of Nant y Ffritb. There is a great similarity between these 
Boman relics and those found near Flint, described by Pennant 
as above mentioned. 

R. V. Kyrke, Esq. 

Tase dng np on the sit« of the bouse of Asinine Pollio. 

SirR. A. Conliffe, Bart 

coma, MEDALS, ETC. 

Mectrotypea of deoadrachms, and other coins of Syracuse, Crotona, 

Glazomenn, Amphipolis, etc. 
Three first brass of Antoninns Fias. B., bbitaniiia. 
Brass medalhon of Commodus. B., britania. 

Pennies of Alfred (Osneford), Canute, Harold, William I (Pax type). 
Crown-piece, so called, of Henry VIII. 
Silver wdge presented to Blake by Parliament about 1656. 
Silver medal of Oliver Cromwell, by Simon. 
Ditto of Qostavne Adolphns, by Hedlinger. 
Ditto of baptism of the King of Bome, by Andrien (tbe Napoleon 


Thomas Jones, Esq., Llanerchmgog Hall. 
Hemidraohm of Antalcidas. B., Jupiter with a Victory in right 

band ; A small elephant in front. 
Ditto of Philoxenos. H., helmed horseman. 
Ditto of Menander. B., the Thessaliau Minerva to left. 
All found at Sompat, near Delhi. 

Messrs. Egerton. 
A small collection of denarii, and second and third brass, with some 

other coins not ancient. Dr. Williams. 

Second and third brass of Domitian, Nerra, Harcns Antoninas, and 

PoBtumns. Found at Nant y Ffritb. R. V. Kyrke, Esq. 

Two denarii, undescribed ; found, one near Llanelidan, the other 

near Corwen. Mr. Roberts, Wrexham. 

Augustus. B., dates of office. 
Claudius. R., libbrtas avovsta. 

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Nero. fi.,TiCTORiA ..ov... 

Tespaalaii. A.,iictobia xatalib. Ditto, R.,...kkvu<s... Ditto, s.p.q.b. 


Hadrian. R., nncertAin. Ditto, amnoha. 

Faiutina the Elder. £., salvti avqtstab. Ditto, a tower; COneb- 

Commodtis. B., female staodiiig ; le^nd de&ced. 

SeveniB Alexander. R., pbotidentia avo. 

Gordianlll. £.,Dncertain. Ditto, fsotidehtu ATO. Bnpporting globe. 

Philip the Elder. A stag ; SAEcvLAHEa Avoa. To commemorate the 
exhibition of the Sfecalar Games. 

Maximinios. B., a female staading ; legend imcertaia. 
All the above are second brase. 

Diocletian. Smaller size. B., lOvi et rercdli atqO. 
In addition to the above eecoad brase : 

A female head, atgtsta. R., female sitting, holding a globe. 

A crowned female head ; inscription illegible. £., t£ree females 

Copper com said to have been found in Pompeii. Legends and re- 
verse uncertain. 

Bronze medallion. Kame oblitcrat«d. S., a tower of three stories, 
found on coins of consecration. 

Small copper coin of Philip II of Spain. 

Two Nuremberg tokens. These, with three otbei's, were found under 
five skeletons in a cavity in the lime-rooks at Lljsfaen, near Aber- 

Gold nuit of James I. B., faciam eos in vnau gentex. 

Silver medal of Oliver Cromwell, fax qtabkitvb Bello ; a lion hold- 
ing a shield. 

Richard Williams, Esq., Denbigh, 

Halfpence of Edward II or Edward III. 

Groats of Edward III, Henry VIII, and Charles II. 

T, Rymer, Esq. 

Bet of Manndj money (Charles II) and five other silver coins. 

Miss Trevor Parkins. 

Six Japaoese coins. J. Gladstone, Esq. 

Two glazed Frames exhibiting varions coins. 

A cabinet of tokens of the seventeenth ceuto^, of Roman and Eng- 
lish coins, 3. V. Edisbury, Esq. 

Cabinet of coins. T. T. Griffith, Esq. 

Five silver medallettes. Mrs. Torke. 

Peninsula medal with twelve bars. £. Rowland, Esq. 

Badge of a Dmid society. Kiss Trevor Parkins. 

A collection of varions coins and tokens. 

Mr. John Powell of Regent Street, Wrexbam. 

Bronze coin of the Julian fitmily. An elephant, below which Is 
CfSAB; the Punic for elephant. B., the capeduncula, or small 
sacrificial vessel, the aspergiUum, tho axe, and the albogalerua, or 
white hat of the Flamen DialU. This denarius was restored by 
Trajan with a slight alteration. 

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DenanoB of Nerva. B., coscordi* ■xebcitvtm. 

Alexandras Sevei^B. £., titlea. 

Philip the Elder. B., uohita. 

Another. B., titles. 

Edw&rd I. Fenny, London. 

Edward lY. Groat, ditto. 

Henry VII. Groat. 

Henry VIIL Groat, eeoond coinage ; htdf-groats of York and Can- 

Edward VI. Crown. 

Maiy. Groat : tkkitab te«porib filu. 

Elizabeth. Halfcrown, ehilling, and nixpence ; sixpence milled. 

Charles I. Real, or thirty ehilling-pieoe : hib prmsvu tt pbosim. 
Unit or sovereign of twenty shillings : flobbnt cokcordia bbqni. 
Newark siege-piece .' xxx, 1646. 

Charles II. Two gainea-piece, 1664. Bose-crown. 

William and Mary. Half guinea, 1690. Halfcrown, 1689. 

Aune. Guinea. Crown, 1708. Halfcrown, ] 703. Shilling. 

George I. Qnartei^gniiiea, 17IS. Shilling, 1723. 

George II. Five guinea-piece, 1729. Two guinea-piece, 1738, Half- 
crown, 1739. Shilling. 

George III. Gninea, 1813. Halfgninea, 1802. Halfcrown (firat 
type). Bank tokens of five, three shillings, eighteen- pence, and 
one shilling, 

Tonch-pieces of Charles II and James II. 

BpeoimenB of Maundy money from James II to George III. 

T. P, Jones Parry, Esq. 

Bust of VenoB, £., Cnpid bound to a shell, a bntterfly in his hands. 

Bust in profile of the Marqnis of Coniwallis. B., the Marqnis receiv- 
ing the two children of Tippoo as hostages, 1793. C. H. KUkler. 

Earl Howe, bnst in profile. B., hostile fieeta in battle ; JUKE 1, 1794, 

Duncan, bust in profile. B., sailor nailing the British Sag to the 
masthead 1 defeat of the Dutch Oeet, U Oct., 1797. Hancock. 

Modal commemorating the defeat of the Kuglish on the ooaat of Bri- 
tanny, 1757, 

Bronze caat medallion of Charles I and Henrietta Maria. She is 
called here Maria alone. The same occurs in other medals. 

Coronation medal, silver, of Charles 1, 1625. B., hand iBsning from 
a clond. 

Silver martyrdom medal, Charles L B., a landscape, animals feed- 
ing ; above, an arm issuing from a cloud, with a crown, from 
which raye issue ; yirtdt. eihe. fobtunih ex aliis. 

Oval medal, silver gilt, of Charles I and his Queen. Bust of Charles 
on obverse, Henrietta Maria ou reverse. 

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Silver tnedal of Oliver Gromwell, by ThoB. Simon. A lioD holding 
« nhield on which are tho crosses of St. Qeorge and St. Andrew 
and the Irish harp ; and on an escntcheon of pretence, the Pro- 
tector's family arms of a lion rampant ; fix Qvaritvr bgllo. 

Silver medal of Anne. A., crown and heart, etc. ; atatis beoibte ; 
around, entire lt ikolish. 

Another. B., Britannia with olive branch, spear, etc., ships at sen, 
men ploughing and sowing ; cohpobitis tbherahtdb armis, 1713. 

Coronation medal, silror, George I. R., King seated in coronation- 
chair, 20 Oct., 1714. 

Small gold coronation medal of Angnatns II of Poland, 15 Sept., 
1697. S., an arm with sword issuing oat of a clond. 

Gold medal, Clement 21. £., Temple of Janns ; clausit anno iubi- 

Lit HDCC. 

The later French ecu of Lonia XVI, immediately succeeded by the 
five franc-piece. The bnat of Loais is atill retained with the title 
of " Roi des Francois." Struck " an. 5 de la Libert^." 

Gold piece of Ouatavus Adolphns 11 of Sweden, 1631. 

Gold piece, half- dot rao, of Maria of Portugal, 1791. 

Bix-dollar of Ferdinand VI of Spain, 1759. Arms of Spain, with 
those of France, in a scntcheon of pretence. 

Qnarter ris-doltar of the same, 1 754. Another of 1 748. 

Kix-flollar and qnarter rix-dollar of Charles III, 1774. 

Small silver coin of Charles II of Spain. A cross with three pellets 
and annnlet alternately in the angles of the cross ; CI7I . BABCINO, 

Half-thaler of John Geoi^, Duke of Saxony. Elected 1679. 

BnsBian ronbla of 100 oopecks. 

I^yder, or foorteen guilder-piece of Holland, 1682. Armed figure 
standing with sword, etc. 

American balf-dollar, 18l2. 

T. P. Jones Parry, Esq. 


Massive gold ring with the monogram of the Virgin, of the fifteenth 

Seal of the Commonwealth, by Thomas Simon. 

Thomas Jones, Esq. 
Impression of brass seal found in a garden at St. Martin, reading 

SATNCA, fie, Hakoobeta, su!, apparently of the fifteenth century, and 

coarsely execnted. 
Impression of brass seal found on the beach at Boulogne, reading 

8F0[P]iPEB qvEKEiL, which may be 8 (Bigillnm) Philipes Qneneil. 

A person of that name was commander of the French fleet in the 

fourteenth centory, according to Froissart. 
Braaa thumb ring dng np in a field near Oresford, with a coat of 

arroR, I and 4, three fienr-de-1is, 2 und 3 blank. It is probably of 

the seventeenth century. 

Miss Conlifie. 

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Cset of seal of Evesham Abbey. T. T. Griffitli, Esq. 

Cast of great seal of Stephen. J. Uelly, Kaq, 

Gold ring from Coomassie with the twelve signs of the Zodiac. 

Mrs. Trevor Parkiua. 


Star of Lefiion of HoDoar, from Waterloo. 

Bi-oocb of Mary Queen of Scots, with a look of her hair (authenti- 

Miss Canlifib. 
Pair of gold Indian bangles. Lady Cnnlifie. 

Ancient Normandy gold ornaments of cross and heart (with modem 

ear-rings) to match. Uiss Egerton. 

Silver beaker (1613). In this Foster Cnnliffe, grandfather of Sir 

Foster Cunliffe, and godson of Charles II, was placed when bom. 

Sir R. A. Cnnliffe, Bart. 

Gold pins, with portrait of the Queen and Prince Consort, presented 

to the late Miss Lloyd, of Wigaedd, by the Qaeen. 

Mrs. Trevor Parkins. 
Silver mace of the mayor of Holt, 1606. 
Another called the queen's mace, 1709. 
Ancient drinking cup, formerly nsed in the enrolment of the bnr- 

gesaes of Holt. 
Loving cup presented to the Mayors of Holt by Townsheud Maiu- 
waring, Esq., member for the Dorough. 

T. Eymer, Esq. 
Small silver casket nsed dnring the great plagne. 

E. Rowland, Esq. 
Gold sleeve buttons given by James II to Dr. Ralph Taylor. 
Silver punch ladle, given by Charles I to. Sir Charles Uolloy. 

T. T. Griffith, Esq. 


Foot suits of armour of the sixteenth centn^, some of them inlaid, 

and all of foreign manufectnre. Sir W. W. Wynn, Bart., M.P. 
Iron arrow-head found in Ruthin Castle. 
Iron lock also found in the same castle. 
Pair of spurs of the time of the Commonwealth. 

Major W. Comwallis West. 
Two awords found in the ruins of Holt Castle. 
Two other swords of older date. 
A sword ploughed np near Gravelotte. 

T. Rymer, Esq. 
Ancient spur, Simon Torke, Esq. 

Three pieces of armour. 
Indian matlock, scabbards, and cutlasses. 
Eagle from Waterloo. 

T. T. Griffith, Esq. 



SiTord. Ur. Roberts- Cor wen. 

ADcient dagger. J. Powell, Esq. 

Another. MUs Hajea, G&tewen. 

Brace of piatnls. A. W. Edwards, Esq. 

Long kniie (C;i1;11 HiHon), said to be Saxon, found at Llwyn Glas, 


> Miss Hughes, 

Anient sword. John Lewis, Esq. 

Font oriental snorda, two of them Indian. 
Australian war dab. 

Mrs. Eeerton. 
Pistol, snppoeecl to have beeo one of a brace belonging to tneyonnK 

Pretender. General Townsend. 

Three dress swords. Simon Torke, Esq. 

Cannon ball from Caergwrle Castle. Dr. Williams, 

Bavarian military badge from Gravelotte. Miss Trevor Parkins. 
French cntlass of the date of the first revolatioa. 

T. P. Jones Parry, Esq, 
Persian shield. J. I«wis, Esq. 

Three war clabs, South Sea. J. Bronghton, Esq. 

Two hatchets of flint, ditto of bone, from the Friendly Islands. 

J. Pryce Jones, Esq. 


Dish and jar of Majolica ware. 

Tyg, or drinking cup, old Staffordshire. 

t^sence bottle set with cameos. 

Eight specimens of Wedgwood ware. 

Portion of an ancient Japanese t«a service, enamelled. 

Small Turkish china bottle. 

Water bottle from Cashmere. 

Miss CaniiSe. 
Vase of Oris de Flandres. 
A Btrailar one dug up in Piccadilly. 
Three specimens of modem Egyptian potteiy. 

Sir B. A. Cnnliffe, Bart. 
Mediffival small jug, found near Hnthin. 

Major Cornwallis West, Ruthin Castle. 
Cnp and sancer of Japanese egg shell overlaid with wicker work. 
Captain Gladstone. 
Specimens of Plymouth porcelain by William Cookaworthy. 
Plaque cup, saucer, and creamjngof Brifitol ware. 
Basket of Dresden china. 

R. C. Rawlins, Esq. 
Vase of old Shrewsbury wnre by Turner. 
Specimens of Burmese ware. 
Toilet service of Oriental china. 

J. Bronghton, Esq. 
GUsB bowl, engraved with name of William III. 

Mr. Daniel (Ship) Wresham. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Two ohina jars, said to be of the time of Eliiabetl). 

T. P. Jonee Parry, Esq. 
Old Hftjolioa ware. Rev. J. Dixon. 

Dish of Early English ware, 

Foar ale pote of the times of Charles II, William and Mary, George I. 
Three ancient glass jngs. 
Dish of old tortoishell wnre. 
Delf bowl. 

Small jag and tankard of Fnlham ware. 
Two comacopias of old Staflbrdsbire ware. 
Ancient plaqne of porcelain. 
Old English dish by W. Talor, aboot 1G70. 
Porcelain bnst of Homer. 
Collection of ancient tobacco pipes. 

E. Rowland, Esq. 
Vase of Uajolica Savona ware. 
Dish, old Stafibrdsbire 

Rev. J. Dixon. 
Encanetio tile, with figure of V^irgin and Child, foand at Sheemess. 

Mrs. Trevor Parkins. 
Ancient vase. Mrs. White. 

Three old English ware dishes 

Two Dolft ones, one of them having the arms and motto of the Unrv 
ray family. 

J. P. EdisbniT, Esq. 
Three caps and a sancer of old English china. Kr. John Fraser, 
China jag, basin, and teapot 
Basin of Lowestoft ware. 

Mrs. J. Ellis. 


Small brass cross fonnd id tbe chnrchyard of Ouilsfield, near Welsh- 
pool. It is figured and described in the collections of the Powys- 
land Club. Rev. D. P. Lewis. 

Two handles of a bronze vessel foand in digging foundations for the 
modem part of Rathin Castle. 

Human boues from a sarcophagus fonnd at Poragia, 1857. 

Gilt and enamelled Venetian metal-case of the fi^eenth century, 
with the Contarini arms. It was secured by padlock against the 
bottles within being tampered with. 

Major W. Cnmwallis West. 

Indian fanholdcr, supposed to be at least two hundred years old. 

An Ctai-case and toiniatare of its owner, Mrs. Hunt, dated 1742. 

Riding-whip iuHcribed "John Hunt, 1681." 

Burmese idol taken during tlie second Burmese war, 

Lyte-bird screen from Australia. 

T. P. Jones Parry, Esq. 

out matchbox with agates inserted in lid. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Small mlverboz said to bave been aBed in London darinff the plagae 

of 166S. 
Carved panel with armorial bearinf^. 

Two ancient enamels. 
Ancient shoes. 

E. Bowlsnd, Esq. 
Ancient horn. Miss Hayes. 

Brass miller's measnre fonnd near LlanbryDmair. 

Sir W. W. Wynn, Bart, M.P. 
Old Bnnffboz. Mr. Fraser. 

Wooden tongs for carrying dogs oat of chnrch, from Llanynya 

Cbnrch. Ber. D. B. Thomas. 

A jointed borseeboe. Cromwell te said to have left his horse at a 
smithy between Holt and Wrexham ; bat this is hardly ground 
for coniectaring that this shoe was connected with this animal. 
Jointed horseshoes were invented in the fifteenth century by Fias- 
chi, the first writer sn the art of shoeing horses. 

Mr. T. Williams, King's Mills. 
Old thermometer. W. J. SisflOn, Esq. 

Dish of lattea, Flemish work, 1500. Snch dishes are sometimes 
found in Wales, handed down from father to son as family heir- 
looms, and are generally used only on solemn occasions, as fune- 
rals or weddings. Miss Cnnlifie. 
Panel carved in Arabesque pattern, said to be taken from a laundry 

of Queen Eliaabetb, J. F. Kelly, Esi^. 

Old Greek lace representing the Cmcifixton. Mrs- Trevor Parkins. 
Mortuary stone chest containing bones. 

Small stone statne of the fifteenth century, formerly attached to 
some part of a building. 

G. H. Whalley, Esq., M.P. 

Cast (in iron) of bird dng up near Mold. Hiss M. E. Trevor Parkins. 

Table and frames made from the Ceubren yr Ellyll oak. The second 

Sir Bobert Yaugban of Nannan caused most of the tree to be 

converted into variooa articles. T. Eyton Jones, Esq, 

Two bronze vases (Japimese) stated to be three centories old, 

J. Sparrow, Esq. 
Chinese idol and two cocoa-nut bowls. J. Bury, Esq. 

Model of the Taj Mnhal at Agrab. Captain Gladstone. 

Native cloth from Ashantee. J. Sparrow, Esq. 

Puzzle made from the wood of the Royal Charter, 

Miss Trevor Parkins. 
A collection of articles from Coomassie. 
Pouch worn by native goldsmith, pipe, mirror, bracelets, necklets, 

and anklets. J. G. Bobinson, Esq. 

EaStr shoes. J. liewis, Esq. 

Slcnll of on extinct race once inhabiting the Canary Isles. 

M. B. Oriffitli, Esq. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Collection of Oriontal articles. Mrs. White. 

Italian jar, 1778, pnlnted on chicken's skin. Mies Egerton. 

Carved caeket of Eandalwood ^ and anotber, amaller, of Indian work. 

Carved ebony writing-case. 

Opium pipe. 

Model, in bark, of an Americaa canoe. 

Korth American quilt sewn on bark. 

Child's hat from Normandy. 

Needleirork map of England. Mr. E^rton, 

Otaheitan hat. Miss CunliBb. 

Harp-lnte. Mrs. Yorke. 

A large collection of objects from the Friendly iRlands : dresi of 
King George, idol carved ont of a whale's tooth, fans, basket, mat, 
two pillowB, three combs. J. I'ryce-Jones, Esq. 

Double flageolet. W. Fox, Esq. 

Specimen of carvings, marble. T. T. Griffith, Eeq. 

Medallions of the late Sir U. CnnliSe and of Lady Cnnli&e, executed 
by Miss Emily Cnnliffe. Sir K. A. Cnnliffe, Bart. 


The Salnsbury Pedigree, commonly called the Painted Book. This 
collection appears to have been commenced by Thomas Salnsbary 
of Erbistock, about the year 1641, and addisd to by his son John. 

Transcript of the Salnsbury Pedigrees, being the collections made 
by Owen Salnsbury, of KOg, and John Salusbury of Erbistock, 
circa 1630-1677. The originals were consumed in the Wynnstay 
fire, March 1358, and this is the only copy in existence. 

The Fifteen Tribes of Wales and the families descended from them. 

The Five Royal Tribes. 

Llyfr Silin yn cynnwys Achan amryw Deulnoedd yng Ngwynedd 
a Phowys, a transcript. 

A transcript of the collection of pedigrees by John BUia of Tai 
Croesion, about 1 723, with additions and corrections. 

A transcript of tfae Trebryn collection of pedigrees by Thomas ab 
Evan of Trebryn, Coychnrch, Glamorgan, compiled 16S3. 

A copy of ft transcript by Mr. J. Jenkins of Kerry, of the Cedwyn 
cotlectioii of pedigrees, called the Manafon MS. (as belonging lo 
the Rev. Walter Davies of that place). 

Transcript of the original Visitation of Caermarth en shire, Pem- 
brokeshire, and Cardiganshire, by L. Dwnn, the property of the 
Into John Madockx, Esq., of Glan y Wem. All the above trans- 
cripts and copies were the work of the iate Mr, Joseph Morris, of 

Sir W. W. Wynn, Bart., M.P. 

Llyfr Dn Basing, or the Black Book of Basingwerk ; the most per- 
fect copy of Caradoc's History of Wales, by Guttyn Owain, hiaco* 
rian and herntd, an inmate of the abbey. 

TheCaeCyriog Pedigree Book, by John Griffith of that place, folio, 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


1698, with a c&refnily execated transirript of the same, by the 
great great grandson of John Griffith, who is also the exhibitor. 
T. T. Griffiths, Esq. 
The pedigree of Jones of Llwyn On, in the parish of Wrexham, col- 
lected ont of the books of Owen Salnsbary of Rdg, and other 
antbentic sonroes, by John Salnsbniy of Erbistock, ltj75. 

T. P. Jones Parry, Esq. 
The geaBoiofry and historioal records of the Eytou family to the 
present time, richly illaminated with drawingH of arms, annonr, 
monnmeDts, etc. 
Pedigree on Tellnm of the Eyton family, dat«d 1678, by Handle 

Holme. Mrs. Parry Jones. 

Dosparth Edeym Tavod Anr, a Welsh grammar, compiled about 
1240. This work was printed in 1865 by the Welsh MSS. Sooiely. 
Surrey of Rhnabon by Norden, 1634. 
Drayton's Polyolblon, 1612. 
Davies' Welsh Dictionary. 
Ditto Welsh Grammar. 

Cambria Triamphana, with the aems illnatrated. 
Hnmphrey Llwyd's Breviary of Britain, 1573. 
Wolah Prayer-book, 1621. 

T. T. Griffith, Esq. 
Deed of oonveyance of two fields at Miners, 1615. Purchase money, 
£20. From these two fields, lead to the valne of £300,000 bad 
been extracted. R. V. Kyrke, Esq. 

List of the sheriffs of Denbighshire, I541-I642. S. Torko, Esq. 
Letter of Cremienx (French commaaiitt) 

Army oommissions with antograpba of George III, and other distin* 
gnished men. J. F. Kelly, Esq. 

Enderbie's Cambria THnrnphana. Mrs. Pierce. 

My vyrian Arcbaiology of Wales. 
Genealogy of Wales. 
Prayer-book of Queen Elizabeth. 
Jones' Valle Cracis. 

Dr. Williams. 
Welsh Pmyer-book, 1664. Rev. J. Wilban. 

Bible, I611,contaimnganoficeofaTisitfromOromweirBmen, 1611. 
The lolo MSS. 

Raleigh's History of the World, 1637. 
Index to ancient records, grants, etc., by Jones. Another by Martin. 

J. C. Owen, Esq. 
History of Ceramic Art in Bristol. J. C. Rawlins, Esq. 

Godwin's snccession to the English bishops, 1613. J. Lewis, Esq. 
L. Dwnn's Visitation. 
Bmt y Tywysogion. 

J. PryceJones, Esq. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Works of Charles I, second edition, oonteining bis addreu to the 
inhabitants of Denbigh and Flint, at Wrexb&m, Sept. 27, 1642. 

Book of Common Prayer, printed by Robert Barton, 1599. 

Hifltoiy of Venice, by Paolo Panata, mado English by Henry of 
Monmouth, 1653. 

Cambro-BrytaDnicee Inetitafiones, by John Darid Rhye, 1592. 

Ehderbie's Cambria Triamphans and other books. 

Major W. Cornwallia West 

The works of Charies I. 

Ormerod'a History of Cheshire. 

The regulations of plays, by Tbeo. Dorrington. 

Opera vitgiliana, 1529, folio, with cnrions iUastrations, 1529. 

Rev. G. Bewsber. 

Andrew's Pyramids of Gizeh. 

With other rolnmee. 

J. Brongfaton, Elsq. 

The Principles of Geography, 1640. 

The Abridgment of the Book of Assizes, 1555. 

Examination of Men's Wits, 1616. 

Tbe HiBtorie of Cambria, 1584. 

The Breviary of Health for all manner of sickneases and diseaaee, 
which may be in man or woman, 1552. 

Sir W. W. Wynn, Bart., M.P. 

New Testament of Qneen Elizabeth. T. P. Jones Parry, Esq. 

Insh Testament, 1690. Mr. J. Fraier. 

Bible, 17l7, known as the Vinegar one, from the misprint for Vine- 
yard (St. Lake, xx). Only five copies are eaid to have been stmck 
off with this misbake. Two on vellnm. are in tbe Bodleian 

Certain observations on the office of Lord Chancellor. 

History of the Inqnisition, 1734, 

Sermons preached at Whitehall before tbo Qneen by the Archbi- 
shop of Canterhnry (TtlloUon). 

Sermons preached at Guildhall before tbe Lord Mayor b; Edward 
Stillingfleet, Dean of St. Paal's. 

Latin version of the Prayer-book, 1705. 

Whitehall Evening Post, Feb. 23, 1731. 

Two abstracts of proceedings of the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge, 1726-27. 

Alphabetical list of House of Commons, 1 705. 

Simon Torke, Esq. 

Proclamations of Cromwell and hst of Parliament, 1653. 

J. Lewis, Esq. 

Proceedings of the coming of age of Sir W. W. Wynn, 1842. 

Freeman's Journal, Nov. 12, 1799. 

Account of incised slabs at St. Asaph. 

Cambria Triumphans, with illustrations, eto. 

Visitation of Surrey, with arms emblazoned, edited by Joseph 
Jackson Howard. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


TorWs Bojral Tribes, with the arms added ic tinotnre and metals. 

Miee Cnnliffe. 
BibliftSacra, l?g6. 

Da Tal's Present Stat« of the World, 1691. 
Bejnold's Display of Heraldiy, 1739. 
Aytett'a AotiiiattieB of Britain, 1676. 
Powell's History of Wales, 1584, intorleaTed with corrections in bis 

own handwriting. 
Davies' Welab Dictionary, 1632. 
With numy other volomes. 

J. F. EdiabDry, Esq. 
Breeches Bible bound np with Prayer-book and Faaltns, 1600. 

Wm. Trevor Parkins, Esq. 
Poor other copies were exhibited, 1586, Canon Cnolifie; 1598, JUr. 
Edisbnry; and two copies 1599, Dr. WiUiama and Mr. James 
Book or Psalms and THew Testament, opening both ways. 
Stowe'a Chronicle of London. 

Wm. Overton, Esq. 


SrawingB of Cadwgan HaU, old Pentref Bychan, two views of Acton 
Park, gateway old Bryn y Ffynnon, the gold corselet found near 
Mold, drawings of ancient pottery, miniature of Foster Gunliffe, 
£^. Miss Cnnliffe. 

. Portrut of Charles I, iramed, together with his speech, some of his 
bair, and some lace worn by him. Mrs. Torke. 

Uiniatnres of Qeorge III and Qneen Charlotte in brooch, presented 
to the Hon. Anne Boscawen. Miss M. £. Trevor Parkins. 

Back's view of Wrexham, 1718. It is remarkable that although 
several of the towns in Sonth Wales are given in Bnck's work; 
Wrexham is the only one in North Wales so honoured. 

Jacobite rose, with arms of houses in Maetor and snrrounding dis- 
tncts, arranged in three circles, the outer circle thns tuBcribed, 
"Under the rose be it spoken. Fense mais garde que paries. 
Ergo Dywedwch ychydig." The probable date is the reign of 
Anne. Copied from the original drawing by the late Mra. Hughes 
of Aoton. 

Miss Trevor Parkins. 

Bubbingof incised stone in Oresford Chnrcb. 

W, Trevor Parkins, Junior, Esq. 

Engraving of Dick of Aberdaron, the linguist. His name was Richard 
Robert Jones, who, not being able to read his Welsh Bible until 
nine years old, acquired, under extraordinary difficaltiea, a know- 
ledge of Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, and Italian. See a notice 
of him in the Percy Anecdolee, and an account of himprinted in 
Liverpool, during hie life, for his benefit. Dr. Williams. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Drawing of tho old bonse of Llwyn On, Miaa Lewis. 

Portrait of Joehna Edisbnry, High Sheriff of Denbighshire, 1682, 
and bnilder of the present honse of Erddig. 

Coat-armoar of Eenrick Edisbary, Esq., married 1638. 

Photograph of iaa moDiiment in Chatham Church. 

J. F. Edisbary, Esq, 

Hatchment of Mrs. Langford, reiiot of Richard Langford of Trev- 
alnn, 1657. General Townehend. 

Engraving of Wrexham Ghnrch, 1746, William Overton, Esq. 

Ditto, dedicated to WilUam Robinson, M.P. for the Denbighshire 
boronghs. J. Lewis, Esq. 

Ancient map of Cheshire. 

Collection of the arms of the gentry in Maelor, by the lata Mrs. 
Hughes of Acton. 

Portraita of the Chevalier St. George and his sister, presented by 
James II to the Rev. Dr. Taylor. 

Engraving, by Virtue, of Dr. Taylor, the original picture of which, 
by Yerelst, ia in the possession of hie great-nephew, the exhibitor. 
T. T. Griffith, Esq. 

Thirty coat« of arms on wood panels, from a pew in Llwydiarth 
Chnrch, Sir W. W. Wynn, Bart., M.P. 

" The Bold Keeper," a caricature referring to the Denbighshire elec- 
tion of 1740.4f1. William Myddelton of Gwenjnog (or of Plas 
Torbridge according to the list of Sheriffs), being High Sherifl*, 
returned his relation, John Myddelton, as duly elected, in opposi- 
tion to Sir W. W. Wynn. John Myddelton was anaeated on 
petitdon, and ihe Sheriff fined £1,000, and committed, until the 
end of tho session, to Newgate, in which prison the print repre- 
sents him. Mf^or W. Comwallis West. 

Engraving of Cenbren yr Ellyll, Sir B. A. Cnnliffe, Bari. 

Two puntings on ivory. 

Delhi painting, ditto. 

A volume of Dighton's caricatures from 1795 to about 1820. They 
appear to have been sold in volumes similar to the one exhibited, 
as others exactly similar exist. J. Bronghton, Esq. 

Engraving of Sir John Conroy. 

Portrait of a child, E, Humphreys, Esq. 

In addition to the articles above described, iateresting contribu- 
tions of geological end natural history specimens were exhibited by 
Mr. Shone, Mr. Walton, and Mr, Egerton. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 



. A3 fi 6 

AdTertiiing . . 14 7 6 

Itj ule of tickets 

. 27 Ifl 

Printing and (t&tionery 14 9 3 

7 iS 8 

Eire of room. . 10 13 
QUm cmck, «tc. .706 
Att«n(UDt« . . 4 6 U 
Qenenl ezp«nBei u per 

■tatement . .839 
Baluice . 30 U 

/eS 19 

^68 19 I) 

Examined and found coma. 

(Signed) W. Otibtoh, Treaturer. 

Edward Williaiu, Chairman of Local CommitUf. 
(Counteni^ed) C. C. Babikotok, Ciaiman of Ocneral Committee. 


Sir W. W/Dti, Bart., M.P. 

O. O. Morgui, B»q., M.P. 

K. Peel, E*q. 

Veo. Archdeacon Wicbham 

air Robert A. Cunliffe, Bart. 

Bev. E. L. Bamweli 

J. Bojdell, E*q. 

Rev. J. Sjrdne; Darvell 

J. P. Edisbtuj, Km. 

A. W. Edwa^d^ B^. 

E. Enna, Esq. 

T. L. Fiti-Hugh, Esq. 

Captain Oodfre; 

Boicawen T. ariffith, Eiq. 

T. T. QTiSlh, Btq. 

S. K. Qriffith, Esq. 

The Hon. G. T. Kenjou 

K. V. Kjrke, E«,. . 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


R«T. M. H. Lee 

Barold IiBBs, Esq. 

J. Lewis, Esq. 

W. Low, Esq. 

Rot. Q. H. M'Qill 

W. OTcrton, Esq. 

T. P. Jones Pwry, Esq. 

W. Treror Parkins, Esq. 

F. Potti, Ksq. 

J. Piyce-Jonva, Esq. 

I. Sbone, Eaq. 

E. Swetenh&m, Esq. 

Qenenl TowDBbend 

Captain White 

Edwud Williams, Esq., M.D. 

R«T. T. Williams . 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 

'^YchKtaU$xix €nmhrtmh. 


JANUARY, 1875. 


Tm foQowmg history of the family of Yaaglian of Cors 7 Gedol is 
fcom & ttKDScript made by the I&te Miss Angharad Lloyd, of a MS, 
in ttie Ubrary at Uoatyn, nhere there appear to be two copies of it. 
I have added dates, and other notes, which may make this onrions 
tract the more interesting to the genealogist. 

1874. W. W. E. W. 

The purport of iiiia small tract is to give a short his- 
tory of tLe fiunily of Cors y Gedol down to the preaent 
poasessor, William Vaughan {the fourth of that name), 
living in 1770; and as, in all appearance, the name 
'will soon be extinct, he and his brother, Evan Lloyd 
Vaughan,' being iar advanced in years, and Evan un- 
mamed, this is intended as a small monumental and 
general inscription of tJie family, and for the amuse- 
ment of any of those of a collateral bninch who may 
inhabit or possess the old house, and take delight in a 
retrospect of what it was. Collected by me, William 
Vychan, in 1770, aged sixty-three.' 

I shall begin this short history of the family of Cors 
y Gedol from a fair MS. of Robert Vychan of Hengwrt, 

^ This Evan Lloyd Vanghsn was a member of the infamous " Hell 
Fire Glnb," of which there is a notice ia the Adv6n.iiu.res of a Oumea. 
He died M.P. for the connty of Merioneth, i Dec., 1791. 

* Ht. Yanghan Bpella the name "Vychan" thronghoot the MS., 
almost without exception. The trauBcriber has not dooe so. 
4tb mi., roL. Ti. 1 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


the learned antiquary, ■written in his own hand,' and 
shall make him my director as &r as his MS. relates to 
this family ; following him whilst he keeps in view the 
direct line, without branching, as he does, into collateral 
lines; and adhering to hia account (with some addi- 
tions as I find them elsewhere) of the descendants of 
Osbwm Wyddel to the year Mr, Vychan wrote this 
account, that is, to October 25, 1654. Moreover, as 
he agrees with all the pedigree books, I shall follow his 
narration, as it is the most dear and perfect, which will 
save me the trouble of running over numerous volumes 
which he has already extracted and gleaned &om most 

In the time of William Rufus* one Gerald de Wind- 
sor was made keeper of Pembroke Castle, who, with 
the consent of the King, married Nest, daughter of 
Rhys ap Tewdwr Mawr, Prince of South Wales. Mawris 
Fitz Gerald his son, or rather grandson," was one of the 
first adventurers in the conquest of Ireland under 
Henry II, of whom d^cend the noble Earls of Kildare 
and Desmond. Osb. Wyddel came over to Wales 
(some of our Welsh pedigrees say it was the Earl him- 
self; others say a descendant of his, which latter I am 
inclined to beheve, both as to time, and as none of his 
children ever bore that title, which of right they would 
have done had he been Earl himself),* Llewelyn the 
Great being then Prince of North Wales, about 1237,' 
with whom he was in high favour and credit, so that 
he obtained laige possessions from the Piince, was 
made Governor of Harddlech Castle," and was of great 

' This MS. is in the Peniartli collection. Peniartt MS. No. 6. 
' It was l&ter. In the time of Heniy I. 
> He was his son. 

* There is good evidence to show that Oebora was a eon of John 
Fitz Thomas Fite Maarioe Pitz Gerald, the first Geraldine lord of 
Deciea and Desmotid. In the tax-roll for Merioneth, of a fifteenth, 
of the year 1293-4, in the Pnblio Becord Office, Oabom's name 
rs as assessed in the parish of Llanaber. 
am inclined to think it was some years later. 
It does not appear that he was Goremor of Harlech Castle ; in 


D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


service to Llewelyn in all his wars afterwards. We 
hare no certain account of what occasioned his comiog 
over to settle in Wales. The tradition is that he had 
put to death some great personage, and was obliged to 
fly his country. According to tradition he came over 
with a troop of one hundred men well mounted upon 
grey horses, and made an offer of his services to the 
Prince, who aaiepted his proposal, and employed him 
during the remainder of his (Llewelyn's) life. The 
Prince gave him the heiress of Cors y Gedol, his ward, in 
marriage ; near which place he buUt a small fortress, 
where he garrisoned his men. It is known by the name 
of Oebom's Palace, a^ are Ukewise the grounds about 
it, called to this day his lands : in British, " BrynUys"* 
and " Berdir", contracted from Llys Osber and Tir Os- 
ber. He had two sons, Einion and Cynric. Einion had 
four sons, Grono Llwyd, HeUin, Cynric, and Llewelyn 

Grono Llwyd had lands given him that bear his 
name to this day ("Cae Grono Llwyd"), which lands 
were escheated to the crown ; and Heilin had other 
lands given him, which are now, and were, called "Cors 
Heilin ; both which lands at this time belong to, and 
are part of, the demesne of Cora y GedoL The posterity 
of these four brothers are in our days scarce known, the 
custom of gavelkind having, in process of time, simk 
them in obhvion. 

To Cynric, his second son, Osbwm gave the posaeaeion 
of Cors y Gedol, whose descendants in the direct line 
male enjoy it at this day, 1770. Besides Cors y Gedol, 
Cynric ap Osbwm had likewise his part of his father's 
inheritance. It was the custom in those days for the 
father to leave to or settle upon the youngest son of 
the family the principal seat of the family, where he 

fkct tbere is no BntheDtic evidence that tbere wbb a oastle there 

before the conqnest of Wales. 

1 Or BerUt/B. There &re the remains of an enoampment at Ber- 
Uyi, but too imperfect to enable any opinion to be formed as to 
their date. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


always resided. The elder sons were generally employed 
in the service of the prince abroad, or in attending 
upon his person at home. The intention of this custom 
■was to preserve and keep up the family in case any 
acddent should befall the alder ones. I cannot find 
whom Cynric married, or what number of children be 
had ; but his successor, Llewelyn, enjoyed all the father's 

This Llewelyn ap Cynric married Nest, daughter and 
heiress of Gryff^dd ap Adda^ of Dol Godi, and hereby 
had Ynys y MaeDgwyn, and large possessions besides in 
Ystymmaner and Ardudwy. By Nest he had a son 
named Gryffydd,* the first of the name, who enjoyed 
all his father's and great part of hia mother's estate. 
He married Eva, daughter and heiress of Madog ab 
Elisau, a baron of Edeimion," and a descendant from 
Owyn Brogyntyn, thereby much enlarging his posses- 
sions. By her he had one son, named Eignion, to in- 
herit his estates ; and a daughter called Angharad, who 
married Davydd ap Gronw of Flintshire.* 

Eignion ap Gry^dd' married Tanglwst, daughter of 
Rhydderch ap Evan Llwyd of Cogerddan (Gogerthan), 
by whom he had Gryflfydd, who inherited arter him ; 
and levan ap Kign.," who married Angharad, daughter 
and heiress of Davydd ap Gwion XJwyd of Hen- 

1 The tomb otQrjSjAA ap Adda is extant in Towyn Gharah. He 
WM BAglot (^vernor) of the Comote of E^stimaoer, in the third and 
Berentli ^ears of Edward III. 

* He was fiu-mer of the office of sheriff of Uerionethahire io 46 
Edward III, and Sheriff in 15 Richard II. He died probably be- 
tween 29 Sept., 20 Richard II, and the same day, 1 Henry IV. 

^ Sister and coheiress of Leoline ap Madoo ap Ellis, Bishop of 
St. Asaph from 1357 to 1375. 

* They and their two danghters, Era and Angharad, were living 
npon 7 Oct., 4 Henry VI. 

' He was captain of forty archers for the Eing, from the connty 
of Meriooeth, m 10 Richard II, and was living at Uachaelmas, 20 
Richard II. 

* A jnror in an inqnisition held at Bala, 6 Oct., 14£7. One of 
^be esGheators of the connty of Merioneth at Michaelmas, 1432. He 
was ancestor, in a direct line, to the Wjnncs of Feniorth. 

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dwT.'and liad by her three sons and two daughters. The 
tlurd son of Eignion was lorwerth.' The three brothers 
divided their father's inheritance between them. The 
ofepring and posterity of these brethren did so mul- 
tiply that from that time they were called " Tylwyth 

Mali, one of the daughters of Eignion, married Howel 
Sele'of Nannau, of whom all the Nannys are descended; 
the other married first to Howel ap levan ap lorwerth 
of Cynllaeth, and had two daughters. Her second hus- 
bemd was Evan Vaughan ap Evan Gethin. Her third 
husband was Griffith ap Bleddyn* of the Tower of Mold, 
by whom she had a son called Keinallt, a very famous 
captain in the Lancastrian cause. More of him may be 
said hereafter. 

Giyfifydd,* the second of that name, married Lowri, 
daughter and heiress of Tudor Vychan, son of Gryffydd 
of Khuddallt. Tudor Vychan was brother to Owen 
GlyndwT ; so that this lady was that great man's niece. 
Gryffydd had by her three sons, Tudyr, Elisau,* and 
Gryffi Vaughan of Cors y Gedol, between whom the in- 
heritance, after his death, was divided. 

^ Called &\bo David de BendonroiSendv!r,aiid David, son of Ovndo 
de BendoVT. 

* lorwerth, in other pedigrees, iu stated to have been the eldest 
SOD. He was fanner of the ville of Towjn (lessee of the orovn 
reveniieB in that ville), and of the office of Baglot (governor) of the 
Comote of Kstiinaoer, at Michaelmas, 1415 ; and held in farm, from 
the crovu, the office of noodtvarden of Eslimaner, at MichaelmEta, 
1425, for ft term of two years, that being the first, 

^ See the " Spirit's blasted Tree," notes to Marmion, Howel Sele 
was liying at Hichaeltnas, 1400. His widow was remarried to Owen 
ap Meredith ap Qryffydd Vychan of Nenadd Wen in Powysland, who 
was living 9 Dec., 1446, 

* This ia a mistake. Her third hnsband was Howel ap Tndnr ap 
Orono, who at Michaelmas, 4 Henry VI, held on lease the extent 
lands of the crown in the comote of Penllyn. By him she was 
mother of Gwervil, wife of Griffith ap Bleddyn. 

' He held on lease the office of Baglot of the Comote of Ardadwy 
at Michaelmas, 1415. 

" He was a joror for the co. of Merioneth in 27 Henry VT, and 
held in farm the office of Raglot of the Comoto of Ponllyn at Micbucl- 
mas, 12 Edwurd IV. 

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Gn-ffydd,' the third of that name, was the first of the 
family who took upon him the surname of Vychan, 
which continues to this day. He married Mawd, 
daughter and coheir of Sir John Clement, Rnt., of Caron, 
descended from Sir Jefierey Clement, Justice of South 
Wales (slain at Buellt, in 1293, by the natives).* Mawd 
■was first married to Sir John Wogan of Wiston. By 
Gryffydd Vychan she had William Vaughan of Cilger- 
ran. This Griffith was one of the three captains that 
held out Harddlech Castle against Henry IV.* 

Here I shall digress a little to give a short account 
of that transaction, as it was conducted by many gentle- 
men, relations, and mostly descended firom Osbwm 
Wyddel, with whom we began our narrative. 

In the time of Edward IV, whilst Henry VI lived, 
many of the nobility and gentry of Wales refused the 
government of Edward, and very stiffly resisted him 
and maintained the cause of Henry, though a prisoner. 
Among them were the posterity of Osbwrn Wyddel. 
Jasper, Karl of Pembroke, who had great confidence in 
this family, committed the keeping of Harddlech Castle, 
for the use of King Henry, to their care, which being 
very strong, and almost impregnable, yet of no great 
consequence, was then, as likewise in the time of Oliver 
Cromwell, tiie last which held out (for the declining 
Prince) both in England and Wales. King Edward 
having at last quieted the whole kingdom, save some 
few places in Wales, sent William Earl of Pembroke 
with an army to North Wales, to take this CasUe, who 

1 Qi7%dd was & juror for the co, of MerioDSth in 27 and 31 
Henry VI, and foreman of ajnry for the BRmeooantyinSSHenryVT. 

' Lands in the connty of Cardigan were panted to Sir Jefirey 
Clement for his fait.hful Beirlco, 10 Feb., 16 Edward L Ayloffe'a 
Botuli Wallim, p. 97. He had been slain before 1 Dot., 22 Edward L 
Ditto, p. 100. 

' Edward IV. See Life of Lord Herbert of CherhvTy, Stmwberry 
Hill edition, pp. 7, 8 ; Pennant's Tour in Walei, vol. ii, p. 131 ; and 
Hittory of the Gwedir Familt/, Svo edition, p. 76. David np leran 
ap Binion, the gallant Constable of the Caetlo, and Qryfiydd Vychan, 
were the sons of two brothers. 

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accordingly besieged it until such time as they within, 
perceiving there was no hope of relief, yielded it to the 
Earl upon good and honourable terms. The chief men 
that held the Castle were these : Davydd (ab levan 
ab) Eignion, a man of great experience, having long 
served in the French wars in high command, — it was 
he that was Governor ; Gryflfydd Vychan (or Vaughan) 
ab Eignion of Cors yGredol ; and Siencin ap lorwerth ap 
Eignion^ was third in command. Besides these, there 
were six more llnefJJy descended fromOsbwm Wyddel,in 
the Castle ; John Hanmer of Flintshire, David ab E%- 
nion ab Owain of Powis, Reinallt ab Gryff'. ab Bleddyn 
(a very noted man, of Mold Dale),* Morys ab Dd. ab 
Sieflrey, Davydd ab Evan ab Eignion Rymonys (Rymus) 
of Bettws y Coed in Edeimion, and Howei, Ednyved, 
and Thomas, Uie sons of Morgan ab lorwerth Goch, of 
Bromfield ; besides John Tydyr, clerk, and Gryffydd ab 
lorwerth. Senior ; being all kinsmen to the first named 

Now we shall proceed. This Gryffydd was in great 
credit with Jasper Earl of Pembroke, who lay at hia 
house of Cors y Gedol, whence he absconded, with Henry 
Earl of Richmond, from Edward IV, and fled to France. 
After Henry came to England he made hitn Governor 
of Cilgerran Castle, and bestowed upon him other im- 

William Vychan of Cilgerran,* the first of the house 
in South Wales, where^he lived, took to wife Margaret 
Perrott ; and by her, who was the daughter of Sir Wil- 
liam Perrott, he had Rhys Vychan of Cors y Gedol, Wm. 
Van, and Gryffydd Van. He had also a base son by 
Elizabeth Mortimer, daughter of Sir John Mortimer, 

* He was foreman of a jniy at T0W711, 31 Heniy VI, and held the 
ofEce of Bingild of the Comoto of Estimaner, 10 Edward lY. 

» See Pennant'e Tour in Waiei, vol. i, edition of 1 78i, 4to, p. 427. 

* The Caatle was snrrendered upon the 14 Aug., 1468. 

* 26 May, 1 Henry VIII, Wm. v acban appointed SeneBohal, Re- 
ceirer. Apparitor, and Forester of Cilgerran, and Constable of tlie 
Castle, etc., during pleasure. {Ori^nalia BolU ; Addttional Mi)., 
Brit. Mbs., Np. 6363.J 

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Baron of Coytmor, whose name was Tudyr, of whom 
descended several good families. 

Rhys Vychan,' the eldest son of William, married 
Gwen Anwyl, daughter and heiress of GryS. ap William 
ap Madoc of Llwyndyrys in Caernarvonshire, descended 
from Sir Gryffydd Llwyd, who brought tidings to King 
Edward I of his Queen's delivery of a son in Caernar- 
von Caatle, for which he was knighted. By her Khya 
"Vaughan had Richard Vaughan, Robert Vai^han of 
Cilgerran,* and Thomas Vaughan. He had also four 
daughters: Elizabeth, who married John Wynn ab 
Humphrey of Ynys y Maenwyn, by whom he had Hum- 
phry Wynn ; and afterward she married David liwyd 
ab Hugh, a younger son of the house of Mathavam, 
and by him had Rhys Llwyd of Dolgelynen. Catrin, 
the second daughter of Rhys Vaughaii, married GryflF. 
ap Rifiiart Llwyd of DdoL Ann, the third daughter, 
married Hugh Nanny of Nannau. The fourth was 
Mary, who married William Madryn of Madiyn in _Caei> 
narvonshire. We find Rhys Vaughan in the list of 
eherifis in 1545 to 1554. He settled tie Cilgarran 
estate (at that time about £400 a year) on his son 
Robert, and he dying without issue male, it went 
amongst his daughters, so that little or no traces are 
now to be found of it. 

I have not yet found what became of Thomas, the 
third son." 

Richard Vaughan, the first j)f the name, of Cors y 
Gedol and Llwyndy^s, took to wife Janet, daughter of 
Robert Vaughan of Talhenbont in Carnarvonshire, and. 

^ fie was Sheriff of Merionethahire in 1547-8, in 1£54>5, and in 

' Robert Yaaghui of Kilgarran, Gent., then living, and ezecntor 
of tbe last will and testament of Rice Vanghan ap William, Esq. 
Flea Koll o/Merunulh, Great Sessions held at Hulech, Uond&y, 
10 Jnly, 29 Eliz. 

' A deed of settlement prior to his marriage with Lowiy, danghter 
of Hugh ap John ap Howel of Llanvendigaid, Geut., bears date 
3 Feb., 9 Eliz. It is covenanted that the marriage sliall take place 
before the next festival of St. John the Baptist. 

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had by her six sons and six daughters. Qiyfi^dd, the 
eldest son, Henry, William, Khys, Robert, and John. 

Lowry, the eldest daughter, married Evans' of 

Kleimion. Gwen married Eichard Tudur of Effryn.' 
Gras married to W(w;an' of Stonhall. Mary married to 
Pugh* of Uanvendd^aed. Marget married Edwards 
of Llwyndu f and Elin died unmarried, Richard 
VaiighaJi was Sheriff of Caernarvonshire in 1578.' 

Wmiam Yaughan, hia third son, married Matr, 
daughter and heiress of Henry Yaughan of Gelligoch m 

Heniy Yaughan (the second son) married Mary, 
daughter of Morrys Wynn of Glyn, and had four sons 
and two daughters.' 

Harry, the eldest son of Harry Yaughan, died with- 
out issue ; the second son was Rhys Yaughan ;' the 
third, Morgan ; the fourth, Rowland. The daughters, 
Ann and Lowry. 

Rhys Yaugmm, another of WUliam Yaughan's sons, 
married ; but I cannot find whom. 

Robert and John there is no mention o£ 

Girffydd Yaugfaan, fourth of the name, eldest son, 
mamed Catrin Griffith, daughter of William Griffith of 
Caemarron, and had issue two sons and four daughters : 
William, and John Yaughan, who married Catrin, 
daughter and heiress of Harry Wynn of Pantdu in 
Arvon, by whom he had Gryfiydd Vaughan, Marget, 
the eldest daughter of Gryffydd Vaughan of Cors yG^ol, 
married Hooks,' and then Wynn of Conwy."" Jane, the 

' Humphrey ap Ivan ap Hugh, or Erana. 

* Her hnsband was Hugh ap William 2'«dvr. ' John Wog&n. 

* Hugh ap John ap Hagh, or Pngh. ° Edward Edvtui^s. 
' And died in or immediately about the year 1588, 

^ " Second aoii," Here is a mistake. He married twice, and left 
iBsne. His first wife was EHen, daaght«r of John ap Bobert ap 
Howel of Dot y Moch ; hia second, Lowry, daughter of Thomas ap 
John ap Llewelyn Yachan of Harlech ; but it was Hearr, son of 
William Vaughan, who was hnsband of Mary Wynne of Qlyn. 

' He was a bairister of Oray's Inn, and author of a little yolame 
entitled Pracliea Wallitv, printed in London in 1672. 

* John Hooks. *" John Wynn of Conwy. 

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second daughter, married Lloyd of RhiwgocL* Ann, 
the third daughter, married Nauneu of Nannau.' Janet, 
the fourth daughter, married John Owen of Clenenau, 
afterwards Sir John Owen.' 

Gryflydd Vaughan rebuilt most part of Cors y Gedol 
in 1592 and 1593. He likewise biult the family chapel 
inLlanddiwauinl615; and in the following year, 1616, 
he died ; and there is a handsome stone monument, 
altar-fashion, with a full inscription, erected to his 
memory. He was Sheriff of Meirionedd in 1585 and 
1604. When a match was proposed between this Gryff- 
ydd Vaughan and Catherme (afterwards his wife), it 
was highly approved of by the parents on each side, 
and the young people were suffered to be together; but, 
however, when the preliminaries came to be canvassed 
over, on some pretence the old people differed, and 
broke off the match ; upon which the lovers were not 
suffered to see each other. But this prohibition was 
not at all agreeable to them, for they had so far en- 
gaged one another's affections, that they soon got toge* 
ther, and married privately, without consent of either 
party. The old people carried their measures so far, 
and were so exasperated at the private marriage, that 
neither of them would suffer their children to darken 
their doors, not even for a night ; so that Gryffydd and 
his bride were obliged to be concealed in the old garden- 
house at Cors y Gedol (which is now the same as it was 
then), and there they lived for some weeks ; and then 
it was looked upon as a gi-eat favour done them, to let 
them live at a small farm called Cors y Gedol Uchaf. 
There they continued until his father died. 

This inhumanity of the parents, and the short allow- 
ance made them, affected tbe young man so much that 
he became indolent, and passed most of his time in ale* 
houses, and spent what httle money he could get upon 

^ Robert Lloyd, M.P. for MerionethBhire. 
^ Hagb Nanney of Nanney. 

* Tbe royalist. Ho died in 1666, in his sizty-sixth year, and is 
boned at Peamorva in the co. of Caraarron. 

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undeserving companions who sponged upon him. How- 
ever, one evening, when jovially engaged with these 
Harpies, word was brought him that his father waa 
dead ; upon which he retired to a small room near, may 
be to pay the natural tribute of a few tears to a deceased 
parent. He was not bo far &om the door but he could 
near their coDversation on the subject. They exulted, 
and were heard to say : " We shall now hiave lands 
enougli on sale. We shall always live with him while 
it lasts ; but his generosity and extravagance will soon 
ruin him." This so shocked him, as he acknowledged 
afterwards, that he soon changed his conduct. How- 
ever, he retiimed, paid the reckoning as usual, and very 
cordially took leave of them for that night ; but next 
morning sent his agent to pay them and others the 
money which he had borrowed, and forbad them for 
ever going near his house again, for he had overheard 
all they had said about his wasteful habits the night 
before. Afterwards he turned out a most sober, dis- 
creet man ; provided handsomely for all his children, 
and lived to see them aH happily settled, except his son 
John, who did not marry till after his death, to whom 
he left a handsome maintenance. His son William he 
left in possession of his estates. 

William Vaughan, the second of that name, of Cors 
y Gedol, and eldest son of Gryff. Vaughan, had by his 
wife Ann (daughter and heiress of Bichord Vaughan of 
Flas Hen andTalhenbont) only one son, Richard Vaughan 
of Cors y GedoL He' rebuilt Flas Hen, as it now stands, 
in 1607, and likewise the Gate-House at Cors y Gedol 
in 1630. After his death his widow married William 
Lloyd, a younger sou of Bodidris in lal, who, when he 
was Sheriff for Carnarvonshire, in the time of Cromwell, 
was overtaken in the road to Carnarvon, and inhu- 
manly put to death by a party of Royalists. Some say 
that he was dragged alive to the Cross at Bangor, and 
there left to expire. This William Van was a man of 
letters and of polite education. He was a great friend 

* William Vaogluu). 

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of Ben Jonson the poet, who made him a preaent of his 
works, which I have hy me. In James Howel's Letters 
you will find one to him,' which shows that he was 
esteemed amongst the learned. In 1616 he erected a 
curious monument to his father's memory, from a design 
given him by Jones, the royal architect, and his country- 
man, with whom he was very intimate. . It stands at 
this time entire, in the chapel built by his father, ad- 
joining Uanddwywe, the parish church of Cors y GedoL* 
This new chapel he had not finished before his death. 
Inigo Jones also gave him the design for the Gate- 
House at Cors y Gedol. William Vaugnan was an excel- 
lent scholar, and had a fine taste for poetry, both Welsh 
and English. He was arrested for tke county, as I find 
by a Welsh poem written by a good author in those 
times, and paid a considerable fine ; but for what reason 
I cannot learn. 

Richard Vaughan, the second of that name, of Cora 
y Gedol and PlasHen, married Elizabeth, the daughter 
of John Owen of Clenenoau, and had William. He 
(Richard Vaughan) represented the county of Meirion- 
edd in Parliament, and was so very fat and unwieldly 
that the folding doors of the House of Commons were 
opened to let him in, which is never done but when the 
Black Rod brings a message from the King, who being' 
then in the House of Loras, the folding doors opened, 
when the rumour in the House was, " the Black Rod 
or the Welsh knight is coming." His fat at length 
grew so troublesome to him that he brought surgeons 
from London to his house at Cors y Gedol, to cut out iJie 
fat, and the operation was successfully performed ; but 
by some accident, soon after, some of the larger blood- 
vessels burst open, so he died in about the thirtieth 
year of his age,* and left William, an infant, under the 
guardianship of Sir John Owen, his mother's father. 

* EpittoUe UihEliancB, Boct. I, p. 89. 
> lti8BtilUhere(1871). 

' He died Sheriff of MerionethBhire, 19 Jnly,]2 CharloB I {163C). 
His mdow wbb remarried to John Havers, Esq., of Whittlcbary, co. 

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WLUiam Vaughan, who died in 1669, aged thirty- 
seven, made some addition to Cors y Gedol by extending 
the west end of it. He married Ann, daughter to 
Gry^dd Nannau of Nannau, She died in 1701, aged 
SLxty-one. They left two sons and four daughters. 

Gryflfydd Vaughan, the eldest son, possessed the in- 
heritance, after his father, for several years, and died, 
unmajried, in his forty-fifli year,' leaving his eatates to 
his brother EJchard, who was the youngest of all the 

The eldest daiighter married Athelystan Owen of 

Ann, the second daughter, married Vincent Corbet 
of Ynys y Maengwyn.' 

The third daughter, Catrin, married Grjrffydd Wynn 
of Bodeon,* and had two sons named Thomas and Wil- 
liam. Thomas married the coheiress of GlynUivon, and 
was made a baronet. Catherine, their mouier, married, 
secondly, Col. Hugh Nanney of Nannau, by whom she 
had four dau^tera Ann, the eldest, and Mary, the 
youngest, died unmarried. Catherine, the second 
daughter, becoming heiress, married William Vaughan 
of Cors y Gedol, and had one daughter, who married 
David Jones Gwyn of Taliaris, but died without issue. 
The third daughter married Robert Vaughan of Hen- 
gwrt, and had issue, Hugh, Robert, Howell,* and Gryf- 
Qrdd ; and one daughter, Catherine Vaughan. 

[The above Gryf^dd' (of Com y Gedol) was Sheriff of 
Caemarvooshire in 1659 ; his son Gryffydd waB Sheriff 
for Meirioneth in 1677.] 

Richard Vaughan, the third of the name, of Cors y 

Kortb&mpton. Admini§tration to ber effects granted npon 25 Octo- 
ber, 1641. 

' He was born 14 Sept., 1653, and djring 15 Jane, 1697, was buried 
at Llauddwywe. 

* She died at Sbrewibtuy in 1719, aged Bixtj-foar. 

* He died 6 Jan., 1723, aged seveot^-two. 

* He died 21 Sept., 1680, aged thirty- three. 
^ Raised to the dignity of a baronet in 1792. 

* W^iam. He was Sheriff for Camarronshire in I655<6. 

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Gedol, succeeded hia brother Giyff^dd inl693, aod mar- 
ried Mai^ret, daughter and heir of Sir Evan Lloyd, 
Bart., of Bodidris in lal, b^ whom lie had two bodb, 
William and Evan, now living, and four daughters. 
Anna Maria died an infant, Elizabeth, Catrio, and Ann, 
who died, and was buried at Uanddwywe. Elizabeth 
is now living, and unmarried. Catherine married Dr. 
Hugh Wynn (brother to Robert Wynn of Bodscalien, 
who died a bachelor), she having a son imd a daughter. 
The son died an infant. Margaret, their daughter and 
heir, married Sir Roger Mostyn, Bart., of Mostyn, and 
has by him two daughters, and bids fair for several 
more sons and daughterB : whom God long preserve ! 

Richard Vyehan was Sheriff for Meirioneddshire in 
1698, and for Caernarvonshire in 1699. He was chosen 
M.P. the first of Queen Ann, and continued to represent 
the county of Meirioneddshire till he died in March, 
1734, ag^ sixty-eight, leaving behind him a widow 
and five children in full age, and one granddaughter, of 
whom more hereafter. I^&b. Vyehan survived her hus- 
band nineteen years, dying in March, 1758, aged eighty- 
three. Richard Vyehan obtained imiversal esteem by 
his integrity and unbiassed conduct. He made great 
improvements in and about Cors y Gedol, The first was 
to modernise the house within by a thorough repair, 
wainscotting and new flooring the whole, which before 
was only plater. He also took down the old stone 
mullions and ancient windows, and put up sashes. He 
made great improvements in the gardens, and added 
severd^^ new rooms to the house. He likewise began 
the avenue from the house to the church, and greatly 
improved the farm and demesne. He was buried at 
Uanddwywe, where there is a monument erected to his 
memory by his widow. His son William married in his 
lifetime, on whom he settled a handsome maintenance 
then, and left a large jointure to hia widow,' besides 

' Widow of Biohard Vftnghan. Of this Richard Vanghan an 
amnsiiig anecdote is told in connection with hia representation of 
Merionethshire. There was a call of the HooHe. Mr. Yanghan was 

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her own estate of BodidriHi the reversion of which he 
gare his Bon Kvan Vychan, who now enjoys it : and 
hkewise genteel fortunes to his three daughters. 

William "Vychan, now hving, 1770, the eldest son of 
Kichard Vychan, muried Catherine, second dau^ter 
and heiress (after her eldest sister's death) of Hugh 
Manney of Nannau, by whom he had one daughter and 
heiress, Ann, who married David Jones Gwynn of Tal- 
iaris in Carmarddenshire, who died without issue, as 
before related. WiUiam represented the county of 
Meirionedd in five Parliaments, 1734, 1741, 1746, 1754, 
and 1761; and in 1768 he declined standing, having 
about that time buried both his wife and daughter ; and 
now lives at lua ease, and retired, at Cors y-Gedol, the 
family seat in his native county, of which he is Lord- 

[In another hand is the following conclusion]. 
William Vaughan, the writer of the above memoir, 
waa the eldest son of Richard V., E8q.,of Cors y Gedol, 
by Margt, sole heiress of Sir Evan Lloyd, Ba^., of 
Bodidria He waa bom in 1707, old style; sent to 
Chester School in 1716 ; and four years afterwards to 
one Mr. Ellis at Mortlock, London, where he remained 
till the death of his master, which was sudden, he hav- 
ing stabbed himself. Then he was sent to St. John's 
"College, Cambridge, and left upon the death of George I, 
in 1727; and in 1732 he married Catherine, daughter 
and heiress of Hugh Nannau of Nannau, by Catherine 
his wife, daughter of William V. of Cors y Gedol, his 
father's eldest sister. His wife died soon after the mar- 
riage of her daughter. Ann, the only child of this 

not in bis place. The SeijefUkt-at-Arms, who waa sent to bring him 
to town, arrived at Dolgelley , where the whole population were in 
league with the great hoose of Cors y Gedol. The Serjeant enquired 
the war there. " Qo to Cors y Gedol at thia time of year [" (it was 
winter) was the reply; " the monntuns are impaseahle." " But," 
said the Serjeant, "1 see there is an estnary between this and Bar- 
month. Coold notlgobyboat ?" "No," was the reply; "between 
Barmonth and Cora y Gedol are marehee eqnally impassable." And 
Mr. Yaogban did not go to London for the "call". 

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marriage, was bom in February, 1 733-4 ; and a montii 
after, his father, Richard Vaoghan, died, who left be- 
hind him two sons and three daughters, — William, Evan 
Lloyd, Elizabeth, Catherine, and Ann. On the death 
of Lewys Owen of Penniarth,' one of his godfathers, 
Wm. was dioeen Gustos Rotolomm of the county of 
Merion., and Lord Lieutenant on the t^signation of £arl 
Cholmondeley.' In 1754 died Sir Wilham Wynn,' on 
the 20th of May; and on the 20 Oct, same year, died 
Dr. Wynn.* Ann , the only daughter of Mr. Vaughan 
of Cors y Gedol was married on JiJy 6, 1 756, at St James' 
Clhurch in London, by Dr. Moatyn, to D. Jones Gwynn 
ofTaliaris,E8q. OnMarchl6[l758ldiedMrs.Vaughaa 
atCorsydedoL OnFeb.6,l760,diedMrB. AnnVaughan 
at Flas Hen, and was buried at Llanddwy we. 


[Extracts from MS. entries in two old Bibles, formerly at Core 

Sir Evan Lloyd of Bodidria, and Mary Tanat, third daughter 
of Itees Tanat of Abertanat, married 6 April, 1676. 

Their sod John bom 21 Feb.,i675-6. Died at Ruthin at nnrse. 

Their only daughter, Maigaret, bom at Bodidris, 29 Ang.,1678. 

Sir Evan Lloyd died at Bodidris, 31 ilarch, 1700, being Easter 

Margaret, Ms daughter and heir, married to Rd. Vaughao of 
Cors y Gedol, Esq., 10 Feb., 1701, at St Dnnstan's Chorch, Fleet 

Lady Lloyd of Bodidris died at Core y Gedol, Thtuaday, 24 Oct., 
1717, and was buried at Uanddwywe on Monday, Nov. 4 

Ann, daughter of Wm. and Catherine Vaughan, bom 16 Feb., 
1734.5. (J -^ . 

_ [Extracts from the journal of Mrs. Baker, a lady in indigent 
circumstances, residing near Dolgelley.l 

Tuesday, 26 Oct (1779), received a billet ft«m Mrs. Owen at 
Cors y Gedol, with a pre8ent. and an apology that the butler being 
^ In Deo. 1729. 
I u"^' ^^^K*""'" oommiaaion bears date, 28 April, 1762. 

1 V.^",.*^"™"^"- Yonnger son of Griffith Wyrm of Bod- 
vean, by Cathanno. daughter of Wm. Vftoghan of CorBVKedol. 
UdBband of Kliaabeth, daoRhter of Richard Tanghau above. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


^■.,, Google 


■with her master at Plas Hen, and the Cesara not Heeding, slie 
considered the contenta of the two hottles as poor stuff, yet ths 
best in her power to send ; hut when Mr, Vaughan returned, he 
would order the tyrant to hleed, and then she would supply mo 
with better. 

Wednesday, 19th January, 1780, the steward came up with 
the adorable Member's compliments, and two bottles of what is 
called at Cots y Gedol the " Cesars' blood," the vessels containing 
this uncommon beverage having the names of those execmhle 
wretches painted upon them, being in number twelve. 


The collection of bronze weapons in the Museum of the 
Royal Irish Academy at Dublin, which is the most 
numerous and probably complete assemblage of such 
weapons known, and the admirable descriptive catalogue 
of Sir W. R. Wilde, afford a ready opportunity for com- 
parison with similar objects found ^sewhere ; but un- 
fortunately little is recorded of the circumstances attend- 
ing the discovery of the greater part of tlie articles 
preserved tiiere, or from what part of Ireland they were 
obtained. Notwitlutanding the extent of the coUec* 
tion. Sir W. R. Wilde deems it important, for the pur- 
poses of history and ethnology, to increase it, and thus 
ascertain what things were in common use, and what 
were scarce ; and he adds, "it is only after collecting 
for many years that anything like a topographical co^ 
lection by counties or provinces, even of typical articlefl, 
can be attempted." 

The finds of bron^ implements in Wales are compa- 
ratively few. The articles seldom find their way to any 
but the temporary museum at our annual meetings, 
and then go back into their owners' keeping. Thus all 
account of their discovery ia soon lost, and the articles 
are ultimately dispersed or lost. It appears to be desir- 
able, therefore, to give an account from time to time of 
every find, and, as far aa may be, to furnish drawings 
«rH ■■■., VOL. VI. a 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


of the most distinctive types for tlie purpose of compar 
rison. In furtherance of this view an account is now 

Even of a few bronzes found in Eadnorshire, which 
we come under the writer's notice. Each implement 
comes from a different locality, and appears to be pretty 
much in the same state, allowing for wear and tear, as 
when it was cast ; and each was probably lost, or de- 
posited separately, in the place where it was found. 

In these respects, and in the forms and casting, they 
differ entirely from those which were recently found at 
Broadward, and of which an account is given in the 
third volume of the present series,^ The Broadward 
bronzes were found in the most swampy part of the 
valley of the Clun, at a depth of four or five feet. Spear- 
heads, swords and their handles, darts, all more or less 
broken, bent, or imperfect, and many of the spear-heads 
previously exposed to the action of fire, were thrown, 
intermixed with the bones of the ox (probably an ex- 
tinct species) and horse (equus or asinus fossilis), into 
the moraas. On examining the articles we find that 
the bronze-foimders endeavoured to save the metal by 
introducing into the mould a core of burat clay or of 
wood, to receive a thin layer of metal only. This fact 
Bug^esta the repetition of a remark of Mr. Herbat' on 
Danish weapons similarly east, that they could not well 
have been employed as arms, because the core extends 
almost to the point ; and so they could neither have 
been sbaipened nor hammered when they became blunts 
or were damaged. Similar finds of damaged bronze 
weapons and other articles, in confused masses and 
^rge quantities, occur frequently bi the turbaries of 
JJenmark and Scanie, and occasionally in Mecklen- 
burg, France (Amiens Museum), and Ireland." To 
these we may add the finds at WUlow Moor, near Much 

* *«™.^'""i''7**^ ^r>!; ™' ■ "'■ PP- S38, 845 : vol. iv, pp. 80, 202. 
p. 2^ ^ ^'^^ ■''"i"'^ '^« ^«''2««''-e» du Nord, 1806, 1871, 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Wenlock,' Pant y Maen* in Carmarthenshire, and Broad- 
■ward; and perhaps the finds at Guilsfield' and Lydham, 
although in the latter instances the articles were more 
perfect, and the place of deposit appears to have been 
different. Similar depoeita in turbarie8,of iron weapons, 
■when the latter superseded the use of bronze, with 
bronze ornaments and other articles, and bones of ani- 
mals, are very numerous in the turbaries of North and 
South Jutland.* Everything found there bears on it 
evidence of an intention to destroy ; everything is 
broken or twisted, and the skulla of horses are hacked 
in all directions. Another noteworthy fact is that human 
bones are invariably absent, so there is no ground for 
supposing that the place of deposit was the scene of a 
great battle or massacre. Further investigations may 
throw a fresh light on the subject ; but enough is known 
to justify UB in arriving at the conclusion that all these 
deposits were made by one and the same people, who 
handed down their customs from generation to genera- 
tion. Meanwhile the opinion of Mr. Worsaae appears 
to be the better one, that the articles were purposely 
destroyed, and then thrown into turbaries, or the place 
of deposit, in accordance with a superstitious practice 
of the people, as a votive offering to their deities. 

The turbaries of Radnorshire do not appear to have 
hitherto yielded anything but an occasional stone ham- 
mer or quern ; but a search as general and systematic 
as that of Mr. Englehardt might probably disclose, in 
the turbaries of this county, many articles which would 
add to our present knowledge on the subject. 

It remains to describe the articles in the accompany- 
ing drawing. The rapier-shaped dagger was found 
about forty years since at the foot of a large tumulus 
called the " Castle Tump," on Dolbedwyn Farm, in the 
parish of Newchurch, by a workman who was digging 
the foundations for a wall The metal is of a yellow 
colour, and it is well cast. The two semicircular notches 

' Sahpia Antigua, p. 95. > Arc7t. Caml., 3rd Series, vol. x, p. 222. 
' EDgeUiardt's Dmrnark in the Iron Age. 

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to catcli the rivets to the handle are probably perfect, 
as a similar arrangement is observable in one of the 
swords drawn in the Dublin catalogue. It is now in 
the possession of Mr. Griffiths of Portway, Bryngwyn. 
Its length is 10 inches ; width, near the handle, 2j ins.; 
and weight, five ounces. 

The weapon drawn on the right of it is remarkable 
on account of its great width, rounded point, and rude 
■workmanship. It was found in the course of last sum- 
mer, lying on the surface-soil at the top of a steep wood 
called Glaney Wood, near Cwm Elan, m the parish of 
LlansanfEraid Cwm Deuddwr, by men who were felling 
timber. The casting of the edges is rude and imperfect; 
but there is a trace of a bevel along the edge on either 
side. It has abroad and somewhat depressed central mid- 
rib gradually rising from the broadest part of the blade, 
and tenninating in a sharp point. Comparing it with 
the types in SirW. R. Wylde's Catalogue (pp. 451 and 
489), it approaches nearer in its proportions to the form 
of the supposed battle-axe than of the broad-shaped 
sword or dagger ; and when used, it was probably set 
at right angles in a staff to which it was attached by 
rivets ; for none of the specimens of the Irish sword or 
dagger equal its width across the handle-plate. Skil- 
fuUy used, its strength and weight must have made it 
a formidable weapon. As one side of it is much 
weathered, it probably lay where it was found from the 
time when it was cast aside or lost. It is now in the 
lossession of Mr. Stephen W. Williams of Ehayader. Its 
length is 9 inches ; width of handle- plate, 4 ins. ; and 
weight, fifteen ounces. 

The looped celt or paalstah was found, many years 
since, near the Upper Woodhouse Farm, Knighton. It 
is of the usual form, with what Wilde terms a bow and 
arrow ornament. Its only peculiarities are that it is 
covered with a green patina or varnish, save the cutting 
ed^, which has been ground ; the casting of the loop 
is imperfect, the intended loop being filled with metal ; 
and on one side, at the end of the septum, is a hole in 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 



the stop, of about three-quarters of an inch in length, 
to receive one end of the aplit stick to which it was 
attached. It belongs to Mr. William Banks of the Silu- 
rian Mills, Knighton. Its length is 6 ins.; width at 
cutting edg;e, 2^ ins.; and weight, fifteen ounces. 

K. W. B. 


It is said that in the first century of our era " a lonely 
tower" upon the site of the present Castle, called after 
her own name, "Tflr Bronwen," was the residence of 
Bronwen, the white-boeomed sister of " Bran the 
Blessed," and daughter of Llyr, Duke of Cornwall ; but 
in those early times the Britons did not build "towers" 
or "castles", accordiog to our acceptance of the term ; 
and this same Bronwen appears to have resided in 
Anglesey, where hei* sepulchral um is beHeved to have 
been found.^ What, then, was likely to have brought 
her to Harlech ? Can it, too, be shown that the title 
of Duke was known in Britain in the first century ? 
And by Bran's being styled " Bendigaid," is it pretended 
that he was canonised 1 for it has yet to be shown that 
Christianity had at this time been introduced into 

It is stated that Maelgwn Gwynedd, in the sixth cen- 
tury, built a castle,"as a place of refuge",at Harlech, and 
that afterwards, in the ^event^ century, it was the resi- 

' See Cambro-Britoa, vol. ii, pp. 71, 371. 

'According to the MBbiDogioi"Branwen TerchLlyr"(AfaAinojwn, 
iii, 81, 103), her brother Bma beld his coart at Harlech ; and it was 
to this place that Matholwcb, Kin^ of Ireland, U stated to have 
come to seek her in marriage. From Harlech they sailed across to 
Aberfiraw in Anglesey, where the marriage festivities took place, 
"not within a house, irat under tents," for "no house could ever 
contaiD Bendigeidfran." Bi-an was Bnmaraed Bendigaid, or " the 
Blessed," not because he was canouised, but because it was he. 
Recording to a tradition preserved in the Triads, who first introduced 
Christianity into Britain. According to these records, whatever 
their historical value may be, Bran was the father of Caractacus, 
whose captivity in Rome he ia said to have shared. — Ed. ^rcfe.Camt. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


dence of CoUwyn ap Tangno, lord of Y Gest and Eivion- 
ydd, and founder of the fafth tribe of North Wales, who 
called the castle Caer GoUwyn, after his own name. But 
there is not a shadow of evidence for these statements. 
The last is the more probable, as one of the two great 
septa of the adjoining hundred of Eivionydd were the 
descendants of Coliwyn ; and some of the families in 
the hundred of Ardudwy, in which Harlech stands, 
traced their descent from him. But it is certain that 
of the present Castle not a vestige can be shown of 
earlier date than the reign of Edward I. I shall, there- 
fore, begin this short historical sketch of the Castle of 
Harlech with its erection in that reign. 

It is very probable that it was erected on the site of 
an ancient British encampment, but there is nothing to 
show it. One may feel sure that the building had made 
some progress before the end of 1284, for upon the 21 
Oct. in that year Hugh de Wlonkeslowe (or Longalow, 
from a place of that name in Shropshire) was appointed. 
Constable, with asalary of £100 per annum ; and before 
the end of July in the year 1290, three persons had 
received that appointment. 

Upon 22 Nov. 1284, King Edward I granted a charter 
of incorporation to the town of Harlech, and by it nomi- 
nates the Constable of the Castle to be ex officio mayor 
of the town. The works, however, appear to have gone 
on but slowly, for in the second year of Edward II the 
Castle seems to have been still unfinished. This I 
gather from a fabric roll and other accounts relating to 
the Castle in the Record OflSce in London. These records 
show that horses were hired to carry iron from Carnar- 
von to Harlech at 2d. a horse per day, and the moat 
recent of them contains the following remarkable item : 
"Idem vicecomes" (the sheriff) "computat in prostrati- 
one aule domini Principis apud Estingeme, et in reedi- 
ficatione eiiisdem infra Castrum de Hardelev, cum fac- 
turis fenestrarum, Lovaronun, paneterie, Bothelerie, de 
novo in eadem aula construct^is {sic), ad tascharo, per 
preceptum Justiciarii, ix^t. v]s. viijrf." I have not a 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


guess as to what this hall of the prince could have heen. 
There is no tradition of there having been a royal resi- 
dence at Yatumgwera ; and it seema very unlikely that 
a stone edifice should have been removed from that 
place to Harlech (a dietance of about four miles), there 
being abundance of excellent building stone upon the 
spot. Perhaps the hall was of timber. 

In the second year of Edward II the burgess^ of 
Harlech represent to the King in Parliament, that be- 
fore the war of Madoe ab Llewelyn, " quondam Principis 
Wallie," they held th« mills, havotries, and other offices, 
of the King in farm ; that in that war they manfully 
kept the Caatle ; and that without these privileges 
they and those in the Castle would have perished from 
hunger after that war. Their statements were referred 
to the Justice of North Wales, and the privileges which 
they had before possessed conceded to them upon cer- 
tain conditions. 

We read in Powell's History of Wales that three of 
the unclea of Hawis Gadam, the great heiress of Powis, 
having claimed her inheritance, and the King (Edward 
II) having taken her under his protection, and married 
her to John de Charieton, " valectus domini regis," were 
imprisoned in the Castle of Harlech. This, however, is 
doubted ;^ and it is certain that one of her uncles was 
then dead, and probably two ; and another is supposed 
to have been a priest ; in which case the third, Griffith 
Vychan, was the only one who could have questioned 
the inheritance of hia niece, which he certainly did. 

From this time I find little relating to Harlech Castle, 
excepting the appointment of constables, till the rebel- 
lion of Glyndwr, It is shown by Ellis {Original Let- 
ters, second series, voL i, p. 8, and several of the letters 
at subsequent pages) that succours to the Welsh rebels 
were then expected to arrive at Barmouth from Scot- 
land and " the Owt Yles"; that Dycon le Mascy was 
Constable of the Caatle, with ten men at anna and 
thirty archers ; that about the year 1404, Wm. Hunte, 

• See Bridgeman's Princes of Ujiper Powig, No. Ill, p. 9. 

, Google 


Constable of the Castle, "came oute of the Castel for 
to trete with the rebell, without aoy ostage laede in for 
hym"; that he and "two zemen" with Eim were cap- 
tured, and carried off by "the rebell"; and that the 
Castle was " in great jeopardy", Hunte seems to have 
been a traitor to the King's cause, or was suspected of 
being so by the garrison, or they themselves were trai- 
tors, for before he was taken " the sowdiers there tokyn, 
the keis of the Castell from the same Constabil, for 
some things that thae fonde with hyui. ; and tokyn him 
to Fivean' (Vivan Colier) "and to Sir Lewes, to have 
hem in keping at this qwarter of a zere gone". After 
he was taken, " Sir Lewis and the remnant of the sow- 
diers kepyn the Castel welynough yet." The garrison, 
when Hunte was captured, consisted of no more than 
five Enghshmen and fifteen Welshmen. Subsequently 
all the men in the Castle, with the exception of seven, 
came to an agreement with Glyndwr to deliver it up 
" at a certyn day for a certayn some of gold." Upon 
July 30 (in the year 1405, it is believed) Owen sum- 
moned his parliament at Harlech ; and this is the last 
we hear of his proceedings with regard to that place. 

I now come to " the Wars of the Roses," The con- 
stableship of Harlech Castle was granted by Henry VI, 
Queen Margaret, and Prince Edward, to the gallant 
David ab levan ab Eignion, bom in Merionethshire, but 
lineally descended (and worthy of the great house from 
which he sprang) from Osbom surnamea " Wyddel" {the 
IrishTnan), who was a scion of the powerful sept of the 
Geraldines of Desmond, and, emigrating from Ireland, 
settled in Merionethshire about the middle of the thir- 
teenth century. Upon the accession of Edward IV, 
David was commanded to surrender the fortress, and 
William Lord Herbert, afterwards Earl of Pembroke, 
was sent to besiege it. Sir Richard Herbert, Lord Pem- 
broke's brother, was associated with him in this siege ; 
and to Sir Richard it appears to have been principaJly 
intrusted. The Constable had long served in the French 
wars, and upon being summoned to surrender, replied 

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that " he had kept a castle in France so long that he 
made the old women in Wales talk of him ; and that 
he would keep the Castle so long that he would make 
the old women in France talk of him." He held it till 
the I4th of August, 1468, and then surrendered to Sir 
Eichard Herbert upon condition that he should do what 
he could to save the Constable's hfe. This condition 
the King was very unwilling to confirm ; but Sir Richard 
declared " that he had not yet done the best he could 
for him, and therefore most humbly desired his High- 
ness to do one of two thingB.^-either to put him again 
in the Castle where he was, and command some other 
to take him out ; or if his Highness would not do so, to 
take his life for the said captain's, that being the best 
proof he could give that he used his uttermost endea- 
vours to save the said captain's life." His life was then 
saved, but not the lives of all those who were associated 
with him in the defence of the Castle ; and Sir Eichard 
Herbert received no reward for his services.' 

The principal persons engaged in the defence of the 
Castle, during the earlier fart of the siege, were as fol- 
low : David ap levan ap Eignion, the Constable or 
Governor {he was livirw; in 14 Edward IV); GriflSth 
Vaughan ap Griffith ap Eignion of CorsyGedol; Jenkin 
ap lorwertn ap Eignion of Ynys y Maengwyn ; Griffith 
ap levan ap Eignion of Edeimion ; John ap levan ap 
Eignion ; Thomas ap levan ap Eignion, — (these six were 
cousins, and lineally descended from Osbom above men- 
tioned) ; John Hanmer of Haulton, now Halghton, in 
Flintshire (he died 16 March, 1480) ; David ap levan 
ap Owen of Powis ; Grommys (Grono ?) ap levan ap 
i^gnion ap levan ; Reinald ap Griffith ap Blethin of 
Tower, near Mold (see Pennant's Tour in Wales, vol. i, 
quarto edition, 1784, p. 427. BeinalddiedS Nov., 1466; 
his mother was cousm-german to the above-named " six 
captaines") ; Maurice ap David ap Jeffrey ; David ap 
EnioD ap levan Rymus of Bettws y Coed in Edeimion ; 
Grommys {Grono ^ Howel ap Morgan; Edward ap Mor- 
' Life ofZord Herbert of Cherbury, Strawberry Hill ©dition, pp. 7, 8. 

D,g,l,.,.d,i. Google 


gan ; Thomas ap Morgan ; Griffith ap levan ap Yenim 
thewe (lorwerth Ddu ?); Howel, Ednyved, and Thomas, 
the sons of Morgan ap lorwerth Goch, of Bromfield ; 
John Tudur of Penllyn, clerk ; Griffith ap levan ap lor- 
werth, senior ; and Morys Roberic. Most of these were 
nearly related to the other dei'enders. 

When the Castle was surrendered, the following 
were the principal persons in the garrison, besides the 
Constable above mentioned : Richard Tunstale, Henry 

Belyngham, and William Stok, knights, Whityng- 

hain, Thomas Elwyke, and Truhlode ; they and 

others to the number of fifty peraons, were led by Lord 
Herbert to the Tower, and of them, Elwyke and Trub- 
lode, condemned by Lord Rivera, Constable of England, 
were beheaded on Tower Hill.' On the 8th Septem- 
ber, in the same year, Lord Herbert was created Earl 
of Pembroke. This Richard Tunstale was doubtless 
the same person who was at one time chamberlain to 
King Henry VI. In that most interesting volume, 
Annals of Westminster Abbey, by the present Dean of 
Westminster, p. 159, and Appendix, p. 600, is a very 
amusing account of visits made to the Abbey, one in 
the dark of a winter's night, by King Henry VI, for 
the purpose of selecting a site for his own burial, in the 
chapel of St. Edward. On several of these occasions 
he was accompanied by " Sir Richard Tunstal ;" on one, 
the abbot and a monk of the confraternity of West- 
minster meeting the king at the entrance of the Abbey. 
It appears that Henry, when anything was suggested 
to him of which he did not approve, had a habit, not of 
arguing the question, but of returning no answer. Se- 
veral spots were suggested for his burial, his grace 
making no reply ; at last a spot was pointed out re- 
specting which the king said, " Forsooth here woU we 

1 See HotU of Parliament, vol v, pp. 486a, 512b ; a MS. in the 
aatograph of Robert Vaaghan, the antiqunry, of Hengwrt, Pen- 
iarfh ^/y. No. 6, p. 17; Life of Lord Herbert of Okerburi;, StrAwhoirj 
Hill edition, pp. 7, 8 ; Ueame'a Liber Niger Scaeearii, vol. ii, pp. 
504, 511, 5lti, 617 ; Pennant's Tour in Walei, edition of 1?84, 4lo, 
vol. ii, p. 131. 

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lye," and a spice sufficient for his grave was forthwith 
marked on the pavement. It does not, however, seem 
from the foliowing passage in William of Worcester, 
p. 504, that Sir R. TunstaU was always so trusted a 
servant of King Henry. " Mense Juiii (1464), dole 
cujusdam monachi Abeudonise, Rex Henricus in comi- 
tatu Lancastriae capitur, perquendam Johannen Talbois 
et Ricardum Tunstalle militea, ibidem captus evaait." 
Harlech was the last castle in England or Wales which 
held out for the house of Lancaster. After this the 
castles of North Wales appear to have been much neg- 
lected. I have a copy of a survey of that of Harlech, 
the date of which perhaps may be as early as the reign 
of Henry VIII, certainly not later than 23rd September, 
156^, by which it appears that the castle was then in a 
very dilapidated state. In the Public Record Office in 
London are letters patent of 1 July, 30 Henry VIII, or- 
dering repairs to be done to the Welsh castles, which 
are described as very ruinous. Some slight repairs 
■were executed upon Harlech Castle about the year 1568. 
I come now to the time of the great rebellion. The 
following account of occurrences which then took place 
at Harlech is from a MS. in the library at Peniarth (Pen- 
iarth MS. No, 3), which is a copy of one supposed to be 
still at Mostyn, and of which there is another at Wynn- 
stay. It is entitled A short account of the Rebellion in 
North and South Wales in Oliver CromweVs Time. 

1646. The of April, Col. 'Wliitley delivered the Castle 

of Aberystwyth to the besiegers; and his men, about. . 00 ormore, 
came to Harlech, and thence to Carnarvonshire. 

Sept 14 (1646), Col. John Jones and Major Moore, with sol- 
diers, lay siege to Harlech Castle. 

March 13 (lG47),the articles for the delivery of Harlech Castle 
were signed. The next day Atr. Robt, Folks, being in the Castle, 
died, and was buried in Llanfair. The 16th day, being Tuesday, 
the Governor, Mr. Win. Owen, deliver'd the keys of the Castle 
to Genl Mytton. There were in the Castle, of gentlemen, S'r 
Hu"h Blaeuey, Kt. ; Mr. Folks ; Mr. John Edw'ds of Chirk, who, 
beimr somewhat ^d, died in ffeb'ry ; Captain Wm. Edwards, 
bia son ■ Lieuten't Roger Arthur; Lieu't Kob'ta; John Hanmer, 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


son of Rich. Hanmer of Pentre Fact; Wm. Edwards of Kefny 
Wern. Aacieut Wm, Williams was shot io the hand about AU 
Hollow tide, and died 19th of Jany. Meredith Lloyd of Llanfair 
in Caereinion ; Roger Burton ; Francis Mason ; Peter Simott ; 
Wm. Thomas ; and Thomas Arthur, the Governor's man. [The 
Governor was Colonel William Owen, brother to the loyal Sir 
John Owen.] 

Besides these there were but 28 common soldiers. Their daty 
■was performed as follows : 

Squadron Ist. — The Governor and Lieut. Arthur ; 2, C^tu. 
Wm. Edwards and John Hanmer ; 3, Meredith Lloyd and Wm. 
Edwards. These went the rounds by turns, and Burton went to 
the guard on the new wall. 

Squadron 2nd. — 1, ancient William Williams by himself; 2, 
Lieutent. John Roberts and Thomas Arthur; 3, Franeis Mason 
and Peter Simott ; Wm. Thomas on the new wall. 

These went the rounds, as the Governor, every other nights 
They were ou the guard appointed. Seven sentries stood every 
night, wherein were 14 soldiers. Their, relief was hourly, and 
their duty every other night. 

From this, the term " new wall", it would seem that 
repairs of the castle had been recently executed. In 
vol, i of the ArchcBologia Cambrensis, p. 260, is a copy 
of the articles for the surrender of Harlech Castle. It 
was now, as in the Wars of the Roses, the last castle to 
hold out against the besiegers. In the same volume, 
at page 262, will be found a letter from " Edward 
Wynne," relative to its demolition. In that volume, 
and volume iii, page 49, will be found several other 
papers relating to the castle and town, including the 
survey before referred to, and a list of the constables of 
the caatle, but of these is a more perfect list iu the re- 
cently pubhshed Kalendars of Gwynedd. 

ShoH biographical notices of some of the more dis- 
tinguished of the constables may be interesting : 

"14 Edward II, Roger de Swynerton. In 34 Edward I 
he obtained a charter of free warren in his demesne lands 
in this manor (Swinnerton), and for keeping a market. He 
was governor of Stafford, 1 1 Edward II, and afterwards 
of the Castle of Harlech in Wales; 15 Edward II, he 
was governor of Eccleshall Castle during the vacancy 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


of the see of Coventry and Lichfield, and being ap- 
pointed Constable of the Tower of London, was sum- 
moned to Parliament, 11 Edward III, and created a 
knight banneret. Arms of Swinnerton, argent, a cross 
formie fleuiy sable, debruised with a bend gules." 
Erdeawicke's Staffordshire, pages 91, 93. 

29 Dec. 6 Edward III (1332). Waher de Manny, 
K.G., Lord of the town of Manny in the diocese of 
Cambray. He was the second husband of Margaret., 
Duchess of Norfolk, granddaughter to King Edward I, 
was summoned to Parliament m>m the 21et to the 44th 
of Edward III, and died on Thursday, next after the 
Feast of St Hillary, *. e., 20th January, 46 Edward III. 
" He founded a chapel of the Order of Carthuaiana, and 
built there {near West Smithfield) a monastery, for the 
health of King Edward III, and Dame Margaret, his 
wife, and was there buried in his own church, deceasing 
the same year he laid the foundation, viz. anno 1371. 
His death was much lamented by the king, nobility, 
and Commons of England ; for with singular commen- 
dation he served King Edward III in his French wars, 
and was employed by him on several embassies ; his ob- 
sequies were performed with great solemnity. King 
Edward and all his children, with the great prelates and 
barons of the realm being present. (Nicolas' TestOr 
tnenta Vetusta, vol. i, page 85; Sandford's Genealogical 
History, edition of 1677, pace 207.) It appears by 
Lord Manning's wiU, that at the time be made it, there 
was due from the prince, from the time he had been 
Prince of Wales,' the sum of c marks per amium, for 
his (Manning's) salary as governor of Harlech Castle. 
The arms of Manny were, or three chevronels sable.' 
1461 to 1468. David ap levan ap Eignion. His 
gallant defence of the Castle of Harlech has been re- 
lerred to above. He bore ermine, on a saltier gules, a 
crescent or. 

1464, 26th Oct. William Lord Herbert. He was 
the eldest son of Sir William ah Thomas of Eagian 

' Abont twenty-Beven years. ' San^/ord, p. 207. 

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Castle, by Gwladys, daughter of Sir David Gam. Being 
a firm adherent of the bouse of York, be fought several 
battles against the Lancastrians, and as soon as Ed- 
ward ascended the throne, in reward of his fidelity and 
valour, he was made one of his council, and in May, 
1461, be obtained a grant of the offices of Chief Justice 
and Chamberlain of South Wales, likewise the stew- 
ardship of the Commots of Carmarthen and Cardigan- 
shire, and the office of Chief Forester in those counties 
for life. In September of the same year, then bearing 
the title of Sir William Herbert, Knight, he had a 

S-ant of the stewardship of the castle and lordship of 
recknock, and of all other the castles of Humphry 
Duke of Buckingham, in South Wales. In further 
consideration of his great services, in the Parliament 
begun at Westminster, November 4 of the same year, 
he was made a baron of the realm, and on the 27th 
May, 8 Edward IV, he was created Earl of Pembroke, 
having obtained immense grants from the king, which 
are described at length in Collins' Peerage. In the 
following year, 1469, he was sent at the head of 18,000 
Welshmen to suppress an insurrection in the north, 
and meeting the enemy at Danesraore, near Banbury, 
he was utterly defeated and himself taken prisoner, 
with his brother, the valiant Sir Richard Herbert, and 
both were beheaHed by order of the Duke of Clarence 
and the Earl of Warwick. WiUiama's Enwogion Cymru, 
page 2] 8. He was also justice of North Wales. Arms 
of Herbert, party per pale, azure and gules, three Uona 
rampant, argent. 

16 May, 1 Edward V(1483). Henry Stafford, Duke of 
Buckingham. This is the famous Duke of Buckingham 
of the time of King Richard III — " Off with his head, 
so much for Buckingham !" Though brother-in-law to 
the Queen mother, and iincle to King Edward V, he was 
a principal instrument in raising King Richard to the 
throne, out within a short time afterwards he was in 
open rebellion against him. The motives of his con- 
duct must for ever remain a mystery. He was at last 
taken ; betrayed, as has been said, by one Bannister, 



Bent to the king at SaJiabury, and there beheaded upon 
the 2nd November, 1483. Arms of Stafford, or, a 
chevron gules.^ 

15 Sept., 4 Henry VII (1488). Richard Pole. He %vaa 
" son of Sir Jeffrey Pole, Knt., descended from a family 
of ancient gentry in Wales, who having valiantly served 
King Henry VII in his wars of Scotland, and being a 
person much accomplished, waa made chief gentleman 
of the bedchamber to Prince Arthur, and knight of the 
garter ; ■whereupon attending him into Wales, he re- 
ceived command to govern in those parts. [Sandford, 
page 416.) The father of Sir Richard Pole is said to 
nave been *' of the county of Buckingham", and his 
mother to have been a daughter of Oliver St. John, and 
half sister to Margaret, Countess of Richmond. If so, 
he was first cousin to the king. Sir Richard's wife was 
Margaret Plantagenet, Countess of Salisbury, daughter, 
and eventually heiress, of George Duke of Clarence. 
She was beheaded in the Tower 27th May, 1541. By 
her. Sir Richard Pole had four sons and a daughter. 
Their youngest son was the celebrated Cardinal Pole. 
Arms of Pole — party per pale or and sable, a saltier 
entailed, countercharged. 

The salary paid to the Constable of Harlech Castle 
has varied, la the twelfth year of Edward I it was 
XlOO a year ; in the eighteenth of the same reign it 
seems to have been but 100 marks ; in the 22nd of 
Edward I it seems to have been £40. At one time, as 
appears by Dodridge's History of the Ancient and Mo- 
dern Estate of the Principality of Wales, etc., page 58, 
the salary was £26 138., at another time £50, which 
the author supposes " was for both offices, of Constable 
and Captaine" (of the Town). 

I will venture to hope that in a future number of the 
ArchcBologia Cambrensis we may have one of my friend 
Mr. Clark's valuable papers upon the architectural fea- 
tures of the Castle. 

W. W. E. Wynne, 

€ Oct., 1874. CoDBtable of the Castle of Harlech. 

' Sandford, p. 324. 

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(Continued y^om vol. T, p. 199.) 


This Cantref contains the comots of— l,Ial or Tale; 
3, Yetrad Alun ; and 3, Yr Hob or Hope. 


1. The comet or province of lal is divided into two 
parts, viz., lal Beglaria, and lal Prsepotjitmea. 

lal Keglaiia contains the seignorial manors of Llys y 
Cil, Llanarmon, Cymo j Deuparth, Allt y Gymbyd, 
Gwytherin, Tal y Bedwal, Bodidris y Deuparth, Creig- 
iog JB Glan, Bodanwydog, Bryneglwys, and Coedrwg. 

lal Frffipositmea contains the Seignorial manors of 
Gwaun y Ffynnon, Banhadlan, Llandynan, Erw Yrys, 
Cymo y Traian, Bodidris yr larll, Bodidris y Traian, 
Gelli Gynan, Bryn Tangor, and Lledeiriog. The Eccle- 
aiaatical M^lnor of Llanegwestl, or more properly Glyn 
Egweetl, lies in this province. 

All the lands in the manors of Llys y GI, Allt y 
Gymbyd, Bodanwydog, and Coedrwg, formOTly belonged 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


to Itliel Felyn, Lord of lal, who bore mbU, on a chev- 
ron inter three goats' heads erased or, three trefoils of 
the field ; he was the eldest son of Llewelyn Eurdorchog, 
Lord of lal and Yetrad Alun, and Prime Minister of 
Gruffydd ab Llewelyn ab Seisyllt, King of Wales. 

Llewelyn Eurdorchi^ was the son of Coel, ab Gweryd, 
ab Cynddelw Gam, ab Elgud, ab Gwrisnadd, ab Dwywg 
Lytbyr Aur, ab Tegawg, ab Dyfnarth, ab Madog Ma- 
dogion, ab Sanddef Bryd Angel, the son of Llywarch 
Hen, Prince of the Strath Clyde Britons, who, when 
driven from his dominions by the Picts and Scots, was 
with his femily hospitably welcomed and received by 
CVnddylan, King of Powys, who was slain at the battle 
of Tren in a.d. 613. Afterwards, having lost all his 
sons and friends in battles against the Saxons, he re> 
tired to a hut at Aber Cuog, now called D61 Guog, near 
Machynlleth, to soothe with his harp the remembrance 
of misfortune, and vent in elegiac numbers the sorrows 
of old age in distress ; he died there, at the great age 
of nearly a hundred and fifty years, about the year 634, 
and was buried at Llanfor, near Bala ;' and there is his 
grave, as is proved by a stone in the wall of the church.' 
Near this place is a circle of large stones, which is called 
Pabell Llywarch Hen, that is, Llywarch Hen's Pavi- 

Llewelyn Eurdorchog bore azure, a lion passant gar- 
dant, his tail between Lis legs, and reflected over hia 
back or, armed and langued gules ; others state that he 
bore argent, a cross ffules, and two leopards or ; others 
again say that he bore azure, a lion passant or, armed 
and langued gules. He married Eva, the daughter of 
Cynfyn ab Gwrystan, King of Powys, and sister of 
Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, by wiom he had six sons who 
were Intimate. He had also two ill^timate sons, 
Ithel Ooch, and lorwerth Fychan. 

> Carliale'B Diet. Top. 

* Lewys Dwnn, toI. ii, p. 104. [la the stone referred to of the 
seventh centnry p and has it any reference to Llywarch Hen p Seo 
Arch. Camh., 4th Series, iv, p. 339.J ' Vanghun of Hengwrt. 

4th axs. Toi~ VI. 8 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


His six legitimate sons were — 1, Ithei Felyn, Lord 
oflal, of whom presently ; 2, lorwerth ; 3, Idris, who 
was ancestor of the Owens of Ysffrwgan, in Mochnant 
is Rhaiadr, and Tref Geiriog ; the Hanmers of Pen- 
tref Pant in the lordship of Oswestry, the Uoyda of 
Llangollen Fechan, the Lloyds of Cawnwy in the 
pariBh of Llangadfan, and the Evanses of Rhyd y 
Carw; 4, Dolffyn; 5, Ednowaia Eurdorchog, the father 
of David Esgidaur, the father of Idnerth, the father of 
Bradwen, Loird of Dolgellau, the father of Ednowain ab 
Bradwen, Lord of Dolgellau, chief of one of the Fifteen 
Noble Tribes of North Wales and Powys, who bore 
gules, three snakes ennowed in triangle argent. He 
was the ancestor of the Lloyds of Nant y Myneich in. 
the parish of Mallwyd in Mawddwy, and WilUam ab 
David Lloyd of Peniarth, in the parish of Llanegryu, 
who is now represented by the Wynnes of Peniarth ; 
and 6, Llewelyn Fychan, the ancestor of Trahaiam' ab 
lorwerth, Lord of Garthmael, who bore argent, three 
lions passant eardant in pale gules; icom whom de- 
scended the Walcots of Walcot, co. Salop ; Madog y 
Twppa of Plas y Twppa in Bettws y Cedwg ; the Lloyds 
of Berth Lwyd in the parish of Llanidloes in Arwystli ; 
and the Joneses of Garthmael in the parish of Aber 

Ithel Felyn, the eldest son of Llewelyn Eurdorchog, 
succeeded his father as Lord of lal and istrad Alun. He 
bore sable, on a chevron inter three goats' heads erased 
or, three trefoils of the field. He was lord of the man- 
ors of Llys y Gil, AlH y Gymbyd, Bodanwydog, and 
Coedrwg in lal ; the manors of Llwyn Egryn, Gwem- 
a%llt, and CU Rhydin in the manor of Hendref Bifl^ 
in Ystrad Alun ; Caerfallwch, Hendref Figyllt, Pentref 
Hyfaidd, Caatell Meirchion, in Tegeingl ; NantclvFyd 
and Garth y Neuadd in Dyffryn Clwyd ; Traian in the 

1 Trahaiarn, Lord of Oarthmael, was the son of lorwerth ab Binion 
ab Rhys Goch ab ZJeweWa Fychan ab Llewelyn Eurdorchog. Tbe 
Prince of Powys gave Trahaiam the lordship of Oarthmael and a 
new coat of anna for his brarery in battle. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


lordship of Trefwen or Whittington ; Araan Mab in the 
lordships of Oswestry and Cynllaith ; a great portion of 
Glyndyfrdwy, Y Gaerddin (not the camp itself), and 
other lands in Maelor. He married Lleucii, daughter 
and heiress of Howel ab Brochwel ah Bledrws, who 
bore sable, three roses argent, by whom he had issue 
three sons : 1, Hwfa; 2, Llewelyn, and 3, Ystwg. 

Hwfa, Ixird of lal and Ystrad Alan, was the eldest son 
of Ithel Felyn. He married Elen or Alswn, daughter of 
GrufiFydd ab Cynan, King of Gwynedd, who bore gttles, 
three lions passant in pale argent, armed and larked 
azure, by whom he had issue six sons : 1, Y Gwion, of 
whom presently ; 2, CaawaUawn, of whom presently ; 
3, lonaa ; 4, Goronwy ; 5, Howel Foel of Cymo, whose 
son leuaf was the ancestor of David Lloyd' ab Rhys ab 
David ab lolyn of Blaen lal in Bryn Eglwys ; Roger ab 
David ab lobn ab Rhys of CVmo ; Edward ab Roger ab 
Howel ab Madog of Cymo; Grufiydd ab Rhys ab David 
ab GrufiFydd of Bryn Eglwys; David Powell, D.D., vicar 
of Rhiwfabon and Meifod ;* and Gruffydd ab leuan of 
Castell Meirchion in Tegeingl, ah Y Dai ab Madog ab 
Eiuion of Maes y Gross, son of the above named Howel 
Foel of Cymo. This Gruffydd ab leuan sold Castell 
Meirchion to his sister Margaret's husband, Tudor M61 
Hen of Ruthin ;' and 6, leuaf ab Hwfa Foel, whom the 
Golden Grove MSS. state to be the ancestor of the 
above named families of Bryn Eglwys, Cymo, and 
Rhiwfabon, with the exception of the descendants of 
Einion of Maes y Groes, who they say was a son of 
Howel FoeL 

Caswallawn, the second son of Hwfa ah Ithel Felyn, 
Lord of lal, had the Manor of Llys y Cil. He married 
and had issue a son, lorwerth ab Caswallawn, Lord of 
Llys y Cil, who was one of the witnesses to the grant 
of manors and lands, by Prince Madog ah Gruffydd 

^ David Lloyd of Blaen lal was the boh of Bhjs ab Darid ab lolyn 
ab leuan ab David ab lenan or Einion ab Cadwgan ab Gwilym ab 
Ithel ab T Owiim 0am ab lenaf ab Hwfa ab Ithtl Felyn. 

> HarL MS. 2299. ■ Golden Qrova US. 


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Maelor, to the Cistercian Monastery of Valle Cnids, in 
A.D. 1 202. He married, and had a son named Cjnwrig, 
"vrho married Janet, daughter of Henry de Laci, Earl of 
Linoohi, who died in a.d. 1310, and Johanna his wife, 
daughter of "Wm. Martyn, Baron of Cemmaes in Pem- 
brokeshire; Janet married secondly Gruffydd Fychan ab 
Gruffydd ab Einion ab Ednyfed, Lord of Broughton,who 
bore ermine, a Hon statant gardant gules, the second son 
of Cynwrig ab Rhiwallon. By this lady Gynwrig had 
issue, Goronwy, Lord of Llys y Gil, who married Ang- 
harad, daughter of Howel ab David ab Gru%dd ab 
Caradog, by whom he had issue, besides a daughter 
Annesta, who married first, leuaf ab Hwfa ab Madog 
yr Athro of Plas Madog, id the parish of KhiwfaboD, 
and secondly, Gru^dd ab lorwerth ab Howel of Rhiw- 
&bon ab lorwerth ab Madog ab Llewelyn ab Madog ab 
Ehdir ab Rhys Sais, Lord of Eyton, in Maelor Gymraeg, 
two sons, J^dog ab Goronwy, who was ancestor of 
Tudor ab leuan ab Tudor ao Llewelyn ab lolyn ab 
leuaf, son of the above named Madog ab Goronwy ; 
David lal, Warden of Ruthin, son of Tudor ab Uewe- 
lyn ab lolyn, John Wynn of Y Fynechtyd,' Jiving in 
1598, the son of Robert ab Tudor ab Llewelyn ab lolyn. 
Hugh, son of John Wynn of Y Fynechtyd, married an 
heiress of lands in Bhiw&,bon, which her father pur^ 
chased there, by whom he was father of John Wynn, 
who was a captain in the army of the Commonwealth, 
and living in 1697, and Goronwy Gethin, the other 
son of Goronwy ab Cynwrig ab lorwerth ab Caswall- 
awn, who was the ancestor of Richard Davies, Bishop 
of St. David's, in 1567, who assisted William Sa]esbury 
in his translation of the New Testament into Welsh. 

Y Gwion, Lord of lal and Ystrad Alan, the eldest 
son of Hwfa ab Ithel Felyn, married.. .the daughter 
and heiress of Meredydd, a younger son of Cadwgan 
ab Bleddyn, Lord of Nannau, by whom he had a son, 

Cadwgan Goch, Lord of lal, who was witness to a 

' This place in mtuate on the north bank of the river Dee, betweeo 
Bbjd Odcu and Plas yag Kghoedrwg, in the pariah of Ll&nty ssilio. 

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deed, dated Dec. 5, A.D. 1247. This document relates 
to a dispute between the sons of leuaf ab Meredydd of 
"Alhdkenbeber" (AUt y Gymber or Allt y Gymbyd) on 
the one part, and the Lord Madog, the Abbot, and the 
ConTent of Valle Crucis, on the other part, relative to 
the boundariea of AUt Keubeber, and "Crevauc" (Creig- 
iog),' which last township belonged to the Abbey. He 
married Dyddgu, daughter of Ithel ab Howel ab Mo- 
reiddig ab Sanddef JSardd, Lord of Mortyn, in the 
pariah of Gresford in Maelor Gymraeg, by whom he had 
issue two sons : 1, Cadwgan Ddu, of whom presently, 
and 2, Cadwgan Frych, who was surnamed i Brych of 
Y Gaerddin in the parish of Rhiwfabon. Other writers, 
however, state that Cadwgan Frych, was the son of 
Cadwgan Ddu. The HarL MS. 2299 states that Cad- 
wgan Goch of lal, married Nesta, daughter and co- 
heiress of Howel, Lord of Rhos and Rhufoniawg, son of 
Ithel ab Madog ab Rhiryd ab Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, 
Prince of Powys. 

Cadwgan Ddu, of lal, married Mali, daughter of Sir 
GrufiFydd Llwyd of Dinorwig. He had, according to 
the Cae Cyriog MS., two sons : 1, lorwerth, who was 
ancestor of the Bithells of Llwyn Egryn, the Evanses 
of Hwyn Egryn, the Griffiths of Hendref BLffa, and 
many other families in Ystrad Alun and lal ; 2, Madog 
of Rhuddallt,* in the parish of Rhiwfabon ; but accord- 
ing to the Harl. MS. 2299, he had a third son, Cadw- 
gan Frych, surnamed Y Brych of Y Gaerddin in the 
parish of Rhiw&bon ; and 4, Einion, the father of 
£iniou Fychan, the father of Bleddyn of Coed y Llai 
or Leeswood, who married Angharad, daughter of Dar 
vid ab David ab leuan ab lorwerth ab Goronwy, by 
whom he had issue Madog ab Bleddyn of Coed y 

» Arch. Camb., vol. iii, p. 228 (1848). 

* Madog of Rhaddallt married Margaret, danght«r of lorwerth of 
Honlli, son of David ab Goronwj ab lorwerth ab Howel of Burton 
io Esclnsfaam, by whom he had a son, leoan of Bhnddallt, who mar- 
ried Angharad, daaghter of Philip Kynaston of Stokes, ab QraHjrdd 
Kyimston ab GrnffyJd Fj-chan of Cae Howel, ab Sir G r off jdd, Knight 
of BboJes. 

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Llai, who married Qwenllian, daughter and heiress of 
Madog ab Owain ab Gwyn ab Gruffydd, — azure, a chev- 
ron Inter three dolphirm naiant, embowed argent (see 
pp. 44, 46) ; and Gniffydd ab Bleddyn, who married 
Gwerfyl, daughter of Howel ah Tudor ab Goronwy of 
Penllyn, ab Gruffydd ab Madog ab Rhiryd Flaidd, Lord 
of Penllyn, by whom he was father of RheinalJt ab 
Gruflfydd of The Tower, in the township of Broncoed, 
in the parish of Mold.' 

The province of lal contains aleo the parishes of 
Llantyssilio, Bryn Eglwys, Llandegla, lilanarmon, and 
Llanferis or Uanferas. 

The parish of Llantyssilio contains the townships of 
Tref Maes yr Ychain, Cymo j Deuparth, Cymo y Traian, 
Llandynan or Glan Dyfnant, and Coedrwg. 

The celebrated monumental cross, erected over the 
grave of Eliseg, King of Powys, who died in a.d. 773, 
by his great grandson King Cyngen II, ie in the town- 
ship of Maes yr Ychain, and the valley in which it is 
situate, and which previously was called Pant yr Ychion, 
derives its present name of Pant y Groes from this 
monumental cross. The Cistercian monasteiy, founded 
by Prince Madog ab Grufiydd Maelor, in a.d. 1200, 
takes its name of Monasterium de YaJle Crucis, from 
its having been built in the lovely and sequestered val- 
ley of the monumental cross of King Eliseg, The neg- 
lected state in which the grave of the brave prince who 
recovered Powysland out of the power of the English, 
as the monument itself informs us, is a disgrace to 
Powysland. Could not a canopy of granite, simiJar to 
the crosses erected by Edward I, where the body of his 
beloved consort Queen Eleanor rested, and suflSciently 
large to enclose the tomb and the shattered remains of 
the cross, be erected over them so as to preserve the last 
resting place of the warrior king from further desecra- 
tion, and show that we are not forgetful of those who 
are gone before us and who were honoured in their 

1 Harl. MS. 1972. 

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YALE, AND CHtHiaAin). 39 

The palish of UantyssUio ia bounded on the east by 
the brook which runs through Glyn Egwestl, and se- 
parates it from the parish of Llangollen. This brook 
rises in Cyrn y Brain, a mountam in the parish of 
Llangollen, the summit of -which is 1,844 feet above 
the level of the sesi. The Egwestl stream runs from 
north to south and empties itself into the Dee at Fen- 
tref y Felin, which was anciently the Abbey Mill. On 
the north-west the parish of Llantyssilio is bounded by 
the Nant Morwynion, which separates it from the parish 
of Bryn Eglwya The Morwynion has its source in 
the northern side of Cyrn y Brain, and enters the 
Barony of Glyndyfrdwy at Blaen lal.' On the south 
this parish is bounded by the river Dee. The scenery 
of the parish of UantyssUio is very beautiful, as a chain 
of conical hills which commence at Bwlch Khiw Felen, 
which divides them from Cyrn y Brain, runs in a south 
westerly direction through the centre of the parish. Com- 
mencing at Bwlch Rhiw Feleo, the chief of these hills are ■ 
Moel Faen Gorran, where the slate quarries are; Cribyn 
Oemant ; Moel y GameUn, which rises to the height of 
1,897 feet above the level of the sea ; Moel y Gaer, at 
the foot of which is Bwlch y Gamedd ; Moel Forfudd, 
which rises to the height of 1,804 feet, to the west of, 
which mountain lies a place called Hendref Morfudd in 
the township of Bodorlas in Glyndyfrdwy. The town- 
ship of Maes yr Ychain, which comprises the northern 
and eastern portions of the parish, belonged entirely to 
the Abbey, which is situate on the EgwestL The other 
places of interest in this township are the church and 
hall of Llantyssilio, Hafod yr Abad, which now belongs 

' In ihe last centni? Bl&en Iftl beloagsd to Simon ThelwAll, Sisq., 
whose eister and eventnal heirasB, Anne, married John Lloyd, Esq., 
b; whom she had a boti. Colonel John Lloyd of Qallt Paenan, who 
took the name of Salosbncy, and mnrried Anna Marin, daughter of 
John Meredith Moatyn of Segr^d and Llewesog, Esq., hy trhom 
he had two dan (rhtera, coheiresses, viz., Anna Maria of Galit Facnan 
and Blaen lal, who married Townaend Mainwitrinf;, Ksq., late M.P. 
for Denbigh borongh ; and Fanny, who married Charles Kynoston 
Mainwaring of Oteley Park, Elsq. 

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to the Lloyds of Rhagad, and lies at the foot of the 
northern slope of Bwlch Rhiw Felen, on the banks of 
theMorwynion, and Ffynnon GoUen, near the summit 
of Bwlch Rhiw Felen on the Llangollen side. Near the 
farm of Y Fynechtyd is another fountain called Ffyn- 
non Benyw, Gwell, one of the sous of Llywarch Hen, 
was buried in Rhiw Felen ; and Sawyl, another son of 
Llywarch Hen, was buried in LlMigoUen. 

The Abbey of Valle Crucis and all its posseasions, in- 
cluding the rectories of Chirk and Llangollen, the cha- 
pelry of Llansanifraid Glyn Geirioff, and the rectories 
of Wrexham and Rhiwfabon, wiUi the chapelries of 
Llantyssilio and Bryn I^lwys, were granted, as before 
stated, by Henry VIII in a.d. 1538-9 to Sir William 
Pyckering, Knight, who died in 1574. 

The pariah of Bryn Eglwys contains the townships of 
Bryn Tangor, Tal y Bidwal, Gwythrania, Tre'r Llan, 
and Bodanwydog. 

The parish of Llandegla contains the townships of 
Tre'r Llan and Trefydd Bychain. 

The parish of Llanarmon contains the townships of 
Bodidris y Deuparth, Bodidris y Traian, Buddugre yr 
larll, Buddugre yr Abad, Chwyleiriog, GeUi Gynan, 
Creigiog uwch Glan, Creigiog is Glan, Allt y Gymbyd, 
Tre'r Llan, Banhadlan, Cymant, Gwaim y Ffynnon, 
and Erw Yrys. 

The parish of Llanferia is not divided into townships. 

The townships of Maes yr Ychain, Creigiog, Ban- 
hadlan, and Buddugre yr Abad were given to the Ab- 
bey of Valle Crucis in a.d. 1200 and A.D. 1202 by Prince 
Madog ab GrufTydd Maelor, 

The other families of ancient descent in the province 
of lal were descended from Yuyr, who was one of the 
sons of Howel ab Moreiddig ab Sanddef Hardd, Lord 
of Mortyn and Burton in the parish of Gresford. 
Ynyr greatly distinguished himself at the battle of 
Crogen in a.d. 1165, and for hisserviceshe had agrant 
of the Lordship of Gelli Gynan in lal, together with 
the grant of a new coat of arms from Gruffydd Maelor, 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Prince of Powys Fadog, which were gules, three pales 
or, in a border of the second charged with eight ogresses 
jwifc,' His son Llewelyn, Lord of Gelli Gynan, mar- 
ried Margaret, daughter of Gmffydd ah lorwerth ab 
leuaf of Llwyn On in Maelor Gymraeg, descended from 
Cjnwrig ab Rhiwallon, Lord of Maelor Gymraeg, who 
bore ermine, a lion rampant sable, armed and langued 
ffules. Llewelyn, Lord of Gelli Gynan, was one of the 
witnesses to a deed dated December 5, a.d. 1247, which 
relates to a dispute between the sons of leuaf ab 
Meredydd on the one part, and the Lord Madog, the 
Abbot, and the Convent of Valle Crucis on the other 

Srt, relative to the boundaries of the Manors of 
evauc (Creigiog) and Alhdkenbeber (Allt y Gym- 
byd). By his wife Mai^ret, Llewelyn had issue a 
son, Gruffydd Lloyd, Lord of Gelli Gynan, who married 
Tangwystl,* daughter and heiress of leuaf ab Mer- 
edydd of Bodidris, ab Madog ab Rhiryd ab lorwerth 
ab Mado« ab Ednowain Bendew, chief of one of the 
Noble Tnijes of Gwynedd, who bore arg. a chevron inter 
three boars' heads couped sable,^ but according to Lewys 
Dwnn, Tangwystl was the daughter of leuaa ab Gruf- 
fyd ab Madog,* by whom he hadissue, besides a younger 
son Meredydd, who settled in the parish of Llanestyn 
in the commot of Yr Hob, an elder son and heir, Llew- 
elyn, the father of leuan Llwyd of Bodidris and Gelli 
Gynan, who had an elder son Tudor, who was ancestor 
of the Lloyds of Llys Fasi and Gelli Gynan, the baro- 
net family of the Lloyds of Bodidris, now represented 
by the Lords Mostyn, and another son, lenkyn of 
Allt Llwj-n Dragon, m the township of Bodanwydog. 

' The arms of Qroflydd Maelor were paly of oigbt pieces argent 
and gvles, a tioa rampant table. The Prince drew his foar Ijloody 
fingers over the shield of Tny r, and told him to bear these marks 
for his armorial benrin^. 

' Tangwystl was baried in Valle Cracia Abbey. At the time of 
the destraction of the Abbey her stone ooffin was taken to Bryu 
Eglwys Chnrcb, where it is still to be seen in the lal Chapel, with 
this inscription 1 " Hie jacet Tangwystl fil. Teniif ab Marednd." 

* Cae Cyriog MS. * Lewys Dwnn, vol. ii, p. 347. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Margaret, the daughter and co-heire88 of lenkyn of 
Allt Llwyn Dragon, married Eliaau, the second son of 
Gruffydd ab Einion ab Gruffjdd of Cora y Gedol in 
Ardudwy, who bore, ermine a saltier gules, and a cres- 
cent or, for diflFerenee, by whom she had several sons, 
David Lloyd ab Elisau of Allt Llwyn. Dragon, which 
is now called Plas yn lal, was the ancestor of the Yales 
of Plas yn lal. John Wynn ab Elisau of Bryn Tangor in 
Bryn Eglwys, whose great grandson John llogers Wynn 
ab John Wynn ab Soger, had an only daughter and 
heiress, Magdalen, who married, in A.D. 1615, Humphrey 
Hughes of Gwerclas in Edeymion, Esq. ; Richard ab 
Elisau of Maerdy in Gwyddelwern, whose son William 
Wynn of Esgaen Gainog, was father of William Lloyd 
of Maerdy. Tudor ab Elisau of Llys Faei, whose 
daughter and co-heiress Gwenhwyfar married Edward 
Lloyd ab Lewys Lloyd of Gelli Gynan, ab David Lloyd 
ab Tudor of Bodidris and Gelli Gynan, by whom sne 
had a son and heir, John Lloyd, ancestor of the Lloyds 
of Llys Fasi. GnifFydd Lloyd, the seventh son of 
Eliaau ab Gru%dd of Gwyddelwern, was ancestor of 
the Lloyds of Carrog in Glyndyfrdwy, and of Eoger 
Lloyd of Bhagad in the same lordship, whose daughter 
and heiress Margaret, married Meredydd Lloyd, a 
younger son of Lewys Lloyd of Bhiwaedog in Penllyn, 
descended from Owain Gwynedd, Prince of North 

Besides these, there were two other families of ancient 
descent in this Lordship, The Lloyds of Plymog, in 
the parish of Llanferis, and the Lewises of Glan yr 
Afon, in the same parish, who were descended from 
-Tudor ab Gruffydd of Plymog, who was fifth in des- 
cent from Cynwrig, the third eon of Ednyfed Fychan, 
Lord' of Bryn Ffanigl, in the pariah of Abergele, and 
of Cruccaith in Eifionydd, Prime Minister and General 
of Llewelyn ab lorwerth. Prince of North Wales. Once 
when commanding in the vrars between Prince Llew- 
elyn and John, King of England, Ednyfed attacked 
the army of Bandulpn, Earl of Chester, and gained a 

D,g,t,.,.d'.i. Google 


signal victory, killed three chief captains and command- 
ers of the enemy, whose heads he laid at the feet of his 
sovereign. For this exploit he had conferred on him 
new armorial bearings, emblematic of the occasion, viz., 
gules, a chevron ermine, inter three Englishmen's heads, 
oouped at the neck, in profile, ppr., bearded and crined, 
tahle. The Glan jrAfon estate was alienated to Henry 
Potts, Esq., the present possessor. 

Cyrys o lal, otherwise called Yr Hen Gyrys o lal, is 
celebrated as a coUector of proverbs and maxims that 
were current among the Welsh, to which he added 
many of his own composition. It is uncertain whether 
he lived in the eleventh or twelfth century. His work, 
Madwaith Hen Gyrys o lal, otherwise called Bach 
Buddugre and GwynfarchGyvarwydd, was transcribed 
by the poet Gruffydd Hiraethog about a.d. IfiOO, by 
lir. John Davies about a.d. 1590, by William Maurice 
of Llansilin, in A.D. 1675, and by E, Evans in a.d. 1775, 
and finally printed in the third volume of the Myvyrian 
Archaiology, 1801-7.' 

II. ystead aldk. 

The commot of Ystrad Alun formerly belonged to 
Llewelyn Eurdorchog, who was styled Lord of lal and 
Ystrad Alun. It contains the parish of Y Wyddgrug, 
in Latin Mo7i$ Alius, the lofty or conspicuous mount, 

> Williams' Emintut Wfithmen, s. v. Cyryt. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


from which the Norman barona derived their title of 
Baronea de Monte Alto, now corrupted into Mold. This 
Mount is situate at the northern extremity of the town, 
and is partly natural and partly artificial ; it is now 
known as the Bailey Hill, from the Latin word Ballium, 
or castle yard ; this fortress was demolished about the 
year 1267.* 

The parish of Mold contains the townships of Mold, 
Gwysanau, Llwyn Egryn, Argoed, Bistre, Hersedd or 
Hartsheath, Coed y Llai or Leeswood, Broncoed, Ar- 
ddynwynt, Hendref Bifia, Gwernafiyllt, and Nercwys 
ana Treuddyn, which two last townships have each a 
chapel of ease to the mother church. There was for- 
merly another chapel of ease in this parish called Capel 
y Spon, a small part of the wall of which was standing 
m 1698. The cnurch of Mold formerly belonged to 
Bisham Abbey, but the rectorial tithes belong now to 
the family of the late Duke of Bridgewater and the 
Gwysanau family,' In the township of Treuddyn is a 
large Maen Hir or monumental stone, called Carr^ y 
LlecU, five feet high, seven broad, and eighteen inches 
thick, set erect on a tumulus coai-sely paved. 

In this comraot lies the plain of Maes Garmon, where 
the Britons, under the guidance of St. Germanus, won 
the celebrated victory called the Victoria Alleluiatica 
over the English, who, emboldened by the departure of 
the twentieth legion from Chester, had penetrated thus 
far into the country. This legion, as previously stated, 
left Chester previous to a.d. 445. 

In this commot were several families descended from 
Bleddyn ab Cynfyn, the chief of whom were the Da- 
vieses of Gwysanau, the Wynns of The Tower, the 
Eytons of Coed y Llai or Leeswood, and the Williamses 
of Arddynwynt. The Wynns of Coed y Llai, whose 
pedigree 13 given here, descended from Rhys ab Tewdwr 
Mawr, Prince of South Wales. 

> Cariialo's Diet. ' Willis' Surtei/ of SI. Asaph. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 



Gwyn »b Gm^dd ftb Ooronwy Sais kb Kinion &b Oruffjdd th Lleweljn: 
ab Itbet T»1frith ab Tiahaiarn Qocb of LlejD, ab Msdog »b Rbji Gtoff, 
loid of Cjmmjtmaen, kb Rhjg Fjcbftn' sb Bbji Mechjll ab Yr Arglwjdd 
Bit}!, PHdcs of Bontb Wales. Atare, k cber. inter three dolphioH naikot, 
•mbowed argent, for Trkbukm Qocb of Llejo mad Qnuuaog, in Arfou 

nwch Qwjrf ai | 

I I 

Hicholu ftb QwTQzpHkrgKKt, d. at leuku ab Kbjt a«thia OwUn 

Ithel^iJkDet, d. of Hagb Conwy of LIj* BT711 BuiTa, in Llandrillo uweb 

Wjnii lJulaa,otie of ttwEing'i Prin Chamber, and md of Bobin apGruff- 

jdd Q«ch, lord of Rbos knd Bbufoniog. ArgeHt, a erlffon Mgreant 

gititt. Her mother wt« Etiiabetb, d. of Thoma* 8^u(bni7 Ueo of 


Jobn—^Eliiabeth, d. of Robert David Glinbcth, nx. Thomaa Aoghaiad 
I ab Edwaid ab Howel ab Tudor 


=Marj, d. of Piers Mo<tjn J(Aii=EIeaiior, d. of 

Jane, ux. John 


of Talkcre, Eiq.. third wn Thoma* kb 
of Richard ab Bowel, lord Owain of 

Lloyd ab Bhye 


ofMortjninTegemgl, M»«lot 
doKended from Tudor Trvror 



' Bhys Fychan married Margaret, daughter and faeireiw of Qmff- 
ydd, lord of Cymmytmaeii. (Lewjs Dwnn, vol. ii, p. 278.) By this 
marriage this branch of the royal bonse of Sooth Walea bocame 
pOBsesBed of Ofmrnyttnaen, which is one of the three oommots of 
Cantref Lleyn in Arfon, the other two commots bein^ Din Ueyn and 
Ganologion. Bhya Fychan was the ancestor of the Wynna of Grai- 
anog ; the Griffiths of Cefn Ammwlch, in the pariRh of Penllech ia 
Cymmytmaen, now represented by the Wynne- Finches of Cefn Am- 
tnwlch and Foelas ; the EvanBeB of Eleimion in the pariah ofLlan- 
aelhniani, now represented by W. W. E. Wynne, of Peniarth, Esq. ; 
and David ab OroSydd ab Howel of Tspytty lenan. 

D,<j,i,.,.,i.:, Google 



Pjtn Wjiiii=BliMb«th, d. of Richard Tbelmll of LUnrhudd, in Maif 

of Coed y Dogfeilin, Recorder of Rulhin, fourth son of Joho 

Llai OT Lew Wjnn Tbelwall of fiAtbafftru Park, in the parish of Liu- 

wood rhudd. Oulu, on a fesi er, inter three boara' headi conped 

arffffil, three trefoils taUe. Tbii Richard Thelwall held landa 

from Adam Tardon, Baron of Llanbedr, and married Mar^ret, daughter 

and heireai of John ab Edward ab David ab John ab Ithel ab Robert Bak- 

arn, bj whom be had a son and heir, Edward Tbelwall of Llanbedr Hall, 

ancestor of the Thelwalls of that place. 

I am unable ta trace the deaceiidants of the last- 
named Pyers Wynn till the reign of George I, when 
the then Wynn of Coed y Llai or lieeswood, had two 
sons, George and John. George, the eldest, succeeded 
his father at Leeswood, and having discovered a rich 
mine on his estate, was enabled to take a leading posi- 
tion in his own county, and became M.F. for Flint. In 
1 732 he was created a baronet by George II, and in 
deftiult of issue male of his body, with remamder to John 
Wynn of Leeswood Esq., his brother and the heirs male 
of his body. Sir George married Miss Lloyd, who died 
April 25, 1747, by whom he had issue, one son George, 
who died in hia father's lifetime unmarried, and two 
daughters, Esther and Margaret. As he left no male 
surviving issue he was succeeded in his title and estate 
by his brother. Sir John Wynn of Leeswood, second 
baronet, who died in 1764, and was succeeded by his 
son Sir John Wynn of Leeswood, third baronet, who 
was living in 1771. At his death the title became ex- 
tinct, and the estates reverted to Margaret, the second 
daughter of Sir Geoige Wynn. This lady married Ri- 
chard Hill- Waring, Esq., and either by her or her trus- 
tee the estates were sold. She died in 1793, and was 
buried in Mold Church, where a monument is erected 
to her memory. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


David »b Qoronw; of OwjMuian, ab Einion t,h= 
QoTonoj ftb Cynwrig' i-h EinioD* ab Meilii' ab 
QorMiwj of Qwjunau ab Omffjdd ab LleweWn 
of £g1»jieKl, 100 of CjDKrig Kfell, lord of Eg- 
l*J*egl in Haelor Gymraeg, who bore ffftla, on 
k b«ad argent, a lion paMant labU, armed and 
Uoguedof th« field ; and a natural ioii,witb hii 
twin brother, Einion Efcll, lord of Cynllaitb, of 
Hadog »b Meiedjdd ab Bleddjn, Fiince of 
Powj* Padog. DaTid mt liTuig in A.v. 1440 

'Anghanid, d. of DaTid ab 
lorirertb Fjchan ab lor- 
werth ab Bieddjn of Caer- 
fallwcb in the parish of 
LlaneuT^in in TegeiDgl, 
ab Qruffjdd ab David ab 
OoTonwT of Trefrjd, ab 
Meredjdd ab Vchtrjd 
ab Edvja ab Goronirj, 
Prince of Tegeingl. Ar- 
5m(,acrOBiflor7 engrailed 
tabu inter four Comiik 
chongha ppr. 

ja of==Mali, d. and heir of Hidog ab Bleddjn of Coed 7 Llai, ab 
O'TiaDaa. j Einion Fjchan ab Binion ab Cadwfran Ddu ab Oadwgan Oocb 
TVill dated I ab T Qwion ab H«fa ab Ithel Fetjn. iSahle, on a cber. inter 
AJ>. 14S7 I three goaU' beadi eraeed or, three trefoils of the field. 
I Bee p. 37. 

Qm^dd of 0«7Muwu=Emina, d. of lenkvn ab Tegrn ab leuan of Einncr- 
ton, CO. Fliot 

,| i] 

DaTid of a«Ti-~Angbarad, d. of Edward Llofd of Hertedd, Jobo, aneei- 
Will I and Catherine hi> wife,'^. of Fioti Stanley 

dated A.D. 1646 

of Evlo Caatla 

tor of tbo 


' By tbe designatioo of* Kynrio ab Kiguion ab Meilir, p'petarias 
in villia de Qw^saneg et Wrenwrich", he granted in tail to his aons 
Qrtifijrdd, Bloddyn, M&dog, and Qoronwy, in sncceision, hj Qtren- 
llian bis wife, danghter of lenan ab Bleddyn, all bis lands and tene- 
ments in Montalto in tbe township of GwTE&tiaa, bv deed dated 
37 Edward III, vd. 1363. 

' Einion by a deed " dat' apnd Wissandi" (Gwjsanaa, nnder the 
designation of Eignion Glins if eilir ab Goronwj, is a grantee of land 
in tbe township of Sycbdin in Tngeingl, together with big brother 
lorwerth ab Meilir, ancestor of theEjtona of Leeswood), 2 Edw. II. 
Einion married Gwenhwyfar, danghter of Adda Wyddel of Ddl 
Sdeyra, ab lonterth ab David Gocb. 

' Ifeitir married Agnes or Anneata, danghter of Cadwgan Gocb, 
ab Y Gwion ab Hwfa ah Ithel Felyn, lord of laL 

.;, Google 

John DftTid 
of Qmja- 



iJane, i- of Thotiui Salutbur; of Lleprog leuan, anecstor of 

in TcKeingl, third bod of Sir Thomai tha Edvftrdiea of 

Sklutbuiy of Lleweni, b; Margaret, d. of Cil TstT^n in tho 

John Ilook of Leprog, &q. commot of Cju- 

• iTlIt in T egeiiigl 

Bobt.I)aTiei=pC&therin«, d. of Oeo. R«TeD«- John Uktim, C>thertDe,us. 

of Q»j»- I croft of Bretton in Merffordd, aneeitor of Edw. Mornn 

anbu,ob. I Biq. Argent, a cber. mUc the BaTJesei of Oolgref in 

A.D. 1600 int. three nTani'beads erased of Marring- the parish of 

ppr. ton LlanaiaT in 

I Tegeinel.Egq . 

Bobt.DaTi«=Anne, onl^ i. and heireu of John Thomai, lieut.-colonel 

of OwTi- Hejnea, Ksq., co. Salop (ReceiTcr in the armj of King 

•uaa. High to Queen Elizabeth of her reTenuet Charlei I, and Con- 

Sherifffor in Wales, and Elizabeth hli vife, stable of Hawarden 

CO. Flint, d. and coheir of Lancelot Iiowther Castle in ±.0. 1643 
ob. 1633 ofHoli, Esq. 

Jotin Dorothj. 

The above named Robert Davies and Anne his wife 
had issue a son, Robert Davies of Gwysanau Esq., bom 
Feb. 19, A.V. 1616. He was High Sheriff for Flint- 
shire in the years 1644-5-6, and 1660. He was a 
staunch cavalier and garrisoned the old mansion of 
Gwysanau during the civil wars, and defended it till 
the 12th of April, 1645. when Sir William Brereton, 
the parliamentary general, compelled it to surrender. 
Atthe Restoration his name appearsamong those deemed 
qualified for the knighthood of the Royal OaJi, his pro- 
perty at that time being' valued at ;C3,000 per annum. 
He married Anne, eldest daughter and co-neiress' (by 
Ellen his wife, daughter of Edward Williams of Faenol 
CO. Carnarvon, Esq.) of Sir Peter Mytton of Llanerch 
Park in Dyffryn Clwyd, Knt., Chief Justice of North 
Wales, M.P. for co. Carnarvon and for co. Denbigh in 
1603, by whom he bad issue one son, Mytton Davies, 
and three daughters, Catherine, ux. Simon Tbelwall of 
Llanbedr Hall, High Sheriif for co. Denbigh in 1692, 

> Eleanor, tbe second dnnghter Bud coheiress of Sir Fet«r Hjrt- 
fcon, married Sir Cynwrip EjtoB of Eyton, Knt, josUciuy of Moip- 
ionydd, Carnarvon, and Ang^leeey, son of Sir Geraid Ejton of Eyton, 
Kniglit Banneret. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Anne, second wife of John Thelwall of Plaa Coch, High 
Sheriff for co, Denbigh in 1672, and Margaret, ux. John 
Holland, of Teirdan, Esq., son and heir of Thomas Hol- 
land of Teirdan, Esq., High SheriflF for Denbighshire in 

Myiton Daviea, the son and heir, succeeded his father 
at Gwysanau. He was bom in 1634, and succeeded to 
the estates on the death of his father in 1666, inherit- 
ing Llanerch from his mother. He was a great traveller, 
and resided for some time in Italy ; upon his return he 
made great alterations in the house and gardens at 
Llanerch. He was appointed Alderman of Denbigh 
1668, and was High Sheriff for Flintshire in 1670, and 
for CO. Denbigh in 1671. He was buried Nov. 6th, 
1684. By his wife Elizabeth, only daughter of Sir 
Thomas Wilbraham of Woodhey, co. Chester, Bart., he 
had issue : 1, Robert, his heir; 2, Thomas, who mar- 
ried Mai^aret, daughter of Owen Madog, Esq., and had 
issue; 3, Roger, buried March 30th, 1677; 4, John 
Davies, D.D., rector of Kingsland, precentor of St. Da- 
vid's, and prebendary of Hereford and St. Asaph. He 
was twice married and left issue four sons : John, Sneyd, 
D.D., Thomas, and "William ; and 5, Richard Davies, 
canon of St. Asaph, rector of Erbistog, and vicar of 
Rhiwfabon in 1706. In 1740 he built four almshouses 
at Rhiwfabon and endowed them with an estate in 
Llangynhafal, worth £30 per annum. He left by will 
£200, the interest of it to be thus distributed, half to 
the schoolmaster of Rhiwfabon, and half to be applied 
to the apprenticing of poor children of that parish, 

Mrs, Mytton Davies had also five daughters ; 1, 
Anne, and 2, Mary, who both died s. p. ; 3, Elizabeth, 
nz. lliomas Eyton of Leeswood, Esq. ; 4, Catherine, 
second wife of Sir William Williams of Plas y Ward, 
Bart., High Sheriff for the county of Denbigh in 1696, 
by whom she had no issue ; and 5, Grace, who died s. p. 
in 1693. Elizabeth, the wife of Mr. Mytton Davies, 
was buried April 3, 1678. 

The eldest son, Robert Davies, succeeded his father 

D,g,t,..dDi. Google 


at Llanerch and Gwyaanau. He was an able naturalist, 
and a Welsh antiquary of great repute. He collected 
the valuable library of Welsh manuscripts at Llanerch. 
He was appointed alderman of Denbigh, " vice Mytton 
Davies, Elaq., deceased," in 1685. He was High She- 
riff for the county of Denbigh in 1687, and forFhntehire 
in 1704. About December 2Dd, 34 Charles II (1681-2) 
he married Letitia, daughter of Edward Vaughan of 
Trawsgoed, county of Cardigan, Esq., ancestor of the 
earls of Lisbume (who was afterwards the wife of Peter 
Pennant of Bychton and Downing in Tegeingl, Esq.), 
by whom he had issue: 1, Robert, of whom presently; 2, 
John, who died s. p. in 1695, and three daughters, 
Anna and Jane, who both died s. p., and Jane, the 
wife of Rossindale Lloyd, Esq., the ancestor of the 
Lloyds of Aston. Mr. Robert Davies died in 1710, at 
the age of fifty-two, and was buried at Mold, where 
there is an inscription to his memory on his grand- 
father's monument. He was succeeded by hia eldest 

Robert Davies of Llanerdi and Gwysanau, Esq., mar- 
ried Anne, daughter and eventual heiress of John 
Brocholes of Claughton Hall, county of Lancaster, Esq, , 
by whom he had issue four sons and three daughters, 
and was succeeded by his eldest son, 

Robert Davies of Llanerch and Gwysanau, Esq., who 
was High Sheriff for Denbighshire in 1745; he married 
and hadisBueone son, John Davies of Gwysanau and Llan- 
erch Park, Esq., High Sheriff for the county of Denbigh, 
1767, who died unmarried in 1785, and two daughters, 
Letitia and Mary, the latter of whom had Gwysanau, 
and married Philip Puleston of Hafod y Wem, in the 

garish of Wrexham, Esq., by whom she had an only 
aughter and l^eiress, Frances, who married Bryan 
Cooke of Owston, county of York, Esq., M.P. for Mai- 
den, by whom she had a son, Philip Davies Cooke, of 
Gwysanau, Hafod y Wem, and Owston, Esq., who mar- 
ried the Lady Helena Caroline King, daughter of 
George, third Karl of Kingstown, by whom he had is- 

Digiti.rM .-J. Google 


Boe one Bon, the present Philip Bryan Davies Cooke of 
Gwyaanau, Hafod y Wem, and Owston, Esq. 

Letitia, the eldest sister and co-heir of Jmin Davies, 
Esq., married Broughton Whitehall of Broughton in 
Maelor Saesneg, Esq. 

lorwerth »b Meilir ab Ooronwy sb Qnifiydd ah Lleirelja «b: 
CTnwrig Efell, lord of Eglirjaegl. lorwerth mu a grantee 
of laada in the tomiahip of Sjcbdin in TegeJDgl, togotber 
with his brother EioioD ab Meilir ab Qoronir;, bj a deed 
"dat' apud WUeaodi" (Owysaiiau), 8 Sdir. II, a.d. 1286 


of leuau ab 
Howel ab 


Etk, d. of David ab Qor 


wy ab lorwerth ab Howel Parrya of Warfield, 
of Mortja in the pariah of Salop, and of Llwjn 

Qresford. Vtrt, semS of Yn ; and the Parrja of 
bTOOmslips, a lion tampt. or Pwll Halawg in Teg- 
eingl, now repreaented 
by Lord Most J n 
Qoronwj^... d. of leakjo ab lorwerth 
1 of Maelor i> j Coed 



8eep. 3$ 

I>eic«e=:Mali,d. of lorwerth ab Owilym ab Goronw^ ab Llewelyn 
ab EinioD ab Codwgao ab Qoronwy ab Owain ab Ucbtrjrd 
ab Edwyn ab Qoronwy. Argent, a croaa flory engrailed 
labit inter four Comiah chouglu ppr. 

NiehoU8=~Morf;dd, d. of leuan ab Rhjs Qethin 

Omf^dd of ==Margaret, 
Coed y Llai | ita> 

of John ab Elia Eyton of Wat- 
I the parigh of Bhiwfabo n 

John Eyton=Catherine, d. and coheir of Elia ab Tudor Elen,uz.Omffrdd 

of Coed y ab Qniffvdd of lal, ab leuan ab Llewelju ab Bdward ab 

Llai ab Oruffydd Lloyd ab Lleweljn ab Ynjr Morgan of Plas y 

of lal. Qulu, three palea or in a border Bowld 
of ibe Mcond charged with eight pellet* 

,,;. Google 


John BytOQ of Coed^Jane, d. of John Lloyd of Bodidrii in lal, moi iiiter 

J Llfti of Bir Evan Lloyd, Knt. Her mother hm J&ne, A. of 

Hani Ooch SftlueViury of Lleweaog in the parish of 

Llanrhaiadr, ab Henr; Salusbur; ab Thomai Saliu- 

bury Hen of Llyweni 

:Ja[ie, d. of David ab Evan Gyton 
John ab Qruffydd ab ob. (. p. 
Hugh of Helygen' 



aneeBtoT of 
the Eytoni of 
Ma«H J Oroes 


Owain Catherine, us. Bohert ab GrufF- 
Edirard jdd of Brymbo, ab Edward ab ward Lloyd of 
William MorgaaabDavidof PlaajBoitld Plaa Madogin 
Oruffydd in Caergwrle the pariah of 


John Gyton of Coed=Suian,d.and heirof Thomae Puleston of Lightwood 
y LUi, ob. A.D. ISOO " ' " " ■ ■ . ^ ... . .. , . 

Barbara, ux. Petsr Jane Catherine,ux.E< 
Pennant of Hendref ward Evans of 
Figillt Coed y Lla i 

John JSyton=I}orothy;, d. of William Berbert 
ofTrimle; I of Ceri and Trefeglwya, Esq. 

Mary, ui. John Treror of 
Trevor Hall, Esq. 

John Eyton of^Dorothy, d. of Robert DaTies ThomaB=Elizabeth,d. of 

Coed y Llai, of Qwyaanau, and relict of Ejtou I Sir Thoa. Pow- 

ob. ». p. Qeorge Hope of the Bryn and of 1 ell of Honlli, 

Dudleston, co. Salop Trimley [ Bart. 

William Margaret, ux. Robert Trefor Dorothy, ui. Bdw. Lloyd 
of Trevor Hall, Esq. of Pentref Hobyn, Esq. 

Thomas Eyton=Elizabeth, d. of Myttoa Davies of Qwysanau and Llanerch 
of Leeswood or Park, Esq., High Sheriff for co. Flint in 1670, and for co. 
Coe d J Llai | Denbigh in 1671 


Thomas Eyton John By ton,^ Elizabeth, only daughter Elizabeth, nx. 

ob. *. p. rector of I of Qeorge Hope of Hope, Bobt. Wynn 

Westbury, co. Salop of Oarthewyn, 

CO. Salop I Esq. 

^ John ETton, Eaq^ had a second wife, Jane, danghter of Edward 
Kynaaton of Pant y Byralli. 

' Hngh of Helygen in Tegeingl was the son of Einion ab Mer- 
edydd ab Einion ab Cynfelyn ab Dolfijn ab Rbiwallon of Cvdewain, 
son of Uadog ab Cadwgan, lord of Nannan. Einion ab Cynfelyn 
bore azure, a lion pasaaat argent. Cadwgan of Nonnaa bore or, a 
b'on rampant arure. 

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Hop« EjftoD of=Msr|;uet, d. of Robert Wynn of 
Leeiwottd | The Tower, Egg. 

1 I 21 3] Tj 

John Wynn Eyton^JaDS, d. of Robert Thomu Robt. Wjnii WillUm 

of Leeswood knd Llojd of Pirwi Wjnn E;Coo,M.A., Wjnii 

The Tower Hill, Oswesttj, BjtoD vicar of ETtOD, 

Esq. LUugolloii E.N. 



:weljii kb Oruffjdd ab leuka ab lorwerth ab lorwertb ab Meilir t,b= 
Ooronwj ab GruSydd ab Llewelyn ab Cjnwrig Efell' 

... d. of leuan' ab Gwjn* ab Oruffjdd ab Qoronwj Saii of Coed y 
Llai.ab EiaioQ ab Oruffydd ab Lleweljn ab Ithel Dalfrith ab Tn- 
baiftm Goch of Lleyo, ab Madog ab Rhys Qloff ab Rhyl Pycban ab 
Rbyi Mecbjll, sao of the Laid Rhys ab Oruffydd, Prince of South 
Wtklei. Autre, a cber. inter three dolphini naiant, embowed atytnt, 
for Trahaiam Goch of Llcyo. See p. 44. 

JoIui=Mawd,d. of leuan ab Llewelyn Fychan ab Llewelyn ab lolyo of 
I lal, ab leuaf ab Madog ab Ooronwy ab Cynwrig ab loiwerth ab 
I Caawallawn ab fiwfa ab Ithel t'elyn, lord of lal. P. 36. 

OwaiD=CatheTine, d. of RheinaHt ab Gruffydd=Catherine,d.of Nicbolaa 
I leuan ab Rhya of The Towec abJohnof Ilendref BIS* 

Catherine, ux. John ab William ab John, Wi]liam=Marfi:iiret, d. of Pier* 

•econd son of Gruffydd ab Llewelyn ab I Gruffydd of Caerwys. 

David of Qwyaaoau { A rgent, a chev. inter 

I three boan' headi 

i conped taiU 

David ab William= Catherine, d. of Lewy* ab John ab Madog of lal 

Oniffydd Williania=CatheriDe, d. of John Wynn of Nercwya. 
of Arddynwynt Paly of six argent and table. 

J. Y. W. Lloyd. 

( To ba eontinvcd.) 

' Lewya Dwnn, vol. ii, g. 320. 

' lenan had a son named Rhys, the father of Grufffdd the father 
of Thomaa Griffith of Coed y Llai. 

* Gwyn had a sod named NichoUs, the father of Ithel Wjnn, the 
father of John, the father of Ithel Wynn, anccBtor of Sir George 
y/yan of Leeawood, Bart. P. 44. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 



Wedne8DA,y, August 26, 1874, the membere of the 
Cambrian Archseological Association proceeded by train 
from Wrexham to Chester. ' At the Cathedral there they 
were met in the Chapter House by the Dean of Chester 
(Dr. Howson), who conducted them over the Cathedral, 
and pointed out its architectural peculiarities. 

In the ChapterSovM the Bean began by briefly sketching the 
history of the origin of the bishopric, and then proceeded to 
describe the poriiion of the building in which they were assem- 
bled. The Chapter House, he said, was a remarkably fine epe- 
cimen of the Eariy English architecture of the church, and so 
was the vestibule. The vestibule and the Chapter House were 
not built precisely at the same time, but there was no great in- 
terval between them. The Chapter House was noticeable for 
the absence of ribs in part of its groined roof, and from there 
being independent shafts running up between the window lights 
and standing quite separate and apart from them. As to the 
library be was very sorry that be could not give them a history 
of it that was very creditable ; but it contained books that be- 
longed to Chester's most celebrated bishop. Bishop Pearson. 
The library had been too much neglected, but they were mend- 
ing their ways and were hoping to make their collection of booka 
more useful in the diocese. He next noticed the great eastern 
window, observing that the different lights contained illustra- 
tions of the history of the building, while in one of them was a 
good portrait of the late Dean. The two tattered flags himg 
here belonged to the old Chester regiment (22nd) and were at 
the taking of Quebec, where General Wolfe died. He (the Dean) 
bad not been able to ascertain whether tliey were at Bunker's 
Hill also, bat one officer of the regiment was killed there. At 
all events it was something to show the Americans, when they 
came to this country, that we had some flags which had been 
nsed in tlie American war and had not been taken from oa. He 
had seen many British flags at West Point. Turning to a group 
of mmrerei, which had been removed from the choir stalls and 

' See vol. T, p. 354. 

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deposited temporarily here, he said they were restoriiig the choir, 
and especially the woodwork of the choir at this moment, and 
the ■misereres had been taken away and placed in the Chapter 
House for safety, and in order that they might he seen to ad- 
Tantage. Being raised up above their position in situ the car- 
Tings nndemeath could be seen clearly. They were of much in- 
terest from the great skill and force of the woodcutting, and re- 
markable for the combination of what was amusing and gro- 
tesque in coDnection with what was sacred. Much speculation 
had been raised concerning this association of the amusing 
and grotesque with the sacred in such works. Several of these 
mistrerts illustrated this combination, while others displayed a 
true love of nature. The Dean especially pointed out the 6de- 
lity of the markings in the feathers of the birds. One of the 
misertres illustrated the story of " Little Ked Hiding Hood," but 
the wolf was represented as clothed in the habit of a monk of 
Chester. His tail was partly hidden behind him, so that the 
little maid could not see it ; though why she had no suspicion 
of his wolfish face, he (the Dean] bad never yet been able to 
learn. Then there was a man in armour, so placed as to be in 
a perfectly natural attitude, while yet kept down by the hori- 
zontal suiface of the seat above. They would iind plate armour 
in the figures, with chain armour about the neck, and this might 
indicate to them the date. He should say that it was the 
latter part of the fourteenth century, at which time plate armour 
had come in, and yet chain armour was partially retained. It 
was about 1380 he should say. The life of St Werbui^b was 
told in rhyme by a monk of St. Werburgh, who certainly occu- 
pied one of these very stalls ; but there was another member of 
the house, the archseologist Higden, who wrote his Chronicle in 
the early part of the fourteenth century. He, too, belonged to 
this monastery, and he (the Dean) hoped to show them where 
he was buried. He imagined that Higden died about 13tiO or 
1370 ; if so, he never saw these Ttviaererea. In one of them they 
wonld find a square place with geese represented, and a female 
figure with a crozier. The story of the geese was this : when 
St Werburgh was at Weedon there came on the country round 
about a great flight of wild geese, which were eating up the corn 
and doing much mischief, so that the people came to St. Wer- 
burgh and made complaint, on which she gave orders that the 
geese were to be fetched to her. The messenger said it was not 
according to the nature of geese to obey such an order, but ne- 
vertheless he went to them and said : " Our Lady Werburgh 
orders you aU to come to her;" on which they came trailing 
their wings and making great lamentation, and she rebuk^ 

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them. They were put in ward for the night, and they wailed 
all niglit according to their manner. In the morning she re- 
leased them, on their promising not to settle on these lands 
again. But after a time they found one of their members miss- 
ing, and they returned to look for him. The story went on to 
say that St. Werburgh discovered the person who had stolen the 
goose, which was restored, on which they flew away. And the 
writer {Bradshaw, the monk) says that one of the early chroni- 
clers added that the stolen goose had been already roasted and 
eaten, tliat the flesh was restored to the bones, and that the 
stolen and roasted goose flew away with its companions. 

Proceeding to the VestHnile of the Chapter House, the Dean 
pointed out the absence of imposts from the heads of the 
piers, remarking that the mouldings proceeded straight from 
the ground to the point of the groiniog, and then downwards 
again, like bent wLQow brandies. Tlie party next moved to 
the North Traiistpt. Here the Dean continued his remarks, ob- 
serving that standing where they were they had an excellent 
point for seeing a great many, things, and first he would show 
them some of the architecture whicli was coeval with the build- 
ing of the Norman church on that site. St. Werhurgh died long 
before the Norman Conquest, and there was a Saxon church 
founded there before that time. If that church was built of 
stone the Normans removed it. Probably it was built of wood. 
But in these arches and in the masonry below they had Norman 
work of the end of the eleventh or tlie beginning of tlie twelfth 
century. Hugh Lupus, the precursor of the Grosvenor family, 
was a kinsman of William the Conqueror, and when William 
the Conqueror became master of this country he put him here. 
Hugh Lupus was a coarse, brutal, hard person, but towards the 
end of his life he was visited with compunction and desired to 
found a religious house. He sent to Anselm, then abbot of Bee 
in Normandy ; and he came over here to meet Hngh Lupus. 
It was on Anselm's return to Normandy that he became Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury. William Eufus, who had kept the see 
vacant four years and appropriated the endowments, was then 
ill and penitent ; and Anselm was sent for to his bed-room, and 
there, as is said, was compelled against his will to accept the 
appointment. The story is told by Dean Hook in his history of 
the Archbishops of Canterbury and by Dean Church in his life 
of Anselm. Of course the masonry within the large arch below 
was later. Why they built within the arch he could not say, 
but perhaps it was because of a settlement of the masonry. The 
mouldings of the piscina were Early English. He had no doubt 
there was originally a Norman chai>el, opening out through the 

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arch with an apse behind. They would see the general Norman 
stonework ia the wall, but later stonework had been introduced. 
Looking now into the north aisle of the choir they would see 
another fragment of Norman masonry. It was a very large baae 
ipdicating a correspondingly l&Tge pier. They found clear in- 
dications of the size of tlie old Norman Church, Tliis transept 
was the Normaji transept untouched, and it was of extremely 
small size. The south transept, on the other hand, was of a size 
ao gigantic as to be almost unprecedented. This was in fact 
the parish church of St. Oswald. He observed, by the way, that 
the whole northern wall of the nave was also Norman, and that 
it^ was a great advantage to have such a continuous amount of 
Xorman work. 

With regard to the immense South, if they had been 
there a few months ago, they would have found the whole of it 
shut oot from view by a heavy screen. In the course of the 
work of restoration of the building they could not interfere with 
the rights of the parish church ; but they felt it ought to be put 
into architectural communication with tiie rest of the building. 
The screen had been placed there some years ago, to shut off the 
church from the cathedral, and to prevent tlie sound of the ca- 
thedral organ being heard in the church : but in fact it did not 
produce that effect. 

The late Dean, not contemplating the general restoration that 
had since been undertaken, wished to enlarge the church, and 
he broi^ht out the stalls to their present position. Over was 
the organ, and the side arches were 61Ied up with glass to pre- 
vent draughts. But this arrangement acted as a fuunel and the 
draughts were very inconvenient. Early in the restoration it was 
determined to take down all this glass and open the view from 
end to end ; and it was resolved to bring the stalls hack to the 
east from the west side of the crossing. As to the oigan it was 
now seen that it would not do to put it up again where it had 
been, and they decided to place it between the two piers of the 
great arch of the north transept ; and there was now being con- 
structed a beautiful oigan-screen, the gift of the Duke of West- 
minster. The organ would, therefore, be practically available 
for the choir and the nave, and there would be an uninterrupted 
view through the building from west to east At the same time 
they di3 not desire to cut away the return-stalls, but they re- 
solved to open the panels behind them, so that they could see 
through up to the Lady ChapeL 

Pnxjeeding from the Crossing to the Chvir, the Dean resumed 
his explanation. With regard to the Lady Chapel, which lay to 
the east, he said that there had been placed in the windows a 

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complete series of scenes from the life of St. Paul. So far as he 
knew there was no case in which glass had been made subner- 
vient for copiously illustrating the life of this apostle. It had 
always appeared to him that wlien they had so much that was 
picturesque as well as religiously useful in the Acts of the 
Apostles, far too little use had been made of that book for these 
purposes. Ample justice, too, was done to St. Peter. He had 
given one window to that apostle and three to St. PauL They 
would see thirty scenes from St. Paul's life on the south and ten 
from St. Peter's on the north. 

The Dean now pointed out the effect of taking away the stone 
work of the old organ-screen. Looking westward they saw 
throi^h a beautiful vista of woodwork which belonged to the 
fourteenth century. As to the accommodation for the congre- 
gation in the choir, which, it was said, would be dwarfed by the 
removal of the stalls eastward, he remarked that this would not 
be the case ; and he pointed out that by removing the pulpit 
they would secure the opportunity of having a larger congrega- 
tion well placed than they had ever had before. As to the pulpit 
itself, he had reason to hope that the Freemasons of Cheshire 
would give it; and there was a scheme afloat for a bishop's 
throne, which he (the Dean) could not yet reveal The stalls, 
which were most beautiful specimens of carving, had been very 
seriously injured They had been painted, and some had been 
"restored" with deaL Lastly, there had been an immense 
amount of mutilation through removal and other causes. They 
had had two estimates for restoring the staUs, ranging between 
£2,000 and £2,500; and when he told them that they had al- 
ready spent £55,000 in these restorations, and that they were 
now gleaning the fields which they had previously reaped, they 
would see that an addition of £2,000 was a serious matter. He 
did not despair of getting the money, but perha^ it meant a 
long delay, which be did not wish to have. He would not be 
so shabby as to use that opportunity of begging, but he would 
tell them that there were about forty stalls, and estimating the 
cost of restoration at about £2,300, a sum of about £50 would 
be required for each stall; and he proposed to ask separate 
families who were willing to assist in the work, separate parishes, 
and separate persons, each to defray the cost of a stall Within 
the last few days two clergymen, connected with the cathedral, 
had made themaetves responsible for two of these stalls. On 
board the steamboat on Loch Lomond the other day he met a 
Clieshire squire, and talked with him about it, and before the 
conversation was over another bad been promised He wrote to 
a clergyman in a populous part of the diocese, Southport, and 

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that morning he bad got a letter from tiim saying that £50 
should come from Ms parish. He expected to get the forty 
stalls restored at £50 each, which he Loped meant their com- 
pletion in eight or ten montlas. The reconstruction of the Lord's 
Table was next referred to by the Deau. This he said was in- 
tended to be constructed of wood, and he was happy to say 
that by the kindness of a friend he bad already received gifts 
of cedar Crom Lebanon, oak &om Bashan, besides olive nom 
Palestine. He had got the design, end they were working 
out the details. In a restoration uke that of a cathedral they 
could take the work in sections; and his fixed principle was 
never to take any part of it in hand without being able to pay 
for it. 

Rev, E, L. Barnwell (Secretary to the Cambrian Aichesological 
Association), addressing the Dean at the close of this portion of 
his remarks, said the Cambrian Association had no funds, but if 
the Dean would allow him he would guarantee £50 for one stall 
from the gentlemen present. He thought the gentlemen who 
were present ought to do it as an acknowledgment of the infor- 
mation which the Dean had imparted to them. 

The Dean cordially thanked Mr. Barnwell, and next called 
attention to the sedilia, and said that a lectern had been be- 
queathed to the Cathedral by a lady, late of Chester, and that 
tJie extremity of the south aisle of the choir had been restored 
by the Brassey family, a family much honoured in Cheshire. 

The next move was to this extremity of the south aisle of 
the Choir, the Dean briefly describing the work intended as a 
monument to Mr. Brassey. There were windows representing 
Faith, Hope, Charity, and Humility, and in the roof there 
would be beads to correspond. He next referred to the old 
Bishop's Throne, which was partly constructed from fragments 
of St. Werburgh's shrine. Canon Slade, some years ago, used 
certain parts of this shrine for a throne, which he erected 
here, the top and bottom belonging to St. Werburgh, while 
in the intermediate part was seated the bishop, to his great 
discomfort. In the course of the restorations the clerk of the 
works (the best in England) came to him one day and said, 
" We have found some beautiful hewn stone of the fourteenth 
century, in a wall built across the north aisle of the nave," and 
he, the Dean, answered, " It would be very odd if it turned out 
to be part of St. Werburgh's shrine." After a few days the clerk 
of the works came ^ain and said the fr^ments found were cer- 
tainly parts of St. Werburgh's shrine. No doubt they had been 
huilt into the wall when the shrine was smashed to pieces. Tliey 
had now put the stones together at the opening of the South 

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Transept, which waa a very good positioo. The Dean went on 
to e&y that he must be careful and modest when speaking in the 
presence of Mr. Hughes, but he believed that in a certain copy 
of Higden's Polychroiticon in the Bodleian Library there was a 
MS. note, saying that he was buried " near a door leading from 
the choir to the Bouth." Now, no such door was recently exist- 
ing; but in the course of the work, when they came to restore 
this part, a doorway was found here, and Mr. Hughes said, "I 
suspect we are close to the tomb of old Higden." Afterwards 
tliey opened a conspicuous tomb near that spot, and in that 
tomb were the remains of some one of mark, as was evident. 
Besides the cere-cloth, chalice, paten, bones, etc., there lay there 
B long hazel wand. With regard to the presence of this hazel 
wand in the tomb there were many theories. It might repre- 
sent a pilgrim's staff. They had had discussions on the subject, 
but he himself was inclined to the opinion that it indicated a 

Mr. Bloxam. — I agree that we have no particular authority 
on the matter, and therefore it must be rather a conjecture than 
a conclusion, hut it is highly probable that the hazel wand in- 
dicates that the person buried has been on a pitgrimt^e. 

The Dean then conducted the party to 

The Nave. — Standing on the steps at the west end of the nave, 
the Dean said that at present they were obliged to use the nave 
for all the services, and they must do so until the restoration of 
the choir was completed. One thing to notice was that the 
nave descended from the west, and he thought that the more 
that descending cliaracter could be preserved the better. When 
they were restoring the outside, the first thing they had to do 
was to underpin a laige portion of the wall, which was giving 
way at the east. They had to go down thirteen feet to the rock 
there ; but here at the west the rock was at the surface. Chester 
Cathedral was not indeed the most beautiful cathedral in the 
world, but it was one of the most curious. He pointed out what 
had been done here in the way of repairing, cleaning, and resto- 
ration. The walls inside had been covered with whitewash, 
wliicli had been cleared off, and the masonry was being restored. 
The central vaulting of wood cost £5,000. With regard to the 
inside wall, on the north, that remained at present untouched. 
That could be dealt with at any time. If it waited twenty 
years no harm would be done. The cloisters were belund it. 
He pointed out the Korman bay at the extreme west end of the 
north aisle of the nave. They intended to complete the arch, 
and then they would have an open bay, and he hoped a baptistery. 
Outside they would see that the episcopal palace had gone to 

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tbe ground, the result of a generous gift on the part of Mr. 
Dixon, This brought a aerioua burden on the unfortunate oc- 
cupier of the deanery of Chester, who had, iu consequence of 
this change, tc find money, which otherwise would not have been 
needed ; so that the kindness of T^Ir. Dixon was cruelty to him 
(the Dean). He then pointed out, as a curious feature in the 
nave, that the clerestory windows were not cusped. The absence 
of cnsps was a singular characteristic, but it was historical. The 
springers of the vaulting were also without cusps. 

Outside the Cathedral. — The Dean next conducted the party 
ronnd the outside of the great south transept on to the city wall, 
from which the best points of view could be obtained of the 
unique features of the CatbedraL Taking his station on the city 
wall, be pointed out the enormous size of the south transept, 
which he said was as big as the choir. From this point be asked 
his audience to consider four things. First, the tower was in a 
most mouldering condition a few years ago ; now it was com- 
pletely restored. Secondly, they had also restored tbe outside 
of the choir, but the roof of the I^dy Chapel presented great 
difficulties. It required a steep roof ; and yet s steep roof, run 
through, would have blocked up the eastern choir window, and 
Sir Gilbert Scott was much puzzled what to do. But lying 
awske in bed one morning, about four o'clock, it struck him that 
he might meet the difSculty by adopting a kind of apse, rounding 
off the roof ; and jumping out of bed on the inst^t he at once 
made a drawing of his conception, and they saw the result. 
Thirdly, he pointed out the three Early English windows on the 
south side of tbe Lady Chapel. Five or six years ago the aisle 
■was continued to take in all but the last bay. In this place they 
found everything in a most perilous condition. They had to go 
down thirteen feet to the rock, and one day, when a workman 
went home from his work he said to his wife, "I shall be brought 
home a corpse some day;" but all went on well, and without 
accident. The whole was now underpinned from the south 
transept round the east end to the north, and was perfectly safe. 
Fourthly, when they took down the aisle roof and revealed work 
which had been hidden for three hundred and fifty years or more, 
they came on evidence that there had been an extraordinary 
roof, which had either fallen in, or been destroyed. In the first 
place they found above the vaidting three arches in the direction 
from west to east, which arches had evidently home a very heavy 
weight, because the stone was crushed. Then above this point 
there used to be leaning against the wall a conical mass of old 
masonry for which no reason could be assigned, for no staircase 
was there. This was a further proof of there having been a great 

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mass of masonry there. The evidence waa completed by the 
discovery of certain mouldings \rhich had converged upwards to 
a high point They wrote to Sir Gilbert Scott to come and 
judge of this discovery ; and after an examination, he said that 
a roof of this extraordmary kind had existed, and he (the Dean) 
was determined that they should have the ancient roof again, and 
Sir Gilbert Scott allowed the later architecture to go to oblivioa 
and restored the older. 

The Cloisters. — Proceeding next to the cloisters, and standing 
on part of the old lavatory of the monks, the Dean said, when he 
came down fixim that place he should abdicate in favour of one 
of the best atcbseologists he was acquainted with, Mr. Ffoulkes. 
He would only now call their attention to the aoaih cloister tJiat 
bad been restored opposite. A few years ago it was absolutely 
destroyed, no trace remaining but three bases. In restoring it they 
came on certain tombs of abbots of the thirteenth century; the 
third abbot and the fourth had been identified, and, as they be* 
lieved, the jaw bone of the first abbot on the traditional sit« of 
his tomb. If so, this was the man who was sent by Anselm, 
or was with bim, when William Bufus sent for him ; and, if 
any judgment could be formed of a man's character from Ms jaw 
bone, he was a man of considerable determination. They were 
near the refectory, now the boys' school, but the refectory bad 
been divided into two parts. They were just now ei^aged in 
the task of converting the Ring's School into a large place of 
education for Chester and Welsh boys. They would notice here 
— masonry he could not call it, — for they were pieces of wood, 
used in the "restoration" of thirty years ^o. In a boss, seen 
well horn this point, was a cardinal's bat and the arms of Wol- 
sey. He could have shown them the name in the roof of the 
north transept. Why Cardinal Wolaey appeared here he could 
not positively say, but there were awkward stories about certain 
livings in the diocese. There was also a quarrel between the 
abbots of this Benedictine house and the Bishops of Lich&eld, 
Coventry, and Chester, and it was said that there was an appeal 
to the archbishop, and that the archbishop decided the case in 
favour of the abbot : and if so, that might be a reason for a com- 
pliment to Cardinal Wolsey. 

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The followine remarks relate to a description of earth- 
works deaerving of more special atteDtion than they have 
as yet received. These mounds are not always inserted 
in the Ordnance map, and seldom, if ever, so designated 
as to distinguish their peculiarity. They are certainly 
not Roman, nor could the most superficial observer con- 
found them -with what are usually regarded as Roman 
works, and, on the other hand, they do not come under 
the denomination of hill camps, works usually attri- 
buted to the British. Many of those found in England, 
or upon the "Welsh border, are mentioned in the Saxon 
Chronicle, and their date and authorship there recorded, 
and hence it seems but reasonable to refer to the same 
date and people other similar works found in the same 
country and districts. But these moated moimds are 
found, not only on the Welsh border, as at Shrewsbury, 
Wigmore, Richard's Castle, KUpeck, Ewias-Harold, 
Worcester, and Hereford, the two latter having been 
removed almost within the memory of man, but further 
into the FrincipaUty, in the counties of Monmouth, 
Glamoi^n, Brecknock, Cardigan, Merioneth, Pem- 
broke, and elsewhere, in positions accessible, indeed, 
from the sea, or from the lowlands communicati ng with 
England, but still on ground not only thoroughly Welsh, 
but of the possession of which by the Saxons or Eng- 
lish, or the Scandinavian pirates of the ninth or tenth 
centuries there is no distinct or certain record No 
doubt at the period of the construction of Offa'a Dyke 
the Welsh must have been hard pressed by the Saxons, 
and before a definite boundary was laid down there 
must have been many incursions, and probably many 
temporary lodgments made and strong places thrown 
up beyond it. What is wanted is a careiul list of these 
moated mounds wherever they occur, and then it seems 
probable that irom their position some safe conclusion 
may be arrived at as to their date and origin. 

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Among the largest and best known in Wales may be 
mentioned Caerleon, under which Romaa remains have 
been traced, Cardiff, Brecon, Builth, Wigmore, Richard's 
Caatle, Ewias- Harold, Chirbury, and Montgomery ; and 
of those less known, Castleton, Langston, and Llan- 
hileth ■ in Monmouthshire ; Ruperra, Gelligaer, Ystrad 
Owen, Pentyrch, Llanilid, Loughor, and Coychurch in 
Glamorgan; two near Moat Lane Junction in Mid- 
Wales ; at Aberedwy and Newbridge on the upper 
Wye ; and Castell Cynfel, Tal y Bont in Merioneth ; 
and Tavolwem in Montgomerysnire. These are a few 
only of these works. Pembrokeshire probably contains 
many of them under the term "Rath." The following 
are here described, because they have recently come 
under the notice of the writer. 

Moat Lake.- — The infant Severn, in its course from 
Llanidloes towarda Newtown, in the shire of Montoo- 
mery, is projected northwards by the high ground of 
Yr Allt Cathair, Moel larll, and Cefn Nith, below which 
is a broad and level plain. In its midst, just below 
the inflow of the Cerist and the Afon Gamo to the main 
stream, and opposite to the site of the Roman station 
of Caer Sws, are, at various points upon the higher 
ground, the remains of foi-tified works of all ages, some, 
like Cefn Camedd, evidently British, others, which 
from their close resemblance to earthworks, the date of 
which is upon record, may fairly be inferred to be the 
work of early English invaders, who were tempted by 
the open ground to ascend the valley of the Severn 
from Shrewsbury and Welsh Pool. Of these latter 
there are two upon the northern slopes of Cefn Nith, 
perhaps 60 feet above the plain, and a quarter of a mile 
from the Moat Lane railway station, the features of 
which are very marked, and which, seem to deserve 
more attention than has yet been bestowed upon them. 
They are designated in the Ordnance map by the name 
of Moat,' in their case by no means well selected, since 

' See''ADcneDt Arwjetii", Arch. Camb., Srd Series, to], sir, p. 1, 
where a plate of the earthwork near Moat Lane is givon. — Ed. Arch. 

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tkeir most marked feature ia not the ditch, but the 
mound wliich it eoTiroiis. Moat is a term which should 
be confined to cases in which there has been a fortified 
house, of which nothing is left but the ditch by which 
it was protected. 

The most southern of the two works is placed upon 
a sort of ridge, which, on the north, slopes towards the 
Severn, and on the south, more steeply, towards a 
small deep valley which divides the ridge fiwm the 
higher land of Cefii Nith. At the upper end stands 
the mound, circxJar and flat topped, and wholly artifi- 
cial Its diameter at the top is 45 feet, its slope about 
1^ to 1, and its height above the bottom of its sur- 
roundii^ ditch above 40 feet, so that its circumference 
at the base is rather under 500 feet. The ditch is 
30 feet wide and about 12 feet deep below the coun- 
terscarp. It contains water, auve at one point. 

Applied to the exterior of the ditch, and covering 
less than one-third of it, is an area of a half round shape, 
but with rather prolonged sides, being about 140 feet 
broad by 200 feet deep. It is level up to the edge of 
the ditch of the mound, but elsewhere contained with- 
in its own bank of about 25 feet high on the outside 
and 1 feet within, the interior forming a slightly ele- 
vated platform. The bank is about 20 feet broad at 
the base, and has or had an exterior ditch. At the 
end furthest &om the mound the bank is wanting for 
a space of 30 feet, within which ia the entrance. 

So far all is clearly of one date, and the work closely 
resembles otliers of an early English character. It dif- 
fers, however, from these, inasmuch as it has outside, 
and covering its entrance, a camp, which follows the 
irregular outline of a sort of natural platform, the 
slope of which has been Bcaroed and crested with an 
earthwork. This camp, which is about a furlong in 
diameter, has a bank and slope. It seems to be of 
earlier date than the Mound, and may be British. 

The other work, called aJso Moat, is a short half 
mile distant towards the north-east, but though evi- 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


dentlj a moated mound of the same character with that 
ahove described, it has not been criticall; examined. 

Abeeedwt.' — At Aberedwy, three mile8 and a half 
below Builth, on the border of Haduor, at a place so 
called from the junction of the Edwy with the Wye, ia 
another of these fortified mounds, designated in the 
Ordnance n^ aa CasteU. It stands upon the right 
bank of the Edwy, near the water and about midway 
between the parish church and the junction, and a fur- 
long from either. 

Newbridge. — Upon the Wye, about seven miles 
above Builth, and a mile or so above the Newbridge 
railway station, on the right bank of and close to the 
river, is what appears to be a broad bank, about 25 feet 
high, with a flat top and circumscribing ditch. It is 
seen from the railway, but is not marked upon the Ord- 
nance map, and has not heen critically examined. 

Castell Oynpel. — In the coimty of Merioneth, about 
two miles from the sea, and on opposite sides of the 
broad marshy tract of Morfa Towyn, are found two 
earthworks, which differ materially in construction from 
the hill camps of the district, and belong to the class of 
which the examples have been described as near the 
Moat Ijane railway station. Moria Towyn is traversed 
by the waters of the Disynni, a stream which descends 
direct from Cader Idris, and which near its mouth re- 
ceives the Afon Felindref from the long irregular mass 
of " Foel Wyllt," or as it was anciently called " Moel 
Craig Eiyr. 

Castell Cynfel, the southern of these two earthworks, 
occupies a small rocky knoll from 150 to 200 feet above 
the level of the marsh, and which is a spur from the 
far higher elevation of Mynydd Bychan. Two brooks, 
Nant Cwm Cian and Nant Cynfel, each occupying a 
small vedley, further isolate the knoll and invest it with 
all the characters of a natural stronghold. The position 
is not only strong, but it commands a full view of the 
sea, and, across the valley, of the other earthworks of 
which mention has been made. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Castell Cynfel ia a circular moiind, flat-topped, ^nd 
about 60 feet diameter at the top, which includes a 
low bank of earth about 10 feet broad and 4 feet 
high, crowning the slope. This slope, being of rock, is 
about a half to one, and the mound ia about 15 feet 
high, so that the base is about 325 feet girth. It rises 
out of a ditcK cut in the rock, about 12 feet broad and 
6 feet deep, measured upon the outer and nearly ver- 
tical slope ; outside this ditch, towards the east and 
west, the ground slopes away naturally, but to the 
north and south are the two ends of the ridge, which are 
cut off by the ditch from the central mound, and remain 
at a somewhat lower level outside it These are natu- 
ral, but the central mound has been slightly raised, no 
doubt by the contents of the ditch thrown inwards. 
The way up seems to have been on the east side, from 
the farm known as Bryn y Castell. This earthwork 
gives name to the township, a proof that at some remote 
period it was a place of local consequence. As early as 
1145, Howel and Conan, sons of Owen Gwynedd, at- 
tacked the Castle of Cynvael, which Cadwakdr, their 
uncle, had built and fortified. It was defended by 
Morvran, Abbot of Ty Gwyn, to whom it had been en- 
trusted. He refused to surrender imtil the walls were 
beaten down and the garrison kUled or wounded, when 
he escaped. (Powell's Camb., p. 199.) 

Tal y Boht. — The other and opposite earthwork 
stands a mile and three quarters distant to the north- 
west, upon the iurther bank of the Disynni, on ground 
but a few feet above the marsh, and omy divided from 
it by the river. Tomen y Moreinio^ or, as it is more 
■usually called, Tal y Bont, or Tal y Bont ar Ddisynni, 
from its position about a furlong below a very ancient 
bridge upon this river, is at present a moimd only, co- 
nical and only not fiat-topped because recent and un- 
successful explorations have broken the surface. Its 
summit is 54 feet diameter, its height about 30 feet, and 
its circumference at the base about 432 feet. It is 
wholly artificial and composed of the gravel from the 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


surrounding land. At its base are slight indications of 
a ditch, but the field is under the plough, and all traces 
of outworks are lost. The base of the mound is about 
12 feet from the river. An adjacent field bears the 
name of" Gwaun Llewelyn." 

Tal y Bont is in the parish of Llanegryn, but it gives 
name to the Commote or Hundred, ■which extends be- 
yond DolgeUey. It is further remarkable in having a 
history. Llewelyn, Prince of Wales and Lord of Snow- 
don, aiddreased a letter from hence, dated Tal y Bont, 6th 
Oct., 1375, to Robert, Archbishop of Canterbury, and 
to the Archbishop of York, complaining of the king's 
encroachments on his territory and asking their influ- 
ence for the preservation of peace. The list of griefs 
that follows is dated Garth Celyn, Feast of St. Mar- 
tin. (Warrington's History of Wales, App., p. 569.) 
Edward I was at "Tal y Bont in Merioneth' 14th May, 

After the conquest of North Wales this ancient 
dwelling place came to the English crown, and was so 
held until James I granted it to certain middle men, 
from whom it came to the Owens of Peniarth, in whose 
descendant, Mr. Wynne, it is still vested. 

At Wynnstay is an original charter granted by Llew- 
elyn, or one of the princes of Powis, about the end of 
the twelfth or beginning of the thirteenth century, 
dated at " Tavolwebn," where is still to be seen a 
moimd described by Mr. Wynne of Peniarth as very 
like that at Tal y Bont. - 

At RuPEERA in Glamorgan, placed upon the high, steep, 
and narrow ridge which rises immediately north of Ru- 
perra House, and about 650 feet above the sea, \a a 
conical, flat-topped mound, moated, and in excellent pre- 
servation. It 18 about 40 feet high measured from the 
bottom of its surrounding ditch, which is about 12 feet 
deep and 30 feet broad. The ditch has evidently been 
somewhat deeper. Outside the ditch is a bank, also 
circular, and about 6 feet above the natural surface of 
the ground, adding by this much to the depth of the 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


ditch. The mound is 50 feet diameter at the top, and 
about 100 feet at the haae. It seems wholly artificial. 
There is no trace of masonry either upon or about it, 
and it has no history. 

At LLAKHiLErH,near Pontypool,is said to be a moated 
mound very similar to this. 

At Castletoh, west of Newport, close north of the 
old turnpike road is a mound, nat-topped, about 40 feet 
diameter at the top, and about 30 feet high above the 
surrounding level It seems to have had a circular 
ditch, most of jphich has been filled up and converted 
into a garden, but its name and general appearance 
show that it was constructed for defence. 

At Lasoston, east of Newport, and south of the 
old turnpike road, on a rather steep rise from it of 
about 150 feet, a few yards west of the old house of 
the Morgans of Lang&ton, is a mound similar to those 
described above. The mound, however, is mostly natu- 
ral, a knoll of earth having been scarped and pared, and 
surrounded by a ditch. The flat top of the mound is 
about 100 feet across, and the ditch may be 30 feet 
broad, and the height about 30 feet from the bottom of 
the ditch. To the north and west a part of the original 
knoll is cut off by the ditch, which to the west is now a 
deep hollow way. To the south the ditch still contains 
water, though partially filled up and the mound en- 
croached upon by the road to the house. To the east 
the mound has been cut away and the ditch filled up to 
form a garden for the house, and here is a well, probably 
of the age of the house, 80 feet deep. Tbere is no 
trace of masonry upon or about the mound, nor has it 
any history, 

Langston is an early Morgan seat, but there does not 
appear to have been a castle here. 

G. T. C. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


There have been found, at various times, collections of 
bronze implements, sometimes in such a state as to indi- 
cate rough and long usage ; sometimes, on the contrary, 
they are almost iutiu^t, and as fresh as if direct from the 
mould. Occasionally both perfect and broken imple- 
ments form part of the same find, and not unfrequently 
with them has occurred a rude lump of metal. These 
groups have been generally considered to have been the 
property of some travelling dealer in or manufacturer 
of such implements, and who has concealed his stores 
in some safe hiding-place, and never returned to claim 
them. Instances, however, do occur where the imple- 
ments have been destroyed and twisted in various 
shapes by great force, which would have been unneces- 
sary if their consignment to the melting-pot was all 
that was intended. But this twisting and breaking are 
generally found when the implements are mUitary ones, 
and which thus treated were buried with their owners. 
Such a mark of respect (and such it seems to be) was 
also shown in the case of interments where stone imple- 
ments only were found ; one of the most remarkable 
instances of which was brought to light in the explora- 
tion of Mont St. Michel near Camac, where the most 
magnificent of the stone celts had been broken into two 
portions, evidently with some design. Finds of this 
kind, therefore, must be distinguished from those which 
are generally thought to indicate that some dealer or 
manufacturer had located himself and his stores on the 

One of the most important and interesting finds of 
the kind is that of the well known Powis Castle collec- 
tion, an account of which will be found in the third 
series of the Archteologia Camhrensis. StiU more nume- 
rous discoveries of the same kind have been made in 
France, and more particularly in Britanny. M. Le Men 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 

D,g,l,.,.d,i. Google 


mentions a case where, in a small square chamber com- 
posed of dry masonry, at the foot of a moderate sized 
menhir, were discovered, neatly packed, nearly a hun- 
dred sodceted celts of the usual square type, and which 
had been placed in this chamber as they came from the 
mould, none of the excrescences and other irr^ulariti^ 
in the casting having been touched or worked in any 
way. These could evidently have not been a sepulchral 
deposit, as the little stone chamber was apparently only 
built for the purpose of containing them; nor were 
there the least traces of any burial having taken place. 
The menhir may have stood on the spot previously to 
the concealment of the celts, and would have been use- 
ful in enabling the owner to recognise at once the place 
where he had concealed his treasure. A somewhat 
equally extensive discovery was subsequently made in 
the same country ; but in this case there were more 
indications of the travelling manufacturer, — one of them 
was a bundle of celts thrust within a bronze ring, as if 
for easy transporting. 

The interesting group exhibited by SirR. A. Cunliffe, 
Bart., at the Temporary Mtiseum at Wrexham, is evi- 
dently another example of a manufacturer's store, 
although not a very extensive one. The group consiste 
of six paalatabs of the ordinary kind, all of the same 
dimension, and all firom the same moulds None of 
them, moreover, have undergone any subsequent treat- 
ment necessary to remove the rough edges and other 
imperfections, which was effected probably by hammer 
or file. They were six in number ; but a seventh, of 
somewhat slighter character, had been broken in half, 
as if there had been some flaw in the casting. It had, 
like the other mx, undergone no finishing process, and 
there were no marks of its ever having been used. There 
were, moreover, three other celts of a very unusual cha- 
racter, as will be at once seen on referring to the accom- 
panying illustration from a drawing by Lady Cunhffe. 
The figure is the full size, and gives a faithful repre- 
sentation of the original (cut 1). The peculiarity of these 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


implements consists in the long narrow shank, the end 
of which spreads out in an unusual manner. There 
is no stop or ridge, so that it is not easy at first 
Mght to understand how the handle was secured, un- 
less it was intended to drill holes to admit of pins or 
rivets, as in the case of spear-heads and similarly sock- 
eted instruments. In early forms of celts not having 
the stop, the flanged sides are often so deep as to lap 
round the inserted handle ; but in this instance the 
flanges are so small that they could not have been thus 
used. The only use they could have been in this case 
would be to assist in keeping the wooden or bone handle 
in its proper position. If the handle were not secured 
by rivets (and probably it was not), it may have been 
secured by thongs of leather or sinews of animals. But 
even when thus secured, the implement, without its 
stop-ridge, could not have been used with any force, as 
in the case of the ordinary paalstab. The'slendemess 
of the metal shank, moreover, seems to indicate the 
same. The cutting edge is similar to many Irish speci- 
mens. In the cut it would appear to have been roughly 
used ; but the appearance is caused by the unfinished 
state of the casting, for in the completed implement 
this edge would nave been ground or hammered 
smooth. Another very singular circumstance is that 
they have all the appearance of having been washed 
over with tin, for such the white metal appears to be. 
As tin enters into the composition of the bronze, the 
manufacturer would, of course, have a supply of it ; but 
unless it was intended to ornament the implement, it is 
difficult to see what the object of the tinning was. They 
were probably, at any rate, weapons of warfare rather 
than implements of labour. In addition to the tJiree 
there was a shank of another which had lost its head. 
Could this head by any accident have been overlooked 
at the time of the discovery ? If it had been found, 
the two fragments in company with the perfect imple- 
ments would be an additional confirmation of the sup- 
position of the whole being a part of a manufacturer's 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


stock. The length of both celts and paaJstabB is the 
same, namely about 6 inches. 

The only other relic was a very small knife or dagger 
(cut No. 2) about 3 ins. long and proportionately nar- * 
row. Knives of this type seldom occur of so diminutive 
a size. This implement also -was fresh from the mould, 
and has not the usual holes for the rivets by which it 
was secured to its handle of wood or bone; and with- 
out a handle this little knife could have been of no use. 
The number of rivet-holes of course varies much, accord- 
ing to the size and shape of the handla In the present 
instance there is not space for more than two, as a third 
hole tui^t have too much weakened that part of the 
kn^e. The finding a knife or dagger in this unfinished 
state is exceedingly rare, and certamly seems to confirm 
the suggestion that this curious collection found at 
Ehosnesney, near Wrexham, was part of some manufac- 
turer's or dealer's stock The engraving gives the full 
size of the blside, and is from a drawing by the same 
skilful hand that delineated the celt. It will be noticed 
that the midrib is hardly developed as one would 
expect in an instrument of such dimensions. It is a 
well known feet that the handles of early bronze 
swords and daggers are much smaller than those of 
similar weapons of later times, and it has been thought 
by some that this smallness indicates that the men of 
the earlier period were smaller than those of the pre- 
sent time. This view, however, has not met with gene- 
ral assent. The more probable explanation is that 
these small handled weapons were not intended for cut- 
ting, but for thrusting only, an operation that may be 
effected without the ftiU grip wiui which a heavy blow 
can moat effectually be given. This small knife may be 
compared with the one described by Mr. R. W. Banks 
in this number, where the midrib is so fully developed. 
The figure of a paalstab is also given in the same Plate. 

The exhibition of these bronze weapons at the Wrex- 
ham Museum is one more instance of the many already 
recorded of the value and importance of such temporary 
collections. E. L. Babnwbll. 



WnosrvEE is tolerably acquainted -witii the sea-coast of , 
Pembrokeshire must have noticed the numerous fortified 
headlands along the range from Tenby westwards, and 
to a less extent northwards. Although they differ in 
size, and sometimes in arrangements, they are all evi- 
dently of the same class, and probably of tbe same date 
and origin. They are, ' as a rule, of a much simpler 
character than the earthworks foimd more inland in the 
same county, locally known as "rathe," — a term evi- 
dently borrowed from the Irish, and limited, we be- 
Ueve, to Pembrokeshire. We are not aware of the 
name being so applied in other parts of South Wales ; 
nor is it to be found in the North. In early times tiie 
intercourse between the Welsh and Irish coasts was 
more intimate and general than it is at present, and 
there are more numerous remains of the Irish element 
in this coimty than in any other part of Wales, not ex- 
cepting Anglesey. How long this intercourse was kept 
up, and what modifications it underwent, is uncertain. 
It, more or less, however, must have continued to com- 
paratively later times, when the number of Irish within 
the county was such as to amount to what was consi- 
dered a public grievance. 

How far this state of things has been the cause of 
these inland earthworks being called " raths" is a ques- 
tion ; while it seems equally uncertain whether they 
are the works of the early Irish anterior to the coming 
in of tlie Welsh, or of later date. If the Irish Tath is a 
word of such high antiquity that the new comers may 
have found these works alr^dy so designated, it might 
be conjectured that the original Irish had erected them; 
but if the word itself is not so ancient, then we may 
suppose that the later Irish, Uving more or less thickly 
among the Welsh, may have thus designated them. Or 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


a third conjecture may be offered, namely, that in sach 
an anomalous state of things as seems to have existed 
in this country, the Irish would probably find it necea- 
sary to protect themselves against their Welsh neigh- 
bomrs by erecting these earthworks, which they womd, 
of course, call " raths," although ttey differ much from 
m^y of those in Ireland. 

The presence of bo many Ogham stones in South 
Wales, and more particularly in Pembrokeshire, is fur- 
ther evidence of wis Irish intercourse. There is also 
the additional fact, according to the readings of a well 
known Irish authority on the Ogham question, that the 
names recorded on these stones are more firequently 
Irish than Welsh. 

But wha.tever may be the real histoiy of these Pem- 
brokeshire raths, it is evident that they have nothing 
to do with the fortified headlands along the coast. 
These latter have, indeed, been sometimes assigned to 
Danish rovera ; but in no one instance are they assigned 
to Irish ones. That the Danes have left evidence of 
themselves, in the names of islands off this portion of 
the sea-board, as in Ramsey and the numerous Holme, 
is true enough ; but this is not sufficient reason for 
assigning to them also the strongholds on the coasts. 

Different views have been advanced concerning the 
true history of these coast-castles. Some have consi- 
dered them as temporary depositories of plunder, col- 
lected from the interior by rovers like the ancient 
Danish or Saxon pirates that once infested these shores. 
But except sheep and cattle there was not much to 
carry off, and the removal of cattle to any extent must 
have given more trouble than they were worth. Besides 
this, on the withdrawal of the rovers with their booty, 
the natives would probably have taken care to destroy 
or render useless these strongholds, which they cer- 
tainly did not do, if any inference may be drawn from 
the state in which they exist at the present time. 
Others, again, have suggested that they were the final 
retreats of a population driven backwards towards the 

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sea ; but unless the retreatiiu^ crowd had also command 
of the sea, and boats at their service, they could be so 
easily starved out, even if supplied with water, that 
the shutting themselves up in such a cul de sac would 
be madness, especially in the case of the smaller works. 
A third and probably correct explanation is that they 
are the oppida, or fortified towns, of the inhabitants of 
the district. A few, perhaps, are somewhat too small 
and confined to accommodate even a moderate popula- 
tion ; but this circumstance does not much affect the 
question as to their real history. 

This question has been, to some extent, answered by 
the researches of M. liC Men, of Quimper, along that terra 
incognita of Finisterre, the coasHine to the south of 
Brest, terminating in the well known promontory of the 
Point du Baz. Here are found fortified headlands simi- 
lar in character to the Pembrokeshire ones, but more 
extensive, and far more perfect. M. Le Men has con- 
tributed to the Arcktsologia Cambrensis a valuable and 
interesting account of one of the most Important of 
these oppida, which, with the plan and view of it, will 
be found in the volume of 1870, p. 286. He had pre- 
viously visited this work known as Caatell Coz, or Old 
Castle, but found nothing that could throw light upon 
its origin and history, except some small fragments of 
pottery and flint chippings cast up by moles. A small 
grant from the General Council of the Department was 
made towards an examination of the work by M. Le 
Men, who, after fifteen days' digging, laid bare numerous 
houses and other buildings, wi3i a vast quantity, 
amounting to some hundreds, of various stone imple- 
ments, flint cbips, etc., as described in his account "A 
few small bronze articles, one or two glass beads, and 
what appear to be the oxidised remains of two iron 
swords, were also discovered. Among them were several 
clay spindle-whorls or buttons exactly similar to those 
found by Mr. Stanley in the circular habitations of Ty 
Mawr, Holyhead, which were visited by the membera 
during the Holyhead Meeting in 1870, when the large 

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collection of articles obtained from these cytiau, and 
deposited on the Stanley Tower, was examined. It is 
unnecessary to repeat what will be found in the 
account of Castle Coz referred to, but the conclusion 
is justly drawn by M. Le Men that it was a Gaulish 
town and destroyed by the Romans, who seem, from 
the large quantity of mutilated stone weapons and 
implements, to have carried on their work of destruc- 
tion so effectively that the town was probably never 
reoccnpied, and probably left much in the same state 
as when M. Le Hen first visited it. 

A similar and even larger work called Castell Afur or 
Meur, or Great Castle, exists in tiie adjoining commune 
of Cleden Cap-Sizun. This town occupies the extremity 
of a long headland, connected wltn the main land 
by a very narrow neck, both sides of which are preci- 
pitous rocks overhanging the sea. The entrance is pro- 
tected by three strong entrenchments and an exterior 
raised work, which served the purpose of the medi- 
aeval barbican. Here the houses are clustered together 
even more thickly than at CaateU Coz, extending some 
way down the precipitous slopes, occupying what must 
have been a very dangerous position. This work has 
not yet been explored, but the occupant of the nearest 
farm had collected in his yard a huge heap of stone 
hammers and olher implements, — all of which he 
had dug up at difierent times from these early dwell- 
ings. Among them, however, was a small Roman mill- 
stone, as perfect as when first tooled. The whole in- 
ternal space of this work was crammed full of these 
remains of houses, but arranged with a certain sym- 
metry. The population must have exceeded that of 
Castle Coz, which M. LeMen puts at five hundred. Other 
smaller headlands of the same kind are to be found 
along the coast. 

The well known headland of the Pointe du Raz is 
also fortified, but only with a wall which reached across 
to the precipices on either side, and partly down their 
&ce8. The configuration of the ground here did not 

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admit of arrangements like those of CastellMeur. They 
were confined to a single wall, against the inner sides 
of which had been built a row of dwellings or guard 
chambers, ezactlj similar to those built against the 
wall in Tre 'r Ceiri, in Carnarvonshire. Erected against 
the exterior face of the wall were also large semicir- 
cular buildings as additional outer defences, between 
whidi was the only approach. The wall, however, and 
buildings inside and outside, have suffered much from 
time and man, but there are such ample remains that 
no doubt can exist as to the original arrangements. 
Within this wall no traces of houses exist, at least as 
far as we could make out on our visit in company with 
M. Le Men. The situation, as is well known, is exposed 
to the force of tremendous storms, and it is difficult to 
imagine human beings living there without some sub- 
stantial shelter. There is a certain resemblance between 
this and the work on St. David's Head, except that in 
the latter case there was a strongly fortified position, 
within the space cut off by the entrenchment which 
extends right across the headland some hundred feet 
more inland. Several otiier fortified positions exist on 
the same coast, but they all point to the same conclu- 
sion of their being permanent towns. The peninsula 
of Kermorvan, near Le Conquet, to the north of Brest, 
contains also a town, in which the houses form streets, 
leading to a large oblong enclosure called a church. 
The entrance, however, to this work is fortified in a 
manner that is rather of an early medisBval than the 
more primitive style, but this part may be later than 
the town itself. Iliat these headlands were towns 
is confirmed by Ciesar, whose description tallies ex- 
actly with them. It has been objected that in many 
of these works there is no sign of any water, or of 
there ever having been any. This is, no doubt, a diffi- 
culty ; but the same difficulty occurs in inland earth- 
works. At Castell Coz there was and still is a good 
spring, but in Castell Meur, a more populous city, no 
indications of any such supply could be made out, and 

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yet in this instance there can he no doubt of the exist- 
ence of a population, so that the absence of water at 
the present time cannot be considered as conclusive. 
As long as access to the shore was possible, and this 
is almost invariably the case, an inexhaustible supply 
of shell fish was available, and if one may judge from 
the quantity of such remains found at Oastell Coz, it 
was certainly extensively used. So also in the houses on 
Mr. Stanley's estate at Holyhead were found ample proof 
that periwinkles and other fish of the same kind were 
as popular then as they are BtilL among the occupants 
of these islands, as well as with French and Ereton pea- 
sants, who live near the coast. It is true that in Castell 
Coz the remains of other animal food were found mixed 
among the cinders on the fire places, but abundance of 
^ells of eatable fish were also with them, so that as 
long as they could reach the beach the blockaded in- 
habitants could not be easily starved out. 

Where the outline or general character of the coast 
did not admit of these simple but efficient works, it 
would be necessary to erect massive defences on the 
elevated ground nearest the sea, and hence no doubt 
the strong works of Caergybi at Holyhead, serving as 
the arx or citadel for the population below, who were 
protected in their front by strong lines of defence, and 
in the rear by the hill, and at the same time had 
access to a convenient landing place, not a frequent 
occurrence along that iron-bound coast. This fortified 
position, under the command of the strong work above, 
IS but an extension of the more primitive oppidum of 
the headland. That the occupants of Holyhead moun- 
tain and Castell Coz were of the same race, as far as 
can be judged by their relics, seems extremely pro- 
bable. In the same class may be placed the hill fort- 
resses, or rather cities, of Tre r Ceiri and Pentyrch in 
Carnarvoaahire, and of Cam Goch in CarmEirthenshire. 
These more inland residences, although no doubt erected 
and occupied by the same races as are assumed to have 
-established themselves in the coast castles, are pro- 

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bably later in time, and could only have been built 
when the whole district was more under the control of 
the builders. 

It may be more convenient to take the plates in the 
order they are numbered, without reference to the ac- 
tual position of these castles, as they do not appear to 
have the least connection among themselves, in a strate- 
gical or any other point of view. We will commence, 
therefore, with No. 1 , called Penrhyn Coch, or, as better 
known by the natives as Castell Coch. It is situated 
not far from the well known cromlech on the Long- 
house estata It may be also reached from Aber- 
casUe, where is also on isolated work of a somewhat 
similar kind. The narrowness of the neck of land which 
separates the headland, rendered the fortifying it 
with banks and ditches a comparatively easy matter, 
nor would it require a numerous force to keep off 
any number of enenues. There are no traces of any 
former habitations, but as the ground appears to have 
been grazed from time immemorial this is no proof that 
such may not be found under the present turf The 
shape of this headland is like that of CaateU Meur in 
Britanny, mentioned above ; but varies in some im- 

{(ortant matters. Access to the sea was easy by the 
ittle creek to the south, the promontory lying north 
and south. Fenton does not make mention of this work, 
although he must have been near it when he visited 
the great cromlech of Longhouse. 

No. 2, Pwll Caerog lies a few miles to the westward 
of Castell Coch, about five or six miles from St. David's, 
and is the name of a farm of which this small headland 
is a portion. Small, however, as it is, the labour be- 
stowed on its defensive works shows that it was a 
situation of importance. It is enclosed on both sides by 
steep precipitous rocks, the earthworks being carried 
beyond them so as to preclude any approach in front. 
The entrance, if it can be called such, is a little towards 
the right, but there is no inner and corresponding open- 
ing. On the right side there are only two defensive^ 

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'cnrhvnc-och- I'lMnbrokp. 

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Majiorbipr Camp. 




. Ml 

miiiMM^ i 



aerP'ai Pelu broke shire. 

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.;. Google 

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lines, while on the opposite side there are four, in both 
cases exclusive of the inner one of all. The ground on the 
less defended side slopes almost perpendicularly down- 
• wards, so that any attack on that flank would be almost 
impoBsible. On the oppoaite side, the ground being 
more level, extra defensive works were required. There 
are two platforms, tbe outer and narrower one is 2 1 ft. 
broad, but the inner one varies from 30 to 20 ft. Be- 
yond is the deep ditch and high vallum that protect 
what may be called the citadel of the work. The in- 
habitants must have been closely packed if they were 
numerous enough to man all these lines with sufficient 
forces ; but probably in ordinary times the platforms 
were also thus occupied. It is known as Caerau (or the 
camps), as if the plural form denoted its double con- 
struction, in the opinion of the historians of St. David's 
(p. 37), who were the first to give any regular descrip- 
tion of these fortified headlands. No signs of former 
dwellinM are to be seen, although a few years ago some 
traces of them seem to have existed Fenton does not 
seem to be aware of this work, as he does not allude to 
it when he visited the church of Llanrhian. 

No. 3. Manorbier. — This castle, called Old Castle in 
the Ordnance map, has also been passed over by the 
Pembrokeshire historian, although so near tbe adjoin- 
ing village and castle. It presents a peculiarity not 
noticed in other works along the coast, and it may be 
described somewhat loosely as coDsisting of a double 
headland, separated from the mainland and higher 
ground by a natural hollow which extends to the sea 
at both extremities. There is also a hollow road follow- 
ing the ravine which separates the two headlands, and 
extends down to the beach ; so that in case access to 
the sea from the natural slope in front was rendered 
difficult or dangerous by an enemy in front, there was 
BtiU leit the narrow path running down the central 
gorge. The work lies nearly west and east, the eastern 
portion being the strongest fortified, as will be seen on 
referring to the plan. The western part was appa- 

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rently a kind of outwork rather than au integral part 
of the camp. It is protected by two strong baiiks run- 
ning along the whole extent, with a cross-wall at the 
extremity, facing the ravine above mentioned. A cor- - 
responding wall on the opposite side also defends both 
the ravine and what may be considered the main body 
of the work eastward. This is protected by a single 
bank surmounting the precipitous side which reaches 
down to the sea ; but beyond the part thus protected 
by the sea, three lines of earthworks and two narrow 
parapets render the defences on that side sufficiently 
strong. The inner one of these Unes is continued to 
the roadway down the ravine, when it makes a turn, 
Uius preventing any approach into the work on this 
aide, or even down the ravine, the arrangements for the 
security of which will be easily understoixi on referring 
to the details. It will be also noticed that a second 
and weaker line is continued parallel to the vallum 
that lines the crest of the slope, but is only continued 
to less tJian half the distance. This appears to have 
been the original arrangement, and may be considered 
an additional precaution in case the second platform 
was at any time carried. In the part immediately be- 
hind this were evident traces of two rows of hut-circles ; 
but, as in the preceding examples, the thick turf may 
by this time have obliterated tnem. Fenton has sug- 
gested that some of these cliff-castles were occupied by 
the early Norman invaders as fumiBhing communication 
by sea, that by land being dangerous. If not impractic- 
able, fh)m the hostility'of the native population. If his 
conjecture is admitted as probable, this "old castle" of 
Manorbier may have been so used, and perhaps modified, 
before the neighbouring Norman one was in existence. 
There is no doubt that in some instances, both in this 
country and France, these coast castles have been occu- 
pied in medieeval times, but it seems very questionable 
whether this one was ever thus tenanted, and the pro- 
bability is that there is no real difference between this 
work at Manorbier and the others here noticed, except 

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that the fortifying a double headland, and the character 
of the ground, have rendered a change of the more 
simple vallum and ditch necessary. 

No. 4. CaerfaL This headland lies about two miles 
nearly south-east from the city of St. David, and was not 
visited by Fenton during his prolonged stay in the neigh- 
bourhood. In this instance, as in uie headland on PwII 
Caerog farm, the defences are carried completely across to 
the edge of the precipices on either side, so that access 
to the interior was impossible, except across the strong 
lines. As in the former instance, the outermost vallum 
terminates short of the precipice, as if such were the 
original entrance, althougn practirailly leading nowhere, 
and exposing an enemy to the weapons of the defenders 
mounted on the second vallum, which is of considerable 
breadth, and would enable a strong body of men to 
maintain an effective defence against superior numbers. 
A little creek, or rather two small ones, to the west, 
gave access to the interior, although the climbing up 
the sides of the rock would be a somewhat arduous feat 
to ordinary persons of the present time. As long as 
the outworks were not taken, these creeks were quite 

No. 5. About two miles to the east lies Llanunwas, 
near to which is another of these works, the arrange- 
ments of which slightly vary from the preceding ones, 
although they difler considerably in the length and 
steepness of the slopes, the faces of which vary from 
thirteen to twenty-six feet. The original entrance is 
on the same side as with the Caerfai and Pwll Caerog 
examples, but on referring to the engraving a kind of 
traverse on the right hand adds to the strength of the 
defence on that side. The innermost vallum but one is 
imusually large and extends to the end of the project- 
ing rock overhanging the creek, the head of which is 
accidentally marked by A on the plan. As both the 
sides of this creek are precipitous, it would have been 
unnecessary to extend the banks so for, as far as the 
defence of the headland is con'cemed ; but if this had 

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not been done, then the creek itself would have been 
exposed, ■whereas by prolonging the vallum to the ex- 
treme point of the rock it was unapproachable. That 
such was the intention of the engineers in this case 
seems evident, and indicates how much importance was 
attached to having complete command of these little 
bays or creeks. The approach to the interior was pro- 
bably on the left hand, where a very narrow opening is 
left between the ends of the vallum and the precipice, 
and which is so narrow as to be easily closed m case of 
emergency. Towards the east is a gap, which has every 
appearance of the original entrance. Close to the outer 
vallum is a copious spring, and near it a small rivulet. 
It is situated on the estate of Llanunwas, the hospitable 
owner of which entertained Mr. Fenton, to which circum- 
stance may be attributed the fact that it is mentioned in 
his Tour, p. 135. He of course calls it a retreat of Danish 
pirates, although he adds that from the nature of the 
remains it was probably " an establishment of more 
strength and permanency than their usual desultory 
visit of plunder might have required." In the centre 
of the interior in his time were two large stones, near 
which he dug, and found charcoal and other evidences 
of fire, near which spot he dug into a bed of limpet 
shells, " being, as he adds, the only food these ferocious 
rovers might nave been able to procure on just land- 
ing." It is, however, much more probable that they 
are the relics of the primitive peojne who first estab- 
lished themselves here, having secured themselves 
against attack on the land aide. Within the outer and 
second vallum there were to be seen, in Fenton's time, 
hollows, indicating the sites of houses. Such a situa- 
tion, from its sheltered position, would he very desirable, 
and probably, if proper excavations were made, it 
would be found that these spaces were almost filled with 
such dwellings, though not sufficient to interfere with 
the defensive arrangements. 

As noticed by the historians of St. David's, the nature 
of the rock, in this Instance, is such as to be easily worn 

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away by the action of the waves, so that it is not easy 
to surest what its original form was. They mention 
traces of a covered way and an entrance to the west ; 
but this latter could only have led, under the lines of 
defence, to the proper entrance on the east side ; so 
that in one sense it could hardly be called an entrance 
to the work at all. 

No. 6. The fortified work on St. David's Head differs 
from the other ones, partly in having stone walls instead 
of earthen defences, and partly in having an advanced 
work reaching across the headland at some distance. This 
latter consisted of a single wall, now much destroyed. 
It could not, however, have been an important defence 
at any time, but it may have been a sumcient boundary 
for a settlement in time of peace, and who could on an 
emergency retreat within what may be called the cita- 
del. There are numerous traces of a population having 
existed between these two lines, not the least import- 
ant of which is the well known cromlech, alreadj' des- 
cribed in tbe Journal and elsewhere. 

The so-called citadel is protected by three parallel 
strong walls, reaching acrc^s the narrowest part of the 
neck of land, the rocks at each extremity preventing 
any approach on either flank. In addition to this waU 
the ground behind it is ao rocky and irregular as to 
serve as an additional protection, in case the walls were 
unequal to the task of keeping out the enemy. Beyond 
this irregular rocky surface the ground sinks into a kind 
of hollow basin, in which are the tolerably perfect re- 
mains of some of the dwellings, one of wmch was con- 
nected by a low wall, with the irregular ground above 
mentioned. There can be little question of there hav- 
ing been many more such dwellings than now remain. 
There is a small creek, available towards the west, but 
access to it was dangerous and diEBcult. A more easy 
connection with the head was by the present Porta 
Melgan, which could be easily reached from within the 
exterior work, protected by the now nearly ruined wall 
above mentioned. What supply of fresli water was 

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available here is uncertain. It is not impoaaible that 
sufficient reservoirs of rain water might have been 
established among the rocks. 

The wall, in the engraving, is represented as in its 
original condition, it being at present but a loose line of 
stoues. There are, however, on both sides so much of 
the original facing left perfect, under the loose mass of 
stones, that the breadth of the wall, if not the original 
height, is easily ascertained. The work is known locally 
as Clawdd y Milwyr, or the Warriors' Dyke. 

There are other similar works along this coast, but 
enough may have been said to give some idea of their 
general character. They are certainly some of the ear- 
liest records of the former inhabitants of the district, 
much earher than the days of Norse or Saxon rovers. 
It is possible that these piratical marauders may have 
occasionally found them useful. It is, however, very 
probable that had they been found so convenient 
to these rovers, and, therefore, so inconvenient to the 

Eaceful inhabitants, they would have certainly not 
en left standing in all their strength as they do to 
the present time, but would have been effectually de- 
molished by those who did not wish any more visits 
from these " ferocious" marauders. 

The above plans were taken in the early part of 1866, 
so that it is not impossible some changes in them may 
have since occurred. 

E. L. Barnwbll 

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Thokab Stephirs. — At the comparatiTelf earl; age of fifty- thrae, 
the author of the LiUralure of the Kymry has been caUed a»s; from 
DB. For some years past his health had been declining, but for the 
last five or six months he lay in a state of helpless prostration ; the 
malady from which he saffured being paralysis, to which he sno- 
cnmbed on the 4th of January, 1875. Mr, Stephens was a Qlamor- 
ganehire man by birth as well as residence, being a native of tile 
beaatifnl Vale of Neath. He was bom on the 12th of April, 1621, 
at Pont Ifedd Feohan, a border village, partly in Qlamorgan and 
partly in Breconabire ; bat his birthplace was on the Qlamorgan- 
shire side. Aboat the nsnal age he was sent to a school at Neath, 
Dondncted by the Kev. D. Davies, a Unitarian minister at thatplaoe, 
who was regarded as a good teacher and an able classical soholar. 
!Hr. Stephens is stated to have remained in this school for two or 
three yean ; and this, it appears, was all the school edncatjon he 
ever received. Soon after leaving school be settled in bnsiness at 
Uerthyr Tydril, where he resided to the day of his death. Hie life 
was in no way eventful, and there is bat little to record of him, ex- 
cepting his literary laboara. 

Ur. Stephens first became generally known by the publication of 
the Iiiieralure of the Rymry, which caused a revolntioa in Welsh 
literary history ; bat though this was his principal work, it was far 
from being his only contribution to the literature to which it be- 
longB, and to the general history and archeology of bis native 
country. Hast of his prodactions, as will be seen, were called forth 
by the Kisteddvodau ; and it innst be confessed that if that instita- 
tion had oftener produced similar results, it would be well for both 
it and the country. His first success as a literary competitor dates 
from IS-iiO, then under twenty years of age, when, at the Liverpocd 
Eisteddvod, held in that year, the modest prize of £5 was awarded 
him for a History of the Life and TiTnet of lettyn ai Gwrgant, the laat 
native Lord of Glamorgan. This, it has been remarked by a writer 
of a sketch of bis life given in the Qlamorganshire papen, was his 
first appearance in the literary tournaments of bia country, and 
with remarkable ability and perseverance he continued his course, 
shrinking from no subject connected with Wales and its literature, 
and faltering not even when he came into stern collision with some 
of the leading archreologioal scholars of the time. In 184L he ob- 
tained a prize of £10 at the Abergavenny Eisteddvod tor a Hi»torg cf 
HeiHarkableFlaeea in the Gowdy of Cardigan, In lB45,at the Eisteddvod 
held at the same place, a prize of £b was awarded to him on the 
Beraldie Poetry of Walei. In 1848, at Abergavenny, a prize of £26 
was offered in the name of H. R. H. the Prince of Wolos, for an 

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easftf on The Literature of Waies during the twelfth and tueoeediHg 
eenlvnei. On this subject the late Rev. ThomaB Price (Camhaan- 
awe), antfaorof Hants Cynvru, and other learned works, was a rival 
competitor ; but the late Archdeacon Williams, wbo acted as adja- 
dioator, had no difGculty to decide aa to whom the prize sbonld be 
awarded. This truly valuable eHsay was in the following year pub- 
lished at Llandovery, nnder the designation of The LUerafare of the 
Kymry, forming an octavo volume of upwards of five hundred pages, 
which at once established tbe author's reputation, not only iu his 
own oountiy, but among continental scholars, and which some years 
afterwards was translated into German by Professor Albert Schuk, 
of Magdeburg. At the same Eisteddvod he obtained another prise, 
value £5, far the History of Vnei-phUly Casae. In 1850, at tbe 
Bhuddlan Eisteddvod, three prizes were awarded him: 1. For an 
essay on The Advantagee of Resident Gentry. 2. A Biographiedi Ao- 
txntnl of Eminent IVeUhmen tinee the Ar/ieesion of the House of Tudor. 
3. A Summary of the History of Wales. In 1851 be received a prise 
of £10 at Cardiff for a History of Cardiff ; in 1652, at Port Madoo, 
£20 for an essay on The Character of the Working Men of Wales as 
compared with those of England, Ireland, and SeotluTtd. At the Eiat- 
eddvod held at Abergavenny in 1855 he won three prises : 1. A prize 
of £20 for an essay on Name* of Places detignaUd from remarkable 
EvenU. 2. £30 for a HUiory of the Welsh Bards ; and 3. £70, 
awarded W Baron Bunsen, for an essay on the History of Trial by 
Jury in Wales. In 1856 the Merthyr Cymmrodorion Society gave 
him £10 for a Welsh essay Ar SefyUfa Wareiddiol y Cymry (on the 
civilised state of the Welsh people), which was afterwards published 
in the Welsh quarterly journal, Y TraeUiodydd. In 1858, at a Car- 
diff Temperance Eisteddvod, he was awarded £10 and a medal value 
£5, for another Welsh essay, Ar Lenyddiaeth, Moeeoldeb, a Chrefydd 
y Cymry meum eymhariaeth A Chenndloedd eyfagoi (on the literature, 
morality, and religion of tbe Welsh as compared with neighbouring 
nations). The history of his last oompetitory essay is somewhat 
remarl^ble, and reflects but little credit on some of the so-called 
patriotic conductors of the Eisteddvodan. In 1858 the promotera of 
the Llangollen Eisteddvod offered a prize of £20 and a medal for 
an essay on the Hiaeovery of America ly Prince Madog ah Owain Oioy»- 
edd. Sir. Stephens competed, and the adjudicators decided in hia 
favour i but one of the secretaries, who was also a competitor on the 
same subject, ignoring the functions of the judges, disinterestedly 
kept the prize to himself and modestly wore the medal ! This able 
and convincing essay the author afterwards translated in an abridged 
form into Welsh, and published in the Brytkon literary journal. 

This bare list of essays, for most of which he' received very mode- 
rate prizes, is somewhat long, hut it by no means comprises all the 
productions of Mr. Stephens' active and well directed pen. Be con- 
tributed to many of the Welsh magazines besides those already 
mentioned ; and tbe volnmes of the Arehceologia Cambreneii, as our 
readers are well aware, are enriched with many of bis valuable con- 

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tribntioiiH, the last being his paper on Coelbivn y S«irdd, whioh ap- 
peared in tha Jnlj anmber, 1872. He had intended writing other 
papers for the same pages on the Chair of Olamorgan, Ru Qadam, 
and similar Bnbjecta ; but his health failed, and the pen waa laid 
uide for ever. 

Mr. Stephens was the pemonal friend of manj eminent literary 
men in France and Germany, and bad a large circle of distingniahed 
•cbolara in the United Kingdom who did not hesitate to acknow- 
ledge their obligations to him. 

JoHM CoLBT, — We regret to record the death of John Colby, Egq., 
of Ffynnooan, in the county of Pembroke, who was for mimy yeara a 
member of the Cambrian Arcbeeological AsHOciation. His death 
will be extensively felt in the soathern parts of the Principality, 
where his Icindness of heart and great liberality were well known. 
Ur. Colbr died on the 6th of Jone last. 




StB,~— Aa the discovery at Pare y Ueirch, allnded to in the Ooto- 
ber nnmber, p. 338, is one of much interest, and deserree to bo 
recorded in the pages of the Arc/uBologia Cambrentia, I venture to 
forward the following notice, as given in the Areikceologia, Ixiii, pp. 
556, 557. Toms trnly, D. R. T. 

March SS, 1868. H. R. Hughei, Eiq., of Kinmel Park, Denbighthire, 
exhibited a collection of bronie ornamenta, the mut typical of which will 
be found figured in Plate xxs*ll. Ht. Hughei, in a letter to A. W. Franks, 
Kh., F.S.A., communicated the following note* aa to the ditcovery : 

The bronze oTnaments were found in a bed of broken limestone mixed 
with soil, at the foot of a crag which formi part of a hill called Pare y 
Heircb {AngliU, the Park of the fioriee), litusCed in DenbiKhshire, on the 
Kinmel estate, about two milei south-east of Abergele. Thej were lying 
all together, at a depth of about three feet below the surface, under the 
roots of an old ash-tree. There are no large stones on the spot to indicate 
a cairn, but small bit* of rotten bone are found mixed up with the soil. A 
jawbone was found in another part of the same bed of broken stone, which 
extendi for about one hundred jardt along the base of the crag ; and in 
some places is of eooiiderable depth, say thirty feet. Within the last three 
weeks many more bones hare come to light, also fragments of skulls, and a 
portion of another lower jawbone with three teeth in it ; and (he workmen 
Wl ma that they are constantly finding bones which erumble to dust as 
■eon as they touch them. 

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Od the top of the hill are trtwei of » camp, famoui in Wolih hittory u 
the place when Owen Owjoedd eatreaehed himMlf,»iid oppoied a mcces*- 
ful reiiitance to the further progroM of Uenr; II into Walei. The oames 
of Borne of the adjacent fieldi luggeit a militarj occupation, and in one of 
them the accompanying anow-heod was ploughed up. 

The foUoviog deicription of the relics haa been fumiihed bj Hr. Fiatiki ; 
" The object! exhibited b; Hr. Hughaa coniist cf about ninet; ipecimena, 
which may be divided into the fallowing cIuMea : 

" I. A singular object (Gg. 1)' consisting of three pain of irregular onal 
plates with loops, through which is passed a bar of the same metal The 
locps show marks of wear, and the whole was probably a jingling ornament 
to be attached to horse- harness. Objects of the same nature have been 
found in Denmark with bridle -bits, and are engraved io yi^sen, A/iitiiniii^tr 
of Vatukt Oldtager, and in Worsaae, IfordUkt Oldtager, Broneetddtren, 
Gg. SfiB. 

"2. Double ringB, or hvUa (fig. 2), cast hollow. To th« inner one hai 
been attached % loop which fitted into a hole in th« outer ring. Then 
were portiooi of uine specimens of this descriptioD. 

"3. A reel-shaped object (fig. 3) with a long otal slit. It maj be com- 
pared with the bone objects discovered in the cave near Settle (see Roach 
Smith, Collectanea Antigua, vol. i, PI. xxx, Sg. 2), and the bronze objects 
from Polden Hill (see Archaologia, Tol. xiv, Fl. xx, fig. 6). The exact um 
of these objects haa not been hitherto ascertained. 

" 4. Portion of a buckle (Gf;. 4), somewhat of a late Celtic type. A atone 
mould for casting such objects has been discovered in Cornwall, and is pre- 
served in the Museum of Practical Qeolog; in Jermyn Street. 

" fi. Rings, probably far stnps (figs. C-T). Of these there are thre« 

"6. Slides; also probably used for straps (figs. 8-14). They are of 
Tariou* widths, and forty-two specimens were discovered. 

" 7. Hollow rings (Gg. IS), of which twelve were found, all of the sams 

" 8. Buttons or studs (figs. 16-19) with concentric raised circles. Eighteen 
of these have been preserved, of various dimensions. They reaemble some- 
what the buttons discovered at Llangwyllog in Anglesea, now preserved io 
the British Museum (see Arehr^otogietU Journal, iiii, 74, and Arehteologia 
Cambreniit, 3rd Series, xii, 97). Buttons of a like description have been 
found, with a hoard of bronze implements, in Beach Fen, Burwotl, Cam- 
bridKOshire, now in the collection of John Evans, Ifeq., F.B.A. 

"From the general appearance of the specimeus exhibited by Mr. Hughes, 
it may be coejectured that they formed part of the trappings of a horse. Al 
to their age, the simllaritj of fig, 1 to Daoish objects which are referred to 
the later part of the Bronze period, and the connection (somewhat less 
direct) between the buttons (figs. 16-19) and the specimens alluded to 
above, would seem to indicate their age as the close of the Bronze period in 
Bngland. Further discoveries may, however, throw more complete light 

o this point. There is nothing distinctly Roman or late Celtic in the orna- 

" A barbarous imit«tion of a coin of Claudius Oothicus, which Mr. Hughes 
has a1»o exhibited, is said to have been found on the site of the camp on 
the hill." 

' These numbers refer to the plate which accompanies the description in 
the AreKaologia, and on which nineteen of the relics are figured. 

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Sir, — In or abont ] 785, there was published a thick folio, pnr- 
porting' to be Eui historical description of the antiqaities ofEnglaad 
and Walea. It was published "under the inspection of Henrj 
Boswell, Ea<^., P.A.R.S., oBsmted by Robert Hamilton, LL.D., and 
other iugenioos gentlemen, in different parts of the kingdom, cele- 
brated for their lat>orioas researches in the pleasing stadiea of 
English antiquities." 

What F.A.JI.S. denotes I am not aware, bnt it is certainly not 
any guarantee for the topographical knowledge of Mr, Boswell and 
his ingenioas fellow labourer. The pages are not numbered, bnt 
plate 9 giTes indifferent views of Haverford West Priory and Neath 
Caetle. Of the former it is utated, " Some have placed Haverford 
West in the connty of Pembroke, bat we take all our acconnts frooL 
the best aathorities." So these learned gentlemen state that Ha- 
verford West b in Radnorshire. 

Of Neath Castle it is said, " Some have improperly placed Neath 
in Glamorgau(ihire." So Neath is also transferred to Radnorshire, 
and th© plate ia accordingly, headed Badnorekire. 

Why Radnorshire shonld be thns selected as the depository of 
antiquities of dabions locality is singular, and can only be explained 
by the nnjoatifiable anggestion that a century ago that conntry waa 
such a terra ignata, that few could tell what was or what was not to be 
found in it. But, however this may be, there is not the smalleat 
question aa to the gross ignorance, to say nothing of the impndenoe 
of these ingenious gentlemen, that is, if they are answerable for 
this production. I am, Sir, yours faithfully, 



Sib, — In the account of the meeting at Wrexham there is a pass- 
ing notice of Holt Castle, in Denbighlaud, and it may be interest- 
ing to the Socnety to have a short description of the drawings of 
Holt, which are preserved in the British Museum, and of which I 
have to-day taken fxtpiea by the kind aid of R. H. Major, Esq., 
the head of the Map Department, There are four elevations of 
Holt or Lyon Castle, one a pen and ink sketch, the second in 
colour ; and since the tincture here is red, I presume the castlo was 
built of red sandstone, part of which may have been obtained out 
of the moat, which is hewn out of the rock. The third drawing was 
also in pen and ink, qnit« small, and on the same sheet of pnper as 
many other drawings intended to give an idea of objects of interest 
on divers great routes through England. The fourth was an old 
print out of tbe king's library, giving the remains of the castle, ap> 
patently consisting of pieces of a ronnd tower, and another building 
with an archway, together with fragments of other buildinga aur- 
ronnding the central mound. 

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Castell Llew, Leon's Castle, or Holt Castle, for it ia designated 
hy all three names, was farmer]; in the poBsessioa of the first rojai 
tribe, and descended from Honel ab Dafy dd of Holt to his son ile- 
redydd, whose son, Robert of Holt, left an heiress, Angharad, the 
wife of Ithel Yj-chan, whose grandson, John ab O^dHc, was also of 
Holt. His son Richard was also of Holt, and married Margaret, 
the daughter of Llewelyn Yychan of Mold, and be was the first to 
bear the name of Jones, t. e. ab John. William Jones, the son of 
Richard Jones of Holt, was of Chilton, near Shrewsbury, and mj 
ancestor. Snch is the Welsh history of Holt. The £nglish side 
of the case is as follows: John, HbA of Warren, seized npon this 
as npon other properties of the British, and npon the monnd of the 
old castle he commenced a building in the asaal st^le of Edward 
I's reign, the pecaliarity beiug that it was pentagonal, and each 
angle embellished with a round tower. His son finished the castle. 
The monnd on which it is bnilt has been supposed to have been of 
Roman work, and the dry moat which snrronnded it is fifty feet 
deep nnder the drawbridge. la this moat was bnilt a tower be- 
tween the mainland and the castle, with a drawbridge on either 
aide, and there was also an entrance tower and gateway on the 
mainland. The side of the pentagon wherein was the entrance faced 
dne north. It is a onrions fact that the two sketches of the castle 
differ considerably, and I am inclined to think the one made bj the 
deputy earveyor (John Korden) in 1630, less accurate than the 
other, and even the two ground plans difier as to the tower, which 
is at the angle of the pentagon, facing the entrance. The one 
which I prefer, making it round like the others, that of the depnty 
surveyor makes the tower square ; but in the former, the round 
tower at the eaBt«m angle of the pentagon has a square projection 
which forms the chapel. The interior courtyard measured 51 f^ on 
each side, and the width between the interior and exterior walls waa 
about 22 ft., the chapel was 15 ft. long and 12 ft. broad ; the moat 
was 20 yards broad, and in some places more. The courtyard in 
the interior was above the level of the lower set of rooms, so that 
there were only two stories above it to the battlements, and in three 
of its oorneiB were turrets with winding staircases. The well house 
was to the left of the entrance, and underneath the tower, opposite 
the entrance, was a vault with a secret entrance towards the river 
Dee, which flows on that side. In the grounds adjacent to the 
castle was an old pentagonal dove bouse and several buildings for 
stables, etc., also a garden : on the other side was a piece of ground 
used for sports and boll-baiting, and beyond this was the little park 
which in the time of Henry VIII was well stocked with deer. 

The plan and elevation made by the deputy surveyor for Prince 
Charles was evidently intemied chiefly to show what amount of lead 
and building material there was in case it should be wanted, and I 
may mention that he statos that the whole of the roof aud of the 
towers were covered with lead. The name of Lion Castle would 
seem to have probably arisen from a Urge entablature over the en- 

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trance gatew&y, whereon is inscribed a lion paaaant gaardant, which 
are the nrms of the first rojal tribe, and are Buppoeed to hare been 
the original arms of the family of Chilton, hnt are not the arms of 
Warren who bore cheqny. 

The difficoltj of the intervening tower in the moat, which wonld 
natnrallj hide the entrance gateway, is overcotne bj the deputy 
BDrrejor, by taking a bird's eye view of the sabject, while in the 
older sketch it ia drawn bo diminatirely that it does not come abore 
the doorstep of the entrance. 

In finishing this letter I mnst add my testimony to the kind 
attentioD which I received at the Unsenm, and am 
Your obedient servant, 


76, Abingdon Boad, Kensington, W. 


Sib, — Daring the examination of the rains of Caergwrle Castle, 
hy the Cambrian Arcbsaological Association, on the occasion of the 
meeting at Wrexham, a striking resemblance was remarked by one 
of the party in the Roman character of the masonry to that in a 

?)rtioa of the north wall of the recently restored Chnrch of St. 
odno'a. I have since had an opportunity of visiting the latt«r, 
while the former remained freshly impressed on mj memory, and, 
sceptical as my anticipations may hare been, found the observation 
fully (xjnfirmed. The Roman character of the masonry, on that 
portion of the north wall which extends irom the junction of the 
projecting porch with the main building to nearly its centre, appears 
even more strongly marked than at Caergwrle. At St. Tndno's, 
the masoniy is laid in regular courses or sections, about twenty in 
Bomber, each layer of large stones being Beparat«d by intervening 
layers <Mf small, thin, flat stones. These last are somewhat irregular 
in number, generally three or four, but sometimes as many as fire, 
in spots where the insertion of an extra one might be necessitated 
by Uie varying shape or size of the nnderlying large stones. A 
little below the only window on that side of the building, three of 
the uppermost of these thin layers of stones are of a red colour, re- 
sembling that of Roman tiles, but actually, I was told, simitar to 
tiiose found frequently in the neighbouring quarries. The window 
iteolf is within a circnlar arch of an exceedingly rude description, 
formed at the top of two stones, united obliquely towards the centre. 
The sides consist, the one of four (two large and two small) upright 
atones, the other of two only, some of them of millstone grit, others 
of a light coloured stone, of which some of the thin layers also are 
composed. This (the Roman) portion of the wall is distinguisbable 
irom the rest by a break-line, so to speak, which was rebuilt, as I 
iras informed on the spot, about a hundred and eighty years ago. 

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Inside tlie church is a circnlar stone font, having on it a carved 
pattern of apparently very ancient character, with a kind of tooth- 
shaped scallop round the rim. There are also the remains of a 
ruod screen, two beantifnl floriated crosses, and a very subslantial 
OHkr roof, traditionally said to have been bronght from Gogarth 
Abbev, on the ConwaT side of the hill. Tonrs traly, 

H. W. L. 


Sir, — There are many terms connected with trades and occnpa- 
tions, in nse among the Welsh, which have not been chronicled. As 
examples I beg to present the following, hoping that others will 
notice and register similar terms which they may hear. 


1. Bieleh fJyg (folded notch). — This is produced by folding a cer- 
tain part of the ear, and cntting off with the shears the part thus 
folded ; the notch will conseqnentty be in the form of an angle. 
When it is on the npper edge of the ear, it is called Irwlch phjg oddi ar- 
nodd; when on the lower edge, it is cnlled Jnolch plyg oddi tanodd; 
when the point of the ear is cnt off, and the same notch made in the 
tnntilated part, it is called canwar. In some parts of Wales, espe- 
cially in the South, hwlek plyg is called gwennol, in whatever portion 
of the ear it is cnt. 

2. Bwleh tri tkoriad (three-cnfc notch) is prodnced by forming with 
the shears two paralld stits, and then catting off the intermediate 
tongne. This, like the last, may be above, below, or at the point of 
the ear. When it is at the point it is called pigfforeh (pitchfork) ; 
bnt when the point of the ear is previonsly cnt off, it is called fforehio 
(to fork). 

8. Ysgivm (skew). — This term means merely cutting off, slant- 
wise, the tip of the ear, and is varied, like the two already named, 
in being oddi amodd or oddi tanodd ; and sometimes is accompanied 
with a slit inward, which is called hoUi Tr yigiw. 

4. CJarrai (thong) is prodnced by slitting the tip of the ear, and 
cntting off one side, which may be either the npper or the lower 
Bide,andis tuxordinglj earrai oddi arvodd or earraiodditanodd. When 
the point of the ear is previonsly cut off, the mark is called yiUimip 
(stnmp) ; and when two parallel slits are made after catting off the 
tip, and both outward thongs cnt, the mark is called com pieyn (the 
horn or ear of a piggin). This is called y»twb in some districts. 
When the three slits are made, and the thongs left, the mark is called 
tairearrai (three thongs). 

b. Gelhd or llelhd {eyllellawd ?) This is a slit near the root of the 
ear, cut obliquely with a knife, and running from the direction of 
the tip of the ear inwards. It is sometimes called bioleh gweUaif 
(shear notch). 

6. Dyrnod eyllell (knife stroke). This is the same as the last, but 

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■kntiiig in the opposite direction. It is always produced with a knife 
from below, and cannot be easily done with the shears, as the 
■bonlder of the sheep is in the way. 

7. Bioleh elieied (latch notch). This is produced with the shears, 
by slitting at right angles, and then obliquely, so that a triangolar 

Siece is cnt off, which will leaye a notch simiJar in form to a wooden 
itch receiver. 

8. TvU (hole). This ia pnnched in different parts of the ear. 
The above marks were once oniveraally nBcd thronghont Wales. 

"So other more superficial marks would have aoBwored the pnrpose, 
as the Welsh sheep are half wild, and are left in the moantains to 
take care of themselves a great part of the year ; hnt it must be ad- 
mitted that the process of marking the lambs in the fashioii described 
mnet be verj- omel, especially in some instances. The ysgiio admits 
of mnch variation in the size of the part cat off, and I have heard 
that some farms leave bnt little of the ear nncropped, and I was 
told of an old fanner in Merionethshire who cut off both ears ; bat 
be was a thief, and had adopted that crnel and barbarons mark as a 
means of obliterating the marks of his neighboars from the sheep 
he stole. It is pleasant to anderstand that the costom of mutilat- 
ing the sheep's ears ia gradoally dytog ont in Sonth Wales, and no 
doabt it will be done away with in North Wales to a great extent in 
the conrse of time, and nnder the altered state of onr conntry. 
Perhaps the nod gvlan (wool mark) will be considered sofGcient, 
withont the nod ehul (ear mark), althongh both now go together. 

There are different kinds of wool marks again ; bnt the system is 
not so extensive or so well defined and technical as the ear marks. 
Wool marks are of three or fonr classes : i, nod pits (pitch mark). 

.2- Nod eofh (red mark.) 3. Nod g\a» (blue mark). All these 
most be ivnewod after the yearly shearing. 

1 . Jiiod pils. This consists generally of the initials of the owner's 
name affixed to different parts of the body with boiling pitch. It 
■ometimea, however, consists of a pattern or symbol, such as a 
circle or triangle, with other fignres inscribed. 

2. Nod ooch. This I believe ia of two kinds, either nod coeh 
(mddle),or red lead mixed with linseed oil like common paint, tfod 
coeh is generally plastered on certain parts of tbe wool, bat red lead 
JB used to draw pattoma. 

%. Nod glat. This is in reality black, as it is composed of lamp 
black mixed with Unseed oil, but is technically called bine, perhaps 
becanae thia last is considered to be a stronger contrast to the red. 
Tar ia aaed in a similar manner to the nod codi. 

With the red lead and tbe lamp black different patterns are pro- 
duced, as already remarked. 

1. Cleddyf (fiitotd) is a stripe in red or black following the rib 
ttoni the shoulder to the Sank. 

2. Ehill (auger), a red or black stripe across the small of the 
back, and a black or red stripe from it to the tail. There is a vari- 
ation of this when the stripe across the back ia an arc of a circle, 
whioli, I believe, is in some places <»lled hvia (bow). 

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S. Tttrodur (paoksaddle) contiiatfl of two parallel etripes across 
the back, terminating about midway down the aides, and the ends 
connected by a horizontal line on each aide. It is evident that this 
admiU of great vanatioa in respect to the colonrs used, and the 
way in which they may be diaposed. 

4. Oe/aU hedoli (pinoers) is a cross with two short uid two long 

1 am, Sir, yonrs truly, J. Fetbk. 

9rtl)EeologttaI ^otes anb Queries. 

Antwer to Query 33 (r, 339). — Extinct Chdrchbs im Uohmodth- 
SHIKB. — The following notes may be of service to " Demetian." 

Htmiau. — Is not HaTiMoy a more probable conjecture, owing to its 
inTOlTtng a less violent change than Cmm lau, or, sr it is now toore 
^nerally pronounced, Cwm Yoy ? Ltansoy itself is a corruption of 
Llan Tittoi or Tyim, and was presented by Cynhageu or Cynog 
(patron eainl of the adjacent mined church of Llangynog) to the see 
of lA&aiaS (Liber Landaveruit, 4S7). Prof, Rees places it in his 
list; bnfc he appeara to have been unacqaainted with the name of 
Hb patron saint. The village is sitaated four or five miles east by 
north from the town of Usk. 

Mein/n. — There is a vill^;e named Maenm mentioned in the labor 
Landaverttit, p. 441, as granted to the see of Llandsff. It was evi- 
dently sitnated on the sea-coast, between the rivers TJsk and Elerah, 
its boandaiy being " to the Spotted Stone, to the Dike, to the Pillon 
(Pyllan) Bechain, to the Dihlajs (Dnlflis), to the Traw^^em, along 
it to the head of the black swamp above Edelbiw, along the dike to 
the sea." 

Cam was probably the chapel in the valley of the Cam, which 
also gives ita name to the modem colliery vlll^^ of Abercam. 
Tr^ieam Font was granted by Llywarch ab Cadwgan '*in alms" to 
the Bishop of Llandaff (Lib. Land., 480). The old chapel has been 
converted to a farmhouse ; but its name is preserved in Chapel 
Farm and Chapel Bridge Station. Jnat below Abercarn, according 
toMr.Wakeman (SuppUmentary Notes to the Liher Landaveneii,'p.lG), 
is a bridge called Pont y Mynachlawg. In the neighbouring pariah 
of Henllys is a place called Craig Llywarch, probably from the 
donor of this place. In the adjoining parish of Llantarnam (Llan- 
fihangel Glan Torfaen) are two mined chapels mentioned in the 
Lib. Land. The one on p. 471 is called "St. 7j,i«H."— at present 
known as St. Dlale, the rains having been removed to ropair farm- 
baildings ; the other on p. 531, where the boundaries clearly indi- 
cate the pariah of Llantarnam. Bnt the names do not agree, that 
of the grant being Uanianffread, while about two miles to the west 
of St. Dials are the ruins of a chapel known as Ltandervil,^ a name 
which does not occur in the index to the Lib. Land. 

' Prof. Beef mentioni it (p. 342) as a chapel belonging to Baaaleg. 

D,<j,i,.,.,i.:, Google 


Ltanrhyddol ia probablj LUmrothtd (Lann ridol, Lib. Land., 547), 
on the HerefordBhire aide of the Mynwy, two and a half miles nortJi 
t^ west {rom Monmonth. It ia given by Prof. Bees in his list of 
Herefordshire chnrches, bat the patron saint is omitted. 

According to a note on p. 411 of the Lib. Land., the churoh at 
Deuittow was Llanddewi Faek ; so that at one time there were two 
churches of that name in Uonmoatfashire. The other is eitnated 
about fire miles to the sontb-west of Pontypool. 

lAameiimy, now the name of a farm in the parish of Llangofen, 
was formerly a chapel dedicated to St. Qwenny, who had another 
chape], Liandevennei/, near Magor, also destroyed, dedicated to him. 

Uanfair is now a farm in the parish Llanishen or Uanisan. Is 
it to be identified with lAawneirpffnrliot of Lib. Land., p. 571 P 

UanardU is in the parish of Llnndennj, on the right bonk of the 
brook Olway or Olwy (flyin of the grant), aboat fonr miles and a 
half north-«ast of the town of Usk. It was granted by King Ithael 
to Ondocens, Bishop of Llandaff and his snccessors. (Lib. Land., 
p. 403, and is mentioned also in p. 448 of the same work.) 

BuHtbm. — This mined church is not mentioned by Professor 
Rees. Its remains ooonpy the snmmit of a low hUI, about a mile to 
the north of the village of Crick, and about a mile and a half to the 
north-east of Gaerwent. An account of it from the pens of Mr, 
OctsTiuB Moi^an and the late Hr. Wakeman appeared in the Trant~ 
aclioiu of Monmouthahin and Oaerleon Antiquarian Aiaocialion for 
1858, pp. 5-10. 

SI. -aeveyn. — In the hamlet of Crick there was a chapel dedicated 
to this saint, which does not appear to have been known to Profes- 
sor Ketm (Ibid., p. 9). 

Uandenad {or Lt<mdev(iuS),LlMihedr, and a chapel dedicated to 8t. 
John the Baptitt in the Wildernstt, the two former mentioned by Pro* 
fessor Reee, form a group of three mined little churches or chapels, 
in the spaoe of about a mile, situated a little to the north of the vil- 
lus of Llanmartin (Ibid., p. 32). " This district was at one period 
thick^ stadded nitn similar little churches or chapels, of which for 
ttie moat part there are no remains. About half a mile south-east 
of Llandevaud is a place called the Chapel in Penhow, whore from 
the name we may suppose there was snch an edifice. At Cats Ash 
atood the Chapel of 81. Cwrrig, the east window of which may still 
be Been in the pine end of the bam by the road side. Another at 
St. Alban'K, and again another at Bt. Juiian'a" {Ibid., p. 32). Profes- 
sor Bees gives the latter as a chapel attached to Caerleon. 

MeHhyr Qtrin, the ehapel of Qerin or Qenpyn, " stood near the 
&nn hoose, at the Upper Orange, in Magor, bat is now destroyed." 
{Lioetof the Cambro-Britiah Sainlt, p. 607). 

Han-AmU was an oratory or ohapel of Hawystl, in the parish of 
Maohen (Ibid., &)7). Compare this with the statement in WeUh 
8aiatt,y. 152. 

Gapd Hewy'dd, on the mountain near Blaanafen, is rapidly falling 

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into rainB, and will Boon be enrolled among the extinct chapels of 
the county. 

A bad habit has been prevalent in tho coantj of oormpting' Olan 
into Lan, as in the names IiOMtarwMn (Llanfihanj^l Olan Torfaen), 
La»y mynofh (for Olanj Uynach), lAan Olway, lAan y PUl, Lan 
llecha, etc., which mBy at some fatara time mislead people into 
thinking tbese to be sites of rained chnrches or chapels. 

Cahbbiak Akchsoloqical Absociatioit. — The meeting of the Ax* 
Bociation for 1875 will be beld at Carmarthen, under the presidency 
of the Right Rev. W. Basil Jones, D.D., Bishop of St. David's. Fnr^ 
ther particolors as to time and arrangemente will be given in a fatnro 

Thb Powtslahd Udbbuu.— The mnsenm and library which have 
been formed io the town of Webbpool, for the use of the Powjsland 
Club, were form^y opened on the 5th of October last. The build- 
ing consists of a wide entrance porch, lighted by a small Gothio 
window, and leading into the maseam, which is a spacious apart- 
ment, forty-two feet six inches long, twenty-six feet wide, and 
twenty-seven feet in height to the ridge of the roo^ from which it ia 
lightod, the walls being parposely left nnbraken for the reception of 
wall cases and the exhibition of works of antiqnanaii interest. The 
roof, internally, is open -timbered, and plastered under the span, 
the walla being coloured a light grey tint, and the fittings being 
painted a dead black or ebonite colonr, to display fnlly the objects 
of interest they contain. The exterior of the building is Gotluo in 
style, and bnili entirely of light yellow brick, and the external door 
of o^, with binges, ete. The tympannm, in the centre of the front 
arcade, contains an admirably carved representation, by Korbnry of 
Liverpool, of the arms of the clnb, with the words " Powys-land 
Club and Library" upon a scroll and ribbon. This elaborate sculp- 
tore was presented by Mrs. Morris C. Jones. It is intended, when 
funds permit, to erect au additional room on the east of the present 
front. The works have been carried out under the direction of 
David Walker, Esq., the honorary architect, by Hr. Edward Wil- 
liams, of Newton, and the total cost (exclusive of fittings) will 
amount to abont £480 or £490. It is but simple insttce to add 
that Mr. Uorris C. Jones, the founder and one of the honorary sec- 
retaries of the clnb, was the moving spirit in the whole ffansaction. 

A classified list of articles presented to the museum and library, 
with the names of the donors, will be found appended to the last 
instalment of the ColUctiotu Bitiorioal and Archaoloffieal reiaiing to 
MotUgomen/ahire, to which we are indebted for most of the preceding 

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Llasddew Church.— The parish church of Llanddew, near Breoon, 
of which some account was given in oar volame for 1873, ia about 
to nndergo reatoratioa. The ^re&ter part of the building ia now ia 
raino ; the chancel, tranBepts, and tower having for Bome time been 
shat off frum the rest of the fabric as being nnfit and ansaffl for 
divioe service ; and it is much feared that bofore long the whole of 
the bnilding will have to be cloaed from the same caose. Under 
these circomatances the vicar (Rev. J. Lane Davies) and chorch- 
w&rdea have determiQed npon making every effort to remedy this 
lamentable state of things, and appeal to the public, interested in 
Bach matters, for contribntiooB to the restoration fiind, the estimated 
coet being abont £1,600. We trost that the appeal will be liberally 
reeponded to, and that the ohnroh will be restored in a manner 
worthy of its past history. Hr. B. A. Freeman, in his description 
of this church, in one of the volames of Uie Archaologia Oambrensit, 
a» we are reminded by the promoters' circalar, makes the following 
observation respecting it : " The long chancel with its three lancets 
on each aide ; ita eastern triplet ; its trefoil-headed prieet'a door, is 
nnsnrpafised for the combination of perfect plainness with perfect 

Thb Gkats op St. Patbiok. — Mr. Berry Ffeaaell, writing in Land 
and Water, says: — "One matter which I think will impress moat 
atiBngen with a feeling of disappointed sarprise is a visit to the 
caliiedisl city of Downpatricb. It is neither the city itself nor the 
fine sabetontial cathedral on the hill that evokes this feeling. They 
are well enongh, trim, thriving, comfortable looking on the whole, 
and need not fear comparison with other cathedrals or cathedral 
tdties of Ireland. Bnt something more than disappointment, some- 
tliing like indignant surprise, tuee possession of one on being led 
up to what is said to be held sacred as the grave of St. Patrick, and 
which as anch is visited, I am told, by maltitndes of American 
strangers every year. It lies in the highest and most central posi- 
tion in the otherwise decently kept charchyard snrroonding Down- 
patrick Cathedral, and is the one spot of earth in the whole place 
that appears given ap to complete neglect and desecration. Around 
are graves and gravestones, ancient and modem, all well-ordered 
and neatly kept, some showing the recent tonch of hands directed 
by loving care, while the one which strangers would have expected 
to find most hononred and revered is the only dishonoared grave 
among them all. The unsightly-looking hole, anmarked by cross 
or sl^ now half filled with loose mbble of broken bricka, stones, 
ud earth, is a disgrace to the people of Down, who, be they Fro- 
teatants or Papists, in that they claim to be Christians, have aa 
equal right to honour the resting place of this faithful, fearless 

freacher of Christianity, who was the first to bring the Gospel of 
ruth into Irelaad, the first to introduce the dawn of civilisation 
amontf her thea wholly barbarons princes and people, and whose 
feet fint touched the Irish soil upon the shores of the County Down. 

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I shall feel prood indeed if these observationa will lead any one be- 
ting to ihe J ■ ' ■ ■ ' 
Hi is mattar." 

longing to (he neighbonrhood or the oonnty to take eome interest 
in this I '■ " 

Ub. R. Rolt BuiBB, a name &miliar to readers of the Aroha' 
ologia Canbrentis, has jnst brought oat, in a baodsome qnarto 
volume, The EccUfiattKol Arehiteelure 0/ Irdaitd to the olose of the 
twelfth oentoij, acoompanied by interesting historical and antiqua- 
rian notices of the nnmeroas ancient remains of that period, and 
illastratod by fifly-fivo plates. We hope to be able to give in a 
fiitnre nnmber Bome farther acooont of this important vork. The 
London pnbliahers are Hessra. Simpkin, MbtbIulII and Go. 

The Cobhish Linouub. — The Academy states : — " In a US. en- 
titled St/nodalia (numbered cxxi) in Corpus Christi Library, Cam- 
bridge, are certain aridolea, proposed to convocation, bnt not passci), 
for church government. The last one refers to fines to be inflicted 
on parents whose children conld not say the Catechism ; and the 
last paragraph thereof runs thus : * Item, That it may be lawfall for 
such Welsh or Cornish children as can spealce no English to leame 
the premises in the Welsh tongne or Cornish language.' The date 
is are. 1560, and onr extract is taken from a copy in Egerton MS. 
2S50, in the British Mnsenm. It seems to show that the Cornish 
langni^ was more used than one would have thoni^bt at the time 
referred to." We learn from the same joaraal, that " some valuable 
mannscriptd retatiag to the Cornish langnage hare been recently 
purchased by the tmatees of the British Mnaeam. They are chiefly 
the work of the late Rev. John Bannister, and consist of a OerUver 
Cemouak, or vocabnlary, a glossary of Cornish names, some misoel- 
laneoos oaUections relating to the language, and an interleaved copy 
of Johnson's English Dictionary, with US. notes of Cornish equiva- 
lents of words." 

Thb Bbktoh GOMaassB. — The seventeenth Congress of the Breton 
Association was opened on August 30 last. Among the most im- 
portant papers read were those by U. Le Men, deciphering a mile- 
stone which identifies the ancient Voiginm with Carhaix ; by U. 
Kerviler, suggesting a plan for a Breton bibliography ; by U, 1' Abbi 
Chanffier, on a painted wooden coSer of the twelilh century, found 
in the archives of the chapter of Vannes ; by U. Bopart, on the 
banishment of the Parliament of Britanny to Vannes, from 1675 to 
1698 ; by U. De la Borderie, on the Dnchess Anne of Britanny ; by 
U. Lnzel, on Breton popular tales, etc. The Congress dovot«a 
several sittings to the examination of the magnificent Celtic collec- 
tion (^ the Unsenm of Vannes, and of the prehistoric museum of 
tihe Comte deLimnr; and, after two ezcnrsiona to the numerous 
megalithio monnmente of the Gulf of Uorbihan and the neighbonr- 
hood of Camac, decided to hold its next meeting at Gaingamp, on 
September 6, 1875. 

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APRIL. 1875. 



The Castle of Harlech occupies a bold and ru^^ed head- 
land of rock which juts forward upon the coast-line of 
Merioneth over the broad alluvial plain known as Morfa 
Harlech, near to its southern and narrower extremity. 
Six centuries back, when the Traeth was an estuary, 
and the waves maj have washed the foot of the rock, 
Harlech, as now Criccaith, was probably accessible by 
water, — a circumstance likely to have governed its 
founder in his selection of the site. Although scarcely 
two hundred feet above the sea-level, and connected 
with a, much higher background, the rock of Harlech is 
nevertheless a veiy striking object, and by the extreme 
boldness of its outline, and its almost isolated position, 
does justice to its veiy significant appellation. It com- 
mands one of the most remarkable prospects in Britain. 
Before it is the Bay of Carnarvon with ita vast sweep 
of sandy shore, contoined on the right by Snowdon and 
its subordinate peaks ; whence the high land, after 
rising into the elevations of Cam Madryn, Cam Bod- 
fuan, and Yr Eifl, gradually subsides into the Bay of 
Aberdaron and the Sound and Isle of Bardsey. Car- 
narvon and Conway are fortresses more ornate in charac- 
ter, and of larger area ; but they are not equal to Har- 
lech in natural strength and in grandeur of position ; 
nor is, in these respects, Beaumaris itself, thou^ placed 

4ftB IKK., TDI,. VJU S 

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in the very eye of the Snowdon group, by any means 
its superior. 

Harlech U a concentric castle of the Edwardian type, 
and of that type a simple and excellent example. It 
is composed of a central four-sided ward contained 
within four lofty curtains, and capped at each angle by 
a drum-tower of three-quarter projection. In the cen- 
tre of the landward or eaBtem aide is the great gate- 
house ; opposite to which, built against the curtain, are 
the remama of the hall and domestic buildings ; and 
contiguous to them, against the north side, is the chapeL 

The main or inner ward, thus composed and occu- 
pied, stands within the second or middle ward, which 
resembles it generally in plan, save that the four comers 
are not symmetrical, one being merely rounded, two 
others capped by more or less of three-quarter bastions, 
and the fourth rounded on one face, and fafihioned as a 
bastion on the other. In the centre of the south side 
is a half-round smaller bastion, corbelled out from the 
retaining wall below ; and in the centre of the north 
aide are two others, also stnall, between which is the 
postern of this middle ward. In the east face, oppowte 
the great gate-house, are two " tourellea," or round bar- 
tizan turrets, corbelled out from the wall ; and parts of 
a sraedl low gate-houae, which contained the outer gate. 

This middle ward is narrow, and of unequal breadth, 
varying from 8 to 30 feet. It is rather below the level 
of the inner ward, and the ground outdide it is from 
10 to 15 feet lower still ; and its walls are revetments 
crested with a parapet which seems to have ranged 
from 6 to 12 feet in height ; in the latter case having 
a rampart-.waUc reached by open steps. The several 
bastions seem to have riaen a little hi^er than the 
parapet, and to have contained each a low chamber, pro- 
bably with a flat roof. This ward is protected on the 
east and south sides by a broad and deep dry ditch 
quarried in the rock, and running out until it enda on 
the cliff The other two aides are covered by an outer 
ward of considerable breadth, but composed, for the 

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most part, of eteep nlopes and abrupt ledgea of rock. A 
part of this ward towards the west or sea-front con- 
tains a long passage which ascends by a lower traverse 
from a water-gate at the foot of the rock, resting partly 
upon a sheLf of rock, and which by a second and upper 
tnirerse reaches the postern of the middle ward. 

Passing into details, the court of the inner ward is 
about 164 feet north and south, by 132 feet east and 
west. The oppoate sides are not quite equal, nor are 
its angles right angles, though nearly so. The curtains 
are about 40 feet high; that to the west is 10 feet 
thick, the others are 11 feet. The parapet was 3 feet 
thick, and the rear wall 2 feet, leaving 5 feet to 6 feet 
for the walk. The two western towers are circular, and 
34 feet diameter, having iiiree-fourths of their circum- 
ference exposed outside. Within, the gorge wall fills 
up the angle of meeting of the curtains, and contains 
the entrance-door. The basement-chamber is below the 
inner ward level, and circular. The first floor, at the 
ward level, is polygonal, as are the two upper floors. 
None are vaulted, and the basement has neither loops 
nor stairs of access. Each of these two towers has a 
well-stair at its j unction with the western curtain, lighted 
by five loops placed one over the other in the hollow 
angle between the tower and the curtain, outside. The 
stturs ascend 20 feet above the tower, in a round turret, 
battlemented on small corbels. Each turret has a door 
upon- the tower roof. The staircases commence at the 
first floor, on or level with the inner ward, and open 
on each floor, but not upon the ramparts of the curtain. 
The upper floor has fireplaces with hoods. 

Outside, these towers rise from the ground with- 
out slope or cordon ; two stringcourses, however, mark 
the level of the two upper floors. The staire are broken 
away, and the upp^ rooms inaccessible; but certain 
exterior loops show the existence of two tiers of small 
chambers (no doubt guardrobes) in the north and south 
curtains, where they join the towers. Moreover, on the 
outside of each of these curtains, next to the tower, is a 


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broad flat buttress, thrown out to give apace and support 
to these chambers, and to contain the Bewer-shaft from 
them. On the north wall the buttress is of good ashlar, 
of the age of the tower. On the south wall it is of rude, 
inferior work, as though an addition. It may have been 
rebuilt. In the north curtain there seems to be a third 
chamber at a lower level. The drain here is not seen ; 
on the south face it is open. Where these towers meet 
the rampart-walk, they block it up ; a sort of gallery 
is, therefore, thrown out on corbels, across the angle, 
and thus the rampart-walk is carried on. 

The two eastern towers resemble the others in general 
features and dimensions, but differ in details. Their 
basements have one loop towards the middle ward, and 
their first floor, at the inner ward level, is an irregular 
pentagon in plan, one angle being square. The doors 
are in the gorge wall, but do not lead direct into the 
tower, only mto the staircaee. In the south-east tower, 
a stair ascends in the northern wall, curving with it, 
and forks, the right branch leading to the second floor 
of the tower, from which alone, by a trap and descend- 
ing ladder, the first floor and basement were accessible. 
Tms floor, like all the rest, was of timber, and from it, 
on the west side, a second stair commences, and curving 
with the wall, and having a small guardrobe by the 
way, ascends to the rampaxta of the south curtain. Re- 
verting to the lower stair, the branch to the left opens 
upon the inner face of the east curtain, and ascends by 
a narrow open stair, supported on corbels, across the 
gorge wall of the tower, and up the inner face of the 
south curtain to its ramparts. The roof and ramparts 
of the tower are reached by an exterior stair from the 
rampart of the east curtain. A loop in the hoUow be- 
tween the junction of this tower witt the south curtain, 
marks the place of the guardrobe already mentioned. 
Above it was a second upon the battlements of the 
tower, and at the base of the wall is a large flat topped 
sewer descending from the two. The south-east tower 
bears the name of Mortimer, the south-west that of 
Bronwen, the fair-bosomed, sister of BtAn the Blessed. 


The north-east, the debtors' or armourers' tower, haa a 
door in the gorge entering on the left a well stair, eight 
feet diameter, which ascends to the second floor only, 
from which the first floor and hasement were reached 
by a trap and ladder. The second floor is Beven-sided, 
those below cylindrical. As in the south-east tower, an 
independent stair led from the second floor to the ram- 
parts of the curtain, and upon this curved stair is a 
guardrohe, the loop of which is seen at the junction of 
the tower with the north curtain, and the mouth or 
vent at the ground level. The roof of this tower, like 
the other, is reached from the walls by an external 
stair. These two towers, having no well stairs to the 
roof, have no subordinate turrets. That all these four 
towers had flat roofs b pretty clear from the position 
of two corbels in each, evidently intended to carry 
hammer beams or struts to the one main beam which 
crossed l^e aperture, and was thus rendered capable of 
carrying great weight. 

The great gatehouse is eighty feet broad and fifty- 
four feet deep, besides which it has two half-round 
projections in the front, luid two three-quarter project- 
ing stair turrets twenty-four feet diameter at the outer 
angles of the rear, the former flanking the entrance, the 
latter communicating with each floor and the ramparts. 
The entrance passage, fifty-four feet long by eight feet 
broad, is much mutdated, but seems to have had an ex- 
terior drawbridge, two grates, folding doors, and a grate 
at the inner front The entrance portal haa within it a 
"machecoule," or meulriere, that is an opening from the 
chamber above, and behind this a portculliB. Then 
follows a passage eleven feet long, crossed by two ribs, 
a second portciSlis, and a portal arch, upon which rests 
the west wall of the chapel. Then follows another 
passage, twenty feet long, entered by gates opening 
towards the inner ward, and crossed by five broad ribs, 
with four open spaces. At the end of this is a third 

f)ortcuHi8, the groove for which is now closed above at a 
evel too low to allow the grate to be lifted to the 

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height of a cart, whSe in the arch above ia a square 
cavity or "machecoule." It would seem tiat while 
the wall was rising it was decided not to use these 
grooves, and that the hole was intended to take the 
place of the grate as a defence. Beyond this is the 
inner portal, which, like the outer, has no rebate for a 
door. In the front divbion of this long entrance, be- 
tween the two outer grates, are two loops from the side 
lodges, which are entered by two doors placed near to 
the inner end. This passage was covered over with 
boards, the flooring of the rooms above, and which 
rested upon the stone ribs. Here, as is often the case, 
the portcullis groove stops from a foot to eighteen 
inches above the door sill, showing that the spikea at 
the lower end of the grate were of this length. This 
long entrance passage is further lengthened ny the ad- 
dition of two unequal piers to its internal face. They 
are blocks of masonry ten feet thick. That on the 
south or left had a door whence a narrow staircase of 
two flights ascended to the front floor. The pier on 
the right is of less breadth, and was only an abutment 
to support the arch which connected the two and con- 
tained and continued the entrance passage, and on 
which was the landing at the stair-head. 

The basement of the gatehouse is at the ground level 
On each side of the passage are two chambers, those in 
front occupving tbe half-round projection and looped to 
the field. iThey are entered from the chambers in the 
rear, which are rectangular, having shoulder-headed 
doors from the passage and into the well stairs. The 
northern chamber has a fireplace in the south-east 
angle. The two southern chambers communicate 
through a large arch, the northern through a doorway 
only. There are also two upper floors, divided as these 
below, and reached by the two large well stairs. There 
ore spacious and handsome rooms, two on each flool*, 
with large windows of two lights in the western or 
lai^er rooms, and in all are fireplaces with stone hoods. 
The eastern rooms, below half circles ; above, are poly- 

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gonal, in plan. Between the lateral rooms and over 
uie entrance passage are two narrow chambers une- 
qually divided by a cross wall. The eastern is an 
oratory, with a small pointed east window over the en- 
trance gate of the custle, and near it, in the south wall, 
is a piscina, which is in the cill of a small window 
opening into a small mural chamber, a vestry. There 
is a similar chamber, but without the window, in the 
north waU. Both rooms are entered from the oratory. 
As at York and elsewhere, this oratory served also as a 
portcullis chamber, and the floor was of wood, with traps 
to allow the passage of the sprates when lifl«d. The 
grates were suspended from t£e vault above, as is still 
seen. The other and larger chamber, placed over the 
western part of the passage, had also a woodea floor. 
It had a west window of two lights over the inner 
portal, and north of this a round-headed doorway. The 
portcullis, if lifted, would have blocked this entrance, 
and therefore when the door was opened, it was stopped. 
The machecoule is seen in the window seat. The upper 
chambers are not accessible, but they seem similar to 
those below, and there is a second oratory above the 
first, with a smaller east window, a very unusual ar- 
rangement. This floor communicates laterally with the 
ramparts of the curtain, and at the junction on each 
side is a mural guardrobe. On the south side a mural 
stair descends to two chambers at different levels, both 
in the curtain wall. On the north side the arrange- 
ment is rather difi'erent. There, the mural chambers 
are supported in part by a projection at the first floor 
level, corbelled out in tie angle between the gatehouse 
and the curtain, outside, and the vent was probably be- 
tween the corbels. Above, at the rampart level, half the 
thickness of the wall is occupied by a guardrobe cham- 
ber, of which the side is broken down. Several of the 
chimney shafts are collected in a central group, each 
shaft having a bold capital with a plain roll moulding. 

The domestic buildmgs were placed against the cur- 
tain on the west side of the inner ward. The kitchen 

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is thought to have heen at the north end, including 
within its limita the basement of the north-west tower. 
It is, however, more probable that this was the with- 
drawing room, placed between the hall and the chapel, 
A gloomy comer, no doubt, but the state rooms were 
evidently in the gatehouse. The kitchen would scarcely 
have been placed between the hall and the chapel. The 
cross wall, still standing, but which looks either modem 
or rebuilt, formed the north end of the hall, and the re- 
cesses in the west wall of the curtain earned the hammer 
beams of its open roof. In this waU are the remains of a 
large fireplace, of which the hood is gone, and the lower 
part has recently been rebuilt. On either side are the 
oroken apertures for two windows, and in the wall, 
near its south end, a segmental headed door, now 
wailed up, but evidently a postern. There are also 
near this two small windows, one of which seems to 
have lighted tlie gallery, and the other the space below 
it. Of the position of the gallery there can be no doubt, 
but the wall behind it, forming the south end of the 
hall, and now removed, had no bond either into the 
curtain or into the east wall. Most of this east wall, 
the inner wall of the hall, is gone. The haU was thirty 
feet broad. The roof seems to have been lofty, and 
part of the weather moulding of ita gutter remains along 
the west walL On the floor, in the north-west corner 
of the hall, has been built a lai^ oven of stone, the 
lining of which is much burnt. It probably was in- 
serted when the castle was used as a prison. 

South of the haU is a considerable space, extending 
to the gorge wall of Bronwen Tower, and in ike east wml 
of this space are remains of a door and two windows. 
It is probable that the kitchen was here, in the rear of 
the ^llery, and that a row of corbels outside the east 
wall carried a lean-to building attached to it, and near 
this ; against the south wall is a rectangular pit, the 
underground story of some building now removed. If 
the kitchen was at this end, the hall fireplace was a 
little below the dais, a very probable position. 

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The chapel, a later huilding, was placed a^inst the 
north wall. Its east wall and pointed window remain. 
The Bouth wall is gone. In the centre of the north 
curtwn is a segmental arched doorway, evidently a 
postem, and nearly opposite to that of the middle ward. 
It is much mutilated, and does not seem to have had a 
portcullis. The wall east of it is pierced by three loops, 
four feet above the ground level. There was at least 
one loop westward of the postem. The well was in the . 
north-east angle of the court It has recently been 
opened a few feet down. 

The middle toard contains little of interest. On the 
north side it is fifteen feet broad, and hence, between its 
two roundels, ten feet apart, opened the postem, eight 
feet wide, now walled up. On the west front the ward 
is twenty-seven feet broad, and forms a noble terrace 
overlookuig the sea, and commanding the approach 
from the water-gate. The hall had windows looking 
this way, and upon it opened the ball postem. Towar(£ 
the Bouli end a few steps descended about ten feet 
into the south-west bastion. Probably there was a 
cross waU here wilJi a doorway. Turning the south- 
west comer, the ground again rises to a door in a wall 
which crosses the south terrace near its west end. This 
side of the ward has a central half-round bastion, the 
broken parapet of which shows traces of a loop and of 
a guardrobe. On the remaining or eastern side is the 
great entrance. . Here the gateway, which crowns a low 
salient, is flanked by two roundels. The portal is 
broken down, and it does not now appear how this was 
connected with the inner gatehouse. Probably the 
short distance between the two was arched over, and 
had lateral doorways into the middle ward. From the 
inner gate, twenty steps descended to the bridge, so 
tJiat no horse or carriage could have entered this way. 

The defences beyond the middle ward are the ditch, 
the outer ward, and the water-gates and passage. The 
ditch covers only the east and south, the two hmdward 
sides. It is quarried in the rock, and is about sixty 

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feet broad and was twenty feet deep, with vertical sides. 
Its scarp is the revetment wall of the middle ward, and 
the counterscarp, where the rock was broken, is also 
lined with masonry. The ditch runs out at either end 
upon the shelving face of the rock. Across it, to the 
main entrance, led a bridge upon which it is said there 
were two openings with drawbridges. The whole ia now 
a soUd causeway. 

. Although the castle stands upon a promontory of rock 
there is a broken shelving space between its wall and 
an actual clifT in which the rock terminates below, and 
it is this space, which lies to the west and north, which 
has been enclosed as the outer ward, the containing 
wall of which crowns the cliff, and, where necessaiy, is 
supported by a revetment This outer wall begins below 
the north-east bastion of the middle ward, whence a door 
with steps seems to have led down about ten feet to its 
ramparts. It is at thqt point a very stout wall, about 
fourteen feet high, with a parapet on the western face, 
thus defending the ditch and main bridge from an enemy 
who might be in possession of the outer ward, and be 
disposed to turn the eastern flank. It is probable, how- 
ever, that the wall had a double parapet, for lower down, 
where the wail faces the north, the parapet is on that 
face. Near the bastion there seems to have been a door 
in this wall giving a passage from the outer ward to tlie 
ditch. Lower down, where the wall stands on the ch£f, 
it is thinner, and in parts much broken away. Stdl 
lower it is more perfect and much stronger, and where 
it turns the north-west comer of the rock, opposite the 
railway station, it is of great thickness, and has a ram- 
part wall and parapet towards the sea, above the level 
of which it is about thirty feet ; near this point is the 
lower water-gate, a regular postern, in a small rectan- 
gular shoulder in the wall. A roadway of about five or 
six yards long, cut in the rock, rises from Hie marsh ten 
or twelve feet, and upon it, in front of the portal, was a 
drawbridge with a pit twelve feet deep, and within the 
portal a shortshoulaer-headed passage closed apparently 

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by a door, but ■without any portcullis. Beyond thia a 
flight of o|>en stairs niched in the curtain ascended to 
an embattled platform over the pite. From the lower 
gate, the road leads up a rather steep passage formed 
partly by taking advantage of a abelf, and partly by 
quarrying the rock, the outer side being protected by a 
■wall eight to ten feet high, and from two to three feet 
thick, and looped at about every twenty feet. As the 
inner side of the roadway is the irregular face of the 
cli^ it varies much in breadth, from six to twelve feet 
or more. This road, continually ascending, thus covers 
the whole seaward face of the castle rock, and at about 
seventy or eighty feet in height it terminates in the 
middle gate, which is about twenty feet below the base 
of the south-wMtem bastion of the middle ward. Here, 
a shoulder in the rock is occupied by a second gate- 
house, fortified as the first, with a drawbridge and a 
deep pit which below has two arches, one for the dis- 
charge of ■water from the pit, and the other, which may 
be merely to support the side wall of the gatehouse, 
but which may also be a sewer from the castle. Out- 
side this gate is a platform which rakes the face of the 
wall of the passage below, while above and within the 
gate is a broad bastion, whence commences the second 
traverse. At this point, the end of the main ditch lies 
just below the bastion wall, and was reached from it by 
a small door and some steps now gone. 

The road now makes a complete turn, and commences 
a new traverse which rises much more gently than that 
below. When abreast of the mid-front of the castle it 
is supported by a retaining wall and two small square 
buttresses or buttress turrets, traces of which are seen 
upon a ledge of rock. Passing these, where the road 
comes opposite to the north-west bastion of the middle 
ward, it was crossed by a wall and doorway, of which 
traces remain, which divided the outer ward into two 
parte. Above this, the way turned eastward and as- 
cended to the centre of the north ft^nt, where it reached 
tiie postern of the middle ward and tiiere ended, 

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These are the whole of the works proper to the castle, 
but a few yards to the north of the rock a steep road 
has beeo cut by which men and horses could be led up 
from the castle landin? place to the village without 
entering the enceinte, though commanded from it. 

Ko one acquainted with CaerphillT can visit Harlech 
without observing the close resemblance between the 
two castles, so far as regards the plan of the interior and 
middle wards. The court, rectangular, or nearly so, the 
absence of a keep, the drum-towers capping the four 
angles, the general character of the gatehouse and its 
position in the centre of one side, and the domestic 
buildinga placed against the wall of the inner court are 

EecuHarities common to both. In each also the gate- 
ouse is the grand feature of the building. Further, 
there is to be observed in both the excessive narrowness 
of the middle ward, its revetment rendering more than 
a parapet unnecessary, its slender and subordinate gate- 
house, and its lateral postern opeaing direct through 
both wards. As Harlech did not need the outworks 
and exterior gate of Caerphilly, nor Caerphilly the 
water-gate of Harlech, here the resemblance ceases, but 
it is such aa to justify the conclusion that HeDry of 
Ellreton, who was the architect of Harlech, had studied 
Caerphilly, if indeed he was not also its architect. 

The defences of Harlech seem calculated for protec- 
tion against a surprise by the Welsh, who were probably 
as active as they were fearless. Hence the very lofty 
curtains, the long entrance bridge, the ascending steps 
to tiie main entrance, and the dimensions of the middle 
ward, too narrow to allow any considerable body of 
men to effect a lodgement there for an attack upon the 
inner ward, and the water-gates and covered way, in the 
construction of which the natural strength of the rock 
v/as enhanced by iJie occupation of its various points of 
vantage. Whether, in the reign of Edward I, Morfa 
Harlech was more than a marsh is a question for a 
geologist to solve ; but either by the shallow sea or by 
a can^ cut across the low ground it seems certain that in 

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planning the castle Edward counted upon the means of 
reaching it hy a quarter quite indepenaent of the Welsh. 
Although the general plan of Harlech is evidently 
the work of one mind, and ita execution generally of 
one date, there are some appearances in the work which 
show that alterations and additions were introduced 
afiecting, not the general plan, but certain of its parts. 
It is evident that parts of the curtain have been thick- 
ened about 2 feet, — the north and south walls by addi- 
tions inside ; the west, on the outside. Also this thick- 
ening aeema to have been decided upon when the walls 
were 30 feet high, as above that level they are of one 
mass and date. The exterior stair on the inner face 
of the great gatehouse was also an afterthought, and 
the doorway at ita head clearly was not originally intro- 
duced. Besides this, the six windows on that front of 
the gatehouse, in the two upper floors, have been re- 
duced in height by the insertion of a segmental arch 
between 2 and 3 feet below the original head ; but the 
pattern is Ihe same, and the masonry filling up the 
space seems of the date of tJie window, or very nearly 
so. These windo\re are of a pecuUar pattern. Their 
two lights are trefoiled ; and in the spandrels are also 
trefoils pierced. The mouldings are concave ; and one 
is a small hollow, as in the early Perpendicular style. 
They must, however, be original. 

The inference from these alterations seems to be that 
Edward visited the Castle when the works were far 
advanced, and the hall, gatehouse, and the lower part 
of the north, south, and west curtains built. The gate- 
house curtain was probably always intended to be of its 
present height, as at Caerphilly. He ordered the other 
three curtains to be thickeDed and raised to the full 
height of the gatehouse-curtain ; to obey which order, 
the thickening was apphed, where possible, on the in- 
side ; but where the hall prevented this, on the outside. 
The upper part of the walls so raised would, of course, 
he of one date, and solid. At the same time it was 
decided to make the rooms of the upper floors of the 
gatehouse those of state ; and as the ways up by the 

, Google 


well-etaircases were not thought suitable, a new and 
more direct staircase was built, and a new door opened 
in the wall. The chapel in the inner ward seems a still 
later addition. 

The character of the masonry throughout is exceed- 
ingly rough, as though hastily executed. It is rubble, 
and some of it very poor rubble indeed. The towers 
are of &r better worK than the curtaina The stones 
are larger, and their interstices filled in with more care. 
The ashlar is very good, but is sparingly used, and con- 
fined to the dressings, window-cases, chimney-hoods 
and heads, and a few of the more important doorways. 
The ordinary doors are mere openings to the walls, 
without rebates or chamfer, with abouldered heads of a 
rude character; and the sewer-openings, seen under the 
guardrobes, have merely long stones for lintels. The 
masonry of the covered way and water-gates is also 
very inferior, and much of uie side-wall dbb, m conse- 
quence, slipped away from the rock. 

The turret-heads of the gatehouse and two western 
towers have parapets projecting upon a corbel-table 
about 6 inches. There are no traces of boles for brat- 
tices ; but upon the exterior of these two towers the 
putlock-holes are arranged in a spiral ascending form, 
east to north. In the north-west tower, on its east face, 
at the height of the old curtain, is a row of roimd holes 
about a foot apart, and from this level the spiral com- 
mences. It is pretty clear that haviog built the curtfun, 
the masons here threw out a platform, and that the 
spiral round, by which the materials were raised for the 
upper part of the tower, began here. The tower of CJoucy 
was scaffolded in the same way. There is throughout tiie 
building a remarkable absence of vaulting. It was con- 
fined to the oratory and to parts of the entrance-passage. 

The Castle seems to have escaped the usual dismantl- 
ing that followed upon the civil wars, and no part has 
been blown up. It has, however, been freely used as a 
(quarry by the people around ; and with its iron and 
timber, much of its ashlar has been rudely detached and 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google ■ 


Btolen. There is but litiJe evidence of any material 
additions to, or alterations in, the work of Edward I, 
which is singular, seeing that 'Uie place wau long the 
seat of an assize, and the judges lodged here. It was 
then also a prison, and the windows were heavily barred, 
the bars forming shallow cages in front of the windowa, 
as in some of the Italian palaces. Any later work 
introduced for the judicial or prison arrangements has 
either fallen down or been removed. The quany whence 
the Castle was built is pointed out on the hUl-side, a 
short distance to the south-east. Although the present 
Castle certainly is not older than the reign of Edward I, 
probably about 1280, the Welsh claim to have been the 
founders of an older fortress on the same spot, caUed 
by them Caer Gollwyn, from CoUwyn ah Tangno, a 
Welsh chief who Hved a,d. 877. Possibly a snot eo 
inviting might have been occupied by a camp ; out all 
that is now seen, whether of earthwork or mastmiy, is 
evidently not older than the thirteenth century. In 
1404 the Castle is said to have been taken by Owen 
Glyndwr ; and Margaret of Anjnu was sheltered here 
in 1460, in memory of which event the south-east tower 
for some time bore her name. There does not seem to 
be any detailed account of the siege of 1468, when the 
governor was Dafydd ab levan ab Einion, the same 
who had received Queen Margaret, and whose boast it 
was iJiat as he had held a castle in France till all the 
■ old women in Wales had heard of it, so he would hold 
his Welsh trust till it had become equally well known 
in France. He seems to have redeemed his pledge by 
staniUng a long siege, and yielding at last, on honour- 
able terms, to Sir Kichard Herbert, the commander for 
Edward IV. Harlech was held for Charles I, and sur- 
rendered on articles to General Mytton in 1647. The 
borough seal represents a castle triple towered, but the 
design is evidently conventional. The first Constable 
was Hugh de Wonkeslow, appointed about 1283 by 
Edward I : the last is W. W. E. Wynne, Esq., of Pen- 
iarth, — and loni; may he retain his command 1 

G. T. C. 

D,g,t,..dDi. Google 



(Saul at the Wrtmham Mtelinn, Aug^t 24(A, 1874.) 

For the selection of a suitable subject for this our 
opemDg meeting, four points presented themselves to 
me as needful to be borne in mind, viz., the object of 
our Association, the locality in which we meet, the re- 
quirements of visitors, and the expectations of residents ; 
for whilst this neighbourhood is peculiarly rich in ob- 
jects of antiquarian interest, and it is the special pur- 
pose of our Association to elucidate their history, 
strangers and visitors will naturally desire to have be- 
forehand some general outline of the various scenes and 
objects to be examined in detail during the week, and 
of their relative bearings upon each other. Residents, 
on the other hand, who have been long familiar with 
them all, and some of whom have already done much 
to illustrate their history, will be anxious to hear what 
further light can be thrown upon them by our more 
experienced archEeologists, and to have their own inte- 
rest reawakened in the cause, and their renewed re- 
searches rightly guided to the more complete develop- 
ment of the several fields of archEeologic lore with which 
they are on all sides surrounded. I trust, therefore, 
that for these considerations the subject I have chosen 
for this paper will be found not inappropriate to the 

The selection, then, being made, the question next 
occurs. Where to begin ? And if the answer be, — At the 
beginning, the echoes from the sister isle remind us 
how abstruse and difficult the point to which that simple 
counsel would lead ; so that the question of bulb or 
atom, biogenesis or abiogenesis, evolution or develop- 
ment, or what not, will be more wisely left for the dis- 
cussion, if not the settlement, of another philosophy ;* 

1 The British Aesocifttios for the Adrancemetit of Sdeoce met at 
Belfast on the 19t,h of August. 

D,<j,i,.,.,i.:, Google 


nay, of that much more developed and modem age of 
which your local tradition asks, 

Wben Adam delved and Bve epan. 
Who was then a gentleman P 

I must leave it to some more fortunate antiquary to de- 
cipher the records and describe the manners and cus- 
toms, seeing that 

Efton of £f ton, and Jones of Llwyn Onn, 

They then were gentlemen. 

I will, therefore, content myself with beginning at a 
period — no matter what the date — which the character 
and the vast resources of the district themselves sug- 
gest. I will ask you to accompany me in thought back 
to a time long before your important town had come 
into existence, or even been dreamt of; a time when 
the site on which it stands lay &thoms deep beneath 
an ocean bed ; when a great arm of the sea stretched 
northwards and southwards from what is now the coast 
of Lancashire to the Bristol Channel ; a sea whose 
waters deposited the rich bed of lime which mav still 
be traced for many leagues along its western snores, 
and left many a lake and mere and fen stretching in 
one long line from Mostyn to Morda, and filling in the 
hay of Mold, to accumulate the materials of your rich 
and fertile coalfields. Imagine, again, two slowly suc- 
ceeding periods during which the watois of the same 
wide-spreading straits, after depositing respectively the 
Permian and the Triassic strata, gradually receded to 
their present limits. But before they left their ancient 
beds to be furrowed and channelled by the ever narrow- 
ing courses of the Severn and the Dee, they stamped 
the memorial of their former junction on the coalfields of 
the Oswestry district, which mark one portion of their 
watershed, and on another portion left the indications 
of a similar process still in operation in the great Moss 
of Wixall and its neighbouring meres. And now, 
where the waters have receded, there springs up on the 
virgin soil a luxuriant vegetation vaiying from the 

4lB SKB., vol.. 1 

,t,.,.d.i. Google 


great forests that throve on the ridi loam of the low- 
landa, as attested in the namea of Holt, Is y Coed, and 
Marchwiail, to the " heathery garb" that covered the 
spot where now we stand/ and tinged with its beauteous 
colouring the adjoining glades of Llanerch Rugog. So, 
too, in ^e names of the lowland districts we find the 
primitive features stereotj^ped,-— in the waterlands of 
JEyton (Ey^Gwy), the river-drift of Royton (Groe), the 
marshes of Kosset (Khosydd) and Saltney, in the islets 
of Penarlag (the Lache Eyes), and in uie swamps of 
Merford and PwUbrd. And tJiis nomenclature, which 
belongs to a language now fast passing ayray from the 
- district, bespeaks its earliest historicaf occupation, the 
memorials of which we shall come in contact with ihis 
week in those ancient British earthworks and trackways 
with which the district abounds ; especially in those 
commanding "dins", or fortified camps, at Hawarden, 
Caer Eatyn, Gardden, and Crogen, which guard their 
respective passes into the interior; in the "sams" which 
at distant intervals mark the course of some of their 
ancient roads ; and in the " coracles" still to be seen at Ban- 
gor and at Overton, with which they eflfected their river- 
transit, and whose construction Martial aptly describes 
in the line, "Barbara depictisvenithascaudaBritannis."* 
It may be, too, that in uie groves of " Marchwiail" were 
celebrated the rites of their Dmidic worship, and that 
it is to their mystic powers and oracular sayings we 
must attribute tne noted triplets : 

AfBTchwiail, bedw briclas 

A ija vyn troed a wanas 

Nbo addef dy rin y was. 

VarahwiBil, darw mwyn Ilwyn 
A dyn vya troet □ gadwyn 
Nac addef rin y Torwjn. 

Marohwiail, dertr deilyar 
A dyn vya troed o garohar 
Nao addef rin ; lafar. 

1 Wrexham, probably from grug. Leather. 
* The diBCDSSioa that ensued on this point 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 

e discnssion that ensued on this point related to the size and 
capacity rather than to tfce natnra and oonatractioti of ooracles. 


UarahwMiil dtTsi a mwyar ami 

A mwraloh ar ei nvth 

A cbelwTddog m uien brth. 

Myv. Arch., 102. 

Whether, however, this be 80 or not, we come next 
to a period and a people of whom we have more authentic 
knowledge ; for Wednesday ia to be spent mainly in 
examining the Koman remains at Deva (Chester), and 
in following the old Koman road from thence towards 
XTriconium (Wroxeter), aa far as Castra Legionum or 
CaerDeon, metamorphosed in later times to the "Castle 
of Lyons"; and here we shall find several interesting 
questions for discussion. Was the great line to Varsa 
and Conovium only connected with that from Deva to 
Uiiconium by a direct course from Deva, of which " The 
Dirty Mile" formed a part 1 Or was there not also 
another hue from Bovium through Forth Wgan, Street 
yr Uwch, Erddig, Ci*oee y Street, and Caergwrla, with 
its still existing wall of Roman masoniy, and joining 
the former, probably, at Mods Altus (Mold) and its 
ballium (Baily Hill) 1 In favour of this second line I 
would add that on its course we have " Minera", which 
appears to have received its name from the mining 
operations of liie Bomans, who got their supply of char- 
coal from " Coed Poeth", and nave left a memorial of 
their smelting process in the name of Shinders Oerion, 
near Caei^rle ; and still more in that remarkable dis- 
eoveiT on Offa's Dyke, near Nant y Ffiidd, which ia 
now being exhibited in your Museum. 

And here. Indeed, another question requires to be 
settled, namely the actual site of Bovium. Was it, aa 
seems to be most probable, on this side of the Dee, at 
Bangor, where Leuind, that careful observer, mentions 
the existence, some three hundred years ago, of great 
" squaryd stonys" that recall the aaxa quadrata of 
Boman writers, and just what we should expect to find 
at their military stations ; or must it be relegated to 
some other spot on the further side of the river ? And 
this is a point which I hope Mr. Lee will continue to 


D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


give his attention to, for his researches into the Boman 
roads in Maelor Saesneg' cannot fail to reflect their light 
on those in Maelor Gymraeg. 

But that point which of all others connected with 
this and the immediately succeeding period has most 
interest for us in these days, is the great religious esta- 
blishment which existed at that time at Bangor, and 
gave to it the cognomen of " Monathorum ;" an esta- 
blishment whose share in the famous controversy with 
St. Augustine of Canterbury, at the end of the sixth 
century, forms one of the great landmarks in the history 
of the native British church, and is of so much import- 
ance to a due estimate of our national and historic Chris- 
tianity. The melancholy -episode of its destruction, as 
detailed by Bseda, forms the turning point to anothOT 
period in our sketch. The march of Etnelfrid of North- 
umbria hither from Carlegion ; wherever that was, 
whether "Chester," as is commonly supposed, or "Holt", 
(Castra Legionum) as is still more probable, or " Caer- 
gwrle," as is even yet more litely, and as the old 
Chronicle seems to imply, which states, that " Llan- 
gynfarch in Maelor (Hope) was destroyed by the Saxons 
ID the battle of Bangor Orchard, A.D. 603"; the slaughter 
of the unhappy monks, perhaps at Pant Yockin. also 
called Pant yr Ochain (the dingle of groaning); and the 
overthrow and ruin of the establishment ; these were 
all quickly followed by the deadly feud, which ended in 
the death of Oswald, the son of EthelfHd, at Maserfield 
near Oswestry, and the transfer of all this country to 
the sway of his conqueror, Penda, King of Mercia. 
From this time forward it formed a portion of their 
great Saxon kingdom, the navy of which was stationed 
at Chester, whilst the civil population fixed their "hams" 
or "homes" in Wrexham, Bersham, Cobham, Esclusham, 
£rlisham ; and founded their villages at A.cton, Bieston, 
Burton, Eyton, Morton, Sutton, etc. 

It could, however, have been no peaceful occupation 
they enjoyed ; for what they gained by the sword they 
were also forced to retain with it. And the great Dyke 
' Sm Arch. Camb., 1874, p. 200. 

, Google 


of 0&, which forms so ready and usefiil a dish at most 
of our annual gatherings, meets us here again to testify 
to that fact with more than its iisual emphasis, being 
accompanied throughout its course by the faithful ser- 
vice of the sister dyke, of which old Churchyard so 
quaintly writes : 

There is a ramons thing 
Callde Ofiae's Djke, that reacheth &rre in lengthe. 
All Idode of waie the Danes might thether bringe : 
It was free ground, and oallde the Briton's strength, 
Wat's Dyke likewise abont the aame was set, 
Between which two both Danes and Britons met. 

Why, indeed, the poet should have given such spedal 
prominence to the Danes in connection with these 
famous earthworks, I do not presume to say ; but they 
must at all events have had plenty to do with the native 
Britons and the Saxon occupants of ihe country, and 
many a tough battle must have been fought and won 
by them before they could make Chester their own. 
Indeed, their march from East Anglia miist have been 
cut through this district, and their course appears to be 
still attested by such names as the "Stocks near Hope, 
and " Erbiatock" near Bhuabon, which would be on the 
direct line towards "Buttington," where they are known 
to have met with a disastrous overthrow at the hands 
of Hesten, one of King Alfred's generals, in 894. 

The materials for our sketch for the next century and 
ahalf are very scant. The fabrics of thd churches retain 
no remains of their construction at this period, which 
must have been of the " wattle and dab" order, such as, 
according to some authorities, gave the name to March- 
wiaU, and such as may still be seen in the primitive 
structure at Melverley, near Oswestry. The forma- 
tion of separate parishes probably dates back to the 
period immediately succeeding the destruction of the 
Bangor monastery ; up to which time they had formed 
outlying districts ministered to by the members of that 
great central collegium, who gathered their disciples at 
the spots still indicated by such names as Croee Yn, 
Eiris, Ctoqb y Street, Croes Newydd, and baptised them 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


in the wells whioh thenceforward acquired the distinct- 
ive name of Holy. 

It may be, indeed, that in the absence of more posi- 
tive testimony some fresh li^t may be thrown on the 
obscurity of the period by a more scientific study of 
the local nomenclature, wmch exhibits a curioua admiz- 
ture, derived from more than one nationality, and 
strangely perverted in transition, as well as by a more 
careful examination of the writing of some of the 
earlier bards. Indeed, the ele^ ou Prince Cynddylan, 
attributed to Llywarch Hen, seems to apply with 
special appropriateness to some of the adjoining country. 
And it may be that not only these, but other composi- 
tions, by a careful discrimination of their earlier and 
later portions, will bring to light sources at present but 
little understood, and even little thought of. 

When we come to the last quarter of the eleventh 
century, we begin to enter upon a new era, as iar as the 
chaiucter and abundance of aviulable materials go. In 
the first place, the " Domesday" Survey not only tells 
us what portions of the country were comprehended 
under the Norman " Cestrescire", and what belonged to 
the respective Hundreds of Exestan (Estyn or Hope ?) 
and Dudestan (Duddleston) : but it also contains in- 
teresting information of an eoclesiastical character, and 
records ^e varying fortunes of Grufiydd ab Llewelyn. 
It tells how in 'the years of that prince's favour with 
King Edward, the latter bestowed upon him tiie land 
whioii lay on this side the Dee ; and how after falling 
into disfavour for siding with Algar, the banished Ea« 
of Chester,' the king deprived him of the said lands 
and restored them to the see of lichfield, to which as 
the metropolis of the ancient Mercian kingdom they 
had previously belonged.' In the following century 
ecolesiastioal records begin to become abundant, and 

• Wynne's Bittory ofWaUn, 1702, p. 98. 

* " Bez Edwardni dedit regi Grimao totam terrain qn« jacebftt 
tnai Kqoam que De TOOfttnr. Sed poBtqnam ipM Oiiffin foriefeoik 
ei, abatnlit ab eo banc tnrram et reddidit epiacopo de Ceatxs et om< 
nibos sniB qui antea ipsam tenebant." 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


we have important notices of the appropriation of the 
churches of Wrexham and Khuahon to Yalle Cnicis, and 
of Hanmer to Haghmond Abbey, and of their subse- 
quent fortunes down to the dissolution ; but especially 
in the Taxatio of Pope Nicholas, A.D. 129X, we learn 
what other properties belonged to these respective 
houses ; what the different possessions of the church 
were valued at, and what they were rated at by way of 
tilths to the pope ; and what their contnbutions 
amounted to, when the said tenths were granted for a 
time to the king for the expenses of the Crusades. 
There are other memorials, too, of these Holy Wars, 
that tell of diseases then contracted, and of Qiristiau 
zeal for their alleviation in the Hospice (Sputty) in vour 
town and the " Lepers' Lsind," as it was called (Terra 
leprosorum), which appears to have belonged to it, and 
still goes by the name of " Tir y Clei£on,' the Invalids' 
Xado. Here and there, too, sbll survive the e£Bgies of 
the heroes of the period, as in the churches of Gr^ord, 
Hanmer, Wrexham, and Bhuabon ; whilst in our Pre- 
sident we have before us in the ieeh ^e lineal repre- 
sentative of one of the earliest of them all, the powerful 
Lord of Watstay and its broad acres, Madoc ab Gruffydd, 
the founder of Valle Orucis. Monumental remains also 
attest the presence of those great Norman barons the 
Warrens, the I^tceys, the Mortimers, and others, who 
ruled with an iron ann in Bromfield, and Maelor, and 
Chirkland. There are names again of nuiny early chief- 
tains, crystaUised in the local topography, whom it will 
be of great interest to identify, should Uie material for 
such a process ever be discovered, such as those who 
gave their title to Borras (Hofa and Griffri), to Overton 
(Owrtyn Madoo), to Crogen (Iddon and Gwladys) to 
Plas Grono, Cadwgan, Cae Cyriog. Does the knightly 
eflSgy in Greeford to " Gronw Fd lorwerth" represent 
one of these ? or that once existing at Pant yr Ochain to 
" Griffii ap Cadwgan ap Meilir ap Eyton" commemorate 
another ? Some of these again are connected with the 
rebuilding of their parish churches as at Greeford ; and 
it is worthy of notice that all the parish churches in the 


neighbourhood testify by many signs to an earlier date 
than that which now beai-s upon its &ce the rebuilding 
and restorations of the Stanley period. It was probably 
to this latter era of rest and peace, after the long con- 
tinued Wars of the Roses, that the Priory and Nunnery 
(Bryn y Ffynnon) in this town are due; but under whose 
auspices they were respectively founded, and of what 
order, are questions that atiU await solution. Then, too, 
may have been seen, in their most popular and pilmy 
days, the long lines of pilgrims who enriched the shrines 
of Greeford with their costly offerings ; and it may have 
helped in no small degree the rebuilding of your own 
church at Wrexham. Then, too, was built that curious 
old house, the Hand Inn, on the Town Hill ; once it 
would seem, from its quaint carvings and heraldic 
badges, a place of much importance in the Tudor period. 
So again, when the grand tower had been added to the 
church, and it stood forth in its beauty, we can under- 
stand the desire of Bishop Parfew to transfer the epis- 
copal seat hither from St. Asaph ; although we must 
regret that higher principles tlmn those of convenience 
for his English journeys, were not put forward by him 
in support of his design. And this brings us to the 
Reformation, with all its great changes, and the modem 
era which it inaugurated ; a field miitftd in the most 
interesting matenals, but mu,ch too wide for treatment 
here. I must, therefore, content myself with pointing 
out to others some of the sources from which those who 
have more leisure and better opportunity may quarry 
out materials for the history of a district unusually rim 
in objects of archaeological interest ; and among these 
sources I may be pardoned here perhaps for referring 
to that work of my own, to which the report just read 
has alluded in terms so favourable and compUmentaiy, 
a work on the " History of the Diocese of St. Asaph," 
in which I have already endeavoured to elucidate, to 
some extent, their ecclesiastical bearings. 

For the civil and military history, in addition to 
those sources which Pennant has handled with so much 
diligence and skill, I would especially draw attention 



to a series of records relating to this neighbourhood, 
which are being printed in the pages of our Journal under 
the title of" Original Documents," and are replete with 
information as well of local as of genealogical value ; to 
Leland, that careful antiquary's account of the district 
and the many fiimilies of importance, in which, as now, 
it then abounded ; a circumBtance which struck the 
quaint Churchyard, who, after describing the churches 
of Rhuabon and Wrexham, tells us that 

Ifear WrickBam dwels of gentlemen good store. 
Of calling such m ftro right well to live ; 
By market totme I hare not. eeene no more 
(In each Bmall roome) that aaocient armes doe give. 
They are the joy ttnd gladnease of the poore, 
That daylye feedea the hnngrie at their doore : 
In any soyle where gentlemen are fonnd. 
Some honse is kept, and boande doth abound. 

Of these families, and many others, much information 
may be gathered from the " The Sherifife of Denbigh- 
shire," a series of papers which have recently appeared 
in our Journal from the pen of a careful gene^ogist, 
who has been much aided!^ in bis researches bv the col- 
lections of our President and of Dr. Griffith, the former 
of whom poHs^es amongst many others the MSS. of 
Salesbury of Erbiatock, and the mter the well known 
Cae Cyriog collection, all of which it may be mentioned 
are, by the courtesy of their owners, exhibited for in- 
evection in our museum. To carry on this brief out- 
Ime through the abundant materials that from this time 
onwards are available, and are familiar to so many 
among you, would be, if not a waste of your time, at 
least a serious tax upon your patience ; and where there 
are so many on the spot well able to work it out at 
leisure and in completeness, I may well leave the matter 
in their hands.' 

D. R Thomas. 

' It may be well to mention here that one of oar members, Mr. 
Howel W. Lloyd, proposes to bring ont by Bubscription the works 
of Gotto'r Glyn, the bard of Valle Crocia o. 1450, a publication that 
shonld cotmnend itself to all Welnh scholars, and especially to tbe 
inhabitants of Wrexham, once so closely connected with that estab- 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


At the twenty-fourth Annual Meeting, 1870, held at 
Holyhead on the 23rd of August, on Thursday the 25th 
the Aflsociation met at Treiorwerth, the seat of Arch- 
deacon John Wynne Jones, the President. During the 
day the excavation of a low tumulus on the high ground 
above Presaddfed, the seat of the late Captain King, 
waa going on, the result of which was the oiBcovery of 
the remams of more than one inhumed body, a con- 
siderable quantity of pottery of various kinds, amongst 
which was some of substantial white ware, such as has 
been found in connection with the cytiau.^ One por^ 
tion was of a dark drab colour, with patterns like fem- 
leaves, and chevrons, surmounted with a narrow band 
of entwined lines. These are not unusual patterns in 
early British pottery. An ornamental bead, part of a 
necklace, in all probability, was picked up with the 
dSbris ; it is of a light and black substance, something 
like jet (published account, ReeArcfuEologiaCambrensis, 
4tii Series, voL i, p. 365). 

Having inherited the Presaddfed property by the 
will of Capt. Bang, Archdeacon J. W. Jones presented 
me with the fragments of the urns found in this tumulus 
and the small bead, which appears on examination to 
be of horn or wood, but not of jet. I have, as far as 
practicable, fitted the fragments of two urns, and made 
a drawing of them. From the curvature, they must 
have been about 10 inches diameter. The lower poi> 
lions of the urns are entirely destroyed ; but coniparing 
them with an um found in a barrow at Carreg y Ddewi, 
1850, ornamented in a similar way, and composed of 
the same sort of clay, the dimensions of which were 

* See Arch. Journal, vol. xxvii, p. 5, Bo nmno -British white mra, 
called morUma, snppoeed to be made in Shrop§hire or imported fron 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 

D,g,l,.,.d,i. Google 

.;. Google 


8^ inches diameter and 9 inches high, we may suppose 
these urns to have had nearly the same hei^t. (See 
Plate 9, Arch, Journal, voL xxvii, p, 155.) 

The tumulus is situated on a very elevated plateau 
above the old mansion of Presaddfed. It appears to 
have been a camp, and probably Roman. On the east 
side it is defended by a double ditch and bank ; and 
according to Rowland, Presaddfed was a Roman sta- 
tion, something similar to Caer Helen on the Ix)ndon 
road, about three miles to the west. It does not appear 
that the supposed Roman camps in Anglesey were more 
than elevated csunps surrounded by a fosse, except at 
Caerleb, which was defended with greater care. 

A mile and a half to the east of Presaddfed, on a farm 
of Mr. Henry Prichard's of Trescawen, called Ty Rhos- 
ydd, there was an inscribed stone, now taken to Tres- 
cawen. The few words le^ble are,ET moribts disciplina 
£T SAPIENTU.^ This puzzled the learned, as being rare 
in lapidary language ; but in 1871 Mr. Albert Way, my 
brother-in-law, who had been greatly interested in this 
inscription, found an instance on an altar in the Roman 
Wail, from Mr. Bruce's great collection of Roman inscrip- 
tions in Northumberland. The altar was dedicated to 
DISCIPLINA AVOVSTO. It ifl a rare word, but is found on 
the reverses of coins of Hadrian, who was the greatest 
of imperial disciplinarians. 

Some years ago many urns were found at Presaddfed 
by Captain King's labourers ; but unfortunately Mrs. 
King had no antiquarian propensities, and she tumbled 
them all out of the window as rubbish.* I greatly regret 
that a more accurate account was not taken at the time 
the tumulus was excavated ; but as we all know, during 
a rapid visit sudi as tiiia was, there was no time for 
much research, and the Archdeacon's well provided 
table offered greater attractions for his company. 

Mr. Barnwell, to whom I sent the drawmgs of the 

' Seo Arch. Journal, vol. zxvii, p. 12. 

• When tliia was written.I did not recollect Mr. Barnwell's aoconnt 
poblialwd in the Arch. Camb., toI. iv, 1873, p. 196. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


two urns, considered that they were deserving of being 
published in the Cambrian Archteological Journal as 
specimens of what we may suppose to have been British 
or Romano-British cinerary urns. 

W. O. Staiilbt. 
PenrhoB: Feb. 8, 1875. 


Theough the kindness of the Hon. F. G. Wynne of 
Glyu Llivon I have been allowed to inspect a hoard of 
denarii lately discovered at Bryn Gwydion, a farm of 
Lord Newbofough's, situated two furlongs to the south- 
east of the Carnarvon and Pwllheli road, a little on the 
dynnog side of the south-west comer of the Glyn 
Llivon Park wall. Mr. Wynne informs me that he 
" saw the place where they (the coins) were found. It 
was in the farmyard itsell". The sur&ce was very hard, 
and they were actually sticking up out of the ground 
on their edges." Judging from a pen and ink sketch 
sent me, they must have been closely packed together 
side by side. He further adds that "evidently the 
road had got scraped and worn down by wheels, and 
thus exposed them ; but they had been noticed long 
before any one took the trouble to pick them up." I 
see by the Ordnance Map that the farmhouse of Bryn 
Gwydion is placed upon the top of a bank from whence 
the ground falls in every direction excepting to the 
north-east ; but no entrenchments or other ancient 
remains have been observed thera Craig y Ddinaa, a 
strongly fortified post on the river Llyvni, bears south- 
south-east, distant a little less than a mile, and although 
originally of British construction, was almost certainly 
occupied by the Romans. There seems to be a line of 
bye-roads between the two places, and one of these 
lanes, passing Bryn Gwydion to the right, trends on in 
a north-easterly direction, dying out at a short distance 
from the park wall. It may be, therefore, that the 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


spot where these coins were picked up was not far from 
the road between Craig j Ddinas and Dinas Dinoethwy, 
an outpost of Segontium. 

I here divei^e for a few moments from my subject 
to remark that there would also probably be a way from 
Craig y Ddinas towards Caer Engan, near LlanUymi, 
which would fall into the paved road, leading up direct 
irom Segontium, whose traces I have met with at 
several points, and more e^ecially about half a mile to 
the south of the village (Llanllyvni), between it and 
Font Crytdiddwr. The continuation of this in a south- 
erly directioQ would have to be sought for to the east- 
wara of the present post-road, the place of divergence 
being near a small farm called " Llwydgoed"; from 
whence it followed the course, and probably formed the 
foundation, of the old road that still leads through the 
village of Gam to Dolbenmaen, at which point it would 
again fall in with the modem road leading to Penmorfa 
and Tremadoc. According to the late Rev. John Jones, 
rector of Llanllyvni, who carefully examined this part 
of the countiy, there is near Dolbenmaen a district 
called " Gefeihau," or " The Smithies," where there are 
extraordinary evidences of the remains of iron smelting 
works ; such as, judging Scorn the vast accumulation of 
scoriae, must have been conducted on a lai^ acaje. 
Considerable veins of copper are known to exist in the 
same neighbourhood; and it is not likely that this 
mineral wealth would have been overlooked by the 
Romans, who in all probability had a prolongation of 
this line of road to the fords of Traeth i^wr and Traeth 
bach. Such a line of communication with Merioneth- 
shire and the south, owing to its greater exposure to 
the sea-breezes from both Carnarvon and Cardigan 
Bays, would be available for transit at times when the 
shorter cut from Segontium to Heriri Mens (Tomen 
y Mur), vid the Bedd Gelert and Glaalyn pass^, Ffyn- 
non Helen, and Mftentwrog, may have been rendered 
imwiasable by the snows of^winter. 

To return to the coins. As may be seen from the 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


accompanying list, tiiey are forty-sir in number, and 
embrace a period of one hundred and twenty years ; 
and although it is, of course, impossible to say how 
long afler the date of Antoninus Pius, the last emperor 
recorded upon them, they may have been designedly 
deposited or accidenl^y dropped (for it is evident that 
they were placed all together, and at the same time), 
still we can feel certain that it was not before A.D. 138, 
the date of that emperor's succession. One curious &ct 
connected with this find is, that cdthough so many of 
the coins belong to the same emperor (eighteen in the 
case of Trajan), there are but two of the whole series, 
viz., Nos. 5 and 6, of Vespasian, that are of exactly the 
same type, and even these were not struck from the 
same die. With the exception of six or seven, from 
which pieces have been broken off, they are in a good, 
and in many instances a very choice state of preserva- 
tion, some being as fresh and sharp as though newly 
minted ; this bemg all the more remarkable when we 
consider that no trace of any enveloping vessel, whether 
of metal or earthenware, was found near them. The 
name Bryn Gwydion reminds us of an ancient British 
worthy, said to have lived about a.d. 470-520, and who is 
commemorated in the Triads as being a disciple of 
Math ab Mathonwy, one of the "three chief astronomers 
of the Isle of BritEiin." He was also apoet, and a &ag- 
ment of his " Englynion Cad Groddeu," or verses on the 
battle of trees, has come down to us. According to 
" Englynion y Beddau," or stanzas of the graves, attri- 
buted to Tuiesin, his grave was in this immediate, 

Dfta Toin dfvei] 
(The gnre of Qwydioa ab Don is in Morra Dinlle, 
Beneath monldering Btonea.) 

Mr. Wynne tells me that there is an old saying that 

* " DinUelleu is evidently R misprint or misscript for Dinlleti ( = Din 
lie). The Englyn does not ocoar in the oldest copy of " Englyoioti 
J Bsddan", prenerved in the Blade Book of Oarmarthm. — Ed. Arch. 

,t,.,.d.i. Google 


he is supposed to be buried under a large stone, still 
remaming within GlynlliTon Park. I am not sure 
whether or not this is the fine Maen hir, 10 or 12 feet 
high, close to the Carnarvon and Pwllbdi road, marked 
on the Ordnance map as " Carr^," and distant three 
and a half furlongs from Bryn Gwydion. Both places 
may formerly have been included in Morva Dinlle, 
which, although now confined to the low land extend- 
ing from Dinas Dinlle to Voryd, must have run much 
further inland into the then wUd and uncultivated 
countiy. One would be disposed to look for a line of 
road connecting Dinas Dinlle with Craig y Ddinas, and 
which would necessarily pass near to Bryn Gwydion, 
but I have never had an opportunity of carefuUy ex- 
amining the intervening ground, and although the road 
fiom Segontium to Dinas Dinlle is distinctly traceable 
in part of its course, we are assured by very competent 
observers " that no traces are known of any other road 
leading away &om it to the SB," whence they infer that 
" this strong post (Dinas Dinlle) was very probably used 
as a defence for the entrance of the Menai...that it was 
strictly a maritime post, and not one of internal de- 
fence." See Arch. Carnb., No. iv, Oct. 1846, p. 420 : 
also Pennant's Tour in Wales, vol. li, p. 401. 

Lilt of Dettarii found at Bryn Ov>i/dim, in iht Fariti of Uandwrog, 
wi the County of Carnarvon. 

ClftodiiiB, 1 ; YeBMsUn, 7 ; Domitiao, 5 ; Nem, 1 : Tnjui, 18 ; 
Hadrian, 9 ; Antaiuniu Hna, 4 ; Unoertain, 1.— Total, 46. The 
Iwads are ftll to tfae right. 

CtauAiiu, i.D. 41-54. 
1. Obv., Ti . CLATDIT8 . QERMAHiCTB . UP. Bm., the Only letters left 
are xma, which may stand for qvindeeemvir ; a tripodal table, above 
it a dolphin, below, a bird. 

Feipanan, A.D. 69-79. 

1. OhV.tVt? . GUB&B . TEBFABIAKTB . iVO. BeV., P0» . VAX . TRP , 008 YI ; 

ftmaje figure seated. 

2. Obv., IMP . CUSAB . TIBPABUirVS . ATO, Bso., FOB . MAX . TRP . COB 

TI; Tictory standing on the prow of a reaseL 

8. Ofe., Udvs.ATO.PM Bm., TBP.COavn; female 

figw standing ; half the coin gone. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


4. Obe., IMP . CAI8AR . vespASUNVB . Avo. Bev. nearly illegible, but 
probably lUBS. tltob ; Mam standing. 

5. Obv., lUF . CAES . TBSP . ATO . CK . . BitV., POHTIF . UAXtH. ; Empe- 

ror seated to the right 

6. Ohv., IMP . CABS . VESP . ATQ . CEHS. Btv., FOHTiF . MAXIM. { Empe- 
ror seated to the right. Same type as the last, bat aot struclE from 
the same die. 

?. Obo., IMP . CARBAR . VEBFA Ben., TBP.OOB..; Emperor 

seated to the right. A piece of this coin broken off. 

Bomitian, a.d. 81-96. 

1. Ohv., CABBAR. Divi. F.DOHITIANVS... Rw. illegible. 

2. Ohv., CABSAB . A70 . P . DOMITIAKTS. Bw., CRBSS . ATOVBT. ; CereS 


3. Obv., CABSAB. AVO . F . DOHiTUNVS. RsB., the Emperor on horse- 
back; in the exergue, cos T. 

4. Ohv., IMP . CABB . DOMIT . ATQ . QBBK . PM . TRF . X. Rev., IMP . XII . 

COB sv . CBK8 . p . PP. ; Minerva marching, to the right, holding a 

5. Oho., IMP. CABS. DOMIT. AVO . 0... Ree., iHP.xt.oos XI. Same 
as the last. Piece broken off. 

Nerva, a.d. 96.ii8. 

1. Obv., IMP . NBBVA . CABS . AVO . FM . TBF II . COS III . FP. ReV., SALTS . 

FTBLicA ; female figore seated. 

Trajan, a.d. 98-117. 

1. Obv., IMF . TBAIANO . ATG . GIB . DAC . PM . TBF. BeV., 8K)B . OPHMO . 

PBiHC. ; figare of Eqnity standing. 


COS TI . FP . BPQB. ; belmeted figare ittanding with one foot on a globe. 

S. Ofrv., IMP . CABS . KERTA . TBAIAH . ATU . OEBM. Reo., ...H .IBS . 

cos II . PP. ; Ceres standing. 

4. Obv., IMP . CABS . NBETA . TKAIAN . ATO . OERH. R«V., PONT . MAX . 

TK . POT . COB II ; female fignre seated, holding wreath and cornucopia. 

5. Obv., IMF . CAEB . NEBTA . TRAIAN . AVO . GEBM. Bev., PM . TBF . COS 

Uii . FP- ; helmet«d male figure marching to the right. 

6. Oil)., IMP . TRAIAHO £»., COS . T . FP . spQB . OPT ; female 

fignre standing, to the left, with rudder and cornucopia. 

7. Obo., TRAIAM Keariy illegible. Rev., spqb. Optimo 

PRiNCiPi ; female figure, to the left, with radder and oomncopia. 
Piece broken ofi*. 

8. Obv., IBP . CAE3 . NEB . TBAIANO . OPTIMO . ATO . OIR , DAa Seo., 

PM . TBP . COB TI . pp . SP4B. ; naked, helmeted figure with hatia in right 
hand, and standard oTer left shoulder, marching to the right. 


TI . FP . BPQB. ; naked figare standing. Piece broken off. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


10. Ofcr., IKP . TSAIANO . ATO . GES . DAC . PM . TRP. Sev., COS V . PP . 

BFQB . OPTIMO . PBiNC. ; female figure sacnficiDg ; in the ezerg^ue, piet. 

11. Obr., IMP , TBAURO . AVO . GEBM . DAC fi«l., COS V . PP, SPQB . 

OrtiMO . PRWC. ; Equity atanding, 

12. Obv., MP . TBAUN . AVa , GBB . DAC . PK . TRP . COS T . PP. Bev., 

SKJR . OPTIMO . PRiNciPi J 0. captire seated before a trophy. 

PIBTHICO . PM : TRP . C08TI . FP . BPQB ; Cerdb Btandbg. 


FM . TBP. O0ET1 . PP . BPQB ; Ceras standing. 

15. Obv., IMP . TRAAtANO . AVO . OEB . DAC . PM . TBP . OOSVI . PP, Rev., 

8PQB . OPTIMO . PRINCIPI ; the province of Arabia personiSed ; in the 
exergae akab . ad. 

16. Obv,, IMP. TRAIANOAVa.,,SffI>.,BPgR. OPTIMO. PBlSCIFIl fignte 

standing to the right 

17. (^., IMF. NEB. Tiui...S^r., illegible; piece broken off. 

18. 06v., illegible; head of Trnjan to the right. JZef., bpqr. OFT... 
Eqnity standing ; half broken off. 

ITodrion, A.D. 117-138. 


Jnpiter Tictor seated ; in the exergue concord. 


Hjgeia seated feeding a serpent j in the exergae salvs . Ava. 

3. Obv., HADRIA1II7B . AV0V8TT9. Bev., COS III ; figure seated holding 
the apex. 

4. Oiv., hadbunts AVO , cos HI , pp. Sef,, SALVS,ATa; the em- 
peror sacrificing at an altar from -vrbich rises a serpent. 

5. Obv., HADRiAsvs . AVO . COS III . PP. Bev., AEOiPTOS ; Egypt per- 
sonified holding the sistmm ; before the Ibis. 

in ; figure standing. 

7. Obv., HADRiAKvs . AVGTSTTS. fer., GALTB . ATG ; figure sacrificing 
at an altar from which rises a serpent. 

8. Oftr., HADBIANTS £et;., MONETA . AVO; Moneta standing; 

piece broken off. 

9. Ohv., BlAilva ; portrait most like that of Hadrian. Bev., 

ANKOSA . ATO ; the modins containing ears of corn, I can only find 
this reverse on a coin of Aelins Caesar, the adopted son of Hadrian. 

AfKiminut Fiui, a.d. 138-161, 

1. 0(i7., iMTONlNTS. ATO. PITS. PF .Set),, MONETA . ATfl; Koneta 


2. Obv., IMP . T . AEL ■ CAEB . ANT0S1NT8. lUv., TRIB . POT . COB ; Ab- 

undantia standing. 

3. Oio., IKP.T. ABL.CAES, BADRI, A:)T0SIST8, J?er., ATO . PIOB , PM. 

TRP . coa' DEB n ; Equity standing. 

4. 06b., antokindb' atg , pits . pp. Rev., cos in; female figore 

,,;. Google 


1. Ohv., qnite obliterated. JSev., two lyres ; the three remftininf; 
letters of the legend nra pnuling. If RoiHRnthey may beiBii(RMiA.) 
which oocars on the ravene of a coin of Hadrian. Or it may be a 
Qreek imperial coin, in which case the letters may be AHH(OStON}, 
the pahlic tresBury. 

( W. Wyi™ Williams. 

Bodewryd: Dec. 1874 

As it seems fit to refer words borrowed from English 
to that source, even where English itself is IndebtOT to 
other languages, this second list is a very limited one, 
consisting mainly of terms used in the authorised ver- 
sion of me Bible, together with miscellaneous forms 
drawn from Latin by scholars I'ather than appropriated 
by the illiterate. They are distinguished from those in 
the former list by their having been but partially sub- 
jected to the laws of Welsh phonology, and some of 
them give evidence to a late pronunciation of Latin. 

ABSENTIA, ' absence': W. absen, ' absence", also ' a speaking 
ill or well of the absent', generally the former ; ab^-u, ' to speak 
ill of the absent'. 

ADVENA, ' a new comer, a stranger': W. ad/ain and ad/an 

ARCHI-, as in the M. Lat., forms archijiamen, arckieantor, etc., 
from the Greek dpy;-; as in ap^wpew, tbe iVpew who made a 
beginning {apj(r{), or took precedence of others of his class : W. 
n«A- in arch-egcob (= archbishop), and numerous other forma- 
tions of a similar description. 

'ASBE'STINOS, ' tlie cloth made of the fireproof mineral ' 
called o aff/Se<rr« (Plinv, xi.x, 4) : W. ystinon. 

AVIS, ' a bird or fowl': W. afaia (Eicliards). 

BRITANNIA, 'Great Britain': W. Brytavj-aid, as in the 
phrase, ' Yr Hen Frytanjaid, the ancient Britons, The word is 
'also written sometimes £ruianjaid,hy way of allusion to Brutiit 
of Trov. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


CAMISIA, ' a linen nightgowa'; in M. Lat. alao ' a tunic': W. 
eamse, which iu the Mah. u, p. 218, seems to mean ' a. lady's tunic 
or gown'. 

CANCER, ' a crab': W. cratigc, pL crangcod. 

CAPITULUM, ' a chapter or cousistory', which was so called, 
says Papias, ' quod capitula ibi legantup'; W. cabldwl. It is pos- 
sible that eabidwl comes to ua from the Old English capUol, ' a 
chapter or chapter-bouse'. 

COLLEGIUM, ' a coll^ or society': W. col^, ' a collage or 

CONCILITJM, 'a council': W. cumdi, 'a council". 

CORPUS, ' a body'. W. corpws, ' a corpse'. 

CUCUUjUS, ' a cap, a hood': W. dbcwU and cocwll, ' a cowl'. 

DIALECTICA, • dialectics, logic': W. diUcfUtd, ' the art of 
logic' (Richards). 

AIA'KONOS, 'a nuDister or deacon': W. diacon or d^eon. 

'EeNIKaS, 'heathen': W. dhmg. 
'EniSTOAH', 'a letter or epistle': W. eplsiol, mas. 
ET*NOT XOS, ' an ennuch'-. W. eunych and efnuch. 
ETAITEAAION', 'the gospel': W.e/mgyl, also e/an^, fem. 

HERCULES : W. Eraolff, or, as it need to be written, Srcwlf 
or Erevif, in which the /seems to owe its origin to a mere mis- 
reftding of a long s. 

HYSSOPUM, 'hyssop': W. isajy. 

LAPIDO, ' I stone": W. Uabijdd-jo, ' to stone'. Should it be 
found that the word once used to be written llebyddio, we could 
not refuse it a place in the former list. 

LINDEX, M. Lat.^' tarraea': W. lindys (latterly naturalised 
into Uivdys and Hzndysyn), 'involvulus vermes' (Davies). In 
the form Undyst the word is used as a term of abuse in Camar- 
Tonshire. Richards gives also elindys, ' a vine-fretter'. This ren- 
ders the etymology above suggested very doubtful 

LOCUSTA, ' a locust': W. locust. 

LUCERNA, ' a lamp': W. Husern. Here the treatment of 
Latin fi as & is as striking as the pronunciation of c as «. 

MANAPAPCPAS, ' a mandrake': W. mandragorau, ' man- 
drakes, in the Bible 

MANUBRIUM, *a hilt or haft': ^, and (in theJl/aft- 
inogi of Peredur aH Efrawc, p. 280) mynybr. 

ilARMOB, ' marble': W. marmor. 

MOLESTO, ' I annoy': W. molest-u. 

MURMUR, 'a murmuring': W. murmnr. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


NECTAK (viierap) : W. neithtar, possibly a modiiicatioD of 
' •neiclitar': see ' dialectica'. 

MEGOTIUM, 'a business or employment': W. neges, 'a busi- 
ness, an errand'. It is now feminine ; formerly it used to be 
masculine, — for instance in the story of Amlyn and Amic. It 
might be ui^d that the treatment of ■ntgotium b& vegosium is no 
proof of the word being a lat« borrowing. The retention of the 
g, however, is enough to settle this point. 

OBITUS, ' death": W. obedhe, ehediw, and cAediw, for all three 
forms occur in the Welsh Laws, where they mean the fee which 
had to be paid the feudal lord out of the goods of a vassal when 
he died. 

PALMENTUAf, a vulgar Latin form (pointed out to me by 
Dr. Schucbardtj^^'pavimentmn': W. pilnuiTit. 

PAl'A, 'a father': W. pab, 'a pope'. 

PERSONA, ' a person', and in M Lat it sometimes meant ' a 
clergyman', ' quod, ut quidam putant, magnam propter ofGcium 
personam sustineat': W. person, 'a person, a parson', fern, form- 
erly, as, for example, in teir person, ' three persons', in the story 
of Amlyn and Aniic. Now it is always masculine, whether 
meaning a person or a clergyman. 

PLAGA, ' a blow or disaster": W. pla, pi. pldau. 

SANCTUS (-a, -um), ■ holy': W. sanct. 

SnOrriA', ■ a sponge': W. yapvrng. 

TERTIANA (febris), 'the tertian fever': W, dyrlon, as in y 
ddyrton, ' the tertian ^ue': teirlkon also occurs, 

TETPA'PXHS, 'atetrarch': yf. tetrareh. 

TBEODOSIUS : W. Teivdws. 

TUETUR, ' a turtledove': W. iurtur ; also very commonly dur- 
tUT, with which compare dyrion under ' tortiana'. 

VERBUM, 'a verb': W. herf, fern. 

VOCALIS (littera), 'a vowel': W. hogail or logel. 

VULTUE, 'a vulture': W. bwUur. 

John Rhys. 

F.S. — I should 4)6 very thankful to tbe readers of this Journal 
for kindly suggesting to me omissions in my lists, also instances 
of words which ought to be omitted. — J. E. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 



Eablt in the thirteenth century, about a,d. 1224, that 
religious order of friars founded by St. Francia of 
Assisi, one of the most remarkable men of his age, was 
introduced into this country. On the suppression of 
the religious houses by Henry VIII, there were about 
fifty of this order scattered over the kingdom. The 
inmates of these houses were few in number, bound 
by vows of poverty, and their conventual buildings 
were poor in cwmparison with the more ancient religious 
estabUshmenta of the Benedictines and Ciatercians. 
Their churches were, howeverj lai^e, and favourite 
burial places of the noble and rich. In the church of 
the Grey or Franciscan Friars, Newgate Street, London, 
destroyed in the great fire of 1666, were buried foiu: 
queens and a lai^e number of the nobility and knighta. 
To such as were buried in a grey friar's cowl, certain 
privileges were supposed to be granted, according to 
Wadding, in his Annates Minorum, remission of one- 
fourth part of their sins. Late in life, many knights and 
rich laymen took upon them the habit of this order, 
and were received as professed brethren. In Conington 
Church, Huntingdonshire, is the unique sepulchral 
efl&gy of a knight of the fourteenth century, clad in a 
ho<Med hawbenc of mail, over which ia.wom the cowl 
or habit of a Franciscan, with a knotted cord as a 
girdle. Thb custom was satirised both before and after 
the Reformation, by the author of Piers Ploughman's 
Orede and Vision ; by Wycliffe ; by the author of the 
Beehive of the Romish Church ; by Fuller, the church 
historian ; by Milton : 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


And they who, to be sare of Paradise, 
Dying pat on the weeds uf Dominic, 
Or in Franciscan think to pass disgnieed. 

In one of the Batirical carvings on the svbsellia of the 
stalls in St. Mary's Church, Beverley, Yorkshire, are 
represented two friars, a Franciscan and a Dominican, 
each in the habit of his order, with a fox between 
them. These habits differed, one being a cowl or coarse 
woollen gown, girt about the loins with a knotted cord ; 
the other a cowl of a different fashion, with the scapu- 
lar hanging down in front. 

The houses of the Franciscan order were generally 
situate in tlie outskirts of towns. There were, how- 
ever, exceptions, as in the case of Llanvaes Friary, about 
a mile from Beaumaris, and Beeding Priory, Sussex, 
formerly a friary. 

What the Grey Friars' Church was, as respecting 
London, the friary church at Uanvaes was with respect 
to Anglesey and North Wales. The friary at Uanvaes 
was founded by Llewelyn ah lorwerth, Pnnce of North 
"Wales, sometime between the years 1230 and 1240. It 
was the burial place of his wife, the Princess Joan, 
natural daughter of King John. She died about the 
year 1237. Llewelyn di«i a.d. 1240. 

We have no charter or precise record of the founda- 
tion of this friary. There is, however, a charter granted 
by King Henry V, a.d. 1414, in which certain particu- 
lars respecting it are noted. This charter is published 
in Rymer's Fcedera, the friary being therein called 
" Llamaysi". The charter is as follows : — 

Kex omnibua ad quos, &c., ealutem. Monstravenint nobis, 
dilecti nobis in Christo, fratres ordinia Fmtmin Minorura, qna- 
liter domus Fratrum Minonim de Llamayai infra jnaulam nostram 
d' Anglesey in North Wallia (in qua quidem domo divinom 
servitmm ab antiquo honeste factum fuit et uaitatum) per rebel- 
lionem WaUensium, et occasione guerraruni, ibidem jam tarde 
factamm et continuatamm, totaliter desalata, et obsequium 
divinum in eadem diminutum et subatractum exiatunt; no8,con- 
siderantes quod domus predicta de fuad&tione progeuitoram nos- 
tronim quondam regum Anglia et nostro patronatu exiatit, et 

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similiter qaod in eadem domo corpus tarn filice regis Johaanis 
pTOgenitoria nostri, quam filii regis Baciie, Becnon corpora domim 
de Clyffort, et aliomm dominorum, militum et armigeromic, qui 
in guerris Wallise, temporibus illustrium progenitom m nostrorum 
occiai fuerant, sepulta existunt, ac voleutes proinde eervitinm 
dirinuni in prefata domo manuteneri, et ibidem de cntero con- 
tinnari. Conceesimue pro nobis et heeredibuB nostris quantum 
in nobis eat, quod in eadem domo sint imperpetuum octo fratres 
ibidem dlvina servitia celebratori, et Deum, pro aalubri atatn 
nostro, ac carissimorum fratrum noetrorum, et aliomm de san- 
ffaine et progenie nostris, et pro animabus nostria cum ab hac 
lace migraverimus, et aimiliter pro animabus patris et matria 
nostromm et progenitomm nostronim et eorum qui in domo 
prsedicta, at prsedictum est, aunt sepulti, et omnitim fidelium 
defunctoram, exoraturi imperpetuum. Quorum quidem octo 
fratnun volumua quod duo sint de natione Wallensi, rations vic- 
tus sai et aliorum, ad sustentationem aui necessariorum adqui- 
rendorum. In cujus, &c. Teste rege apud Westmonasterium 
tertio die Julii. 

This charter I venture thua to translate : — 
The King to all to whom these presents may come, greeting. 
It bas come to our knowledge, beloved to us in Christ, brethren 
of the order of Friars Minors, how that the house of Friars 
Minors of Llamaysi, within our island of Anglesey, in Xorth 
Wales (in which, indeed, divine service from old time was 
decently kept up and perfonned),by the Welsh rebellion and by 
the occurrence of wars, ia now hardly kept up and continued, 
the house having became altogether desolated, and divine obse- 
quies having become lessened and withdrawn : We, considering 
that the afoiesaid house was of the foundation of our ancestors, 
formerly kings of England, and existe by our patronage ; and 
also that in the same house the body of the daughter of King 
John, our ancestor, as also that of the son of the King of Den- 
mark, and also the bodies of the Lord Clifford and of other 
lords, knights, and esquires, who in the Welsh wars in the times 
of oar illustrious ancestors, were slain, and there remain buried ; 
and we willing, therefore, that divine service in the aforesaid 
house diould be maintained, and there henceforth continaed, we 
grant for as and our heirs, as far as in us lies, that in the same 
house there be for ever eight brethren, there to celebrate divine 
service, and for ever pray to God for our good estate and that of 
our most dear brethren and others of our blood and decent, and 
for our souls when we shall have departed this life, and likewise 
for the sonls of our iather and mother, and of our ancestors, and 

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of those who in the aforesaid house, as is before stated, are 
buried, and of all the faithful deceased ; of which eight brethren, 
indeed, we will that two be of the Welsh nation, with regard to 
the food of themselves and others, for their obtaining of things 
needful for their sustenance. In testimony whereof, etc., witness 
the King at Westminster, the third day of July, etc. 

The "imperpetuum"of the Charter of Henry V lasted 
for some hundred and twenty years, when, in the reign 
of Henry VIII, the suppresaion, amongst others, of this 
Friary, and the confiscation of the goods belonging to 
it, took place.' • • • • 

In the inventory, no aUusiun is made to the chapter 
house which would have been on the east side of the 
court, or to the stalls of the quire, or to the painted 
glass in the windows of the church, or to the various 
monuments in the church. The stalls of the quire and 
firagments of the painted glass appear to have been re- 
moved to Beaumaris church. Some of the monuments 
were at the same time removed to the churches of 
Beaumaris, Penmynydd, and LlandegaL Others were 

In the east window of the chancel of Beaumarta church 
are some fragments of painted glass of the early part of 
the sixteenth century, which were, I think, probably 
brought from the friary church at Llanvaes. In the 
first principal light is represented the tonsured head of 
a friar with a circlet of hair coloured yellow, his iace in 
chiaro-oscuro with the shadows stippled. In the second 
light is the head seemingly of an angel with curly yel- 
low huir and fragments of drapery stippled into chiaro- 
oscuro. The fourth light contains the head and upper 
portion of the figure of a female saint, with a nimbus 
round thehead, the face is simply stippled in chiaro- 
oscuro, the head dress consists of a veil of a deep azure 
colour with a yellow border, the body is also enveloped 
in a mantle of a deep azure colour. The sleeves of the 

' The inventory here given by Mr. Blonm having already been 
printed among the " Origioal Documents" (p. xliii), is tor that reason 
omitted. — En. Arek. Camb. 

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gown are cuffed at the wrists. The fifth light exhibits 
the head of a bishop with the mitra pretiosa or costly 
mitre, of a yellow colour, and infulte depending from it. 
The face is well drawn, of white glass, stipple shaded in 
chiaro-oscuro. The face is shaven clean, and about the 
neck are the folds of the amice. This head is divided 
vertically by an upright iron bar. These are all d^ 
sk^ed and drawn ny the same hand, that of an artist 
ofno mean merit, probably foreign, the features are very 
expressive. In a north clerestory window of the chancel 
is depicted in painted glass a mitre and the crook, highly 
floriated, of a pastoral staff, both of a yellow colour. 

There can be no reasonable doubt that the stalls in 
the chancel of Beaumaris church were removed thither 
after the suppression, from the Friary church at Llan- 
vaes. They are of the fifteenth century, and have 
panel work in front of the desks o{ that period. The 
carved subseUia or movable miserere seats, twelve in 
number, are nowaffixed at the back of and over the stalls. 
ITie centre of each of these is occupied with the carved 
conventional semi-figure of an angel holding a shield. 
On each side of these figures are the following carved 
devices, commencing with the stall nearest the chancel 
door on the south side, and thence carried round. 

1. Head of a king. Head of a queen. 

2. Head of a man with long flowing h»ir, long mous- 
tache and forked beard. Head of a man with mous- 
tache and beard, and a caputtum or hood on his head. 

3. Bald head of a Inan with moustache and beard. 
Head of a man with large locks of hair, moustache and 

4. The head of a female with the chin bare, but a veil 
worn on the head. The head of a female with a close 
fitting cap and a veil over the head, and a gorget cover- 
ing the chin, neck, and breast. 

5. The busto of a female with the gown buttoned in 
front of the breast, with a singular head dress, consist- 
ing of the resemblance of a tankard or drinking can on 
either side of the face, possibly in allusion to some ale- 

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wife. Busto of a female with her neck bare, and a veil on 
her head surmounted by a wheat sheaf, possibly a gleaner. 

6. Veiled head of a female surmounted by a washing 
tub. Head of a man with moustache and beard, and 
close fitting cap, over which is represented a barrel ortun. 

7. The head of a man with the face disposed profile 
wise, wearing a cap and tippet. The head of a female 
with a circlet and long hair, and bare neck with a chain 
round it, affixed to which is a circular pendant. 

8. The head of a man with moustache and beard, on 
ihfs head b worn a caputium or hood, on which is a cap 
with a tippet attached. The head of a man with long 
curly hair wearing a cap and tippet, with moustache 
and beard. 

9. Tonsured head of a man with moustache and 
beard. Tonsured head of a man with face clean shaven, 
and the hood of a cowl about his neck. These probably 
represented religious votaries of difierent orders. 

10. The head of a female of rank attired in a cap, 
veil, and wimple or gorget, with a crown on the head. 
The head of a man with his face shaven bare, with an 
inverted sugar loaf shaped cap on his head, with a 
jewelled ornament in front of the cap, and a fermail or 
broach in front of the breast. 

11. The head of a bishop with the mitre on his head, 
and infulse attached, the face clean shaven. The ton- 
sured head of a friar. 

12. The head of a man with curly hair and face clean 
shaven. The head of a female with her hair trussed on 
each side and a turbaned head-dress, her gown is open 
in front, with a falling collar. 

Of the monuments formerly existing in the Friary 
church, the most interesting, though not the richest, was 
that in which the remains of the Princess Joan, in mem- 
ory of whom this friary was founded, were once depos- 
ited. This sarcophagus for many years after the 
suppression was used as a watering trough. It is now 
carefully preserved in a small building erected for the 
purpose in the grounds of Sir Richard Williams Bulkeley, 
at Baron Hill, The sarcophagus or stone coffin measures 


Iq length externally 6 fb. S^ in., aod in width 2 fl. 1 in. 
The sides are said to he four inches in thickness. It is 
not shaped like the medieeval stone coffins, wider at 
the head than at the foot, but is in the form of a paral- 
lelogram, which induces me to think it may have been 
originally a Roman sarcophagus brought from Segon- 
tium or some other Roman station, and in the thirteenth 
century used for a secondary interraent, that of the 
Princess Joan. On the upper portion of the Ud or cover 
is sculptured in relief the head, bust, and the hands of 
the Princess. She is represented as attired in a dose 
fitting cap, with a bandeau or wimple under the chin. 
Over the cap is worn what appears to be a regal circlet, 
whilst on either side of the head a veil depends. The 
neck is bare, whilst the front of the gown or robe on 
the breast is fastened by a circular fibula, like the fibula 
in front of the breast of the effigy at Footevraud of 
Eleanor, Queen of Henry I, and that in the same posi- 
tion at the same place of Berengaria, Queen of Richard I. 
The hands ore extended in front of the breast, with the 
thumbs joined together, and the sleeves of the inner 
Test are close fitting at the wrists. The head reposes on 
a squ£u-e cushion. The lower par^ of the slab, to the 
extent of two-thirds of the entire slab, is sculptured 
■with a stem proceeding from awinged dragon-like figure, 
from which early English foliage of Bti$ conventional 
patterns issues. 

This is an interesting sculptured slab of the early 
part of the thirteenth century, circa a.d. 1240. It has 
been well engraved in the second volume of the ArchcB- 
ologia Camhrensis. 

Of other monuments supposed to have been removed 
after the suppression from the friary church at Llanvaes, 
that in Penmynydd church of the fourteenth century, 
that in Beaumaris church of the fifteenth century, and 
that in Llandegai church of the fifteenth century, have 
been severally described by me on former occasions. 

In the friary grounds is still existing a broken sepul- 
chral slab, in shape that of a parallelogram, four inches 
and a half in thickness, and three feet three inches in 


width. Ou this is chiselled out the matrix of an incised 
brass, which has been torn from it, representing the 
effigy of an archdeacon in his canonical habit, viz., the 
cassock, over which was worn the surphce with sleeves, 
and the almucium, auniasse or furred tippet worn about 
the neck, with pendent laminae hanging down in front. 
Round the verge are portions of the inscription as fol- 
lows ; — 


This monumental slab is of the fifteenth centuiy. I 
have been able to ascertain the names of only four arch- 
deacons of Anglesey of that century. These are of 
Thomas Howel, who died in 1427 ; of Andrew HuUer, 
archdeacon from 1427 to 1438; of William Sander, 
archdeacon in 1450 ; and of Hngh Moigan, archdeacon 
in 1451. Of these four, the last is the only one of whom 
this monument may have been commemorative. This 
is evinced by the termination of the name niva in Latin. 
Of the buildings of this ancient Franciscan establish- 
ment, including the friary church, not one atone, I be- 
lieve, remains upon another, above the green sward. A 
few years ^o a frag'bient, whether of the church or of 
some other of the conventual buildings, was standing. 
This, from its architectural features, was clearly of the 
original foundation in the thirteenth centuiy. It no 
longer exists. In passing by the site of this ancient 
friary, on a flat coast close to the sea, and very dif- 
ferent to the picturesque position of Penmon Priory, 
the appeal Siste Viator may well be put. Then in the 
mind arises the recollection that beneath the green 
sward lie the remains of royalty, and many of the 
worthies of Anglesey and North Wales. " Chiefs graced 
with scars and prodigal of blood," with no mark to 
distinguish between them. Their very names, with 
few exceptions, are unknown, their memorials swept 
away or scattered abroad, one solitarj fragment only 
remaining to enable one to respond ettamque sepulchra 
conCemphr. Matthew Holbbceb Bloxah. 

Min y Don, Beanmarie : 29lh Ang., 1871. 


At a period of great antiquity, not later than, and 
poBBibly anterior to, the seveDth century, a person of 
foreign appearance, and habited in the garb of a pilgrim, 
diBembarked from a ship that had brought him to a spot 
near to that on which stands the modem town of Aber- 
ystwyUi. He tarried not at the point of landing, in 
the ■vale of the Ystwyth river, — then, doubtless, a tan- 
gled wild of marsh and thicket to the water's edge, — 
but straightway bent his steps up the ateep and path- 
less ascent towards the heights of Plinlimmon. Reach- 
ing at length the summit, and weary with hia walk, he 
sat on a rock, and scanning the surrounding prospect, 
he espied on the bank of the Wye a spot which he 
deemed eligible for his future resting-place. There, the 
work doubtless of his own hands, uprose first a humble 
hermitage and chapel, and afterwards a church, which, 
though not of spacious dimensions, became celebrated 
for the beauty of its architecture and the elegant carv- 
ing and design of its massive oaken roof. The rock 
whereon the pilgrim sat bears to this day the name of 
"Eiflteddfa Gung", or Curig's Seat. The church on 
Plinlimmon, adjacent to the highest point of the mac- 
adamised mail-road from Aberystwyth to Hereford, still 
bears testimony to its founder by its nameof "Llan- 
gurig," the Church of St. Curig. Moreover, a crozier 
or pastoral staff, stated by Giraldiis to have belonged 
to him, and to have been endowed with a supernatural 
healing power, was for centuries preserved with a loving 
veneration for his memory in the church of St. Har- 
mon's on the Radnorshire border : a proof that he be- 
came a bishtn) (perhaps of Llaiibadam Fawr, hard by 
the scene of his landing), or else the abbot of a religioua 
community, which in that case must have been founded 
by himself. 
Such is the legend of Curig Lwyd, which has led to 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


the hypothesis adopted by Professor Rees, that he was 
not only the original founder of the church of Llan- 
gurig, but also its patron saint, — an hypothesis to which 
a certain additional colour would be given by the tradi- 
tional appellation of " Curig Lwyd", or " the Blessed", 
by which he was popularly known. A wider investi- 
gation, however, of the subject will lead unavoidably to 
Sie inference that the Professor, critically accurate and 
cautious as he usually is in his surmises, was somewhat 
premature in thus determining the question ; and this 
18 the more surprising inasmuch as he has himself fur- 
nished us with a list of churches in Wales, the dedica- 
tory titles of which alone might have led him to doubt 
the soundness of such a conclusion. In his Essay on the 
Welsh Saintt^ he tells us that the churches of Llanilid 
a Churig, Glamorganshire, and Capel Curig, Caernar- 
vonshire, are dedicated to Juliet and Curig together ; 
and that Juliet is also the saint of Llandid Chapel, 
under Defynog, Brecknockshire. There are also two 
other churches, those, namely, of Porth Curig, Glamor^ 
gansbire, and Eglwys Fair a Churig, Carmarthenshire, 
of which the Professor states that it is uncertain to 
whom they are dedicated. The festival of Juliet and 
Cyrique, he adds, is June 16th. If these chiuxjhes were 
dedicated to the martyr St. Cyricus or Quiricus, whether 
jointly or otherwise with bis mother Juliet, the proba- 
bility would lie, primd facie, in favour of the hypothesis 
that Llangurig was so too. Nor is there anything, in 
feet, to oppose to it, save the existence of the legend, 
and the analogy of other churches in Wales believed 
to have derived their names from those who respect- 
ively founded them, and who, from that act alone, were 
afterwards, in the popular estimation, honoured with 
the title of Saints. In such a case, moreover, it would 
appear not a little remarkable that one bearing the 
name of the infiint martyr should have landed on our 
island, and have devoted the remainder of bis life in it 
to the special service of religion in so wild and remote 

■v, Google 


a r^ion therein, unless, indeed, a positive connection 
existed between the peculiar devotion introduced by 
bim and tbe saint whose name he bore, and under whose 
patronage he may have held himself to be in virtue of 
that name : an early instance, perhaps, of a practice 
which gradudly became general m the Church. That 
this was really the case wul appear highly probable from 
a comparison of the history of the saint and of fais mar^ 
tyrdom with such notices as have come down to us of 
the cidtus actually rendered to him in Wales during 
subsequent centuries ; and if we add to this the neu-ra- 
tive of tbe migration, so to speak, of that cuUvs from 
the eastern to the western churches, the probability will 
be changed into certainty. 

It is stated by Ruinart' and by the Bollandists that 
various " acts" of these stunts had been published in 
ancient times, one of which, included in the list of apoc- 
^phal works of Pope Gelasius, is printed by the New 
Bollandists* in Greek and Latin. Another account, be- 
lieved by them to be genuine, is also to be found there, 
together with a statement as to its origin, from which it 
appears that Pope Zosimus (a.d. 417), who had seen an 
edition of their acts which appeared to him to be spurious, 
wrote to a bishop of Iconium named Theodorus, request- 
ing to be furnished with such genuine particulars of the 
martyrdom of SS. Cyricus and Julitta as could then be 
obtained on the spot where it took place, during the 
tenth persecution of the Christians under Diocletian, 
somewnat more than a century before. In the course 
of his inquiries, Theodorus was referred to an old man 
who claimed kinship with these saints, and wrote a 
letter to the Pope addressed " Domino Fratri et Co- 
episcopo Zosimo", containing a narrative written in a 
very sober and matter-of-fact style, and free from the 
numerous extravt^jances which disfigure the spurious 
. acts. The narrative of the martyrs' sufferings given by 
the Rev. Alban Butler (Lives of the Saints, June 16th) 
is abridged from the bishop's tetter, which is printed in 

» Ed. Bfttisbon, 1869. * Ed. Paris, 18*37. 

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full by Ruinart and the Bollandista, and ia in substance 
as follows : — " In the year a.d. 305, Julitta, a lady of 
rank and property, left Iier native city of Iconium in 
Asia Minor, with her son Cyricus and two maids, to 
escape the persecution then raging in that city tinder 
Diocletian the Roman emperor. She went first to Se- 
leucia, but on finding that Alexander, the governor of 
that city, was a persecutor, she felt it unsafe to remain 
there, and proceeded to Tarsus. Here, however, Alex- 
ander happened to be at the very time of her arrival ; 
she had no sooner reached the place, therefore, than 
she was apprehended and brought before him, together 
with her infant. Her maids forsook her and fled, while 
she, to all the governor's queries, made no answer than 
this : — ' I am a Christian. The governor ordered her 
to be cruelly scourged with thongs, but, struck with 
the noble appearance of her child, he resolved to save 
him, and took him on his knee, endeavouring to soothe 
him with kisses. The child, however, stretching out 
hifl anns towards his mother, cried out after her in the 
same words, ' I am a Christian,' and, in struggling to be 
free that he might run to her, scratched the governor's 
face. The latter, enraged, threw him to the ground 
from the tribunal, and dashed out his brains against the 
edge of the steps, so that the whole place was bespat- 
tered with his blood. His mother, far from lamenting 
his death, made thanksgiving to God, as for a happy 
martyrdom. Then they proceeded to lacerate her sides 
with nooks, and on her fe6t they poured scalding pitch. 
When called upon to sacrifice to the gods, she persisted 
in answering, ' I do not sacrifice to devils, or to deaf and 
dumb statues, but I worship Christ, the only-begotten 
son of God, by whom the Father hath made all things.' 
Thereupon, the governor ordered that her head should 
be struck off, and that the body of her child should be 
thrown into the place where the bodies of malefactors 
were cast. The remains of both mother and son were 
afterwards buried secretly, by the two maids, in a field 
near the city. Subsequently, when peace had been 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


restored to the Church under Constantine the Great, 
the spwt was made known by one of them. Their tombs 
were visited by a great concourse of the faithful, who 
vied with each ol^er, aa it is related, in striving to 
secure, each one for himself, a portion of their sacred 
relics " for a protection and safeguard". 

From this time forward the devotion to these holy 
martyiB spread widely over the East. A panegyric is 
still extant in their honour, written by Metaphrastes, 
or more probably by Nicetas the rhetorician, as is sup- 
posed, in the nmth century, the facts in which were 
lunmihed by Bishop Theodore's letter. Offices in their 
honour were sanctioned by St. Germanus and Anato- 
Hus, Patriarchs of Constaiitinople, a.d. 449-58, while 
others are known to have existed at Byzantium and 
Hauroleum. A complete office, with canon, by Jose- 
phus the hymnographer, A.D. 883, contains some verses 
commen<3ng thus : 

St Joseph epeaks of their tomb as being bedewed with 
the grace of the Holy Spirit, and of cures being wrought 
there; but is silent as to its locality. The reason for this, 
as we shall shortly see, was in all probability the circum- 
stance that the bodies themBelves had, at a much earlier 
period, been conveyed away, and treasured up as pre- 
cious relics in certain churches of the West. The story 
of their removal is thus given in an ancient MS. disco- 
vered at Rome,' as related by Hensdienius the Bolland- 
ist, in his commentary for the 1st May, on the Life of 
St. Amator, a Bishop of Auxerre, who Uved from A.D. 
344 to 418, and was consecrated A.D. 388. This Life is 
said to have been written a.d. 580. 

" After the lapse of many years from their gaining 
the crown of martyrdom, St. Amator, Bishop or Antis- 
siodorum, accompanied by the moat illustrious Savinus, 

' The MS. commencdB thas : " Incipinnt minoaU SS. Qairioi et 
JnlitUe, qnn Teterins SophiBta, eoram eervne, edidit, de corporibaa 
eomm k S. AmBtore Antiochie reperlia." 

.dDi. Google 


travelling through the territory of Antioch, by the grace 
of Christ found their most holy bodies, and on his return 
brought them, with great devotion, to GauL On reach- 
ing the city of Autnce (Chartres) he so far yielded to 
the entreaties of Savinus as to bestow on mm one of 
the hoy's arms, which appears to have been deposited 
in the church at Nevera The other remains he caused 
to be entombed a second time in the very house 'where 
the Bishfm, powerful by the glory of his merits, is yet 
venerated ^ the faithful'. Whether the city of Antioch 
visited by St. Amator was that in Pisidia or in Syria, 
or more probably another of that name, near Tarsus 
the scene of the martyrdom, is not stated. From iJie 
Nevemtus the arm of St. Cyricus was removed by Abbot 
Hucbald to his monastery of Elno ' in Hannoni^." * 
Id the Gallican Martyrology, by Saussaye, it is stated 
that considerable portions of the relics were distributed 
among different churches in Gaul, " whereby a great 
devotion was stirred up everywhere towards the mar- 
tyrs themselves, so that many churches, monasteries, 
and other ' trophies' (as they were then called), were 
erected in their honour. Among them Toulouse, Aries, 
Caraot, and Auvergne, are specially named. The devo- 
tion also extended itself to Spain, where, at Burgos, an 
office with nine lections is known to have been recited 
in their honour. In France, Cyricus became known 
indifferently by the names of St. Cyr and St. Cyrique ; 
and the name of ' Cir Ferthyr',once attached to the site 
of a ruined chapel in Lleyn, Carnarvonshire, may poa- 
sibly be a translation of the former."' 

From the foregoing account it will not be difficult to 
explain how, in early times, a Gaul inspired with the 
prevalent devotion to these martyrs may have been 
called by the name of one of thcfm ; may have landed 
on Hie coast of Wales, bringing with him, mayhap, a 
small but treasured portion of the relics in his own 

* Perhaps St, Amand's in Flanders, of which Hainanlt is & pro- 

' Re«s' Wehk SainU, p. 832 ; Jnh. Camb., 4th Ser., r, p. 87. 

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country esteemed so precious ; may have built in honour 
of this, his patron saint, a humble chapel, enlarged sub- 
sequently into a church, with its monastic establishment 
adjacent ; and taken precautions for the preservation, 
after his death, of the memory of the acts and sufierings 
of one whom he himself held in such tender venera- 
tion, by translating some narrative of them in his own 
possession into the language of the people to whom he 
had been the means of introducing the knowledge and 
euUus, as saints, of himself and his martyred mother. 

That such was actually the fact is not obscurely inti- 
mated in several scattered notices which are to be found 
in the manuscript works of Welsh bards and elsewhere. 
In a fragmentary poem on St. Curig in the Ll^fr Cen- 
iarthMS., a Sook of his Life is referred to as extant in 
the author's time. Other fragments of poems ia the 
same MS., by Sion Ceri and by HuwArwystli, relate also 
certaiu circumstances of the martyrdom, in all probabi- 
lity derived from this traditionary biography. And lastly, 
some curioiia"emynau",or hymns, in uie Welsh language, 
are found in the volume of Lives of Camhro-British 
Saints, published by the Welsh MSS. Society, compris- 
ing a "Lectio" evidently intended for the instruction of 
the people on the annual festival, together with some 
coUecto, which leave no doubt as to the identity of the 
saints whose actions are referred to with ihoae whose 
acts were recorded by Bishop Theodore for the informa- 
tion of Pope ZosimuB. 

With these fi-agmentary notices is connected another 
question of no little interest relative to the genuine- 
ness and authenticity of the acts of these martyrs tradi- 
tional in the Principality. Was the narrative contained 
in them substantially identical with that furnished by 
tJie Bishop of Iconium to the Pope ? Or did it rather 
savour of inspiration drawn from the spurious writings 
referred to in the Bishop's letter as "containing over- 
boastful and inconsistent sayings, and trivialities foreign 
to our Christian hope", and which are ascribed by him 
to the " machinations of Manichees and other heretics 


D,g,t,..dDi. Google 


who make a mock of, and endeavour to create a con- 
tempt for, the great mystery of godliness"? It would 
be natural to suppose that from the time of the publi- 
cation of the authentic Acts, the spurious ones would 
have speedily ceased to obtain currency, and have fallen 
into oblivion. So far, however, from this being the 
case, we find them incurring the condemnation of Pope 
Gelasius (a.d. 492-6), "havmg been brought, together 
with their relics, from the East". We are left to infer, 
therefore, that Bishop Theodore's account, when for- 
warded to Rome, was either not at all, or but partially, 
circulated in Asia : hence St. Amator, when carrying 
away with him the bodies of the martyred mother and 
son, must have taken with him also the apocryphal 
account of their death. And this inference is confirmed 
by the fact that these apocryphal Acts were edited by 
Hucbald, who, as we have seen, was presented with the 
arm of St. Cyricua at Nevers, and who died in the year 
930. And again, a.d. 1180, they were edited by Philip, 
an abbot of the Premonstratensian Abbey of Bona Spes, 
for John, the abbot of the church of St. Amandus at 
Elno. John, it would appear, furnished Philip, in the 
first instance, with a copy of the apocryphal Acts, toge- 
ther with Hucbald's work, for we find him stating in a 
letter to John that he had made in them considerable 
corrections, and had omitted much that appeared to 
him profane, irrelevant, or absurd. 

If these were the Acts brought by St. Amator into 
Gaul, it would follow almost of course that they alone 
would have been known to Curig Lwyd, and by him 
disseminated in Wales. The Welsh fragmentary notices 
will be found amply confirmatory of this view ; and as 
they and the foregoing account are reciprocally illustra- 
tive of one another, we propose now to allow them to 
speak for themselves. The first of these notices is that 
in the Emynau Curig (Hymns of St. Curig), as the de- 
votions printed in the lAves of the CavAro- British 
Saints already mentioned are strangely called. The 
third of these is as follows : " The holy martyr Curig 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


was discreet from hia childhood. He suflFered martyr- 
dom, and was very wise, and a teacher of heavenly 
things, and opposed the cruel commandment of Alexan- 
der the king, and rejected a lordly life, from a pure 
heart and the wisdom of a perfect man. He desired 
not the vain things of this world, hut that he might 
ohtain the joys of Paradise ; and suffered for the triune 
God and one Lord severe persecution from men, and 
for love to Christ the King he endured the torments of 
fire on his body and on his arms ; and through faith in 
the Trinity he persevered in faith and in prayer to 
God, so that the faithful might escape the pains of 
Hell, and obtain the joys of the heavenly kingdom, by 
the words of the Catholic faith, and become no less per- 
fect in Christ than that martyr. Therefore we piously 
call on the undefiled Curig, our helper in Heaven, that 
by his prayers we may obtain and deserve the very 
glorious reward which he is said to enjoy with the hosts 
of angels for ever and ever. Amen."' 

This Emyn, or lesson, furnishes a remarkable coinci- 
dence with the apocryphal life published in the Acta 
Sanctorum of the Bollandista. It represents the mar- 
tyr as speaking and acting as an adult, whereas the 
latter describes Cyricus, though an infant, as speaking 
with the words of a full-grown man, and as reproving 
Alexander for his idolatry and cruelty, and even chal- 
lenging him to inflict on him strange and unheard of 
tortures of his own devising,' through which he passes 
in succession unhurt, by the power of God. With these 
the allusions, obscurely thrown out in the following 
fragments of Welsh poems, mainly a^ee. The first is 
atl^hed in tie MS. to a portion of Huw Cae Llwyd's 
poem on the Four Brothers, of Llangurig, who was bom, 
and probably passed his life, in the neighbourhood of 
that place, but need not, therefore, be hia.* 
1 Uvei oftheOamiTo-SrilUh SainU, pp. 276 and 610, 
* The ItuignAgQ of Hnw Cae Lilwyd provcB that he was a Sonth 
Wallian writer ; but Llangnrig ia on the borders. The poems in 
tbe text, at least in the state in which they are here presented, oan- 
not, we think, be the production of that accurate prosodiati and 
melliSuoDs poet. — Ed. Arch. Oumb. 

D,<j,i,.,.,i.:, Google 



Llurig fendifKdi^ 1*7^1 
Ceidnad [in^ A't Ffntinc ydwyd. 
Mm i'tb wlad, fel y waaeth [wedd] 
Dy Bchan, a Ilyfr dy fnche^dd] 
Mae'n rhan, o bedwar ban byd, 
Dy wyrthian, rhaid yw wrthyd ! 
Da fyd fu ar dj fendwy, 
A'i leian gynt ar Ian Gwy. 

Mael gad, pan geiaiodd llaelgnra 
Lnnio hud i leian hwn, 
£i feirc}], a'i gewyll efo, 
A arwe[i] niodd wr yno; 
Trigo'r llaw wrth y oanetl, 
Tngljn, ni wnai Angel well ; 
A'i w^r aeth ar ei ol 
A lynant bawb oh^ol ; 
Hwynthwy oedd^nt] amat ti 
Tn dy gnddigl di 'n gweddi ; 
Drwy dy nerth, Gnrig Ferthyr, 
Y rhoddai yn rhydd ei w^r ; 
A'i gwyrthian, 'n aol gortbir, 
A wnaeth Dnw o fewn i'th dir ; 
Delwsa o gwyr, rhwng dwylaw Gwen, 
A Innioedd leian tannen ; 
T rhith, ac nid anrheithwyd, 
Dinbych [Llan] Elidan Lwyd : 
A'i delw, nid o hndoliaeth, 
Khoi Uef ar Ddnw Nef a wnaeth ; 
A'i gradd, fel y gweryddon, 
Gyd^ Sant a gedwaiB hon. 
Maelgwn aeth, mal y gwn i, 
£i delnaitb i addoli ; 
Hwn a roddais, yn bresent, 
Glasdir at glos, da ei rent, 
Hysbys yw bod Itya a llan, 
A tbeml 1 chwithan y man. 
Ki bn rwydd rhag Arglwyddi 
Daro dyn wrth dy wyr di ; 
Chwitbaa a fa'n dadlen 'n deg, 
Ar Uetos gynt ar osteg : 
Ar fraich deg oedd faich dy fam 
Silito a roes hwyl . am 
Holl f^ddiand Alozander 
A fa megis gattian ger. 
Pob cneetinn gsn hwn o hyd 
Wrth ddadl dl a gwrthodyd. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 



Plwyf hardd sydd, brif flbrdd a bryn. 

Lie r)ied Gwy 'r hyd dwfr & gljn ; 

Plwy' heddyw aplaf hoynddyn, 

P» le ceir gwell, plwyf Cnrig Wyn ? 

Corig, fab gwar, llafar, lien, 

Yw'n tad, a'n porthiant, a'n pen. 

Cara hwn, creda' i, cai radoedd mavlgerdd, 

T trwbl a ddng, (eirblwjdd oedd, 

Bil&in dordyn aeth iV dvrcdio, 

Alexander oedd falch dra. 

Silit ddinam, ei fam fo, 

Wen a welad yn wylo ; 

Ofer gwelad ! Na td Gnrig 

Wr garw o'i fertb 'rolddig ; 

Dewai 'n fyw, dyna alaeth, 

Dewai 'n gnawd gwyn, ag uid gwaeth ; 

Ni tbyfodd, fe garodd gwr, 

Ar ei dir erioed oerwr. 

Horthwr 'n yw 'r gwr a garwyd, 

Qwycb iawo, ao a cliwyr addolvryd ; 

Yma a tbraw a wellhawyd 

I garwr glin Garig Lwyd. 

Dnw Lwyd cynbenwyd gwenwynig— i'w trais 

Tros fy anwylyd foneddig. 

Ghwerw i doe chwarae dig 

Dichirervedd Dnw a Chorig. 

Tra dewr o natnr ydwyd, 
Trig ar y gair, trugarog wyd j 
Treni'r dewr walcb trymai ; 
Tner, dewr wyt, Daw, ar dy rai. 


Pwy a aoed er poeai, 

Pwy'n deirblwydd no'n Harglwydd ni ? 

Carig bob awr y carwn, 

Ooren belp oedd garu hwn. 

Poen oedd i'w wedd pan oedd iaa, 

Pen Mertbyr poen a wetbian. 

Pob gweinied pawb a geiniw 

Bonedd Ffrainc benoydd a'i ffriw. 

Perten a glain parch naw gwlad, 

Plwy' Curig, pa le fwy cariad ? 

I rwydd Saint a roddais i 
Aiirbeg arnom ihag oeroi. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 



Ni bn wan yn byw ennyd 

Nid otntd 'i groen boen o'r tjd. 

Alexander oedd hemr 

Ar Ddnw, oo oedd oerddig wr. 

Iddew o'r fiuiigc oedd ar fu 

Amhorth oer a'i mertliyrai. 

Bfo & llid, a'i fam l&n, 

I'r pair aeth, nr pnrlan ; 

Ni ddarwena 'i ddnr annoer 

Ar hwynthwy mwy na'r nant oer. 

Teirblwydd a fn 'n ai^lwydd 'n hyn 

Tri mia lai, Daw, a'i rwymyn'; 

Tn fab iaoh yn fyw y bo, 

Ac & maen i'w gymyna. 

Tn llndw ei dduth a'n lludiodd, 

Ac yna fab gwyn i'n foedd. 

Ag oerddrwg y gwr drwg draw 

£ fn asiaetb i'w feisiaw ; 

Troea Dnw hwynthwy troB dyn tog 

7rwy'r astell draw ar osteg ; 

Torrai Iddew trwy wddwg 

Ni'm dorwn draw am dyn drwg. 

O'i esgidian nadaa a wnaed, 

Tno fal anifeilifkid. 

Crist yw'n rhan, croeso Duw'n rhodd, 

Cnrig a'i fam a'i carodd. 

Saith angel rhag bodd oedd, 

Sel at y eaith SiHts oedd. 

Mab a fa'n gwledychn'n gwlad, 

A mercli ir, mawr o'i chariad, 

digariad gorynt 

O Ian Gwy, a'i leian gynt. 
Ac arall, mab Rhyswallawn, 
Feddwt oer, a fa ddwl i&wn ; 
Meddylio, cyn dyddio'n deg, 
Am oladan, em loywdeg ; 
A Charig [Wyn] ni charai, 
Dwyllo neb nn dnll a wna: ; 
Ei addoli ef ar ddaa lin, 
Ar war bryn a wna'r brenin ; 
Cwympo yma, camp ammbarch, 
Colli o'i wyr a chjila ei farcb ; 
A Charig, fab gwyoh hoywrym, 
A ddiddigiodd wrth rodd rym : 
A diddan nid oodd anodd, 
A glowson' roi glas yn rhodd. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Tjredig swmp a roid aeth 
Hal enrdrefb, ami ardreth ; 
Tri thir, mat traeth earaid, 
Tri yn nn cjh^, tri jn nn caid. 
Gaer fj arglwrdd, Ue'i oeir fawrglod, 
Cwmpaa dy gfai, er dy gtod ; 
Llan^rig, pob lle'n f^wraint, 
Llawer liyd braff, lie rhad biKint ; 
Troell wen hardd, tri lliw'ti boa, 
Tir Corig at tair coroo, 
Fie well nn plwy ni ellir, 
Plwy Cnrig nid txibjg tir. 

A coat of nuul art thoa 
To us, (ud to the French, too, a gaardian. 
Thj oonntiy poBsesses, as it made it, the form 
Of thy deacent and the Book of thy Life. 
The portion of the fonr quarters of the world 
Are thy miraoles. Great is oar need of thee ! 
Happy baa been the Hermitage,^ 
With ite nnn, of yore on the bank of the Wye. 

When Maelgwn, mailed for battle, aoaght 
To practise a deception on the nnn of this spot. 
His coorseTB and his baggage 
Were brought there by the man. 
To a hamper his hand cleaved ; 
It was held tight ; no angel could make it more so. 
Also his men who followed him 
Were held fast, — all, one after the other. 
When these made earnest prayer 
To thee in thy chapel, 
By thy power, martyr Cyricus, 
He set his men free. 

And Ood wrought, on the brow of the upland, 
His wonders within thy territoiy. 
The nnn, pure and holy. 

Fashioned figures of wax between her fair hands : 
The likeness, and it was not disfigured, 
Of blessed Elidan of the church of Denbigh j* 

1 Cnrig Lwyd's Hermitage probably is meant, on the spot where 
the church was afterwards built. The nun would seem, from the 
contest, to hare occnpied it after tua death. 

' Llanelidan, fire miles from Bnthin. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


And her im^e, by mcaiia of no deoeption, 

Uttered k voice to the Qod of Heaven ; 

And, like the yonths, she maintained 

Her position with the saint. 

Uaelgwn went, aa well I know, 

To the figure thus made to worship. 

And for an offering he gave 

Pasture land of great price to the Bacred eoctoBora. 

Wetl known to fame are now 

Tour glebe house, oharohy&rd, and temple. 

Thy men are not free to strike a man 

Id presence (or for fear) of their lords. 

Well hast thou pleaded also 

Of yore, before a judge, in open court, 

When a burden on the fair arm of thy mother 

Jnlitta, who gave thee example ; 

In whose eyes the possessions of Alexander 

Were all but aa worthless things. 

By thee was each qaestion of hia 

Refuted in disputation. 

The resemblance to the apocryphal Acts in these last 
lines is iinquestionable. The preceding ones seem as 
clearly to contain the substance of a tradition referring 
the foundation of the church of Llangnrig to Maelgwn 
Gwynedd, whose repeated injuries to religion, and sub- 
sequent reparation of them, aa told by the contemporary 
Gildas, seem to have procured for him the privilege of 
being made the typical representative of such legends : 
at least he is found similarly figuring in the Life of St. 
Brynach and others. The adoption of the legend by 
the Welsh bard is valuable bo far as it proves that the 
foundation of the church of Llangurig was referred, in 
or about the fifteenth century, to a period dating so 
far back as the sixth ; and that it could not, therefore, 
have been built for the first time by the monks of Strata 
Florida, to whom it seems afterwards to have apper- 
tained as a vicarage. The next is a fragment of a poem 
by Sion Ceri, a bard certainly of the fifteenth century. 

Beautiful is the parish, on highway and hill, 

Where flows along the vale ^e stream of ^yo. 

The parish to-day of one energetic and powerful. 

Than the pariah of Blessed Curig, where will you find a better ? 

Cnrig, a youth gentle, eloquent^ aud learned. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


ta our &ther, oar head and onr eapport, 

Mybelief is that tolove himbritigsdoivn (fnoes; the tronbls 

He endnrad, when three yean old, onght to be praised in 

The tyrant Alexander, prond of temper&ment, 

And of a high stomach, proceeded to menace him. 

His gniletess mother, the blessed Jnlitta, 

Was seen to weep. 

A Gne spectacle! It had no power to restrain 

The mnrderonB wrath of the omel wretch towards Cnrig. 

While he lived he held his peace, — therein lies the sorrow. 

In his holy flesh he was silenf and nnconcemed, 

The man of cold heart who lovee him not 

Ne'er hath prospered in his territory. 

It is OUT beloved saint who strengthens na ; 

Highly exalted is he who is hononred with tapen of wax.' 

Everywhere have favours been i-eceired 

By pure lovers of the holy Carig : 

On behalf of my beloved aod exalted one 

Was God aroased to wrath by violence stirred by venom. 

Bitterness comes of bandying strife 

With the toving-kindness of God and of Carig. 

By Datura thou art exceeding firm, 

Dwell on the word — thou art mercifnl ; 

Fnry will weigh down the steadfiutnese of the b»ve : 

Thou, O God, art mercifal to thine own. 

Defects in the metre, as well as the sense, prove the 
oomiptness of several of these lines. The identity of 
its legend, however, with the apocryphal Acts is evinced 
by the epithet of " eloquent" ascriBed to the martyr, 
when only three years (id, whose deeds are magnified 
apparently at the expense of the mother, whose Chris- 
tian heroism seems to be tacitly ignored. The remaining 
fragments are from the pen of Huw Arwystli, who is 
emphatically the poet of Llangurig, as shown by his 
recently published poems on the principal families of 
that place.* In these, notwithstanding the vexatious 
mutilation of the text, some striking coincidences of 

' This seems irrecoocilable with the prerions statement as to his 

* It is still a common cnstom on the Continent to born a wax 
taper as an offering before the statoe of any saint whose prayers are 
den'red to obtain some special favoar ^m Heaven. 

' In Montgomayihire CoUectioiit, vol- iv, p- 5i. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


the Welsh legend with the apocryphal Acts are plainly 

Who is it was bom to safler pain. 

Who bat oar patron, when three years old ? 

Not A moment passes but we love Carig, 

There is no better help than to love him. 

Tortured was bis frame in his infano^, 

To the person of a martyr pain was befitting, 

lUnstrioas is hia merit, noble was bis birth, 

Gentle his demeanonr ; let all daily serve him. 

Where does loTe exist, if not in the parish of Curig, 

The pearl and the gem revered by nine lands V 

To the beneficent saint bare I given 

Qifta to seonre ns against omelty. 

The beginning of the next is wanting. 

Ne'er in the world for long hath lived a weak one. 
Who dreaded not pain of body. 

Alexander was a despoiler of Ood, 
When angered, a cmel man was he. 
In guilt avety Jew — from the scat of jadgment 
With monstrons craelty be martyred him. 
He, with bis pare mother, indignantly 
Entered the canldron — the pnre and origbt ono. 
The water heat«d for him bnbbled not 
More than would a cold stream. 
Three months short of three years old 
Was our patron when thus they bound him. 
When a cnild, and in perfect health, 
By a stone was he dashed to pieoes. 
His passage through ashes hath angered us, 
To ns, Uierefore, he is a blessed saint. 
Through that wicked and omel man, 
A framework of boards was to be ventured npon ; 
These were turned by God to the advantage of the saint. 
For, thro' the boards, in sight of all, 
The Jew^ fell, and broke bis neck. 
For that wicked man I feel no pity. 
On the spot, from his shoes, issned 
Tells, like those of bmt« beasts. 

Christ is our portion, may God receive graciously our gift, 
Gnrig and bis mother loved Him, 
Seven angels were filled with delight, 
Jnlitta was a spectacle for the seven. 

A youth there was — one who ruled tbe land. 
And a young maiden, greatly beloved, 

' Juw is used hero as a term of opprobrium. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


[Aio/fif] were withont affection 

For tbe Wje'% bftnk, and tta naii of old time, 

AdiI another, the soa of RhyBwallon,' 

Was c»ld of beart, and doll of anderatandiii)^, 

Before tbe day dawned his tbongbta would ran 

Upon riches, and brilliant gems ; 

And be loved not holy Cnrig ; 

He wonid cozen any one in any way. 

On both his knees in .the king 

Worshipping; hfm on the slope of the hill ; 

Here a shamefal mischance oefals him. 

He loses his attendants, his steed breaks away. 

And Cnrig, a saint as generous as powerfol. 

Was appeased by virtue of an offering. 

And was readily induced to console him. 

We have heard that the gift of a close was given him. 

An eminence, steep and towering, was bestowed, 

Like a pile of gold, an ample tribnte ; 

Three lands like a golden strand, 

Three in one ring, three in one were obtained, 

Tbe enclosure, my patron, wherein thou art greatly honoured, 

Of Llangnrig, each spot exactly measnred. 

Encircles thy soil, for thine honour. 

Many a good length is there, where there is free privilege, 

A bright and beantifal circli^,^ wherein are three colours. 

In the land of Curig, with a prospect of three orowne, 

Better parish can there not anywhere be 

Than the parish of Cnrig, no other land is tike it. 

There are three or four passages in these two frag- 
meiiits in striking conformity with the spurious Acts. 
Such are the incident of tbe caldron or cacabus, that of 
the shoes out of which issued horrible yells, the seven 
angels who descend from heaven, and the age of the 
child, exactly two years and nine months. There is 
some variation in the details. In tbe Acts the caldron 
is fQled with burning pitch ; in the poem, with boiling 
water. In the former, tbe shoes, on the Governor's 
demanding a sign, become alive ; nay, more, eat and 
drink ; and finally are transformed into a bull, out of 
whose neck springs a he-goat, instead of being left, as 

I This may be a false reading for Caswallawn, the father of Msel- 
gwn Gwynedd, who is the subject of the legend as told in tho poem 
attached to that of Hnw Cae Llwyd. 

'Or" wheel". Can this mean a corona or chandelier P 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


in the nursery tale, after the dissolution of theGovemor's 
body by fire ; and the seven angels appear for the pur- 
pose of restoring to life a thousand persons, who embrace 
Christianity after being beheaded by the Governor's 
order. On the other hand, the martyr s death, by being 
dashed against a stone, would seem to have been derived 
from the genuine Acts; unless, indeed, the passage, 
which is certainly obscure, is rather to be referred to 
an incident in the spurious work, in which a space is 
scooped out of a large stone, capacious enough for the 
two martyrs to sit in, the sides of which are afterwards 
filled with molten lead. The whole, in fact, bears marks 
of an attempt to reduce the narrative of the spurious 
Acts within credible dimensions by the elimination of 
its absurdities ; a theory home out by the statement in 
the Emynau, that Cyricus was an adult who from his 
childhood had been distinguished for his piety and 
ability ; and also by the statement that the Zi/e pub- 
lished by Hucbald, and obtained, doubtless, by him, 
from Nevers, underwent a similar process of castigation, 
first by himself, and a second time, subsequently, by 
his editor. Abbot Philip. 

The most remarkable fact connected with the history 
of these Acts is, perhaps, this, that the genuine narra- 
tive furnished by Bishop Theodore to Pope Zosimus 
within a century after the event, never succeeded in 
superseding them in popular estimation. It affords a 
strange confirmation of the saying, which has almost 
passed into a proverb, " Give a falsehood a start of 
twenty-four hours, and the truth will never overtake 
it." Father Combefis, a Dominican, by whom Bishop 
Theodore's letter in the original Greek was exhumed 
from among the MSS. in the King's Library at Paris in 
1660, expressed a hope that the public reading of the 
apocryphal Acts proscribed by Pope Gelasius, already 
suppressed at Nevers, might he put down by authority 
also at Ville Juif (a corruption of Villa Julittse), a town 
six miles south of Paris, where they were read amiiially 
from a pulpit to a great concourse of people. And 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Father Por6e, a Premonstratensian, writing in 16i4, 
states that the use of these, which had thus usuiped 
the place of the genuine Acts, was in hie time widely 
disseminated throughout France. So difficult is it to 
eradicate a popular usage, especially when calculated 
to gratify the love of the marvellous, so deeply rooted 
in our nature. It is instructive, moreover, to leam from 
Bishop Theodore's letter, that these, and similar extra- 
vagances in legendary saints' lives, do not necessarily 
owe their origin to motives of gain or self-interest on 
the part of those who may be made the unconscious 
means of handing them down to posterity, as has 
often been erroneously supposed. In this instance, we 
have seen that they were actually due to ^e malice of 
enemies of the Christian fttith, on which it vras sought 
to cast discredit by the substitution of false for true 
narratives of the deeds of those whose lives and death, if 
recorded simply and without such exaggeration, would 
have furnished the strongest testimony to the truth of 
their belief. 

In conclusion, an anecdote may not be out of place 
which may possibly serve to illustrate the simple faith of 
die villagers of Llangurig in the power of their patron 
saint to obtain them favours from heaven. A traveller 
by the Shrewsbury and Aberystwyth mail, not many 
years back, while beguiling the tedium of the journey 
by careless gossip with the coachman, was informed by 
him, as an extraordinary fact, that the finest crops of 
wheat in the county of Montgomery were said to be 
grown in the parish of Llangurig, despite the appa- 
rently unsuitable nature of the land and climate for 
that object. Can this have been a remnant of the old 
belief long after the memory of the saint, and the popu- 
lar devotion to him, had faded from the popular mind ? 
The apociTphal Acts of Cyricus close with a prayer by 
him ior those who should honour him hereafter, that 
they might obtain their petitions according to their 
necessities, one of which was that they might be blessed 
in their wine, oil, com, and all their substance. Whe- 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


ther attributable or not to this passage in his legend, 
the published Welsh poems' in his honour te«n wiUi 
expressions of such a belief in the power of his prayers, 
and of belief also in the reception of tangible tokens 
without number of hla protection and favour. 

H. W. Lloyd. 


We are eo accustomed to think of Eoman roads going 
in a direct line, that we do not allow for their diverging 
sometimes in order to touch various towns on the route. 
When this happens, and a more direct line is afterwards 
drawTk, the latter is the comparatively modem road of 
the two, although it is the straightest. If the Sam 
Gutheling (Watlmg Street) was first made, in order that 
Celts from Gaul and from Britain might communicate 
with the Ordovices who had been driven over to Ire- 
land, we should expect that the road would incline 
towards the greater cities, and accordingly we find that 
it does bend in order to reach Uriconium. Then, 
since Antonine's map puts the stations, Rutunium, Me- 
diolanum, Bovium, Deva, and so to Segontium, we may 
infer that there was a reason for bending to the noi-th 
after leaving Uriconiura, viz., to pass near Mediolanum, 
and that then it went nearly due west to the coast. 
The directness, therefore, of the course by Oswestry 
does not assure us of its being the original line. There 
can be no doubt that Chesterton is of Roman origin, 
and that when the Watling Street was extended north- 
ward, travellers from the south would go that way to 
reach Condate and the north, but it was not the original 
line, for that came to Uriconiura and so proceeded. On 
the hills to the north of Llanarmon Dyffryn Ceiriog, 
there is a paved way called Ffordd Saeson bearing away 
exactly in the direction that we should expect ; and 

' In MoHigtmeryihire CoQeotwfu, toI. r, p. 49, and vol. vi, p. 224. 

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there is a point on it called the Red Crosses, two miles 
north of Llanarmon, five miles south of Llangollen, and 
seventeen east-south-east of Bala It descends to 
Hendrev upon the Ceiriog, where are said to be the re- 
mains of a coTiaiderable town, by the "Street Gwem 
Goch", and rises from the southern bank by the " Street 
Vawr". Before doing so, however, there is to the 
north of the " Street Gwem Goch" a mound called 
Tomen Gwyddel^ (Irish mound). This is now tiie 
boundary of the parishes of Llangollen and Llanarmon, 
but we are aa little disposed to think that it owes its 
origin to this circumstance, as we are to credit parish 
officers with unwonted zeal when we see some great 
standing stone doing duty in the same way. In ooth 
instances we conclude that these monuments of a past 
age have been already there when parishes were first 
formed, and been pressed into their present service. 
From " Street Vawr" there is a direct road over the 
hills to Oswestry. From the same place there are also 
at intervals traces of a paved way whidi cuts Offii's 
Dyke, and drops down upon Selattyn. It crosses Street 
Dinas^ at right angles, and is then lost, but crops up 
again to the south of the Gadlas (enclosed ground), 
where there is an old earthwork, and again between 
Plas yn Grove and the Trench. From thence it pro- 
ceeds by the Spout* and the Stocks to Northwood 
(Elllesmere), which was the supposed point of diverg- 
ence of the Segontium and Deva roads. 

It is imfortunate that the Ordnance survey plans of 
Noiiih Shropshire are not yet published, I shall, there- 
fore, give tie approximate measurement of some of the 
earthworks mentioned on the road between Urtconium 
and Deva. According to tradition, the churches of Wrox- 

1 I am indebted to the R«t. J. W. DftviB, vioftr of Loppington, 
for directiDg' me to this mound, which is veiy much rednoed in sice 
from what it once was. 

» This street leads north from Hen Dinns (Oswestry), as I now 
find. Perhspe the mention of its name at this point may be an 
awnraeut that this was a oroBsiiig of two important roads. 

* Tspytty from hotpitiuin. 

trrm ma., vol. ti. 12 

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eter and Atcham, and the Abbey of Haghmond, have 
been buQt of Btones broxight from the former of these 
two cities. In tracking the road at this part of its 
couree and elsewhere, it ia needless to say that its pro- 
bable course must be inferred from the pieces of old 
roads still remaining, from the various camps on the 
route, and feom ancient names. The road leading from 
Haghmond Abbey Farm to Ebury Camp is, on this ac- 
count, very valuable. This camp commands an exten- 
sive view. The rock crops up above the sur&ce, and on 
one side of the enclosure, which is circular, there is an 
extensive quarry. The approximate measurements are 
as follows : — Width of ditch, 1 5 feet ; height of a^er, 
10^ feet ; circumference of ditto, which is well pre- 
served nearly all round, 2,079 feet 

The present road' leading to Hadnall has every ap- 
pearance of being on the original line. 

The measurements of tiie ditches at Northwood Hall 
(Wem) are as follows : — The outer one, from north to 
south, 315 feet; ditto, east to west, 282 feet; width, 
29 feet There is also an inner ditch of the same width, 
enclosing an area 96 feet (north and south) by 94 feet 
(east and west). If we are right in localising the "low" 
at this place, immediately on the north, it measures 30 
feet in length by 29. Separated by a narrow causeway 
is the reservoir, now a meadow, which supplied the 
ditchea It measures 315 feet by 97 fb. As the name 
Ditches has elsewhere some prefix which shows its 
British origin, we may conclude that this is not of later 
date, though perhaps adopted by the Normans as the 
site of one of their castles. 

In the Antiquities of Hawkatone there is a note 
contributed by the Kev. J. B. Blakeway, describing 
some "Roman mile stones* found in the year 1812, 
when Moston Pool and an adjoining morass were drained. 

' We shall refer afterwards to the nDCertaioty existing as to which 
was tlie Wicb, whence Haghmond Abbey had its supplies of salt. 

' "The stones have originally formed two rode fonr-sided sbafls 
SDrmounting quadrangular pedestals. The proper height of tite 

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It was thought at firat that they had been brought there 
at some remote period aa Tnere-stoiies, the boundary be- 
tween the parishes of Hodnet and Lee being close by ; 
and the moss had been cut to the depth of 14 feet in 
every possible direction without finding anything but 
peat . Since the above account was written, it is added 
that " deeper drains having been cut in many parts of 
the moor, traces of a road, about nine feet in width, 
were evident in six or seven places". If a rood that 
we were tracking were suddenly stopped by a morass, 
we might perhaps conclude that it had once gone direct 
across that place ; but in the case of Fens' Moas it ia 
not known that there were ever any roads that led up 
to it, and from the fact of good roads running at its 
east and west extremities, we may suppose that it was 
always impassable. 

Pan \) Pen] Castle is on high ground to the west- 
south-west of Whitchurch. There is camping ground 
for a whole army, and in the centre is tne castle' or 
Burg. There has plainly been masonry here, but now 
not a stone is to be seen, and no excavations have been 
made. The area at the top is a parallelc^^m, measur- 
ing from east to west 183 feet, and north to south 140 
feet ; the width of the ditch is 31 feet -1 inches, and the 
height feom the bottom of ditch to the level of the area 
16 feet. The ditch is shallow, with a low mound out- 
side it ; beyond which the ground for some acres is 
depressed and boe^, and though the general situation 
is BO high, yet this in a wet season was all imder water, 
receiving as it did the drainage from Alkington. The 

Bh&fta canoot be ascertained aa the Bummita of both are broken off; 
bat the pment beif^bt (abaft and pedestal) of one is 4 feet 6 inches, 
besides 1 ft. 8 ins. to let into the ground ; of the other, 4 ft, 8 ins. 
Both of the shafts and one of the pedestale hare borne inscriptions. 
From the letters imp . Cak on one the; are andonbtedly Roman ; 
from M.P. on the other, they are probably mtHinrta — perhaps records 
of distance along a whole line of road. If so, the loss of the inscrip- 
tions (for they are irreparably defaced) is a deplorable injury to th« 
Roman geography of Shropshire." 

• See Hartshomo's Salopia AnH^M, p. 141, note. " Castellnm 
parmlnm qnono Bnrgnm vooant." (Vogetina, Ve Be AfUUar., iv, 10.) 

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occupants of Pan Castle were thus able to protect them- 
selves on three sides by a lake or morass ; on the south- 
west, however, the ground rises higher than the castle, 
and in order to shelter it on that side there is a deep 
trench running from east to west 488 feet, and then to 
the north 466 feet. The distance from Pan Castle to 
tlie angle which it makes is some 160 yards. The 
trench is 16 feet deep, and is cut through level ground. 
If this was, as I BUppose, a place for archera or spear- 
men to post themselves, it throws a good deal of light on 
this kind of defences.' By Old Fens' Hall, to the north 
of the large field called the Bur-vil, there is a length of 
some 80 or 100 yards, called the Lily Pits, which per- 
haps served once a similar purpose. To the south-west 
of Bettisfield Old Hall, in the Court (Llys) field, there 
is a succession of pools, now hidden by trees, to which 
the same may apply. 

The following measurements are from the government 
surv^. The camp at Eglwys y Groes is circular, and 
measures, north and south, 431 feet ; east and west, 
209 feet, and at a height above the sea level of ;)20 feet ; 
the width of the ditch, at the top, is 33 feet 

The moimd in the Vicarage meadow below Hanmer 
lies in north-west and south-east direction, the length 
being 255 feet and the breadth 107 feet The shape is 
elliptic. There has been an entrance at north-north- 
west, and at the south-east side there would seem to 
have been a well. Tiles have been found in l^e meadow, 
but no remains are now left. 

The hamlets called the "Arowries" seem to imply 
that some ground had been cultivated in very early 
times, to the surprise of the inhabitants, most of it 
being boggy. At the extreme point of Westmorland 
there is an instance of a similar kind. About a mile 
to the north-east of Howgill Castle, in the parish of 
Milbum, towards Crossfell, and at the foot of Bmney 
Hill, there is distinct evidence of cultivation on the 

' At the Trench sonth-eaat of Wem, and the Trench north of Ellles- 
mere, there are nnmerooB trenches, and some vety large onea. 

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moor. This is jtiat on the edge of the Maiden Way, 
aod within a mUe or two of the well known station of 
Kirby There. The word tiriga (lane) seems to be the 
same as Ystiygul, the old name of Chepstow, Mon- 
. mouthsbire, which it obtained from the small river which 
there joins the Wye. Owen Pughe's derivation of it 
from ystrych, "that forms an opening," would meet the 
requiremeDta of each, this one still adhering to the Latin 

The name "Gredington" may, perhaps, be a transmu- 
tation of Tre Wledig, to which reference is made in that 
township so late as ube reign of Edward I. The top of it 
is still c»I1ed Cold Hill, and if the usual explanation of 
this word {froin Colonia) is accepted, it woula imply that 
there was a settlement here in Boman times. No remains 
that I am aware of have ever been found there. The 
situation is a very strong one, and commands an exten- 
sive view. On the south iJiere is a deep ravine, ex- 
tending three quarters of a mile. On the north and north- 
east there are the Whitmoss (formerly, perhaps a lake) 
and Hanmer Mere. To the east there is what seems 
an artificial trench, extending several hundred yards, 
and separating it from the ground, formerly called 
Highermost Grediton.' An old road went past it from 
Hanmer towards EUeemere. There is, indeed, the same 
concurrence of roads here as at the point formerly men- 
tioned, called the Bal-mer.' From Gredington to the 
Wichea is about three miles, and when we remember 
what a sharp eye the Romans* kept upon such springs, 
and that the "salt-lane" leading on to Loppingtun passed 

' Oue of the fields adjoining was called " Maes y Lan," in 17SS. 
The deriration Whitaker gives for Mediolanam is med=taSx, and 
Imi=a fortress {Siri. of Manehetter, i, p. 148) ) and in i, cap. x, p. 
435, he speaks of Eblana or Hediolannm (Eicbard of Cirencester, 
p. 44). [But med does not mean "fair", nor Ian (irbether from glan 
or lian), " a fortress"; that is, if thej are intended to be Welsh 
words. — Ed Areh. Gamb.'] 

* Qy.,DoI and tnur, the wall of tbe projection, referring to the little 
monnd close by. At some two hnndred yards distance there is Hoi 
Mnr Pit. 

* The Romans, on their settlement in Britain, iminedi^«ly marked 

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close by, it adds to the gener^ weight of evidence that 
there was a settlement not far off. It is not so clear, 
however, that this was the Wich from which the 
Abhey of Haughmond drew its supplies. In the Chart- 
ulary, under tbe heading "Wich i Cest", is the grant 
of Suthwich to the abbey by William Fitz Alan. As 
the higher of the two Wiches now in question is on 
the south edge of Cheshire, and has had till lately three 
brinepitSjit seems to be the one referred to, but the right 
of way granted to the abbey over his lands by Walter 
de Diinstanville, " when going to or returning from 
Wiche in Cheshire" referred, it seems, to the neighbour- 
hood of Adderley, which Hes between the abbey and 
Nantwich. On the other hand, in the Vcdor of Henry 
VIII, amoQg the possessions of the abbey, under 
"Cora Salop, Wich malbank is Un domus 13a id.", by 
which seems to be intended a saUna, or salt-house. 
Nantwich never could be described as in Salop, nor 
could the Higher Dirtwich ; but the Lower Dirtwich, 
which ifl half a nule lower down the stream, is on the 
Flintshire side of the river Elfe, and consequently 
might be (and was) included in Salop both before the 
Conquest, and again in the days of the Peveril supre- 
macy.' In Ormerod's account of Nantwich there is no 
mention of Haughmond holding anything there; nor 
is there in respect of the Upper Dirtwich.' The Lower 
Dirtwich is not noticed, being in Flintshire. 

Y Gwrddymp, the Welsh name of Worthenbury, is 

and collected the mineral springs of the island, wbicli had rilled on 
for ages unnoticed by the natives. (Whitaker, i. Corrigenda, p. SO.) 

* At tbe date of the Taxatio of Pope Nicholas, a.d. 1291, a part of 
Whitcharch parish is said to be in FlinUhire, which could be no 
other than tluB ; bat till the time of Henry VIII it seems to have 
been described sometimes as in Salop. 

' Matthew Paris speaks of an expedition of Henry III against 
North Wales in a.d. 1245, when he destroyed the Cheshire Wiches 
to distress the Welsh, and caused a dreadful famine by depopulating 
the borders of Cheshire with a similar object. This Wiche had, per- 
haps, not recovered in Leland's time, for we find {Itin. vii, fol. 22) 
" at the Dyrtowiche a new pitte beayde the old decayed"; and again 
(t, fol. B2), " tber be a u or lu bat veri little salt springs at Itert- 

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thoiig;ht by some to be a corruption of Gwyrdd-etn, 
emerald. In the Record Office' there is a claim made 
by Margaret Young de Croxton for a right of way to 
her meadow of Gwyigloth (gwyrdd and clawdd) higher 
up the same valley, luong a road (already noticed) which 
ran through Hanmer to Halghton Hall. As the first 
ayllable of these three words {gwyrdd, green) is the 
same, describing accurately the appearance of these 
fields, we have httle or no doubt that Emral, which is 
indeed the gem of them all, baa graduallv taken to it- 
self the name which once was shared with the rest of 
the vala M. H. L. 


In No. 17 (4th series) of this Journal, a short notice is 
given on these two megalithic structures, but as the 
dimensions differ somewhat from those taken by myself, 
I beg to send you drawings and ground plans of them, 
as also of other remains near Cardiff They are reduced 
to the same scale to show their comparative sizes. 

Unfortunately their contents were thrown out years 
ago, and no record of them kept, at least so far as I can 
ascertain ; and as any facts connected with them may 
be interesting to archaeologists, I send the following 
from my notes. 

wicbe, in a low botom, where Bamtimes salt; is made". All this was 
changed when, in the Commonwealth, Shrewebor^ was supplied 
from here. The proeperitj of the place continned into the present 

' Welsh InqaiaitionB. Bight of way in Halston. No. 6, S9th Eliza- 
beth. "P' occnpacione ejnadem prati (Owergloth) qnedam via sonft- 
bilis e'e debet et Bolet extra altam regiam riam a molendiDo vocat 
le olde myll in halghton p'd vBqne ad ecd'iam p'ochialem de Han- 
mer p'd'tam et p* qnandam venellam et esinde inaaper et trans 
qnandam clansoram terre eidcm adiacen' vocat' le Bryn et eiinde _ 
insnper et trnns aliam clansnram terre eidem adiacea' toc' Qwyr- 
glotn Vawr et sic in prat' p'd'." 

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Not being satisfied with merely planning and aketch- 
ing them, we were anxious to ascertaio whether what 
had been thrown out from the interior resembled in any 
way the contents of similar localities ezamined else- 
where by myself and brothers ; we therefore grubbed 
about amongst tiie dSbris of stones, etc., outside the 
St. Nicholas cromlech, and soon discovered fragments 
of human teeth and unbumt bones, with portions of 
rude pottery, thus proving that its original use was the 
same everywhere, t. e., for the express purpose of bury- 
ing the dead within, then covering them afterwards 
with a mound of earth or small stones, for the double 
purpose of concealing them, and marking the last rest- 
ing place of departed chiefs or friends. There is no 
doubt whatever, that, whether we see cromlechs covered 
with a mound or denuded of their coverings, they were 
all sepulchral chambers and all originally covered by a 
mound or tiunulus. Those we now find uncovered have 
been exposed to view by subsequent searchers after 
treasure, or the ground has in later times been removed 
for agricultural purposes. 

If we take up those charming poems of Ossian, which 
date back to the third century, we continually find al- 
lusions made to the "mounds" and "gray stones" that 
mark the last resting places of departed warriors, thus : 
" If fall 1 must in the held, raise high my grave, VLavela. 
Gray stones and heaped up earth shall mark me to 
future times ; when the hunter shall sit bythe mound and 
produce bis food at noon, ' Some warrior rests here,' he 
will say, and my fame shall live in his praise". Again, 
" Their green tombs are seen by the mariner when he 
bounds on the waves of the north".' 

The greatest length of the St. Nicholas cromlech 
capstone is 22 ft. 9 in. by 15 ft. 8 in. wide, and 3 ft. 
6 m. thick, supported by three props at the east end ; 
the first measures 5 ft. 5 in. in height, by 2 ft. 9 iiL 
wide ; the second 3 ft 5 in. by 6 ft. 8 in. wide ; the third 

' Snrel; the poems of Ossian, manofactared id the last century, 
cannot have the Blighteat hulorieal valne. — Ed. Arch. Camh. 

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D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 

.;. Google 

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Di. Google 


3 f^ 4 in. by 4 ft. 10 in. wide. The western end is sup- 
ported by one prop 1 1 ft 8 in. wide by 2 ft 10 in. higb; on 
the Dorth there is but one prop 13 ft. 8 in. wide by 5 ft 
high. The prop or props, which no doubt completed this 
chamber on the south aide, have long since been removed. 
The remains of the original mound are visible all round. 

When visiting this cromlech, which is on the Dyflfryn 
estate, in the parish of St. Nicholas, in a small wood 
close to the farm occupied by Mr. Jenkins, distant from 
Cai-diff about six miles on the road to Cowbridge, I was 
much struck with the name given to it by some child- 
ren we found playing ntund these " big stones". On 
my asking one of them what they called them, he re- 
pUod, " CSstell Corrig". Some years ago, when examin- 
mg the numeroxiB Celtic remams of Brittany, I found 
the same name given to many of the cromlechs there, 
Corrig meaning a fairy in the Breton language. The 
" Butte de C^r" tumulus, which is 33 ft. in height, 
to be seen near the village of Locmariuouer, close to the 
sea shore at the entrance to the Gulf of the Morbihan, 
is known to the native peasantry as Manne'-er-h'roek, 
or Montagne de la fee. The French call them "Creux 
des f^" and " rochee aux f^". In England we call 
them " Fairies' Hole" or "Cave." In the Channel Is- 
lands they are also called by the same names, and also 
" Pouquelaye", "Pouque", meaning a fairy, hence, no 
doubt, the name given by the immortal Shakespeare to 
"Puck", one of the characters in his Midsummer Night's 
Dream. A few yards from this spot, to the north-west in 
the same wood, are to be seen several stones showing 
their heads above ground which appear to me to be props 
belouging to another cromlech. There are also sevend 
large Mocks in the fields and hedges close by, which I 
think must have belonged to other similar structures. 

The orientation of the Castell Corrig cromlech is 
nearly east and west, that is to say, the capstone, which 
is long, inclines to the west, and not to the east, as in 
most other examples. 

About three quarters of a mile from this spot, follow- 

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174 ST. LYTHAN'3 and ST. NtCHOLAS' 

ing the road southwarda to St. Lythan's, you arrive at 
a cross road, close to which, oa turning to the left and 
near to a small cottage, Btands in all its grandeur in 
the field above the £ne megaUthic structure of St. 
Lythan's, veiy good drawings of which are given in No. 
17 of this Journal. 

Here, too, I also found children playing ; on my ask- 
ing them what they called these " big stones", they 
replied " Stoney House". The name given in the Ord- 
nance map of the locality b Maes y lelin. 

Its dimensions are, height to top of capstone lift. 
8 in., length 14 ft. 8 in. by 10 ft., and 2 ft. 6 in. in 
thickness ; height of south prop 9 ft. 11 in. by 11 ft. 
6 in., and 1 ft. 6 in. in thickness ; the north prop mea- 
sures 9 ft. 10 in. high by 10 ffc. wide, and 1 ft 9 in. thick ; 
the western prop is 7 ft. 6 in. high by 4 fi^ 8 in. wide. 

Amongst the debris thrown out from the interior, 
years ago, we found, as at St. Nicholas, human remains 
unbumt and coarse pottery. It matters very little 
which direction wo take over the Welsh hiUs, there we 
find cromlechs, tumuli or cairns, and camps. Archfeo- 
logists have, therefore, much to interest them besides 
the ruined abbeys and castles nestling on such favoured 
spots, and strange as it may appear, there are always 
faiiy tales and ghost stories connected with them; some, 
though fully beheved in by the inhabitants of those 
locahties, are often of the most absurd character; in fact, 
the more ridiculous they are the more they are be- 
lieved in. 

Master "Puck" plays his part well, and tradition re- 
cords many of his wonderful pranks even in this neigh- 
bourhood. In 1851 an amusmg pamphlet was written 
as a prize essay, entitled "Pwka'r Trwyn", or the cele- 
brated MynydoKilwyn sprite, by the late Mr. D. Rhya 

The Trwyn is a farm on the left hand side of the 
Valley of the Gwyddon, as you ascend it fiium Aber- 
gwyddon, and near the top of it. It is reported that a 
8«-vant girl, who attended to the cattle belonging to 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


this farm, was in the habit of taking out a bowl of fresh 
milk and a slice of white bread, wmch she placed od a 
certajn spot for "Master Pwka", but one evening she 
ate the white bread and drank the milk, and substi- 
tuted coarse bread and very inferior beverage. The 
basin was returned with the meal untouched, and the 
next time the girl passed the lonely spot she felt her- 
self taken hold of, she fancied, by human hands under 
the arm pits, and no veir sparing castigation inflicted 
upon her, with a dear indication, in plam Welsh, of the 
nature of her oflence, with appropriate warnings against 
its repetition. This is thoroughly believed in there to 
this day. 

A word or two on these sometimes mischievous and 
at other times good-natured sprites. 

Puck, Poke, Poake, Pouque, Powka, Pucca, Pixie, 
Pixam, Pincke, Picke, Patch, Elf, Hob, Hobgoblin, 
Hobthrush, eta, and a variety of other names, are all 
given to the busy everywhere to be beard of sprites. 
Some are supposed to haunt woods, some bouses, others 
the tops of mils, certain valleys, ruined buildings, and 
even the sea coast ; in every country we hear of them. 
Many villages, hills, meadows, and ruins, bear evidences 
of Puck's visits, such as Upper and Lower Puck Hill, 
Puck Meadow, Powk House, PuckweU, Puckington, 
Puck's Rock near Howth, and Puck Castle, a romantic 
ruin in the coimty of Dublin, Pixie's Cave at Dartmoor, 
Pix HiU, Herefordshire, etc., Cwm Pucca, the Devil's 
Bridge in South Wales, and the celebrated Pwka'r 
Trwyn, well known dso for his pranks at Pant y Gaseg 
near PontypooL 

The Dutch "spook", the German "spuck", the Swe- 
dish, "spoke",and the Danisb"sp6gele8e , mean precisely 
the same thing ; thus the Germans and Swedes Bay, ' ' £^ 
spuckt im hause", and "Det spokar i haiiset", for " the 
house is haunted". Then we have the puff-ball, or 
Puck-ball or Puck-fist, and "fairy rings"; the "little 
folks" are known to have a great liking for the fungus 
or mushroom tribe, aa Drayton in his Nymphidia says : 

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176 ST. LYTHAN's and 8T. NICHOLAS' 

Aod in their oonram make that ronnd 
In meadows and in marshes found, 
Of them so c&ll'd tbe " faiiy gronad", 
Of which tbej have tbe keeping. 

In Ireland the Pooka is pre-eminent in malice and 
miBchief, assuming every imaginable shape, aometimes 
that of a horse, a null, a calf, an eagle, or a goat, indeed 
the Irish word for a goat is " puc". 

Golding, in his translation of Ovid, speaks of him thus : 

The conutrj where ChimterB, that same Ponk, 

With goatish body, lion 'a head and breast, and dragon's ta!l, etc. 

The pook or pooka means literally the"evil one"; "play- 
ing the puck' isacommonAiiglo-Irish phrase, equivalent 
to " playing the devil". In Cornwall and Devon, nurses 
frighten children, when disobedient or naughty, by tell- 
ingthat the "Bookers" are coming ! 

The great object of the Pooka seems to be to obt^n 
a rider, and then he is in all his most malignant glory. 
Headlong he dashes thi-ough flood and fell, over moun- 
tain, valley, moor, or river, indiscriminately up or down 
precipice is alike to him, utterly reckless of the cries 
and danger and suffering of the luckless wight who 
bestrides him. 

The English Puck is a jolly, frolicksome, night-loving 
rogue, full of archness, and fond of all kind of merry 
tncks; a shrewd and knavish spirit, as Shakespeare has 
it, thus : 

Tboa Bpeak'st aright : 
I am the merry wanderer of the night. 

y'eat to Oberon, and make him smile, 
hen I a fat and bean-fed horse beguile. 
Neighing in likeness of a filly foal. 
And sometimes Inrk I in a gossip's bowl, 
In very likeness of a roasted orab ; 
And when she drinks, against her lips I bob. 
And on her wither'd dewlap poor the ale. 

There is also a certain sort of superstitious respect 
paid to the stone celt as well as the flint arrow-head 
prevalent over more than one half of the human race. 
The former, when found by the country people, are 

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caUed "thiinderbolts"and "thunderstones"; and the lat- 
ter, "elf-ahot" and the "elfin-dart" of the North, — the 
" fiury dart" of some of our oonntieB, supposed to have 
been used by the fairies in injuring and wounding 
cattle. The possessing of a stone celt in a house is even 
now considered as a sure protection against the effects 
of storms and lightning, and it is called by the French 
coin de /oudre. Shakespeare seems to have had this 
idea when he makes Guiderius and his brother sing : 

Fear no more the lightning flasli. 
Nor the all-dreaded thonderatone. 

These universal weapons of ancient times, to which 
superstitioo attaches some power of preventing evils, are 
kept in the hoxise or on the person of the mountaineer, 
and to them many a medicinal or anti-magical property 
is ascribed In the Alps and in Savoy I have seen them 
tied up in the wool over the shoulders of sheep, to pre- 
vent smallpox and other diseases in a flock 1 In Brit- 
tany the stone celt is frequently thrown down into the 
well for the puriiying or the supplying of a continued 
spring of good water ; fmd is even sometimes boiled, 
and uie water drank, to cure certain maladies! The 
Hindoo, in like manner, carries one into his temple, and 
offers it with much reverence to his Bhudda or Maha- 
deo. In the year 1860 no less than five stone celts 
were removed from an altar reared in a forest near Alla- 
habad ; and another was placed in a small niche in a 
peepul-tree, where the Hmdoo was wont to kneel at 
the foot of hia sacred tree. I have an "elf-shot" or flint 
arrow-point, mounted in silver, which was suspended 
to the neck of an old lady from Scotland for more than 
half a centuiy. She wore it with more than the com- 
mon pride of an ornament. There was a charm as well 
as a real attachment to it. 

Until within the last few years the only dolmens 
known were confined exclusively to that area of country 
inhabited by the Celtic race, and hence all megalithic 
structures were with good reason relegated to an origin 
wholly Celtic Of late years, however, since the dis- 

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covery of raegalithic tombs in other parts of the world, 
there has arisen considerable doubt as to the raoe- 
affinitiea of the dolmen-builders ; and certainly the Celts 
possess no traditions of the sepulchral character of these 
monuments, which, according to their folk-lore, were 
the abodes of witches and fairi^, and were the handi- 
work of the "korils", "corrigs", " Duz" and " Teuz" 
(elves and fays). 

There are many theories aa to the original home of 
these dolmen-building people, who have been variously 
named as proto-Scyi^ians or proto-Gelts, and as to the 
direction from whence they penetrated Western France 
and our own islanda There seems but little doubt 
that their ancient seat was in Central Asia, and that 
they were, as M. Bertrand affirms, a conservative and 
exclusive race, who, resisting absorption by a superior 
people, were expelled from their aboriginal home, from 
whence they spread westward ; and it is an indubitable 
fact that the most easterly point in Europe, where their 
sepulchres are found, is the Crimean peninsula, and that 
the megalithic tombs here are the most ancient of their 
kind known. Thence, according to M. de Bonstetten, 
one branch of migration spread towards Greece, Syria, 
Italy, Corsica, Sardinia, etc.; and another, skirting the 
borders of the great Hercynian forest {vid Silesia, where 
at Oppeln and Liegnitz are found the next megalithic 
remains), took their route towards the shores of the 
Baltic, where the cromlechs are considered second only 
in antiquity to those of the Crimea. Sere there is 
some difference of opinion as to their line of march. 
According to M. Bertrand they remained for a length- 
ened period in Denmark, whence, again expelled, they 
crossed the water, and reached the Shetland and Ork- 
ney Isles, whence they can be traced on either side of 
the Irish Channel, and finally recrossed the Channel to 
Brittany. On the other hand, M. de Bonstetten is of 
opinion that from the Baltic the tide of migration over- 
ran Germany, Friesland, Dreuthe, Sdileswig-Holstein, 
and Jutland ; and, following the coast-line, traversed 

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Belgium, the north of France, Normandy ; finally 
reaching Brittany, where the numerous dolmens attest 
their prolonged stay. Part are then supposed to have 
crossed over by the Channel Islands, which are rich in 
dolmen-mounds, to Cornwall and Devon, gradually 
reaching the south-east of Ireland, and W^s. The 
absence of such remains in the west of Ireland and in 
the east of England is very marked. Another portion 
left Brittany, and penetrated southwards along the 
coast as far as the Gironde, whence leaving the sea- 
board, to avoid the sandy plains of Gascony, they fol- 
lowed the course of the Dordogne, and traversed Firance 
in the direction of the Gulf of Lyons. Small, detached 
bands seem also to have penetrated into Savoy and 
Switzerland, as shown by a few isolated dolmens in 
those localities. The mountains seem to have delayed 
the onward progress of these nomades for some time in 
the departments of Arrifege, Upper and I^wer Pyrenees ; 
but at length crossing this oMtacle, they leave traces 
in Portugal, through Spain, vid Cordova, Granada, and 
Malaga, finally crossing the Mediterranean, have lefib 
their tombs in the noithem coasts of Africa, up to the 
very frontiers of Egypt' 

In every quarter of the globe, wherever man first 
settled, we find a wonderful similarity of atructure in 
their sepulchres ; and wherever examined carefully, we 
find strong features of resemblance in their contents 
and burial customs. The stone implements of that 
period (celts, arrow-points, etc.), all bear the same gene- 
ral form and character, varying only in the material 
vaed in certain localitie& 

Many persons have an idea that where cromlechs or 
dolmens are now to be seen without any mound or 
covering, that ihej were always so. This is incorrect, 
for they all originally had mounds over them. In many 
instances the superincumbent mound has been removed 
by searchers after supposed hidden treasures, or by 

' Vide " The Dolmen Moonds of Brittany", by Capt. Oliver, E. A., 
in Quarterty Journal of Seieiux. 

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farmers for the sake of the earth. We know of many 
that have totally disappeared — mound, stones, and all — 
within the last few years. Fortunately some of these 
were carefully planned by us, otherwise all record of 
them would have been lost for ever. There are covered 
chambered tumuli to be met with, in almost every 
country, nearly in the same state as when originally 
constructed. We find them in Great Britain, in the 
Channel Islands, Brittany, Scandinavia, Africa, America, 
China, etc., and uncovered aa well, but all bearing ample 
evidences of their having been originally covered with 
earth or small stones. 

Is it not remarkable that there is no distinct allusion 
to be found in Anglo-Saxon documents* to cromlechs as 
" visible" stone structures 1 This being the case, does 
it not afford a fair negative proof that they were hid 
from sight under their mounds or coverings at that 
period, and indeed we are greatly indebted to this fact, 
as well as to the superstitious feeling attached to all 
similar spots in the minds of the early inhabitants, for 
their preservation to this day. Many are the tales even 
now told of accidents and sicknesses of all kinds which 
have befallen those who have destroyed any of these 
once hallowed chambers 1 

With regard to the word "cromlech", as applied to 
such widely different structuroa, it is not to be won- 
dered at if it sometimes misleads archeeologbts. The 
word cromlech of the English autiquary is the same as 
the Welsh and English " quoit", such as Arthur's quoit, 
or coetan, near Criccieth ; Coytty Castell, near Bridge 
end ; Lanyon quoit and Chun quoit, and others, in Corn- 
wall ; Stanton Drew " quoit' , in Somersetshire ; the 
Kitt's Koty or Coit, near Maidstone, and the Colt-y- 
enroc, in Guernsey ; but the French archseologist ap- 
plies it to a circle of upright stones, and speaks of the 
dolmen or table of stone {dol, a table ; moen, a stone). 
Professor NilssoD defines the English cromlech as syno- 

* Ancient Welsh docnmente are eqnallj devoid of allasion to Uiese 
stmctnres. — Ed. Arch. Camb. 

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Di. Google 


njmous to the French "dolmen", the Scandinavian 
" doa", and the "dyes" of Denmark. 

It is just posaible that the word may be derived from 
the two Welsh words crom, a vault, and llech, a stone,' 
as some authors state, or even from the Hebrew "Caerem- 
luach", a devoted stone or attar. Be this as it may, we 
still adopt the word, because we have no better to 
make use of. 

A third cromlech is still to be seen in the neigh- 
bourhood of Cardiff, which is very little known to arehss- 
ologists, although it stands on the side of a narrow 
lane leading to a farm house in the parish of Pentyrch, 
and bordering on the parish of Llantrisant, midway 
between the farms of Castell y My nach and Hendref Ys- 
^than, a ground plan and sketch of which are annexed. 
The site is better known as "Caer-yrfa", which means 
" the field of arms", but what sort of arms were ever 
found there I cannot team.' It is not improbable a 
battle may have been fought near this. This monu- 
ment is not on a hill or rising ground, but rather on 
the low sloping ground. The original lane must have 
been one of the narrow bridle roada of Wales, which has 
been widened into a lane of ordinary width, in the 
making of which the farmer told me the workmen re- 

moved several large stones which formed part of the 
structure. Only one capstone remains, supported by 

1 There can bardly be a doobt abont it. To derive the word from 
the Hebrow is one of the absurdities of a past geoeration. — Ed. 
Arch. Camb. 

* The word ie probably atrfa, not arfav. Aetfa sigiiilies a plHoe 
nf bkttle or elaaghteri and seootidarily, a alanghter or battle.— Eo. 
Arc\. Cantb. 

♦TH «a. YO,.. v.. U 



two props, the former is 9 ft. 8 in. long by 5 fl. at its 
broadest end, terminating in a point. Tbe western 
prop is 5 ft. 6 in. by 5 ft., and 1 ft. 6 in. thick. Tbe east- 
em prop is 6 ft., by 5 ft. 6 in.,and 1 ft. 4 in. thick, a third, 
tbougb smaller prop, lies inside. The present entrance 
faces the north, ana is 3 ft. between the props, and at 
the south 5 ft. 6 in. The structure being orientated 
nearly north and south. Three years ago, part of the 
tumiilus was still intact on the south side, since which 
a wall endoeing a garden has been built across, the 
south end of the capstone. A Roman camp crowns 
the hill to the north-west, overlooking the Cross Inn 
railway station towards Llantrisant, and another on 
the south side of the village of Pentyrcb east of this 
spot on the Garth hill, which rises north of Pentyrcb ; 
there are four tumuli. 

Let us now travel a few miles from Cardiff, on the 
Rhymney line of railway, to the Pontlottyn station, 
where, taking « westerly direction, the hills rise to an 
elevation of 1574 feet above the sea level We find here 
a spot of considerable interest called Y Fochriw Fach, 
Gelligaer, but midway between this and the station 
we passed over Senghenith common, where on the slope 
of the hill are to be seen a number of cairns, varying 
from five to ten yards in diameter, formed chiefly of 
small stones, but whether connected with this ancient 
burial ground or not it is difficult to say, but there are 
several lines of irregular stony embankments running 
down the hill to the brook below, and at right angles 
with them, enclosing as it were these caims. We 
opened one of the smaller ones, which had not the 
slightest appearance of having been disturbed, by cut- 
ting a trench through It down to the natural soil (clay), 
and only found small quantities of charcoal. The open- 
ing of another cairn was deferred to some future day, 
when we hope to be more fortunate. From thence we 
proceeded to the rising ground called Pen y Fochriw, 
where there are still several tumuli, as shown on the 
accompanying ground plan, as also a raaen hir of small 

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Di. Google 

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The first tumulus we came to is about 30 ft. by 20 ft. 
diameter, and contains a small kist 4 ft. 6 in. long by 
2 ft. 4 in. wide, and 1 ft;, in depth,, formed of four thin 
abbs of sandstone, covered by one slab 5 ft. by 5 ft., a. 
second having been removed. About forty yards to 
the south is another tumulus or cairn, for it is formed 
of small slabs of sandstone 56 ft. by 53 ft. in diameter, 
renuu-kable for its containing several kista placed parallel 
to each other, as shown in ground plan, having a north 
and south orientation. 

About 400 yards south from this spot, on the slope 
of the hill, is a third mound about 24 ft. diameter, con- 
taining one small kist 4 ft. 10 in. by 2 ft. 4 in. wide. 
The capstone is 5 ft. 6 in. by 4 ft., which may have once 
completely covered the kist, without a second capstone. 
About 350 yards to the south-west is another small 
mound and kist of similar dimensions, and our ?uide 
told us that there were others in the neighbourhood, 
but we did not see them ; no doubt they have been de- 
stroyed and the stones removed, as usual, for building 
purposes t About 400 yards south of the larger mouno, 
to the east of the last mentioned caiiTi, stands the 
maen hir on the south edge of a small double circular 
embankment, or a circle within a circle, 33 ft. in diam- 
eter. The maen hir is 8 ft. 6 in. high by 1 ft. 6 in. 
wide ; it is remarkable in having an inscription in 
Welsh engraved on its eastern face, which our guide 
told us reads " Defroihi", and means "Awake imto 
thee"; but whether this is a correct translation' or 
not I am unable to say, as it has puzzled two or three 

1 lihwjd, ttie most eminent Geltio scholar of the last centurj baa 
the following note on this inaoription: — "On a monntain called 
Afynydh Oelhi Oner, in QlamorganBhire, we find the BntUh name 
Dyvrod inscribed on a stone tefrauti. In tb« Notes on Glamorgan- 
shire, in Camden, I have read tbia inscription (supposing it might 
have been Welsh) BeffTo it ti (mayst thou awake) ; bnt baring fonnd 
afterwards that the names anciently inscribed on monnments in oar 
country are very oft«n in the genitive case, as conbklini, setibihi, 
AiHlLiNi, etc., and most, if not all, Latin, I now conclnde it a proper 
name, and the very same that is otherwise called IhibriUvt." (^Areha- 
(rfmp'a Britaimka, p. 227, col. 2.) — En. Jrck. Comb. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 

1 84 ST. LVTHAN'3 and ST. NICHOLAS' 

good Welsh scholars. I do not douht for a moment 
tiiat this inscription is of much later date than the 
maen hir itself/ I have not been able to learn when 
the above kists were laid bare of their coverings, or 
what relics were found in them. We noticed many 
other cairns on the neighbouring hills. 

In the month of November, 1874, a short account 
was given in the local papers by Corporal W. H. White, 
of the Royal Engineers, who was in charge of the Ord- 
nance surveying party, of the finding of a lai^e number 
of cairns on the mountains of Tyfodwg near here ; he 
writes thus : "At a place facing Hirwaun common and 
known as Cam y Gist, near Bwlch y Lladron (marked 
"cam" only on the Ordnance map, No. 36), the whole of 
the rising ground to the southof the common ia covered 
with small cairns of stones resembling burial cairns, in 
some of which it is presumed there are stone cista or 
coffins. The great battle between Rhys ab Tewdwr, 
Einion ab CoUwyn, and Fitz Hammon, was fought 
near this place, and one of the places of conflict on the 
common is known to this day as ' y Twyn Coch', or 
'Cam Goch', or the ' Red Mount,' and within a short 
distance is ' Nant yr Oehain, or ' the Brook of Groan- 
ing.' It is presumed that the wounded soldiers crawled 
to this brook, and that the inhabitants of the district 
following the ancient usage of their ancestors, gave the 
above name to it in memoryofthe'Ochain'heard there."* 

In No. 14 (4th Series) of this Journal there is a good 
account of the opening of some of the caima on Barry 

' Since writing the aboTe, Dr. J. Jones' Mittory of Walet, pub- 
lished 1824, has come nnder my notice, in which I find, p. 17 and 
p. 329, spesking of this maen hir, he calls it a mtUanum ,- and that 
the inscription reads,"FiefVonti",or probably the road of Jnlins 
Frontinns ; bnt speaks of it as " the remnant of an ancient inscrip- 
tion". This is not the case, for we carefallj examined the maen htr, 
and conld find no other traces of letters. 

' A few days ago a kist was disooTered on the side of the monntaia 
above Ty Newydd farm, in the Ogmore Valley. It appears that a 
nnmber of men were engaged in clearing away a cairn of stanes 
when they stmck the kist inside ; at the bottom of which, at the 
depth of about 3 feet, they fonnd several bntnan bones, bat whftt 
else I bare not jet learst 

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IslaDd, which is distant ahout twelve miles from Cardiff. 
I visited this spot shortly after the urn was discovered, 
and found in the same cairn the remains of three other 
interments, which do not appear to have been noticed. 
As in the case of the urn, these separate interments 
were encircled by sea shells and small stones, but no 
um accompanied them. I am inclined to beHeve that 
there is a large tumuliis on the island which does not 
appear to have been disturbed. 

By far the larger number of sepulchral monuments 
known as cromlechs or dolmens have their openings or 
entrances between the east and south points of the 
compass, »'. c, nearly ninety per cent^ are so turned, 
which it must be admitted cannot be an accidental cir- 
cumstance, 8ome few have their orientation north and 
south. In other instances, where the primary chamber 
points east and west, the subsequent additional cham- 
ber sometimes opens to the south-east, and others to the 
north-east, probably owing to tiie later dolmen builders 
losing the original orientation, as chamber after chamber 
was added to the first one, or it might have been so as 
to keep within the limits of the tumulus. The crom- 
lech of Le Kocher, in firittany, forms a right angle and 
opens to the south-east, whereas that of Rergonfals 
turns the other way to the north-east. Many of the 
Welsh megalithic structures have a north and soui^b ori- 
entation, as in the example of Caer-yrfa described above, 
also the Park Cwm tumulus, in the parish of Penmaen, 
Gower, and others. The celebrated cromlech of Gavr- 
Innis in the Horbihan, France, has the same orientation. 

It would be difficult to account for these occasional 
variations in the points of the compass ; one idea has 
been su^ested, i. e., the probable desire on the part of 
the deceased to face the land of his birth, to the south — 
Brittany I' J. W. LnKis. 

Ckrdifi*: March, 1875. 

' Some years aeo I foand a rery perfect, polished stone celt, about 
3 incbes in length, in some dihris that was being carted into the 
Helin Tin-Plate Workfl, Dear Briton Ferry. In the field alon^de 
of these Works staDds a maen hir, which is being preserved by that 

D,<j,i,.,.,i.:, Google 



Sib, — Id the October namber of the Jonm&l, Mr. Brash has & 
paper on the above subject. Several of the readings he gives 
contain miBtakes, some of them probably dae to the printer. Am 
I Bee no correction of tbem forthcoming, I talce the liberty of 
pointing oat what appear to me to be intucnracies. Page 278, 
iTEKNi iB to be read KmaNi, and the drawing opposite that page is 
also wrong ; both are Professor Weetwood's, I believe. Page 281, 
xvoLEHO -- shoald be etolohq >- , the o is another of Westwood's 
mistakes. Ty Coed is imaginajy ; the name of the farm is Dvyoed; 
on asking for "Tj Coed", I was going to be led miles away 
from the stone. Page 262, Mr. Brash accepts another capital 
blonder of Professor Westwood's in etolrhus, which is to be 
read etolksoq-, with two Hiberno-Sazon g's; the stone is in 
the wall of Llandysailio Chnrch. I wonid not quarrel with Mr. 
Brash when be reads dobvhm on the Dngoed stooe, I have 
failed to read so much; what I made ont was dob... -. Prof. West* 
wood only read dob..., it seems. In the same namber Mr. Brash has 
a lettor which be^ns, p. 3S5, with an aooooiit of Gurei, in which he 
recognises the Irish name Cure or Can, Now Gurei is a common 
Welsh name, which oconrs frequently ; it has, in the Liber Landa- 
ventie, the forms Oturreu, Oureu, Quwrn, Qvrei, and later it became 
Qrorgi. Any one acquainted with the mdiments of Celtic philology 
could at a glance see that Welsh Qurei wonld be is Irish Faareku 
or ForeiM ; whether the name is known or not is of conrse another 

Jaestion. Mr. Brash justifies himself in identifying (Turn with Irish 
!nrc, " as in the language of that people [the Irish] the e and g 
were oommntable"; but he has forgotton to tell na nndsr what cir- 
oumstances that people made c into ^or^ intoe; tliiB it is requisite 
to know that one may jndge whether the observation could apply 
to the present case. In the same letter he gives a striking aooount 
of the stone at Llanfihangel y Traethan ; it wonld be hopeless to try 
to improve on his ezpl^ataon of it. I may say in passing that I 
was not aware that it bad been read long ago by Kr. Jones Parry 
(see Areheeologia Cambrentu, 1848, p. 226), but I am glad to find 
that my reading substantially agrees with bis. As to the Whitland 
stone, Mr. Brash tries to find Barcnni in the Irish Sarcun, Beroan, 
and Berchan, bnt he misses the real Irish equivalent in Ui-Berehon 
(see the Amtalt of the Fottr Uattari). The other name on the last 
mentioned stone he reads CHShveiidan •-• , as Professor Westwood 
did, instead of qvehvekdah - , for be observea, " 1 most oorrobonte 

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Mr. Weatwood's readiag of the Wfaitlaad stone ; indeed, I bare 
found him invariablj ftccnrato in his copies of all the insoriptionB I 
hare examined, eo much so that I have never an; hesitation in ao- 
oepting hie aathority." One conld sa; a few words on this text, 
bat tn; letter is almid; longer than it was intended to be. 

I remUD, joors troly, J. Bbts. 


SiK, — ^In leading Mr. Wynne's most interesting article in the last 
finmber of the ArduBologia Cambretuit on Harlech Castle, I find he 
mentionB Sir Richard Pole, K.O., in connection with it; might 
I Tentare to append a few obserrationa to his account. Ao> 
cording to an old pedigree, Sir Richard Pole was the son of 
Geoffrey Pole bj Edith, dangbter of Oliver St. John, and wu 
eighth in descent from OJlbert de la Pole (Welshpool), aaeond 
ton of Owenwjnwjn, Prince of Fowye, and bia bearing wonid 
be that of the Princes of Powys, or, a lion rampant giiiei. The 
great historical glory of the honse accmed to it throagb the 
marriage of Sir Richard with Margaret Plantagenet, bom at 
Parley Castle, eo. Somerset, and danghter and beiresa of Qeorge, 
Dake of Clarence, who is traditionally said to have been drowned in 
a bntt of wine in the Bowyer Tower of the Tower of London. The 
Lady Margaret's mother, it will be remembered, was the Lady Isabel 
)Ievill,siHtsr of Anne, wife of Richard III, and daughter and coheiress 
of Richard Nevill, Earl of Salisbmy and Warwick, E.G., by Anne, 
■ole heiress of her brother, Henry, Dnke of Warwick. The Lady 
Margaret Pole had a brother, Edward Plantagenet, Earl of War< 
wi«^ who was beheaded by Henir VII, and thns she became 
representative of the two iamilies of Plantagenet and NeviU. By 
her hnsband, Sir Richard, she had five children : Ist, Henry, Lord 
llontacnta, who left two coheiresses, the first, Katherine, wife of 
Francis Hastings, second Earl of Hnntingdon ; the second, Wini- 
fred, wife, firstly, of Sir Thomas Hastings, and, secondly, of Sir 
Thomas Barring^n of Essex ; secondly, Sir Geoffrey Pole; thirdly, 
Sir Arthur Pole, who had three children, the first, Henry, who died 
an infant ; the second, Mary, the elder coheiress, who married my 
ancestor. Sir John Stanley, Knt. ; the third, Margaret, coheiress, 
who married Sir Thomas Fitzherbert, Ent. 4thly, His Eminence 
Beginald CardinaJ. Pole ; and 6thly, Ursula, the wife of Henry, Lord 
Ste£brd, from whom the present Lord Stafford of Stafford descends. 
Uay I suggest that the coat party per pale or and »a., a saltire en- 
grailed conuterchanged, was taken from Sir Richard's wife, since it 
is the coat of the Karls of Salisbary, the ancestors of the grand- 
mother of the Dnchesa of Clarence F The oldest coat of Nev^ was 
or, fretty gvU* on a omton table, an ancient ship. Bat in the time 
of Edward III they bore argent, a saltire gulat. The ancle of the 
BucbesB of Clarence was John KeviU, Marqneas of Uontacote, 
whose coheiress married Sir Anthony Browne of Cowdray Park, oo. 

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Snssez, one of which family mftm'ed into that of the Graya, DOir 
represented by the Garl of Stamford and Warrington. Upon 
making a very interaeting Tisit, b short time since, to the Tower 
with a friend, himaelf the descendant of the sister of Henry YIII, 
amongst other things nhich we remarked, I noticed the man- 
ner in which Arthnr and Edmnnd Pole spell their name. In the 
Beancbamp Tower are the following inscriptions : — " Deo Ser- 
vire, penitentiHra inire, fato obedire, regnare est A. Poole 1564 
I.H.S."; and"I.H.S. A. pan sage perillns makethe a port pleasant, 
A' 1568. Arthnr Poole M sue 3? A. P." And again, "LH.8. 

Dio semin in lachrimia in einllatione meten. ^ 21 E. Poole 

1562." Beneath the aatograph of Edmnnd Poole is the word 
Jane, supposed to be intended for Lady Jane Grey, the qneen of a 
few days. From the above mentioned way of spelling the name of 
Pole they woald appear to have pronounced it Pool. The Lady 
Ursala Stafford was wife of Henry, son of Edmund, last Duke of 
Buckingham, by .^lianora, daughter of Henry Percy Earl of North- 
nmberland, and (grandson of lienry Duke of Buckingham (men- 
tioned by Mr. Wynne), by Catherine, daughter of Kichard Wid- 
ville, Earl Rivera. Yonr obedient servant, 

Hknbt F. J. JOKBS. 

P.S. In a paper by J, T. W. Lloyd, Esq., to whom ont Society is 
mnch indebted for works of historical and genealogical interest on 
the parish of Llangnrig, I noticed some account of the family of 
Jones of Ffinant. John Jones became of Ffiniinl.hy bis marriage with 
Mary, heiress of that place and daughter of William Lloyd, she died 
in 1 789. The following account of the family of this Mr. Jones may 
be of interest to certain of our Society, and I beg to snbjoin it. 

Ednowain Bendew, son of Cynan, married Gwerfyl, the daughter 
of Llyddocca ah Tudor Trevor ; he bore argent, a dieTron between 
three boar's heads aahle, couped and langaed gnUt, tnsked or, she bore 
party per bend, sinister ermine and ermine*, a lion rampant or. They 
had issue a son, 

Madogab Ednowain, who married Arddyn, daughter of Brad wen 
ab Idnertb ab Davydd Esgid Anr ah Owam Enrdorcbog ah Llew- 
elyn Enrdorchog. She bore gvie», three snakes enowed argent, and 
loft issue a eon,' 

lorwerth, who married Arddnard, a daughter of Llewelyn ab 
Owain, argent a cross engrailed flory table, between foor Comish 
choughs ppr., but others say he married Nest, daughter of Rhys ab 
Meirchion, and bad issue, 

Rhirid, who married Tibot, daughter of Sir Robert Pnlford of 
Pulford, table, a cross patonee or, and had issue, 

lorwerth, who married Nest, daughter of Grono ah Einiou ab 6eis- 
syllt, a descendant of Gwyddno Garanhir and Lord of Meirionydd j 
her mother was Middyfys, daughter of Owain Cyfeiliog, Lord of 
Powys ; or, a lion rampant gales; and her grandmother Nest, daughter 

■ Tide Areh Ca^b., January, I67A, p. 34. 

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ofCynveljs ab BoBfvDab RhiwallonabUAdog &b Cadwgan, Lord of 
NanDKii, or, a lion rampant atnre. She berself bore her father's arms, 
argmt, a lion passant guardant table, between three fleors-de-lis 
guUt, and they had a son, 

Botpertor Robert, living in 1339, who married Alioe, the heiress 
of Ithel Vychan, azure a lion passant argent, ber mother being Anies, 
daugbt«r of Sicbard ab Cadwaladr ab Grofiydd Ab Cyn&n of North 
Wales. They had issue a Bon, 

Saris or Kenrick, who married, firstly, AngbarHd, danghter of 
>g Lloyd of Bryn Cnnallt ab lorwerth Voel, descended from 
Tndor Trevor, per bend sinister eruiin« and ertninM a lion rampant 
or, and had by her a son,' 

Ithel Vychan, who married Angharad, the daaghter and heiress 
of Robert ab Meradydd ab Howel of Holt, descended from the first 
loyal tribe, vert three eagles displayed in fess or. They had issne, 

Cynrig or Eenricic (Anglic^ Henry) of Holt, who married Tang- 
wystl, daughter of Meredydd ab Grnffydd Llwyd, or danghter of 
GmSydd ab David ab Meredydd ab Rhys, and had a son, 

John of Holt, who married Margaret or Sionet, daughter of John 
Conway of Bodrhyddan (Colonel Jones' pedigree seems to make her 
the daughter of Hngb Conway). Sable on a bend ootized argent, a 
rose between two annulets gulet. They bad a eon, 

Richard ab John or Jones of Holt, who married Margaret, the 
danghter of Llewelyn Yyohan of Mold and bad issne, 

William Jones of Chilton, near Shrewsbnry, who married Alice, 
danghter of Richard Srereton of Cheshire, argent two bars lable. 
Her ancestor. Sir Randle Breretou of Breret«n, bad manied the 
lady Ida, fonrth danrhter and coheiress of David, Earl of Hnnt- 
infiaon, third son of Henry, crown prince of Scotlaod, and brother 
of Malcolm and William the Lion, kings of Scotland. They bad 

Richard Jones of Chilton, who married Elizabeth Lee of donees- 
tersbiie, by whom he had issue two sons. 

William the elder, of whom presently, and Thomas Jones of Uck' 
ington, CO. Salop, who married Elizabeth Cottel, an heiress, and was 
progenitor of the Joneses of Berwick Park, near Shrewsbury, and of 
Stanley Hall, near Bridgnorth, and nlao Sir Thomas Jones, Lord 
Chief Jastice of the Common Pleas in 1672. The elder son, Wil- 
liam, married Joan, danghter of Richard Blakeway of Croakhill, 
born 1 534, argent on a bend engrailed table, three bezants, bj whom 
be had issne, 

Thomas Jones of Chilton, bom 1550, who married Mary, daughter 
and heiress of John Gratwood of WolJarton, oonnty Salop, iwure two 
bars argeut on a canton table, a chevron between three pheons points 
downwards, two and one argent charged with a wolfs bead erased 
between two mnllets gviet. Her mother was Johanna, coheiress and 
Bister of Sir Roland Hill, Lord Mayor, and ber grandfather was 
William Gratwood, whose wife Mary was sister of Sir Richard New- 
' Vide Arch. Camb., Janoarj. 1874, p. 38. 

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port of Eaton, descended from the Bar^hs of Ifamddwy, and 
daaghtar of Thomas Newport by Anne, dnnghter of Sir Itobert Cor- 
bet of Morton Corbet, and Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Heory Yemon 
of Tong Castle, connty Salop, and Haddon Hall. They had isBtie 
two sons, 

William Jones of ChiltoD, and £dw&rd, of whom the former 
married Eleanor, danght«r of BJohard Cam of Ladlow, and had iaBOB 
three eona, 

Isaac Jones of Chilton, Samnel and John, ftnceator of the Jonesea 
of Broseley, though some say Edward above was their ancestor ; 
Isaac JoDos married Sasan, daughter of Blohard Hatchett, and by 
her had several children, of whom 

William Jonea of Chilton died Mar 24th, 1728, having married 
Susan, daaghter of John Calcott, of the Lower House, Berwick 
Park, and had issue 

John Jones, eldest son, married Mary, heiress of William Lloyd 
of Ffinnant, and had iseae a son Lloyd Jones ob. ». p., and e daughter 
Mary, who married Richard Congreve and had & son Bicbard Con- 
greve, of Burton in Won'el, county Chester, who seems to have died 
t. p, William Jonea, the second son, was of Chilton, and by Mary, 
daughter of Joseph Muckleston of Shrewsbury, bad issue, 

William Jones, bom 17S2, and married Miss Gibbons, by whom 
he left a eon. 

John Jones, Esq., of Chilton, the last heir male of this branch of 
the family who married, but died ».p. at Newport, county Salop, 
Ootober Sth, 1816 ; the Chilton and Ffinnant properties were sold, 
and the representation of the family passed to my forefathers. 

The arms of Jones are argent a lion rampant vert, wounded in 
the breast gulei, with numerous quarterings, and the crests; 1, The 
snD in aplendonr or^ 2, on an ancient crown, a dragon passant 
gnardant, guleg, etc. 

My notes have become of bo mnch greater a length thaa I had 
anticipated, that I mnst conclude by an apology fin- hi«]>— slim m> 
mnch upon the patience of the Society. 

H. F. J. J. 

76, Atdngdon Boad, Knudngton, W. 

Sib,— I do not know whether the Bishop of St David's atUl ad* 
heres to the theory proponnded in The VetHget of the Qael m Ovyr^- 
edd, namely, that the Owyddyl preceded the Cymry in the oconpa- 
tion of this island. Be that as it may, there can be no harm in 
registering such place-names as are, or are supposed to be, contri- 
bntory to the support of that view. I therefore beg to point out one 
name into which the word Gwyddel enters, and which I do not find 
in the work just mentioned, nor in the supplement to it printed in 
the ArehiBologia Cambrmtit, N. S., voL v, p. 257. Li a " Grant and 
Confirmation to the Monastery of Strata Florida, co. Cardigan, 8tb 

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rf Jnly, Srd of Heniy VI, i.o. 1426", printed in the third Tolnras 
cf th« first Bories of the Arehmologia Cambreruit, p. 196, occnrs ths 
nknw Trefy Owyddel five ttmea, Tarionslj spelt as Trtf hi Owydel (p. 
197), Tref Egwgda (p. 200), TVef y Oun/del (p. 203), Tm/ y Goy- 
dAaU and Trejigoidhd (p. 206). I do not know wbether the plaoe 
is now called by this name, but moat of the other places mentioned 
in the grant are well known at the present dav. The place was 
probftblr not far from Strata Florida, the localities mentioned along 
with it being in that neighbonrhood. 1 remain, jonrs fkithfolly, 


Sib, — I have hitherto looked in vain for a translation, by some of 
onr known acholan, of the Old Welsh quatrain which appeared at 
p. 340 of the AreJueologia Camhrensia for 1874. Thinking there 
might be no great harm in attempting a translation of these obacnre 
lines, tboDgh it might prove a failure, I tried my hand at it the 
other day, and beg to send yon the resall, trastiDg that some mora 
competent penon will soon faronr the public witii & more satisfiu- 
tory rersioD. 

Hay the all-comprehending TrioitT defend ne 

And mj tiiplet, three Terset compkiDiDg of oppreaiion I 

Hay the relici look (fa*oiu»bly) npon me 

Agaiut throbbing grief 

It is nnfortnnate that a portion (apparently fonr syllables) of the 
last line is wanting. 

I am. Sir, yonrs truly, DirnoiKS. 

StB, — On looking titroagh the engrarings in a recant pablioation, 
AntiquiiSs BuidoitfifarO. Montelina (Stockholm,1875),Iwas mnch 
stmck by the resemblance of some of the bronae celts there figured 
to the GQrions celt, fig. I, p. 71, of the present rolome. It is olear, 
from its state, that the ca«ting of the latter was imperfect. Com- 
paring it with the Swedish specimens, and also with the drawings 
in Wilde's Catalogue, figs. 247 to 251, and 254, it seems to be aa 
improvement on the simple, flat celt with a Inoette catting edge, so 
far as it has mdimeotBry flanges which etand slightly in advance of 
the flat shaft, and to form a transition into the implement with a 
stop and wider flanges. There sre fonr Swedish oelts (figs. 140, 141, 
14'^, and 143) which bear a general resemblance to fig. I as regards 
the mdimentarr flanges ; bat fig. 143 bears the greatest resemblance 
ts regards the form of the cutting edge, althongh it is more elegant 
in d«ign. None, however, have the spreading end to the shank, 
which fig. 1 has. It is diflScnlt to determine how these implements 
were nsed. The simple, flat celt appears to have been passed throngh 
the handle, and secnred to it by a thong bonnd aroand ; bat the 

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radimentarj fianges aeem to me to indicate on alteration of tbe 
mode of attachment to tbe handle, and rather to show that the 
handle mast have embraced the shaft of the celt, find have beea 
retained in its place by the flanges and ligatare aronnd. 

I am, jouM, etc., E. W, B. 

Sitljaologtcal £otes anii ^unies. 

Note 43, — DiTTDD ab Gwilym. — It is nncertain when that great 
poet died ; bnt he wrote an elegy upon Rhjidderoh ab levan Llwyd 
of Q\ja Aeron, tbe repreaentative, in his daj, of tbe greatest family 
in Cvdiganshire, and ancestor to the Pryses of Oogerddan ; and it 
appears certain that he was onlj recently dead at Michaelmas, 23 
Biobard II (1399), for in a roll of " Ministers' Aeconnto" for the 
coantj of Cardigan, for the year ending at that time, in the pablic 
Record Office in London, Jankinap Uhjdderch and his fonr brothers, 
heirs of tbe said Rhydderch ap leran Llnyd, are shown to be re- 
sponsible for £169 : 2 : 10, dne from their father as " bedelloa" of 
the commot of Uabwynion. W. W. E. W, 

Query 31.— Elenid.— Tbe bard Lewis CHyn Cothi (Poetical Warlts, 
III, iv, 43), in a poem addressed to Henry ab Gwilym ab Thomas 
Vychan of Cethiniog in Carmarthenshire, has tbe following line : 

Cadbeo jw Henri hyd Blenid 
(Henry is a captain as far as Elenid). Informatjon is requested 
respecting Eletiid. It appears to be tbe name of some place, bnt in 
what part of the country I have not been able to ascertain. The 
editors, in the tme spirit of commentBtors, have no note upon it, 
and no mention is made of it in their Qlosaary. Elenid is said by 
Pnghe to have the same signification as eleni (this year) ; bet it can 
hardly have that meaning in the passage jnst quoted. The CtUic 
Samaint, published by iustalmenta as a supplement to each nnmber 
of the Arelueologia Cambrejuie, would be a still more valuable work 
of reference if it contained cUl the names which occnr in onr ancient 
writers. I tmst, therefore, that when the publication of the pre- 
sent work has been completed, yon will be disposed to prepare aa 
appendix to it, containing sach names as are omitted in it, with 
additional information, whenever necessary, in snch entries aa are 
fonnd in it. We want a sort of Welsh Lemjiriere, Materials are now 
abundant, compared with what they were in tbe time of Lewie 
Morris, and 1 hope some competent scholar or scholars will be dis- 
posed to undertake the work. laHOBuiDs. 

Query 85. — Ooof Maen Cihhwd. — In one of the letters of Lewis 
Morris, author of the CMc Bemains, printed in the Brythcm, vol. iv, 
p. 312, I find the following sentence : " Is it any wonder that the 

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Devil sboald sit orosB-lef^ged in Ognf Mae» Oynunwd, to gnard the 
trcMnreB tfaere F" I shonld be glad to be infonned where this Ogof 
or cava is, and to what tradition or legend the writor Bllnde*. 


Note 44. — Db. John Dalies or MiLLnrn. — In one of the notog to 
the poems of Lewis Ql^n Cothi (III, iii, 5) the editors state that 
Dr. John Davies, anthorof the ITBltAOrammar (1621) and the Welsh. 
niga of Queen ElizsbetV, This is not qnito correct. It was in lti04 
that Dr. Davies wax presented to the Hvinj^ of M&llwjd, while, aa 
everybodj knows, Qaeen Elizabeth died in the month of March in 
the preceding year. Dr. Davies died in May, 1644. MsisiON. 

Query 36. — Llochttti.— Near Llangrannog, in Cardiganshire, a 
small island lies at a short distance from the shore, called Tnyi Loeh- 
tyn; and on the coast, a little lower down, in the direction of Car- 
digan, there is a fortified post on a headland, known as Pen Dinat 
Lochlyn. I am aniions to ascertain the meaning of the word Lloch- 
tyn orLoektyn, and shonld be glad to be informed whether the name 
occnrs in any other part of the Principality, Caraniocus. 

Query 37. — Rhiwddouoh. — Lewis Morris, best known, perhaps, to 
most of the readers of the Anheeologia Camhrensit aa author of tlie 
Celtic Eemaint, states that there was in bis time an inscribed stone 
called Cnrreg yr Ytgrifen, at Rhiwddolion, between Bettwa j Coed 
and Dolwf ddelen, bearing these letters, lijz. Does any other writor 
mention this stoue P and is it known at the present day F Owtddam. 

Qiury 38. — Oobahs ih Scotland. — Lsst snmmer I was told that 
the Rer. Mr. Joass, The Manse, Golspie, Sntherland, found Oghani 
inscribed stones in his psrish : probably an account of them has ere 
this appeared in some of the archnological journals of Scotland. It 
wonld be a kindness if one of the members of our Association who 
may have met with it, would insert a word in this Journal on the 
snbject. J. Ruts. 

Qfury 3d. — IitsoBiBiD Stoiie at t Cabtbll, Brbcohshirb. — A native 
of Brecknockshire, who has been living in Korth Wales for many 
years, gave me the following account of the position of a stone 
which was snpposed to have an inscription on it : " Yod start from 
Abercsmlaia, near Brecon, op the Camlais valley, and when you 
have got from three to fonr miles from Aberoamlais, as yon turn 
to Uyaydd Bltyd, the stone is on or near the road. There used to 
be a monnd there called T CastoU." Does anybody know anything 
about the stone or the eattell at the present day P J. RflTS. 

Query 40. — Ihscbibkd Stohb at Llandbilo Fawb. — Does any one 
know what has become of the stone bearing the name Ovrcaohts, 
which £d. Lhwyd fonnd in the churchyard at Llandeilo PawrP 

J. Rhts. 

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Query 4il , — Uaxun. — In the reoorda of inqaisitioiifi in Edw«rd the 
Third's reign, printed in the Arehtaolo^ Gemdrmgu farlWi, p. 397, 
one meets with the name Mevrig Maelan. I should like to know 
whether if aelan is a place-name or a personal name, and whether it 
is Eti1I known. As far as sounds go, it would be exactly the Hao- 
LAOHI of onr insonptions. J. Bhts. 

Quay 42. — Rath. — In what part of FembFokeshire is the tenn 
rath used P la it confined to the English speaking part of the popu- 
lation P Does it occur in Any old documents P If so, how is it writ- 
ten P I nnderstand that it is pronounced raith (iike failh), which 
makes ita identity with the Irish word rath rather doubtful. 

J. Bhtb. 

Query 43. — Tbi CLirr-CASTLBS. — Is there any evidence that the 
bnilders of the cliff-castles of Pembrokeshire were acquainted with 
the nse of metals ? J. Rhts. 

Query 44.-^Bstiibo. — There is a farmbonse called Brymho, near 
EglwjB Faoh, not far from the Roman road before it crosses the Con- 
wy ; and there is the village of Brymho, near Wrexham. Can it be 
tl^t the bo in this name is a relic of the name given in the Itinerary 
as B<mo ? But where was the Roman Bonium that was ten Roman 
miles from Deva P J. Rhts, 

Note 45. — Bbocxdi. — In the Liber LandaventU, p. 165, one reads 
of tk Nant Brtraeni in the boundaries of "Lann Cumm". This reminds 
one of the Roman Bravonio, and should be taken for what it is worth 
in settling the site of Bravonio. J. Rbtb. 

Sote 46. — 'XrovKKia. — Ptolemy's ^Toiicicia has sometimea been 
guessed to be the Tatwyth. If we suppose a mistake in the spellieg, 
and that the reading was originally ZTovnio, ZToviticTa, or Zioueto, 
tliere would be no difficulty in showing that such a form mnst be- 
come in historical Welsh Yttieytk ; but Acholara familiar with Qreek 
U8S. will, perhaps, say that this suggeatiou ia inadmissible. 

J. Ehtb. 

Query 45. — Bod. — The four Matters' AwutU of Ireland meotion 
a Dnbhdabhoireiinn of Both-Chonais, under the year 987. This both 
corresponda exactly to our bod in Bodorgaa, Bodewryd. I should be 
glad to know if there were or are many more hoUi'a in Ireland ; also 
to have a list of the Irish Jann's, as in Lann-Eala, " Lynally"; and 
JjaHn-Leire, remarkably like oar JjArdlyj in Cardiganshire. J. Rhts. 

Query 46. — Rioh HfoniiDH. — In the same AnndU, under the year 
742, one meets with a" Tnathalan, abb Cinn Righmonaidh", Tnath- 
alan, abbot of Ceann- Righmonaidh. The editor, the great O'Dono- 
▼an, remarke on this : " In the FetUn-Aengv**, and O'Clery'a IriJi 
Calendar, thia monastery is called Cill-Iiighimonaidh, and described 
as in AIlw or Scotland. It was the ancient name of St. Andrew's.' 

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Sow alearij Bigkmtmmdh meaiu a. man; but irbetbar it wu used 
■trictly a« a proper luime I cannot say. It is also to be noticed that 
the word U probably not a componnd, as monaidh is the f^nitive of 
MOHodA, wbich means in Scotch Qaelio "a moor or heath"; and not 
eiactlj mountain, as onr mynydd does, which is the same word. 
Thna Righ-mnnaidh probably meant " king of the moor or of the 
monntaia", and ia exactly the analyeed form of onr componnd JiOiTB- 
DOBioi on the stone of Cteleztis, now at Llanaber, neat Barmoath. 
Hare the Bootch any Iraditioni respecting the above Sigh-mo^iaidh, 
and what were the attribntes of snch a potentate P J. Rbts. 

fftectlUneous Notices. 

CufBRUK Abchjeolooical Assocuttok. — Active steps are being 
taken to make the necessary arrangements for the Carmarthen 
meeting, which will oomnience on Uonday, the lt>th of Anfjust, and 
which will be presided over by the Bbhop of St. David's. The 
Eev. Canon H. Morris, principal of the Training College, will act 
as one of the local secretaries. Oor Jnly nnmber will fDrmah farther 
particolars. _^_^„____^_ 

DiSAS Mawiieiwt.— On the 3rd of February last, sa some workmen 
belonging to Sir Edmnnd Backley, Bart., M.P., were catting a drain 
for water-pipes to convey water from Oloddfa Ooch to the new 
hotel near the Railway Station at Dinas Mawddwy, Merionethshire ; 
they came across a vaalt about 18 inches ^m the snrfaoe, the size 
of which was fonnd to be 3 ft. long, 2 ft. wide at one end, and 1^ ft. 
at the other, and abont 2 ft. deep. The aides are made of rongb 
■laba entirely nndreased, with a cover of the same material, consist- 
ing of one slab abont 4 ft. 9 ins. long, and 3 ft wide. On taking 
off the cover, the appearance of the interior conveyed the impression 
that at some period snbseqnent to its eonstmction it had been dis- 
turbed, as the small nm, for the protection of which the vanlt or 
kiatvaen was oonatmcted, was found lying on its aide, and filled with 
small gravel, on the anrface of the loose gravel and sand which 
partly filled the vault ; bat at the bottom of the nm there were sof- 
ncient remains to indicate that cremation had been resorted to. 
The nm is small, measuring abont 5 ins. in height, and nearly the 
same in its largest diameter ; the only attempt at ornament being a 
few circnlar grooves. It is at present in the posseaaion of Sir Ed- 
mnnd Buckley, the owner of the place in which it was fonnd, and 
lord of the manor of Mawdd wy. This urn is the third of the kind 
found in the locality within the laat ten years, and one of them not 
many yards from the present spot. Some of the local papers, refer* 
ring to this discovery, tell na tiiat the nm " was found near. to the 

S'ace where it ia s^ted, in some histories, that a oastle stood in 
naer years." We shall feel extremely obliged if these antfaorities 

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wiU give as the necessary refereooes to tbese " hietories", u, nnfor- 
tanately, we are not acquainted with any histories bearing on the 

Thb late Thohah Stephehs. — We are glad to nnderstaod tliat 
the late Mr. Thomas Stephens left a copy of the LJteraluTe of tho 
Kymry oorrected ready for a new eilitioo ; and we believe the work 
will at once be pot to press by his repreBentatives, Ihe first edition, 
which appeared so long ago an 1849, being completely ezhansted. 
Besides the workfl mentioiied in oar obituary in the January number, 
we are informed that he has left several others of equal if not 
greater importance, among which we may mention a translation of 
the Oododin o( Aaearia ; an essay on the Origin of the Englith Naiion ; 
on the Po»ition vihieh the Wehh Language oceupiet among tko*e of 
Celtie Origin; on the Seientijie Value of the Chemicnl Theorie* and 
Biteoveries of Baron Liehig ; on the Vruidg ; and a Welsh essay on 
the Part taken by WeUh Chieftaint in Ike Wan of York and Lancaster. 
We may also mention a seriee of articles on the Triade, which sp- 
peered in the Beirniad ; with aoveral 'other papers in a more or less 
finished state. A selection would form a very valuable and interest- 
ing volume ; aud we trust that the second edition of the Literatura 
will soon be followed by such a puhlioation. 

In the notice just referred to (p. 87), by an nafortnnate typo- 
graphical error, Mr. Stephens is stated to have been horn on the 
luielfih instead of the lv>anli/-firgt of April. We happen to have it 
recorded in his own handwriting that he was bom at Font Nedd 
Feohan on the twenty-finl day of April, 1821. 

Revue Celtique. — The seventh number of this important review 
has just reached us. It is hardly necessary to say that there is no 
falling off in the valne and interest of the different articles ; and it 
is agreeable to find tiiat several of the papers are contributed by 
members of oar own Association, among whom we may eapacially 
mention Mr. John Rbys and Mr. Whitley Stokes. The fisme 
Celtique deserves a much wider circulation in the Principality, and 
among Welshmen, wherever they may be, than it now has ; and we 
trust that, for the honour of "GwladyBiynian", there is no founda- 
tion for the rumour which has reached us, that the number of ite 
supporters among our countrymen is actually decreasing. 

OuTO 'k Glih. — Our readers will be interested to learn that one 
of our members, Mr. Howel W. Lloyd, is actively engaged upon a 
complete edition of the poems of Onto 'r Qlyn, one of the princip«J 
Welsh poets of the first half of the fifteenth century. The poems, 
which are said to be about ninety in number, are valuable not only 
on account of their historical and genealogical allaBions, but for 
their poetical merit. Manuscripts, we believe, are abundant ; and 
Mr. Lloyd vritl, we have no doubt, make good use of them to secure 
the first reqniaitA in every woA of the kind, namely, a correct tert. 

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This wort, wo ainoerel^ brnst, will be the precursor of a aerieB of 
oar ancient poets, moat of whom ftre well worth pnbliabing. 

Llikfachksth. — A few weeks ago, while clearing the rronnd for 
the fonndatioD of a new chapel at Ffrwd yr Heb(^, about half a mile 
&om the village of Uanfachreth, Merionethahire, tbo workmen came 
apon what appeared to be an old bnrial place. According to the 
accoant, as given in a local paper, they fonnd as manj as seven 
graves, and according to all probability there might he more. It 
appears that the bodies had been bamt and their asheB placed in 
earthenware nms, of varioas sizeB. Some of these veBsels were in 
ao dilapidated a condition that they would not bear toaching, bat it 
was ea^ to discern their size and shape, whilst the earth dbat sar- 
rouBded tbem was being removed. Othera were in a much better 
state of preservation. Thej had been placed in the ground with their 
faces downwards, apparontly without any order, at a depth of about 
two feet, and a sort of pavement of rough stones had been worked 
over the place. A little below the surface, mixed with the black 
ashes and the remains of the bones within the urns, some wood 
charcoal was traced, and inside one of the vessels a piece of some 
yellow metal was found, but in snch an oxidised state that neither 
its original form nor use conid be determined. There is no tradition 
in the neighbourhood respecting the place, nor was there anything 
remarkable to cause Bospicioa of the spot ever having been used for 
such a purpose as that of a burial ground. 

New Work oh Scottibh ASTiQniTiBB.— S!hortly will be in the 
hands of subscribers the nmgnificent folio of " The Hill Forts, Stone 
Cirdea, and other structural remains of Ancient Scotland", by 
Christian llaclagan, lady associate of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland. The illustrations that accompany the text, abont forty in 
number, are principally from drawings by the authoress, and repre- 
sent for the mc»t part those remains of ancient Scotland which 
have not hitherto been thus given to the world. We hope in our 
next number to be able to give some further notice of a work for 
which all antiquaries are indebted to the munificence and energy of 
Hiss Maclagan. 

IiUAN Bbtdtdd Hib. — The miscellaneous prtfseand poetical writ- 
ings of the Rev. Evan Evans (lenan Brydydd Hir) are in the press 
at Carnarvon and will soon be published. They will include a re- 
print of The Love of our Counlry (1772) and other minor works, but 
not of his principal performance, the Diiterlaiio de Bardit, which ap- 
peared in 1764. Evan Evans, the correspondent of Bishop Percy 
and other learned men, was one of the best Welsh antiquaries as 
well as the first Welsh Echolar of the last century, and most of his 
writings are of conBiderable value, of which many are now printed 
for the first time. He died at the place of his birth in Cardigan- 
shire in 1789, and left his valuable collection of Welsh mannsoripts, 

4lH 8BB.,V0L. Tt. U 

,,;. Google 


the trBii§cnption of which had ooonpied the grester part of his life, 
to the late Panl Fantoa of Piaa Gwyn, in Anglesey, and which are 
now mouldering away in the chests of a descendant of that 
worthy and patriotic gentleman, in another ooiner of that island, 
jealously guarded from hnman sight. How thankful we should be 
that the treasures of Hengwrt have fallen into Bncb liberal hands as 
those of Mr. Wynne, who In the kindest way affords every facility 
to those who wish to consult or transcribe them. 

The St. Gbbal. — Th« second part of the Saint Oreal has recently 
appeared. This instalment completes the Welsh text, which occu- 
pies 433 pages, and comprises a portion of the English translation, 
which appears to be as literal as the idioms of the two langnages 
will admit. Part III will complete the work. The list of subscribe™ 
is by no means what it should be, and many of the names which one 
would expect to find in it are absent. We recommend the follow- 
ing to the notice of those to whom it refers: "The editor regrets 
that so little interest is felt by his countrymen in pi«serring &om 
oblivion the valuable and interesting remains of their national lite- 
rature 1 for though he has sent prospeotases to the nobihty, clergy, 
and other gentry, of the Principality, and especially to the promi- 
nent patriots of the Eistedhvods, not one in twenty has responded 
to his appeal". We will only add, "Tell it not in Oath, publish it 
not in tho streets of Askelon '. 

ROTU. AitCH£OLO0iCAL iNBTrruTX. — The annual meeting of the 
Royal Archnological institute of CIreat Britain and Ireland for 1875 
will be held in the oourse of the eosning summer at Canterbnry, 
under the presidency of Lord Fitzwalter. 

Welbh Ihscbiptiohs. — In a recent number of the Academy we find 
the following announcement : " Dr. Hiibner, of Berlin, who has so 

ably edited the Bonwn Jnecnpiioiu of Britain, is to publish 

shortly the PiaUUotnan Inscriptions of Wales and OornicaM. He will 
be assisted by Mr. Rhys, who has made them a special study, and 
personally examined neariy all of them." 

DiviBs' "Hbb&Ldbt." — We understand that a new edition of John 
Davies' Display o/Heraiddry (1716) will shortly appear under the 
editorship of Mr. W, Wynne Ffoulkes, who will contribnte notes, as 
will also Mr. W. W. E. Wynne of Peniarth, and Mr. E. Breose 
of PortMadoo. The original edition has become excessively scarce, 
and hardly to be met with at any price. 

BoDNBl's PltLAB. — The latest instalment of Sye-Otmes oontMns a 
view of Rodney's Pillar on Breidden, Montgomeryshire, copied from 
the one given in the Gentleman't Mayazitte for 1803. It representA 
the Pillar ss it was when first erected. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 

Tbansactioks of the Gaelic Socim of Internekb. Vol. ii. 
Tew 18?2-3. 
Wb reriewed the first volame of Oie Tramactumf of the Gaelie Soeietij 
of Invernett some time ago, and we then expressed onr opinioD that 
the iastitation was a promising one, likely to be productive of much 
good. We do not see, however, that the time which has since 
elapsed has altogether justified onr expectations. Of course it is a 
distastefnl duty to find fault with any Society the aim of which is 
good ; bat the honest truth is that the present volume scarcely 
comes np to the mark of what might be expected from an associa- 
tion professing serionsly to cultivate Celtic literature. Throaghont 
the whole Gaelic portion of the book, which comprises all of it that 
is distinctively typical of Highland literatnre and Highland speech, 
there is a little too much of whftt may be called the post-prandial ele- 
ment perceptible. Geniality, poetic enthosiasm, and gushing national- 
ity, are, no doubt, very commendable things iu their way, bnt few will 
be disposed to maintain that post-prandial philology is worth mnch : 
in fact, it may not inaptly be compared in value with the Svov rextu 
of Aristophanes. Mr. Macgregor, for instance, in his Gaelic lecture 
(p. 9), tells his hearers that all names beginning with eraig, monadh, 
poll,loeh,TO», aim, port, i^Iaen, etc., are Gaelic; whereas the fact of the 
matter is that, taJcing the modem orthographical changes into con- 
Bideratton, they are common to all Celtic languages. In Welsh, for 
example, they are respectively craig, Uiaeh, mijnydd, pu>U, rhog, earn, 
porth, glyn, and so on. In another place (p. 8) he says that some 
wonderfnl people, about sixty yeats ago, appear to him to have made 
ont that the Gaels came from the continent of Europe, and that the 
** Gaelic language is the font el origo from whence came Latin, Greek, 
and other tongues". Beally few intellectual phenomena of the 
period are more singnlar than this ignorance of the most elementary 
yet fundamental principles of comparative philology exhibited by 
many who consider themselves iu a position to instruct their country- 
men in matters relating to the various Celtic tongues ; and for a 
lectnrer to hold forth on the philological aspect of Gaelic or Welsh 
without that absolntely indispensable preparation, is something like 
ft man taking npon himself to expatiate on the differential calculus, 
when his time would be more profitably employed in getting over 
the mysteries of the rule of three. Most people would have ima- 
gined that the labours of real Celtic scholars, such as Zenss, Ebel, 
and Stokes, had before this dispelled impresBions so distinctly erro- 
neous ss thoso held by Mr. Uacgregor and his fellows. Misiuform- 
stioD, however, like the monster in iioraoe, is tough, and dies hard : 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


It onght to be slmoBt snpererogatoiy to point oat to Mr. Macgre- 
gor, aince he has andertaken to teach his netghbonra, that Gaelic, a 
subdivision of the Celtic, is, like Welsh, merelf a small branch of 
that great Aryan or Indo-European family of lanfj^nageB, which in- 
ctndes Sanscrit, Greek, Latin, Lithnanian, Celtic, Gothic, and Scla- 
vonic, with the languages sprung &om some of these, Italian,Frencb, 
Spanish, Portnguese, German, and English. Modem philology has 
proved boyond a donbt tbat these are aU derived from uiat primnval 
but extinct type once spoken by a tribe in Central Asia, who after- 
wards separated into distinct nationalities, migrating first sooth- 
ward into Upper India, and then northwards and westwards into 

We really owe some apology to onr readers for mentioning facta 
so patent as these; bnt when we hear of even a celebrated Scotch 
University Professor stating that the Celtic element predominatea 
in Virgil to an extent which we are left to infer from his own asser* 
tion that " there are no fewer than five Gaelic words in the very 
first line in the Mneid", it is time to admit that, as a rule, one may 
aa well begin ah ovo when dealing with lingaistic matters. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 

%uhMBhsm €mhnmh. 


JULY, 1875. 

Tbe following letters are nearly all of them from the 
oiig^als : where thej are not ao, it ia stated. A letter 
from Colonel Owen to his wife, relating to the King's 
raising the si^e of Gloucester, seems at variance with 
the statement in Phillips' History of the Civil Wa/r ; 
but I am inclined to behave that the newspapers and 
pamphlets of the day, which Mr. Phillips so frequently 
refers to, whether on the side of the royal martyr or 
of the rebels, particularly of the latter, are not always 
to be trusted, being coloured according to the wishes 
of the side which they uphold.' "W. W. E. W. 


From Wm. Brinkyr to John Owen of Clenenney.Esq., 
afterwards the loyal Sir John Owen ; 

Sir, — I have formerly written unto yoa by the post, with 
direction to the postmaster at Conway, but cannot vnderstand 
that you have receyved any ; tha businesse not greate, & the 

^ *' A remarkable instance of thia Icind we meet with in the Pr&jers 
of Ur. Oeoi^ Snathe, minietar of Denham in SoSblk, who, not- 
withstanding the King's ancceas against the Garl of Esse^ in taking 
Banbniy Castle (see Bchard'a Hi$lory of England, vol. ii, p. 238), 
take* the liberty, in his Prayers (p. 40), ' of pmsing God's proTi- 
deace for giving the Earl of Esser victory over the King's army, 
and rooting him at Banbnry, and getting the spoyl". Many instanoea 
of this kind are to be met with in the pnbliok sermons before the 
two HouMB"—Bvdibriu, edition by Grey, 1744, vol. i, p. 194, note. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


miscarriage of soa much the less consequence. Mr. MereditJi 
Price pTesents his service vnto vou, & coimneade this inclosed 
T»pei to your pervsalL This letter I send hj Mr. Bowland 
Vaughan, who promiseth to be carefull in conveying it vnto you, 
8oe I am confideut it will not miscany. I Imow you expect 
newes, whereof I c&n give you noe particular acuount, hut in the 
generall. Tempera m-utantrir, and all thioges are become new. 
The hopes of this present pailament are greate ; but as yeatt 
noe act is passed, divers grievances are put in, and it is supposed 
divers delinquents will suffer ; but all are at a stay vntiU the 
greate bussnes of the church be setled, and some grand offenders 
come to yeyr triall, such as is the I'd livetennant of Ireland 
(whose day assigned is the next Wednesday), & others. There 
is great notice t^en of papists, and theyr wayes narrowly looked 
vnto. I know you have hard (heard) of a commission the I'd of 
Worcester had the last sommer (to the which the councell was 
of privie) for the same and other practises in theyr Catholicke 
cause : my I'd together w'th S'r Percy Harbart are sent for to 
give accompt The office of bishops is like to continue notwith- 
stondinge the petition of fifteen thousand Londoneis and others 
who peticioned agaynst the branch and roote thereof; but a 
select committee appoynted to examine and find out those that 
are faultie (as is supposed most of them are), who shall not want 
condigne punishment The judges are now in play ; judge Bar- 
clay is alreadie accused of high treason, and committed to the 
black rodd ; the rest will follow, and I believe by this time doe 
wiflh they had provided shipps with theyr owne money, and left 
the subject alone, and doe as my I'd finch did. My brother 
James is well, soe are the rest of our Carnarvonshire gent. He 
is bound to appeare when he is called on ; but the house is 
buissie about matters of greater weyght, so that the Committee 
to the which that buissness was referred sitts not this month, 
as is supposed. The bearer is uppon gate, soe that 1 am forced 
to make an end. What newes I shall hear I will acquaint you 
with it, & intreate the favonr Irom you that you will believe I 
truly am yo'r faythfnll Cozen and truest servant, 

WilL Brinkyr. 
Orayes Inn, Fehmary 14th [164^]. 

I pray you present my respects to my good Cozen Owen, who 
shall h^ from me with the first that cometh. 

For the worshipftill his much honored Cozen, John Owen of 
Cleoemiey, Esq., theese deliver in Car 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Colonel Mytton to . 

Sir, — I had written unto yon the last post^ but that I 
came to towne so late that I could not ]eame anie certaintie (sic). 
All the businesse atand upon the Militia and the Comisaion of 
Array. It was moved Id the house vpon Tuesdaie, the king to 
wane the commissioD of Array, £ the parliament to desist in the 
Militia, but it will not yet be condiscended unto. It taketb up 
all the time since ; assoone as there is anie certaintie you shall 
heare &om me. I fear Mr. Stair wilbe longer here then I in- 
tended, by reason of my ancle his weaknesse. Letters were read 
in the house yesterdaie, that Gustavus Home, Prince Robert 
(Supertr), the lo. Digbie, Jermin, etc., are comminge to new castle 
with greate store of ammuTiition : others saie for a pacification, 
which I conceive these no fitte agents therein ; beleeve what 
you please. There is a speech here verie fresh, that the Com- 
mission of Array is to come speedilie to Salop. Sir fiicbard 
Newport, Sir Rich. Ley, Will fowler, Tho. Screuen, fra. Thomes, 
Rich. Lloyd, Commissioners. I heare of no other. Thorough the 
kingdome they intend, as it is said, to alter all the conmiissions 
of the peace. 

For the common cause I hope I haue set all right, and truelie 
iny coming up was verie requisite therein. We haue giuen them 
rules to ioine issue with us : yesterdaie was theire last daie, but 
they haue not ioined issue, but saie they haue an order from the 
judge for stale untill next Terme, but haue showed us none. If 
I see it Jiot this night, I shallbe so sawcie as to enter a judgment 
against them before I sleepe ; & if they haue an order, I will 
endeauour to ouerthrow it, for truelie as the case standeth I 
longe to haue a skirmish with them ; though Andrew Lloyd did 
bra^ge they bad ouetthrowen ed. ap Johns title, which now they 
are not willinge to iustle with. I pray you certify my cosin 
Powell, &c, hereof, especiallie the 2 valiants. Jack and Dick 
Uoyd. There is a booke come out fitte for my cosin your wives 
reading : if she haue not seen it, I will bringe it downe with 
me. It is an apologie for private preachinge, which I hope with 
my persuasive opinions will convert her. I haue sent you one 
pamphlet herewith ; and for this time and euer rest yo'r kins- 
man to lone & seme you, 

Tho. Mytton. 
Uaek filers, at Bob. boothes at the signe of 
the Crowne, 20 July, 1642. 

Part of the foregoing letter appears to rdate to some 
private affair. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


From the King to the Commissioners of Array, and 
the Sheriff of Carnarvonshire. This letter is endorsed 
by Colonel Owen, " Receaued this letter of his Majesty, 
25 of April, 1645. John Owen." But it will be seen 
the endorsement is wrong. It should be 1642. 

Charles R. 

Tniflty and welbeloned, wee greet you well : our will and 
command is that you forthwith require of William Houke, Tho- 
mas Glyn, and John Bodurda, Esquires, and John Jones, gent, 
and all others of our county of Carnarvon who have any pubUque 
moneys coUected for the defence of the kingdotne remayning in 
their bands, that they immediately vpon the receipt thereof (mc) 
pay the same unto Colonel John Owen, towards the charges of 
his regiment and other forces of our said county, who are by our 
especial comand sodainly to march towards our right welbeloved 
Cousin William Marquisse of Hertford. And for the premisses 
this shall bee a sufiicient warrant as well to you as to the sayd 
persons who shall pay the sayd moneys. Given at our Court at 
Woodstock the 29th day of October, in the eighteenth year of 
our reign. 

To our trusty and welbeloved our Commissioners of 
Array, and Sheriff of our county of Carnarvon. 

From the King to the Commissioners of Array, and 
Sheriff of Merionethshire : 

Trusty and welbeloved wee greet you well Whereas wee 
have comanded Colonel John Owen to march with all speed 
with his regiment and other forces towards our right trusty and 
right welbeloved Cousin and Councillour William Marques of 
Hertford, And for that the sayd souldyers can not bee sufficiently 
supplyed with armes without the help of the adiacent countyes ; 
Our will and pleasure is, that you deliver vnto the said Colonell 
the publique armes of the sayd county, and sufficient powder, 
match, and bullets for his said march, to bee taken out of the 
m^azine of the sayd county, anless by any order or warrant 
fiwn us you shall [have] otherwise disposed thereof (before the 
sayd regiment shall be upon their march) for the use of other 
souldyers marching towanls us and the sayd marques four (for) 
our service. And wee likewise require you to vse your vtmost 
indeavours for the further supplye of the said regiment with 
armes out of the private store of other our well afifected subiecta 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


of onr sayd county, to whome we require you to give asaurance 
that wee shall agayne restore the same, or otherwise make satis- 
faction for them. And wee require your most diligent care for 
the Bpedy performance of this our service (expedition therein 
being of much importance), and wee expect an accompt of what 
you doe in the premisses. Given at our Court at Oxford, the 
nine and twentyeth day of October in the eighteenth yeare of 
onr rayne. 

To our trusty and welbeloved our Commiasioaers of Array and 
SIierifT of our county of Merioneth. 

Commissioners of array and SherifT of Merionethshiie — du- 

From the King to the Comniiasioners of Array and 
Sheriff of Angl^ey : 

Charles R. 

Tnisty and welbeloved wee greet you well Whereas Colonell 
John Owen by our command is forthwith to bring vnto us & 
regiment of foot© souldyers raysed ia our county of Carnarvon 
and the countyes adiacent, who can not in so speedy a time aa 
ia requisite for our service sufficiently arme themselves ; Our 
will and pleasure is, that you use all meaos out of the publique 
magazine of our county of Anglesey, or otherwise out of the 
store of private men, to fumisb the soaldyers of the said regi- 
ment with armes, which wee shall take as a great service vnto 
us. And shoU, when God shall enable vs, bee ready to remember 
to the advantage of every one whome wee shall find hearty and 
zealous in the promoting of this our service. And for bo doing 
this shall bee your warrant. Given at our Court at Woodstock, 
the 2dth day of October 1642. 

To our trusty and welbeloved our Commissioners of Array and 
high sheriff of our county of Anglesey. 

From Colonel John Owen, afterwards Sir John Owen, 
to his wife [1643]: 

Most deare wiefe, — I have written vnto thee divers times, 
but doubting of your receipts, because you sent me noe answer, 
I once more venter the writtinge, and am to tell you this mis- 
fortune I had before Bristow, where I was vnfortunatly shott 
throw the right side of my nose out vnder the leaft heare, thorow 
all the iuggular vaines and mouth, and did bleed extreamly, that 
every body thought I bad been choakte, but good god be praysed 
I am in pretty good state ; if it doth not tourne vnto a feaver I 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


hope to recover my bodyly health shoitely, but my wound wilbe 
long. Your sonne but (put) me vnto charge for he haith seeldome 
beene well since he came hither to me. 

I have nothing to seude vnto thee nor thy daughters, for I 
cannot stirr abrode. The Einge cominge yesterday to Bristow 
and passing by the Axmie, and seeinge my collers (colourB) ask'd 
Prince Bobert (Rupert) whose they were ; he answer'd that they 
were mine : the Einge tum'd on his horse suddenly, and cal'd 
to one of my ofBcers who came to him, I hope in god your 
Colonell is not dead : noe and please your Mast. (Majesty) he is 
something dangerously hurte. I praise god for hie lieffe, and 
desier his recouerie. This was spoken before all the courte and 
Armie, which is sufficient for any souldJer, and a great favor 
from a kinge in the field. Before my cominge from Oxenford, 
he gave me the place of Vice admirall of Northwallee, and car* 
ried (stc) in spite of opposition. 

Dear harte, fare thee well, 

John Owen. 

I pray remember my service to my cousins of Brinckir, my 
cousins of stymlyn, of the weme, and all about ; to Mr. EUice, 
and Gru%i:h Ellice, Bobert ap Beece, Mr. hauckes, Ellis 
maurice, and Braich a bibe, and they of Trevan. Once mor 
farwell, John Owen. 

Gomend me to Jammy baick. 
The address is gone. 

From Colonel John Owen to his wife : 

Moat dears wife, — I cannot finde you any newes, but 
that the kinge haith raysed his siege att Glouter (Gloucester) to 
their great ioy, but I hope ere long to writte of all the passages 
yt wiS happen between the kinge and ye Traytor B^x : our 
kinge haith the biauest army of any kmge in Europe, God be 
his and our Guide. I have borrowed of Mr. Dauide Loyde the 
drouer, tenn poundes, which I desier you of all loue to pay uppon 
si^ht of this my letter. Essex is hei« in a straite, and wishes 
himself att London againe. This you may believe &om your 

John Oven. 
My comendations vnto aUe my frindes. I am not yett le- 
couered, but I thaok god am prettie well With my blessing 
vnto yee all, vale. 

[addressed] for my deare wiefe Mrs. Owen att Clenenney these, 
from winchcome the 9th Septr. [1643.] 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


From Robert Corbett of Ynys y Maengwyn, Esq., to 
Wm, Wynne of Glyn, and Grrimth Lloyd of Maes y 
Neuadd, Esquires : 

GentiemeD, — ^tbe imminent dangers which duly threaten 
va & our countres hath Bensibly moved va to crave the ayde 
and power of the county against the invasion of those bloudy 
enemies who seeke our rnine. The Sheriffe, vpon our lettere to 
him & the Commiaaioners of Array, did appoynte a meeting on 
Tuesday last, where both your appearaunce waa expected for 
your furtherance & advise for our publique safety. He bath 
afTorded vs good encouragement by his fore giving & parting with 
those armea that were in present readinea (those which were in 
Mx. Nanney's custody). Those which rest in both your hands 
were expected, which being conioyned would with other fowling^ 
pieces & stragling pieces wee pitch vpon, make a considerable 
force and strength. By your not meeting wee could not com- 
pleate & finish the designe in hand. Notwithstanding wee can- 
not nenertheless ymagine or distrust of your affectiona & willing- 
nes to promote aoe good a worke which puts on this our message 
& requests vnto you, that you will deliver & parte with those 
armes of the countrey which you have received from the maga- 
zine & storehouse of the county. Wee expect the sheriff here 
about monday next, with those armes from Mr. Nanney, as hee 
bath promised. Those fire armes which you received (wee heare 
to be 24 in number), yf you haue more I hope you will not deny 
them vs vpon this occasion. Assure yourseluea vpon my ci«ditt 
that what you sends shalbe faithfully kept &. restored vnto you 
backe, if God preserves vs with our Uvea Se liberty to mainteyne 
tbem. & shalbee ready upon your call to contribute our whoU 
asaifltance vnto you if any dai^r or assaulte shall attempte 
you. We desire your paines to convey the armes to Barmouth, 
where the conntrey certainly, with your sollicitation, will aseiste 
yon. Prom thence wee shall take care for their farther carriage. 
Consider, Gentlemen, that thongh this request is ours, yet it is 
the bnsines of his sacred M^jestie, whose expectation to assiste 
him in the present rebellion, doth as much oblige this our prose- 
cation as the care of oure own safety. Both these thrust out 
all consideracions that may hinder or retarde this worke of tak- 
ii^ vp of armes, and doe strengthen and forward vs in every 
course that may advance it. We hope the like acceptacion with 
you & euery good man who may assist vs, ft your concurrence 
with vs in this specially, which certainly will fairely evidence 
the rest of your good affections to [his] Maieatie as to ourselves. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Thus with my hearty respects to you both, doe take leave & rest 
Your very loving friend & servaunt, 

Robert Coibett 

Ynia y MaeDgwiii,» 23 Marcii 1643 [164J]. 

To the worshipful William Wynn & Gr^th Ooyd, Esquires, 
present these. 

Seal ; a raven, impaliDg, on a chevron, three (appa- 
rently) mulleta, — -Corhett and Humphresoo. Crest, an 
elephant and castle. 

From the King to ' from a contemporary copy: 

Charles R 
Trustie and welbeloved, we greet you well Yon cannot 
be ignorant with what zeale and diligence we have endeavoured, 
according to our kinglie dutie, to protect our protestant subjectes 
in the realme of Ireland from the crueltie and oppression of the 
rebels there : ffor which purpose (hoping that by the comiting 
the manage of that warre to our two hounes of Parliament heera, 
that kingdome would be better supplied with men, money, and 
amunition] we put the same into such hands as they defied; 
and afterwards, seeing that (rebellion beuig soe faire from being 
quenched that it almost overran the whole kingdome) as the 
beat expedient to suppresse it, we offered to ingage our royal 
person in that warre, which being sconifulhe reiected, we neuer- 
thelesse consented to all propositions and acts proposed to us 
for the raising of men or prouiding of money for that sendee till 
it was pi-onided. [But?] men and money being raised 
under pretence of quenching the rebellion, these were both em- 
ployed in kindling and maintaining the rebellion here ; and 
those supplies both of victuals, money, and ammunition, which 
were prouided and designed for our soldioui's there, wholly 
diuerted. Hereuppon they represented, both by their peticions 
to us and their letters to our said houses, tlieir lamentable con- 
dicion ; setting forth that all passives by whicli comfort and life 
should be conveyed to that gasping kingdom, seemed totally to 
be obstructed ; and that unlesse timely I'eliefe were afforded, our 
loyal subjects there must yield theirs fortunes a prey, theirs 
lines a sacrifice, and theire religion a scome, to the mercilesse 
i«bells ; and that they would be forced, through wants, to di«- 

' Sir Marmadnke Langdale began to fortify YnyB j iiaeDgvja 
for the King in July, 1645 ; bnt in the following month it was barnt 
by the Royalists to preveat the insurgents from taking advaolsge 
of it. 

* Probably the Sheriff of Herioaethsbire. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


bend or depert the kingdome, and soe nothing to be expected 
there but the instant losse of the kingdome, and the destruction 
of the remnant of our good subjects yet left there. Instead of 
redress whereof, euch abips as were by the care and charitie of 
some well afTected persons prouided to transport clothes and 
victualls to them, in their voyaga thither seised and taken by 
the shippe under the Commani^ of [the] Earle of Warwicke ; 
and insteed of iudeavoura to send more ft'orces thither, attempts 
were made to draw the Scots fTorces from thence into this king- 
dome ; soe that we thought ouraelues bound in duetie and con- 
science (since it was not in our power otherwise to preserue that 
kingdome Irom utter ruine) for the present, to agree to a cessa- 
tion of armes with the rebells for a yeare, such as upon vnder- 
standinge and knowledge of the condicion of our affaires in that 
kingdome was thought by those of greatest honour and trust in 
that kingdome, to be resonable vpon this occasion (and the pre- 
sent necessities of our souldiers there inforcing it) ; maiiie of our 
souldiers there beinge English protestanta, are coming overto, 
and daylie expected to land in some of our counties of N'orth- 
wales, which we have thought fit to intimate vnto you, that you 
may know that our rebellious subjects, the authors of all the 
miseries in this, were the promoters of the rebellion in that 
kingdome ; and how vntniely, vppon occasion of this coming 
ouer of our English Protestant souldiers, they charge vs with 
bringing ouer the Irish rebells. And because we vnderstand 
that the rebells haue lately forced their passage ouer Holt bridge 
in Northwalep, and obstructed all the wayes to our citty of 
Chester, and both the one and the other will be indangered to 
be lost without present helpe, we haue therefore giuen order for 
the English souldiers coming out of Ireland forthwith to repayre 
to those parts for their succour. And it being not onely a great 
act of charitie to prouide releefe for those souldiers who haue 
spent soe much blood, and soe often ventured their liues for the 
defence of our crowne and religion, but a matter of mecre neces- 
sitie (if we expect anie seruice from them) to provide apparell 
and victuaUs for them, they being destitute of moneys to pro- 
uide either. And our countie of Merioneth hath bin freed from 
manie burthens which other counties haue susteyned in the pay 
and free billett of souldiours ; Our will and comande therefore is 
&at you forthwith prouide at the chardge of the said countie, 
clothes and shoes, stockings and apparell, sufBcient for £ve hun- 
dred men, and likewise victualls sufdcient for ffoure thousand 
men, for fifteene dayes, or money sufficient for the same vse, to 
be Iwought forthwith by you lo our towne of Conway in Caer- 
narvonshire, where we haue appointed a magazine to be prouided 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


and kept for the said Bouldiers. Ffor the doing vhereof ve doe 
hereby ioable yoa to aasesse all the inhabitaDts withia the said 
coimtie, according to the manner of other pablique asaessmeDts ; 
and to certify vnto ya the names of such as shall refnse rateably 
to contribute to so charitable and necessarie a seruice, that forth- 
with exemplarie course may be taken against persons soe dis- 
affected to our service ; and herein we require you to vse all 
expedicion possible, we intending within very few days to send 
one of our trustie servants unto those parts, by whom we expect 
a satisfectorie accompt of that we have herfay comanded, which 
conceminge vs in soe high a degree as the safety of Northwales 
and the cittie of Chester, and the increase and strengthening of 
our armea with so considerable a force, we cannot doubt of your 
performance thereof. Given at our Court at Oxford, the 13th 
day of November, in the nineteenth yeare of our raigne. 

From Prince Rupert to Lieut -Colonel Wm. Owen, 
16 May, 1644:^ 

Lieutenant Colonell Owen, — I haue taken notice of the 
interest you haue in the custody and government of the CaaUe 
of Harleigh in the county of Merioneth, and of the imployment 
of Captain John Morgans in that coniand vnder you. I shall be 
ready to confinne your interest by any comission you shall re- 
quire, and to declare my allowance of Captain Motgaus, and 
otherwise further the garrisou that shall there be pla(»d, soe aa 
the charge of garrison exceed not the benefit of it to the countrey. 
Soe rest your ffreind Kupert. 

Salop, the 16th of May, 1644. 
Ffor Lieutenant Colonel Owen. 

(ro (■ eontinMiI.) 

' Thii letter has been printed before, in the fint volnme of Uw 
Arohceologia Oambremit, p. 2^9 ; but it has been judged better to 
reprint it here, that the whole Beries may be braogbt together. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


(Btad at Iha Wremkam Meeting. Avg^tt 1874.) 

The inscribed British monument of St. Cadvan, pre- 
served in this church, has received the attention it has 
deserved. There are two other monuments in this 
church which have not hitherto, I think, received that 
notice they ought. 

Under a plain pointed arch in the north wall of the 
chancel lies the recumbent effigy of a knight, which 
appears to be of the fourteenth century. He b repre- 
sented as armed cap-a-pie. On his head is a conical 
basinet, to which is attached a camail, or tippet of mail, 
of rings set edgewise, covering the neck, breast, and 
shouldera. His body armour consiste of a hauberk of 
mail, over which is worn a sleeveless surcoat, belted 
round tiie waiat with a. broad belt buckled in front. 
The elbows are protected by coudes of plate, the right 
hand is represented in the act of sheathing a sword, 
whilst the left hand is grasping the scabbard. A heater- 
diaped shield is attached to the left arm. The nether 
limbs are much defaced, and the feet are inclosed in 
laminated sollerets, to which the spurs are attached. 
There is no peculiarity in the armour of this effigy. It 
is one of a numerous class. 

Under a similar shaped arch, also in the north wall 
of the chancel, lies the recumbent effigy of a priest. This 
is also of the fourteenth century, and it possesses pecu- 
liar features of interest we rarely find elsewhere. The 
head is beneath a horizontal ogee-shaped canopied 
arch, cinquefoiled widiin, and about this is panel and 
embattled work. The person^e of whom this effigy is 
commemorative is represented vested in the alb, stole, 
and chesible, with the maniple suspended over the left 
arm, the hands are conjoined on the breast as in prayer ; 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


and the close 6tting buttoned sleeves, manic<B hotonatce, 
of the cassock, toga talaris, are viBible from beDeath 
the vestments. The chesible is not very long. The 
hair of the head has flowing locks on each side the £ice. 
But the peculiarity of this e&gy consists in this, that 
the amice, instead of being folded about the neck, ia 
worn on the head as a hood. I have only met with 
one other sculptured sepulchral q^qj in this county in 
which the amice is represented aa thus worn ; this is 
the well known recumbent effigy of a priest in Beverley 

AlbinuB Flaccus Aleuinus, who flourished in the latter 
part of the eighth century {he died a.d. 804), in his 
work, Liber ae Divinis Officiis, treats severally of 
the episcopal vestments, and first of the "Sanaalia 
Episcoporuni". Then he goes on to treat of the amice, 
or, as it was then called, Stiperhumerale, in the follow- 
ing words : " Post sandalias in ecclesice vestimentis se- 
quitur superhumerale quod fit ex lino purissivio." 

Amalarius, Archbishop of Treves, who flourished in 
the early part of the ninth century (he died A.D. 837),. 
in his work, De Ecclesiaslico Officio Libelli Quatuor, 
thus treats of the amice, and its position when worn : 
" Amictus est primum vestivuritum quo collum undique 
cingimus. In collo est namque vox ideoque per collum 
loquendi ustis exprimitur. Per amictum intelligimus 
custodiam vocis de qua Psalmista dicebat ; Dixi custo- 
diam vias meas, ut non delinquam in lingua mea, posui 
ori meo ciistodiam. El in alio Psalmo ; Pone Domine 
custodiam ori meo. Amictus ideo dicitur quia circum- 
jicitur. In isto prima vcstimento admonetur'castigatio 

" The amice is the first vestment we fold about the 
neck on every side. For in the neck is the voice, there- 
fore, by the neck the use of speaking is expressed. By 
the amice we understand the restraint of the voice, of 
which the Psalmist speaks, ' I said I will take heed to 
my ways, that I ofiFend not in my tongue, I have placed 
a guard on my mouth'. And in another psalm, ' Put 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


a guard on my mouth, Lord'. The amice, therefore, 
ia BO called because it lies folded about. In this first 
vestment the reproof of the voice is admonished." 

Rabanus Maurus, Archbishop of Mentz, who flourished 
in the first half of the ninth century (he died a.d. 8.^4), 
in his work, De Institutione Clericorum, treating " De 
vestibus sacerdotalihu^' , commences "De superhume- 
rali", which he thus describes, " Privium ergo eorum 
indumentum est Ephod. Bad quod interpretatur su- 
perhumerale lijieum, quod significat munditiam bonorum 

" The fiist habit of those, therefore, is the Ephod Bad, 
which is interpreted as the linen superhumeral, which 
signifies the comelinesa of good works." 

In that weU known work. Rationale Divinot-um Of- 
^iomm. Gulielmi Durandi, Mematensts Episcopi, of 
DuranduB, Bishop of Mende, who flourished in the 
thirteenth century, the vestments of the church are 
severally enumerated, and treated upon. He commences 
with the axaice," De amictu' . "Lotis itaque Tuanibiis 
episcopus seu sacerdos celebraturua assumit amictum quo 
capvi tegit quod pontifex loco ephod sive superhumerale 
et rationale habet et nunc etiam superhumerale vocari 
potest, signijicans saiutem quod perjldem tribuitur. De 
noc apostolits, ' Galeam salutis assumite'. Due/asciole 
give due cordule quibus amictus ante pectus ligatur. 
lAnea camisia alba aut superpellicium super communes 
vestes induatur priusqvam amictus imponatur. Porro 
amictus super os planete revolvit," 

" The bishop or priest about to celebrate, having washed 
his hands, takes the amice, with which he coverB his 
head, this the bishop wears in place of the ephod, or 

Xrhumeral, or rationale, and even now it may be 
i the superhumeral, signifying salvation, which ia 
bestowed through faith. Of this writes the apostle, 
'Take ye the helmet of salvation'. There are two 
bands or cords with which the amice is bound in front 
of the breast. ITie linen vest, alb, or surplice is worn 
over the ordinary habit, before the amice is .put on. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Moreover, the amice goes over the aperture of the 
diesihle." Thus much and much more, Durandus, in his 
mystical expositions, treating of the amice. 

In that English Rationale of Ceremonies to he used 
in the Church of England, together with an explanation 
of the meaning and signijkancy of them, drawn up 
about the year 1543,' the vestm ents are severally treated 
of: "The priest therefore, when he shall say mass, says 
it not in his common apparel which he daily uses ; but 
puts upon him clean and hallowed vestments, partly re- 
presenting the mysteries which were done at the passion, 
portly representing the virtues which he himself ought 
to have Aiat celebrates the mass. And, first he putteth 
OD the amice, which, as touching the mystery, signifies 
the veil with which the Jews covered the face of Christ 
when they buffeted him in time of his passion ; and, as 
touching the minister, it signifies faith, which is the 
head, ground, and foundation of all virtues, and there- 
fore he puts that upon his head first." 

Thus we see the mystical expositions, in treating of 
this vestment, have not always been the same, but 
have differed in accordance with the opinions expressed 
by successive ritualistic writers. 

In the effieies of ecclesiaatiea in general, whether 
sculptured or mcised in brass or stone, where they are 
represented vested for the Eucharistlc sacrifice, the 
amice appears folded about the neck with the orna- 
mented parure or apparel, which ofttimes gives it the 
appearance of a stiff collar. In this instance, however, 
the unusual course is pursued of the amice being drawn 
over the head. 

Of this exceptive practice, the celebrated Father 
Thiers, doctor in theology, of the Gallican Church, 
learnedly treats in his Histoire des Perukes, first pub- 

I "Atxint tbiB time, as may be reaaonably collect«d, the rites and 
ceremonies of the Church were brought nnder a review, and a rafto- 
ttale drawn up to explain the meaning, and jastify the usage." — Col- 
lier's Ecolegituticai History of Great Britain, in which a transcript is 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


lished, I think, in or about the year 1689. In the 
eighth chapter of this work, writing " Des amits", he 
commences the title thua, "La pratique de dire la 
messe et de servir a Vautel avec un avuit sur la tSte, ne 
paroit pajsfort riguli&re". He tells ue that the prieets, 
deacons, and subdeacons, and those who at Pans were 
called the "Induts", wore the amice on their heads, in 
certain dioceses, from the octave of St. Denis, or froTn 
All Saints to Easter, and that this was the usage of 
great, iUnstrious, and learned patrons, but he protests 
agaiDst this custom as being irr^ular. He then gives 
curious reasons assigned for and in favour of this cus- 
tonL He informs us, that before the time of Charle- 
magne, no mention occurs of the amice amongst the 
sacred vestments, and that it was introduced into the 
Latin Church in the ninth century, also that the head 
was never covered with the amice till the middle of the 
thirteenth century. He treats, indeed, of the practice 
as altogether unusual and ezceptionaL It is, then, of 
this unusual and ezx^ptiooal custom that this effigy 
of a priest in Towyn Church presents us with a most 
interesting, rare, and almost unique example. 

Matthew Holbechb Bu)xam. 




{Btad at Wraxham.) 

The site of the Roman military station within ihe 
limits of Lydn ey Park is too little known to antiquaries ; 
and yet it contains vestiges of a very considerable 
building, with hypocausta, a villa, and a temple, within 
the larger of two Roman camps, overlooking and com- 
manding the Severn and the Vale of Berkeley beyond 
it From out the ruins of this system of buildings, 
which appears to have contained all' necessary accom- 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


modation for a style of living suitaWe to Roman officers 
of rank, have been collected a very large number of 
coins of later Roman emperors, fragments of pottery 
and tesserse, a statuette, and two large terminal statues, . 
all of which, except the last named, are treasured in the 
museum of the proprietor, the Rev. W. H. Bathurst, 
whose father, the Right Hon, C. Bragge Bathurst, was 
the first to discover these remains, and to excavate the 
various chambers of the villa, hypocaust, and temple. 
These curious and interesting relics, as well as the locale 
from which they were extracted, were inspected by the 
Woolhope Natural History Club on Tuesday, Aug. 1 8, 
in a visit to Lydney Park, through the courtesy of 
Mr. Bathurst, who, besides hospitably entertaining the 
Club, acted as its guide, and explained the various 
points of interest as no one less familiar with them could 
have done. As President of that Club, I had the 
pleasure of taking part in the proceediDgs, and it has 
occurred to me that without going into any details of 
the camps, ruins, and other " finds" connected therewith, 
a notice of four inscriptions, which assist us in conject- 
uring the history of the buildings within the lai^r 
camp, may not be unacceptable to a society which, like 
the club I have mentioned, sometimes oversteps its 
border, and does not confine its interest to its name- 
denoted area. 

In the supposed temple, at the excavation by the 
present owners father, was found, on a tesselated pave- 
ment, an inscription, somewhat interrupted by a tunnel 
of earthenware, not indeed in itself indicative of the pur- 
pose of the building, or of the name of the god, though 
adjacent figxures of a cock, a dog, and a pair of winged 
serpents seemed to associate the place with .^sculapius, 
or nis Britanno-Roman counterpart. But it gave a 
clue to the founder and builder, for it ran, so far as could 
be read, D. A. flavius senilis pb. rel. ex stepibus. 


Passing over minor details I will point out that here 
we have Flavius Senilis (a namesake of whom strangely 

. D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


cropped up this evening in the able paper of Mr. Rhys) 
designated as the founder, and the fact established that 
the altar or temple was built &r stepibus or stipibus, i. e., 
out of the small pieces of money offered by the votaries 
of the god." The abbreviations pe. rel represent, accord- 
ing to one surmise, " Pnefectus Religionis" (an ecclesias- 
tical title for which no authority is fortbcoming),or"pre- 
tio relate", "the coat having been defrayed". O...ANTE 
has been cleverly restored as "opus curante", and a 
Canadian epigraphist, Dr. McCaul, in his valuable work 
on Britanno- Roman inscriptions,' regards the other lacu- 
na as capable of being filled up by inserting amn; i. e., 
interamnate, i. e., " lying or residing between two rivera". 
I fear I shall not have made myself quite understood in 
ihese steps to the interpretation of the pavement's 
l^end ; but here is the substance of it in the vernacu- 
lar. " Flavins Senilis {high priest of religion), or ai an 
expense defrayed by small Tnoney-offerings, set up this 
temple, Victorinus, a native of the country between 
the Wye and the Severn, being the overseer of the 
work." It will be remembered that there was a town 
named Interamns in Italy, and it ia reasonable to 
think that the Romana would have given its name 
either to a Nova Troja similarly situated in the forest 
district, or to the Dean Forest country generally.* The 
same local adjective, if we recognise it in this case, 
supplies a gap in another inscription, of a different 
character, found in the immediate proximity of this 
temple, a small votive tablet on lead, not so legible as 
the former, which ia in characters of from two to three 
inches in height, and covers a considerable space in a 
iacsimile which I inspected. This second inscription 
runs, Divo 

» Pnbliahed tA Toronto in 1863. 
* The local proverb mns : 

Bleued ii ths eye 

Between Ibe Sirem sad the Wt«. 








Unless in one line, there is little need of diTination 
to make out this inscription. It purports, acxnrding 
to Dr. McCaul, that Silvianus staked a ring in a wager, 
and promised half its value to the god Nodens, if he 
won it. But seemingly he did not win it, and so the 
latter part of the inscription goes on to say to the god, 
who is indirectly credited with healing gifts, " Doa*t 
grant the hlessing- of health to any persons bearing the 
name of Senicianus (the winner of the bet, who didu't 
see the .obligation of paying to Nodens the moiety 
vowed by the loser) until they bring the ring all the 
way to the Temple of Nodens". The puzzle in this 
inscription is Inter guibus, as all will see who remember 
the cases governed by prepositions in their Latin gram- 
mars. Some supply eos, t. e., " Inter eos, quibus". But 
the autiiority I have before cited commends himself 
more to my judgment in supposing Inter to stand for 
Interam/nati. '"Silvianus dedicated the half to Nodens, 
the god of a temple between the Severn and the Wye." 
The name of this god oociirs in two shorter inscriptions 
on pottery, to be seen in Mr. Bathurst's museum. 




which may be. simply rendered " Pectillus paid to the 

great god Nudens the vow he promised," and where the 

letter m may stand either for merito or tnagno; and 



V. S. L. M. 

.;, Google 


(t. e., votmn solvit libens merito), or, in an English ver- 
fflon, "Flavius Blandinus, a light-armed infantry man, 
fitly and freely paid his vow to the great god Nodens". 

It must be admitted that there is no direct evidence 
in support of the existence of such a god in classical 
writers, but two patristic writers refer to one Nodutus 
as a rural god presiding over the nodi culmorum, the 
same who is called Nodintts hy Varro. With this No- 
dutus or Nodinus, Sir W. Drummond connects the 
Lydney god, Nodons, whom he also associates with 
jSsculapius, on account of the emblems, a cock, a dog, 
a pair of winged serpents, and some figures of liml:^, 
found in immediate proximity to the dedicatory in- 
scription. This, I think, is preferable to the surmise of 
Mr. Lysons, that Nodons is a synonym of N(o£vmk or 
AvmSmuf, " the alleviator of pain". It is a rather happy 
conjecture of Dr. McCaul, that Nodons may have b^n 
a deity who presided over.not only vegetable but also 
animal nodi, and to whom especial court was paid by 
those who suffered from gout and rheumatism, disorders 
to which it is likely enough that the dwellers in the 
leafy district betwixt Severn and Wye were as subject 
of old as those who now dwell to the west and north of 
the latter river, a rather considerable number of whom 
might gladly seek the aid of a human Nodens for relief 
from t^eir plague. 

I do not know that I have more to add about the 
interesting remains at Lydney, whidi are situate in the 
midst of a park containing timber unusually noble and 
impressive, except that the terminal statues hard by 
the Temple of Nodons or Nodens are seemingly those 
of Pan and of a female, perhaps a goddess, witn a veir 
elaborate coiffure ; -and near ttie spot which they mark 
is also a tolerably perfect square stone altar, with two 
orifices, denoting drain-holes for carrying off the blood 
of victims offered in sacrifice. 

James Davies, M.A. 

Hoor Court. 


D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


P.S. It ia impossible to run one's eye over the lines 
written on ihe subject of Lydney Park and its anti- 
quities in the month of August last, without a word 
" in memoriam" for one who was the life and soul of 
the gathering on the 18th of August, 1874, and has 
since been suddenly called away to his rest, the Vener- 
able Archdeacon Ormerod. An antiquary himself as 
well as a ripe scholar and divine, he was the eldest son 
of the venerable historian of Cheshire, Geo. Ormerod, 
Esq., of Sedbury, who predeceased hioi only a few 
months. The archdeacon had but recently retired from 
a life of active professional usefulness to his ancestral 
property near Chepstow, and took the liveliest interest 
in the archseology, natural history, and, in short, all the 
local features ofthe Severn banlM. He was elected a 
member of the Cambrian ArdiEBological Association at 
the Wrexham meeting, and promised to be a valued and 
frequent contributor, 

Mnltia ille bonis flebilia occidit. 

J. D. 



On a spur of the hill behind the village of Cae Llwyn- 
grydd, and nearly opposite to, and within a stone's throw 
of the Tan y Bwlch mountain gate, stands the camp 
which is the subject of this paper. It is not marked on 
the Ordnance map, and in fact it is easily overlooked, 
unless seen from the CTound above. Locally it has no 
distinctive name, but I perceive that a writer in one of 
the Welsh newspapers, alluding to. these remains, en- 
titles them, " Pen y Gaer neu y Gaer Budd". This 
double appellation shows the uncertainty in the writer's 
mmd as to the name he should give the camp, and per- 
haps it would have been better had he left it as he 
found it, without a name ; for coining names for places 
may, by and by, lead to confusion. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


The camp covers the whole of a small arm of the hill 
and ia separated from the hill behind by a ditch. The 
sides are artificially raised on the south and west, and 
for a certain length on the north. The south side is 
about 60 feet high, is pretty steep, and is covered with 
stone, some loose and some partly embedded in the soil, 
and these to all appearance have been thrown down 
from the wall that at one time protected and siir 
mounted the whole ridge. The west side is considerably 
lower than the south aide, whilst the north side is about 
the same height as the south side, and is, like it, for a 
portion of its length, strewn with stones. A part of this 
aide is protected by a precipitous rock from 50 ft. to 
60 ft high. The site seems to have been selected for 
its natural advantages and the facilities it offered for 
forming a camp with but little labour. The configura- 
tion of the ground has not been altered, but the camp 
adapts itaelf in form to the shape of the hill upon which 
it stands, imd where the sides were originally low they 
have not been much raised, but they seem to have been 
made steeper than they were in their pristine state. 

The enclosure measures internally, from side to side, 
117 ft. long by 93 ft. broad. The space within the 
walls is not level, but presents such inequalities as are 
generally to be met with on mountain slopes. There is 
a fall of nearly 23 feet from the base of the vallum on 
the east side to the base of the boundary on the west 
side, that is, in II 7 ft. there is an incline of 23 ft., but 
the descent is not gradual throughout. There is a rather 
sudden slope towards the west side, and the surface in 
other places presents inequalities. 

Within the camp can he traced on the south side, 
nestling close to the wall, at least two round enclosures. 
One of these measures 21 ft. by 17 ft. in diameter,' and 
ike other 1 9 ft. by 1 8 ft in diameter ; and on the oppo- 
site side there is a circular relic measuring 24 ft. by 
21 ft. in diameter ; and adjoining this, lying dose to 
the wall, is a depression which probably was likewise a 
circular abode. It is not unlikely, jud^ng from the 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


appearance of the ground, that there were sue circular 
enclosures in the camp. A few stones remain where 
the walls of these enclosures stood, and possibly they 
formed a part of the walls thereof, but the j do not seem 
to have been the foundation stones, for, as a rule, the 
foundation stones in these circuW buildings are placed 
on end and go some distance into the ground, which is 
not the case with these stones. The whole of these 
small (nrcular buildings have been greatly mutilated, 
and even the three that are traceable are not so well 
defined as to enable one to say that the dimensions 
now given were the dimenaona of the ori^nal structure. 
Nevertheless, it has been thought proper to give ihe 
measurements of the vestiges as they are, rather than as 
they might have been. But it may be remarked that 
at present they are not so circular as similar remains 
usually are. 

At one time three sides of the camp were protected 
by a stone wall which was built along the edge of the 
table land, and from this wall the ground slopes exter- 
nally at an angle of from 40 to 50 degrees. This sur- 
rounding wail was in some places 10 it. broad, and even 
on the brink of the rock, where the place is most safely 
defended, it was 8 fb. thick. Several of the foundation 
stones of this wall are still in their places, as will be 
seen upon referring to the plan accompanying this paper. 
There is a slight sloping on the inner side of the wall, as 
shown in the plan. Judging from the breadth, this wall 
probably was several feet high. On the east side, that is, 
on the side which connects tbe spur with the mountain, 
there is a breastwork of earth 7 ft. high and 72 ft long. 
The eaxHi icOTa the trendi is thrown up on one siae 
only, and forms a barrier to the entrance of the camp 
from the direction of the hill. There are no traces of a 
wall upon the earthwork. 

It is difficult to say, whether or not there were two 
entrances to the enclosure. There is a depression on 
the south aide of the vallum, not unlike a road, but 
this probably is a modern pathway. The proper en- 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


tnmce was undoubtedly on the west side, where there 
is a large stone, and the paasage seems to have been 
13 feet broad. 

The Rev. E. L. Barnwell visited this camp, in com- 
pany with the writer, and suggested that it was in- 
tended most likely to afford protection to the inhabitants 
and their flocks from beasts of prey, and he called atten- 
tion to the fact that missiles could, be thrown into it, 
in all directions, from the aurromu^g overlooking hills. 

The ravine on the north side is c»Jled Nant y Chwarel 
Goch (the dingle of the red quarry), so named because 
some years ago search was made at the extremity of the 
hollow for slates, and the stones there are of a reddish 
colour. The coch in this name has been played with by 
those who have given a name to this camp. Thus coch 
and rhudd are both Welsh for red, and being eo, say 
local etymologists, why not substitute the one for the 
' other, for by this means there is obtained a name for 
this caer, viz., Caer Hhudd ; and, furthermore, there is a 
village close at hand called Cae Llwyngrydd ; and if we 
only make this small change, there is got a passable 
derivation for this word also, and an evident connection 
is in this manner shown between the camp and the vil- 
lage, or at least between the camp and the name of the 
viUage. There is a want of ingenuousnees, however in- 
genious it may be, in this kind of proceeding, and it is 
reprehensible. If places such as this have lost their 
names, it is usually a sign of their antiquity, and pos- 
sibly of their having belonged to an ancient extinct 
race who once occupied them, and it is advisable not to 
tamper with them. 

Elias Owen. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 





(Continutdfromp. 63). 


This singular buildlnz stands in the township of Bron- 
coed, and appears to nave been designed for a fortified 
residence. In the year 1465 it was the residence of 
Rheinallt ah GrufFydd ab Bleddyn, who took Robert 

re, Mayor of Chester, prisoner, and then slew him. 
caused the greatest exasperation at Chester, and 
two hundred men were sent to seize Bheinallt ; he, • 
however, being aware of their design, retired to the 
adjoining wood, and permitted a portion of tiiem to 
enter the Tower, when he rushed forUi, fastened the 
door, and burned them to deaUi. He then attacked 
the remainder, who fled to the sea side and were either 
slain or drowned. Bheinallt received pardon for these 
exploits from Thomas, Lord Stanley, which was after- 
wards confirmed by Henry VI. See Lewys Glyn 
Cothi's Ode to him, Gwaith X. G. Cothi, Dosp. V, vi. 

Another story is also told of Kheinallt, Four cousins 
having met at an inn began to boast to each other of 
their various exploits. The first was David ab Siencyn 
ab David Crach, of Nant Conwy, who began : " This is 
the dagger with which I slew the Bed Judge on the 
bench at Denbigh." The second, David' ab leuan ab 

' David, the gallant defender of Harlech Castle, was the eldest 
ioii(bjAngharad his wife, daughter and coheir of David ab YGwion 
Llwjrd, Baron of Hendwr) of leuan, second eon of Einion ab Gruffydd 
ab Llewelyn ab Cjnwrig ab Osbent Fitz (herald of Gors j Oedol, 
nho bore ermine, a saltire gaU$, a crescent or for difference. He 
was Constable of Harlech Castle in 1464, and held it for King 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google . 


EiDion, who had heen constable of Harlech Castle said : 
" This is the sword and this the ashen spear with which 
I slew the sheriff at UandriUo." The third, Rheinallt 
ab Gmfifydd ah Bleddyn of the Tower, said : " This is 
the sword with which I slew the Mayor of Chester when 
he came to hum i^ house." Then they inquired of the 
fourth, Grufifydd Fychan ab leuan ab Einion, a quiet 
and peaceable man, " What daring deed had he ever 
performed 1" when he replied : " This is the sword with 
which, had I drawn it in dishonour, I should have ac- 
complished as much as the best of you did." 

Rneinallt was the son of Gruffydd ab Bleddyn ab 
Einion Fychan ab Einion ah Cadwgau Ddu ab Cadwgan 
Goch ab V Gwion^ ab Hwfa ab Ithel Felyn, Lord of lal. 
His mother was Gwerfyl, daughter of Howel ab Tudor 
abGoronwy of Penllyn, ab Gruffydd ab Madog ab Ehiryd 
Flaidd, Lord of PenUyn. Gwerfyl's motherwas Tibot, se- 
cond daughter of Eimon ab Gruffydd ab Llewelyn of Cora 
y Gedol. K-heinaUt was a Lancastrian, and, according to 
iork.e,in}nHRoifalTribe8ofWale8,one of the six gallant 
captaius who defended Harlech Castle in 1468 against 
Edward IV. In two pedigrees at Nannau, however, it 
is recorded ihat he died at the age of twenty-eight, in 
A.D.-1466, at Uandderfel, near Bala, before the surrender 
of the castle by David ab leuan ab Einion. Agnes, 
daughter of Rheinallt ab Gruffydd ab Bleddyn of the 
Tower near Mold, married David ab Gru%da ab Belyn 
of Nercwys, one of the sons of David ab Cynwrig ab 
leuan ab Grufifydd ab Madog Ddu of Cop'r Golenni, 
by whom she had a son, John Wynn, ancestor of the 
Wynns of Nercwys.* 

Subsequently, the Tower became the property of a 
family of the name of Wynn, whose pedigree is as fol- 
lows : 

Heniy VI daring the Wars of the Rones ; bnt eTOntonUj, abont 
1468, he was compelled to smrender it to 8ir Richard Herbert, 
brother of William Earl of Pembroke. 

• T Gwion, Lord of lal, was slain in battle by Robert do Mont' 
» Cae Cyriog MS. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


John, Mooad ion of==Okth«riDe, d. of Gniffydd kb Belrn of Cop'i Qoleanlt 
Oruffjdd 4b Llew- I kb Dkvid ftb C^nl1mg ftb leuan kb Oruffydd ftb Mkd(« 
Blyn Kb Dftvid of I Ddu of Cop'r Qoleuni in Teseuigl. Ptljotiixargemt 
Pluau Qw jtmm | Md «aWt 

BoboTt Wvna, f'urw uxorit,^K%Tpir«t, i. ud botr of leoan ai> Willwm' 
of The Tower Rhys ^b Bobin of The Tower 

John Wjnn. Lelaud, in hi> Ilintrmy, mentions "John Wyan^EluKbeth, 
»b Robert dwellid at ft itone tower caullid Broncoit, aliai Reg' I d. of Robt. 
nbuJlti Towre, throe qiurtwi of » mile from Moleidkle toune" ftbBdward 

John Wjnn^ Margaret, d. Petor^CAtherine, Mftrgkret, nx. Kliiabeth, 

of The 

of leuMi ab Wjnn d. of Jolm Lei^ Wyaa nx.,l,John 

Ithel »b &b Howsl ab Haarice of Wtdq »b 

Grufjdd of ab Lkw- Hoeliwrch in Thomaa ; 

Llwjn EgrjD eljn Cwmmwd j B, Qeorga 


Jo'hn I)avid==Unula, d. of Peter Margaret J&ne Catherine Fraoces 
Wjnn Wynn | Tho«. Jonoi of Pengwem 

Reginald Alexander. 

The Tower remained in the poasession of the Wynn 
family until the direct line of the family terminated by 
the death of Roger Wynn, Esq., about the middle of 
the last century/ who dying without issue left the 
Tower to bis widow, firom whom it passed to her niece, 
the wife of iiie Rev. Hope Wynn Eyton of Leeswood. 
It is now the property of his eldest son, John Wynn 
Eyton of Leeswood, Esq^ John Wynn of the Tower 
was High SheriflF for co. Flint in 1715. 

' William married Anno, dangbter of Richard ab Qnil^dd ab 
Gwyn, by whom he had a son, John ab William, who married Cathe- 
rine, danghter and heir of Owain ab John ab Darid ab Llewelyn of 
Arddynwynt, by whom be had a aon, William Williama of Arddyn- 
wynt, who married Jane, daughter of John ab John ab Robert of 
Gwm, by whom he was ihe father of William Williama of Arddyn- 

' Lewys Dwnn, vol. ii, p. 319. 

■ Thomaa Syton of Tnmley was High Sheriff for co. Flint in 
1681 ; and hia son, Thomas Eyton of Coed y Llai, or Leeswood, was 
High Sheriff in 1712. See AreK Comb., Jan. 1875, p. 52. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 



OwAiN AB Hywei. Dda, who reigned over South Wales 
and Powys from A.D. 948 to A.D. 985, married first, 
Angharad, daughter and heiress of Llewelyn ab Merfyn, 
Prince of Powys, who bore or, a lion's gamb, erased 
^les, lay whom he had a son, Meredydd, who succeeded 
to the kingdom of Powys, and bore his maternal arma. 
Owain married a second wife, by whom he had another 
son, called Einion, who succeeded his father in the 
Priocipality of South Wales. He married Nesta, 
daughter of the Earl of Devon, by whom he had two 
sons ; 1, Tudor Mawr, ancestor of the Princes of South 
Walra ; and 2, Goronw7,who became Prince of Tegeingl, 
in the kingdom of Gwynedd. He married Ethelfleda, 
daughter and heiress of Edwin, Earl of Mereia, and re- 
lict' of Edmund Ironside, King of England, and doubt- 
less by this match he obtained possession of the Cantref 
of Tegeingl, which contains the comots of Cynsyllt, 
Prestatyn, and Rhuddlan. By this match Goronwy 
had issue a son and heir called Edwin, after his mother s 
first husband. He succeeded his father as Prince 
Tegeingl, and was the founder of one of the noble tribes 
of Gwynedd. He bore argent, a cross flory engrailed 
sotfo, inter four Cornish choughs ppr., and married 
Gwerydd or Ewerydda, sister of Bleddyn ab Cynfj-n, 
Prince of Powys. He lived at Llys Edwin, in the parish 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


of Llaneurgain,' and at CasteU Edwin, in the parish of 
Llanasaf. He was slain by KhTs ab lUijdderch ab 
Owain, in a.d. 1073. Rhual, near Mold, was the resi- 
dence of Edwin when he died, for it is recorded that 
" Edwin of Rhual was buried at Llaneurgain (or North- 
ope) in A.D. 1073." He left issue three sons : 1, Owain, 
of whom presently ; 2, Uchtryd, upon whom Cadwgan 
ab Bleddyn of Nannau, Prince of Powys, had conferred 
the cantrefe of Meirion, Penllyn, and the comots of 
Mawddwy and Cyfeiliog, on condition of his rendering 
faithful service to him and his family, which tJchtryd 
repaid with enmity. In a.d. 1113, Einion ab Cadwgan 
ab Bleddyn, and his cousin, Grufiydd ab Meredydd ab 
Bleddyn, attacked the Castle of Cymmer, which the 
sons of Uchtryd had buUt in the pariah of Uaofach- 
raith, in the coraot of Tal y Bont, in cantref Meirion, 
and took from Uchtryd and his sons the canfcrefe of 
Meirionydd and Penllyn, and the comots of Mawddwy 
and Cyfeiliog, which form the Cantref of Cynan, which 
the conquerors divided between them.' In this division 
Gruffydd got Cyfeiliog, Mawddwy, and half of Penllyn, 
and Einion and his brothers Meirionydd and the other 

' Llys Ednin became the property of Bleddyn, foortfa son of 
Itbel Fychaa of Moatyn and Llya Llanaarg&in, who did homage ibr 
his lands Id Llanenrgain and other parishes to Edward I, at Chester, 
in 1301. Itbel Fychan was the son of Ithel Llwyd ab Ithel 6ant ah 
Meredydd ab Uchtryd ab Edwin ab Goronwy. Bleddyn was sncoeeded 
at Uy^ Edwin hy his snn David, the father of Owain Gwynedd of 
Llys Edwin, whe was beheaded and his estates forfeited in a.d. 1410, 
for his adherence to Owain Olyndwr. Llys Edwin was bestowed by 
Henry TV upon one Bryan Sazton, whose posterity kept it till a.d. 
1439, when Henry VI granted it to Sir John Stanley, Knt., Groom 
of the' Bedchamber. It remained in the Stanley family till Crom- 
wetl's time, when Colonel Roger Whitley, one of the eeqneatration 
(tgents came to possesB the lands on which the old palace stood, which 
became afterwards by marriage the property of the Earl of Ply- 
month, and it now belongs to the Duke of Westminster. Ithel 
Fychan of Llaneargain bore a«i(r«, a lion statant argeni. His son 
Tador had Moatyn and Llanenrgain, and had a son Howel, whose 
daughter and heireas, Anghatnd, married leaan Fychan ab leoanab 
Adda, of Llys Pengwem in Nanfaoudwy, the ancestor of the Mostya 

* Bnd ijTi/u:ijsoij!ou. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


half of Penllyn. In a.d. 1095, Uchtird, together with 
the Bons of Cadwgan ab Bleddyn, defeatM the Nor- 
mans in Ceredigion and Dyfed. He married, first, Agnes, 
daughter of Llewelyn Eurdorchog, Lord of lal and 
Ystrad Alun, by whom he had issue : 1, lorwerth, who 
married Elen, daughter of Hedd Molwynog, Lord of 
Uwch Aled, in cantref Rhufoniog, by whom he had a 
son Lkwdden, Lord of Uwch Aeron, in the comot of 
Anhunc^, in Cantref Canol in South Wales, who bore 
gules, a griffon segreant or ; 2, Idnerth Benfras, Lord 
of Maesbrwg in the Lordship of Oswestry ; 3, Llawdden; 
4, Philip of Cyfeiliog, ancestor of the families of Aber- 
gwidol, Gelli Groch, Ceulan, and several others in the 
parishes of Darowen, Penegoes, and Llanbrynmair in 
the comot of Cyfeilit^ ; and 5, Meredydd ;^ and 6, 
HjTPel ad Edwin who aided his brother in driving the 
Normans out of Ceredigion and Dyfed, in A.D. 1095. 
He married Janet, daughter of Ithet ab Eunydd, Lord 
of Trefalun. Owain, the eldest son of Edwin, succeeded 
his father as Prince of Tegeingl. He bore gules, three 
men's legs conjoined at flie thighs in triangle argent. 
In A.D. 1096 he was elected Prince of North Wales by 
Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester, but was soon afterwarm 
deposed. He died of consumption in a.d. 1103. He 
■was the ancestor of the Lloyds of Plas yn Hersedd, of 
Tre'r Beirdd, of Ffem or Berbrook, and of Llwyn 
Yn, the Evans of Coed y Llai, the Edwardses of 
Ehual, the Evanses of Treuddyn, the Lloyds of Pentref 
Hobyn, and of Madog Ddu of Cop'r Goleuni in Tegeingl, 
who bore Palii of six pieces argent and sable, and was 
the ancestor of the Wynna of Nercwys. Madog Ddu 
was the son of Rhiryd ab Llewelyn ab Owain ab Edwin. 

' Meredydd waa probably the boh of Uohtryd, l^ hii second wife 
Angharad, the dauf^hter of Meredydd ab Bleddyn, Prince of Powys. 
Be had sevenl sons, Ithel Gam of Moatyn and Llajaenrgain ; £inion, 
whose dcBcendants settled in MaesmBen Cymro ; Madog, whoee dea- 
cendants settled at Girybre, a township in the pariah of Llanenrgain, 
and at Maesmaen Cymro and Rhydonen, in the parish of Llanynys ; 
and Qoronwy of Trefryd, who waa the ancestor of the EdwardBes of 
Caerfallwch in Llaneiirgain. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Heilin sb Bleddyn ab Mftdog ab Bhirjd ab Einion «b Cftdirgau= 
ab QoioDw; ab Owain ab Edwin, Prince of Tageiogl I 

Gruajdd=j=Mali, d. of Ojnwiig, one of ths Mna of leuui ab Qruff^dd ab 
I Madog Ddu of CopV Qoleuui, ab Rhirjd ab Lleweljn ab Owain 
I ab Edwin. Pal; of six pieces argeni and tabU, for Hadog Ddu 

Bleddjn^aoe, d. and »ole heiress of TwncTii of Sbockledge. Argmt, three 
of Tb- \ fish conjoined bj the heads in triangle argeni. Her mother was 
trad I Hugaret, d. of Ueredjdd of Yr Hob, ab Gtuffjdd ab Ueweljn 
Alon 1 ab Ynyr of lal 

David Lloyd of HerBedd,=MaTj, d. of Howel ab Llewelyn ab lorwsrth of 
ob. L^. 1472 Llwyn On in the pariah of Wrekham. Emine, 

a lion rampant table 

I 21 

Edward LloTd=Oa(heTine, A. of Piers Btanlej 
of Uersedd I of Ealo Castle 

1] 21 

Robert Llo7d=Bllan, d. of John William Lloyd =MaTearet, d. of Howel 

of Hersedd Almei of Paot of Tre'r Beiidd ab Llewelyn ab lor- 
1 locjD wenh Fychan 

£dward Lloyd of Hersedd=EloaDor, d. of Edward ab Meredydd ab Howel of 
Oswestry, ab Maurice (Jethia of Oarth Eryr in 
j Mocbnant 

Bobeit Lloyd of Henedd^Alice, d. of John ab Elis of Yigwfiog 

Harry Lloyd of Hersedd=Calhetine, d. of Robert Daviea 
I of Plasau Owysanau 

Edward Lloyd Thomas Jane, ux. John Wynn of Hercwys, a student 
at Gray's Inn.' 


Robt. Lloyd, BMond=Qwenhw7te or Qwcrfyl, d. and sole heiress of Oruffydd 
son of David Lloyd j Qoch ab Oruffydd ah Gadwgan Ddu ab Cadwgan Goch 
of Heisedd j of lal. Descended from Itkel Fslyn 

* John Wynn of Nercnye was the Bon of John Wynn ab leuan ab 
lohn Wynn ab lohn Wynn of Kercnys, son of David ab QmSydd 
&b Belyn, who was one of the sons of David abCynwrigab lenanab 
Gruffydd ab Madog Ddu of Cop'r Golenni. Palii of six pieces or- 
gent and gaile. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 

1 1 

David lAojd: 

of Qlj&berh 




:ADiieato,id. of John BIlu John Llo7d=Eliubelh,i d. 

ab Oni^dd Ffchbn Llo;d di«d In Ir«- of JameiCoii- 
of PutjUwjnDu of ]»nd n j of 

inTegeingL ArgttU, Llwjn "* '" 

B cher. inter tWe Tn 
boafs' heads coup«d 

IUi7a=MarpiKt, d. of Robert Wjun 
Llo;d ab John ab Oruf^d of the 

Catherine, uz. John ab Robert ab 

aru^dd ab Howel of Cioei Foel 

in Wrexham pariih 

John Uoyd^^Jatio, d. of John ab Ithel Wjdd ab Nieholu of Leecwood. 
I Jture,achet.iiiter three dolphininaiant,emboiredarjrro( 


Khyi Llojd of Ffon,— Margaret, d. of HamphreyBllia of Alrhey, and relict 
164S of Bdward Puleitoa ef Hafod 7 Wem. She died 

Maich 1, 1096 

'Dorothy, d.of Richard Hyddletou of Plae Newjdd in the town- 
ehip of Bodlith in Llanaiiin, High Sberiffof Deobighsbira in 
1650,>nd one of the gentlemen appointed to be m»de a Knight 
of the Boyal Oak ; and son of Ffoulke Mjddleton of Llantilin, 
Bigh Sheriff for Den bigbihire in lB19,iieventh ton of Richard 
H;ddleton, QoTemor of Denbigh Caitle 

1^ 2 1 

DoTOthTt hoireu of Ffern, us. John PulMton of MH7, nx. Lew;! Young 
Hafod J Wsm,* ab John ab Robert Pnleiton of Bzja lorcjn. ' 


BlU* LltyyA ab Robert Llo7d=Aliee, d. of William ab Ornffjdd ab John 
ib David Llojd, 1 Llojd ab Darid ab leuaf Llojd 

ttt mpra 


H&rgatet, d. of Rh7B Wyno ab John WiUiam=...d.ofThomaa 
John ab Bowel of Bhanber- Llojd LloTd abJohnab 

fedd ya 71 Hob, ab Hadog ab Howel 

lanan ab Madog Ddu ab leuan Qoeh ab Binion ab lorwerth ab 
Philip of Tr Hoi, ab T Corriat ab OBbem Wjddel. Her mother 
was QwBDbwjfar, d. of John Eyton Hen of Coed 7 Llai. The 
mother of Rhys Wynn waa Morfydd, d. of Edward Llojd ab David 
Llojd ap Bleddjn of Henedd 

I Her mother was Ma^aret, daoghter of Fiera Stanley Hen of 
Ewlo C&Btle. 

* EHEabeth was tbe relict of leoaii ab David ab Madog of Galchog 
in Llaoeargain. 

* Jamea Conwaj of Rhnddlan was the second Bon of lohn Aer 
Conwaj Hen of Bodrhjddan, Lord of PrestatTn, 

* John PnlcBton was bom in 1658. 

D,<j,i,.,.,i.:, Google 


Humphrej Lla7d=H&TT, d. of Willi&m Llofd of Plu M^dog in RhiwfabQn 
of Llwjn Ya pariih, uid Cktherine, hii wif«, d. of Owkid BretetoD 
of Bonuhun, High Sheriff foi DenbighBhire in 1581 
I and 1SB8 

Owun Lloyd of LIV70 Tn^AlicB, d. and heinu of John ab Robert 


Oraffydd ftb D&Tid Qoch ab Reilia Pjcban ab Heilin ab leuaf^ 
ab Qiuffjdd ab LlBWel<ni &b Owain ab Edwjo ab OoroDwy I 


'MalU,d.of Cfuan ablthel ab Gjowrigab Bleddjro ab Madog 
ab Madog Qoch ab Owaia Fjchau ab Onin Wjrd ab Rhys 
ab lorwerth of Mod, dMceDded from Ithel Feljra ;■ but 
according to oCben he married Jane, daughter of Ithel ab 
OirnDwi of Llaneurgain' 

aTid^Blen, d. of UruSydd Kvehan ab QruSjdd Margaret, uz. Uniffydc 
I ab BinioD t^ Oruffjdd of Con j 0«do1. ab H«iliD of Llwjm 
I Ermine, a ealcire ff^i**! > creicent or for Bgrjn 

Bdwatd=MaIU, d, of Robert leuan of=MaTgaret, d. and heir of Howel 
of Pen- Llwjd Ben of Plaa Uoed j I ab OraSydd ab Howel. Oalea^ 
tn^ ja Henedd Llai I on a bend argent a lion paatant 
Hobyn | [ ^Ue 

] '■ i i 

Rhji ab=ADDeata, i. and Bdward ab^Onen.d.of Onifffdd 
leuaa of tole heirof Tho- leuan of | Edward 
Coed 7 mai ab David Bhual, Price of EglwjMg] 
Llai 1 Llojd^ 1606 | 

I M S| I 

BdnaTd^Eloanor, d. Thomu ab=Alice, d. of John William Bd- 

ETane I of Hugh Edward of Lewji ab Edward* ward*, near 

of Coed J Lloyd of Rhual 1 David of of Mold and 

J Llai I Denbigh | Abergeleu Llane HjD, 160e 

Edward=Catherine,d. Bran Edwardi of Rbnal, Margaret, ux. Thomas 

ETaoi of John Ey- Baron of the Exchequer Pryeeof Haea jQroea, 

of Coed ton of I>ee»- in Chester ab John Wjnn ab 

7 Llai wood Rbja ab John of Hel7gen in Tegeingl 

David Llojd—Jane, d. of Pien ab William ab Ithel of Diserth in Tegeingl 
of Pentref j ab Cjnwrig ab Bleddyu Madoe ab Madog Qoch. Descended 
HobjQ j from Ithel Felyn 

' Lewys Dvnn,Tol. ii, Koed y LUi. ■ Gae Cjriog MS. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


'ard Lloyd: 
of Pentref 



iMftTgarct, d. of Edwftrd MorgKii of Qwylgre in the parUh 
of UiiDuaf, descended from Edajfed Fjebao, lord of 
Brjn Ffenigl. Qu/ei, a chev. trmine iaiei three EngliHh- 
men's heads couped at the neck, in profile, ppr, bwuded 
rtnd crined labU 


Edw. Iiiojd of— MaT7,dof OeorgeHopeof Thomae Mary, us. Edward 
P«Dtr«f BohjD. BroughtoD in the parieh of Llovd, Conwaj of t4;ch- 
High ShorifffOT Hawwden. Argtni, three U.A. d;a in Llaueur- 

eo. Flint, 1ST9 | ttorka talu gain' 

John Lloyd of Peotref Hobyn,— • 
High Sheriffforco. Flint, 1700 j 

Edward Lloyd of Pentref Hobyn^DoTothy, d. of John EytoD of Leeiwaod, 
and Dorothy,hu wife, d. of William Her- 
I bert of Ceri and Trefeglwys 

Edward Lloyd of Pentref Hobya— 

Edwvd Lloyd of Pentref = 
Hobju, and, jvn nxorit, 
of Treror Hall, QIanhafon, 
and Talle Cnicii Abbey ; 
High Sheriffforco. Flint, 
1783. and Denbigh, 17fl6 

'Mary, eldert d. and coheb of Thomag Lloyd of 
TreTor Hall, Talle Crucii Abbey,aud GDanhafon ; 
High Sheriff for co. HoDtgomerr, 1749 ; and 
Mary, hia wife, d. and heireii of Robert Trevor 
of TreTor Hall and Talle Crucia Abbey, B«q. 

Robert Thomaa Jotn Edward Trevor Lloyd of Mary: 
Lloyd Lloyd Lloyd Lloyd Trevor Hall, Lloyd 
ob.B.p. cb.t.p. ei.t.p. ob.i.p, PentrefHobyn, 
QlauhafoD, and 
T alla Omci« Abbey. High Sheriff for co. Mont., 178 7 


Thomas Mather 
of Aneoati, oo. 
lAncwter, Esq. 





:Eliiabeth, d. Thoinat=Margarat, eldeet d. of Rice Dorothy 
ofThoma* Trevor Thomatof-Coed Helen. She Pennant 
Richard Mather had Pentref Hobyn o6. t. p. 





Marttaret. : 

Tbomaa BaIdwya=M»ry She had all the 

Lloyd of Pla« i Pal- eitatei after her 

Llanawf in | mer brother's death 


:Riae Thooae of Ooed 
Helen, CO. CamarroD, 
Esq. Quarterly, land 
4, argent, on a crow 
(oUefive crescents or, 
in the dexter canton 
a spear's head gidtt 

fijr Sir Qru%dd ah 

ftlidnr, Enight of Rhodes ; 2 and 3, gaiei, a lion rampant, 
regardant or, for Blyilan Qlodrydd, Prince of Fferlii 


Trwor Margaret Baldwyn Lloyd Mary Lloyd 

I n 21 31 T] 5T 

BieeThomae Mamret, Elizabeth, us.BirWm. Jane Anne Trevor 
of Ooed nx. Thoa. Bulkeiey Hughes of Tho- Tbo- Thomai 

Helen, oi.f.p. Trevor Plas Coch, Anglesey, maa mas 

Mather Knt. Ji^«n<,achev.«iiA^« inter tbreeComisb 

choughs ppr,, each holding an ermine spot in its beak 

' Ab Hugh Coanaj ab Edward Conway ab Hani Conway of 
^chdyn, ab James Conway of Rhaddlan, second son of John Aer 
Conway of Bodrhyddan. 

,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Poiinuit=Willum Iremoninr of Wliwwdl Priory, co. Hknti., Colonel of tb« 
Tho mM I Queen'g Boytl Besiment of InfuUrr- °b- *»■ ^868 

Williun Thomu Fredirick Poanuit HeoTj Margaret Helen 
Ijwc ello AMbetoo Etheiwold Edirard Sophi* Franc— 

k Hvriet, MX. Sir Wiltiam Edeo of Weet Aucklud, eo. Dni^ 
ham, and Uarylsnd, Bart. 



Mados Ddu of Copa'r Qoleuni in Tegoin^, ab Bhiryd at> Lleweljn ab= 

Owain ab Bdwin, Prince of Tegeingl. Ftij of lix argttU t,ai mi6U [ 

leuan of Copa'r OoIeuni,=Hargaret, d. of Llewelyn Qoch, anceitor of th« 
afterward! Tiear of I Ofawrig ab DariMeaof WbibTordinTegetngl 

K ab Bdnowain ^ndew of Llyi Coed j Mynydd in Bod- 

fan, and ebief of one of the noble tribw of Qwynedd. Atytnt, a 

a oheT. inter three boars' heada eoaped lablt. Her motKer waa 

Aliee, d. of Ithel Fychaa ab Ithel Llw^d ab Ithel Oam of Hos- 

tyn, ab Heredydd ab tJcbtryd ab Edwin ab Qoronwy. JfWK, a 

lion itatant atyntt 

Dayid of Copa'r^ Anghaiad, d. of Bleddyn Fy^an ab Bleddyn ab Qoronwy 

Qoleuni J floch of Hiiaddug- Deioended from Uywardi Holbwtcli, 

lord of RkoB and Khufoniog. Vtrt, a «tag trippant argtni, 

1 att ired er 

1| 2] 

Belyn of=... d. of Hadog ab Darid leuan «f Oopa'r Qoleuni, anoaator of 
Nerowyi Lloyd ab Hadog Qoch of th« Wynn* of that place,' the Ed- 
Owam ASyllt wardiei of Qallt y Celyn, Qlyo, and 

Crogen Iddon, and the Qriffitb* of Qara in the pariih of Henllaik.* 

* John Wynn of Copa'r Goleuni, Esq., 16?7, ab Jobn Wynn ab John 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 



Gni^dd of=AaKhwad, d. of W%dog %h Lleveljn Fjchu of T Qklchog 
Herowja in UaoBurgain, th Llewelyn Foel of Msrchwiail, ab Mkdog 
Poel kb lorwerth BbBwft Fychan ab Hwfa Qrygftb Suiddef 
of Mu«hiriail, fonrtb aon of Elidnr ab Bhjt Skit, lord of 
KjtoD. A lion lampftDt in ft border oiurt 

IHrid Llojd o{ Narcw7*~AgnM, d. of RheiiuJlt ftb Qruffydd ftb Bleddfn 
I of Tower neu Mold 

John Wjim of irercw7B=HftrgMet, d. of DsTid Llojd ftb Niehoka 

John Wtiu) of Herewys^Owen, d. of Edward ftb I>ftvid ab Nieho- 
J )•■ of CfteriUlwoh in Llftneurgftia 

lenftn WyniKMftn, d. (by Catherine hi* wife, d. of Robert ftb John ab 
' " Onit^dd) of Edward L1o7d of Tre'i Beirdd, ab William Llojd 

of Tie 'r Beirdd, HCODd md of Edwftrd Llo^d of Flaa ;a Her- 

Keieir7^CkUienne,d. of Ithel ab Bobert ab Eliwau of Hold 

John Wynn of Nerowji 

=Jane, d, of Harri Llojd of Plat jn Eemdd. 


Cadwgan Decaf ab lorwerth ab Cftdwgftn ab lorwerth ah Cadwgan-r 
Dda ab Cadwgan Ooch ab T Qwion ab Hwfa ah Ilhel Feljn (Ojtt 
eeoedl o lal) | 

Vynn ab John Wynn Edward ab J ohn Wynn ab Robert ab lenan ab 
Cynwrig ab leoan ab Daviii ab Cynwrig ab lenan Fnit ab Gmffydd 
ab Had^Ddn of Copa'r Golenni. Catherine, the danghter and heiress 
of John Wrnn, Esq., married John Lloyd of Bhagad, son (by Margaret 
his wife, danf^itor and heiress of Boger Lloyd of Rhagad, descended 
from Osbem Titsgerald) of Meredydd Lloyd jure uteorit of Bhagad, 
a yonnger son of Lewys Lloyd of Bhiwae^g in Penllyn, Esq., des* 
oended from Owain Owynedd. 

' Edward GraflyddofQam,in the pariah of Heallan in Bhnfoniog, 
ftb Thomas am%dd of Gam, 1679, ab Edward Grofiydd ab Tbomas 
ftb (^^%dd ab lenhn ab Llewelyn Fyoban ab lenan ab David ab 
Cynwrig ab lenan ab Groffydd ab Madog Ddn of Copa'r Qolenni, 
Cae Cyriog MS. 


,t,.,.d.i. Google 


H«iliii=Oweii, d. of DktkI kb Madog Fychkn ab Usdog 

Qruffj<ld=Mu'gu«t, d. of aiijt ab aheioftlU ab Oniffjdd ab David Ooch 
I ofCoad^Llai 

Ithel^anet, d. of Daiid ab Robert Llojd 

Ieiiai)^laewife,EIiub«tb,d.orPien =2Dd wife, Catherine Rhji— Jane, 

ab ab Onilljdd ab DaTid ab Itbsl d. of NiohoU* ab ab d. of 

Ithel Fychanof Caerw7i;deacead()d John ab Robert Ithal Hani 

I frnm Ed nowain Bendew J Conw y 

Margaret, uz. Jobn Wynn of Tovrr, ab John Wjoa ab Robert Wjan f 

Bdnrd Bitbel=Bliiabeth, d. of John Ithel Eleanor, nz. John Wjnn 
of LtwjDKgrjD Llojd of Heljgen of Nerewji. 

The Pryses of Gwem Aifyllt, the Evanses of Llwyn 
Egrjn, and the Griffiths of Eendref Bifia and Gwem 
Al^Ut, were likewise descended from Ithel Felyn, Lord 


About a quarter of a nule from Mold, on the Cheater 
road, is a tumulus called Bryn jr Ellyllon, with re- 
gard to which the following singular story is told. In 
1830, a respectable woman was returning home on 
horseback, on a fine summer's evening, after finishing 
her marketing at Mold. 'When she came near the 
tumulus she peFceived some of the trees in a wood on the 
opposite side of the road to be illumined, as we see the 
blades of grass to be lit up bjthe light oif a glowworm. 
As she looked intently at this phenomenon, she per- 
ceived an apparition of unusual size, and clothed with 
a suit of golden armour, emerge from the wood, and, 
approaching, cross the road, and disappear in the 
tumulus. She was so struck by this extraordinary oc- 
currence, that she determined to return to Mold and 
tell the circumstance to the vicar, the Rev. C. B. Clough. 
That gentleman wrote down what she told him, and 
got three other persons to witness it. 

Nothing occurred to elucidate this mystery till, in 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


1833, the Jkrmer who rented the land where the tumu- 
lus is situate, one day told his men to take the aoil 
of the tumulus to fill up a large hole that had been 
made in the field, by persons in Mold taking away 
gravel for their garden walks. While the men were 
engaged in this work, the pickaxes of some of them 
struck upon a large stone, and on lifting it up they 
discovered a grave with a golden corslet lying at the 
bottom, at the depth of about four or five feet mim the 
top of the mound, and apparently on the original sur- 
&ce of the field. The corpse lay in a recumbent posi- 
tion, but only the skull and the smaller bones ■ and 
vertebrte remained. "The corslet was compoaed of a thin 
solid plate of gold, three feet seven inches long, eight 
inches wide in the centre, and weighing about seven- 
teen ounces. It had a %ured pattern, consisting of 
raised curves with channels between, in most of which 
is a variety of ornaments in relief, punched, and finished 
with tools of different sizes. Two series of ornaments, 
one of which partakes of the character of the nailhead, 
have ridges in fine dotted lines embosBed ; and all the 
curves, as well as the other ornaments, excepting the 
smaller peUets, have at their base a border of fine dots 
indented. Upon it, in rows, lay a quantity of beads, 
evidently made of amber, or some kind of resin, as they 
broke bright and clear, and burned well, with the smell 
of that substance. There were also remains of coarse 
cloth, or serge, which, as it appeared to be connected 
with, or to enclose the beads, very probably formed 
their covering, being fastened roimd the edges or upon 
parts of the corslet as a braiding. There were also 
several pieces of copper, which seem to have served as 
a stifTemng or inner case of the armour,"' 

The farm where the tumulus lies belonged to the late 
Colonel Lloyd Salusbury of Gallt Faenan, and the 
manor belonged to William IV, who took poasesaion of 
the corslet, as treasure trove, and gave it to the British 
Museum, where it at present remains. 

> Arch. Camb., April, 1848, pp. 98, 99. 

D,<j,i,.,.,i.:, Google 


(/;orl.JfS. 1972./. IIT.) 

This place lies in the parish of Cwm, in the Cwramwd 
of Rhuddlan, in the cantref of Tegeingl. The parish 
of Cwm consists of two townships, Uwch Llan y Cwm 
and Is Llan y Cwm, and is about three miles in length, 
and two miles and a half in breadth. In this parish is 
Ffynnon Asaf, which is sometimes resorted to m rheu- 
matic and nervous complaints ; its waters are cold in 
the extreme, of superior weight, and abundant in qua- 
lity, being more than sufficient to turn a mill in the dry 
season ; and the stream does actually turn one within a 
few yards of its source. On Moel Hiraddug, a hill of a 
coni^ form, are the remains of a British camp, and 
it is also remarkable for having on its summit a bed of 
bright and beautiful, but brittle, red spar. 

HftiTjab David ab Meilir ftblonrerth ab Meilir »b Qoronwj ab^ 
Oruffrdd ftb Llewaljn ab Cjnwrig Efell, Lon] of Eglvjaefit 
CyuirriK, 'bo bore ju^<, a bend argent charged witb a lion piu- 
nnt ta&t, vai, with hit twin brother, Einion Efell, Lord of b&lf | 
of CTiillaith, an illegitimate ion of Mudog ab Meredjdd, Prince | 
of Powys Fadog, bj Era, daughter of H&dog ab Uriea of Maeu j 
Qwjnedd, ab Einion ab Llai ab Idneith Benfiu I 

Jiibn PaxTj of kutbiQ^^ElcD, d. and heir of David ab John ab Tvma of 
and of PwU Ualawg } Llanfnir D^ffryn Clwyd. DeieeDded from Tudor 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Buhftrd Parr^.BMiop of St. Awpbiim edu«tcd at W«it-< 
miutor School, niidv tho colebnted antiqnaiT, William 
Camden, and became Uutcr nS Buthin Sclioaf, and look 
at Oaford tli« degree of D.D. Hu conTenation in the 
piieon with hie patron, Sir aelly Heurig, Ii ftilt extant, 
when he went to offer the contolation ca religioD. Be 
waa made Biihop of 8t. Aiqth, 30th Doe. 1604. He 
aniftod Bithop Homn in tho translation of the Bible 
into Wclih. He diedStth Sept. 1633,and wai buried in 
hit own Cathednl. On the 27th, in the next year, hit 
widow raanied Thomaa Moitrn of Rhjd, Biq.; and on the 
■aae da]r her eldest ion and heir, Richard Parr^, eapoused 
Mr. Hoetyn'B daughter; and hit ion and hsir, Thomaf 
Hoatjn, married Ann, joangest daughter of the Biihop 

IPanj, I 


■aw«n,d.of John 
ab BhjB Wjna 
of LI wjn Yd and 
Caer iMinog in 
Olwjd, ab John 
W;nD ab Darid 
ab Omtfjdd ab 
Ho we I ab Qmff' 
jdd ab Darid ab 

Goronwy ab 
Heilir &h Owaiu 

ab Edwiu ab 
Qoronwy, Prince 

of TegeiDgl> 


r, agedssMary, d. of William^^ Bdward Johi 
S3 at hb &ther^i Thoi. Hoe- Pany 
death. High Sheriff t^iofBhyd, 
for CO. Flint, 1633-1, ij hi* 6nt 
ob. fltb Jnly, 1649 wife, married in \6U 


of Dolguog, CO. Mont 

GUbarine^ nz. Wm. Franoe*, nz. John Ann, nz. Margaret Jane, ux, 

Thomaa of Coed PuleMon of Llwyn William nnmuried Roger' 

Helen,Ba^M>n and j Gnotian in the Hottyn in 1683 Holland 

hdrofBiTWBi.Tbo- pariih of Wrex- of of Hen- 

of OoedHdm, bam Rhyd dref Fawr in the pariih 

~ . of Abergele, High Sheriff for CO. Den- 
bigh, 1634, and who died in 1040 

^ John ab Biiye Wynn of Llwyn Tn married Ha^, d&nghter of 
the Baron Lewys ab Ownin of Cwrt PIbb ja Dref in Dolgelley, who 
was mnrderad at Dagoed Mawddwj on the 11th Oot. 15A5. By this 
lady John ab Bbys had issae, beeideB two daughters, Owen, who 
married Bicbard Pany, Bishop of St. Aaapb, and Jane, who mar- 
ried Dr. John Daries of Mallwyd, who wrote the W^elah Diotionat^, 
a soa and heir, Edward Pryse of Llwyn Yn, who was High Sheriff 
for oo. Denbigh in 1627, and nuuried Susan, daughter of Godfrey 
Goodman ab Edward Goodman Heq of Rothin, and aiater of Geoffrey 
Goodman, D.D., Biahcn> of Gloucester. 

* Boger Holland had a son and heir, also called Bofi^r, who had a 
daaghter Catherine, beireas of Hendref Fawr, who died and waa bnried 
in Aber^le Chnroh, in 1705. She married, in 1643, William Parry 
of Llwyn Yn, near Bntbin, High Sheriff for co. Denbigh in 1668, ' 
by whom she had issue one son, David Parry of Llwyn Tn, High 
^eriff for co. Denbigh 1695 and 1697 ; and one danghter, Susannah, 
beiresB of her brother, who married John Roberta of Hafod j Bwch, 
in the periah of Wrexham, High Sheriff for co. Denbigh m 1705, 
and M.P. for the Denbigh borongha in 1710-16. WUliam Parry 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


HAlftwg, High Sh«- I CoDirar of Bodrhrdd- 
riff for CO. Flint, »o in TegeingLBsq. 

1654 I 

If T\ 3j~~\ i 

RicDMd'— Jads, William Henry Lucj Ana 
P»rrj I d. of (. p. 

□f Pwll I Mkurice Jonea of Ddai 

John Edmrd FnncM 



... A. of Humphrey Uaurice HumphreT M&rgft- Cfttheiine 
Jones of Ddai in i. p. ret 

Edermion and of PIm Newydd, near Ruthin, and heiien of 
berbrother, Maurice Jonei of DdAl,Cnfl«7DiMeillii>naa, Plu 
Newjdd, and Llanrhaiadr Hall in Ceinmeirch (which lact place 
Mauiiee Jonet purcliued from Bir Bran Lloyd of Bodidria, 
Bait.), and wai High Sheriff for co. Denbigh in 1702, in which 

Siar be died at Plu Newydd, and was buried at Llanrbaiadr. 
e left hit eatate* to hit widon-, a daughter of Sir Walter 
Bagot of Blithfield and Pool Park, Bart. ; and at her death, 
in 1730, the eatatei pasied to hie nephew, Humphrey Fany. 
Onla, three cheTronalla argent 

Humphey Parry of Pwll Halawg, Llan-*— Catherine, d. and heirenof John 

rhaiadi Hall, Dd41, Craflwyn, Plaa New- 
ydd, Meillionen, LI wynTn,Elafod7Bwch, 
and Hendref Fawr. Born 1686. High 
Sheriff for co. Flint, 1736. Ob. 1744, aged 
B8, and u buried at Cwm 

Roberta of Bafod j Bwch, Hen- 
dref FawT, and Llwyn Tn, Esq., 
High Sheriff for co. Denbigh, 
1703 ; M.P. for Denbigh Bo- 
roughs, 1710,1710. She died In 
1711. £miine, a lion rampt.*iM« 

Robert Parry of Pwll Halawg,— Miu Hart Cotton, beireai David Roger, 
HighSberiffforco.Flint,1757 I of Warfield P arry 178B 

'■"■1797 I I [ -j T 

I \ Jane Mary Catherine Sunn 

Edward Richaid Parry of Pwll Halawg. Beeold—Mary.d.of Dr. Thomas, 
o&.i.p. Hendref Fawr, Pwll Halawg, Llanrbaiadr j Dean of Ely 

Hall, and Hafod y Bwcb 

I I 

.. heireu of Llwyn Yn— ... Haygartb, Eeq. 

Colonel Haygarth of Llwyn Yn. 
{To be eontlttued.) 

J. Y. W. Lloyd. 

was the boh of Gabriel Parry of Llanrhudd (argent, k ohevron inter 
three boars' heads couped «aE>Z«), and Mar^' bis nife, eldest dangbter 
and heir of Edward Pryse of Llwyn Yn. David Parry died at 
Llwyn Tn in 1706, and his sister Susannah died at Plas Newydd, 
near Ruthin, in 1721. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


We read, in the animal world, of many instances where 
an insect so nearly imitates either a flower, leaf, or 
branch, as almost to defy detection ; and in geology, 
again, objects are met with bearing so close a resem- 
blance to others known to be of human construction, 
that a practised eye is required to distinguish between 
them. Thus it is found of advantaffo occasionally to 
bring forward subjects not strictly within the bounds of 
archffiology proper, and present them as landmarks, lest 
iJie too Mdent votary might be led to claim, as the 
work of men's hands, some things whose real histoty is 
of quite a different character. In this view, it has oc- 
curred. to me that a short memoir might be written on 
what I venture to call the natural antiquities often to 
be met with in Great Britain, by which term I mean to 
designate chiefly two classes, viz., 1st, those groups of 
stones l^t in arrangement and appearance easily simu- 
late the cromlech in one or other of its varieties ; and 
2nd, stones graven with rude markings, bearing a great 
likeness to inscriptions. Passing over for the present 
the logan or rocking-stones, and several other objects 
whose origin is undoubtedly natural, I shall confine 
myself to the description of the following specimens 
which have come under my personal observation, and 
are so like reality that it is a hard matter to believe 
them to be, after all, merely accidents. A good example 
of the naturally formed cromlech is to be met with in 
the grounds of Pal6, the residence of H. Robertson, 
Esq., M.P., within ten minutes' walk of the Llandderfel 
station on the Corwen, Bala, and DolgeUey branch of 
the Great Western Railway. It is difficult at first 
sight to realise that the structure Is other than artifi- 
cial, and yet there can be no doubt that the arrange- 
ment uf stones 'm nothing but what is called a freak of 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


nature ; or, to speak more correctly, it is the effect of 
ice pressure acting upon the peculiar stratification of 
the rock {Denbighshire grit), and causing the dislodged 
pieces to assume the proportions and appearance of a 
veritable cromlech. As may be seen from the accom- 
panying drawing, there are (to use cromlechian phrase- 
olc^) three supporters ; these are four feet high, and 
the smallest of them does not quite touch the capstone, 
which therefore actually rests upon two only ; its length 
is fifteen feet, width four feet three inched and thick- 
ness two feet. The beds whence this mass of stone and 
its supporters have alidden are phunly traceable on ihe 
rocky ledge above ; and on adjoining portions of ihe 
same bank, to the right and left, tliere are other partly 
loosened fragments WTiich, if now subjected for a tmie to 
the action of similar forces, would with little diflBculty 
assume a similar or even more fantastic look. I visited 
the spot in company with the Rev. John Peter of Bala, 
who, having for many years made the geology of the 
neighbourhood his special study, is well qualified to 
pronounce authoritatively upon the question as to how 
the stones got into their present position, and this he 
attributes to the action of ice. Indeed, one has to go 
no further than the railway cutting, near the entrance 
to the tunnel, a short distance on the Bala side of the 
Llandderfel see beautiful examples of striation 
on the surface of rocks recently laid bare by the re- 
moval of the boulder drift. A remarkable circumstance 
connected with this fictitious cromlech is the fact that 
there was a real one formerly not far from the same 
place; it is thus mentioned by Lewis, TopographUxd Dic- 
tionary, s. V. Llandderfel : " In the grounds of Pal^ are 
the remains of a Druidical altar and a kistvaen". Both 
of these were visible thirty years ago, havii^ been well 
known to inhabitants of the district, with many of 
whom I have conversed on the subject; but, as to the 
time when they were destroyed, I could obtain no exact 
information. It is, of course, possible that the lost 
" Druidical altar and kistvaen" may have been piled up 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


in the same manner as the one now under comdder- 
ation ; still I feel tolerably conBdent that the former 
were genuine, for there are many traces of large tumuli 
in the neighbourhood. At Crogen, for instance, a mile 
or so down the vale, there is, near the house, an undis- 
turbed mound, which, if examined, would doubtless be 
found to contain one or more sepulchral chambers. Of 
the same character as the Pal^ example, hut of greater 
dimensions and less symmetrical, is the aeaemblage of 
stones on the road side as you asceud the pass a Uttle 
above the village of Llanberis. Lewis {Topographical 
Dictionary) says of it, " In Cwmglas is a cromlech". 
See also Pennant, voL ii, p. 347, who, aa usual, takes 
the light view, when he says of tiiese fallen rocks, "one 
is styled a cromlech, for, having acddentally &Uen on 
other stones, it remains Ufted from the earth, with a 
hollow beneath, resembling one of those Druidical an- 
tiquities". This I have irequently seen ; the covering 
stone rests partly on flat supporters and partly on the 
ground, the hollow space beneath affording good shelter 
from, the weather. Not so many years h^ve elapsed 
since it was actually used as a miiry by Catherine or 
. "Cadi Cwmglas", as she was called, who was celebrated 
for her size, strength, and, it inay be added, her kindly 
disposition. Stnuige tales are told of her prowess, 
which was great ; although she was not mistress of so 
many and varied accomplishmeDls as Margaret ferch 
Evan, a native of the adjoming parish of Llanddeiniolen, 
who, at. the age of seventy, was the best musician, 
wrestler, hunter, shooter, and fisher in the whole coun- 
try, and excelled in almost every mechanical art See 
Pennant, voL ii, p. 329. 

I now proceed to describe an example of the inscribed 
stone dass of natural antiquities. This is to be seen a 
few yards from the line of the Anglesey Central Rail- 
way, about a mile and a half to the south of Llanerch 
y Medd. The field wherein it is situated is called Ty 
Hen, probably on account of some old building long 
since destroyed, and forms part of the farm of Mynydd 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Mwyn. As &r as I have been able to ascertain, there 
appears to be no distinctive name ?iveD or tradition 
attached to it. In composition it is identical with, and 
must be a fra^^ent detached from, the trappean dyke 
traceable for several miles running north-east and south- 
west, and well developed at and around a ruined cot- 
tage, appi-opriately called "Creigiau", three quarters of 
a mile north north-west from the town of Llanerch y 
Medd. There seema to be a tendency in the atone to 
split off with a columnar fracture along a line indicated 
by several incipient cracks or channels from top to bot- 
tom of the stone. These grooves are shown dividing 
and bounding the two lines of letter-like markings that 
are at right angles to them. The greatest height above 
ground is four feet seven inches, length from east to 
west eight feet six inches, thickness at bottom five feet. 
The (so called) letters are six to ten inches in length, 
with a depth of grooving of from half an inch to three 
quarters ; how they were formed I leave the geologist to 
determine, but imagination may easily trace among 
them counteiparta to Roman characters, such for in- 
stance as A, H, I, V, and X. The accompanying sketch 
gives, to the best of my ability, a faithful representa- 
tion of this remarkable natural curiosity, a record of 
which it is all the more desirable to perpetuate, inas- 
much as from situation and fonn, — not being of the shape 
useful even as a rubbing post for cattle, — there is a 
danger at any moment of its being condemned as an 
encumberer of the ground and blasted for building ma- 

One other instance may be mentioned, recalling as it 
does most vividly to my mind what occurred during one 
of the excursions at the Carnarvon meeting of the 
Cambrian Archseological Association in SeptemDer,1849, 
a lesson I have never forgotten. On the day that 
Tre'r Ceiri was visited we returned by the "Monk's 
Path" across " Yr Eifl", on the side of which, I, being in 
advance of the rest of the party, found a stoue set on 
end having upon it what appeared to me inscribed 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google' 


characters. With what haste did I retrace my steps 
and make known to the seniors following this wonder^l 
discovery I And when arrived at the spot how mi- 
nutely did they examine it, without showing the 
slightest disposition to raise a laugh at my expense, 
although their experienced eyes could easily see the 
mistake made by me. I know not whether that stone 
still remains m situ, hut it was certainly covered wiih 
markings calculated to mislead the unwary. Should 
opportunity offer, I purpose going over the ground 
again and having anotner look at it ; and, indee<^ there 
are many of the same type iu vu-ious parts of North 
Wales that are worthy of close inspection, which will, 
perhaps, at some ftiture time afford me matter for more 
complete investigation ; but, meanwhile, it is hoped 
that this imperfect memoir may, at all events, have the 
effect of diawing the attention of observers to objects 
of the kind wherever they may be found, and inducing 
them to examine with care and attention what may be, 
not inappropriately, called the border-land of aiehse- 

W. Wynn Williams. 

Bodewryd : May, 1875. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Pbbhistoeic remains in Radnorahire are few ; probably 
there were not many before cultivation planed the sur- 
face and levelled the earthworks as obstadea ia its 
way ; for the state of the country could have only 
mamtained a scanty population in the more favoured 
valleys or hill sides ; even there the meaoB of subeist- 
ence must have been small, and the condition of the in- 
habitants one of comparative poverty. When we look 
back BO far the divisions of cantred, commot, or parish 
serve only to direct our attention to the spot where the 
remains are situate. To understand the reason why 
they are there, it is better to look at the natural fea- 
tures of the surrounding country and consider what 
gifts nature presented to the early settler, uid what 
materials were ready to his hand. 

An attempt will be made, therefore, in the present 
paper to describe some of the prehistoric remains in the 
valley of the Edwy, which derives its supply of water 
partly from the outflow of Llyn Hilin pool, aibout 1,000 
feet above the level of the sea, and partly from the 
rivulets which traverse the clayey soil of Llandegley 
Bhos, and passing by Blaen Edwy run into tiie main 
stream opposite Rhos y Maen. The Edwy then flows 
in a southerly direction until its course is arrested by 
the rising ground beyond the Hundred House, Colwyn, 
and diverted through a fertile and broader valley past 
Cregrina,' whence it finds its tortuous way through the 

' "CrwffBanft", according to Lewie HornB (Oetlic Bemaintjp.lOi), 
but Cmg Rnnft answers best to the rnodem proaanciation. [In a 
poem to St. David, by GwynTardd Brycheiniog (1160-1220), the 
Dame occnrs as Craty Vwnna : 

Kreic Turuna dee y ma tec ymynyt. 
See iTyvi/rian Archaiology, i, 271 ; Gviaith Letcii Qlyn Cothi, IV, xxv, 
44.— Ed. Areh. Camb.'] 

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narrow defiles of a mountfunous district in a south- 
westerly direction into the river "Wye, about four miles 
below Builth. 

Ascending the turnpike road from New Eadnor, over 
Radnor Forest a most striking 'and beautiful view of 
the upper part of the valley and surrounding couutir, 
wliich any one who has travelled that way will Ecarc^v 
forget, is obtained from the highest part of the roao, 
about 1,200 feet above Hie sea level, near the earth- 
work marked "Tomen" in the Ordnance Survey. Vol- 
caziic hills of considerable height, wi^ a veiy varied 
and picturesque outline, commendng with the Cam- 
eddau at Bmlth, and ending with Llandegley rooks, 
bound the vall^ on the west ; beneath lies a sterile and 
wet looking plain, interrupted occasionally bv rising 
ground upheaved by the volcanic outburst, while the 
lofty ranges of the Glaacomb Hills, in part clad with 
heather, and the Forest of Colwyn, bare of all but 
herbage, shut it in on the east. At the foot of the latr 
ter, the Hundred House and site of the Forest farm are 
clearly seen. 

Judging from the Ordnance Survey, the Tomen would 
appear to be merely a circular tumulus ; on examinar 
tion, however, it consists of a conical mound, which 
. probably served the double purpose of a beacon and a 
look out, with an entrenched enclosure on the aide, 
upon which from the nature of the ground it was most 
aoceesible. The mound is surrounded by a slight fosse 
about 285 feet in circumference ; its height is about 20 
feet ; a narrow covered way, running iiuder the slope 
of the entrenchment from the south, formed the ap- 
proach to it and the interior of the endoeure, the great- 
est width of which, measured fi^im the mound, is about 
90 feet A steep earthwork about 10 feet high, with 
a fosse 350 feet in length, runs from the fosse of the 
Tomen on the north until it £^in returns into the 
Tomen fosse on the south-west and protects the en- 
closure on the east and south; on the north and west 
the ground falls rapidly from tjie Tomen and makes its 
approach difficult. 

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With this general notion of the ground v/e retrace 
our steps to Forest Inn and follow the road, which here 
branches off towards Builth. Passiog Lljn Hilin pool, 
a farm track on the right leads to Llanerch farm, and a 
rapid descent across the fields in the direction of a 

Cre of Scotch firs hringa us to the Blaen Edwy stream, 
king forward over the Rhos, here covered with 
stunted heather, attention is called to an object which 
stands out clearly on the rising ground on the right 
bank of Edwy amidst the heather ; it proves to be a 
large piece of trap rock, between four and five feet in 
height, placed ou end in the ground and inclining to 
the north. Ite position is indicated in the Ordnance 
Survey as "Maen". Probably it may be a sepulchral 
memorial in connection with the stone circle on the op- 
posite bank of the river. 

Leaving the Rhos, and passing again into an enclo- 
sure, adjoining Caermyrddu farmhouse, a curious out- 
crop of volcanic rock of varied shapes, rising a few feet 
out of the ground, occurs, probably "the very ancient 
cromlech covered with huge coarse stones", mentioned 
by Williams.' The " fortification" on the adjoining emi- 
nence of Graig Vawr, one of the lateral spurs l£rown 
out from the Llandegley rocks, and presentmg the same 
varied and broken outline which characterises the main 
range, proves likewise to be the work of nature. Cross- 
ing Edwy, still a small stream, over ground which may 
be best described as rhos, a large enclosure, known as 
Khos y Maen, is entered on ground rising gradually 
above the stream. Here the site of a stone circle is 
clearly made out, although the owner of the larm has 
recently taken up the stones and deposited them in two 
heaps on either side of the circle in order to plough the 
field. This circle appears to have attractea attention 
in the early part of the last century, and was then 
described as " 36 stones in a circular order, about 3 or 
4 disordered, from east to west about 33 paces ; from 
north to south about the same, in circumference about 
' Hittory o/ Badnonhire, p. 292. 

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73 pEwes,"' Williams merely refers to it " as a small 
portion of ground oovered with coarse stones placed 
erect in the earth." It did not, however, escajw Hie 
attention of Murchison, who in a note says : " SeveraL 
large blo(^ of these trap rocks, having a rude columnar 
form, are arranged in a circle on the dreary common of 
Rhos Maen, about one mile east of Graig Fawr. They 
resemble the Druidical circles of the Isle of Arran and 
others which I have met with in my geological rambles. 
I am not aware that this drcJe has been described by 
s^y antiquary. Its plan is marked in the map."* 

The site of it still stands higher than the rest of the 
field, and the circle can readily be made out ; it8 diam- 
eter is 31 yards, and the stones of which it was com- 
posed vaiy from 2 to 5 feet in length. The discoveries 
in a lower part of the valley suggest that this circle 
was at one time covered wiui earth, rather than that 
it stood on the outside of a tumulus. Looking up- 
wards, the Tomen on Radnor Forest, 500 feet above, is 
a conspicuous object 

Retoming to the turnpike road, near the Vedw fitrm. 
a gradual descent for 4 or S miles leads to the Hundred 
House, Colwyn. Here a conical mo\md of some size on 
the left bank of the river at a short distance &om the 
road, a tumulus close to the village and the Forest &nn- 
house, occupying the site of Cwwyn, or Maud, Castle, 
on rising ground about half a mile to the west, at once 
attract the eye ; but before the village is entered the 
road passes by a meadow sloping down to the river, 
opposite to a small cottage called Penbont. On exam- 
ining the higher part of this meadow, the slightly raised 
sur&ce of the ground still shows where the tumulus, of 
which an account will presently be given, stood. Mr. 

^ BawliDBon MS., G. 920, in the Bodleian Library : AnonjmoiiB, 
bat in the handwriting of the earlj part of the eighteenth oentniy. 
According to Williama, Lord Co&ingabf oaed to pass aome of his 
time in the rammer at the Bhiwan dose by. He may, perhaps, be 
the antlior of the MS. 

* SUnrian System, vol. i, p. 327. 

4rH ■KB., TOl. »i. 18 

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Peter N. Edwards, the late owner of Bryn Llwyd, about 
the year 1835, gave directions to his farm servants to 
level a mound in thifl field, which be considered was a 
mere heap of ewitk Unfortunately the work was car- 
ried out when be was from home, and so no very accu- 
rate account of the excavation was made, and but little 
care was taken of what was found. He is now dead, and 
nothing but a very vague notion of the discovery could 
have been now obtained, if Dean Merewether had not 
given a ^ort aocount of it in 1838 at a meeting of a 
Herefordflbire society, which has for some years ceased 
to exist A summary of the Dean's remarks is pre- 
served in its transactions, from which the following 
extract* is made ' " In levelling a mound in a field in 
the Biyn Llwyd estate (now pronounced Bryn Flyde) 
a circle of stones was discovered, of about 21 feet dia- 
meter, composed of stones weighing from two to four 
hundredweight each, placed on their ends, nicely fitted 
together with the smooth sides out, encircling a ring of 
ei^t holes and one in the centre about 3 feet deep, 
fiUed with ashes and small piecra of bone ; in the middle 
was a kind of Eirch, somewmt resembling an oven, which 
contained nine urns, four of which were large and s\n>- 
posed to be capable of holding nearly three gallons, the 
others of the same size as the one preserved, which is 
about 6 inches higK Two of them appeared to be more 
curiously workea than the rest The stones' composing 
the arch looked as though they had been exposed to 
the action of fire," 

If a careful search had been made while the excava- 
tion was going on, some implements or other articles 
might have been discovered, which would have thrown 
a light on the probable age of the interments, and have 
enabled an opinion to to formed whether the ring of 

I I ove the eztraot from the Trantaetiona of the Herefordehire 
Pfailosophioal, Antaqaariui, etc., Society, to the IdndDOM of Ur. 
Arthnr Thompson of Hereford. 

* They were probably of the adjacent rocks ; from their appear> 
ance well styled "rolcanio ash" in the Ordaacoe Oeological Sorr^. 

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.;. Google 

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eight holes, contamiog ashea and small pieces of bone, 
around the central cist, were more recent than those 
within the cist, or whether they contained the remains 
of the humbler members of the tribe, who selected this 
as their place of burial. No fragments of the broken 
pottery were preserved, nothing remains but the one 
um referred to, which is in the possession of Mr. Mynors 
of Evancoed, to whose &ther it was given by (Ir- Ed- 
wards. The accompan3dng drawing of it will give a 
general notion of its form. It appears to have been a 
cinerary um, with an overhanging rim of uneven width, 
and is composed of a dull yeUowish clay, rudely fash- 
ioned with the hand, partially burnt and ornamented 
with a twisted thong. A section of the pottery shows 
that the outer face only is yellow, and that the rest of 
the material is as black as if the day had been disco- 
loured with charcoal before it was moulded ; the interior 
still retains the remains of charcoal ; the (^soolouration 
may have arisen, as suggested by the late Mr. Albert 
Way, irom the deposit of the hot embers wiiJiin it.* Its 
dimensions are as follows : diameter, base, 3^ inches ; 
mouth, 5^ inches ; under rim, 4-} inches ; height, 6^ 
mches. The other tumulus, dose to the village, is 
about 45 ft. in diameter and 9 ft. high, with a depression 
on the top of it ; boulders of smaU size are embedded 
in the outer sur&ce, and, judging from its appearance, 
some one has begun to open it on the west side and 
then left off work. A careful excavation of it in the 
course of this summer may probably throw further light 
on the interesting remains in its immediate neighbour- 

A reference to the Ordnance Survey will best diow 
the close connection of these tumuli with the conical 
mound known as the mount, the entrenched outwork, 
which became the site of Maud Castle, and the other 
works, which will be presently described. 

A ^etch plan of the mount and adjoining entrench- 
ment has been deverly made by Mr. George Lloyd to 

^ Arch. Gatrth., 3rd Series, Tol. xW, p. 219, 


„ Google 


Uliwtrate the present paper, so a abort description of 
them will be sufficient. The mount is about 40 feet in 
height and 520 feet in circumference, with a tolerably 
level space, about 40 feet wide, on its summit. The fosse, 
by which it is surrounded, is about 10 feet wide. On 
the north-east is a small pool, now shallow and full of 
a coarse water grass, which probably served as a water 
supply .to the adjoining entrenchment, which stands 
about 10 feet above the level of the surrounding mea- 
dows, and presents within the remiuns of a raised earth- 
work, with a sharp escarpment on the outside towards 
the meadows for the greater part of its circumference. 
The side next the river affords the most easy access 
and bears traces in the depression of the ground of the 
way by which the entrenchment was entered. The 
dimensions of the enclosure are from east to west 320 
feet, and from north to south 330 feet, There can be 
but little doubt that this work was the residence of the 
cliief of the tribe which used t^e adjoining tumuli as 
their buiying ground. 

The mount may have served as a look out, and, when 
protected with a wooden stockade, a place of retreat in 
case of need, while the entrenched enclosure served as 
the site of the rude dwellings of the tribe. 

About a mile to the south-east, on the right bank of 
the river, is another remarkable mound, called from the 
name of the &rm on which it is situate, Penarth 
mound, thrown up on a high bank which runs into the 
valley from the adjoining mountain. It stands about 
100 feet above the level of the mount before described 
and commands a good view of it ; on the south it over- 
looks the approaches by the narrow defiles of the Olas- 
comb valley and lower valley of the Edwy. It is sur- 
rounded by a shallow fosse only, which just defines 
where the earthwork begins. The height of the work 
is 35 feet, the circumference at its base is 320 feet, and 
the space on the summit is 45 by 33 feet. It may 
have been, as is suggested by Mr, Thomas, the rector 
of Cregrina, a Gwylfa, but there were probably dwell- 

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iDgs OD, or close to it ; "for he has in his possession a 
stone quern, which was found close by, about 2 feet 
below the surface, in draining a field, part of his &rm, 
called Vron, at the foot of the mound. The quern is in 
shape like a modem millstone, with a round hole in the 
centre and a hole for a handle on the side, but it is only 
15 inches in diameter and about 3 inches thick. 

Within a abort distance, in an arable field of the 
same farm on the opposite side of the road, was a low- 
lyinff drculai' mound, probably gradually lessened by 
cultivation, the site of which may still be traced for & 
width of about 90 feet. In 1 864, when ploughing was 
going on, the ploughshare uncovered a stone, which led 
to further examination, and an excavation of the mound ; 
a stcme circle about 3 feet high and from 1 5 to 20 yards 
in diameter, formed of stones of various sizes and thick- 
ness, placed on their ends, closely side by side, was 
uncovered. In the earth within were smaU fragments 
of pottery, which were considered unworthy of preser- 
vation, much charcoal and ashee, with two or three 
pieced of iron, one of which was preserved. As far as 
an opinion can be formed of its corroded state, it may 
have been an iron knife, 4^ inches in length, similar to 
that engraved in Jewitt'a Grave Mounds, fig. 305. Mr. 
Thomas intended to preserve the atone circle, but \aa 
bailiff, considering the stones to be in his way, during 
his master's absence removed them all into the road. 
In this case there is evidence that some at least of the 
interments took place after iron had superseded the use 
of bronze. We see, too, that the same mode of con- 
struction prevailed in the valley, and may attribute the 
fact in a great measure to the quantity of erratic 
boulders which occur in the immediate neighbourhood. 

It remains to give an account of the large earthwork 
within which Maud Castle stood, about hsuf a mile dis- 
tant firom ^e mound and bounded for the greater part 
of its length on the east by the turnpike road. Its form 
is that of a parallelogram 280 yards in length, irregular 
in width, Inasmuch as the south-west end is 160 yards 

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as gainst 100 yards on the nOTth-east. The entrenched 
earthwork has heen evidently planed down by cultiva- 
tion and to auit the present fences, but the average 
height of the entr^i^ment above the surrounding 
land is still from 10 to 12 feet. Near the north-east 
end a deep circular moat (except where it has been 
filled in for a roadway) surrounds the higher ground, 
raised in part by the excavations, on which the present 
farm house and buildings of the Forest farm stand in 
the place of Maud Castle. The situation is about 700 
feet above the sea level, and commands a view of the 
valley of the Edwy on the north, and of the approach 
between tbe mountains from Builth on the soutu. 

The outer trench may or may not be prehistoric, but 
there are grounds for believing that a place of such im- 
portance must have been &om a veir early period the 
residence of the successive chiefe oi Cantred Elvael. 
When the Norman invader first obtained a footing 
there is uncertain, but it is on record that in 1143 
Elvael waa subjected for a second time to the Normans, 
and that Banulph, Earl of Chester, then repaired the 
Castle of Colwyn. Its occupation by them was short, 
for in 1175 the Lord Khys took with him to the court 
of Henry II at Gloucester all the princes of the south 
who had been in opposition to the king, and among 
them his son-in-law, Einion Clyd, Lord of Elvael. All 
the Welsh chie& returned bome peaceably. Fresh 
disturbances soon arose, and Einion Clyd was slain 
two years afterwards by the Normans in an ambush 
laid for him.' His son Einion* probably retained pos- 
session of Elvael, for he, as Lord of Elvael, met Arch- 
bishop Baldwin and Giraldus at lUdnor and took the 
sign of the cross on their progress through Wales in 
1188. Shortly afterwards the Castle of Colwyn must 
have again fallen into the hands of the Normans, pro- 
bably of one of the Thony family, for in 1 196* the Lord 
Khys, afler destroying Carmarthen, marched with a 

' Chronicle of the Prlneee (Rolls editioo), also Arch. Camb. 

* Itiuerariam Cambrite. * Chron. of the Princes. 

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large army and attacked the Castle of Colwyn, which 
he burnt on its Barrender. Giles de Braose, on his 
conspiracy in 1215 with LI. ab lorwerth agtunst Kin^ 
John, Buffered the cautred Elvael, including the caeUes 
of Paineacastle and Colwyn, to remain in uie hands of 
Walter ab Qmfiydd, son of the Lord Rhys. The next 
liine we find the castle mentioned is the grant of the 
castle in 1223 to Balph de Thorny,' on the occasion of 
King Henry Ill's expedition against the Wdsh in 
1 23 1 ; the king caused the Castle of Colwyn, which was 
before of wood and had been destroyed by the Welsh, 
to be rebuilt of stone and mortar; it then obtained the 
name of Castnim Matildis, or Maud Caatle. The king 
received there, in August of the same year, the Earls of 
Brittany, Chester, and Richard, Earl of Pembroke, and 
returned to England when he had finished the build- 
ing in October.' The English thereafter in the fiimily 
of de Thony held possesBion of Cantred Elvael and its 
castles until the early part of the reign of Edward II, 
when, on the marriage of Alice, the daughter and heiress 
of Robert de Thony, with Guy de Beauchamp, Earl of 
Warwick, the Cantred became the property of the Earls 
of Warwick. 

R W. B. 



On the southern mur of the chain of hills known as 
Cefn Twyn Rhond^ which separates the two valleys 
of the Miondda, and upon the elevated ground over- 
looking the beautifiil and secluded valley of Rhondda 
Fawr, in the parish of Ystrad Dyfodwg, are situated 
the few remains that still exist of the ancient Monastery 
of Pen Rhys ab Tewdwr. Though one of the most 

1 Dngdale'e Baronage. 

' Mftith. Paris, nut. Angl. (Bolts ed.), p- 332. 

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beautiful valleys in South Wales, and peculiarly inte- 
restiiig to the tourist or the fisherman, its remote and 
secluded situation caused it to be almost wholly over- 
looked and seldom visited, so that the ruins of the 
Monastery were little known to slrangers. The moat 
intelligent of our tourists have omitted any mention of 
it, and do not seem to have had their attention at all 
directed to It. The laborious and talented observer, 
Edward Lhwyd, appears to have penetrated into this 
remote locality' at a period when a considerable portion 
of the ancient edifice would probably have been in 
existence; hut his attention was, doubtless, chiefly 
directed to the natiiral features and curiosities of the - 
district ; and this interesting reUc of antiquity seems 
to have either escaped his notice, or to have been dis- 
r^arded, as not forming part of tiie investigations upon 
which he was then engaged. Nor does the painstaking 
and indeiatigable Mfukm, whose work has furnished 
materials for so many other tourists, appear to have 
possessed any knowledge of it, though he passed up the 
secluded valley of Ystrad Dyfodwg, and has expressed 
his admiration of its beauty in warm and glowing lan- 
guage. Since that period several tourists have pene- 
trated into this remote solitude, and Mr. Clifie speaks 
of its singular loveliness and interesting features with 
great enthusiasm. He designates it, with truth, tJie 

fern of South Wales ; hut the peaceful solitude and 
ahbath stiUoess that reigned supreme in the days 
when the monks of Pen Rhys pursued their devotions, 
and raised their pious orisons, exist no longer. Those 
powerful agents of civilisation, the railway and the 
steam-engine, have forced their way into this lonely 
district, and numerous coalworks are now in progress 
therein, that have gathered around them a busy and 
rapidly increasing population. 

The parish of Ystrad Dyfodwg lies on the western 
side of Aberdare, and extends, in a southern direction, 
nearly down to the town of Pont y Pridd, the site of 
1 Phil. Trans., No. 335, p. 500. 

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the beautiful and celebrated bridge built by Edwards. 
The church of Ystrad Dyfodwg is said to have been 
founded by Dyfodwg/ who was a saint of the college of 
Illtyd. The area of the parish is considerable ; but the 
population has until recently been small and widely 

"When I visited Pen Ehys, about twenty years ago, 
some portions of the Monastery existed, though incor- 
porated with other modem erections, and difficult 'to 
identify. The present farmhouse of Pen Rhys has been 
erected on the site of the ancient Monastery, ihe mate- 
rials of which appear to have been largely employed in 
its construction. In particular, the bam, which stands 
in a field near the house, called to this day "Y Fyn- 
went", or the Churchyard, was formed, to a coDsiderable 
extent, out of portions of the ancient monastic build- 
ings, one of the windows and parts of the old walla of 
which were at that period veiy discernible. But I then 
took no interest in antiquarian pursuits, and gave Httle 
heed to the interesting ruins which chance alone had 
brought before my observation. I now greatly deplore 
this neglect of my boyhood, for on recently visiting Pen 
Rhys I found that the few remains that were observ- 
able on my first visit had been swept away in the ruth- 
less process of r«)airing the farm-buildinga, and no 
longer existed. The only object of interest that still 
remained was the holy well. This still stood uninjured, 
and continued to attract numerous believers in its 
miraculous waters and healing properties,' It is, how- 
ever, simply a spring of pure water issuing copiously 
out of the grey sandstone of the coal-measures, Known 
to geologists as the Pennant rock, and does not appear 
to contain any chemical property that would be likely 
to account for' the possession of any healing virtue. We 
know, however, the curative influence of the imagina- 

> loh MSS., pp. 568-638. 

* The water of the spriog is snid to hnva performed many re- 
markable cures in cases of rheumatism, King's evil, aud otlicr alllu- 

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tion, which, combined as it would be in this case with 
a residence in a peculiarly beautiful locality, exercise 
on the breeETf mountains, and simple but nourishing &re, 
would probably account for much of the celebnty in 
which Pen Rhys has so long been held. The spring, 
which is entered by stone steps, is arched over ; and at 
the back, above the spring, there stands a niche in 
which it is evident that there stood originally an image 
of the Virgin, to whom the Monastery was dedicated, — 
the Blessed Virgin Mary of Pen Rhys. 

The ordinaiT sources from whence information can 
be obtained rehitive to our ancient ecclesiastical edifices 
appear to be absent in this instance. The laborious and 
accurate Dugdale and the painstakmg Tanner seem to 
omit all reference to it, and the only allusions I have 
discovered are contained in some poetical works of the 
ancient Welsh barda The traditionary account exist- 
ing in Glamorgan shows that the Monasteiy was founded 
to commemorate the death, near this place, of the un- 
fortunate Rhys ab Tewdwr. The circumstances attend- 
ing the conquest of Glamorgan are too well known, and 
have been too frequently described, to need repetition 
here ; but with regard to the precise place of the un- 
happy Rhys' overthrow and subsequent death there is 
very considerable discrepancy of opinion. The usually 
accurate historian of BrecknockEthire, Theophilus Jones, 
contends that the place of Rhys' luckless overthrow 
and death was more probably situated in the neighbour- 
hood of Brecknock, where, he says, a well still exists 
which, in remembrance of the occurrence, is called " Pen 
Syr Rhys". It, however, appears to me that the weight 
of testimony is in favour of the view more generally 
received, and supported by popular tradition, that the 
site of the battle between lestyn ab Gwrgant and the 
Norman mercenaries who supported him, and Rhys ab 
Tewdwr, was the great plain of Hirwaen Wrgan, which 
is still an unenclosed common about six mUes in extent, 
and situated on the confines of Breconshire and Glamor- 
ganshire. Here, then, the contending forces are stated 

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to have met, and after a fierce and bloody encounter, 
in which the (^ciplined bravery of the Normans pre- 
vailed over the rude and reckless courage of the forces 
of Rhys, the venerable warrior was compelled to suc- 
cumb, and sought to escape from the field across the 
range of hills intervening between Hirwaen Wrgan and 
the valley of Ystrad Dyfodwg. There the aged Prince, 
vho is said to have been then about eighty years of 
age, was overtaken by his merciless pursueis, and taken 
prisoner at the place that has subsequently been desig- 
nated Pen Rhys ab Tewdwr. Rees Meynck says :' " I 
finde the first place of incounter to be on the confines 
of Brecknocke and Glamorganshire, near Hirwaen Wr- 
gan, at a place, therefore, called and knowne by the 
name of Ton Rhys (Rice his turfe or field), where Justin 
and the Mercenary retreated, and fought a pitch't field 
at Bryn y Beddau, where Rhys was overthrowne and 
in the pursuite killed, and his head severed from his 
body, and brought to the conim^or, in memory whereof 
that place is called Pen Rhys (Rice his Head)." Another 
account,* published in the Appendix to Williams' Mon~ 
movthshire, is substantially the same : " Einion applied 
to and consulted some Norman noblemen, particularly 
Sir Robert Fitzhamon, who agreed to go with him to 
the aid of lestin, with twelve knights and a large army 
witii them of horse and foot. They met Rhys, the son of 
Tewdwr,on Hirwaen Wrgan (Gwrgan's Long Plain), and 
in Glamorgan, and also near Brecknock ; and after a long 
contest, Rbys, the son of Tewdwr, was vanquished, and 
he was obliged to flee ; but he was pursued and taken 
soon, and he was beheaded not far from Wrgan's Long 
Pliun,^ at a place now called Pen Rhys {i. e., the Head 
of Rhys), where afterwards was raised the great Monas- 
tery of that name in the parish of Ystrad Dyfodwg. 
Over the grave of Rhys was erected a large tumulus, 
near the Monastery, which is called Bryn y Beddau ; 

* MorganitB ArehtBographia, 1578. 

' MSS. of Edward Willianu (lolo Morganwg). 

^ Hirnaen Common ia aboat six miles from Pou BbyH. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


i. e., ' the hill or tumulus of graves.' " Tradition has it 
that Rhys was killed at a place dow called Ynysgrug ; 
but that his body, after bemg decapitated, was buried 
at Pen Rh^. But as the Monastery had not at that 
time been founded, and no special reason appears to 
have existed for the burial of his body at that place, it 
seems to me to be most probable that his bunal took 
place on the adjsininj; farm of Ynysgrug,* and close to 
the bank of the river Khondda Fawr, where he is repre- 
sented to have fallen, and where a tumulus of consider- 
able size still exists, which is stated to have been con- 
structed over his grave. 

The imhappy consequences of the intestine dissen- 
sions between lestyn ab Gwrgant and Rhys ab Tewdwr, 
and the overthrow and death of the latter Prince, ter- 
minating in the capture of Glamorgan by the Norman 
knights, have been fully described by several writers ; 
its narration would, consequently, present no features 
of novelty, and need not, therefore, be further referred 
to here. 

After the death of Rhys ab Tewdwr, his daughter 
Nest appears to have fallen into the hands of Henry I, 
and, whether by force or persuasion, to have become 
the mistress of that susceptible monarch, bo long asso- 
ciated in our youthful memories with the supposed un- 
happy fate of the Fair Rosamond. But whimever way 
the connexion arose and had its origin, it is certain that 
the frail or unfortunate Nest bore Heniy two sons, one 
of whom was afterwards greatly distinguished in Eng- 
lish and Welsh annals as Robert Consul, Earl of Glou- 
cester. For the age in which he lived he was possessed 
of considerable learning, and was upon all occasions the 
generous ratron and powerful supporter of science and 
learning. He had annexed to his earldom the extensive 
lordship of Glamorgan, by his marriage with Mabli, the 
daughter and heiress of Robert Fitzhamon. He con- 
tributed materially to the stability and maintenance of 

* Ynjegrug is situated at a distance of nbont a milo from Pen 

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his power in Glamorgan by rebuilding, as a NormaD 
fortress of ereat atrengtk, the Castle of Cardiff, thouffh, 
after all, his strongest security lay in the love of nis 
people, to whom be had given numerous proo& of his 
regard, and on whom his just and peaceful rule had 
conferred many important advantages. His mother 
Tfest was eventually married to Gerald de Windtior, 
Governor of Pembroke Castle, and Lieutenant of that 
province. His daughter Angharad, by her raairiage 
with William de Barri, became the mother of the dis- 
tinguished scholar, Giraldus de Barri, so well known as 
the learned Giraldus Cambrensis. Kobert Consul was 
a liberal donor to the magnificent Abbeys of Neath and 
Margam, and all the traditional accounts appear to con~ 
cnir in r^arding him as the founder of the Monastery 
of Pen Bnys, which is supposed to have been established 
in memory, and for the repose of the soul, of his grand- 
fether, Rhys ab Tewdwr. 

Though, as I have stated before, I am unable to refer 
- to an official record of its foundation by Bobert Consul, 
tradition points strongly to that conclusion, and is sup- 
ported and confirmed by tiie works of some of the 
ancient bards. It is supposed to have been founded 
about the latter part of the reign of Henry I (4.D. 1 130- 
1132), and to have been completed during the turbulent 
reign of Stephen, who began his reign a.d. 1135. The 
Monastery is said to have been largely endowed with 
lands in the B.hondda valleys, and to have existed in 
that remote situation during three centuries, in a con- 
dition of prosperous usefulness. It is represented to 
have belonged to the order of Franciscans. That bro- 
therhood ia known to have been deeply devoted to the 
cause of Richard II, and to have been associated with 
many of the intrigues and plots of his adherents for 
that monarch's re-establishment on the throne, and the 
subversion of the power of Henry IV, whom they re- 
garded as an usurper. They appear to have, conse- 
quently, been subjected to great persecution, and several 
of the brothers were executed for their devotion to 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Richard, whom they considered to be their lawful king. 
We read in Speed* that a " Friar Minor, who, being 
taken with others of his order for like intendmentft, 
was asked what he would doe if King Richard were 
ahve and present. Hee confidently answered that he 
would fight for him till death, against any whosoever; 
which cost him his life, being drawoe and hanged in 

his fryer's weeds Not long after eight Franciscan 

Fryers, or Minorites, were taken, convicted, haiiged, 
and beheaded, for the like causes, which made the King 
a heavy lord to the whole order. It is s^d that some- 
what before this knot was discovered, the Divell ap- 
peared in the habit of a Minorite at I^anbury Church, 
m Easez, to the incredible astonishment of the parish- 
ioners ; for at the same time there was such a tempest 
and thunder, with gi-eat firebats of lightning, and the 
vault of the church brake, and halfe the chanceU was 
carried away." 

It is quite clear that in Wales the Franciscans were 
active supporters of Owain Glyndwr, and it is well 
known that he was strongly attached to the cause of 
King Richard. During his incursion into Glamorgan- 
shire, about August and September, 1402, he burnt the 
bishop's palace and the archdeacon's castle at Llandaff^* 
which were extensive and stately edifices. The town 
of CardifiTwas likewise burnt, together with several reli- 
gious houses that existed therein, which are described 
hy Tanner* as a " goodly priory founded by Robert, first 
!^rl of Gloucester ; a pno^ of Black Monks, or Bene- 
dictines ; a house of Black Friars in Crockerton Street ;* 
a house of Grey Friars, dedicated to St. Francis, under 
the custody or wardship of Bristol ; and also a house 
of White Friars." It is stated' that, with the single 
exception of the Frandscans, who as the adherents 
of Kmg Richard, and consequently the foes of the Lan- 
castrians and the friends of Glyndwr, escaped without 

^ Suecetnon of Eiiglatid's Monarohi, p. 628. 

' WilliH' Uandaff, pp. 30-33. * Tumor's Not. Mb*. 

* Now Crooklierbtoa Street. '^ Thomas' Id/* of Ot]/ndwr, p. 97. 

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molestatioQ, the houses belonging to all the other orders 
w^ere involved in the conflagration and common destruc- 
tion. Leiand says* that " m the year 1401, the fourth 
year of tiie reign of King Henry, Owain Glyndwr burnt 
the southern part of Wales, and besi^ed the town and 
Castle of Cardiff The inhabitants sent to the King to 
supplicate assistance ; but he neither came himself, nor 
sent to their relief. Owain took the town, and burnt 
t^e whole, except one street in which the Friars Minors 
resided, which, with the convent, he spared on account 
of the love he bare them. He afterwards took the 
Castle and destroyed it, canying away a large quantity 
of treasure which he found deposited there. When the 
Friars Minors besought him to return them their books 
and chalices which they had lodged in the Castle, he 
replied, ' Wherefore did you place your goods in the 
Caetle ? If you had kept them in your convent, they 
would have been safe.' " 

In addition to the devastation committed at Cardiff 
and Uandaff, Owaiii appears to have destroyed' the 
castles of FenlUn, Uandough, Flemingaton, Dunraven, 
Tal y Fan, Uanblethian, Uanguian, Maleffant, and Pen- 
mark, and several villages and churches in their vicinity, 
including the viUages of Uanfrynach and Aberthin as 
well as portions of Lantwit Major, at which places the 
inhabitants refused to join him. 

During this foray of Owajn's into Glamoiganahire he 
is supposed to have visited the remote Monastenr of 
Pen Bliys, and is said to have presided at an Eisteddvod 
that took place there at that period. It is clear that 
Owain was located for some little time at Llantrisant, 
the distance of which from Pen Khys is only about 
eight miles, and therefore easily accessible from thence 
over the hills. It is also believed that many of his 
adherents resided in that locality and throughout the 
valleys of the Rhondda. This view is strongly sup- 
port«i by the following passage in the lolo MSS. :' 

> LoUnd'B Collect., toI. i, p. 389. » Ida M3S., p. 4S3. 

' lolo itSa., pp. 492, 493. 

D,<j,i,.,.,i.:, Google 


" Cadogan of the Battle-Axe lived at Glyn Rhondda 
during the time of Owain Glyndwr's war, and was one 
of that chieftain's captains over the men of that ^e. 
When Cadogan went to battle, he itsed to perambulate 
Glyn Rhondda, whetting his battle-axe as he proceeded 
along : from which circumstance Owaiu would call out 
to Cadogan, — 'Cadogan, whet thy battle-axe!' and ihe 
■ moment that Cadogan was heard to do so, all living 
persons, both male and female, in Glyn Rhondda, col- 
lected about him in military order; and from that day 
to this the battle-shout of the men of Glyn Rhondda 
has been, ' Cadogan, whet thy battle-axe I and at the 
word they all assemble as an army."' 

In further confirmation of the fact of Owain's visit to 
Pen Rhys, it is stated by lolo Morganwg* that the Eis- 
teddvod was held " dan nawdd Owain Glynn Dwr ym 
Monachlog Pen Rhys, yng Nglynn Rhondde"; that is, 
under the protection of Owain Glynn Dwr, in the 
Monastery of Pen Rhys in Glyn Rhondda. Then, 
again, he observes: — "A. gwedi Difimt Bargodiaint 
Owain Glynn Dwr doded Monachlog Penn Rhya i 
lawr, a gwerthu'r CTfoeth, gan y Brenm Harri'r Bum- 
med, aracan oed Cnst 1415, am ddeochri at Owain a'i 
Blaid"; which may be thus rendered : — "After the 
completion of the insurrection of Owain Glyn Dwr, the 
Monastery of Pen Rhys was put down, or dissolved, 
and the possessions sold by Henry V, about the year of 
Christ 1415, for supporting Owain and his party." At 
this Eisteddvod an ode was written by Gwilym Tew 
(who is described by Anthony Powel and lolo Mor- 
Hmwg as " Pencerdd", or cMef poet ; " ac Athraw 
Cadeiriog", or chaired teacher), addressed to "Y Wyryf 
Fair Wenn o Benn Rhys," or "the Blessed Virgin Maiy of 
Pen Rhys," and embodying examples of the twenty-four 

1 On the lands formerly attached to the Uon&Btery there is now 
s considerable farm called Bodringell, or the Abode of the Sam- 
moner, which may possibly have beea the reaideace of Cadogao. 

* ajfrivaeh Beirdd Tny» Prydain, p. 213. [These Btatomenta are 
not made by lolo Morganwg, but are foond in the MS. from which 
he printed. — Ed. Arch. Oamb.l 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


alliterative measures of the Demetian bard. This ode 
was published by lolo Morganwg in his work called 
Cyfnnach Beirad Ynys Prydain, — a book that has 
Bince becoine extremely scarce; and as the poem pos- 
sesses considerable interest for the Welsh scholar, I 
regret that its length precludes my introducing it here. 
The author's name is appended to it in the following 
terms : "Gwilym Tew a'l cint, yn Eisteddfod Monach- 
log Pen Rhys, Glyn Rhondde, cyn ei dodi i lawr yn 
yr ail flwyddyn o Goroniad y Brenin Harri y Pummed 
amgymmhleidio ag Owain Glynn Dwr." 

Here we have it again stated that the Monastery 
was dissolved in the second year of the reign of Henry v , 
for supporting Owain Glyndwr. The same ode also 
appears in the Grammai^ of the celebrated Dr. John 
David Rhys,* of wliich I have the good fortune to pos- 
sess a copy. In the Grammar the ode is unaccompanied 
by any enervations explanatory of its connection with 
Fen Rhys ; but the following verse clearly shows ita 
relation thereto : 

Lhebherydh 7 Ihabharioid 
Lin 'Mhenn Ebys Ihe maflii'erioed 
Linn y Wyry ai Ihiw'n enraid, 
Lfae mae braioh Ihaw mab a roed.^ 

The literal translation of whicb is : " The piuyers of the 
labourers who in crowds come to Peu Rhys, where the 

^ Cambrobrytanniea Oymratxevo Lingtue Inaiitutionee, 1592. 

* Dr. John David Rhya was bora in 1531, and at- an eariy age 
waa taken nnder the protection of Sir Edward Stradling of 8t. 
Donat'B. He wan educated at Chriat'e College, Oxford, of which be 
was elected a Fellow in 1553. He snbBeqaently proceeded to Italy 
at the expense of Sir Edward Stradling, and as tntor to bin son. 
He studied medicine at the Univerait? of Sienna, and there took his 
decrees as a physician. He was so tnoronghly conversant with the 
It^ian langnage that he was appointed moderator in the school of 
Fistoia in Tnscany, and left behuid him a treatise on the orthography 
and pronnndation of that language. He died at Brecknock abont 
the year 1609. He wrote several works in Latin, Italian, and Welsh, 
and is admitt«d to have been a man of great learmng, and an oma- 
ment to his age. 

^ The original orthography is retained. 

4TH 8KB., vol.. VI. l» 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Virgin's image, of a golden hue, hath an arm and hand 
given to her by her Sod." Another ancient bardic com- 
position refers to Pen Bhys thus : 
Af i Benu Rb js 
Tn f J nncTTS 

Bhag ofD encrjd ; 
At fy ngUD 
Oed pererin 

Dapr o wrhyd. 

That is, — " I will go to Pen Rhys in my shroud, with- 
out dread : on my side my pilgrim's scrip, and in my 
hand a taper a fathom long.' 

From the very limited knowledge which I possess of 
the works of the ancient Welsh bards, many important 
references to the Monastery of Pen Rhys have probably 
escaped my observation ; and the total absence, su far 
as I have succeeded in ascertaining, of any other source 
of information regarding it, has rendered this neceasar- 
rily incomplete sketch less perfect and satis&ctoiy liian 
it might otherwise have proved. As it is, however, it 
may possess some degree of interest for the lover of 
Welsh antiquities, and may incite some more competent 
investigator to further inquiries. 

Glanwem, Pontjpool, Hi onmontliBbiTe : 
Angnat, 1862. 


At the end' of the south aisle of Wrexham Church is a 
very remarkable monument, rich in heraldic emblazon- 
ment, but containing no inscription but the initials &. LL. 
This monument has been erroneously attributed to one 
of the LoDguevilles ; but I suppose that no one, how- 
ever enthusiastic a Welshman, would Welshify the great 
Norman name of Longueville by spelling it "Llongue- 
viUe". There is no doubt, however, that this monu- 
ment commemorates Sir Richard Lloyd of Estlys, near 
Wrexham, and of Dulassy in the county of Carnarvon, 
CSiief Justice of the Brecon circuit, and afterwards Chief 



Justice of North Wales, Governor of Holt Castle during 
tiie Great Bebellion, and a truly loyal subject of the 
royal martyr, King Charles I, whom he received at 
Bryn yFfynnon, in Wrexham, in 1642. Of the King's 
visit to Wrexham at that time, the following anecdote 
appears in Ormerod's Cheshire, General Introduction, 
vol i, p. 35 : 

Upon October 7,1642, the King having come over from Shrews- 
hury to Wrexham, to meet a commissioD from the city of 
Chester, and intending to return the same day, appears to have 
taken up his quarters at Sir Richard Lloyd's house, who is 
said to have urged the length of the day's jouraey, and the un- 
seasonableaess of the weather, and to have pressed his royal 
guest to stay till the next day at Wrexham ; and the King to 
have dismissed him and the other gentlemen with these pathetio 
and simple words, — " Crentlemen, go you and take your rests, for 
yoQ have homes and houses to go t«, and beds of your own to 
lodge in ; and God grant that you may long enjoy them ! I am 
deprived of these comforts. 1 must attend my present affairs, 
and return this night to the place whence I came." 

I append a copy of the original funeral certificate of 
Sir Richard Lloyd : 

Sir Kichard Lloyd of Esles, neere Wrexham, in ye county of 
Denb., Kt., one of the Lord Chief Justices of North Wales. He 
died the 5th of May, 1676, in the 71 yeare of his age, and was 
buried in lead, vnder a monument [in] his owne chappell in 
Wrexham Church in the said county ot Denbigh. 

He married Mai^aret, dau. to Enfe Snead of Bradwall and 
Keele in the county of StafToid, by whom he had issue, one son 
and three daughters. 

Kobert Lloyd, Esq-, son and heire of the defunct, married 
[Frances] dau.^ to Sir Robert Williams of Pentryn (Penrhyn) in 
the county of Carnarvon, Kt. and Bartt, by whom he had issue, 
one son. Rich., who was one yeare old at his father's death, which 
was the 4th Nov., 1676. 

Jane Lloyd, eldest daughter of the defunct, married Lewis 
Owen of Penneth (Peniarth) in the county of Merion.' 

^ And eventnaJly heiress. She was married, necondly, in 1688, 
to Lord Edward Enssell, son to William Dnke of Bedford. Her 
BOD, Bichard, mentioned above, died 9th April, 1688, in aboat his 
ninth year. Hia mother died, », p., SO Jnne, 1714, aged Beveniy-two. 

* H.P. for Herionethsbire. 

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Mary, second 6au. of the defunct, married Sir Henry Conway 
of Fetrothen (Bodrbyddan) in com. Fflynt, Kt and Bortt, and 
hath issue. 

Anne, 3d dau. of the defunct, married Edw. Eavenacioft, son 
and heire of Tho. Eavenscrott of Bretton in com. Fflynt, Esq., 
and hath issue.^ 

This certificate was taken, &c., Tnder the hand of madame 
Maiy Conway, dsu. of the defunct, and of his ezecat*rs. 
flee iiK. X& Mary Coitwat. 

At the head of the certificate is a shield of arms bear^ 
ing the following quarterings, agreeing with those of 
the principal shield upon the monument: 1, 506^, a 
lion rampant argent within a bordurc engrailed or; 2,- 
gules, a hon rampant argent between three roses of the 
same ; 3, or, a lion rampant azure ; 4, argent, a cross 
floiy engrailed sable between three Cornish choughs 

E roper ; 5, gules, three snakes, nowed in a triangmar 
not, argent; 6, vert, a atag statant argent, attired or. 
Crest, a demi-lion argent issuing from a coronet. 

Till .the recent restorationa of the church, this monu- 
ment stood a very few feet to the north of its present 
position. It is intended to have it thoroughly restored. 
W. W. E. W. 


Among various interesting objects exhibited in the 
Temporary Museum at Wrexhfwn in 1874 waa the re- 
martable vessel or cup of which an exact representation 
is here given. It is from a drawing from the original 
by Miss Cimliffe of Pant yr Ochyn m Gresford parish, 
and gives a more complete representation than that 
in the Archaologia, vol xxi, Appendix, p. 543. For 
some reason or other the artist has given only part of 
the details, apparently on the presumption that the 

' She was married, acoondly, to iToIin OrocTenor, third son of 
of Roger, Bon and heir of Sir Richard Grosvenor of Eaton, co. of 
Chester, Bart. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 

.;. Google 

.;. Google 


portiona omitted might be easily mferred. In other 
respects ihe details are given with accnrscy, and show 
how little damage the original has suffered since the, 
time of the eDgraving, the date of the volume of the 
Archteoloffia bemg 1827, although the cup was exhi- 
bited four years before (June 5, 1823), at a meeting of 
the Society of Antiquaries, by the late Sir Samuel 
Rush M^rick. It is briefly described as " richly inlaid 
on the exterior with thin gold in various devices ; 
the gold leaf beautifully tooled, and extremely pure ; 
the border being formed of concentric circles, and the 
rest of parallel linra, where it was made to double 
over the edge. The ornament of the under part con- 
sists of a central baud very sharply indented both ways; 
and at a little distance on eadi side, another com- 
poeed of three lines of zigzag, which is again bounded 
by another indented border.' Clear and concise as this 
description is, yet it would be insufficient to convey an 
adequate idea of the vessel itself, and tJie peculiarity 
of the ornamentation, so as to enable one to form an 
opinion as to the age and race of the artificers. 

In endeavouring, however, to assign,with any approach 
to accuracy, particular dates or origin, there arises a dif- 
ficulty in the fact iJiat certwn primitive forms of orna- 
ment are common to many ages and races. Thus, for 
example, the simple drcle, with or without a central stud 
or inner circle, has been found almost everywhere, and 
is one of those archaic sculptnrings on rocks or stones 
to which the late Sir James Simpson first directed public 
attention. It occurs on articles of use or ornament, as on 
a stone whorl or button dug up a few years ago in the 
churchyard of Clocaenog in Denbighshire; on bone or 
met^ articles in Ireland, Scotland, Switzerland, Scan- 
dinavia, Germany, and elsewhere. It occurs also on 
early Gaulish pottery, as in the subterranean chambers 
of La ToureUe, near Quimper, .described in the Archcso- 
logia Cdmhrensis (1868), and in other districts. Nor 
is it confined to any particular period, for it is fre-' 
quently found in combination with ornaments which 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


are of much later date and distinct character. Where 
it occurs alone, unaccompanied by any other attempt 
at omameDt, as, for example, on rocks or stones, it 
may be considered as the oldest, or among the oldest, 
attempts at decoration. The next early forms seem 
confined to simple combinations of Btraignt lines, such 
as indented or zigzag patterns with or without little 
studs arranged in rows. Then, probably, in order of 
time, follow spiral and wavy lines with combinations 
of scroll or fern patterns ; some of which are found on 
the slabs of sepulchral cbombers, singularly like the 
tattooed skins of modem savages. And lastly may, 
perhaps, bek placed what is now called late Celtic, ex- 
amples of which occur in the spoon-shaped objects de- 
scribed hy the late Mr. Way m the Journal of 1870, 
and which so doaely approach early Saxon work that 
the boundary-line is not always very certain. 

A reference to tiie illustration will show to which of 
the foregoing divisions this cup is to be aasigned, 
although it must be allowed that the primitiveness of 
the ornaments is not exactly consistent with the ad- 
vanced skill with which the complicated work has heen 
effected. Such an objection seems to have su^ested 
itself to Sir Samuel Bush Meyiick when Mr. Ounliffe 
showed him the cup during a visit he made to that part 
of the country very soon after its discovery. In a letter 
which he afterwturds wrote to Mr. Gunline (but which 
has unfortunately been mislaid or overlooked at the 
WrexhamMuseum),he intimates that he at £ist thought 
it to be early Saxon work ; but on further consideration, 
and the entire absence of even an approach to scroll- 
work, he was inclined to alter his opimon, as he thought 
the Saxons must have advanced beyond the simple sjrs- 
tem of concentric circles, zigzags, and sharply indented 
bands, so common in Irish gold ornaments, and occa- 
sionally on early potteiy. 

Other examples have been found in England. Thus 
in a barrow near Upton Lovell, in Wiltshire, Sir Richard 
Colt Hoare found, besides some gold cylindrical, hoUow 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


beads, a tiliiii plate of gold, measuring six inches br 
three, having oolj zigzag patterns stamped on it. Wiw 
them was also found a gold conical ornament, with 
drdes and zigzags, fitted doseij to a dark piece of wood 
like ebonr, on which the marks of the pattern were 
impressea {South Wilts, p. 98.) What appeared like 
ebony waa probably oak, which oflen becomes as black 
as ebony worn buried for any length of time. From 
the same cause the Caergwrle cup has acquired the 
dark shade which might make one hesitate at first sight 
as to what wood it was. It is, however, of oak, and 
there is little doubt but the fragment discovered at 
Uptun Lovell was also oak. The fact of oaken vessels 
inmid with the same kind of patterns in gold, being 
found in places so remote from each other, would show, 
if not that both places were occupied by the same 
race of people, that there was communication between 

About half a dozen miles to the north of Caergwrle, 
about ten yeani after this discovery, the celebrated gold 
corselet now in the British Museum was found in a field 
about one mile from Mold, and a full account of which 
will be found in the ArchtBohgia, vol. xzvi, p. 422. The 
elaborate ornamentation, however, of this relic is of a 
very different character from that of the cup. The en- 
graving (full size) that accompanies the notice in the 
ArchcBologia, shows a variety of curves forming channels 
between them, in roost of which are various ornaments 
punched in and finished with tools of various sizes. One 
series of ornaments has the character of square nail- 
heads, another consists of acutely pointed, elongated 
ovals connected with each other ; and the whole of 
these omam^its are altogether different from those on 
the cup. They also differ from those which prevail so 
extensively on the Irish lunettes, several examples of 
whidi are given in Wilde's Catalogue of the gold anti- 
quities in uie Museum of the Hoyal Irish Academy, as 
the late distinguished antiquary, John Gage, has re- 
marked in his notice of the corselet Perhaps it may 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


be objected that the corselet and cup are intended for 
Buch different purposes that the same kind of ornament 
in both is not to be looked for ; but it is not so much 
a question of a particular style or pattern as of general 
character of art, and there can be very little doubt that 
the ornamentation of the cup is of a much lees advanced 
period than the corselet. 

The dimensions of the vessel, in its present state, are 
as follow : length, 9 indiee ; an average breadtii of 4 ; 
the depth, 2 inchea In Mr. Cunliffe's opinion, however, 
it was, when perfect, 2 inches more eai^ way. Sir S. 
R. Meyrick tbinks it a question whether the cup waa 
used as an ordinary drinking cup, or was placed on the 
table that the guests might help themselves out of it. 
Its dimensions, even in its more perfect condition, would 
admit of its being lifted to the mouth and quaifed in 
the ordinary manner. Wbether there is any peculiarity 
as regards the oval form of this cup is uncertain, as 
there are so few wooden vessels of th^ kind in exist- 
ence. Metal cups or vessels are almost always round, 
as more easQy wrought. Those of potter's ware, whe- 
ther made by hand or wheel, would be naturally circu- 
lar, so that the probability that wooden cups were gene- 
rally round may be inferred ; if so, the oval form, in 
this present instance, may be considered exceptionaL 

The proprietor of this relic is the Eev. George Cun- 
lifie, lately vicur of Wrexham. He was at the time of 
the discovery residing at Rhyddyn, a house near the 
foot of the steep hill on which the ruins of Caetgwrle 
stand. In a field to the south-west, which was occa- 
sionally flooded, and during some draining operations, 
the cup was discovered. The workman wno found it, 
seeing the gold, and supposing it to be some ornament 
of a coffin, struck it with his spade and broke it. Mr. 
Cunliffe, on hearing of the discovery, purchased it, and 
has had it ever since in his possession. The field forms 
a kind of small valley at the foot of the Castle, and 
must have been at one time a morass, thus adding to 
the protection of the fortress on the east side. U is 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


not impoBsiUe, in Mr. Cunliffe's opinion, that other 
valuable remains may be still buried in the peat ; and 
as there can be little doubt but that the Castle has in 
some form or other existed from the earliest period, the 
conjecture is a very probable one, as during the auccea- 
aive fortunes of the work this morass would have been 
a secret and thus far secure depository of treasures until 
all danger had passed away. The important remains of 
Boman masonry prove that it was held by that people, 
independently of the numerous discoTeries made on or 
near the bpot at various times, such as bricks of the 
twentieth l^on, remains of a hypocaust, roads running 
north and south, branching from it. All these, together 
with its important situation as connected with Deva, 
prove its Boman occupation without the aid of etymo- 
fogy, Caergwrle being by some considered as a cor- 
rupted form of Caer-gawr-lleon. After the Romans 
quitted the district it, no doubt, was occupied by the 
natives, who were ^ain driven out by Saxons, as it is 
situate considerably to the east of 0£fa's Dyke, although 
standing almost on that known by the name of Wat. 
Eustace de Cruer did homage for Hopedale, in which it 
stands, to Rufus ; and by some means it came into the 
possession of the Welsh chief, Gruffydd Maelor, in the 
time of Henry III. In the course of so many changes, 
probably accompanied with hasty retreats, the morass 
in question may have been found useful. That this 
valuable cup was thus consigned to its keeping, by de- 
sign or accident, is probable ; and it is a matter of no 
little satisfaction th&t it has tiius been preserved to the 
present time, and fellen into the hands of one who could 
appreciate its value. 

Wten the gold corselet of Mold was brought to public 
notice, the authorities of the British Museum immedi- 
ately purchased it ; and Me. John Gage thus closes bis 
communication to the Society of Antiquaries : " I can- 
not conclude this letter without paying a just compli- 
ment to the Trustees of the British Museum for their 
spirit in securing to the public this national treasure." 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


This letter was written in 1835, and we may be confi* 
dent that the Trustees of 1875 will not he less anxious 
to obtain what may also be called a national treasure, 
for it is probably unique, and proves that our British 
ancestors took the same kind of pride in their table- 
decorations as their descendants at the present time, 
and may have been as proud of this gold inlaid bowl as 
the owner of some costly flagon or elabdrate claret- 
jug. We believe the present owner will not be un- 
willing to dispose of it to the Trustees of ike British 
Museum, or of any antiquarian society, the amount ob- 
tained being destined towards the two new churches 
now being, or soon to be, built in the parish of Wrex- 
ham, over which he presided nearly fifty years. 

It is certainly remarkable that for fifty years this 
interesting relic of British art should have remained, in 
spite of the notice in the ArcJuwlogia, unknown, except 
among the private friends of the owner. We trust, how- 
ever, that when the Trustees of the British Museum are 
aware of its existence and of its importance, they will 
take immediate care that it be removed to their chai^, 
and, if possible, placed as near as convenient to ws 
British corselet. 

It has on more than one occasion happened that the 
temporaiy museums established for the annual meetings 
of the Association have been the means of bringing to 
public notice articles of value and interest The pre- 
vious meeting of the Association in the coimty of Den- 
bigh, in 1854, led to the discovery of the iron celt from 
the Berwyn Mountains, the existence of which was un- 
known even to its owner. This has long since been 
transferred to the national Museum. If uie same fate 
awaits the Caergwrie cup, those who organised the 
Wrexham Meeting and Museum may well congratulate 
themselves on thetr work. . 

E. L. Baknwell. 

Jane, 1875. 

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(Boiul at Wrexkam.) 

The remarkable djkes which run along the borders of 
Wales and England have been soarcelj examined with 
as much attention as they deserve, and no explanation 
of their origin that has yet been offered to us can be 
r^arded as entirely satisfactory. They seem to me the 
especial wonder of this district, where they can be 
traced in ao many places ; and I hope that the follow- 
ing observationa may be useful in leadmg to a discussion 
in which a large number of thoae who listen to me are 
extremely well qualified to take a part. 

OS&'b Dyke is commonly said to extend from the 
mouth of the Wye to the estuary of the Dee ; but it is 
found, in point of fiict, to terminate near Treuddyn 
Chapel, about eight miles south of Connah's Quay. TTie 
distance ^m Tudenham — a parish in Gloucestershire, 
immediately opposite to Chepstow — where it first com- 
mences, to Treuddyn, may be stated to be a hundred 
miles. I am not able to describe the course of this 
Dyke until it arrives at Knighton, which is called in 
Welflh "Tref y Clawdd", or the Town upon the Ditch; 
but firom thence it is traced regularly, past Clun, through 
the south-east of Shropshire (where it goes by the name 
of " The Devil's Ditch' ), until it enters North Wales at 
PwII y Piod, on the road from Bishop's Caatle to New- 

Mr. P^mant has described the ojurse of Offii's Dyke 
from Pwll y Piod, as well as the whole course of Wat's 
Dyke, with considerable minuteness ; his object in doing 
BO being, as he teUs us, to dispel a prevailing error — 
one which to some extent is still surviving — ^at the 
northern portion of the shorter dyke is merely a contin- 
uation of the longer one. I need only remind you 
that Ofia's Dyke runs by Montgomery and Llanymynch, 
where there are extensive fortifications; that it r 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Oswestry, Chirk, and Ehuabon on the west ; that it 
runs from Rhuabon along the turnpike road for some 
distance ; and that it then goes by Pentre Bychan and 
Plaa Power to Adwy 'r Clawdd and Brpmljo ; from 
whence it proceeds, by way of the Nant y r frith Valley, 
to Treuddyn. It is thus about three timea as long as 
Wat's Dyke, which commences in the parish of Os- 
westry and ends at Basingwerk, near Holywell. This 
second dyke, which is equal in depth to Ofia's, runs by 
Old Oeweetry to Gobowen ; from thence it passes on 
the east side of Brynkinallt ; and after crossing the Dee 
near Nant y Belan, it proceeds through Wynnstay Park 
to Erddig. It continues from Erddig by " The Court" 
and the new burial ground to the Great Western Kail- 
way station ; from which point we have traced it to-day 
to Ty Gwyn and Gwerayllt, where it crosses the rail- 
way and the river Alun, and is afl^rwards carried on 
along the high ground of Bryn Alun and Bradley. It 
then strikes across under Khydin and Caer Estyn to 
Hope Church, where we have also seen it ; and con- 
tinues up the valley of the Alun, crossing out beyond 
Mold, towards Northop ; and it afterwards runs in a 
more westerly direction, until it finally arrives at Bas- 
ingwerk. The distance from Oswestry to Basingwerk 
in a direct line is about thirty mUes, but as there is a 
considerable bend in the course of the whole dyke its 
length must be some miles more. It runs more or less 
pamllel to Oflfe's Dyke at unequal distances, varying 
from five hundred yards in some places to three miles 
in others. It is popularly called Qawdd Oifa, and, es- 
pecially on the north of Wrexham, it has been often 
confounded with its more famous neighbour. Dykes of 
a similar character are found in other parts of England. 
The greatest one, I believe, is Wau's Dike, which runs 
from the neighbourhood of Andover, in Hampshire, 
across the centre of Wiltshire and past Bath to Bristol. 
This dyke must extend about fifty miles. It is supposed 
to have formed the southern lioundary of Mercia, whilst 
several smaller dykes in Cambridgeshire, on the east- 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 

.ofpa's dyke. 277 

em side, of the same kingdom, are Bald to have been 
constructed by the East Anglians. 

Wan's Dike, like the dykes we are considering this 
evening, consists of a rampart and a ditch. And as the 
ditch is on the north side, we are led to the conclusion 
that this work, so far at least as the purpose was a 
military one, was designed to protect the West Sazons 
who dwell/ upon the south. It is equally significant 
that the ditches of Offa's and Wat's Dykes are always 
on the western side. This feature in meir construction 
is a most important one, for whatever else we may 
think ahout the object of such stupendous structures, 
we cannot reafionably imagine that they were intended 
for the defence of Wales. 

A tiieory has been suggested that the antiquity of 
Offii's Dyke is &r greater than the Heptarchy. It has 
been stated that t£ere are Homan roads which are cut 
through the dyke, and though no such intersection has 
been identified, a sort of suspicion has been created that 
-evidence is likely to be forthcoming which would prove 
the dyke to have existed at least as early as the time 
of the Roman occupation of this coimtry. The very • 
-important discovery at Nant y Ffrith of Roman remains 
contiguous to Offiks Dyke, and in such a position that 
they must necessarily nave been deposited there before 
-it was constructed, is sufficient, I think, to dispel this 
sceptic^ uncertainty. And I am certain that the mem- 
bers of the Association will examine the articles ex- 
hibited by Mr. Kyrke with renewed interest when I 
point out the bearing which they have upon the early 
history of these works. 

The following account of Offa's Dyke, which has been 
followed by Warrington in his History of Wcdes, and by 
most other writers, is found in Dr. Powel's History. 
Caradoc of Llancarvan, whose chronicle it is translated 
from, flourished in the twelfth century, but his work 
was continued to the year 1282, and it is possible that 
additions were made to the earlier portions of it by the 
^»ntinuators : — " In the year 763 was Ofia made King 

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of Hercia and Brichtric KiDg of West Saxons. In the 
which yeare died Fermael, the sonne of Edwal ; and 
the yeare following Cemoyd, the King of the Pictes. 
The yeare 773 the men of South Wiues destroyed a 
great part of Mercia with fire and Bword. And the 
summer foUowing all the Welshmen gathered them- 
aelves together and entered the Kingdom of Merda and 
did much hurt there. Whereupon Offa, King of Menna, 
caused a great ditch to be made, large and deepe, from 
sea to sea, betwixt his kingdom and Wales, whereby 
he might the better defend ms countrie from the incur- 
sions of the Welshmen. And this is to be seen in many 
places as yet, and is called dawdh 0£&, which is Offas 
ditch, at this dale." 

It has been objected to this history, " that ike re- 
sources and the extent of the territory of Offii did not 
tally with the extent and the poaitioh of his dyke", and 
" further, that it never could have been a line of de- 
fence, not only on account of the direction it in several 
places assumes, but also on account of its small eleva- 
tion and breadth." 

I am disposed to believe that the power of the famous 
ruler of Mercia, who was the greatest king of the larg- 
est kingdom of the Heptarchy and the ally of Charle- 
magne, was at least as adequate for such an undertaking 
as that of any other chieftain who can be easily disco- 
Tcred. His reign lasted for nearly forty years. And 
if he maintained or employed the dyke, or even a por- 
tion of it only, his name, by a proceeding which is a 
very common one, would be probably given to the 
whole. The work may have been one of many years, a 
long continued effort of the Saxons to circumscribe the 
limits of their British neighbours, and Ofia's share in 
it may have been magnified, as that of Cromwell's has 
been in the Parliamentary sieges of the Civil War. The 
force of the second objection, viz., that the dyke is not 
adapted for defensive purposes, can be estimated by 
those who have examined it. I think we may at once 
concede that Ofib's and Wat's Dykes can never have 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


been meant for ramparts to be lined continually with 
men. In some places they occupy stronj^ positions, in 
others unquestionably iiiey are very weak. Bnt taken 
in conjunction with the numerous camps which are 
found at interrals along their course, and with many of 
which they were undoubtedly connected, they seem to 
be well calculated to serve aa a frontier barrier against 
Wales. Such enormous fortifications as Old Oswestry 
are supported as it were by smaller ones which appear 
to have been designed for a common purpose. And 
Offa's undertaking is not to be discredited simply on 
the ground that it proved to be insufficient. The silence 
of the Saxon Chronicle on the subject of these dykes is 
a negative argument of some importance. It contains, 
however, no notice of OflFa's war with Wales, the occur- 
rence of which is, I believe, undoubted ; and I need 
scarcely add that this omission of the chronicler is only 
a ground for caution in examining the positive evidence 
which is producible. That evidence is, Ithink, principally 
traditionary, and I have had no opportunity of inves- 
tigating it. I only notice that John of Salisbury, who 
lived in the early part of the eleventh century, is quoted 
by Camden for a law of Harold whidi punished a Welsh- 
man with the loss of his right hand if he were found 
on tihe east side of Of^'s Dyke, and that Giraldus Cam- 
brensia, who died early in the twelfth century, mentions 
the separation of the British from the English by a long 
and extensive dyke constructed by King Ofia. 

It deserves, I think, to be remarked ^at neither of 
the two dykes coincides with any existing boundaries. 
iTiey seldom separate estates or parishes, a circumstance 
which seems to confirm the notion tiiat their origin was 
a military one. The completion also of a line of defence 
by a second line, overlapping the first for twenty miles, 
can be easily tmderstood. But it is difficult to imagine 
why two civil boundaries should have been drawn along- 
side each other so close together and in such a manner. 

I wish I could adopt the explanation of honest Church- 
yard, that the intervening space between the dykes 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 

280 offa's dyke. 

was neutral ^ound common to both nations. He tells 
it in the rhymes which Mr. Thomas quoted in the paper 
he read on Tuesday, and which I will venture to repeat 
this evening in the hearing of the owner of Watstay ; 

There is a (amoiu thin^ 
Cal'de Ofiae's Dyke, that reacheth farre in lengths : 
All kind of ware the Danes might thether bring ; 
It was free ground, and cal'de the Britainea strength. 
Wat's Djke likenise abont the same was set, 
Betneeoe which two both Danes and Britaines met 
And tiafficke atill, but passing boonds by sleight, 
The one did take the other priener straight. 

Churchyard's Worthines of Wales was published in 1 5 8 7, 
and it is not a little singular that he was the first writer 
who noticed the existence of Wat's Dyke. That quaint 
old versifier possessed at least two of the qualifications 
which are necessary for an antiquary, — inteUigence in 
observing, and accuracy in describing what he saw. He 
was a great lover and admirer of the Welsh nation, and 
most of those who hear me owe him an especial debt of 
gratitude for celebrating the praises of Maelor and its 
inhabitants. I trust that those praises were not un- 
merited, and that the strangers who have visited Wrex- 
ham upon this occasion have been welcomed suitably 
by the successors of the friends of Churchyard. 

W. Trevoe Fabeins. 

N.B. — There is much stronger evidence than I sappoaed there 
was when I wrote this paper, that the great Dyke was the work 
of Offa. Asser, the friend and historian of Alfred, who lived in 
the same century that Offa died, and who was well acquainted 
with the district, ascribes the construction of the work to him in 
a passage which seems to me to be quite conclusive : " Fuit iu 
Mercia", he writes, " modemo tempore quidam strenuns, atque 
univeisis circa se regibus et regionibus finitimis formidolosus rex, 
nomine Offa; qui ^^um magnum inter Britanniam atque Mer- 
ciam de mari usque ad mare facere imperavit." {Asserivs de 
Hebtis Gestis Alfredi, in MonuTii^nia Ststorica Britannica, p. 4:71.) 
Simeon Dunelmenaifl, whose chronicle ends in 1129, repeats this 
account, copying the words used by Asser ; and Giraldus Cam- 
brensis, like other writers, treats the matter as an unquestionable 
fact The Brut y Tywyaogion, in one versioD, describes the history 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


TotHer more fully than Dr. Powel, ftsd I therefore quote it here : 
" In the summer", saya the chronicler, " the Welsh devaatated 
the temtoiy of Offa, and Offa caused a dyke to be made as a 
boundary between him and Wales, to enable him the more easily 
to withstand the attack of his enemies ; and that is called OiTa'a 
Dyke from that time to this day, and it extends from one sea to 
the other, — from the south, near Bristol, towards the north, above 
Flint, between the monastery of Basingwerk and GoleshilL" 

I see no reason to alter my opinion, that the two dykes were 
a military frontier intended to protect Mercia against the incur- 
siona of ^e Welsh. 

Mr. Pennant, whom I follow in this paper, was convinced that 
Offa's Dyke terminated at Treuddyn, Dr. Guest, however, whose 
very interesting paper will be found in the Arehxologia Gam- 
hrensia for 1858 (3ra Series, voL iv), believes that he met with a 

Sirtion of this dyke in Whitford parish, at a point near the 
olywell Road, about three miles to the north of Caerwys, and 
twelve or thirteen miles from its supposed termination. He con- 
siders that he traced the dyke through Xewmarket, and between 
Golden Grove and Gwaun Ysgor, to the seashore at Uffem, near 
Prestatyn. It is possible that Mr. Pennant, though he was well 
acquainted with the district, and though his friend and travelling 
companion, Mr, Lloyd, was many years the rector of Caerwys, 
was mistaken ; bat the evidence as yet collected seems to be not 
strong enough to establish positively Dr. Guest's conclusion. 

W. T. F. 


Btakder W. Evahb. — Celtio philology has sastntn^d a very scvci'e 
loss in the death, at the early age of forty-Beven, of Prorexsor Evbd- 
der GvanB, which took place at Ithaca, in the State of New fork, 
on the 22nd of May, 1 874. Professor Evaaa was a native of WaleB, 
but most of his life was spent in America. He was bom in 1827, 
in the parish of Liangyvelaoh, OlamorganBhire. His parents, Wil- 
liam and Catherine {nie Howell) Evans, emigrated to PennsylvaniB 
when he was bnt five years old, and bonght land in the Welsh settle- 
ment now called Neath. After anch preparation as he cotdd get in 
the best schools which that district afibrded, he entered Yale Colle^, 
Connecticnt, where he f^radnated in hononra in 1851. After taking 
his degree he was appointed snccessively tutor at Tale College, Pro- 
fesGor of Mathematics at Marietta College, Ohio, and Professor of 
Mathematics at Cornell University, Ithaca, then a new bnt well 
endowed institation ; which latter post he retained until his death, 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


which, as [di«adf stated, ooonmd May 22, 1874 In 1856 he mar- 
ried Helen, daughter of the Bev. Dr. Clarke of Stockbridge, Massa- 
chnsetts, by whom (who enrvives him) he leaves two danghtere. 
. In 1857 Professor Evans visited Enrope, where he sojonmed the 
greater part of that year, chiefly in Berlin, Paris, and London ; but 
making short ezcnrsions also to Italy, Switserland, and Wales. 

Hie health had been dehcate for some years before his death, as will 
appear ^m the following extract of a letter written by him to a lite- 
raiv friend in Europe, Nov. 20, 1873 : " I have more than once failed 
in heBiIth ; bnt as I possess a competence, I have been able tu take a 
rest or a jonmey whenever it seemed necessary. I fear I have this 
time delayed too long, and that I shall not make that more leisurely 
visit to Wales to which I have been looking forward for some time 

nt with perhaps too mach pleasure." His presentiment proved 
too trae, for in the brief space of six months the stm^le was 
over. His illness, which was consumption, was protracted and 
paininl, and it was not without many a pang that he gave np all his 
cherished plans. He worked hard, and died in his prime, when he 
was ready to enjoy the results of his well directed researches ; hut 
his name will idways live in association with the langnage of tho 
land of his birth, which in every epoch of its history he so thoroughly 
understood, and was so competent to elucidate. 

His connection with our Association was not of long durataou, 
as he only joined it in 1872 ; bnt the papers, three in nnmber, which 
he contributed to the pages of this Journal, are of sterling value, 
and place hinL in the veiy front rank of the Celtic scholars of the 
present day. 



Sib, — I trouUe yon with a few notes on the list of denarii found in 
Carnarvonshire, which is given at p. 131 : 

1. Claudius. — I have httlo donht that the legend ou the obverse 
of the coin described as of this emperor has been misread, and that 
it is a common coin of YiteUins with Uie reverse as described, and 
the legend, sv . tib . Sacr . fac. (Oohea, No. i5.) No such reverse 
is known of Glandins, who, moreover, rarely bears the title of Gm-' 

Hadrian. — No. 9. The coins with the l^end ahnona avo., and tho 
type of the modiiu and ears of com, are common of HadriaD ; and, 
so far as I am aware, unknown of ^lins Cfesar. 

Uncertain. — I am unable to identify the coin described under this 
beading i butYailiant (vol. ii, p. 110) cites a silver coin of Domitian- 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


with the rmtame, ET0Y2 lA. YnATOY IZ. Two lyres with a eadu- 
era* between them. It ia, however, h&rdly probable that a coin of 
this kind ehonld occnr in Wales. 

Cohen's MiHatUet Impinialet will be fonnd of valuable aseistanoB 
in classiffuig such hoards as that described bj Mr. W. VV'vnn Wil- 
liams. I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 

Nash Uills, Hemel Hempstead : JoBN Evans. 

May 1, 1875. 


SiK, — My work on the inscribed Btonee of Wales, intended as a 
companion to that by Miss Stokes npoa the stones of Ireland, now 
in conree of publication by the Boy^ Arobieolojpoal Assooiation of 
Ireland, and which has for some time past been annonnced in this 
work, will natorally and properly foil to merit the attention of the 
archseologiste of WtJee if wanting in correctness in the delineation 
of the varions objects intended to be illustrated. In several of the 
recent nnmbers of the Arehaologia Camiremii, the accuracy of a 
considerable number of my representations has been called in qnes- 
tion by Mr. J. Bhys. That some errors may have occurred in my 
numeroQs papers on these subjects is certainly possible where the 
stones may have been so much subjected to weather action as to 
become almost or entirely illegible. In such cases, ignorant as I 
am of the Welsh language, I have had no predisposition to force 
a reading upon any particular doubtfol letter, and have not hesi- 
tated to rely upon my palEeograpbical experience derived &om 
nearly forty years' study of ancient manuscripta in every great 
library of Europe except those of Spain. My modtu operandi in 
regard to these inscriptions has been as follows : after a oareful in- 
spection of the stone in as many positions as possible, a sketch was 
made of it. A nibbing was then made. This, when mounted on 
Strong paper, was then drawn by means of the camera Incida, and 
the result compared and corrected by the mbbing itself aud the ori- 
fpnal sketch. Now, although my reading of the insoription on the 
spot and my first sketch may have been sometimes wrong, my rub- 
bing and the camera lucida copld not have deceived me. 

I do not here propose to go over all Mr. Bhys' animadversions ; 
but I will content myself by showing their reckless character by 
noticing his last article in the April number of this work. 

1. He first saya of one of the Clydai stones that " zTEBin is to be 
read sttikki, and the drawing opposite that page is also wrong. 
Both are Professor Westwood'e, I believe." If, instead of such a 
belief only, Mr. Bhys had taken the trouble to have looked at my 
original account and figure of this stone {Arckaologia Cambrenng, 
3rd Series, vi, p. 225), he would have seen that the reading btebni U 
mine.. There is not a shadow of pretext for writing the word Bttekhi 
with tw6 T'a. 

2. Of another of the Clydai stones he says : "kvoleiic>-> should 

D,g,t,.,.d.:, Google 


be BTOLOHQ "- . The C ia anoUier of Westwood's misUUces." There 
is no pretence for reading the third sellable LOir : its middle letter 
is clearly I ; and if the two last donbtfnl marks are to bo read •- , 
and not c ^^ , I can only say I never saw such a a on any of these 
Bomano-British stones. 

3. Of this Clydai atone (see Areh. Comb., vi, p. 227), the DOB ia 
followed by some sqaare marks which Ur. Brash gives as the letters 
TN " ; bnt they are smaller than the three preceding letters, and I 
did not Tentnre to read them as partof awordnoinmenoing with dob. 
. 4. Of one of the Uandyaeilio stones he says : " Kr. Brash accepts 
another capital blander of Professor Westwood's in itolehus, which 
is to be read btolgnoq - with two Hibemo-Sazon o's." This in- 
scription happens to be particnlarly plain (see m^ fignre, Aroh. Oamb^ 
▼i, p. 5^) ; &nd how Mr. Bhys can convert v3 mto 5 5 — anrposses 
my palteographioal notions. 

5. Of &e lilanfihangel y Traethan stone I would simply observe 
that it wonld be well if Mr. Rhys wonld make himself acqaaint«d 
with the literatnifi of the inscription, which wiU be worked oat in 
my pages. 

6. Of the insonption on the Whitland stone, Mr. Bhya says :— 
"The other name on the last mentioned stone Mr. Brash reads 
CMKMTiKDiH -,88 Professor Wcatwood did, instead of QvaNTBNDAN-; 
for he obeerrea, ' I mast corroborate Mr. Weatwood'a reading of the 
Whitland atone : indeed, I have fonnd him invariably accurate in 
hia copies of all the inscriptions I have examined ; ao much ho that 
I have never any hesitation in accepting his anthority.' One could 
aay a few worda on this text." Tbia inacription has the first letter, 
C, detached from the next letter by a ODnaiderable distance, and per- 
fectly similar to the c in the next line, in the word bakcvm " . Tbea 
followa the letter u, the last npright stroke of which appears to me 
to form the first stroke of the i. Xo Bo mano- British or Hibemo- 
Saxon scribe ever made a Q by detaching the ronnd part made into 
the form of a C, and making the straight stroke of the q at a distance 
from the first, and not carrying it below the line. 

So mnch for Mr. Bhya' last list of my "capital" blnnders and 
mistakes. My drawings and mbbings of these and other diapnted 
inscriptions will be exhibited at the next meeting of the Cambrian 
Archfeological Association, and will afford Mr. Bhys an opportu- 
nity of acknowleiiging and apologising for his gronndless aaaertions. 
I remain, etc., 

Oxford : 1st June, 1875. I. O. Wbstwood. 

8IB, — I have a great dislike to retnnt to subjects that have already 
been amply discnaaed in oar Journal, and that in my opinion ought 
to be left to the judgments of yoor readers. Bat as Mr. Rhya has 
in the April number charged me with " inaocnradea" in my paper 
on tha " Clydai lusoribod Stonea", published in your Joutua] for 

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Ootobor, 18?4^ I cx>nsider it das to myself to notice his remarka. 
He firat givea as one of laj isaoonraciea the writing of btbbmi for 
XTTBKiri, and in the same breath oharges it on Professor Westivood 
(p. 186). The passage u I gave it was taken from a paper by that 
gentleman in the Arekceologia Cambrantit, Snt series, vol. ii, p. 203, 
and, therefore, if there is an error in the qnotation I am not reapon- 
Btble for it. Bat I maintain that there is no error in the passage, in 
which iSr. Westwood allades to the Latin insorip^n ool/i which 
reads xtebhi ; it is the Ogham legend that reads wrrtasi, and whioh 
reading I have given in its proper place (p. 279). 

The next complaint of Mr, Rhys is against Professor Weetwood ; 
he writes : " Page 281, xvolekc shonld be ktoloho, the c is anotiier 
of Westwood'e mistakes." I shonld raUier say that the and the 
O are two of Mr. Rhys' mistakes. Having myself examined and 
txipted the Inscri^ons I can bear testimony to the aocaracy of Mr, 
Westwood's readmg. Mr. Hhys objects to the locality being named 
Ty Ooed ; I have given the name as I have fonnd it in the pages of 
this Joomal, not being a Walsh sohokr or topographer I am not 
competont to say whether it shoold be Ty Coed, Dy Qoed, or Da> 
goed, which latter Mr. Rhys informs ns is the true form. He then 
goes on to state that page 282 " Mr. Brash aocepts another capital 
blnnder of Professor Westwood's in btolehcb, whioh is to be read 
BTOLEHOO-, with two Hiberno-Sazon g's." I have not accepted 
Ur. Westwood's " capital blonder", as it has been politely termed 
by Mr. Rhys, I simply need it as an illastration to the form on the 
other monnment, giving for my aathority the Arohaolcgia Oambrentit, 
V, 1860, p. 56, and am, therefore, not responsible as to its correctness, 
^ongh I have a strong saapicion that the professor is right, his 
reading has truth on the face of it. Mr, Rhys also allades to my 
ramarks on the name Oure, which I have equated with tho Irish 
name Core, Cure, etc.,and which I have shown to be a very common 
one in the forms of Curd, Cureaeh, Cureit, all genitives of Ourc, 
The forms given by him from the Liber Lmidavenaia show most nn- 
mistakeably the C^dhelic origin of this well known name, 

Mr. Rhys farther remarks, referring to my statement that the 
Irish nsed the letters c and o commntably, and would as soon write 
Onrci as Carci, as follows : " bat he has forgotten to teU as nnder 
what oircnmstances that people made c into g, or g into r, ; this it is 
reqaisite to know, that one may judge whether the observation 
would apply to the present case." Certainly I did not consider it 
necessary to give aathorities for a fact well known to all Celtic 
scholars, bat I shall now do so. My first will he &om O'Molloy's 
Gritmmalica Latma-Siiemiea. In his remarks on the letter g he 
writes: "g, so» relicta natane, ntjam dizi, non solum apudHiber- 
noB, venun etiam apud C^rmanos, atqae Latinos, pnesertim priscos, 
vi ot sono, i consona c parum abit. Valde Terentins ille Soaoros ait, 
c eoijnatioTiem cum g habel, et ideo alij Camelum, alij Oamt^vm, item 
alij CawMcem, alij dicunt Oaunoeeni ; item veteres pro agna, aona ; 
pru^e,Iece; pro cujeo, aero ; pro jro&ino, oabino, uod mro uttmtnr." 

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O'Brien, in his Insh-'EiujUth Dielitman/, npon the same letter re- 
mftrks: "It hath been otraeired in the remarks f>n the letter (c), 
that it IB natarallj commntable with (g), both letters bein)^ of the 
same organ and very nearly of the same power ; and henoe in onr 
old paichmeotB they are written indifFerentiy for each otber" (p. 

Finally, Dr. O'Donoran, tn bJs Cframmar of the Irith hamgwige, 
wrile« ; "In the ancient Irish maooBcripts, g is very often oom- 
mnted with a, and sometimea written cc, aa Tade, or Tadoe, a man's 
name, for Tadg ; eela, or eeela, for eagla, fear, etc" (p. 30). He then 
goes on to qnote the passage from O'Uolloy, which I have given 
abore. None of the Irish grammarians record any rale or usage 
respecting this commntation, which appears to have been entirely 
arbitrary, for the reasons stated by O'Brien. No one baring the 
aliebtest knowledge of the Irish language wonld deny that Qvre 
ftnd Cure were identical names, and as to the migtalien idea that the 
"Welsh gurei wonld be in Irish /i»rcAw or forehu", it falls to the 
gronnd, as I have nnmistakeably shown that gurd is an Irish name 
in every letter ; even were it Welsh, it conld not by any course of 
criticism that I know of be equated with /eareJm, a welt known 
name compounded of /ear, a man, and ou, a bonnd. On the whole 
Mr. Hhys nss &iled to correct or to detect the " inaocnracieB' which 
he stated were contained in my paper.^ 

Snnday's Well, Coi^. Biobabd Bolt Bbash. 

SiK, — Beferring to Demetiaa's letter in the April number of the 
Arehceologia CantSrenns, p. 190, 1 may mention ttiat another " ves- 
tige of the Gael" may bo fonnd in the name of Tomen Ovn/ddel, 
which, according to p. 165 of the same nnmber, is "the boundary 
of the parishes of Llangollen and Llanarmon", Denbighshire. The 
name does not occur iu the list given by the Bishop of St. David's 
in the Arehceologia CambrentU of 1854, p. 257, and the locally ap- 
pears to be one of the most inland of those hitherto pointed out in 
North Wulua. In the list just referred to only one name (Pont y 
Gwyddol, near Llanfair Talhaiam) is given as ooonrring within the 
limits of the county of Denbigh. I am, Sir, yonrs, etc., 



Sib, — A second brass coin of Diocletian of the following type has 
been found at Llandderfel, Merionethshire, within a field's lengdi of 
the place where the mould or stamp was disoovered, a deaoriptim 

> Ai we print in the »me number Profsnor Weitwood's own reply to 
Mr. Rhys, tEat porcion of Mr. Brash's letter which is devoted to the defenea 
of that goDtlemsn, and which does not bear oa the pointi at issue, is omitted 
as boing unaecessuy. — Ed. Arek. Ctanft. 

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sod dnwings of wluch appeared in the October number (18?4) of 
the Anhat£>gia Cambrentig -. Obv. IMF. C. 0. VAL. Dioolbiiauvs. p. f. 
ATO. lanreBted head to the right. Beo. oehio. poptli. bohahi. Qe- 
nina Btanding u&ked with comnoopia and patera. Id the ezergae B.e. 
I am Toora truly, 
Bodewiyd : Jane 4, 1875. W. W-m Wiliumb. 


Sib, — A disoorery has been recently made that is, I think, worth 
patting on record m the Arehaxtloffia Oambrmsu. It i§ that of a 
bell found in a peat-bog, within three hundred yards of Ownnws 
Ghoroh, Cardiganshire. Two men were cotting tnrf or peat (" lladd 
nawn") one day last month, on land belonging to ft &mi called 
Berth Lwyd, and in cutting came acroBs what they enpposed to 
be ft stone ; but to their great anrpriae, after digging, the stone, lo 
and behold, tamed into a fine bell . It meamires acrosft the month 
about 15 inches, weighs abont 70 lbs., ia in anezoellent state of pre- 
serration, except the tongne, the lower half of which has been con- 
siderably corroded by mat, and ia posHesaed of a very sweet rich 
tone. It lies uow at a house call^ Ty'n Llidiart, and it is likely 
there will be a law-suit between the finders and the owners of the 
land, both of which parties maintain it is theirs. 

There is a tradition in the neighbonrhood that the bell of Ownnws 
was stolen many years ago. Some now living remember the church 
without a bell of any description, and two different versions are 
given of the tale about the losa of the bell. 

One story is, that the inhabitants of the neighboaring parish of 
Llodiod, who hod » Tery in^fierent sort of thing hanging in their 
bel&y, got BO jeakius of their neighboars of Ownnws having a better 
bell, that they oonld no longer restimn themselves, and despatcbod 
some two or three sons of misohief one nieht to steal the bell and 
bary it ont of sight. Another story aaya, that two men had qnar- 
relied in the parish of Gwnuws itself, and that the case was pub* 
licly tried. The winner, as was the custom, it aeema, was going to 
ring the parish bell to commemorate his victory ; but in that he waa 
anticipated by the loser, who dreaded the ringing of the bell at borne 
more than anything. Home he came, therefore, at fnll mllop, 
knocked the bell down and hid it in the bog dose by. In two 
days or ao he waa token very ill and died withont being able to 
inform anybody of the whereabonta of the bell. Such are the tra- 

It seems very likely, if not oert^n, that the bell belonged to 
Ownnws, and there is no doubt that the tradition is tme, so far as 
the losing of a bell goes. But was it not in the days of Cromwell 
the sacrilege waa committed F I am. Sir, yours truly, 

Yatrad Menrig : June 12, 1875. JoBH Johbb. 

P.S. It ia anpposed there is a good deal of silver in the compo- 
sition of the bell. 

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Sib, — Were the hiatorical Tailors of Tooley Street Welshmen tAer 
all ? And is it posaible that they still BurriTe to speak in the n&me 
of the people of Wales ? I fear it lanst be ao, for a few " London 
Wplghinen", the best of them aocupyin^f a very inferior position in 
Webli literature, have dared to assume the name and title of an 
tllnBtrians Cambrian Society, long since broken ap, without appa- 
rently any knowledge of its objects or coostitDtion. In the last 
centary " a considemble namber of penions, oatiTes of the Princi- 
pality of Wales, residing in and about London, inspired with the 
love of their common conntry and excited by their rererenoe to the 
name of Britons, established a society in the year 1751, diatingnisbed 
by the style and title of Cymmrodorion."^ 

By the first article of the constitntions it was provided that " The 
Society shall consist of Twenty-five Managers, viz.. Two Fresidenta 
(one of whom distinguished by the title of Chief), Fonr Vice-Presi- 
dents, Sixteen Council, a Treasurer, a Secretair, and Libran'an, and 
an nnlimited namber of Uembers, all bom and bred in the Princi- 
pality of Wales, etc." 

By Article VI, " The Members of the Coancil shall be composed 
of Gentlemen most eminent for their Learning and Knowledge in the 
British and other Languages, versed in the Poetry, History, Oenealo* 
gies and Antiquities of the ancient Britons, and acquainted with the 
present 8tat« of Wales, with respect to its Trade, Mannfactnres, 
i^sheries, Mine- works, Hnsbandty, etc" 

The capital initials are the old society's, not mine ; bnt they are 
significant both of the status and qualification of the original mem- 
tiers. Before any legitimate revival can take place, there ought to 
be some attempt at compliance with the spirit if not with the strict 
letter of these constitntions. Has any snch object been kept in view 
by the ttn-ditant " Aborigines" who lightly assume a time-honoured 
style and title P May I ask, sir, who are the gentlemen on the 
council (if there be one) of this " Phoenix" Society " eminent for 
their learning and knowledge"? And what sign have they made 
dnring their secluded childhood of encouraging Welsh litsratnre, 
publishing rare Welsh MSS., or reprinting scarce Welsh books ? 
Have they eagerly offered their services to Canon Williams, to Mr. 
Skene, or to M, Gaidoz ? Have they importunately applied to the 
owners of the Hengwrt, Middlehill, Mostyn, Panton, Llanovar, and 
other Welsh collections* for permission to examine, and, if necessary, 
to publish their treasures? Have they, in fact, done anything more 
than extinguish bv their greater pretension a society that was doing 
well and might have done better, " T Gymdoithaa Hynafiaethol 
Gymreig"? With the Kev. E. Williams' pathetic lament of only 

' Introduction to the Coiutitutiotu of the Honovraile Saeitly of Cym- 
mro'darion in London, 1778. 

' S«e "General Heads", 10, 11 {Canttititlion«, p. 31). 

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yestordfty before oe as to the want of interest evinoed bj bis conn- 
trymen, " and especially tbe prominent patriots of tbe EistedhTods", 
in preserring from oblivion tbe valuable renuuns of tbeir national 
literature, we may well aak these London Eisteddvodwyr, in their 
newly assnmed character, for tbeir raiton d!Ure. 

It is onr dnty no less towarda the memoiy of its illnstrioat mem- 
bers than in tbe interests of posterity, to preserve the (air fame of 
this original Welsh literaty society, which was probably the model 
for all our oelebratod EngUsh printing olnbs. We cannot prevent 
the assnmption of extinct titles and dormant privileges in the aris- 
tocracy of literature, by pretenders with pedigrees. Bnt we can and 
we most, so far as in ns lies, warn the pnblio not to confoand the 
nsnrped skin with tbe noble animal which is no more. If we mnst 
have revivala, and to my mind they are always objeotionablo, let ns 
make the imitation as good as possible, let ns have real Gymmrodor* 
ion, real Owyneddigion, real bards, and real work. 
I am, Sir, very obediently^ 

Laudatob Trvpobis Aoti. 

Sifi, — We have at last a satisfaotoiy goide to tbe interesting re-* 
mains of Lower Brittany, and especially those of tlie Uorbihan. 
Mwrray, whatever its general merits, cannot be called a complete 
guide. The pnblic, i. a., the tourist public, will therefore rejoice to 
bear that the Rev. W. 0. Lnkia has ondertaken to provide this long 
desired volume. No one could be better qaalified, from his long and 
personal acquaintance with the district, and his extensive experience 
and knowledge of the monuments, their real history and nature. 
With such a help the explorer will not have much trouble in finding 
what he wants, or run much chance of mining objects which ought 
not to be overlooked. Every information that oan be wanted is given 
clearly and concisely. Attention is directed to the details of most 
importance and interest, many of which often escape nnnotioed hj 
ordinary sight-seers. The book may be bad from Johnson and Co., 
Ripon, for 2». Qd., and is well worth its price. I have no interest 
in the book itself, but am anxions thnt my fellow members of the 
Association, who intend to visit their Breton cousins, should know 
that they can procure auoh a companion as the guide-book of Mr. 

I am, 8ir, your obedient servant, An Old If ekbek. 

Slccltsologfcal jgotes ann <^\xziiti. 

Query 47. — Welsh MSS. or the Rkv. B. Davies. — In the preface 
to the Myvyrian ArckaioXagy and elsewhere it is stated that the 
Rev. Richard Davies of Bangor, rector of Llantrisant, Anglesey, who 
died in the year 1819, possessed a considerable dumber of old and 

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isterGBtiQg Welsh MSS. I shall be faappf to be informed what 
became of this valaable collection at Mr. Davies* death, and nhere 
it IB now praserred, — as preserred I sincerel; hope it is. Some 
tnembers residing in those parte of Horth Wales will, I tnut, supply 
the repaired iafonnation. Uoboabwq. 

175). — Since the appearanoe of my last note on thiB eabjeot 1 have 
lighted upon but two instances to add to those already given. They 
are : Bryu Arthur in Edeimion, Kenonethshire, mentioned in a let- 
ter from the BeT. John Lloyd of Bnthin to Edward Lhwyd {ArcA. 
Comb., 1851, p. 56) ; and Ooetan Arthur, near Trearddnr (Traf lar- 
ddur ?), Holyhead {Arek. Oamb., 1867, p. 231). Febediib. 

^tuaea- to Query 34 (p. 192). — Elbhid. — The following infomu^ 
IJon will probably assist " Iohoramiis" in identifying the district 
mentioned by the old bard ; " We proceeded to StratJBnr, where wo 
passed the night. On the following morning, having on onr right 
the lofty mountains of Komge, which in Welsh are cadled EllenUh, 
we were met near the side of a wood", etc. (Hosre's Qiraldu*, ii, 
62.) In his annotations on the chapter containing the above extract, 
the editor remarks, "The large tract of monntainB which almost 
enclose the vale of the Teivi bore the name of EUenUh, and were 
called by the English Momge"; and in a footnote he explains that 
" Ellenith shonld be written Maelienydd, for these monntains are 
still so called in old writings ; and I have before mentioned a can- 
tref in Radnorshire, on the other side of the moautains, called Hael- 
ienydd". {Ibid., 71.) Lewis Glyn Oothi appears to have been ao- 
qaainted with both names of the district, for, at p. 306 of his Worits, 
line 35, we have 

BsQgwen jm HaeUenydd. 
Oiraldns does not i^pear to be acqnEunted with the name Plinlini- 
mon, which he includes nnder the general name of the monntaiiis 
of Ellenith, in cha^. v of his Description of Wales: "Wales ia 
divided and distinguished by many noble rivers deriving their sonroe 
from two ranges of mountains, the Ellenith (or Maelienydd), in 
South Wales, which the English call Moruge, as being the heads of 
moors or bogs. The noble river Severn takes its rise from the 
Ellenith mountains ; the river Wye rises in the same monntains of 
Ellenith ; the river Teivi springs from the Ellenith monntains, in 
the uppet part of cautref Mawr and Cardigan ; from the same 
mountaina issue the Ystwith." E. H. 

Qaery 48.— Inbcbiftiohs at Llahddewi Bbbvi. — lolo Moi^nwR, 
in one of bis miscellaneous papers, mentions two inscriptions which 
he saw at Llanddewi Brevi, Cardiganshire. One of them was "on 
» rude, slender pillar beside the west door" of the church ; and the 
other in the wall, east end of the churchyard". Is there anything 
further known of these- inscriptions F lolo apparently allodes to 

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the old ohirsh of Uanddcnri l^evi, and not to the present almrd 
stmotiire which diBfigares tfa&t onoo celebrated piftoe. Ab he adds, 
** A.*i deallo, deolled, & dyweded beth yw", H is evident tlwt he conld 
not nnderstaad these insoriptiona. Uosdit. 

Query 49, — Uechtll. — One of the prinoefl of South Wales in the 
thirteenth centniy waa called Rhys MechTll- What is the me&ning 
of the cognomen Heekyll, and whence did the prince derive it F 


Note 48. — ^MREOBOLoaiuL Folklobi. — The following note^ met 
with in a muiasoript written nearly a centnry ago, is perhaps wortli 
preserving ■ "In Snowdon they say that in every period of twenty- 
eight yean the moon performs its coone round the snn. The first 
fonrteen years are ol^erved to have severe winters, end dry, fine 
snmmerB ; the last, milder winters (more and siore so) and moist 


IfoteiS. — Fbbhistobio Rsmains i 
ing page mention is made of a tnmnlos to the west of the Vonnt, 
Bryn Llivyd, which might probably be excavated in the conrse of 
the present summer. It may, therefore, he well to add an acconnt 
of what has been done. The tnmnlos lies iu a meadow to the sonth 
of the tnmpike-rond, on the right bank of Edny, and its position is 
indicated in the Ordnance Survey. In appeat&noe it is a circnlar, 
glass covered monnd, about fifleen yards in diameter, graduallj 
rising to a height of about nine feet in the centre, where there was 
a slight depression caused hy the subsidence of the materials of 
which it is composed. On the 24th of June a straight way, from 
east to west, was made throngh the centre down to the ground-level, 
and trials were made in the soil below. About a yard northward, 
from the centi«, was then excavated before the men left off work. 
The section presented an appearance very similar to the drawings, 
figs. 4and5, in Jewitt's ffraoe J/ouncIf— a cam-like heap of bonlder- 
Htones heaped one on the other, with a very slight covering of soil, 
and without any retiutiing stone circle around. Earth, in small 
qnantities, had found its way downwards among the stones ; and 
here and there with it, from two feet below the snrfaoe to the bot- 
tom, were found minute fragments of bone, apparently human i 
none more than an inch and a half in length ; and in all, not more 
than would have filled a teacnp. None of the fragmente were 
calcined, nor was there any trace of black earth or of fire, save two 
very minnte pieces of charooaL It is probable that water-rate or 
mice may have carried the fragmente of bone among the stones, as 
in the Derbyshire barrows ; bnt they have not left any of their 
bones behind as an evidence of the fact. Although the plara of inter- 
ment was not reaohed, snfficient was disclosed to show the purpose 
of the monnd. Fear men had worked steadily for seven or eight 
hours i and as evening approached, the assembled party dispersed. 

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One more object of intereet was bronght to light daring tbe dftj, 
at the bottom of a raTtne in the Foreat wood which clothes the foot 
of the moontun, on the left of the road towards Bnilth, among' the 
thick brruhwood, is a conical moond abont 20 feet in height and 
310 feet is circnmfereace, thickij covered with hawthorn, haiel, 
and oak coppice, and enrronnded bj a broad, hollow ditch which ia 
now a morasB, and mnst in winter be fnll of water. The spot is 
now on tbe ontakirt of the wood ; but it mnat have been in the midst 
of it before tbe wood waa partially ridded for cultivation. The 
ineqnality of tbe groand ia not noticeable nntil the mound is closely 
approached. It may well have served ae a plaoe of retreat or hiding 
place in the laat extremity. It is about a mile and a half distant 
&om the Biyn Llwyd monnt. EL W. B. 

ifitecellaneous Notices- 

Bbecon Prioby. — On Whit Tuesday last the Priory Church of 
St. John the Evangelist, at Brecon, was re-opened for divine service, 
after undergoing the restoration commenced in April, 1873, and 
finished inMay last,nnder the direction of Sir George Gilbert Scott, 
to which allusion has more than onoe been made in this Journal. 
The restoration of this noble building, which took plaoe in 1860-62, 
was confined principally to the east end. The recant one is of tlie 
nave, aide-aisles, north porch, and of the exterior of the edifice gemo- 
rally. The following anmmary, taken in the main from a atatement 
drawn up by the olerk of the worka, Mr. James Burlison of Colchea- 
ter, will enable our readers to form some conception of what haa 
been accomplished : — The work was commenced by atripping the 
roofa, cleaning timbers, and repairing all material worth retaining. 
The nave-roof has been mach improved by adding circular ribs 
under the collar-beama, which are supported by stone corbels ; the 
upper part of the principals being filled in with tracery, which givee 
the whole a good effect. The roof ia boarded on the face of raftera, 
being mitred into the pnrlins ; the whole being enriched by a good 
oak cornice on a lerel with the wall-platea. The north aisle has 
been restored to its original beauty, the best featare being the old 
panel-roof at the east end. The porch haa been restored, every 
atone being pat in its original place as near as possible. Anew roof 
and floor have been added; also one new door ineide, and the 
entrance-door repaired. The south aisle has been taken down and 
rebnilt; two new windows added, which are exact copies of tbe 
northern windows. The door has also been repaired. All internal 
and external walla have been cleaned, raked, and pointed. Eveiy 
vrindow has been restored more or lees, and the old style of archi' 
teotnre strictly attended to. The old parapets have been lowered 
and rebnilt on corbels, in their original position. Tbe old hip at 
Ihe west end of the nave is done away with, and a new gabie and 

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parapet, with turret oo Bonth-west cxinier, with two doors leading 
to the lead-gntters behind pompet, is Bobatitated in its place. The 
old Norman font has also been newly Bet. The pinnacfeB on either 
side of the east end of the presbytery, designed by Sir Q. O. Scott, 
have been added in memory of Uie late Marqats of Camden, who as 
Earl of Brecknock for eome years represented the boToogh in Par- 
liament, and whose prematnre death is nniyereatly deplored. The 
chancel- fittings are of oak, the earring being done by Messrs. 
Parmer and Bomley of London, who also did the oarving left from 
the first restoiKtion. The style is Early English. 

We sincerely congratnlate not only the good people of Brecon, 
the glory of whose town is the Priory Cbnrch, bat the Principality 
at large, on the completion of the restoration of the ssored edifice, 
Sienorally oonsidered " the third chnrch in Wales"; and those who 
have so landably exerted themselveB to bring about the good work 
are entitled to Uie warmest thanks of their cooutrymen. 

Wobks of Gohohwt Owem.— The Kev. Robert Jones, M.A., vicar 
of All Saints, Rotherbithe, has lately issned a prospeotns of a new 
and complete edition of the works of the Rev. Gcronwy Owen, one of 
the very finest poets that appeared in the Principality since the time 
of Davydd ab Gwilym. A new and tmatworthy edition of all the writ- 
ings of the nnfortnn&te Gcronwy Owen is a aesideratam, for we can 
hardly conceive anything more unworthy of him and of the oonntry 
than the wretched edition which appeared from the Llanrwst press 
in 1860. The advantages offered in the present edition are stated 
to be, a carefully revised text, critical and explanatory notes, the 
various readings of the several MSS., and occasional translations. 
With the first volame will be given a Utbographed fac-simile of the 
poet's handwriting, and with the second a fac-simile page of "Cy- 
wvdd y Fam Fawr", with notes in the handwriting of Lewis Morris, 
Tlie work will be published in foor qnarterly half volamea, price 
seven shillings and sixpence to subscribers, and half againea to non- 
Bnbscribers, and the first instalment is promised to be readyabonttbe 
beginning of Aognst. Theprice, it will be seen, pats it ont of the 
reach of the majority of Welsh readers, which is much to be re- 
gretted ; and nnlees the nnpnblisbed writings exceed in bulk those 
with which we are already acquainted, we do not see why the whole 
may not be published at a much lower figure. In the life, of which 
a specimen accompanies the prospectus, we hope Mr. Jones will omit 
the impossible poetical colloquy said to have taken place between 
Goroawy Owen Euid Ellis Wynne of Eardd Oviag celebrity, who died 
in 1734, when the former was but twelve years of age. The whole 
story eboold without hesitation be relegated to the domain of fiction. 

Tbi British Abchxou>oical Abbocutiok will hold its annnal 
Congress this snmmer at Evesham, under the presidency of the 
Harqois of Hertford. 

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A Hiw, improrod, and conriderftbly enlarged edition of ff r. Askev 
Boberts* Ooitmiag Omd» to WaUt has just been poblisbed at Oswee- 
tiy. Few boolu supply so much reading matter for a ahillijig. 

Kk. JoHir RoUHS Phillips intends to iBsne, in Norember next, 
to snbicribers onlj, T}ie Hirtory of Walet during the Middle Agei. 
We hope that the anther will in this new work ahow a somewhat 
broader spirit than is displayed in the Mamoin of the OivU War m 
Waleg and tAe Mareke*, in which we find the impartial historian 
nowhere, bnt everywhere the special pleader of the repnblioan party. 

DiBCOTKRiEB IN Akolbsst. — Within the present year (1875) eight 
bronze implements of the winged celt class, and all of the same 
type, were fonnd near Menai Bridge. One more also has been added 
to the list of copper cakea. It was ploaghed np on a farm in Llan- 
ddyfnan. Details of both discoveries will appear in a subseqaent 
number. W, Wtkm WlLLUHS. 

Bktn Owtdion. — The ttev. W. Wynn Williams has sent ns the 
following correotion : " In the article on " Roman Coins, Carnarvon- 
shire", miicb appeared in the Jannary(187S) number of this Jonraal, 
the farm where they were fonnd, £ryn Ovn/dion, is said to be * a 
farm of Lord Newborongh's'. I have since discovered Uiat a mis- 
take was made, and that the place is the property of H. J. £. Nan- 
ney, Esq., of Qwynfryn." 

The HiLL-FoBTg, Stone Circles, and other StsnCTUiuL Rehaids 
OF Ancicnt Sdotland, illnstrated with Plans and Sketches, by 
Christian Maclaoan, Lady Associate of the Society of Antiqnariea 
of Scotland. Edinbnrgh : Edmonston and Donglas, 1S75. 

Tbs long conlinned intimacy between France and Scotland has left 
its effects marked on the latter in more than one respect. There are 
featares in the domestic and ecclesiastical architecture of both 
countries not found this side of the border j and however great the 
interval between the vivacious GaoI and the canny Scot, yet in their 
notions of the magnifique they are not so unlike each other. We 
may trace this similarity of taste in the chief cities of each people, 
as illustrated by the manner in which new Edinburgh has been 
treated within the present century, and which, mutatu mutandu, 
recalls some of the most striking portions of modem Paris, while 
the same taste has led to the production of some of the grandest 
volumes of the present time. Among snofa stand forth the two 
yolatnei o{ The Sculptured Blonet of BooQand issued by the late Spald- 
ing Club, and whidi fully exhibit, by the number and style of its 

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iUostnitioiia, the Sootch notion of tbo mat/nifieent, (tBpecially when 
the immense amount of Inbonr which the accomplished editor, Mr, 
John Stnait, mnst have andet;gone in the prodnotion of such voinmBB 
is t^en into consideration. 

We have now before ns The SSl-ForU and Stone Oirehs of Scot- 
land, another volume of the same character, which is all the more 
remarkable as the sole work of a lady member of the Antiqaaries 
of Scotland, Miss Macl&gan of BavenBcrofl, Stirling. This volnme 
is a fitting oompanion of The Sculptured Sltmei of Seoiiand, unless 
it may be more properly called a supplement rather than a compa- 
nion, for the sabjeot of it is distinct and separate from Mr. Stnart's 
work, as, indeed its title indicates. Before, however, wo proceed 
to notice the work ifaaelf it is impossible to refrain from expressing 
onr sBtcnishment at the enormooa cost of physical powers and un- 
tiring ener^ which mnst have accompanied the prodnction of the 
work ; for Uie namerons plates (nearly forty in number) are, with 
very few erceptions, from drawings on the spot, — that spot being 
generally the Bummit of some bleeJc hill or almost inaccessible glen, 
over a spaoe extending from the English borders to the Orkneys ; 
and as if snch an area were not sufficiently large, the visits have 
been extended as far as the scnthem counties of England. We 
very mach question whether the most eealons of the family of Old- 
bucks wonld have undertaken what this lady has done. 

The handsome volnme before ns not only contains a vast amount 
of substantial facts and important observations, but it fills up a gap 
in our Scottish archaeological stores. There may, indeed, be still 
other vacant spaces to be filled up ; but any one who has Uie good 
fortune to possess the volnme will acknowledge that what has been 
attempted by onr indefatigritle anthoress in filling np this gap has 
been most efficiently executed, 

Uiss Uaolagan acknowledges that she did ones look on the mega- 
lilliic remains of cromlechs and circles as connected with Dmidic 
mysteries. Common sense and aoonmte observation have long since 
convinced her of her mistake ; and it must be granted that she has 
now done her best to demolish all such Druidio myths. While, how- 
ever, we are glad to welcome snch an ally in the Dmidic controversy 
which even still esista in certain quarters, we are hardly prepared to 
subscribe to what is unquestionably a novel suggestion, however well 
supported by ailment and &cts. That she has not come to her 
conclusion lightly is clear irom the labarious and extensive researches 
made. However, it will be better to quote Miss Maclagan'a own 
words : " I was constrained to look for some other reading of the 
megalithio puzzle, and after long and careful examination I have 
come to the belief that these upright stones in circles had most pro- 
bably constituted an important part of the nncemented structure of 
dwellings or strongholds of onr living ancestors." So far as to 
circles. As to cromlechs, they seem to be considered as belonging 
to the same class ; and tlut what some call the capstone of a crom- 
lech, is probably only the lintel of a mined gateway. This is not. 

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indeed, stated in Bo many words ; bat from one op two instauces 
mentioned there can be little donbt bnt that anoh is, the writer's 
opinion. One or two examples oat of the many given will sufficiently 
explain Miss Maclagan's theory and the gronnds on which it reata. 

One of the moat important and interesting cases is that of the 
Tappock Walla, near Tarbet, at the head of Loch Fine (see Plate 
xsii). Here are three circnlar concentric enclosares, in tite walls of 
each of which are at intervals tall, npright bonding stones, altfaongh 
in ordinary cases bond-stones lie longitodinally right throngh ^e 
thickness of the wall. However that may be, it is clear enongh that 
if the intervening wall-stones were removed, we should have, nn- 
donbtedly, three concentrio cirolea of aprigfat stones. Connected 
with tbe work is also a covered passage roofed in with elabs, 
exactly as the g^lery leading to a sepnlchr«l chamber. Portions 
of this gallery, still bearing tiie roofing-stonea, may bear some re- 
semblance to a mined cromlech which retains only two supporters 
and one capstone, like that in St. Kicholas, not far from Fishgnard, 
described in ibe Aretueologia Oamhreruu, 1872, p. 139, and is an 
instance of what Bonstetten and his followers call a /ree-glanding 
dolmen, as if snch was of a distinct class, and not a dolmen or crom- 
lech in a more dilapidated condition than nsnaJ. Bnt snch a resem- 
blance can hardly be considered an argament that all cromlecha 
have been tbns formed. There is, however, another instance which 
certainly, at first sight, does appear to confirm Misa Maclagan's 
theory, namely, the remains at Anqnortbies, near Inverary, given in 
Plate XXVII. It is thaa described : " The circle at Anqnoiihiea fnr- 
niahea an important addition to antiqaarian knowledge of the ill 
nnderstocd architecture of these ancient round straotnres, by giving 
ns the key to the solntion of the great 'altar-stone' or 'cromlech' 
mysteiy. Hero we have a long recnmbent stone, IS feet long, and 
exactly at each end of it a pillar-stone. In all cases these pillar< 
atones are so placed as to show that the Umg stone had never rented 
on the top of ihete pillare, as their place is always beyond the length 
of the long stone. Bnt within the space which lies between the two 
pillar-stones are two other pillars, S feet long, and npon them the 
great stone has once rested." The two shgrt pillars have fitllen 
towards the inside, and the long capstone or lintel has slipped on ita 
outward edge, as represented in the illnstratioa. A restored view is 
also given, representing the capstone resting on the two short pillars, 
flanked by the longer ones ; these last supporting laterally the lintel, 
ftnd assisting the stability of the wall, which is assumed to have 
been nearly 30 or 40 feet high. There can be no question that the 
arrangement is very peculiar, but it may be easily explained without 
any relation to the "cromlech mystery". It appears, in iact, to have 
been a passage, or kind of sallyport, formed in the thickness of 
the wall, the late ontside pillar protecting it from pressure of the 
walls on each side of them. Such a email gateway still exists at 
Treceiri in a perfect condition ; and smaller openings occur in the 
walls of Cam Qoch in Caermardiensbire, although on so small a 

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soalo that the^ appear to have been intended for the oae of sheep 
or goats rather than men. 

MisB Maclagan denies the Bepalchral eharacter of the Glava 
gronpB, and maintains that thoj arc the remains of dwellings of the 
Bring and not of the dead. We regret we cannot persnade onr- 
Belree to be convinced of the correotness of her views. They 
appeared to ns, dnring oar visit many years ago, to be simply lai^ 
Cfurns enclosing a chamber, with a passage leading to it from the 
exterior ; we speak of the more perfect ones, for they were in very 
different states of min, bat all are originally of the same character, 
and jTenerally of the same dimensions. Each chamber entirely de- 
nnded woald leave an outer and inner circle of stones, more or less 
oontdgnooB to each other, and in some cases a third and ontor one 
of taller and detached stones; bnt this oat«r circle is entirely 
detached &om the two inner ones, and never coold have been part 
of the snppcsed dwelling-honse. Another objection to these Clava 
remains being the remains of dwellings, is that dwellings of t&e 
same [teriod are nsnally clnstered together, so that two or three 
have common party wcdls. The Clava cams sre, on the contrary, 
mora or less isolated, as might be expected in iamily places of inter- 
ment, for the galleries leading to the inner chamber seem to indicate 
Bobseqnent interments to the original ones. 

How far then Misa Uaclagan has established her position must 
be left to the judgment of those who peruse her work, the real 
value and importance of which, it abonld be remembered, does not 
depend on the determination of the question she has brought for- 
wud. The digest of facts, the amount of information, and the accc 
racy and beanfy of the illustrations, the pleasant style, and genuine 
heartiness with which she enters into her work, all combine to place 
this handsome volnme among the most vatnable contribntions of the 
day; and if English and Welsh men welcome its appearance so 
heartily, onr Scotoh friends must, indeed, be proud of claiming Miu 
Maclagan as their countrywoman. 

The manner in which the work has been got up by the printers, 
Edmonston and Doaglas, independent of its internal value, renders 
it worthy of ite being dedicated to the Queen, while, on the other 
hand, it seems diffioidt to understand how such a volume could be 
offered to the pnhhc at such a price. 

On TBI Guas of Rddb Stone MoNDHeNTB whicb abb comuoblt 


ExiSTiNa MooNDS. Pbbtailinq Ebbobs on tub BUBJECT befdtbd bt 


Bipon. Printed for the Author, by Johnson and Co., Market Place. 

Simpkiu, MarshaU, & Co., Stationers' Hall Court, 1875, Price 2b. 
Hb. W. C. LnKis,who has at various times oontributod much to onr 
koowledge of megalithic remains, has reproduced in the above 

♦ri! SBB., VOL. TI. »• 

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mentioned pamphlet three ftttiolos, the first of which appearod 
Angnst 13th, 1874, in Nat«re, and was to have been followed by the 
two others, but which were postponed so long that it was ont of the 
qnostioD to pablieh them in continuation of the firat. To avoid any 
similar disappointment Mr. Lnkia has adopted the pamphlet form, 
and the pnolic has tbns been benefitted by the greater pnblicit; 
there given to his views on the subject in question, " Holding a firm 
conviction that absolate neoessity exists for pointing ont to the 
archroological student the true nature of the misty theories which, 
prettily garnished and based on what are stated to be fiicts are con- 
fidently presented as oontrihntions to scientifio literetnre", he does 
not consider it rightto withhold his own views. Mr, Lnlds does aot 
attack any particnlar theoriser. He wishes to ascertain the tmth, 
and then that the truth should he disseminated. With this view he 
exposes three main erroni, which are still held apparently by some 
who r^feSB to some knowledge of snch remains. These errors are, 

1. The assertion that those stmctnres called cromlechs or dolmens, 
which are now partially or wholly exposed, were originally intended 
so to be. 

2. The assertion that there are a specific dssa called demi-dolmens, 
tripod dolmens, or earth fast dolmens. 

S. The belief in the existence of exposed cromlechs or chambers 
upon the summits of artificial moands. 

Mr. Lnkis examines each case separately, and if &tct and argument 
are worth anything in controverted questions, we mnst acknowledge 
the complete maimer in which the task he has proposed baa been 
carried ont ; nor was the task uncalled for, after the appearance of 
a certain pretentions volume, which, however, would have been more 
mischievous in its efiects, but for its palpable misHtatements and 
contradictions : indeed, it may be said, strange as it may seem, that 
an«r all the public is indebted in no small degree to ^lis gentleman 
for thus indndng Mr. Lnkis to present as with this admireble and 
decisive settlement of the question. 

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OCTOBER, 1875. 


It is but a short time since writers divided the ancient 
piUar-Btone, generally known as maen hir or menhir, 
into more than one class. Thus a monument of this 
kind might be either a funeral memorial, or an object 
of worship, or a boundary stone, or commemorative of 
some particular events such as a battle. It is, indeed, 
probable that such stones may have served various pur- 
poses ; but it doee not follow tiiat they were not origin- 
ally intended for only one, namely, simplv as comme- 
morative stones, marking that some event had occurred 
on that particular spot. The earliest recorded erection 
of such a stone occurs, as is well known, in the book of 
Genesis, when Jacob erected the stone in Bethel, in com- 
memoration of his dream. The pouring oil on it, how- 
ever, invested it with something more than the character 
of a purely commemorative stone, and hence according 
to some arose the heathen worship of anointed stones. 
Whether Moses' command about stone images, given in 
Leviticus xxvi, 1, refers to the same kind of worship is 
uncertain; but at any rate it furnishes an additional 
proof how wide and how early the practice had existed. 
Long before the councils of Aries and Tours, the earlier 
ChnstJan writers, as Minutius Felix, Amobius, and 
Clemens of Alexandria, speak of the common practice 
of anointing stones, and which were held in such reve- 
4th bbk., roi.. Ti. 21 

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rence that the heathen writer Apuleius complains of the 
custom that Eill paesers by were compelled to stop and 
pay religious honours to uiem. 

All that can be stated is that it is clear that a certain 
reverence has been shown to some stone monuments from 
the earliest time to the sixth or seventh centuries, and 
in some remote difitricta to a much later period ; even 
within the present century it is thought that a kind of 
stone worship still lingers in some disttmt paris of 
Western Ireland. But however ancient and general this 
peculiar cult may have been, its existence may be eadly 
accounted for from the reverence paid to the dead, and 
which was soon transferred to the stone that marked 
the spot where the remains laid. 

The evidence that the maenhir is or was nothing 
more than a tombstone, or a funeral monument, is so 
extensive and so conclusive that it is unnecessary 
to discuss the question. The process by which it has 
changed its character in the com^e of time is a simple 
and natural one. The reverence originally shown to 
the defunct chief or warrior is easily transferred to hia 
monument, which in time becomes an object of religious 
worship. When this has passed away, in its turn 
the monument still remains as an invaluable land mark 
not easily tampered with. A remarkable example of 
this is furnished by the great sepulchral chamber on 
the route between v eudome and Blois, and which in 
the earUest known deeds is described as marking the 
boundary between these two ancient duchies. So also 
in Scotland have standing stones, stone circles, been 
used for holding courts and other meetings for cen- 
turies, not because those circles and pillars were ori- 
ginally constructed for the holding civil or religious 
assemolies, as confidently asserted by some who see in 
such remains Druidic temples, but because local circum- 
stances or other reasons made them the most convenient 
place of meeting for business : thus, where audi stones 
marked the boundaries of different properties, all dis- 
putes about the limits would be most conveniently and 

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appropriately settled and re^tered on the spot. Nor 
is thiB view confined merefy to stone circles, but it 
applies to any other remarkable and well known object, 
as a natural or artificial mound, or even a ford or 
fountain, if of local celebrity. All this has been fully 
discussed in the Appendix on atone circles, of the second 
volume of Mr. J(mn Stuart's admirable work of the 
Sculptured Stones of Scotland. In that exhaustive 
article he quotes several instances of tiystings and other 
meetings held, and business transacted, in mediseval 
times at these early remains of a former race. Hence 
it is alleged that these circles were originally intended 
for religious observances, and continued as places of 
meeting for other purposes in later times ; but this is 
mere assumption, unsupported by facta, and contrary to 
all probabihty ; for if they had been pagan or Druidic 
temples, the early missionaries would have done their 
best to destroy them. These missionaries did, indeed, 
wherever neceaswy and possible, convert objects of pagan 
worship to Christian uses, and especially m the case of 
fountains. To convert a stone circle mto a Christian 
church was not easy or possible, and they were not 
destroyed because they were not temples. As the re- 
mains of burial-places Utey would be naturally respected 
in those early days, however they may fare in our own 
times. The modem Bardo-Druidic system does, indeed, 
claim and use these monuments for its mysteries at 
the present time, and stone circles are still manufac- 
tured according to certain rules, for inaugurating ser- 
vices and conferring certain degrees with curious form- 
alities. But on the real history of stone circles tliese 
performances throw no light. They are more likely to 
mislead t^e less experienced, who naturally attach an 
importance to such mysteries, which some may think 
soJCemn, while others would be more inclined to deem 
them childish. 

As regards the maen hir there is less di£Sculty. Its 
character is so simple that whatever superstitions may 
have attsiched to them at various times, there can be 

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little question raised as to its original purpose. The 
usual idea attached to the more iroposiQg ones, especi- 
ally in parts of France, is that they commemorate the 
death of a chieftain or some important battle. The 
smaller examples, which present nothing remarkable, 
are seldom honoured with any such assignments, for in 
many instance what is now a solitary stone may have 
been the last remaining portion of some structure or 
other. To determine •whether such or not is the ease 
is almost hopeless when the old inhabitants do not 
remember it to have ever been different from what it is 
now. In the majority of cases, however, there can be 
little difficulty as to its character. 

When the extent of Wales is compared with that of 
England east of Offii's Dyke, there is a larger number 
of such monoliths than in the latter, even allowing 
for the more cultivated districts, and those where the 
necessary stones are not easily to be procured. In 
importance, however, as to the size and interest of some 
examples, the superiority may be claimed for the Eng- 
lish ones. No attempt, it is believed, has been made 
to ascertain their mimber, much less to describe and 
illustrate them in a distinct notice, so that they are not 
so generally known as could be desired. Nor has any- 
thing been done, in this respect, on the west side of 
the Dyke, although isolated notices of some of them 
have been published. 

The most remarkable of the English monoliths is 
to be found in Yorkshire, about two miles from Burton 
Agnes and five from Bridlington, and which gives its 
name to the parish of Budston, or, as given in Dooms- 
day, Bodeatane, or the cross stone, or stone cross. It 
stands in the churchyard, an unusual circumstance if 
it is one of these prehistoric monuments. It is possible 
that tbis juxtaposition may have been accidental, and 
nothing else, but it is also possible that the church 
owes its existence to the presence of the Pagan relic 
The name of the parish is Rudston, which Fegge con- 
jectures to mean the stone of Bud, a Danish chieftain, 

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Co ogle 


■whose grave is thus marked out ; but many monuments 
are assigned to the Danes without any satis&ctory 
reason, and Pegge's conjecture seems to be an instance 
of this practice. The height of the stone above the 
ground-level is 29 feet 4 inches, and its depth beneath is 
reputed to be as much. This is unlikely, although exca- 
vations have been made to the depth of 12 feet, without 
any sign of reaching its base. It is a kind of coarse 
rag or millstone grit, and stands at a distance of nearly 
forty miles from any quarry where this kind of stone is 
found. There can be little question but that this huge 
stone is simply commemorative of some distinguished 
man or some important battle, although no local tra- 
dition, as in similar instances in Britany, is connected 
with it. It probably has always been what it now is, 
an isolated monolith. 

Wales does not contain any stone approaching this 
one in dimension. In feet, the majority of our mono- 
Uths are of such very modest proportions that many of 
them may be the last remaining members of a group. 
One such relic remains in Merioneth, or at least did 
remain a few years ago, close to Rug tumulus, near Cor- 
wen, and which, no doubt, gave its name to the house 
and estate. At the base of this tumulus, the single 
slab is, no doubt, the only relic of the carde of the 
detached stones, or mound, which once surrounded it. 

Of the predominant character of our Welsh meini 
hirion some idea may be gathered from the few here 
mentioned ; the first of which stands close within one 
of the entrances to Glynllifon Park, between Clynnog 
and Carnarvon. It is hard even to surmise whether 
this has always been a single pillar or not. There is 
not the slightest indication of any other stones having 
existed near it, nor is there a vestige of a tumulus, but 
this latter would hardly have escaped removal, situated 
as it is. If, on the other hand, a group has once stood 
here, it is singular that only one has been left. It 
measures 9 ft. in height and 3 ft. in breadth. How far 
under ^e soil it extends has not, it is believed, been 

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ascertained. If an opinion, however, may be offered, it 
has always been a solitary stone, marking a burial- 

No. 2 is built into a hed^e on the high ground 
in Llanbedr parish, near Harfeoh, and is situated at 
no great distance from the cromlech, figured in the 
volume of 1869, and situated in the farm of Gwern- 
Einion. Near it is a slab between 16 and 17 feet 
long, and which seems to have been part of the covers 
ing of a chamber, one of the supporters of which was 
probably this upright stone. There are many other 
large stones thrust away into the hedges near, and aa 
cromlechs or chambers are often found near one another 
(as would be the case in any cemetery), there is every 
probability that we have in these remains the wrecks of 
an important chamber. Aa the upright stone is in its ori- 
ginal place, the position of the chamber is fixed. The cir- 
cumstance that such stones are frequently found in hedge- 
rows seems to indicate not that the stones have always 
been thrust aside for convenience as that the monument 
was useful as a boundary mark, and therefore adopted 
as such. A tradition is attached to this stone, which is 
so far curious as to indicate what Uttle real foundation 
such atoiies have. The belief, however, of the neigh- 
bouring peasantry as regards the truth of their story is 
not easily shaken, nor on the other hand is it ea^ to sur- 
mise whence itreally came. The story is iJiat this upright 
stone is dedicated to the sun, and that human beings 
secured by iron chains were burnt alive in honour of that 
luminary. Traces of the fire are said to be still visible 
in the stone, but as far as we could judge, no such 
appearance exists. Its height is 9 feet as it stands 
enveloped in the hedge, which, if cleared away, would 
add at least 3 feet 

On the highroad from St. David's to Newport, and 
on the left hand, is a small stone measuring 8 feet by 
3 feet, the form of which is not adapted for a side-atone 
of a chamber. It stands alone in a field, and may, per- 
haps, have always been alone ; and not far on, and on 

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the same side of the road, near Rose Cottage, is another 
slab, now ataudiog only 4 feet 5 inches out of the ground. 
Near it lies a stone of snialler size. This stone is of a 
form that would hare adapted it as a supporter to the 
Mipstone of a chamber, and such it seems to have been, 
when the rest of the structure was removed, one would 
probably be left for the convenience of cattle. Such 
rubbing stonra are to the present day placed in the 
pastures for the purpose, and have occasionally been 
mistaken by inexperienced eyes for ancient ones. 

These two last mentioned stones are on or near the 
same line of road as the group of the fire radiating 
kistvaens on the south side of Newport, and the crom- 
lech close to that town. 

No. 6 was, judging from its form, probably a portion 
of a cromlech. Its height also (7 feet 6 inches) is one 
usually found in chambers of moderate dimensions. 
There are a few small stones near it, but not appa- 
rently connected with it, as the land around is full 
of such stones. It is known as " fiedd Morris", which 
Morris or Morus was a notorious robber who lived 
among the rocks on the summit of the hill command- 
ing the pass ; and which is the dd, and was once the 
only, road to Newport. This man had a Uttle dog 
trained to fetch the arrows shot at unfortunate way- 
farers. The nuisance of this murderous individual was 
so great that at last the population rose in arms against 
him, attacked him in his mountain-care, dragged him 
dowo to the place where the stone now stands, and 
there killed and buried him. A similar story is told of 
another robber who made himself equally obnoxious to 
the inhabitants of the Vale of Ardudwy in Merioneth. 
That some outlaw of the name of Morris may have 
levied black-mail on, or even murdered, wayferers is not 
impossible ; but that the stone was pltujcd over his 
grave is improbable, as such erections are rather marks 
of respect than otherwise. The man may hare been 

Sut to death and buried near the stone, which is eri- 
ently one of the earliest character, and may be one of 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


the groups that existed on the same Hae of road, the 
most remarkable part of which is the long line of up- 
right stones called "Pare j Marw" (the field of the 
dead), described, with its superstition of its " White 
I^ady", in the ArckcBologia Cavfibrerms of 1868, p. 177. 
Between this line and Bedd Morris a cromlech laid 
down on the Ordnance Map has been entirely removed, 
its deetruction having been first commenced by Fenton, 
who seems in his curiosity to have done a great deal of 
mischief to such remains. 

All the above illustrations are the work of Mr. Blight. 

The last to be noticed is from a drawing of the Tate 
Eev. H. LongueviJle Jones. It stands 13 feet 6 inches 
above the ground-line, and is 3 feet broad by 2 thick. 
Its character is that of the simple commemorative pillar, 
and unlike in form those here noticed ; but this dissi- 
milarity may be owing to the character of the stone of 
the district 

These isolated stones not only not being a Duisance 
to the fanner, but, as we have observed, sometimes 
useful, have escaped better than cromledis or stone 
circles. They are, however, by no means safe fix)m the 
improver, and therefore are better consigned to the 
pages of the Journal of the Association, so that there 
may be left at least some record of them. 

E. L. Babnweix. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 

Mo. 0.— lun BIB, IIBUt UUFKTEB. 

D,g,l,.,.d,i. Google 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


contindbd up to and beyoito the time op the 
king's UTJRDEE. 

(Oonfinufd JVom ji. 2LD.) 

Fbom Prince Rupert to the Governor of North Wales, 
etc. : 

(Seal.) I doe hereby require & atithorize yon or any three of 
you, whereof either the Gonemor, lieuten't Gouemor, or high 
Sheriffe of the Couuty for the tyme being to be one, by aU 
meanes and with all conTenieut speed to enquire what moneys 
haue of late yearea been seat & levyed w'thin your County, either 
for the providing of armes or powder, repaire of bridges, Bby|H 
money, Polemoney, provision of Clothes, Beeues, & Mutton, taxed 
& levyed for his Mtyesty's service in the beginning of these pre- 
sent Warres, or what other Sumes soeuer. And to make a strict 
and Impartiall Examinaciou (as well by oath as otherwise) what 
moneys levyed for the pnblique vses abouemencioned, remaine 
yet unexpended, & in whose handes. And in case it appeare 
that any part of the sayd Summes remayne yet vnlevyed, yon 
are forthwith to cause the same to be collected, & that (tt^ether 
w'th those moneys already collected) to [be] payed into the 
hands of the high Sheriffe, to be employed in pnblique Semice, 
according to such Orders & directions as the said high Sheriffe 
or ye Gouemor shall receyne from me in that behalfe. Hereof 
you are not to fayle And for soe doeing this shall be your 
warrant Given at Chester, under my hand & Seale of Annes, 
the third of August, 1644. 

To Sir John Mennes, Knt., Governor of ^orthwales, 
John Morgan, esq'r, high Sheriffe of ye County of 
Merioneth, Wm. Price, Hugh Nanney, Humphrey 
Hughes, Owen Salisbury, & Wm. Owen, Governor 
of Harlech, Esquires. 

From Prince Maurice to Sir John Owen, Knt.: 

S'r, — I desire you to march tomorrow, being Monday, 
with all the foote and trayne and Provisions, to Bnabon, and to 
make your Bendezvous in the fii'st great field between that and 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


the River of Dee, by nine of the clocke, upon the way to New 

Cheater, Ibis 23 of febr. 1644 (164J). Manrice. 

For S'r John Owen, Knt., Maior Gen'll. 
Sealed with the Prince's seal of arms. 

Prince Maurice to Sir John Owen : 

S'r, — Notwitbetandii^ the order I sent vnto yon this 
afternoon, I desire yon only to draw your men t<^ather at Wrex- 
ham, which I have since appointed to be the Bendezvous for the 
Army, becauBe the Enemie is drawn back agayne, and to desire 
you to have a care of your quartera, 

Cheater, the 23, 9 att night, 1644 (23 Feb. 1645). 
S'r John Owen, Major Geuerall, at Wrexham. 
Post hast. 

Prince Maurice to Sir John Owen : 

S'r, — I baue receaued intelligence that the Enemie draweth 
men tK^ether upon some designe; I desire you, therefore, to 
cause very good guardes to be kept in all your quarters, and to 
send to Holt to doe the same ; and in case of Alarme, to give 
order to those of Holt to keep themselves within protection of 
the Castle ; and yowr whole body to draw to Common Wood, and 
to advertise me if the Enemie draw over, which case ipiU be reqwi- 
site 3 or/oure nights. 
This ia all for the present from your very loving frend 

Cheater, the 2d of March, 1644 (1645). 
for S'r John Owen, Knt., Maior Gtenerall, 
att Wrexam, for his Miyesty's service. 

Prince Maurice to Sir John Owen : 

S'r, — 1 have this day received intelligence that the Enemy 
haue an intent for force their passage into Wales by Hoult pass 
or some of the ffoords, wherefore I would haue you draw all your 
ffoote togeather, and to be at the rendezTOus on Common-wood 
at foure of the clocke this aftemoone, where you are to Expect 
further orders from me ; and that when you are drawue togeather, 
you send me an exact list off [of] your number off foote. 

Chester, 3d March, 1644 (164}). 

ffor S'r John Owen, Major Genemll of the Army. 

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From Prince Maurice to Sir John Owen : 

S'r, — Since yon are at Common-wood still I desire you to 
quarter your men tne beat you can, and TebirTie to your quartera 
at Wrexham tomorrow. I had written vnto you to haue stay'd 
att your quarters ; hut since you are etill at Common wood, you 
must doe the best you can to alarme the Enemie this night as 
mach as you can. 

Tour very loveing friend, Maurice. 

Chester, 3d of March, 1644 (1644). 
The address is gone. 

Prince Kupert to Sir John Owen. From a contempo- 
rary copy, apparently an ofiSciaJ one ; 
[Seal.) Prince Eupert, Count Palatine of the Rhyne, Duke of 
Bavaria and Cumberland, Earl of Holdemess, Kt. of ye 
Most Noble Order of ye Garter, Captaine Generall vnder 
his Highnesse Prince Charles, Prince of Great Britaine, 
of all the forces of horse and foote within ye Kingdome of 
England, Dominion of Wales, & Towne of Berwioke, &c 
These are by vertue of my power To authorize and require 
yon, immediately vpon sight hereof, to collect, gather, and receive 
the Contributions of Grethin (Creuthin), Nant Conway, Issaph, 
Isgorvay, Evioneth, and Vcha, for ye support and mainteynance 
of ye Garrison and Towne of Conway in ye Countie of Oamar- 
VOQ ; Which Contribucions you must by noe meanes exceed, nor 
suffer anie oppression to bee enforced on ye Inhabitants of ye 
aforesaid Hundreds by any Officer or Souldyer vnder y'r Com- 
mand. And if at anye time ye aforesaid Hundreds to you assigned 
shall neglect to pais their contributions to you, either in part or 
whole, it shall be Lawfull for you from time to time to Levie 
all and every theire Arrearea by such partyes of Horse as you 
shall thinke fitt, proulded you exact uot or take ^m ye De- 
faulters more than yonr dues, according to their former Assethe- 
ment. Hereof you are in noe wayes to faile : And for your soe 
doing this shall bee your warrant. Given vnder my Hand and 
Seale att Armes this 19th day of March, 1644 (164J). jj^pg^. 
To Sir John Owen, Enight & Colonel, Governor 
of the Towne & Castle of Conway. 
Endorsed, probably in the hand of Sir John Owen, 
" firom Pr. Rupert R" 

From Prince Maurice to the Sheriff and Oommis- 
aioners of Array in the counties of Denbigh and Flint : 

. D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


fibrasmucfa as many Armes bare been left by the souldyers of 
Anglesey, Merionetb, and Carnarvon, in eeverall houses within 
your Countyes, & there obscured & kept back, to his Majesty's 
great disservice, tbeiae are therefore to will and authorize you to 
make or cause to bee made diligent search in all houses of sus- 
pition where it shall bee conceived any auch Armes now re- 
mayne ; And the said Armes soe by you collected & gathered, 
to bring, or cause to bee brought, with all possible speede to 
Wrexham, for the Arming of his Majesty's souldyers. Hereof 
you may not fayle. Given at Chester tliia 20 day of March, 
1644 (164i-). 


To the SherifFea & Commissioners of Array for 
the Countyes of Denbigh & fSint. 

From the King to Sir John Owen, Knt. : 

Charles R. 
Trusty and welbeloued. We grete you well. We being in- 
formed of some misunderstanding of late betwixt you and the 
Archbishop of Yorke, and that besides what is of particular differ- 
ence betweene yourselues, you haue layd somewhat of a very high 
nature to his charge in relation to our eeniice, we have thought 
fitt to signifye vnto you that as in case you haue solid grounds & 
testimonyes against him, he ought not to be exempt from ques- 
tdou, but that you haue done your duty in accusing him ; soe, 
on ye other side, he being a person who hath giuea eminent 
testimonyes of his affection to our Semice, & whose power and 
Interest in those parts may yett be of great vse vnto Vs (Us), 
you should be very cautious how you proceede to lay Imputa- 
cions vpon him of so high a nature ; & to require that unless 
the matters which you obiect against him are of very great 
moment, and ye proofs very material!, you should forbeare any 
further proceeding till you haue satisfyed vs in ye particulars ; 
and that in ye mean while, all animosltyes laid aside, you care- 
fully pay vnto ye Archbishop all fitting respects, and that you 
concurre with him as ye Lo. Byron shall iu our name aduise, in 
ye wayes of our Seruice. Soe noe waye doubting of your com- 
plyance herein, wee bid you heartily farewell. Given at our 
Court at Ragland Castle ye 20th day of July, 1645. 

By his Majesties Comand, Geoige Digby. 

To our Trusty and Welbeloued Sir John Owen, Knt, 
Gouemour of Our Castle of Aherconwaye. 

Endorsed, in the hand of Sir John Owen, " Receaued 
theiae his Majesty's Letters the 4th of August, 1645." 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


From the King to the Sheriff, etc., of the counties of 
Anglesey, Carnarvon, and Merioneth : 
Charles R. 
Trusty and well beloved, wee greete you well. Wee cannot 
but lett you know witli what cheerefull readynesse all the 
Countyes of South Wales haue entered into our Association 
vnanimonsly to resist & repell the Scotts ready to invade them 
& you with a powerful Army, & to make you an instance of faire 
greater Tyranny & Oppression then that which they have so long 
exercised on Our subjects in the Northeme parts (All Wales 
being, as Wee are informed, deseined by the Bebells at West- 
minster as a more particular prey & reward to those Invaders). 
And therefore Wee believe Wee shall not neede to vse Invita- 
tions to inflame you in the sence of those miseryea, nor in apply- 
ing your selves to the only way of preventing them, by entering 
into an vniversall Association amongst yourselves, and with 
those of South Wales, for your owne iust defence, w'ch Wee 
recommend to you for a pateme in this behalfe ; & that you 
would speedily rayse Forces & place Garrisons in all such places 
as shall bee fitt for your better security & keeping the Passes 
open hetweene you & South Wales, by the advice & assistance 
of the Lord Byron, Our Commander in Cheife in those parts : 
wherein that you may have all due to encouragement, Wee are 
gracioasly pleased, & do hereby assure that wee Will accept of 
all such Governors as you with the Lord Byrons approbation 
shall recommend vuto va, as likewise of all ot^er OMcers of any 
of the Forces you shall raise in this Association, for the better 
resisting the Invasion of the Scotts or any other Bebells. And 
Wee doe likewise assure you that none of those Governors & 
Officera shall be removed, nor any of the Forces drawn away by 
any authority but from Our selfe & by your own consent. And 
that you may bee the better provided with Armes and Ammu- 
nition, Wee recommend vnto you the raysing of a stock of money, 
for which Wee will take effectuall Order that you shall bee pro- 
vided with sufficient proportions from Bristol! Thus no way 
doubting but that you will proceede in the execution hereof 
(which so much conducetb to your own safety & preservation) 
as that Wee may find the good effects thereof. Wee bid yon fare- 
well. From Our Court at Bagland this 20th of July, 1645. 
By his Majesties Command, Edw. Walker. 

Sheriffe, Commissioners, Justices of Peace, of 
Anglesey, Carnarvon, & Merioneth. 

Directed "To Our Trusty & welbeloved theHigh Sheriffe, 
Commissioners, & Justices, of Our Countyes of Anglesey, 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Carnarvon, & Merioneth"; sealed with the royal seal of 
arms ; and endorsed, probably in the hand or Sir John 
Owen, "his Majesties letter." 

An unsigned letter from to Captain R. Mostyn, 

Gr. WyUiacDB, and Humf. Jones, Esquires : 

These are to will and requyre you, upon eight hereof, to draws 
vp into the towne of Conwaye liie fforces foUowiDge, Arrayed 
with the hest flyre Armes and othera they can. And with victuals 
for 4 dayea. And that vnder payne of death to all such as shall 
refuse your Comands, — ffrom C. Eog. Mostyn's Pariahee, 40 men ; 
firom Cap. Wylliaras, 50 ; ffirom Lland^ay and Uanllechid, 40. 
From Bangor, Aber, and DwygeefuUche, and lAanvayre Ye<^ian, 
which We doe lykewyse requjrre Mr. Beceivir^ to take care of 
in case Sir Wm. Thomas doe neglect it, and to drawe out of these 
fifty men. 

And We doe desyre Sir Wyllyan Thomas, as he doth tender 

the Kings seruice, to lend them as many Armea as he can. And 

we doe require you all to hasten with all speed to places ap- 

poynted. And so in haist we bid yon farewell, & rest 

Your very Loveing ffriends, 

Conway, this 23 of August, at 3 of the clock io 
ye Afternoone, 1645. 

Lord Byron to Sir John Owen : 

Sir, — By a late letter I could not hut take notice of the 
extreame slownes and neglectof your Countie in payment of the 
contribution agreed vpon at denhigh, whereof I cannot but bee 
the more sensible whielest I am sollicited by seuerall deservinge 
officers 'whose faithfuU service of his Majestie in theise parts 
looks for some acknowledgement: amongst them the bearer 
hereof, Serieant Maior Humfre Sydenham, to whose industrie 
and care theise parts and this Garrison is obleieged, principally 
in his sole managinge of the fort at handbridge. I haue therefore 
thought fitt to direct him vnto you, and to order that out of the 
contribution agreed to bee paied in your countie, he receive 
thirteen pounds, and praie that he may meet your favour and 
assistance therein ; whereof I am unwillinge to doubt whilest I 
shall render him vnto you in the Caracter of an honesty able, and 
deservinge ofBcer : for your perfoiTnance his receipt shall bee a 
discharge vpon accompt, and bee allowed by 

Your assured friende, John Byron. 

To Sir John Owen, Knight, high Sheritfe 
of the Countie of Carnarvon. 

' Hamfi*ey Janes. 

.;, Google 


George Lord Digby to Sir John Owen : 

Sir Joha Owen, — His Majesties pleasure is that you attend 
him here at Denbigh as soone aa possibly you can tomorrow, 
whicli is all that I uiall say to you at the present, more then it 
much imports his Majesties seriiice that you should not faile to 
doe DO, and that 1 am your very afTectionate frend to serae you, 
George Digbye. 
Denbigh, the 26th of September, being Thursday, 
at 8 of the clock at night, 1645. 
For his Majesties speciall Affaires. 
To my very worthy friend, Sir John Owen, Knt, high Sheriffe 
of the county of Carnarvon, these. — George Digbye. 
Certificate of Sir Edward Walker, Secretary of the 
Council of War : 

These are to certify to all vhome it may concerae, that 1 haus 
receiued his Majesties Command to renew Col Sir John Owens 
Commission for the Gouemment of the Castle and Towne of 
Conway ; and in the interim, vntill he recaiue it, he is to Com- 
mand there as formerly, without any interruption whatsoeaer, 
which I signify as his Majesties expresse pleasure. Dated at 
Denbigh this 28th of September, 1646. 

Edward Walker, 
Secretary of his Majesties Councell of Warre. 
Endorsed, probably in the hand of Sir John Owen, 
" S'r Edw. WsJker; order to renew S'r John['B] Com." 
Lord Byron to Sir John Owen : 

Sir,— Tou are hereby desired and required forthwith, vpon 
your receipt hereof, to draw togeither the forcea of the three 
counties of NorthwEiles, and with them march to the Welsh con- 
fines of the Cittie of Chester, for the keepinge open of the mar- 
kets on that side, and anoy the Enemie ; for your better per- 
formance hereof I haue ordered my Regiment of horse to ioyne 
with you, and deaier you would add to them what Gentlemens 
or other horse maie bee possibUe gotten in those Counties. Of 
your speede & effectual performance hereof you maie not faile 
aa you tender his Majesties service and the preservation of the 
Cittie ; fiurther requiring that they bring provisions alonge with 
them for theiie support. Given at Chester this second of Octo- 
ber, 1646. 

John Byron. 
At the foot, in the hand of Sir John Owen, is written, 
"Receaued the 4th of October att 5th night. — John 

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From the King. Pass for Lieut -Colonel Tutchell : 
Charles B. 
Charles by the grace of Qod Kinge of Ei^land, Scotland, ftirance, 
and Ireland, Defendour of the ffaith, &c. To all Gouemors, 
Commanders, and officers seming vs att Sea and Land, 
Majors (Mayors), SherifFe, Justices of the Peace, Customers, 
Comptrollers, Sherchera (sic), & all other our Monisters & 
Lovinge snbjects to whome theise shall come, Greetinge. 

Whereas we hane employed this bearer, Livetenant Colondl 
Tutchell, into Ireland vpon occasions of our service : Our will 
and Comaund is that euery of you permitt him with his senmnts, 
borsea, and necessaries, to passe by you, and to imbarque in any 
part of the Coast most convenient for that purpose, without any 
Lett or trouble ; And our Commaunde is that you cause a Barque 
or other vessell with all furniture requisite, Convoy, assit- 
ance {sic), and furtherance, to be given him in his voyt^. 
Whereof ye may not faile ; And for soe doeinge this shalbee your 
sufficient warrant. Giuen att our Court att Oxford the eight 
day of December, 1645. 

By his Majesties Command, Edw. Nicholas. 

Passe for Lut«nant ColoneU Tutchell 

Endorsed, " flfrom his Majestic yt Colonell Tutchull may 
passe", probably in the hand of Sir John Owen. 

From Gilbert ^ron to Sir John Owen ; 

S'r, — This inclosed is a Copy of a letter I juat now re- 
ceived from Sir Willi. Nealle ; by it you may see how necessary 
it is that your forces advance with all possible speed, since the 
enemy are drawinge of (off) ; wherefor I beseech you bee pleased 
to cause your forces to advance toward Butliland, so as they 
may be heir tomorrow night, or vpon tewsday by times. In the 
mean time I expect to heare farther certainty of this news, 
which received, I intend with what I haue to advance towards 
flint, and their to attend the motion of the enemy. I shall not 
need to trouble you farther in this particular, and therefore take- 
ing leaue, and rest. 

Sir, your faythfull servant, Gilbt. Byron. 
Ruthland Castle, this 21th, at 8 of clock at night. 

ffor my honoured Mend, Sir John Owen, high Sheriff of Car- 

Enclosure to the foregoing letter. Sir William Neale 
to Gilbert Byron : 

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Sir, — In the first place Captain Dutton gott into Chester 
very safe with your Monie and Ammunicion. Sir, the eaemie 
is quitting of Wales as I conceive. Mr. Hope sent word there is 
but Shipley and Charter left at the Leache neere Chester; they 
are all diawue over the bridge to the Suburbs, but some fewe 
left to cleare the country of there one (own) men. Sir, you 
would doe well to send Mr, Carlton to mee, or some other, to 
giue your further notice of the enemies departure : if you conn 
conveniently, come yourself, where I shall be glad to see you, 
and to drawe downe this way with what force you can ; so leav- 
ing all to your discrecion, for now is the time. 

Sir, your faitbfol servant, Wm. Neale. 

Hawarden, the 21 Dec. 1645. 

liOrd Byron to Sir Jolin Owen : 

Sir, — Now those frauds, the Qeutlemen of this countrye, 
haue so long expected me to come amongst them, for certainly 
without invitation they had not come, I doubt not but you use 
all possible dilligence for victuallinge of your Qarrison ; for the 
better doinge whereof you must not suffer any pronisions to 
remaine in Glanrith, as well to preuent the enemy as to furnish 
yourself. I cannot poasihiy spare Maior Sydenham's men, & 
therefore you must be pleased to make shift with those you hane. 

When you haue once settled things there, I thinck you may 
doe the Einge much better service to come into the country & 
raise what forces you can to ioyne with mine, & leaue the garri- 
son in charge with your Lieutenant Governor. I shall send you 
some powder so soone as possible I can, but mutch can not be 
spared till the country bring in materialls to make more. This 
day an express is come to me from Baglaud, who assures me that 
Langhem is totally routed in Southwales by the Kings forces in 
Sonthwales (sie), & driuen into Cardiff Castle, where he is now 
bese^;ed I haue taken order for those unarmed men, & rest 
Your assured &end & seruant, John Byron. 

Carnarvon, March 6, 1645 (164^). 
To ffir John Owen, Kt.. high Shenffe of the County 

of Carnarvon, at Conway. 
Seal. — On a wreath a mermaid ; underneath which, on 
a scroll, is the motto, "Crede Byron." 

Lord Byron to Sir John Owen : 

Sir, — By a letter I receaued this mominge of the rendi- 
tion of Bnthin Castle, my ioumey to Conway is stoppt. J haue 
sent orders to Coll. Vane to march back out of Merionethsliire 

4tk skii., vui.. ti. 28 

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with aU the speede he can, & then must dinide the foote betvixt 
these two gaxrisons of Conway & Carnarvon. By case you bane 
part of Litles men all ready I shall sent (sic) the rest to you, & 
likewise some horse. lu the mean time all possible meanes 
must be nsed to bringe in prouisions as well for horse as foot, 
wherein I desire you will consult with his Gnice.^ My cozen 
winne (Wynne) must likewise be dealt withall either by feire 
or foule meanes. 

This is all for the present I shall trouble yon withall, & am 
your faithfull frend & aerwant, John Byron. 

Car., Ap. 10, 1646, 9 a clock in the morning. 
For Sir John Owen, Kt, Governor of Conway. — John Byron. 
Hast, hast. Post hast. 

From the Archbishop of York to Sir John Owen : 

Sir John Owen, — ^With my very beartye commendacione 
& beat wishes vnto you. 

I heare from my Lord Byron that the enemjes are at Llanrwst, 
& that you have intelligence thereof ; but because I heard no- 
thing from you nor from Grwydder (from which place I am dis- 
tant not above 8 miles), I doe hope eyther it is not true or it is 
but a Partye that will retume again. But, however, 1 pray you 
call for my nephew Griffith Wma, and Lett him knowe that it 
is my pleasure that you should freely make vse of anye provi- 
sion and Aimes of mine in that place. I haue provided some 
victualles for you both &om the Mountains and .djiglisey. The 
fformer, I hope, will he with you sometymes tomorrowa The 
other is stayed from Comeinge Either by the Pevishnes of the 
great men in that Island, & tfaitt after I had provided a Boat for 
it. I hope I shall release it. And be with you very suddenlye, 
when I have finished a little busines about this House, wherein 
I am detayned by reason of the jealousye those people at Ban- 
gor haue put me, S'r Wm. Wms, and all this Country into. Sir 
John, I pray you be confident that I loue and Honnour you, 
and, it you please to believe it, with the best vnderstanding that 
God hath giuen me. Will be leadye to runne the same fortunes 
with you in this dangerous tyme & busines. And soe for the 
present I bid you heartily farewell, and am your affectionate & 
heartye ffriend and Coozeu, 

Jo. Eborac. 

Fenrhyn, this 24 of Apr, 1646, at 5 aclock in the mominge. 
To the Eight WorshipfuU my much Honoured friend and Couzen, 
Sir John Owen, Knt., Gouvemor of Conwaye Towne & 
Castle, these. Haiste. 

' The Arcbbishop of Tork, John Williams. 

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Seal, a diminutive one, of arms, in black wax, the bear- 
ing being a chevron ermine between three Englishmen's 
heads. It is the coat of the WiUiamses of Cochwillan, 
now Williams Bulkeley, Baronets, of Baron Hill. 

The Archbishop of York to Mr. Wm. Hookes : 

Cozen, — If you be able, and will be advised by me, quifct 
the Towiie & Hue with your wife, and you ebalbe sure to fare, at 
least wise, as well as I doe, who otherwise must suffer to (too) 
much for your children to beare. If Heniy Hookes will doe the 
same for his father & mothers sake, I will protect him. And will 
labour for your mother & aU the rest of the Towne as I would 
doe for my selfe, if they doe open theyr Gates & submitt (as all 
places doe) to the Kinge & Parliament. And one day it will 
appeare what meanes I made for Sir John Owens honorable 
peace & fayre Condicions, vntill by plundering my poore Neece 
at Gwydder, & sending forth base and unworthy warrants against 
your Brother in lawe (who euer lou'd him), I was enforced to 
defend myself and myne in a more vigorous manner, but yeat 
with a reservation of all freyndahip and good wishes to his person. 

Advice your freynds & neighbours to be wise in time, that I 
may doe them good. If they staye much longer it wiU not be 
in my power. God ble. . . you all in that place, w'ch is the worst 
wish of 

Your very loveinge Cozen, Jo. Eborac. 

Boditha, this 10th of June, 1646. 
For Mr. William Hookes, Esq., at Conway, these. 

General Mytton, doubtless to Sir John Owen : 

Sir, — I received yours even now, & to omit your answer 
unto all the particulers of my summons (which in time you will 
find to be true), I come unto your conclusion, which is that you 
will treate wi^ me onelie if I will accept of such conditions as 
you shall propound. 

Conditions, you know, are to come from me ; but if you have 
propositions readie, I shall receiue them, & retume you answere 
unto them ; if Uiey be not readie, if you please to come out, I 
will speake with you before I goe, my time beinge uerie short, 
my horses beinge now come for me ; & this sballbe a sufficient 
passe for your wife comminge & retume from 

Yo'r Seruant, Tho. Mytton. 

Conwaie, 10 of August, 1G46. 

Promise from Colonel Mytton to the musqueteers in 
Conway Castle on laying down their arras : 


D,g,t,.,.d.:, Google 


CoDViiie, 10 of 9ber, 1646. 

I promise that eaerie mnsquetiere in the Castile of Conwaie 
shall haue Ten ehiilings a peece when they laie down theiie 
amies npon Fridaie. 

ThoB. Mytton. 
A Noate of Bemembrance. 

The Aireare due vpon ye County of Merioneth ye 25th of 
August, 1646, was one thousand & four score pounds, and payd 
of the Oomott of Ardydwy ye proporcon falling therevpon. 

Since which tyme, towaids payment of ye leager before Har- 
lech Castle, was payd the 25th of ffebniaiy last six contribucons 
amounting to 360/t., vpon the County, per Muster. According 
to which proporcon the Comott of Ardydwy hath or is to pay 
Captain Doty his troope, consisting of 48 men & horse, for 16 
weekes, within the Comott of Ardydwy, had free Quarters (sic), 
whereof 13 of Captain younge his Troope hath been called away 
3 monethe since. 

It is desired that ye sayd horse, being 48, may pay for theire 
Quarters after 4». M. per weeke for the tyme above expressed, 
vizt. 16 weekes. 

The 13 horse of Captain Tonnge his Troope ot^ht not to be 
payd since they were called away irom the service of this county. 

Much about that tyme Colouell Jones his Troope were 
comanded out of this County. 

"Vpon the 25th of february, Q of Captain Doty his Troope came 
to the Comott of Ardydwy,and theire continue vpon free Quartets. 

From Prince Rupert to Sir John Owen : 

Sir, — I hane taken this opportunity of Colonell Donnell's 
comeinge into your Counttye to make his leanies, to inuite you 
into the TfJTig of Frances Seruice, where I hane taken conditions 
to command all the Englishe, & should be glad that you would 
raise men for his seruice; the particular conditions you will 
receive from Colonell Donnell, which are much better then other 
Princes giua And if you shall resolue to send over any men 
vpon them, I desire I may hane speedy notice thereof, that I 
may glue you all the assistance possible I can ; but you neede 
not haue your comission vntill you bring oner your men, which 
I shall then gett for you : soe desiring notice of your ententions, 
I rest your friend, 

Psris, 10 .^iril, 1647. Kupert. 

For Sir John Owen, Knt and Colonell, These. 

From HovFell Vaughan of Glanllyn, co. of Merioneth, 
Esq., to Robert "Wynne of Sylvaen, Esq. : 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Cosin Robert Wynne, — Colonell mitton and Colocell 
Jones stand to seme in parliament for this countie. Colonell 
mitton desires the fauour of this countie, and particularly yours 
and your father's, I was desired to acquaint your father foort- 
with. I belieue Colonell Jones will apply himselfe to the 
coiintrey. I desire, therefore, vee may goe band in hand, and 
Tnanimoosly pitch vpon the same, to aooide dluision and dis- 
contents. So praieth your seruant 

Howell Vaughan. 
TbriB 25, 1647. 
The writt, I heare, is come doiine already. 

At the foot of the above letter, on the same sheet, 
is as follows : 

Louing father, be pleased that 1 may be informed of youx 
intentions herein ; and tlwt in time. 

Sir, I remaine your obedient sonne, 

Robert Wynne. 
Denbigh ye 30th of October 1647 — By the Rresectiae (sic) 
Committee of Northwales. 

It is ordered that the Troopers vnder the command of Cap- 
tain Dorye and Captine Sontley be contynued in Merioneth- 
sheire vntill further order and it is desired that the gentlemen of 
that countye would take especiall care that they be prouided for 
with quarters and other accommodation. 
Copia vero ca (concordans ?) origenall. 

Tho, Mytton John Aldersey 

Wm. Myddelton Tho. Mason 

George Twiselton Tho. Ball. 

Edmund Meyrlck of Ucheldre, Esq., to Wm. Wynne, 
of Glyn, Esq. : 

Ther is behind in your allotment of the Grst 6 monethes 
contribucion for Sir Thomas ffairfaxe & of the last monethes, aa 
is vndemeath sett downe, and you must take a course that the 
(they) be payd vpon Tueday next at Bala, else the Troopers w^ 
be forced to come and leavy them. Fayle not to send youp con- 
stables then, thither, & that were well that you & my coeyn 
Anwell were there that some course be taken conceminge the 
Troopers that they doe not Cuarter vpon ts, this winter. 

I am your cosyne & servant 
Vcbeldre 17 9briB 1648. Edmond Meyrick. 

Sent back of this money, 7li. 14a. 4d. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


!i. .. d. K. 1. 

Maent™g . . 1 16 oj"" 
Of the last six monethes in Isartro, 

in Uanenddwy, & Ganllwyd . . 6 11 


& in some other place .16 


6 17 4 (lie) 
^he Irish money totally behind being 14K. 8s. Od. 

Sot the vorshipfull William Wynne, Esq.. theae pieaent, 
At Glyn. 

Draft letter, doubtless from Sir John Owen to 

Honble. Sir, — Since it hath pleased God and this Honble. 
House, ye supreme Authority of this Kingdom, to bestow that 
vppon mee by their mercy, which justice had justly taken from 
mee, and that I am in mine own self, like one risen from the 
dead, by that hand which I shall for ever honour. 

I take boldness herby to present vnto my preservers (by your- 
selfe), my humble acknowledgements of an undeiserved and un* 
expected favor, yea a favour of the highest nature, yea such as I 
seem to myself to be like one in a golden dreame — oh that I 
might be^ and gayne your prayers with this your life, that what 
you have given me may be improved to his glory, who is the 
father of tSl mercyes. 

I have eyes opened even by this courteousy to see more 
clearly my former undertakings, but to make large promises to 
yourselves in this my sudden change may be suspicious, yet I 
would faine say wit^tl confidence that I shall never hold up a 
hand agaiiist your interest. The good God be with yon all, and 
all yours, in the time of your streights to doe you good, and 
remember the good and the kindness you have ahown to your 
most faithfull and humble servant. 

St. Jameses, March 12, 1648 {164|.) 

Sir John Owen to 

Sir, — Though I desire to'magnify and admire the signal 
hand of God in interposing between a friendless dying man 
and death, when the outward means of friends and other inter* 
ests that was much made use of on behalf of others proved in- 
effectual ; yet I cannot without much ingratitude but humbly 
acknowledge the favour of those whom God and not man hath 
stirred up to he instruments of my safety. Amongst the rest. 
Sir, I am truly sensible of what God hath done by you in rela- 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


tion to your reprieve and safety of my life ; and as I have 
received life from the hoaourable House of Parliament, by yours 
and other worthy gentleman's means (a very unexpected means 
I must confess), so 1 desire to hold my life by no other title than 
a tenure of their free donation, and never again to turn the use 
of such a gift to their disservice. Add sir, for your particular 
and so highly obliging favour, though I assure myself you had 
rather do many such favours than receive thanks for one, I de- 
sire as really to serve you -with that life as I have truly received 
in a very great measure by your means under God. Sir, I pray, 
excuse this trouble, that comes from him that would be much 
troubled if he should not truly be, as he professes himself to be. 
Your most i&ithful and humble servant, 

John Owen. 

This letter is printed in Mr. Elliot Warburton's Me- 
moirs of Prince Rupert ; Mr. Warburton supposed tiiat 
it was addressed to Fairfax, but it is more probable 
that it waa intended for Ireton, who is said to nave in- 
terposed for Sir John Owen's life. See Pennant's Tour 
in Wales, vol. i, p. 279, edition of 1784, 

Petition from Sir John Owen to the House of Com- 

To the supreme Authority, the Commons of England in Par- 
liament. The humble acknowledgement and petition of 
Sir John Owen, Knight, sbeweth, 

That the life given to your petitioner is humbly acknowledged 
as an act of mercy from this honourable house ; which cannot be 
preserved whilsi: his livelihood, his estate, is detained from him; 
wherefore he humbly prays, 

That the mercy which gave him life would also give him hia 
estate ; humbly conceiving that when life is granted, the support 
and maintenance thereof is also intended, your former mercy 
encourages him to request this, which will still further engage 
him and his wife and children. 

ever to pray, etc. 

The two last letters and the petition appear incon- 
sistent with the character of "the brave Sir John 
Owen." Neither of the letters is addressed, and one of 
them, and the petition, not signed. May we suppose 
that they were drafts, perhaps su^ested by Sir John's 
friends, which he not approving oi, were not sent. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Humphrey Mackworth. Certificate of Sir Robert 
Ejton, being a person fit for public einployment : 

!rhese are to certifie all whome it may coaceme thst Sir 
Robert Eyton, of Pentremaddocl:, in the countie of Salop, knight, 
being sequeetred only for subscribeing one warrant as a, Cornmis- 
siotier of Array, and noe further actinge in the late Mngea ser- 
vice, nor adhereinge to Ma party, as did appeare to the then 
committee of sequestrations, and which subscription as he bath 
alleadged, was through the threats of some other Comimseioners 
of Array that were very potent, and maliciously bent to mine 
tlie said Sir Eobert, if he hed refused to subscribe the said war- 
rant ; Hee the said Sir Eobert Eyton within a short time after 
tlie towne of Shrewsbury was taken by the Parliaments party, 
did express his good affection to the Parliament, and did after 
tender his service to the Committee for safetie of the countie of 
Salop, for the gaineing of the Isle of Ai^lesey, and Castle of 
Beaumorris, by treaty with the then Lord Buckley, in whome 
as a kinsman hee had very good interest, and who then had the 
command of the said castle and island. Whereuppon the said 
committee made knowne the good aEfeccions of the said Sir Eo- 
bert Eyton to the then Committee of safetie for both kii^omes, 
who did authorize the committee of this county to imploy the 
said Sir Bohert in the said Bervice ; who being after impowered 
alleo by the said committee of both kingdomes, did undertake 
the said service, and did very effectually and faithfuUy performe 
the same ; Soe that vppon the agreement made by the said Sir 
Bobert Eyton, on the Parliaments behalfe, with the sayd late 
Lord Buckley, the said castle and island were delivered into the 
possession of the i^ents intrusted by the Parliament to receive 
the same ; And thereuppon the Loi^s and Commons in Parlia- 
ment did, for the said service, receive the said Sir Bobert Eyton 
into their good esteeme, and did ordeine That the said Sir 
Bobert Eyton should be dischaiged of his delinqnencie, And 
ever since the said Sir B. Eyton batli vppon all occasions mani- 
fested his good affeccion to the Parliament and to this present 
Government, and hath vppon the severall invasions made by the 
Scotts, and the secrett designs of the malignant party in this 
nacion, been ready to bee aidinge and assifitinge by discoveries 
of what came to bis knowledge, sendinge in horse, men, and 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


money, for the public service ; and otherwise to the vttei-most 
of his power, iDSomuch as his forwardnes and zeale for the pre- 
sent QoTemment hath rendered him very hateful! to the disaf- 
fected party, and exposed him to danger amongst his neighbours. 
And before the late warr, the said Sir BobertEjton being a Jus- 
tice of the Peace for the said County of Salop, was very active 
in preserving the peace and puniaheing oETeodours, and is a man 
very well qualified with parts and abilities for publicke Imploy- 
ment, which I know to be true. And in testimony thereof have 
hereunto putt my hand this 12th day of March 1652. 

H. Mackworth. 

Rice Vaughan, Esq., of Gray's Inn, to Sir Jphn Owen : 

Sir, — The little gentleman at chanoeiy lane and myself, 
yesterday did renew our address to my Lord Strickland vppon 
the lettere and peticioD formerly delivered him touching your 
ynlargement (haveing indeed before heard of some inclinacion in 
the protector to release some persons in restraint), we foimde 
my Lord Strickland very opportunely and reniued our former 
request: wee found alsoe him very civill: he told ts that he 
had already moved the Lord Protector on your behanfe, and 
found him prepense to favour you, but had not reoeaued his 
positive answer as yet, but would suddenly doe it, and gave us 
direction to stay at the Councell doore (my Lord being then 
within and asleepe), till he came out, and after a little stay, he 
brought VB my Lonls answere ; That you were to be dischuged, 
and accordingly went with us to Mr. Malyn, my Lords Secre* 
tary, and gaue him your peticion, and directed him to draw vp 
a letter to Colonel Croston (which my Lord would signe), That 
you might be forthwith discharged, and that without any other 
termes then vppon parole, and that you should line peaceably, 
and be forthcominge if tbei were cause : my Lords letter cannot 
be signed before Munday, because he goes out of towue today, 
and retumes then: you may please not to forget my Lord 
Stricklands civilities (which I and the little gentleman were eye 
witnesses of) ; if you please to writt him a letter of thanckes, I 
thincke it may not be disadvantageous to yow; Ingratum si 
ilixeris, omnia dixeris : your discharge (god willinge), shall be 
sent yow by the next post with care ; the little gentleman saith 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


yow may send for your horses, and thinkea by that tyme your 
discharge comes to yow, and he saith the partridges will be 
affrayed of yoor releise. Sir, There is some expectAcion of the 
release of many others suddenly, but whether of all or not wee 
cannot tell. I am. Sir, your humble servant, 
Gtayea Inne 11th of Aug. 1653. Rice Vaughan.' 

These to Sir John Owen, Knt. at Mr. Harreyea house in 

Arms upon the seal to the preceding letter, 

upon a bend, a plate ; impaling, quarterly, let and 4th, 
semi of fleurs-de-lys ? a bend ; 2nd and 3rd, a lioQ 
rampant. No colours given. 

llie originals of the preceding letters, and the official 
copies of such as are not ori^nals, are in the possession 
of J. R. Ormsby Gore, Esq., M.P., at Brogyntyn, in 
Shropshire ; but there are transcripts of all but one, at 
Peniarth. In Mr. Ormsby Gore's collection are many 
more letters relating to the same period ; these, it is 
hoped, may som6 day be published. 


' And of Oelli Goch, near Machynlleth. He was author of a little 
work entitled Praetica WalUee, pn'nted in London in 1672 ; and was 
an QDsnccessfnl candidate for the representatiQn of Uerionethabire 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 





(CTn'inriedfromp. ZV). 


IN lAL. 

Cm C^'iof M8. : Bart. MB. 2299. 

lesiR AB David of Bryn Sglwyi, &b leuMi oi Eioion th CMlwgui tb: 
Owiljm mb Ithel %h T Qwion Ofttn ab I«ukf kK Hovel Foel of (>mo, ab 
HwAk kb Ithel Petyn, lord of lal and Tstrad AIud. Sea Arehtxologia 
CambreruU, Januarj, 187C, p. 30 

Iel;D=Qweiillia[i, d. of Deicws Rhj« of Tj^Marj^aret, d. of Madog 


erch Rugog, tecond ton 
of Madog.a^wf* ¥ Uadi, 
ab David Qoch of Hifod 
y Bwcb. Enaine, a lion 
ram pant xMt 


the parish 

of Llantja- 



Dand Qoch ab 
T Badi of Plaa 
Bhuddallt in Rfaiwfsbon. 
Ermine, a lion rampant 

. I 

Qniffydd of Bryn Bglir7a= David of Bryn Eglw7i= 

David of=Loirri, d. of Uowel ab leunn ab 
Blaea David ab Madog Qoch of Orer- 
Iftl J ton Hadog 

Howel of Brjn Bglw7i= 
and Coedrwg I 

Rhys or=Margaret,d. of Richard of Maerdy in Gwyddelern, David Po*el, 

Blaen son of Bliiau of Allt LWyn Dragon in lal, second D.D., vicar of 

Ul son of Gruffjdd ob Einion ab Gruffydd of Cotb y Rbiwfabon, 

Gedol. Rrmiae. n lalicr qutti, a crescunt or for 1570 to 1S7S 
difference, Bee p. 42 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Dkrid Llojdr^Aliee, d. ftitd heaT«M of DftTid ih Blia ab Hkdog of Csfta 
of Blaen ImX J Buk, dcacended from Amlikimni Goch of Utja. Atttrt, % 
I cberroD inUr three dolphin* nuant, embowed Mytnt 

I 3id coheir | lit coheir 

Hogh Llojd, third md of Edward Uojd kb ElinbeUi, ni. 

RicULrd Lloyd ab Bobert Llojd of Ltwjn 7 John W711B 

of Uaea id the lordihip of Oivutrj. Argtrit, an ah BoRer ab 

Blaen eafla dijplajed with two oeckf aoM* John Wjnnof 

lal Bryn Tangor in lat 

Blaen lal. He 

bad two younger 

brothen, John 

and Eliiau 

I 4th coheir fSnd coheir 

Catherine, ox. Bobert Wjnn of Owaodl Jane, us. John ab 
in the barony of Qljadwyfrdwy Beignallt ab Ilhel 

of Bdejmion 
Uoyd ofspJanet, d. of Ellii Taughan of Brjn Lleeh, eo. MerioneUi, 


^anet, a. of Ellii Vauglian of Brjn Lleeh, eo. MenoneUi, 
third aon of Bowel Taughan ah Dand Llovd of Qlan 
Llyn. She married, teeondlj, Thomai Pugh of Aber- 
ffijdlan, CO. Hontgomery. Her mother wa* Catherine, 
daughter of Robert Wynn of firyncyr or Bryn j Cmtw, 
CO. Carnarron. Bee Penlljn 

Mary LIoyd,=Owain Tbelwiill, ran (by Dorothy hi* wife.d. of John Taoghan 
' ' ' of L1wjdiarth,io Upper Powyi, Giq.)of the Rer. Simon Thol- 

wkII, vicar of Trawsfynydd, third k>d of Simon Thelwall of 
Flat y Ward in DyAyn Clwyd, B«q., High Sheriff for 00. 
Denbigh in lOlS, and Jane hit wife, d. of Maurice Wynn of 
Qwydir, Esq, Oitlu, on a chevron inter three boan' heade 
eouped argent three trafoih Mablt. {ArehaUogia CsniArenri*, 
166S, p. 101.) Buried at 

Andrew Thelirall of Blaen Ial=Oatherine 

Simon Thel- 
wall, bom 
20th, bapt. 
Stith Oct., 

bapt. 13th March, 

1693 ; buried April 

SI, 171.0 

Darid TheiwHll Df=Marj, d. of ... Dariei of Mary, Ann, 

Blaen lal, Ksq., Wrexham.married 1730, bapt. bapt. 

--■"■'" ' ' ob. 13th and buried SOth Sept. 2(>th 

Sept., 1793, aged SS 1690 Dec. 


buried 13 Hay, 16»4 

:JohD Lloyd, ton and heir of Critchley Lloyd of 
Rhyd Wriat in Llanrhudd, and of Penanner, Peny- 
fed, and Pant y MSI in Diamael, Biq., ab Qodfrey 
Lloyd ab Bobert Lloyd ab John Lloyd of Rhyd 
Wnal and Bryn Bglwya, ab David ab Robert ab 
Richard. See Pen Anar 
=Anna Maria, only daughter of John 
Moitjnof SegTWvdandLlewBrag,Eiq., 
and Anna Maria nia wife, daughter and 
hejreu of Meurig Meredith of Pen- 
gwem Llanwnda and Lleweeog, Eiq., 
and Jane his wife, daughter and co- 
heireiaofFoulke Lloyd of Bryn Lluarth 
and Giien in Edeymiou, Kaq. John 
Mostyn waa the aon and heir, by Jane 

Simon Thelwall Anno: 

of Blaen lal, The!- 

ob. *. p. wall 

Colond John Lloyd of Rhyd Wrial,= 
Penanner, Penyfed, and Pant y 
Mdl, who aaiumed the name and 
armi of Saluibury. OuUs, a lion 
rampant argent, crowned or, inter 
three ereaoenti of the aecond. He 
aucoeeded to the Blaen lal eatate 
on the death of hi* cousin, Uum- 
phroy Thelwall Jonea, who wa* an 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


anderfcndiuto at Oifoid kt the 
time of his dmth ; knd to the 0«Ut 
pMiiftD eitat« ftt the death of hii 
relative, Hn. Joii«i of that place. 
Ob. 87 March, LBOS, and U interred 
at HenlUn in Bbufoniog 

hiB wife, daughter and heiieu of John 
Dolben of Cae Segrwjd, Esq., of John 
Mostjn of Capel Otryddelweru ab Henry 
MoaCyn ah William Moatyn, third ton 
of Sir Roger Moitjn of Hostjn, Sot. 
Farcy per bend liniater trmitit and tr- 
miim, a lion rampant or. Ob. 8th Dec, 
1846, and h iaterred at Henllan 

ir 2 1 

Anna Maria, hetr-=^To«nund Mainwanng.Eiq., Francea^^hai.Eynaaton 

ewof Oallt M.P. for the Denbigh Bo- " ' 

Faenan,BlaeDlaI, loiiKhi, J. P., and High Sheriff for co. 
PeoanDer,Pen- I DenbiKh,1840i Kcond ion of theRev. 
yfed, and Pant y j Chu. Mainwaring of Oteley Park, co. 

Main waring of 

Otoley Park, 


Charlee Salue- Reginald Amicia Sunn Salu«bury=Edith Sarah, d. of 
bury Main- E^nailon Hary Evasion Sir Hugh Wil- 

waring Uammring Uainwaring liamiof Bodel- 

of Oteley Park wyddan, Bart. 

The comot of Yr Hob contained, as far aa I can as- 
certain, the parish of Llanestyn yn Yr Hob, or Queen's 
Hope. In a previous chapter I have Btated wrongly 
that Llanestyn was in the comot of Merfibrdd as it ia 
affirmed to be, by Carlisle in his Topographical Dictio- 
nary. The Comot of Yr Hob contains the townships 
of IF Hob, Hob Owain, Shordly, Caer Gwrle, Cyman, 
'Bhaji Berfedd, Uwch y Mynydd Uchaf and Uwch y 
Mynydd Isaf. One haJf of the tithes of LlaQestyn be- 
longed to the Hospital of St. John, in Chester, and the 
Whitleys of Aston, and the other half to the vicar. 

In this comot is the ancient camp of Caer Estyn and 
the castle of Caer Gwrle. The greater part of this 
comot and a great deal of land in other places formerly 
belonged to Meredydd of Yr Hob, second son of Gruff- 
ydd at Llewelyn ab Ynyr of Bodidris yn laL His eldest 
son David of Yr Hob was father of Llewelyn, whose 
estates in this comot were forfeited, for his adherence 
to Owain Glyndwr, in the reign of Henry IV.' Another 
branch of this family, the Lloyds of Yr Hob, kept pos- 
1 Cae Cyriog MS. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


seaeion of their lands down to a.d. 1595, at which time 
David Lloyd ab Robert Lloyd ab Grufiydd Lloyd ab 
Gwgan ab Goronwy ab Gwilym ab Meredydd of Yr 
Hob, was the then representative of the family, gtiles, 
three pales or, in a border of the second, eight ogresses. 


This place belonged to Madog Foel, another son of 
the above named Gruffydd ab Llewelyn ab Ynyr of 
Bodidria yn lal. Tudor the son and heir of Madog Foel 
of Bryn lorcyn, had an only daughter and heiress named 
Mali, who married Jenkyn Yonge ab Morgan Yonge 
ab lorwerth ab Morgan, third son of lorwerth Foel, 
Lord of Chirk, Nanheudwy, and Maelor Saesneg, of the 
house of Tudor Trevor. 

Morgan at Ma«1oi Saesneg, third M>n of lorwerth Foel, loTd= 

of Chirk, Nauheudojr, and Mnelor Saesneg' | 


lorwerth of Maelor^ Margaret, d. and heiress of William Tonge de 8aw- 
Saetneg erdek and Croxton in the parish of Hanmer 

HorgaD Yonge^Owenhwjfar, d. of Ithel ab Bleddjn 
of Maelor Saesneg | ab Ithel 

d wife, Qwladvi, d. 

, . 3 heiress of Tudor 

1 and heiress of Dio ab David ab Madog | ab Madog Foel of Br;ii 

Tonga I ab P'^d Oooh of Biymbo, and daughter | and heiress of Tudor 

' See Nanheudwy. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


I Fkllwck in UaneurgMD.' Sm Ptai j I •!> UeweWn ab Tun 
' BoldiVro 1 ofUl" 

Ii«ma ^Hargftret, <L of 
To ng« I ■■■ Spiijon 




Omd^dd Tonge of Huimer^ADghand, d. of Qnifffdd Q-mfa 

John f ong«=:Bliubeth, d. of Rasdie I>f moke and Eliiabeth bia wif«, d. 
of Banmsr j of Qrafiydd DanmoT of Ffens, ab Sir lenkyn ab Sir David 

I Haniner, KnC. 

Thomai Touge*=Hargaret,d.of Ralph Broughtonab Morgan Brougfaton 
of Plas I«af in Harchwiail 

Richaid Tonge^ Margaret, d. of Ednyfed ab lorwerth ab John Tonge of 
of B fjn lorcjn | Einion. Ermine, a laltire ffitlet, a crea- Tatrad Alun 

I cent or for difference 

£diiaTd^Aiin«,d.and eohoireHof Philip Bride of PentrefMadog in Dudles- 

Tonge j ton, ab David Bride ab leuan ab David ab Lleweljrn ab leuan ab 

of BrfQ I David ab Llewelvn abCj^nwrig abRhiwallan,1ord of MaelorOjin- 

lorcjn I ittog. Ermine, a lion rampant table. Her mother wai Alion, 

I daughter of John ab Richard ab Hadog ab Lleirel;n, of Ualchdyn 

in the uariah of Hanmer, son of Ednjfed Oam of Lljs Pengwem 

in Nanheudwj. The mother of Philip Bride vai Eva, daughter 

and heireu of Gruffjdd ab Llewelvn ab Qruffjrdd ab Lleweljn 

Pjchan ab Lleweljn of Pontrcf Madog in Dudleaton, ab Qoronwy 

ab Sir Roger de Powva, Knight of Rhode! (who bore vert, a tioar 

«r), ab Goronwj, lord of Trefnen or Whittington, second ion of 

Tudor ab Khvi Bais, lord of Chirk, Whittiogtoo, Naaheudw;, and 

Maelor 8ae«neg* 

Elia TongeisLowrie, d. of Lewji ab leuan ab David ab Madog ab Llew- 

of Bryii alyn Fyahan of T Oalcbog in Llaneurgain, ab Llewelvn Foel 

Jorejn of Harcbwiail, ab Madog Foel ab lorwerth ab Hwfa Fychan 

ab Htrfa Qrjg ab Sanddef of Marchwiail, fifth ion of Eiidir 

ab Rbyi Sale, lord of Trefwy or E;toQ, Erlisbam, and Bo- 

rasham. Er mine, a lion rampant in a bord er azare 

.■ I. . 


Lewii ToDge- 
of Brjn loT- 

-Han, d. and coheiress of John Lloyd Bir Biobard Tonge j 
ab Rhys Lloyd of Ffenie orBerbrwg, of Denbam, co. 
ab Jobn Lloyd ab Rhys Lloyd ab Soulhaupton.Knt. | 
David Lloyd' (Jreated a barunet j 

as. Tonge lA.t.p. Edw. Tonge of London Joho Tonge 

> Hari. MS. 4181. » Ibid. ; Cae Cyriog MS. 

< ThomttB Tonge had seven sono, viz., Thomas, William, Hum- 
phrey, froiiciB, Raodolph, Thomas, and Edward ; and three danghters, 
Anne, Jane, and Marie. 

* Lewis Dwnn, vol. i, p. 321; Tol. ii, p. 315. 

* David Lloyd of Glynborch or Berbrwg, son of Robert Lloyd Rb 
David Lloyd of Finn yn Hcrsedd. Harl. MSS. 1%9, 4181. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 



Rich&rd Yonge^Dorothj, d. of Bjdaey Bllii of Pieill, Fraocea, ux. Edw. 

of Bryn loTcyn, db Blia, fourth ton of Elis ftb Richard Humphries of 

AD. 1604 of Alrhej, lUndard-beftrer to Onin Bodclwjddui 

OIjndwT, Ermint, » lion puunt 

gtxiKoX gvlit 

Bill Youge of £1711 loiejn. 

The last heir male of thiB family, Ellis Youge, Esq., 

Eurchaaed Acton and Pant locyn in the parish of Wrex- 
am from the trustees of John Robinson of Gwersyllt, 
Esq. He married Penelope, daughter and coheiress of 
James Russell Stapleton, colonel in the Guards, second 
son of Sir William Stapleton, Bart., and Penelope hia 
wife, daughter and coneiress of Sir John Conwy of 
Bodrhyddan in Tegeingl, Bart., who died in 1721. By 
this lady, who died in 1788, Mr. Yonge had issue, two 
daughters coheirs, Barbara, the youngest, died unmar- 
ried in 1837, and Penelope, the heiress of Bryn loreyn 
and Bodrhyddan, married wiUiam Davies Shipley, Dean 
of St. Asaph, who died in 1826. Mrs. Shipley died in 
1789, aged 31, leaving issue and elder son and heir, 
William Shipley, Lieut. -Colonel in the army, and M.P. 
for the Flintehire boroughs, who died in 1819, leaving 
issue, by Charlotte his wife, second daughter of Sir 
Watkin Williams Wynn of Wynnstay, Bart, one son 
WiUiam Shipley, who took the name of Conv^, on his 
grandfather's death in 1826, and one daughter CHiarlotte, 
who married Colonel the Hon. Richard Rowley, second 
son of Lord Langford, and succeeded to the Bodrhyd- 
dan and Bryn lorcyn estates at the death of her brother. 
She died June 24, 1871, leaving issue one son, Conway 
Grenville Hercules Rowley, late Captain second Lite 
Guards, who on succeeding to the Bodrhyddan and 
Bryn lonmi estates assum^ the name of Conwy; and 
two daughters, 1, Gwenwedd Frances, who married 
first. Captain H. S. Packenham, and secondly, Hugh 
Henry, third son of Sir David Erskine of Cambs, Bart.; 
and 2, Eva, who married Captain Leveson E. H. Somer- 
set, B.N., son of Lord Grenville Somerset. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


lorwerth Foel, Lord of Chirk, Maelor Saesneg, and 
Nanheudwy, married, as previouBly stated, Gwladys, 
daiiffhter and coheiress of lorwerth ab Gruffydd ab 
Heilyn of Fron Goeh in Mochnant (see Nanheudwy, 
ArchcBologia Camhrensis, Jan., 1874, p. 38). This lady 
was buried in Hanraer Church, where her tomb yet 
remains with this inscription round the lid of the stone 

p.EA," In the space within the inscription is a very 
fine foliated cross, almost identical with that described 
by Camden, i, 12, as being at St. Burian's in Cornwall.* 
By this lady lorwerth Foel had issue five sons, of whom 
the fourth was Ednyfed Gam, who had Llys Pengwem 
in Nanheudwy for his share of his father's territories. 

David, the third son of Ednyfed Gam, married first, 
Gwenllian, daughter of Adda Goch of Trevor, who bore 
the arms of Tudor Trevor in a border gobonated ardent 
and ffules, pellatde counterchanged, and who was the 
fifth Bon of leuaf ab Adda ab Awr of Trevor. By this 
lady David had a son lorwerth, of whom presently ; 
he married secondly, Morfydd, relict of Sir Richard 
Croft of Crofl Castle, in Herefordshire, Knt., and third 
daughter of Gruffydd Fychan, Lord of Cynllaith Owain, 
and fifth Baron of Glyndyfrdwy, by whom he had a 
daughter, Margaret, who married, first, Robert Llwyd 
ab Gru^dd ab Goronwy ; and secondly, Howel ab 

* Cae GTiiog MS. ^ Rer. M. H. Lee, vioar of Hnnmer. 

4th ikr., vol.. VI. 23 

D,g,t,.,.d.:, Google 


Llewelyn of lilwyn On, in the parish of Wrexham, 
descended from Cynwrig ab Rhiwallon, I^ord of Maelor 

lorwerth ab David, who was buried in Valle Cnicis 
Abbey, married Angharad, daughter of Richard Pule- 
ston of Emeral, and Lowry his wife, eldest daughter of 
the above-named Gruffydd Fyeban, Lord of Cvnllaith 
Owain, and fifth Baron of Glyndyfrdwy, by whom he 
had issue three sons : 1, Robert Trevor ; 2, John Trevor 
Hen, who died in a.d. 1493 ; 3, Otwel, who married 
Catherine, eldest daughter of Howel of Glaegoed ab 
Morus Gethin of Garth Eryr in Mochnant ; and 4, 
Richard Trevor, who married Annesta, daughter of 
Meredydd Llwyd of Llwyn y Maen, by whom he had 
a son, Edward Trevor, Constable of Oswestry Castle, 
who married Jane, daughter and heiress of Richard 
Westbury, and two daughters, Blanche, ux. Richard 
ab Rhys of Oswestry, second son of Morus Gethin of 
Garth Eryr in Mochnant, and Anne, wife of Nicholas, 
third son of Rhys of Oswestry, second son of Morus 
Gethin ab leuan Gethin ab Madog Cyflfyn (see Glaagoed 
in Cynllaith). 

Robert Trevor, the eldest son of lorwerth ab David, 
was Steward of Denbighshire, Sheriff of Flintshire, 
Justice and Chamberlain of North Wales, and died 
unmarried in A.D. 1492, leaving a natural son, Sir Wil- 
liam Trevor, chaplain to John ab Richard, Abbot of 
Valle Crucis, predecessor of David ab John ab lorwerth 
ab leuan Baladr, Abbot of that monastery. Sir Wil- 
liam Trevor had a natural son, John Trevor, father of 
John Trevor, father of Randal Trevor of Chester, an- 
cestor of the Trevors of that city.' 

John Trevor Hen, the second son of lorwerth ab 
David, married Agnes, daughter and coheir of Sir Piers 
Cambray or Cambres of Trallwng, Knt,, by whom he 
had issue four sons : 1, Robert Trevor, of whom pre- 
sently ; 2, Edward Trevor, Constable of Whittington 
Castle, who died in a.d. 1537, leaving issue by his wife, 
Anne, daughter of Geoffrey Cyffin Hen, Constable of 
> HarL US. 4181. 

D,<j,i,.,.,i.:, Google 


OswestiT Castle, two eons, John Trevor Goch, of Plaa 
Einion, in St. Martin's parish, ancestor of the Trevors 
of Bryncunallt, and Thomas Trevor, ancestor of the 
Trevors of Treflech, in the Lordship of Oswestry ; 3, 
Roffer Trevor ab John of Pentref Cynwrig, who mar- 
ried Gwenllian, daughter of Rhys Lloyd of Gydros in 
Penllyn, ab GwUym ab Einion Fychan descended from 
Ednyfed Fychan, Baron of Bryn Ffanigl, and General 
and Prime Minister of Llewelyn the Great, by whom 
he had a son Roger Trevor of Pentref Cynwrig, a-nces- 
tors of the Trevors of Pentref Cynwrig, Bodynfoel, and 
Trawsgoed ; and 4, Richard Trevor ah John, who mar- 
ried Mallt, daughter and heiress of Jenkyn ab David 
ab Grufiydd of Trefalun in Maelor Gymraeg, ap David 
ab Llewelyn ab David ab Goronwy ab Ior\verth ab 
Howel ab Moreiddig ah Sanddef Hardd, Lord of Mor- 
ton, in the parish of Gresford. Vert, sem^ of broom- 
slips, a lion rampant or. The mother of Mallt was 
Angharad, daughter and heiress on leuan ab Einion ab 
lolyn ab lorwerth ab Llewelyn ab Gruffydd ab Cadw- 
gan ab Meilir Eyton of Eyton. Ermine, a lion rampant 
azure. By his wife Mallt, the heiress of Trefalun, Ri- 
chard Trevor had a son and heir, John Trevor of Tref- 
alun, ancestor of the Trevors of that place. 

Robert Trevor, the eldest son of John Trevor Hen, 
married Catherine, daughter and heiress of Llewelyn 
ab Ithel of Plas Teg yn Yr Hob. He died during his 
father's lifetime, in a.d, 1487, and was buried in Valle 
Crucis Abbey, leaving issue ; 1, Robert Trevor, who 
died in a.d. 1512, s. p. ; and 2, John Trevor of Plas 
Teg, who married Angharad, dai^hter of Robert ab 
Griflfydd ab Rhys ab David of Maesmor in Dinmael, 
by whom he was father of two sons, Robert and Hugh. 
Robert Trevor of Plas Teg, the eldest son, mamed 
Dows, daughter of William Stanney of Oswestry, by 
whom he had issue four sons : 1 , Edward Trevor of 
Plas Teg, who married Catherine, daughter of Gruffydd 
Yonge of Bryn lorcyn ; by whom he had two sons, John 
and Robert, who died without issue, and two daughters, 


D,g,i,.,.,i.:, Google 


Blanche, xix. Wm. Edwards, and Dorothy ; 2, Hugh Tre- 
vor, who married Mallt, daughter of Richard ah David : 

3, Ellis Trevor, who married Margaret Puleston ; and 

4, David Trevor, who married Elizabeth, daughter of 
John Hope of Hawarden ; and two daughters, Margaret 
and Gwenhwyfar. This David Trevor sold his estate 
to Sir John Trevor, Knt., second son of John Trevor of 
Trefalun, Esq., and died without legitimate issue.' 

The above named Hugh Trevor had an illegitimate 
son called John Trevor, who married Catherine, daugh- 
ter of William Bolton of Mold, by whom he was father 
of Captain Hugh Trevor of Argoed. who married Mar- 
garet Yardley of Fam. Plas Teg thus became the pro- 
perty by purchase of Sir John Trevor, Knt., who was 
surveyor of the navy, and comptroller of the royal 
household, and second son of John Trevor of Trevalun, 
Eeq. Sir John buUt the present mansion of Plas Teg, 
and dying in 1629, was buried at Uanestyn, with this 
epitaph : 

Mem. S. 

lobannis Trevor Eq. Auratus. Filius secundo natus loannia 
Trevor a Trevallin. In Agro Denbeiensi Armigeri Hie Situs 
Est. Tuta Carolo Comiti Notiughamias Summo Angliae Admi- 
rallo. Tiim iovictlBsimffi Classi quae Anno Chriati MDLXXXViiL 
Turn Patriae Salutem quern de Hostibus Triumplium Eeportavit 
a secretis Eei Navalia sub Elizabetha et lacobo Eegibua Super- 
visor. Geuerosus Cameras Frivatee Ordinarius. In Ipsia lacobi 
Regis Initiis Adscitus. Duxit in uzoiem Margaretem, Hugouis 
Ttevanion Armigeri a Cariheya In agro Comubiensi FUiam. 
Filios ex ea Busceptos Eeliquit loannem Trevor Equitem Aura- 
tum, Qui ei Uxorem duxit Annem Edmundi Hampden Filiam 
Primogenitam et Cohieredem. Et Carolum. Filias Annem 
Carolo Williams a Castro I^ngebbi in Agto Monenethensi Eq. 
Aurato Nuptam lanam nuptam Edwardo Fitton a Goswertb la 
Agro Cestienai Baronetto. 

Apud Plaateg MAss, Quas Ipse a Fundamento Extnixit Christo 
Animam Reddidit xx<> Die Februarii Anno Salutis uncxxix. 
ffitatis SUES Lvn. 

Sir John Trevor was the ancestor of the Trevors of 
Trefalun and Plas Teg. The last heir male of this 
branch of the family, John Trevor of Trefalun, Plas Teg, 
^ He bad au illegitimate eon named David. 


and Glynde in the county of Sussex, died in 1743, s. p., 
and devised his estates in North Wales to five of his 
six surviving sisters. Lucy, the sixth sister, niarried 
George Rice, an ancestor of the present Lord Dynevor. 

Two only of the five devisees married, viz., Anne, 
who married the Hon. Colonel George Boscawen, third 
son of the Lord Viscount Falmouth, whose line is now 
represented by William Trevor Parkins, of Glasfiyn in 
the parish of Gresford, Esq., M.A., barrister-at-Iaw, 
Mrs. Fleming, and Mrs. Griffith of Trevalun. 

Gertrude, the other devisee who married, became the 
wife of the Hon. Charles Roper, third son of Lord Teyn- 
ham and the Baroness Dacre, his second wife, by vrhom 
she had issue two sons, — Charles Trevor Roper, Lord 
Dacre, who died s. p. in 1794 ; and Hen^ Roper, who 
died s. p. in 1787; and one daughter, Gertrude, who 
succeeded to her brother as Baroness Dacre, and mar- 
ried T. Brand Holies, Esq., and by him was ancestress 
of the present Lord Dacre. 

Charles Lord Dacre married Mary, daughter and 
heiress of Sir — Fludyer, Knt., and executed a will in 
favour of his widow, who eventually, partly under her 
husband's will, and partly by purchase from her siater- 
in-law Gertrude, became the owner of a moiety of the 
estates so devised by John Trevor to his five sisters. 

A partition of these estates was effected between 
Lady Dacre and George Boscawen of Trefalun, Esq., 
M.P. for Truro, son and heir of the above named Anne 
Trevor and the Hon. Colonel Boscawen, about the year 
1 790 ; and Plas Teg fell to the lot of the Dowager Lady 
Dacre. She subsequently devised Plas Teg to Mr. 
Roper, a member of Lord Te3Tiham's family, and as such 
related to her husband, Charles Roper, Lord Dacre, but 
no relation of his mother, CJertrude Trevor, through 
whom he had succeeded to the estate. Mr. R^per took 
the name of Trevor in compliance with Lady DEtcre's 
will, but he is a complete stranger to the family of 
Trefalun and Plas Te^. The present Major Roper is 
his grandson.' 

' William Trevor Parkins, Esq. 

D,<j,i,.,.,i.:, Google 



This fortress is situated on the summit of a hill in 
the township of the same name. The most important 
portion of the present ruins is Konian work of excellent 
character. The exterior face of the wall is lined with 
well cut ashlar. In the inside of the work, where there 
is no ashlar, the bonding courses, of thin stones in the 
place of bricks, are very conspicuoua Part of an arch 
of the same date still remains. The other portions of 
the ruin are probably of the Edwardian period, but are 
too fragmentary to enable any satisfactory plan of the 
original arrangement to be made out.^ On the surren- 
der of the Castle to Edward I, in a.d, 1282, he bestowed 
it, with all its appurtenances, on his beloved consort. 
Queen Eleanor, from which circumstance the parish 
acquired the name of Queen's Hope ; and here the 
Queen stayed on her way to Carnarvon, where she was 
proceeding to give the Welsh nation a prince bom 
among them. 

In Camden's time a hypocaust built with bricks bear- 
ing the stamp of the twentieth legion was found here, 
which proves it to have been a Roman station. Several 
Roman roads diverged from this place, — one W Mold 
and Bod Fari( Varis), another towards Penardd Halawg, 
and another by Nant y Ffridd and Bwlch Gwyn, 
towards Bala, on the south-west. 

The first charter granted to Llanestyn, or Hope, was 
by Edward the Black Prince, dated from Chester, A.D. 
1351, in which he orders that the seneschal or constable 
of the Castle of Caer Gwrle for the time being should 
be the mayor, and that he should choose two bailiSTs 
out of the burgesses annually on Michaelmas Day.* 

' Arch. Camb., October, 1874,, p: 355. 
^ Carliale's Topographical Dictionary. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 



This place, which lies in the township of Caer Gwrle, 
belonged to Sir Richard Bowld or Bold, Knight, who 
bore quarterly, first and fourth, argent, a griflin's head 
erased sahle; second and third, harry of six argent and 
azure. He had issue a son and heir, Richard Bold, 
whose daughter and heiress, Janet, married Geoffrey 
Whitford, who left a daughter and heiress, Margaret, 
who married Morgan ah David ah Madog of Brymbo in 
Maelor Gymraeg, second son of David Goch of Burton, 
seventh son of David Hen ah Goronwy Hen of Burton 
in Esclusham, descended from Sanddef Hardd, lord of 
Burton or Mortyn, who bore vert, sem^ of brooraalips a 
lion rampant or. See Plas yn Horslli. 

By his marriage with the heiress of Plas y Bold, Mor- 
gan ab David had issue a son and heir, Edward, the 
father of Gruffydd, who settled the Plas y Bold estate 
upon his second son, Roger Griffith. Roger married 
Gwen, daughter of Edward ab Owain of Rhos Dudlyst, 
by whom he had issue a son and heir, Edward Griffith 
of Plas y Bold, who was living in a.d. 1395. He mar- 
ried Margaret, daughter of Gruffydd Young ab Elis ab 
Maurice Young of Bryn Torcyn, by whom he had issue, 
besides two daughters (Jane and Mary), six sons : — 
1, Gruffydd Griffith of Plas y Bold, who married Elen, 
daughter of John Boodle of Wrexham ; 2, William ; 
3, John ; 4, Richard ; 5, Edward ; and 6, Jjcwys.' 
' Cat Cyriog MS. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


There was formerly a chapel of ease at Plas y Bold, 
at the foot of the hill on the Bummit of which Caer 
Gwrle Castle stands. 

David lien of Burtoo, or Morton, kod Llai, kb QoTonw; ab Iorwerth= 
kb How«l ab Moreiddig &b Sanddef Hftrdd, lord of Burton, or Morion, 

and LUi. See Pla« yn BorglU j 

4 I 
Lleweljn^BrddjIbd, d. of lenaf tA Lleweljn ab Cpiwrig Efell, lord of 
I EglwjHgl. OttUt, on a bend argent a lion pastant laiU 

BaTid^'Qwenllian, d. of Dkrid Qoeb ab Heilin Fjchaii, deiceaded from 
Hw&ab Itbel FbItd, lordof lal. According to Le«iiDwnn,Qwen- 
Uian was the daughter of Hadog Ooeh ab Beilia Fjchan 

Oruff7dd==Janet, d. of Robert ab Bledd;D ab Bobert, dMeend«d from 
I Sdnowain B«ndew, chief of one of the Noble Tribei. Arytnl, 
a cherroD inter three bean' headi couped laiie 

Margaret, aecond d. and coheireu of leuan ab Llewelyn of Llwjn 
On in the parish of Wreibam, ab lorwerth ab QruBydd ab lot- 
werth ab leuaf ab If iniaf ab Cynvrig ab Rhiwallon. Ermine, a 
lion rampant lablt. Ai leuan ab Llewelyn of Llwyn On had no 
mal« iMue, the estate went to hit brother Howel. leuan mar- 
ried Margaret, daughter of David Evton of Eyton Ochaf, Con- 
stable of Harlech Cutle, ion of Llewelyn ab Bdnjfed ab Oruffydd 
nb lorwerth ab Binion Qonh ab Einion, lord of Sonlli and Trefwy 
or Byton Uchaf, md of leuaf ab Niniaf ab Cynwrig ab Rhiwallon 

Qruffydd^; Alice, d. of Ienkyu=Angharad,d.andcoheireHof leuan Llwyd 

-'•■-- Robert ab of I ab Binion ablolyn ab lorwerth abLlew- 

leuan Trevalun | elyn ab QrufFrdd ab Cadwgan ab Meilir 

Fyehan Byton, lord of Trefwj or Eyton Isaf, 

I Erlji, and Bvras 

Mallt, heireii of Trevalun, ux. Bichard Trevor. See Plaa Teg 




John of Llan- 

.. d. of Howel ab David Bleu, ux. Bobt. Sutton ab 

of I ab Oruffydd Fyehan of David ab Qruffydd of Sut- 

Trevalun j Flu yn Horslli too & Qwenyllt. Ermitu, 

I a lion rampant aiure 

Catherine, heirew of Trevalun, ni. John Longford of Ruthin 

''I V 

pJane, d. of Qmffydd Llwyd David Elis John Wyni 
' ' David ab leuan 

T ab David 

1. of John ab Llewelyn ab MaUt, ns. Thoi. Addeiton 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 



John Mftth^=:Jane,d.of Ricbd. lADcelot=0wentiW7fftr Qwenhwy&T. 
of LUoestjn j LoDgToTd us, Dkrid ab Bich&rd 

Jolin Ukthej of LUnutyn. Catherine, ux.Oruffjrdd Mugvot, ux. Robert 
Estiuct ab BdwMd tb Elig. 


Ellis Yonge, the son of Richard Yonge (p. 330), was 
High Sheriff for CO. Flint in 1G90, and his son and heir, 
Wniiara.was High Sheriff in 1717. Ellis, the son and 
heir of William, was High Sheriff in 1 750, and purchased 

J. Y. "W. Lloyd, M.A. 

[ Ta b« eontinvtd.) 


A TRAVELLER on the turnpike-road from New Radnor 
to Pen y Bont will observe, after he has passed the 
little village of Llanvihangel Nant Melan, and has 
ascended half way up the hiU, on the right hand, in a 
narrow valley below, a circular earthwork placed on the 
end of a promontory-like eminence rimning down into 
the valley from the mountain, and bounded on either 
side by two little rivulets which unite in one stream as 
soon as they have passed it ; and will be told on inquiry 
that the name of the earthwork is Tomen Castle. De- 
scending from the road into the valley, and surveying 
the ground, the summit of the earthwork stands about 
90 feet above the valley, with a very abrupt descent to 
the little streams below. About 13 or II feet beneath 
the summit a circle, 320 feet in circumference, has been 
hollowed out around it, apparently to retain the falling 
earth when the work was formed, rather than as a 
defence. On the top is a level oval plain measuring 
67 feet by 45 feet, without any raised entrenchment, or 
appearance of foundations, aroiuid it. An examination 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


of it suggests an inquiry whether it was, as its name 
imports, a castell, or merely one of the outposts or look- 
outs known aa tomen in the imrnediate neighbourhood. 
Its situation in a high valley overtopped on all sides by 
mountains, leads to the conclusion that it was a hill- 
fort so placed aa to guard the natural road which led 
up the narrow defile from the vale of Radnor over the 
pass, and to be in some degree sheltered by the sur- 
rounding high ground in inclement weather, in con- 
nexion with ihe entrenched look-out, or tomen,' on the 
summit of the pass. 

If Tomen Castle had not some claim to historical 
interest, it might, perhaps, hardly deserve a separate 
notice ; but it has a claim to be one of the spots visited 
by Giraldus Cambrensis on his progress through Wales. 
It appears that the Archbishop of Canterbury, accom- 
panied by Giraldus and the Chief Justice Glanville, in 
March 1188 entered Wales from Herefordshire, either 
by the valley of Knill or the pass between Stanner 
Rocks and old Radnor Hill, and arrived the first day 
at New Radnor, where Rhys ab Griffith, Prince of 
South Wales; Einion ab Einion Clyd, lord of Elvael; 
and many others, met them. On the following morn- 
ing, after the celebration of mass and the return of the 
Chief Justice to England, they proceeded on their 
journey, and when they arrived at the Castle of Cruker, 
which is described as about two milea distant from 
Radnor, a young man met them, and, after exhortation 
from the Archbishop, took on the next day the sign of 
the cross ; and on the evening of the third day, Mael- 
gwn ap Cadwallou, lord of Maelienydd, came to them, 
and was also invested with the sign of the cross. No 
mention is made of the journey's end on the second 
and third days, or where they passed the night. It 
appears, however, that H^ was next visited, and that 
they crossed the Wye at Hay on their way to Brecon. 
So it seems reasonable to suppose that they were the 
guests of Einion ab Einion Clyd, and made their way 
on the fourth d;iy from his residence in Colwyii, through 

.;, Google 


Einion's cantred of Elvael, to Hay. Tomen Castle is 
the spot where a traveller to Colwyn would turn off, 
and is within a short distance of uie boundary of the 
cantrefs of Elvael and Maelienydd. " Castrum Crukeri", 
seeing the way in which Welsh names of persons and 
places are tamed into Latin, may well be the Castle of 
Crug Hir, — the long or tall mound. Sir R. Colt Hoare, 
however, assumes that the Archbishop never advanced 
further into Radnorshire than Radnor, and then re- 
traced his steps as far as Old Radnor (the Welsh name 
of which, according to Camden, was Pencraig), on the 
way to Hay ; and finds a site for the Castle of Cruker 
at Pencraig by supposing that Cruker " is a corruption 
of 'crug caerau', the mount or height of fortification". 
It is clear, however, from the words of Giraldus,^ "Cum 
apud Castrum Crukeri, quod quasi duobus a Radenoura 
passuum millibus distat, profasceremur", that the pro- 
gress from Radnor was onwards, and there is certainly 
no other spot within the prescribed distance which 
answers as the site of Cruker besides Tomen Castle. 

R. W. B. 


In the Herald Cymraeg (Welsh Herald) of September 
25th, 1874, under the heading of " Darganfyddiad 
Hynod" (notable discovery), and signed H. W., there 
appeared an account of some excavations made at the 
above-named cromlech. It appears that John Jones, 
who lives at Llandudno, and is a brother of Isaac Jones, 
the present tenant at Pant y Saer, came over for a few 
weeks to recruit his health, and during his stay there, 
and at his instigation, the work was undertsjcen. I 
was told that the immediately exciting cause of the 
•i'gging assumed the not unusual form of a warning 
given in a dream to the effect that a pot of treasure was 

1 Gii-ukluB Cnnibronsi-s, vol. vi, [>. 1(5 (Rolls fd.}. 



buried within the precincts of the structure. A search 
was forthwith instituted, which soon revealed a consi- 
derable accumulation of human bones. According to 
the notice in the Herald, five lower jaws were found, 
one of which, preserved at the adjoining farm of Pen y 
Bone, had all the teeth in their places. It is further 
stated that within the sides, and beneath the capstone, 
there is a stone, covering bones, which they (the exca- 
vators) dug around, but did not attempt to move. It 
is scarcely necessaiy to say that the "crochan aur" 
(pitcher of gold) did not come to light, and the whole 
was filled up again owing to representations made by 
Thomas Pricha^, Esq., of Llwydiarth Esgob, on behafr 
of O. J. A. Fuller Meyrick, Esq., of Bodorgan, on whose 
property the cromlech stamfe. Nothing is said in the 
Herald as to anything but bones being found, and the 
tenant himself averrra that no remains of any object, 
either of metal or pottery, were then met with. 

The account giyes a passage fix)m a booh entitled 
Hanes Sir Fwi history of Anglesey), by Mr. T. Pritch- 
ard, Amlwch, in which he is made to say that the family 
of some Mr. Wynn lies here, — " teulu rhyw Mr. Wynn 
sydd yn gorw^d yno"; and that there is also a vault 
there, — "fod yno vault hefyd". On consulting the 
book in question I found that a mistake had been made 
by the writer of the article in the Herald, Mr. Pritch- 
ard's words, as quoted from D. W. Jones, Esq., in the 
Gwijneddon for 1832, are: "There is a cromlech at 
Marian Pant y Saer. In the churchyard is a modem 
camedd erected by Mr. Wynn, which has been for some 
years the place of interment for the family. There is 
a covered way, or hollow entrance, to the vault under 
this mound or heap of stones" (pp. 35-36). The same 
thing is said in a work called A Topographical and His- 
torical Description of Anglesey or Mona,hy the Rev. 
J. Evans, 1810. The only notice taken by Miss Angharad 
Llwyd, in her History of Anglesey, is, " there is a crom- 
lech at Marian Pant y Saer". It is not alluded to in 
Lewis's Topographical Dictionary. A diligent search 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


„ Google 


made in the churchyard of Llanfair Mathafam Eithaf, by 
Mr. Thomas Prichard, of Llwydiarth Eagob, has failed 
to bring to light either trace or tradition as to the exist- 
ence of any such vault or tomb of the Wynn family. 

About a fortnight after the appearance of the article 
in the-ff erairf, Mr. Prichard of Llwydiarth Esgob kindly 
invited me to accompany him to the place. Accordingly 
we made an excursion uiither on the morning of Octo- 
ber I2th, 1874. Upon examining the spot it was 
thought advisable to reopen the ground, so as to ascer- 
tain if anything fresh could he discovered, also to make 
sure what was the actual depth of artificial soil, and 
whether the side-alabs of the cromlech rested upon the 
solid rock. 

Before entering into further detail it may be as well 
to state the present condition of the structure. The 
Rev, H. Prichard of Dinam has given an excellent 
sketch, accompanying a abort memoir that appeared in 
the Archeeologia Cambrensis (vol, xiv, 3rd Senes, Janu- 
ary, 1868), wherein it is correctly described as consist- 
ing of a " rectangular chamber which presents its sides 
to the cardinal points'", and "is 8 feet long by 6 wide, 
its length being in the direction of east and west. The 
dimensions of its capstone are 9 feet each way, with a 
mean thickness of 2i feet." This stone is undoubtedly, 
as Mr. Prichard further remarks, " partly dismounted", 
having " Its southern comer resting on the ground". It 
appears to have slid off two of the supporters, resting 
with nearly all its weight upon the others. Of the 
supporters or sides he says that " they were doubled in 
parts, as appears by the arrangement of those left, or 
at least were so placed as to greatly overlap each other"; 
and such could not fail to be the impression made upon 
any one who had seen that portion only of the stones 
visible above the level of the soU, viz., 3^ feet within, 
and not more than 2 feet extemziUy, Our digging, 
however, showed that these three stones (left unshad^ 
in the accompanying plan) had once formed a part of 
the covering at the west end, to which the capstone 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


did not reach ; or it is possible, although not very pro- ■ 
bable, that they may be the remains of an additional 
chamber once existing at this end, and destroyed in 
comparatively modern times, when these stones, form- 
ing part of it, were thrust from above into the surviving 
chamber. But in any case one thing is certain, that in 
their fall or subsidence, whether sudden or gradual, 
they became so jammed as to remain suspended, for we 
dug under them all, and made sure that not one of 
them reached down to the limestone rock on which the 
four real supporters (shaded in the plan) rest These 
are in situ, or nearly so ; the north and south sides 
being 6 feet high, the east and west 4 feet. The sup- 
porter at the east end inclines outwards considerably, 
its failure having been, to all appearance, the cause of 
the down slipping of the capstiine. Mr. H. Prichard 
observes that " the existence of a covering mound in 
the ori^nal state of this cromlech is plainly indicated 
by the depth of the soil which surrounds the structure", 
but we had no idea how great that depth was until we 
dug down to the rock-level. Several trenches were 
cut at intervals into the body of the mound, but we 
failed to trace anything like a gallery leading up to the 
one sepulchral chamber. 

This day's digging resulted in the finding of nume- 
rous bones, fragmentary where they had been previously 
disturbed, but less so towards the north-west comer, in 
which direction we were, unfortunately, not able to fol- 
low them, owing to one of the fallen roof stones, which 
lying across served to keep ihe two opposite side stones 
from tumbling inwards and producing a collapse of the 
whole fabric. It waa in this direction, along the base of 
the north supporter, that Mr. Prichard found a cavity 
like a triangular drain formed of stones incUned against 
it ; he was able to put his hand a long way up and 
found no bones, but a number of small shells only. 
Many sea shells and a few animal bones were found 
mixed up with the earth that contained the human re- 
mains. The process of digging was laborious, owing to 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


the confined space and the difficulty of clearing out the 
earth, but was continued until the upper surface of the 
flat stone, not moved by the first explorera, was reached. 
The lateness of the hour now put a stop to further pro- 
ceedings, the results, however, already attained were so 
interesting that it was determined to have another 
day's search. 

Our party was increased on the following raominff, 
October 13th, by the addition of Mr. Robert Prichard, 
brother of Mr. Thomas Prichard, when operations 
were resumed and the opening was enlarged so as to 
enable ufl to find out the dimensions of the flat stone, 
which we ascertained to be 6 feet long, 2 feet 3 inches 
across the broad, and 1 foot 9 inches at the narrow end, 
with a thickness of 7 inches. It lay south-east and 
north-west by compass, being thus diagonal to the 
cromlech and having its narrow end next the south-east 
comer, which position would lead one to suppose that 
the entrance to the chamber was at that comer where 
there is a vacant space between the south and east side 
slabs. Before attempting to raise this stone we care- 
fully scraped away the earth from the sides and took a 
peep under it, when we perceived a heap of bones that 
had, to all appearance, not been disturbed by the hand 
of man since their original deposition within the grave. 
A crowbar being applied the stone was turned over, and 
we proceeded to a more minute examination of the 
space beneath, which had been walled up at the sides 
and ends with rubble, the north-west end oeing rounded 
and the bones somewhat crowded up towards that end. 
The length of the grave was 4 feet i inches, with a 
breadth of 1 foot 2 inches. It now became evident 
that the stonework whereon the slab originally rested 
had been too weak to support its weight together with 
that of the superincumbent soil, ana had given way, 
thereby causing the remains below to be to a certain 
extent crushed ; and this may also account for the posi- 
tion of certain leg bones which we found lying partly 
beneath and parUy outside the slab at its north-west 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


end. The accompanyiDg plan is from a sketch made at 
the time, and shows the relative position of the bones 
at the rounded end of the grave where two skulls were 
found, one quite flattened and having the upper end of 
a thigh bone in contact with the lower jaw ; arm bones, 
shou&er blade, vertebrae and ribs being also in rather 
close proximity ; the other skull, together with the 
bones on the south-west side, was much broken, and all 
were disarranged by the falling in of the stone work 
supporting the slab. As fitr as we could judge the 
bodies were originally placed sitting, or, more probably, 
lying sideways with the knees drawn up. The lower 
jaw belonging to the flattened skuU ia nearly perfect, 
although Droken in two pieces, and is rather of the 
pointed type, measuring 4^ Inches in length, and having 
a depth of 2 inches from the top of the front teeth to 
the bottom of the chin. It has eleven teeth, all consi- 
derably worn, in their places. Of the upper jaw there 
are several fragments, whereof two adjoining portions 
have nine teeth in their places. An entire femur, found 
within the grave, is IG inches long, which shows Uiat 
the frame it appertained to was either that of a woman 
or a man of small stature. One fragment of a lower 
jaw found by the first diggers outside the grave shows 
a pointed chin with eight teeth, another has five, and a 
piece of the upper jaw three remaining. Others of the 
bones met with outside the grave seem to have formed 
part of skeletons of large size and having the skulls 
very thick, five-sixteenth of an inch in places. The 
largest os sacrum measures 4,^ inches across at its junc- 
tion with the vertebral column ; the only perfect hu- 
merus is 10^ inches long, and a shoulder-blade measures 
6 ins. The presence of some small ribs would indicate 
an infant buried probably with its mother. To enumerate 
all the bones would add too much to the length of the 

{)resent memoir, I therefore propose giving a classified 
iat of them in a future number of this Journal. The 
remains of animals comprised a few bones of the ox, pig, 
and (I think) hare ; also, beneath the fiat slab more 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


A. FhU^iHiI Pknll. 

i:.' Femur.' 
D. Htimerut. 

D,g,l,.,.d,i. Google 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


especially, there was found a quantity of dry stuff like 
coarse sand, which on examination proved to be com- 
minuted mice and rat bones, the latter, as we are told 
by Mr, Batenian in his Ten Years' Diggings, being 
found in almost all the sepulchral chambers opened by- 
him. The sea shells comprised numerous specimens of 
purpura lapillus and littorina littoralis, four limpets, 
one Venus Islandica, one mytilliis edulis, one cardium 
tuberculatum. There were also sea shore pebbles with 
which the bottom of the grave was paved, and an, 
abundance of land snails of at least two varieties. A 
single piece of pottery was found in the earth above the 
slab covering the grave ; it is hand-made, dark coloured 
and studded with some particles that were present in 
the clay and have burnt white ; thia is of a type common 
in Anglesey. I have many such specimenB dug up within 
circular dwellings (cytiau). No other fragment came 
to light, although we sifted the earth carefully. The 
charred wood met with outside the grave at its western 
side, and some slight traces of calcined hone, seem to 
indicate that cremation may in one instance have been 
used, although they are just a.s likely to be remains of 
cooking operations carried on in later times either by 
those who may have made the cromlech their dwelling, 
or by shepherds who used it as a shelter ; but inhuma- 
tion was evidently the rule at this burying place, A 
section of the ground upwards from the limestone rock 
upon which the supporters rest gives the following 
layers : From the rock surface to the pavement at the 
bottom of the grave, 6 inches, consisting of clayey soil ; 
the pavement itself is 6 inches thick; from the surface of 
the pavement to the under side of the stone slab cover- 
ing the grave, 1 foot ; the slab itself is 7 inches thick : 
the rest of the soil, previously disturbed, up to the 

ground surface within the cromlech, 1 foot. The total 
eight of the highest supporters, as before mentioned, 
is 6 feet, the portion of them that appears above ground 
outside the cromlech is about 2 feet ; so there still re- 
mains a depth of nearly 4 feet of the mound which once 

4TB SRft., VOL. TI. 21 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


covered the whole structure. We might iofer from the 
presence of the sea shells, either that at some time sub- 
sequent to the first interment, the chamber may have 
been dwelt in by a primitive race who used sheilfish as 
food and whose bodies were afterwards buried there, or 
that they were pm-posely laid beside the remains, re- 
presenting, as they doubtless did, an important item of 
their diet whilst living, and forming part of the provi- 
sion made in order that the deceased might not feel 
hunger during the journey to the other world. This 
find has produced no implement of bronze or iron to 
enable us to fix the age of burial. The piece of pottery, 
the rudeness of which does not necessarily prove for it 
an extreme antiquity, did not accompany the first or 
original interment. I am disposed to attribute to some 
at all events of the burials a date not very many years 
anterior to the period of Roman occupation, but I should 
attribute to the grave beneath the flat slab a much 
earlier date. The present excavations have certainly 
contributed important evidence as to the entirely sepul- 
chral character of the cromlech, and I have very little 
doubt but that similar researches elsewhere in the is- 
land, could they be conducted without danger, would 
bring to light vestiges of the same kind as those which 
rewarded our digging at Pant y Saer. The figures 1, 
2, and 3, on the plan, mark spots where collections of 
bones were found which seem m each case to have been 
covered with thin flat stones. The bones at 1 appeared to 
be in their original position. The remains discovered, in- 
eluding the five lower jaws dug up by the first explorers, 
show that at least nine bodies were buried within the 

W. Wynn Williams. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 

1.;. Google 


Whilst taking a Burvey of the south-western coast of 
Anglesey as represented in our maps, the eye soon rests 
on what is there styled the Bay of Malldraeth, a sandy 
estuary extending inland a mile or two, which receives 
the waters of the small river Cefni, and is daily flooded 
by ordinary tides. It is bounded on its south-eastern 
side by a waste of sandhills and the well known penin- 
sula of Llanddwyn' jutting to sea, with its wave-worn 
reefs, dusky precipices, and picturesque church ruins, 
and on the other by rocks and fem-clad acclivities, — 
an exposed tract improving in aspect as it recedes in- 
land until lost in the woods of Bodorgan, Mr. Fuller 
Meyrick's beautiful seat. At the southern extremity 
of this brow a cliff may be noticed projecting into the 
bay, called Twyn y Pare (the tump or knoll of the 
park) ; possibly a transposed name, because about three 
furlongs to the east of it there is another eminence 
which, without earthworks or other military preten- 
sions, is called by the natives Dinas Lwyd (the gray 

Twyn y Pare bears traces of early fortification. Situ- 
ated at the seaward extremity of Malldraeth, and over- 
looking its entrance, I suppose it to have been selected 
in the first instance by a party of natives as the strongest 
and most defensible position in the neighbourhood, 
and subsequently may have been held by some of the 
many adventurers who at one period devastated our 

^ Llanddwyn, it will be remembered, was dedicated to St. Dwjn* 
wen, or Donwensa, a tatelary aaint of lovers, and in timea past waa 
mncb freqaentod by ber votaries. At present it is the resort of 
those who lore the freshneea of itA air and the wildneas of its scenery, 
wilb certain picnic observances and festivities celebrated on its 
award, regarded fnvonrably, some will tell yon, by the fiiir St, Don- 
wenna, wbo ia not less kind now than of old. Whatever the oanee, 
the single retnm from Llanddwyn happier than when they went, 
and the married more cfaeerfnl and joyous. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


coast A quarter of a mile eaat of it there is a small 
nook called Forth y Ddraenen Wen (the whitethorn har- 
bour or landing-place), where the vessels of the in- 
vader, if small and few in number, might have been 
stranded and made secure. It is forbidding in aspect, 
and its entrance is crossed by a barrier of submerged 
rocks. I incline, I must confess, to the opinion of those 
who believe the sailor-rover, unless shipwrecked or bent 
on conquest, would not have cared to possess a bleak 
headland fortress, with the chances of having his retreat 
cut off, when he had the more secure and movable 
defences of his own ship to fall back upon. His vessels 
were to him his castle and place of refuge, hia aids to 
fortune and future aggrandisement, from which he 
would not willingly have been separated by the shortest 
space. He would not have fortified a position on shore 
which did not command safe harbourage, — an advantage 
possessed by few of the cUff-castles on our south- 
western coast. 

An eartliwork so small does not merit the attention 
of the sightseer, but may not be without interest to 
the curious in such remains. On its south-western side 
its strengtli consists in a wall of precipices overhanging 
the sea, with a fall in one part of 60 or 70 feet, render- 
ing it uuEissailable in this quarter. Towards the south- 
west a 8ucces.sion of rocks dip into the bay, the bases of 
which are at most seasouFi surrounded by a dubious 
and dangerous surf. Its protection on its north-western 
quarter is a narrow inlet of deep water about 50 feet 
wide, precarious to enter, open to waves from the south- 
west, and commanded by nigh ground and rocks. To 
render this front of the position more secure, a breast- 
work of masonry was constructed midway up the face 
of the cliff, terminating towards the sea on a shoulder 
of rock above the creek's entrance. The few stones 
remaining in position of this parapet or wall are either 
erect or set edgewise, indicating, I venture to think, by 
this style of ibnndation the British origin of the work. 
On the land aide of the cliff, where danger was pro- 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


bably most apprehended, a bank of moderate strength, 
commencing on a level with the stone wall just de- 
scribed, and designed as a continuous fence, crosses the 
isthmus with an outward curve so thoroughlj without 
a break that an entrance must be looked for at either 
end of it, the position of which I would fix at its western 
extremity, where there is space for admission between 
it and a precipitous descent to the beach. It is not 
uncommon in headland fortresses to find their entrances 
so placed. Mr. Barnwell in his notice of "Cliff-Castles, 
Pembrokeshire", and Mr. Wame in his Ancient Dorset, 
supply us with instances than which no better position 
could be selected on the principle of get your adversary 
down a precipice, and he must cease to be troublesome. 
The principal gateways of a large number of our inland 
camps are situated near to the Drink of a declivity, the 
object of their constructore, no doubt, being to obtain 
security on one flank, to narrow the fighting space in 
front, and to drive the attacking force, if possible, down 
the steep. This inner defence encloses an area of small 
extent, yet capable of lodging a considerable body of 
men under the sheltering sides of a rock which, rising 
centrally, was to the defenders their protection fram 
winds, and their rallying point for the last desperate 
effort against a successful foe. 

The defences hitherto described are British in cha- 
racter. Another remains to be noticed which some may 
regard as more questionable. At the brink of the 
western inlet, where the ground falls abruptly to the 
strand, a low rampart commences, and taking a course 
somewhat parallel to the inner one, at a distance from 
it of 30 or 40 feet, runs up to a platform of rock, where 
its further progress is arrested. The surface of this 
rock serves as a passage to a diminutive causeway aci-oss 
the space lying between the two ramparts, as shown in 
the drawing. The causeway is 14 feet wide, and about 
double that space in length. A few stones peering at 
its sides, with others strewed across, render it probable 
that barriers of some. kind here existed. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


The point of interest in tlie plan of this small earth- 
work is the position of its outer gateway relatively to 
its inner one, which, instead of being opposite to it, or 
having a diagonal bearing, is placed some 30 yards to 
the left, the consequence being that, should an assailant 
have forced the outer passage, he would have found 
himself on the causeway, impeded, it might be, by ob- 
stacles of stone or wood, and confronted by the strongest 
portion of the main vallum which, if not carried by 
assault, would have necessitated his pressing onwan^ 
to tlie second entrance under the missiles of the de- 
fenders. This part of the design, insignificant as it now 
appears, is distinctly traceable m winter and spring, but 
might escape the notice of the archseologist snoold his 
visit happen when summer has spread her beautiful 
but disguising mantle of ferns over the trenches. 

An arrangement of entrances somewhat similar may 
be seen at Moel y Gaer in Denbighshire, a fortress on 
the Moel Famma range of hills, which with others has 

been very carefully described under the heading, " Cas- 
tra Clwydiana", in the Archaologia Cambrensis, New 
Series, vol. i, p. 174. In order to facilitate a compari- 
son between trenches so remotely distant and so dis- 
proportionate in impoitance and size, I have thought it 
advisable to sketch the Moel y Gaer roadway on a 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


larger scale than as rendered in the published drawing, 
showing the crossing with the interrupted fossEB run- 
ning up to it. Like the causeway at Twyn y Pare it 
leads up to the strongest part of the main rampart, 
measuring at this spot 36 feet up its incline, beneath 
which the attacking force, if foiled in its escalade, must 
have traversed a confined space 28 yards long ere it 
reached the innermost gateway, an obstacle, with its. 
return flankers, scarcely less formidable than the vallum 

It has been stated that Moel y Gaer is not a British 
camp at all, or at least it must be one of a period when 
the science of castrametation was much more advanced 
than when its kindred earthworks on Moel Fenlli and 
Moel Arthur were constructed. To meet this supposi- 
tion I would suggest that a fragment of Samian ware 
found in the trench of its outer rampart, 4 feet beneath 
tlie surface of its dibms, and a Roman coin picked up 
within its space, are fair evidence of its antiquity, lead- 
ing us back to a period when our earthworks are sup- 
posed to have been either British or Roman, with one 
of which Moel y Gaer remains to be classed. The Roman 
alternative must, I think, be rejected because, indepen- 
dently of form, its exposed situation, its distance from 
a supply of water, and its poverty in fictile and other 
remains, convincingly show that it could not have been 
a station, and with its present ramparts (three in num- 
ber) could not well have been an expeditionary camp 
usually consisting of a single bank and fosse. To these 
objections must be added the circumstance that its ad- 
vanced or outer work is a bank, and not a trench, — a 
decisive difference, I venture to think, between a Roman 
and a native defence on ground where the Roman sys- 
tem was practicable. The legionary, when digging his 
fosse, built up the excavated sods on the side next to 
the space enclosed, the trench being without and the 
rampart within. The reverse of this was the course 
pursued by the defenders of these hills. The contents 
of the trench they cast in an outer direction, to form 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


its vallum, which, resting ou the slope of a hill, pre- 
sented outwardly a steep incline difficult of ascent, we 
may suppose, when newly made, because consistiug of 
loose substances yielding under pressure. The inner- 
most trench of all, if it may be so designated, which 
supplied materials for the principal vallum, was usually 
a broad surface-excavation of the interior, or a digging 
out and scarping of the hill-side, — a preparation, in 
fact, of the inhabitable portion of the camp, in the hol- 
lows of which, under the lee of its rampart, the de- 
fenders found shelter, and where, in many instances, 
huts may have stood, indications of which are observ- 
able in most of them. As a consequence of this mode 
of construction we find that at Moel y Gaer, Koel Fen- 
lli, and Pen y Cloddiau, the exterior defence is a bank 
and not a fosse. Moel Arthur was similarly trenched, 
with the addition of a email outer ditch on its northern 

At first sight it might appear that there are two 
styles of fossa on these hills, the directvB and fasiigatee, 
repretsenting, it might be supposed, the fortifications of 
different races. A close inspection will, 1 think, make 
it apparent that they have a strong family resemblance 
— tnat their seeming differences are the result of acci- 
dent, and that in the main they are the work of the 
same people. Take, for instance, the principal trench 
at Moel y Gaer, in respect to which an exceptional view 
has been taken. Near to the causeway or main en- 
trance, where it passes through surface rock, it is Ro- 
man in type, with perpendicular sides and a flat interior, 
but is scarcely so in dimensions, being no more than 10 
feet wide. If this same fosse is followed in its course 
around the south-eastern front of the hill where the in- 
cline is more precipitous, where there is no rock to 
penetrate, and it becomes subject to a fall of aod and 
stones from commanding ramparts, it is there found to 
he/astigata in figure, with its sides sloping to an angle, 
and its width of 10 feet reduced to 3 feet. A similar 
state of things is met with at Moel FenllL Its principal 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


trench has a flattish interior 6 or 8 feet wide in its pre- 
sent condition, which narrows to 3 feet as it gets more 
under the influence of its ramparts. At Moel Arthur, 
the most fastigate example of the group, the main ditch 
has a flat hottom 10 feet wide at its western end where 
its banks are low, with no soil or dibris to fall in, but 
in its easterly course, passing between steep and high 
valla, it is reduced to a width of 3 feet. The fosse, 
moreover, on the south-western side of Pen y Cloddiau 
has a horizontal breadth of 6 feet and 7 feet, straitened 
in parts to 3 feet and 4 feet, facts which imply that 
these variations in figure and size are due to circum- 
stances and situation, and, moreover, that it is not safe 
to accept as a rule that in form the British trench is 
always and invariably fastigata. The fine camp of 
Caer Caradoc, near to Knighton, visited by our Asso- 
ciation in the autumn of 1873, and on that occasion 
judged to be British, has ita fosses directcB sunk in slaty 
rock, the vertical sides of which are 9 feet deep in their 
present state, their bottom width being 8 or 9 ft. This 
decision of our members is borne out by the position of 
the camp on high and commanding ground, with its 
strongest natural front looking towards England, whilst 
its side nearest to Wales is destitute of natural advan- 
tages, and its security in this direction dependent 
wholly on artificial works. 

Gillings lling, not far from Plowden Station, at the 
southern extremity of the Long Mynd, has a single 
ditch with a flat interior, varying in width from 12 to 
15 feet. Its scarp or inner face ia 17 feet deep, and in 
its descent passes vertically through 8 feet of schistous 
rock. Its removed rubble and soil have been used to 
form an outer bank in advance of which there is no 
fosse. I suppose it to have been an outpost of the Bury 
Ditches, designed to watch this opening of the Mynd 
to Bishop's Castle and the Vale of Montgomery. Others 
may perhaps regard it as the work of an invader, or at 
least as one strengthened and modified by Saxons or 
Normans. Our border camps were doubtless held by 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


various races during the long centuries of warfare which 
preceded the final submission of Wales. Originally 
British, they must have been occupied in many instances 
by the Romans during their advance, but especially by 
the Saxons whilst completing their great frontier line 
of Ofia's Dyke, within which many of them are situated, 
and one object of which may have been to exclude the 
Welsh from these threatening strongholds, whence, as 
from the eyrie of their own mountains, they were able 
to descend with impunity on Saxon herds and flocks in 
the lowlands beneath ; and later by the Normans whilst 
building their castles and securing their conquests. 
What additions were made to them during these sea- 
sons of invasion, and to what extent their ditches were 
deepened and their banks raised, it is difficult to point 
out. Their resemblance in the magnitude of their de- 
fences to those of the hill camps of Dorsetshire, now 
recognised as British, favours the supposition that no 
great alterations were effected beyond a freshening and 
deepening of trenches, with an additional rampart or 
two on fronts or sides exposed to a surprise from Wales. 
Some indication of these supplementary works may 
possibly be found in the broad rampart observable in 
a few of them, which, differing from its companions, has 
a wide surface at top, affording standing space for a 
number of defenders. It is usually the second or third 
from the interior, and its origin may have been as fol- 
lows. Suppose a native camp with two or more ram- 
parts formed by trenching from within, and consequently 
without an exterior fosse, such as the great earthwork 
at Burva ; the first operation of the invader or reno- 
vator may have been to sink an outer trench and to 
pile up its contents wholly or in part against the exist- 
ing rampart, thus rendering it more defensible by hav- 
ing a ditch in front with greater space on its broad 
summit for fighting purposes. This idea, suggested by 
the fact that at Norton, Bury Ditches, Caer Caradoc, 
and at Wapley a vidlum of the kind occurs, is put forth 
merely as a surmise for the consideration of others. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 

TWTN y PARC. 357 

If expected to offer a more decided opinion aa to the 
national origin of Twyn y Pare, I have only to expreaa 
my inability to point out in it a single feature which 
may not he truly British. Its position, for instance, so 
unfavourable for continued habitation, and so disastrous 
to its defenders, if taken by assault, is quite in keeping 
with others which may occur to the reader. At Llan- 
Ileiana, in this county, there is a camp of moderate size 
strongly posted on the summit of a detached cliff cut 
off in its rear by a fearful precipice and deep sea, with 
confined and marshy ground in front, whence, seemingly, 
escape would have been difficult. The ancient British 
town of Penmaen Mawr is not dissimilar in situation, 
being accessible in front, but difficult of approach, if 
not impracticable in other directions. The Ciwydian 
trenches, Moel Arthur especially, with, I may say, the 
generality of our Cambrian earthworks, partake more 
or less of the peculiarity of having their rears strong by 
nature and their fronts deeply trenched, which with 
their entrances oflen command the pass or plain whence 
the invader was expected. 

The selection of precarious camping ground was not 
peciiliar to the western Britons. Tacitus describes an 
action between Ostorius and the Iceni, who had chosen 
their position for a decisive battle. " The place was in- 
cloBed with a rampart thrown up with sod, having an 
entrance in one part only, and that so difficult of access 
that the Roman cavalry could not force their way. The 
rampart was carried by assault. The Britons, enclosed 
in their own fortifications and seeing no way of escape, 
fought to the last." 

Caste! Coz in Brittany, to which our attention has 
been recently directed, resembles Twyn y Pare in its ex- 
posed and peninsular position, fortified, we are told, not 
merely for temporary resistance but for permanent resi- 
dence, as shown by the remains of its numerous huts. 
No traces of habitations are at present visible in our 
Anglesey specimen, but they may lie concealed beneath 
a sand-drift from the heuch. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


The irregularity of its defences, moreover, and its 
principal rampart, formed by surface scarping without a 
ditch on either side, well illustrate the native origin of 
Twyn y Pare, its questionable feature being the design 
of its entrances, which some may regard as an over- 
brilliant example of military skill ever to have occurred 
to a primitive Briton. Although there is nothing im- 
probable in the supposition that its outer vallum and 
gateway are additions of an invader, I hesitate to think 
so, because, independently of the Moel y Gaer example, 
we find in the walled Oppidum of Penmaen Mawr a simi- 
larity of design, the passage from its outer to its inner 
fortifications extending a long distance under its main 
rampart, as represented in the annexed cut. The draw- 
ings also of Pembrokeshire Cliff-Castles, with which we 

were favoured a short time ago, supply us with instances 
of outer ramparts overlapping interior gateways, clearly 
showing that this contiivance was not uncommon in 
native fortresses ; a fact which may be further estab- 
lished by a reference to the great British camps of Dor- 
setshire, Maiden Castle especially, which abounds in 
traverses and protecting Imnks arranged in front and 
within its entrances, the whole forming a labyrinth of 
covering works surprisingly contrived to baffle an as- 

Hdqh Peichaed. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


Perhaps a short account of the inscribed stones lately 
inspected by the writer will be of interest to the readers 
of the Arckaologia Cambrensis. Those in the neigh- 
bourhood of Carmarthen were visited in the course of 
the annual excursions of the Association. 

1. Tlie first stone we inspected was at Traws Mawr. 
It reads, io somewhat debased capitals, 



The letters ver in the first line are slightly damaged. 

The inscription, in spite of the Roman names it cod- 

taina, is undoubtedly Brit- Welsh, and not Roman. 

2. Another stone, in the same place, has on one face 
a cross, and on the next face what seems to be cvnbgn-; 
but it is to be noticed that the first stroke of the 
second N is so faint that some would read the name 
CVKEQV-; but the inclination of v is wanting in the let- 
ter in question, and Professor Hughes of Cambridge 
thought the grain of the stone proved there had been 
a cutting which made the letter n, and not v. Other- 
wise Cunegni is remarkable. One would have expected 
Cunagni. Compare, however, Cunotami and CuTiatami, 
Senemagli and Senojnagli ; and above all, Cunio-vende. 
But I know no exact parallel. 

3. The same day we saw another interesting stone 
in the porch of Merthyr Church, about three miles from 
Carmarthen. The legend seems to be 


There is considerable difficulty about the end of the 
first line. Commonly the first name is read catvrvs, 
but I cannot make 8 of the last letter. On the whole 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


I am strongly inclined to think it is a o, and that I 
observed faint tracea of a horizontal I ending the line. 
Caturugi would be a new name not very easily ex- 
plained. Catu offers no difficulty ; but what would rug 
be ? Compare bvqniatto, or something approaching 
to it, on the Devynock stone. Lovemaci is undoubt> 
edly connected with the Lovernii on the Llanfaglan 
stone near Carnarvon, and is exactly representea by 
Llywemog, probably for Cwm lAywemog or Nant liy- 
wei-nog near Ponterwyd in North Cardiganshire. I 
should like to examine the atone again, under more 
favourable circumstance. 

4. The next day we saw the so-called Chair of St. 
Canna. It has possibly the letters can followed by 
what would seem to have been y and A or N and a con- 
joint ; but it is, to my thinking, altogether suspicious 
and unsatisfactory. 

5. The next was the Parcau stone, which Professor 
Westwood now reads with me, 


6. At Llanboidy we examined two stones. The one 
is in the wall of the church, and is inscribed with let- 
ters tending to Hibemo-Saxon. It seems to read — 

OOAVOh ... 
h- COCC- 

The top of the stone is broken : hence the first line ia 
incomplete ; but whether there is any portion wanting 
of the second Une I cannot eay, as ch might have, at 
the date of this epitaph, been represented by ck, he, or 
h. The pillar of Ehseg has, for instance, both Brocks 
mail and Brohcmail. The legend would thus be — 
Mavoh . . . Jili LujiaAcyii Cocci, for the H is probably 
here meant for n, and not H. So in the Tregon^' stone. 
Lutiarcki would now be probably Lluiiai-ch. Compare 
Lunabiti, Lunhiu, etc. Cocci can hardly be anything 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


but our cock, "red", which is not unfrequently used as 
an epithet. Lunarchi Cocci (i.e., Llunarch Goch) would 
seem to indicate that re became rch earlier than cc be- 
eame ch. What the first name may have been it is 
hard to guess ; but the letter immediately following 
Mavoh would seem, from the part of it still per- 
ceptible, to have been a curve turned away from the h, 
ikat is, a c OF an o. The name would have to he ana- 
lysed Mavo~ho..., with mavo of the same origin as the 
final element in Vedo-mavi on the Margam Mt. stone. 

7. The other stone alluded to stands in the Llanboidy 
churchyard. On this I coidd barely trace the letters 
TV; but with the aid of the camera, Mr. Worthiogton 
Smith, whose drawings will greatly add to ihe value of 
the Journal, made it iuto tvm, which at once reminds 
one of the epitaphs, "Ponies hie in tumulo iacit", etc. 
"Jn oc tumulo iacit Veita/.... Victor", and thelike. The 
letters are in point of form much older than those on 
No. 6. The stone is not broken, but worn smooth. I 
should like to examine these two stones again. 

8. The next stone I examined was at Tavistock in 
Devonshire. I expected to find on it the name Sagini ; 
but this was a mistdte, the third letter being either 6 
or r, probably the former. The legend then would be 


A hollow has been cut in the stone to receive the end 
of a beam : hence the difficulty about the B, for with it 
the lower part of the letter has been damaged. Sabini 
is probably a name of Koman origin. So much hsis here 
and there been written on such names as Maccodecheti 
that it may here be passed by in silence. 

9. On the Dobunni stone, tn the same place, I had 
last year read fill This time my attention was called 
by Mrs. Khys to the fact that I was thus leaving some 
of the strokes out of the reckoning. On second inspec- 
tion I certainly found that it seems to be filli. The 
l^end would then be 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 



I should be glad to hear of its being carefully examined 
by somebody else, with special reference to the word 
in question. 

10. The next place we visited was Stowford in Devon- 
shire. It is about four miles from Coryton Station, 
somewhat less from Lifton, on the Tavistock and Laun- 
ceston line. In the churchyard stands a stone with a 
name written on it in curious Hiberno-Saxon letters. 
At once one makes out u and e with the middle stroke 
detached, A little more scrutiny enables one to see 
that the first character and the fourth are strange sorts 
of 5; the fifth is an /; the last is not familiar to me, — 
I can make nothing of it but an y turned the wrong 
way ; the third letter is still more strange in its appear- 
ance, but I guess it is an )■. It occurs also on the Phil- 
lack stone. The name would thus seem to be jupsjlef , 
i. e., Gurgles, identical with the Welsh name Gwrhiis 
(loloMSS., 257; Myv. Arch., 461). 

11. The next stone we examined is about two miles 
and a half from Camelford, on a farm called Worthy- 
vale. It is connected by the natives, in some way, with 
Arthur, whose tombstone some of them seem to believe 
it to be. It reads 

FlUUr 03A...AEI 

The first name has been printed Catini ; but for that 
there is not the slightest foundation. The first letter 
between the two as now looks like an F; but the stone 
has been damaged, and it may have been a g, as others 
read it Besides this there seems to me to have been an 
upright stroke meeting the second a, and forming 
with it lA or VA, which would give us Maguxri, or Ma- 
guari, but whether Magari or any one of the others 
is the correct reading I cannot decide. Majvxri or 
Mafari could hardly be Celtic. Could it be Roman ? 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


ADoiJier reading, which is as possible as any, Maglari, 
would make an intelligible Celtic name. 

Here we have a curious instance of a nominative in i in 
Latini. Now nominatives in { are common in Boman 
inscriptions according to Corssen {Aus^rache, etc, p. 
289); but whether i in such cases stands for is (Corssen 
mentions Anavis, CcBcilis, Clodis, Ragonis, etc.) or not, 
it appears that on Roman ground this -t or -is is only 
to be expected instead of -lus ; but as Latinius is un- 
known, one can only infer that the Welsh adopted the 
Latin nominative in -i without any regard to the Latin 
restriction as to its use. Compare also Vitaliani 
Emereto, which is a nominative for Vitalianis Eme- 
ret<^s\, contrary to my former conjectures. I have not 
heard of the form VitcUianius. This may also be the 
case with Celtic names ; so that Cunocenni, for instance, 
in the nominative may not be an instance of a Kimric 
stem in i, but merely an imitation of the Latin declen- 
sion in question. This is very disappointing from a 
Celtic pomt of view, and especially to those wild writers 
who wish to make out that our mscriptions all belong 
to the Irish. 

Perhaps the most important fact connected with this 
stone is the remains of Oghams on its left edge. These 
end with five notches for t, which are perfect, and pre- 
ceded by longer ones, probably for r \ but of this l^t I 
am not quite certain. The other traces are too far 
gone to be guessed. Are there any other Oghams known 
m Comwall ? 

In the Rectory garden at Lanteglos, also in the 
neighbourhood of Camelford, there stand two old crosses. 
The one has nothing which one could now read on it ; 
but the other bears an Anglo-Saxon inscription which 
I attempted to read. My guesses were afterwards cor- 
rected by the Rev. WiUiam lago of Bodmin, who gave 
me most valuable assistance in my search for Cornish 
inscriptions. According to him it reads thus : 
+ mi£,'EV6 7 xENERE« 

4t« bbb. vol. ti. SS 

D,<j,i,.,.,i.:, Google 


The P here stands for the Rune wen, and 7 for and, or, 
more strictly speaMns;, the Latin et. It is similarly 
i^ed in Irish manuscripts. 

13. The next stone I examined is at a farmhouse 
called Nanscow, ahout two miles from Wadebridge. 
The inscription, which occupies two conterminous feces 
of the stone, is 


The name Seven has already been noticed. Ulcagni 
seems to occur as Ulccagni in Ireland. 

14. After some diflBculty we reached a farm near 
Cardynham, called Welltown (I think the natives pro- 
nounce it Wiltown), about four miles from Bodmin 
Road Station. There, near one of the outhouses, stands 
a stone reading in letters strongly tending to a Hibemo- 
Saxon form, 

The letter between the A and the I might be expected 
to be R or n, but it now looks more like an e. The 
stone has been used as a gatepost, and the bottom of 
the first V has disappeared in consequence of a hole cut 
through the stone at that point. Another hole of the 
same kind occurs at the top of the last A. The second 
V is almost an u, but not quite I think. Lastly, how 
is the inscription to be divided 1 Is it to he regarded 
as Vailathi jiUu\s\ Rocha -t, or Vailathi Jili Vrocha -if 
And lastly, what is the origin of the curious name, Vail- 
athi? The inscription is by no means one of the oldest. 

15. I visited the stone at Hayle, but as it is very 
hard to read I was anxious to look at it again ; the 
trains happened to be so arranged that we were enabled 
to devote a long time to it and we made some progress. 
Last year my conjectures gave the following reading : 



The first hie, which I now give up as uncertain, made 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


me regard the inscription as containing two epitaphs. 
The T of the third line is partly gone, especially the top. 
Between requievit and Cunaido there is room for ano- 
ther line, and in this Mrs. Rhys was able to discover an 
N ; in the next place I am pretty well satisfied that 
Cuiuddo is incorrect, and that it is Cunaide, a woman's 
name. This enabled me to trace the beginning of the 
word mulier in the second line, and to guess that ce is 
the end o? pace, preceded probably by In and not Hie. 
The legend accordingly would be 
[in pa] 
CE MVL[lBlt] 




As to a nominative feminine Cunaide it does not 
stand alone ; compare Adiune at Yatrad Gynlais, Tttnc- 
cetace ttocsor Daari hie iacit at St. Nicholas', Oruvite 
mulier, etc., at LlangafTo, and the like. In fact, as far 
as can be judged from our inscriptions, it seems that e 
is the usual ending for nominatives feminine of the sin- 
gular. Still it is only an imitation of Latin nominatives 
feminine in e, on which see Corssen, pp. 685-6. Nomi- 
natives of the same descnptton are not imknown among 
the Koman inscriptions of Britain, as will be seen on 
consulting Hubner's indices. 

16. We next crossed the water to Phillack, which is 

within a mile of Hayle ; in the churchyard stands a 

stone in somewhat peculiar Hiberno-Saxon letters ; it 

reads, as far as I can understand it, 



D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


What I have here transcribed r is the same as a letter 
on the Stowford atone. Nearly aU the A's in Cornwall 
have the taiddle, stroke formed into a V. Here the 
second A is not only so, but also has its top rounded. 
As to the first A, its top is broken off, the stone having 
been damaged, but enough of tbe letter is left to show 
beyond doubt that it was A, probably identical with the 
other in form. The name Morhaiti is beyond me, but 
Clotuali is intelUgible, as it would in modem Welsh 
be Clodwal ; some of the Teutonic equivalents are 
Chlodulf, Cklodolf, Hlodolf, modern German Ludolpk. 

1 7. On our way back to Truro we called at Camborne, 
to see the Camborne altar which stands in the church- 
yard : it reads round the mai^in in Hibemo-Saxon let- 
ters, which form an interesting study of that character 
as found in ComwaU, as follows : 

+le»uatiuj- ic hec AlcAjie ppo ABimA jmia. 
This is followed by a larger cross occupying the middle 
of the stone. Mr. lago told me of another altar, a frag- 
ment of which ia preserved in the neighbourhood ; it 
appears to be very much harder to decipher than the 
one at Camborne. 

18. Setting out from Truro again we travelled until we 
got about halfway to Bodmin, to see the Long Stone; it 
stands close to a Wesleyan chapel, near a public house 
called the Indian Queen. It is said to mark the boun- 
dary between two parishes, and to read Rttani kic tacit. 
But to judge from its present state, the inscription may 
have been anything you please ; but to give my own 
guess I should say it looks as though it read, 


1 9. After attempting an old stone outside the church- 
yard at St. Columb Major, we proceeded to Lanheme, 
near Mawgan-in-Pyder. There, in the Nunnery garden, 
we were shown a stone with interlaced ornamentation 
and two panels containing inscriptions in Hibemo- 
Saxon letters, mixed as usual in Cornwall with capitals ; 
the one reads 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


+ 87-8 

What has here been rendered et forms one character 
standing probably for et. Bs 'seems to mean Beatua, 
and Eid would seem to be the saint's name. The other 
panel has 

The person -who showed us the stone told us that it 
was brought there from a distance, we did not learn the 
name of the place. The name Runhol is curious, and 
reminds me of a Welsh gloss roenhol in the Juvencus 
Codex (patrii pecoris roerUiol dis patns)} 

20. From Lanheme we made for a farmhouse called 
Upper Kialixin, near St. Colomb Minor. Some of the 
wails there contain stones brought from the neighbour- 
ing house, which was formerly a priory, now a farm 
house. The stone we were in search of is in the wall 
of an outhouse, and reads in capitals, 

Owing to an inequality in the surface of the stone, 
there is a considerable space between iLLand the succeed- 
ing, word. ILL-, I have no doubt stands for fill-, but as 
the stone has been broken off close to the i, the p is all 
gone, excepting juat the end of its top on the left above 
the I. The spelliDg^t iovjilii is as natural as Turpilli 
for Turpilii on the Glan Usk Park stone. If consist- 
ency is to be expected in the epitaph, Tribuni must be 
tribuntis, used as a proper noun, and not Trebonius, 
which might be expected to have been written Tribunni. 
As to Bonemimori, Professor Schuchardt tells me that 
a considerable variety of forms based on 6011a memoria 
occur among the Christian inscriptions of Gaul. The 
letters are all beyond doubt and clearly cut, with the 
exception of the first N, which is faint, being on an ex- 

» Trantacliont 0/ FhHologkal Society, 1860-61, p. 217. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


posed' part of the stone ; the ll ia well defined, and so 
are the I's. 

21. Starting from Truro In the direction of Fal- 
mouth we visited Mawgan-in-Meneage, a small village 
about four miles from.Helstone; there, at the meet- 
ing of two roads, stands an inscribed stone which is not 
very easy to r^d. The letters are partly Hibemo- 
Saxon and seem to read as follows : 

The second letter is very indistinct and may be N, the 
first letter of the second line looks rather like a Y, but 
on the whole I think it is a 5 ; the iv have commonly 
been read N, but that is decidedly an error, for they are 
neither joined nor haa the v the perpendicidar direction 
of the last stroke of the other n. The s has a point in 
its lower curve, 

22. Leaving Truro we booked for Par station, about 
a mile from which ia St. Blazey Gate, near which stands 
a gate post, which has two inscribed panels. The first 
has usually been read + Alroron.but it mayjust as well be 

+ oil 


The top of the c is joined to the i which ia long, the 
two together look like an open q. I am not acquainted 
with a of that form. The other panel would seem to be 

+ 5"... 

+ CUJ- 

or something of the kind, for I am by no means certain 
of the reading, as the stone is exceedingly difficult to 
read, and the circumstances under which we examined 
it were far from favourable. 

23. From St. Blazey we returned to Par, and walked 
about four miles on the way to Fowey, but when we 
reached the eastern entrance to Menabilly, we walked 
a short distance along a cross road towards Newton, 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


and found the stone we were looking for on the road- 
side near some cottages. It has been quoted as reading 

But that is incorrect ; in the first place, the supposed c 
and I are only an inverted a, the curve being joined to 
the perpendicular stroke at both ends ; in the next 
place the i stands for a T, the top of which ia marked 
by a depression in the edge of the stone, which has been 
damped ; and lastly vs doea not take in all the writing 
between the T and Hic ; after poring some time over it, 
we concluded that it is agni, with the n somewhat in 
the bosom of the a. The legend wovild thus be 

Of course it is hardly necessary to state that w is not 
the modem w but m, which haa the above form in some 
of the Roman inscriptions. I should be glad to learn 
from those skilled in epigraphy how late it occurs on 
the Continent. Cunomori can be traced through Con- 
mor and CinmOT to the modem Cynfor in Welsh. The 
equivalent of Drxistagni occurs in the Myvyrian Archat- 
ology as Drystan, and the Four Masters give the Irish 
form as Drostan. 

24. The next stone I visited is called the other half 
stone, and is in the neighbourhood of St Clear's, be- 
tween three and four miles from Liskeard. The upper 
half of the stone seems to have been broken off, but by 
its side stands another, which seems to be entire. Both 
of them have interlaced ornamentation, and there is a 
panel on the eastern face of each, but the one on the 
whole stone is wholly gone ; one may gather that there 
was once writing on it; the panel on the half-stone 
reads in Hiberno-Saxon 


epc '.■ po 


P|io an 

nua ■■ 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


that is, Donicrt rogavit pro anima. I was told when 
visiting the stoDe that Doniert is the name of a Cornish 
prince mentioned in Annates Cambrice under the year 
875, the name is there given as Dumgarth, in another 
MS. Dumnarth. 

25. On my return through Merthyr Tydvil I went to 
see the Gelli Gaer stone wmch was lately figured in the 
Archaologia Cambrensis as reading in mixed characters, 


The stone has been damaged since the time this read- 
ing was to be seen on it ; in any case, the drawing is 
perhaps not very exact of the inscription at any time, 
for the first letter, according to Lhwyd, was a character 
which he read (. At present the stone shows thi ; the 
letter before is gone, excepting the lower part, which 
may be that of o ; the letter hefore the o still shows 
traces of its being r ; this last is preceded by a character 
■which looks a perfect r, and not a part of F. The hori- 
zontal bottom of the E still remains ; of the first letter 
there is a part of a curve left which agrees better with 
Lbwyd's facsimile than with the drawing in the Arches' 
ologia Cambrensis for last April. Lhwyd's letter is in 
the ArchcBologia Cambrensis for 1848, p. 310. 

26. During our short stay at Brecon we went to 
Llangors to see the stone described in the Archaologia 
Canwrensis, 1874, p. 232, where it is inaccurately read 

+ gurci 
The correct reading is 

+ jujici + bLflDjius 
There is a hollow in the stone just below the last u, 
which may have led to the mistake of reading that letter 
as y, which it is not ; the second cross is very faint and 
small, Uke the name which follows it. Both Gurci and 
Bledrus are su£Sciently familiar Welsh names, in spite 
of absurd attempts to make them out to be Irish. It is 
a pity to make the Archcsologia Cambrensis the vehide 
of such antiquated absurdities. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


27. We went to try the Scethrog inscription again, 
two thirds of which are perfectly clear, namely, FiLiVf 
VICTOEINI, hut what was the preceding name is the ques- 
tion I have never been able to answer to myown satisfac- 
tion. Now it is remarkable that the name is mostly in a 
hollow, which dates probably from the time when the stone 
was used as a roller ; still this hollow has strokes which 
are a good deal too many and too deep to have been the 
original ones ; bo, disregarding several of them, and fol- 
lowing what I took to be traces of the old ones, I guessed 
the letters to have been neuni. This name would be 
to Nemnivus as Cunocenni to Cunacennivi on the 

28. TralloDg stone which we carefully examined 
again. I read the Roman legend as before, 


But we found that my previous reading of the Ogham 
was incorrect, and tnat it can only be Cunacennivi 
Ilweto, where Cunacennivi may be regarded as the 
equivalent of Cunocenni filiits Cunacent, and Ilweto 
as an epithet not rendered in the Latin version, the 
same person being commemorated in both. 

29. Lastly, I learned from Mr. George Spurrell of Car- 
marthen, that some time ago he handed to one of our 
leading archseologista a detailed account of the inscribed 
stone at Capel Mair, in the parish of Llangeler ; accord- 
ing to the notes he took of it the Latin version was 


while the Ogham was Deccaihanvalhdis. It would be 
well if the account to which Mr. Spurrell referred were 
published at once. Archaeology, if it is ever to take 
the rank of a science, must welcome discussion. 

J. Rhys. 

Ehyl: Sept. 18, 1876. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 


It may be of some interest to trace the history of the 
name by which the Cymry are known in the world, al- 
though it did not originate with them, viz., the name 
Welsh and Its corresponding forms Gallois in French, 
Walliser, a Welshman, and Wallisisch, Welsh, in Ger- 
man. This name is the German Waktk, Wal, appa- 
rently " a foreigner". The German conquerors of Great 
Britain, the Angles and the Saxons, called the native 
Britons Vealas, meaning by this word "the foreigners" 
— a strange word for aborigines indeed!— but in their 
mind " foreign to their own race". The name was for- 
merly extended to all the Britons south of the Tyne, 
but it became at length limited, as one may well think, 
to the only Britons who had maintained their language, 
nationality, and Independence. By a strange contrast 
these very Britons, united for a common and supreme 
defence, had taken the name Cymhry (compounded of 
cyn, with, and hrog, country), literally " those who have 
the same country"," the nationals"{r/! the name Con/cdc- 
rates in the American war of secession), so that the same 
people are called ' ' the nationals" in their own language, 
and "the foreigners" in the language of their neighbours. 

This name Welsh, being only secondarily applied to 
the Cymry, must be found somewhere else on the border 
of the Germanic family ; and such is actually the case. 
Waelsch is the general name by which Germans call the 
Latin nations, more especially of course those with 
which they have been in relation and contests, the in- 
habitants of Italy and France. In Old-High-German 
Romanus -vias translated by Waelsch, and the Old-High- 
German writei-s who wished to express " in the whole 
world", wrote in alien Waelschen u na iv Tiittschen rtchen, 
" in all Welsh and Teutonic kingdoms"; for to these, in 
the middle ages, was confined the civilised world. 

The name has survived as a compound in the German 
name of one of the smallest nationalities of Europe, the 

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Romanckes or Romaunsch, as they call themselves, who 
make part of the Orisons, one of the Swiss cantons (the 
Retia orRhetia of old): we mean the name Ckurwaelsch, 
literally, " the Welsh of Chur or Coire," the chief town 
of the Romanche country. An instance of the name as 
old as 885 has been preserved : "Retia quod alio nomine 
Churewala appellatur."^ Churwaelsch has to this day 
remained the current German name-of this small nation 
of about 40,000 souls, which is daily being absorbed by 
its German and ItaHan neighbours. 

Nowadays the word Waelsch conveys in German an 
expression of disdain, if not of contempt, and it ia a part 
of proverbial sayings in which the Teutonic people snow 
their real feelings towards their Latin-speaking neigh- 
bours ; for instance, Waelscher Lug una Trug, " Welsh 
imposture and deceit". DerWaelsche Get«(,"the Welsh 
apirit", means the spirit of ignorance, levity, and vanity, 
which is said to characterise the French. The name 
Waelsch is applied to Italians as well as to Frenchmen. 
When a Welshman reads such expressions, which were 
common enough in German newspapers during and 
after the late war, he must remember that it does not 
apply to his country, but to Latin countries. 

It is strange to say that this name was introduced 
during the last century into the French language and 
literature. It was introduced by Voltaire, who had 
lived a long time at the court of the King of Prussia, 
the great Frederick, and who called Welches illiterate 
and rude people. When the Parisians wept at his tra- 
gedies and laughed at his comedies, Voltaire called them 
Athenians ; but when they laughed at his tragedies and 
did not laugh at his comedies, he called them Welches. 
He is almost the only French writer who has used the 
expression, and the word is now almost entirely forgot- 
ten except by the literati. 

Wales ia not the only country on which this name has 

been fixed as a nation's name. WeJlons and Valaques 

furnish us with other instances of the same fact. The 

Wallon country is that portion of the French nation- 

* Qaoted by Oraff, AlihochdeuUcher Sprachschatt, i, 839. 



ality which extends north-eaatward, and is nearly en- 
tirely compriaed in Belgium ; nay, it forms the French 
half of Be%ium (the other half being Flemish) ; and the 
vemacular dialect of the French part of Belgitmi is 
Wallon. It must be observed that here this name of 
foreign origin has been adopted by the inhabitants, who 
call tnemselveB by no other name than Wallons.' 

In Eastern EunJpe the name Walah has travelled 
long and far on the lips of natious or tribes which had 
heard it from the Germans, and, as Valaques (or Wal- 
lachians), it became for Europe the generic name of that 
nation of Daco-Roman descent on ihe Lower Danube 
who call themselves Romani, and who have officially 
revived their national name, when the Principalities of 
Moldavia and Wallachia, having come to independence, 
were united into a "Principality of Koumania." 

The Slavonians and the Madgyars have received the 
name from the Germans and apply it rightly to Latin 
people. Nestor, the celebrated Russian chronicler of the 
eleventh century, calls Volosi the nations of Latin descent 
(Franks, Italians, and Romans). Even Poles and Mad- 
gyars have two forms of the same word. The Poles call 
an Italian Wloch and a Rouman Woloch ; the MadgyMB 
call the former Oldsz and the latter Olah.^ 

■ There is more. In its long wanderings far east the 
word Valaque has lost its ethnographical meaning, and 
has, in some places, taken the meaning of " shepherd", 
most certainly because most, if not all, Roumains being 
shepherds in the last centuries (and to a great extent 
also now) the name of the people has passed for that 
of their occupation.' BXtixot now means "shepherd" 

' This word Walton, like manj countrj or provincial names, liaa 
become a man's name. It is the name of tlie originator of the pre- 
letit conatitntioQ of the pre»ent French Republic, now the Minister 
of Pablic InstmctioD. Compare the naineB Breton, Pieard, Lombard, 
and in Great Britain the name of Sir Walter Scott. 

^ I take thin fact from a rerj learned essay of Mr. E. Picot on the 
Ronmaina of Macedonia in the Revue d' Anthropologte, ir, 387, 1875. 

' It is by that well known process that iu so many langoages Jew 
has become synonymoas with " nsnrer", and that Suitae has acqaired 

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in Greek, and the confuHion U all the easier that most 
of the wandering Bhepherds in the north of Greece 
are Komnains from Macedonia, whom the Greeks in- 
juriously call Kutzovlagues, " Lame Valaquea, Walla^ 
chians, or Welsh". 

By a similar process the name Valaque is even ap- 
plied to a portion of the Slavonian family, namely, to 
the Slovaques in the north of Hungary, probably be- 
cause they are also a nation of shepherds. 

Though we can trace the wanderings of the word 
Walah, it is not so easy to arrive at its origin and ety- 
mology. The best scholars do not agree on that point. 
Jacob Grimm thought that it was no other than the name 
Gain, taken from the neighbouring Gauls, which was 
afterwards applied to kindred or neighbouring nations. 
According to that theory, the name Wcdlons, which stuck 
to the north-eastern Gallo-Romans, would be nothing 
but the generic name of ihe Gauls preserved in a portion 
of Gaul. But it has been questioned by Germanists 
whether the G would have turned into W at such date. 
Other scholars have compared it with the Greek €dp€apo<i 
and with the Sanskrit mieccha; but these are wild hypo- 
theses, and we deem that nothing more can be done 
with the etymology of Walah than with the etymology 
of so many ethnic^ names of ancient times. These 
are obscure questions where philologists may prove 
their acuteness, but nothing more, for want of docu- 
ments on the origin and history of the words ; and we 
may see in our own days how hard it is to trace the 
origin of national names and nick-names. Who will, for 
instance, explain, with certainty we mean, the world- 
known name Yankee f Only subjective-minded scho- 
lars will find such a work easier when they have to 
deal with ancient times, — apparently because one cannot 
safely find how to criticise their hypothetical expla- 
nations. Henry Gatdoz. 

22, Rne Servandoai, Paris, 
its preient meaning in French, " porter", manj Svittet (Swiss 
people) being employed ab porters in the seventeenth oentnrjr in 

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Sib, — Two dietingatBhed tnembera of the Association, daring 
the lata Meeting at CamutrtbeD, expressed their opinion that 
this relic is not a geoQine one, and certaiDlj not of that antiqaity 
that has been assigned to it hy others, inclading, if I am not mis- 
taken, that aocotoiplished and competent anthority, Professor West- 
wood. A writer in the Saturday Bemew, not leas dietini^ished than 
either of the two gentlemen referred to, says in his " Cambrians st 
Caermarthen", " the inscription on this stone strock ns as proving 
toomnoh to be really genuine." The reasons assigned for supposing it 
to be " the work of a recent botcher" are certain irregnlarittea in part 
of the inscription, which is simply the Latinised form of the aaiot's 
name ciSKi. The first three letters seem to be acknowledged as 
original. The last three are certainly not so well formed, and the 
final 1 has no cross line, but still they are of the same character as 
the three first, and it can hardly be donbted that the two portions 
are of the same time, if not by the same hand. Whatever difierence 
exists is partly aooon&ted for by the awkward position in which the 
artist hftd to stand or sit, and partly by the form of the stone. If 
the first portion of the word is gonaine, the latter mnst be considered 
the same, for it may be assumed aa probable, that if any later at- 
tempt were made to complete the name, care would have been taken 
to have copied more accurately the first three letters. 

The very botching, especially when the nature and position of the 
stone are taken into consideration, might therefore be considered as 
an ailment for the genainenesa of the whole; bnt if this assnmp- 
tioa is not granted, I would ask these unbelieving gentlemen if they 
can suggest the probable age of the inscription which contains no 
letter approaching a minuscle character, for the initial C can hardly 
be called such. 

The existence of the saint herself is not donbted, nor the time when 
she lived, namely, in the sixth century, and allowing for a certain 
interval of time between her death and admission into the roll of 
British saints, we are brought down to the period generally assigned 
to onr inscribed stones having Roman or Homanised characters in- 

If the inscription had been as late as the reviewer seems to think 
it is, the inscriber would probably have added the prefix of saint, for 
that her memory was held in respect may be inferred from the 
superstitions assignation of certain healing powers to the stone. 
The omission, therefore, of SANCta may in the opinion of some show 

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that tbe inscriptiou ia of an eorlj period ; for to suppose that the 
first three letters nere firBt cat, and the three last ones added by a 
" botcher" at a mach later period, is to Bappose a great deal too 
mach, or at least a great improbability. The simple qaestion, there- 
fore, is to what date the inscription is to be assigoed, and if that 
date be such as is nsnally assigned, at least in Wales, to inscriptiona 
of the same character, it mast be a very enrly one. 

Canoa is said to hare built the original cbnrch of Llanganna or 
Llangao, and seems to have selected this spot as being near the 
famouB college of Ty Gwyn ar Daf, the predecessor of Alba Landa, 
and which Panlinns, the faTonrite disciple of her cousin Qermanns, 
established. From a similar motive she fonnded another chnrcb, 
called Llanganna, near Llantwit, vrhere her brother-in-law and consin. 
Saint Iltntna, conducted a no less celebrated school. Of the latter 
charch nothing but the name remains ; bnt of the former one we 
appear to have an important relic in this chair, which, whether used 
by the sunt or not, was associated in very early times with her 
name. There are in Wales several incised Christian stones which 
may be assigned to a period anterior to the coming of Aagustine, 
and this chair may be safely added to the list of snch interesting 
proofs of the independence and antiquity of tbe primitive British 
Chnrch. It is to be hoped more care will be taken of this relic than 
has hitherto been the case ; and if left near the present deserted 
chnrch, as it should be, a low wall round it would be a cheap and 
efficient protector. 

I remain. Sir, yours obediently, D. M. 


Sir,— In reference to Professor Westwood's letter in the last 
Archceologia, Cambretuu I have little to say, for since its pablication 
I have had the pleasure of meeting him at the Carmarthen Meeting, 
and of inspecting in his company the Parcan Stone. He was can- 
did enough at once to admit that he had been misled b; the mbbing 
of it sent him. So he agrees with me that the reading is qvenven- 
DAII-, and not cuenvehdab-. 

"Ab ntw ditee omnes." Were the Professor to have another look 
at the other stones, I have no doubt bat that he wonld also admit 
that I am right in reading btterni, evolkng- evolbjtsj-. As to the 
second of these, the form etolono- in my letter is a blonder for 
which I cannot acconnt. It should have been corrected in the last 
Arehaohgia CamhrensU ; bat the correction, together with notes and 
queries of mine, were crowded out at the last moment. 

Of late I had given np collecting snbscribers' names for Professor 
Westwood's work on our inscribed stones, as I could learn nothing 
as to its progress ; bnt now I am delighted to find that it has not 
been abandoned, and it is my intention to spare nothing in my power 
to call the Professor's attention to points which require to be recon- 
sidered in order to make his work as accurate as possible. 

I remain, etc., J. Bhts. 

Dy Google 


Sir, — Tbe following extract from a letter among the muniments 
at Tnya y Maengwyn will eerve to illustrate the history of the 
TanghaBB of Cora y Gedol, published in the Areheeologia Camlrenfii 
for January, 1875. The letter is from Henry Bawdier to Mrs. Owen, 
nia Corbet, of Tnysy Maengwyn and Rhiw Saeson, and is not d«t«d, 
bnt was written probably abont the year 1 756 : 

About three week* sgoe an affair happened here, w'ch at I am now got- 
ten to the bottom of, I Uiiok it my duty to acquaint yon of it. 

A itrange gent, dying here' lately, & being oj his desire to be buried in 
St. Alkmond'B Church, the clerk and seztoni pitched on a place to make a 
gimTs for him under a handiome marble (tone w'ch w'th much to do I haxe 
found out to hare the inieription on ai on tbe otber aide, by w'cb it appean 
to kaxe belonged to a near relation of youri & the Coraygedol family. Tbeia 
fellowi hare broke Che stone eltber through careleianeas or with a design to 
hide tbe affair. In making of Ibe grare the (tie) came to a strong leaden 
coffin, whieb they opened, and found a corpse in, not near decayed, w'cb they 
took out piece meal, &, then cut the coffin to pieces in order to lift up out 
of tbe grave, w'eh they accordingly did, & brought it all up ft hid it in the 
church with a design to sell ; but on their oiTering it to sale, the a&ir was 
found out, and I hare got tbe wardens to atop it till I hear from you about it. 

" Here lyeth tbe Bodj of Mrs. Elizabeth Owen, eldest Daughter of 
William Taugban of Corsygedol, Esq., and Relict of AthelsUin Owen of 
Buaalson, Esq., who died on the 17th August, 1719, in the Mth year of her 

I remain, Sir, yonrs tmly, W. W. E. W. 

SiE, — It may int«reat *' Dkuetiak", who wrote under the above 
titio in yonr April number, to know that there ia a place in tb« sonth 
of Herefordshire called Pffngvyddel. It lies five or six miles north 
of Monmouth, in the parish of Llangnrren, and in tbe district of 
Arcbenfield, where, as a mere glance at the Ordnance Map will show, 
a large proportion of the names are Welsh. Tbe fact that no por* 
tion of Offa'a Dyke can be traced between tbe spot where it abnta 
upon the Wye at Bridge Sellers, about seven miles above Hereford, 
and the neighbonrhood of Chepstow, seems to indicate that the river 
itaelf was here the boundary of Wales ; and this is in fnll accord- 
ance with the prevailing local nomenclature. For what reason the 
Dyke should reappear towards the month of the Wye, where it might 
be thought to be least needed, and why it should there bo transfer* 
red to the Saxon side of the stream, it does not seem easy to explain. 
Perhaps some of yonr oorrespondsnts may be able to throw light 
upon this point. I may mention that not far from Pengwyddd is a 
farmhouse bearing a name (Peiihlaidd) still more distinctly suggestive 
of very remote antiquity. 

I remain, yonra faithfully, T. W. Webb. 

Hardwiok Vicarage, Hay. 

■ Shrewsbury. 

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C0KRE8P0NDENCE. 6 1 9 

Sir, — For moat of tbe Divine names in the following list, with 
their explanations, I am indebted to some loose papers of the late 
lolo Morganwg, preserved at Llanover, U^onmonthshire. The ex* 
planationa are not always satisfactory ; bat I give tbem jnst as I 
foand them. The alphabetical arraDgeraent of t^e names is mine. 

Adonan jw Duw o nef. — Da/ydd yanmor. 
Addon, tbe seed of everything ; Beneficeacs ; the et«mal offspring 
of eternal, infinite existence. 

Ansar, AetOT, Preserver, Protector, Shielder. 
Attar JD Wanar ini. 

Daw ein Tad, Deon wyt ti. — Dafydd Nanmor. 
Jmmon, nnoriginated, having no stock from which He coald have 
sprung. "Nid bon oai Ammon": nothing can be the stock from 
which everything springa, but that (the Being) which never had 
any stock from which it conld have sprang. 

Annaig, nn o enwan Duw fo'r gair awBw nen ang) ; i. B., the Con- 
tainer, or what contains all things. 

Fenaaig nef, Annaig, enwawg ueirthiad. — Prydj/dd Byehan. 
Anirav), chief Leader. 
Arglwydd, Sovereign, Supreme. 
Arie»—yw enw yr lesu. — Da/i/dd Nanmor. 
Beli, Belon. (Englyn Enwau Duw.) 
Ceti, invisible, incomprehensible. 

Cdi, un Mab Duw culwjf, 
Ctli, cljw fi, elaf wjf.— ,Si<i» Cent. 
Dafiny, Defwy, God. 

Dofydd, C«li, a 2Ja/wy, 

Duw Ner, ae nid -Muner mwy.— flAy» Brydgdd. 
Cauu mawl dwjfawl De/vri/.— W. Cyntnal. 
Dar, Daron, Daronwy (dy-ar), Chief, Superior. 
Dofydd, Regenerator, tamer, civiliser, moderator. 
Dkw (dy-yw). He is, God. 
Jhoyf (dy-wyf, I am), the same as 2>ww. 

Eli (Elif). and Eltm, infinite flow or efflux ; as correct an idea 
perhaps of the Deity as any infinite intellect may be able to form. 
Eli yw Duw oleu daith, 
Elon ei gelwir eilwaith. — Dafydd Nanmor. 
Ener (Ner), an infinite Lord of all. 

Gwawr (Gwawr Nef), Dayspring, dawn of or from Heaven. 
Gteertkejin, Sovereign Lord. 

JIu, Biuyn, the Supreme, the inhabitant of the Huan. 
Humydd, un o enwan Duw. 
Iilea fi, Dofydd Eueaydd hjn.—Elidir Sail. 
Liu gwynion, gwynfydig angar yn Humydd aa,iiid.—CynddelK. 
4th bbk., vol.. VI. 28 

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JoH (imvu), the jnst, the righteous. 

Inr Cgor), Lord, Snpreine. 

Modur, Mover, first Mover, Agitator. 

ilfuner(my-ner), Almighty. 

Nnf, Omniscient. 

l^er (nerth), the Powerful ; power, Almighty energy. 

Nudd (niiHus), manifest ; Benefactor. 

Por^portbi), eastainer ; sabsistence. 

Perydd, Feryf, cause, first cnnse, Caoser, Creator. 

Jtfien, Pervader, uni renal Pervftder. 

lihi. Great Parent. 

Ukiavidr, Governor, Controller. 

Bhwyf, Director, Controller. 

Taran, the Supreme, Sovereign, etc. 

Pw;ll, Fendann Dyfcd. 
Djfnwal, Pendaran Qwent. 
Degjrn, Pendaran Ltwjdarth. 
Bian Fandigaid, Pandaran Qwint. 
Qodwin, Pendaran Tnji Elfyw. 
Jvpiler Taratiit signifies Jnpiter the Supreme, Jopiter Mazimus 
Optimns. The thunder was formerly, and is still by the vnlgar in 
Wales, believed to be the voux of God, Hence it is called Taran, 
pl. tarauau. 

So far the list given by lolo ; but these are not all the appella- 
tioDS given to the Deity in onr ancient writings. A complete cata- 
logne of them would be interesting, but I cannot at present supply 
it. In " Enftlynion ar Enwau Duw" (Stanzas on the Names of 
God), by Sion Cent, published in the lolo 'i£SS., p. 285, in addi- 
tion to several of the preceding names, we meet with the follow- 
ing : CjjKnon, Daf, Da/on, Deoii, lof, lonawr, Pannon, Shion, with 
the mysterious OixB or O.I.W. One would take la/ and lau to be 
the same word ; but both are found in the forementioned poetical 
list of Sion Cent, and both are possibly modifications of the He< 
brew lah or Yah, as Eli would seem to be the same as Eli or EUn 
{Hari:, xv, 34; Maith., xivii, iG). The latter form actually oocors 
in the Black Book of Carmarthen (Four Ancient Book* qJ Wale*, ii, 
86), and in the Book of Taliesin {ib. ii, 206). Adonan and Addon 
remind one of the Hebrew Aion and Adonai, Heon, which is also 
met with, is, according to lolo Marganwg, the same as Huon, which 
occurs in the preceding list. Fanton, of which Pannon is merely a 
modification, occurs, as most readers will recollect, in the first Uno 
of the Awdl Fraith, generally attributed to lonaa Mynyw : 
Ev a wnasth Panten 
Ar lawr gljn Ebron 
A'i ddwyUw gwjnion 
QwiwluB Adda. 
ddwydd is another name sometimes met with in the writings of 
the bards, as, 

Oalieydd a'n goren ni ao a'i! gweryd. — Eiidir Sail, 

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Taran shoald, apparently, be Damn, gjnoDymona with Dnron 
tmd Daronwy ; for if Taran were tfae radiciil form, tKe oompoiiad 
word would be, not Pendaran, bat Peniaran; the preGz pen, in the 
sense of chief, priaoipal, or hecLd, having no effect on the following 
consonant, as will be seen in pentevlu, penleyrnedd, pentywj/nog, pen- 
tewyn, pentior, und aimilar words. 

In the Welsh Bible (Dan. vii, 9, 13, 22) Hen Ddikmydd (E, V. 
Ancient of Days) occurs as one of the Dirine names ; and loloMor- 
gnnwg, in some of hia notes, gives Qwehynvig as being of the same 
import. The latter he explains thus: " Oieehynwff, se! y tardd i 
fywydoldeb yn annwn; the original lifespring, or springing into 
life, at the lowest point of animated existence, or ont of the chaotic 
mass of matter in itn utmost stat« of deoompoaition." Archdeacon 
Prys, in hia metrical version of the Psalms, has, benides the names 
commonly employed in tho Welsh scriptures {Duia, Arglvjydd, lor), 
the terms Ion, Naf, Ner, noticed in the preceding list, and leas fre- 
quentlj Cun and Qmanar, the latter of which occara above s.T.^efar. 

Some curious speculations on the names of Ood, with notea mostly 
paerile, will be found in Bivrddat, vol. i, p. 2ld. 

I am, Sir, youra obediently, Edetkn. 


Sir, — The Hon. Frederick Wyna, who has lately joined our Asso- 
ciation, asked me to go over to Glynilivon in order to examine some 
markings npon the Mnen Hir within the Park walls, traditionally 
said to mark the grave-of " Owydion ab Don". Accordingly I went 
there on Tneaday, Sept, 7th. The markings were soon disposed of, 
being attribntnbte simply to the weathering of aoft places in the 
atone. Mr. Wynn then proposed digging at the foot of the stone 
with a view to ascertain if any interment bad taken place there, and 
asked me where the excavation had better be made. The stoue, 
which is 9 feet high above ground, has its sides facing east and west. 
The east side is nearly flat, and so I fixed npon that side. A trench 
about 2 feet deep was opened, and at a diatance of D feet from the 
Bt«ne and 2 feet 6 inches below the surface of the ^ronad the work- 
men came npon a layer of calcined bone mixed with charred wood. 
On closer examination we found pieces of tho urn that had once en- 
cloaed the remains. It had been apparently broken by the weight 
of the soil ages ago. We carefully sifted the earth around, as well 
aa the contents of the nm, bnt found no article either for use or 
ornament. Portions of the rim and the bottom of the am being 
preserved, we were enabled to jodge that it mast have stood about 
8 inches high, with a diameter at the month of 7 inches, and across 
the bottom 4J inches. It has not been torned on the lathe, and is 
without ornamentation. 

This ia the only inatance in theae parts, within my experience, of 
the finding of an interment marked outwardly by a Kaen hir for a 

D,g,t,.,.d.:, Google 


Jlr. Wynn Bubseqnently dng on the west Bide of the atone, bnt 
found DOthmg. Ho saggeats that, the grave may not be the reatin^f 
place of Gwydion ab Don, bat that Quaynnyn Gnrgoffri, a Cat- 
traeth hero, wbb buried there, nnd indeed the Bitnntion answers ex- 
actly to the description given of his grave in the Englynion y 
Beddan : " Bed Gnaynnyn GnrgoBVi rhung llavan a llyfni," How- 
ever, it may be that neither one nor other of these worthiea occd- 
pied the grave marked by the Maen Llwyd, for the urn, although 
of rnde conatmotion, ia quite devoid of ornamentation, and has 
aomewhat of a Koman shape. Moreover, I do not know that we 
have any warrant for supposing that cremation waa in use among 
the Britons dnring the sixth century a.d., when both Qwydion and 
Gunynnyn flourished. I remain, yours very truly, 

W. WiuH Williams. 


Sib, — In Mr. Blosam'a very interesting paper on Llanvaes Friary 
there is an expression or two on which (as if uneiplained, they may 
mislead) he will, perhaps, kindly allow me to oSer an observation. 
The phrase taken from Wadding, "remission of one fourth part of 
Bins" (p. 137), bus been nsed in reference, not to any sins whatever, 
but to those only repented of, and remitted in the sacrament of 
penance ; and is a condensed expression for the remission, by an act 
called an indulgence, of so mach of the temporal ponishment of the 
sin as may still remain to be undergone after its eternal penalty has 
been forgiven by Gud for the sake of the passion and death of Hia 

In the charter of Henry V (pp. 138-9), the words "divinum ob- 
sequium" would appear to signify rather divine worship than divine 
obsequies. There may, perhaps, be one or two other apparent inac- 
coracies, but they aciircely affect the general meaning. I may, bow- 
ever, perhaps be excused for inquiring of Mr, Blozam whether it ia 
certain that the English word " cowl", from the Latin cvcuUim (a 
hood), came in time to be naed for the entire religiona habit ? 

Tonra faithfully, H. W. Llotd. 

^rcliEeoIogital 0ote8 anb ^ntxits. 

Note 51, — IxscEiBED Stokb at Llanelltetrm. — lolo Morganwg re- 
cords that there existed in hia time a stone inserted in a comer of the 
Tower of Llanellteym or Llanilt^rn Church, Glamorganshire, bear- 
ing the following inscription : VENdnoi-H ARTI. The popular tra- 
dition in the neighbourhood was, that it was an inscription to the 
memory of Gwenhwyvar, wife of King Arthur, Edetbn. 

Note 52.— Ceomwell's Pkdioree.— There has of late been a good 
deal of writing in some of the local papers on the snbjeotr of the 

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supposed Wolsh extraction of tbe Protector. The following is hia 
pedigree as found in a MS. of the last centnrf : " Richard and Henry 
Cromwell, sons of Oliver Cromwell, son of EUcKard Cromwell, son of 
Sir Riohard Cromwell, son to Walter Cromwell, son to Morgan Wil- 
liams, son to William, son to Moi^n, one of the Privy Conacil to 
Hentj Ytl, son to John, oon to Morgan, son to Howell, aon to 
Kadog, son to Allen Lord Kibion, son to Cadwgan of Nannaa and 
Lord of Nannan, son to Bleildya ap Cynfyn, Prince of Powys." 


Nole 53. — Prehistoric Reuains in thb Edwt Vallrt. — Another 
excavation through the cam deacribed in p. 291, has been attended 
withamoregatisfactory resalt than the previons one, and so a farther 
note is requisite. The first cnt was mndethrongh the centre of the 
cam from east to weat. A cross cut from sonth to north has since 
been made by tbe careful and intelligent roadman who superin- 
tended the first ; there was a depression on the sonthero slope of it, 
aa if some one had begun to open the monnd and abandoned the 
attempt. On this side very small fragments of bonss, slightly cal- 
cined, one apparently of the top of a humema, were foond by the 
workmen distributed here and there. After tbe centre was passed, 
five fragments of an nm, in seven pieces, were found scattered on 
the north side, some being as much as two yards apart. There was 
again only the slightest trace of charcoitl. On an examination of 
the fragments they appear to belong to a cinerary urn, about 6 
inches in diameter at tbe month, and to form about two-thirda 
of an overhanging rim. Tbe height of the nm may have been 
11 or 12 inches, but none of the lower part of it was found. It ap- 
pears to have been hand-made, although not so rudely fashioned as 
the urn described in page 251, of a yellowish brown clay, partially 
burnt, with occasional traces of carbonacaoua matter in the paste, 
elaborately ornamented, without and witbin, by the application of 
twisted tbongs, as will be seen in the accompanying drawing. Tbe 
roadman came to the conclusion that the cam had been disturbed 
before, remarking that if the urn had been broken by tbe pickaxe 
and never taken out, they would have had a deal more pieces. There 
can be but little doubt that bis view is correct, but the appearance 
of the grass grown mound without and the careful arrangement of 
the stones wilhin suggest the notion that it may have been opened 
. at a remote period for the purpose of a fresh bui-ial rather than for 
curiosity; for in the latter case, considering the time and labour 
which must have been expended in such a work, tbe stones being 
large enongh to require removal with the b)\nds as the excavation 
proceeded, it would not have been reconstructed. Perhaps, when 
the remains of the cam are cleared away for road material, the ob- 
ject of its previons disturbance may be disclosed.' 

E- W. B. 
' The AMoeiatioa i» indebted to the liberality of Mr. Banks for a present 
of the engravings which illustrate h^t papers " On Piehiitoric Remaint in 
the Edwy Valley, Radnurtbire". — En, Areh. Citmb. 

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Note 54.— Tbb Wblsh Dulbctb. — Aooordin^ to lolo Horganwg 
the following are the charaaterifltics of tti« present Webb : " Of all 
the Welsh vemacalar ili&tects, that of Cardigannhire oomea nearest 
to the raodem literary dialect of which the Bible is esteemed the 
standard. The dialect of Qlamorgan is the nearest of all others to 
that of the anoient MSS., whether in prose or rerse. The dialect 
of North Wales is certainly the most remote from either the modern 
or anoient literaiy dialeots of any, not withstanding the opinion that 
prevails to the contrary, which is owiny to the Northwalians so 
generally arrogating to themselres all philological excellence." 


ifiiSftUattrous Notices. 

HiSTOKY OF Llanoubio. — A goodly octavo volnme of some 370 
pages of The HuUirif of the Paruk of Llangurig, Montgomeryshire, 
the conjoint production of Mr. Edward Hamer and Mr. H. W. Lloyd, 
has lately reached us. As most of the materials have already 
appeared either in the Archaologia Cambreneie or in the Montgome- 
ryehire CoUectione, it is unnecessary to call special attention to the 
contents of this well printed book. The illustrations which accom- 
panied the different papers of which the work consists are here 
reprodnced, and it is no smalt convenience to find them thus bronght 
together. Llangurig may now bo congratulated as being the sub- 
ject of one of the most complete and interesting parochial histories 
of which the Principality can boast. 

GAEtiC LiTERATtraE. — A new monthly periodical, to bo devoted to 
Celtic literature, is announced as shortly to appear at Inverness. 
It is to be entitled The Celtic Jf ayoztne, and some writers of eoiineucc 
are said to have promised contributions. We are not quite certain 
but that in the present instance, as in most of the speeches delivered 
some time ago in favour of establishing a Celtic professorship at 
Edinburgh, ODr northern friends employ "Celtic" and mean" Qaelic", 
thereby eseniplifying a figure well known to rhetoricians, by which 
the whole is put for a part. We wish the contemplated journal all 
success ; but we do not see that there conld be anj harm in calling 
things by their right names. 

EintT ItitSH MSS.— It is reported from Rome that an interesting 
discovery of Irish MSS. of the time of St. Colnmba has been made 
at Uilau, including a part of the glossary of the Irish language. 
These once formed part of the library of the monastery at Bobbio, 
and with others were placed by St. Charles Uorromeo in the Ambru- 
sian Libiary at Milan. The Chevaher Nigra is said to be preparing 
a work on these MSS. for publication. Ascoli baa also a work ia 
the press upon the same snbject. 

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Thb Hon. and Rev. O. T. O. Bridgeman has in the pntss a His- 
tory of the Prince* of South Wales,— a work which promises to be 
a very valaable oontribation to the history of that part of the Prin- 
cipality. Some years ago, as our readers are aware, l£r. Bridgeman 
pabtished a similar work on the Pn'naea of North Wales. 

PnLbHCLi EiSTEDDTOD. — At the late Pnrliheli Eisteddvod (Anj^st 
24-27) Lord Mostyn, one of the Presidents, exhibited the celebrated 
goldea torques preserred at Mostyn Hull, and described and figured 
in Pennant's Tourt (vol. ii, p. 286), and the silver harp won nt the 
Caerwys Eisteddvod of 1568, with the original commiHsioii for the 
holding of that notable gathering of the bardic fraternity. There 
was a temporary museum open during the fonrdays of the Eistedd- 
vod ; bat with the exception of these valnable relics and a mutilated 
copy of Salesbury's Welsh Testament (1567), there were hardly any 
articles of antiquarian or literary interest. 

Dr. Ebil. — In the July number we notioed the death of the 
greatest Celtic scholar of America, Professor Evander Evans. We 
nave now, we regret to say, to record the death of the leading Celtist 
of Germany, Dr. Hermann Ebel, Professor of Comparative Philo- 
logy in the University of Berlin, who died suddenly on the 19tb of 
Angast last at Uisdrag, a small watering-place near Stettin, on the 
Baltic. Professor Ebel was best known in this country as the editor, 
or rather remodeller, of Zenss' Orammatiea Celtica (1853), which 
appeared at Berlin in 1871 ; and by his Celtic Sludiet, translated by 
Professor W. K. Sullivan of Dublin, and published in 1868. But 
it is stated that he was an i^ulhority on Slavonic and Zend philo- 
logy ; and Armenian was one of the languages on which he contri> 
buted papers to Kuhn's BeitTdge. Bis edition of the Grammalioa 
Celtica is a lasting proof of his deep acquaintance with the Celtic 
dialects in their e&rlier forms; and it is probable that as a Celtic 
scholar his name will be best remembered. 

M. D'AitBOta DE JuBAiNviLLi has reprinted, from the Rtcve Arche- 
ologxque, his valaable paper on " Lea Celtes, Les Gates, Les Oaalois." 

Works of Goeonwy Owen.— Since we adverted to this work in 
OUL- last number we have received the first half-volume, and are 
much pleased with it. The annotations are veiy full, and the paper 
and type are all that could be wished. Pi-efixed is a full-page foo- 
siraile of the bard's handwriting. We look forward with pleasure 
to the appearance of the remaining instalments. 

Revue CsLTigcE. — Since the appearance of our last issue, the 
eighth number, completing the second volume, of the RevM Cellique 
has been published. As usual, it contains papers of great valne and 
interest, including one on the Irish Glossary of O'Davorcn by the 

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late lamented ProfeBBor Ebel. In looking over the " Liato des Soa- 
Bcripteurs an pr^nt Volame", we are sorry to find that the number 
or CaiDbriaa Bnbscribors, which never wa8 very creditable to the 
Frinoipalitj, has considerably fallen off. Is it possible that the fer- 
vid patriots who promote oer Eisteddroclan, and who generally 
manage to dispose of a Bum approaching £2,000 annnally for the 
" enconragement of Welsh literatnre" and kindred snbjecte, can be 
ignorant of the existence of sQoh a jonmal as the B<-vue Celtique ? 

St. Ewbn. — Air. Thomas Keislake, of Bristol, has lately pablisfaed 
in the shape of a pamphlet the paper on " Saint Bwen", which he 
read at the Congress of tbe British Aroheological AssociatioD, held 
at Bristol in 1874. The writer contends that Ewen or Hewan, to 
whom churches are dedicated in Bristol, Oloaceater, and Hereford, 
was a Cambro- British saint, and endeavonre to identify him, not as 
is nsaal with 8t. Onen, Archbishop of Rooeu, who died in 683, bnt 
first with a St. Owen, afterwards with St. Hywyn, the fonnder and 
patron of Aberdaron, CamarTonshire ; and farther on he seems in- 
clined to consider Hywyn to be "an archaic Welsh synonym of the 
name John"; hot in comparing thette names he has omitted the 
Welsh form of John, which comes nearest to Ewen, namely, Iwan, 
which is in common nse in South Wales when either the Baptist or 
the Evangelist is alluded to in relation to their festivals or to the 
charchee dedicated to them, as Qwyl Itoan, Beittug Iwaw, Capel 
Iwan, Ffair Iwan, ete. The paper, thongh it does not appear to ns 
to establish the point or points intended, is not devoid of interest. 
We may just notice that Mr. Kerslake confonnds the late Professor 
Rice Reea, of Lampeter, anthor of the Welsh Sainte, with his name- 
sake and relative, the late Rev. W. J. Bees, of Casgob, editor of the 
Liber Landavensia; and makes Bardsey Island three leagnes, instead 
of BO many miles distant from the Carnarvonshire shore. 

Errita.— Page 87, line 9, for"12th" read "21st". Page 130, 
note, for " Dinllelleu is evidently a misprint or misscript for Dinllen 
(^Din lie)", read " Dinllen ia evidently a misprint or miascript for 
Dinlleu (=Dinlle>". Page 289, line I.l, for " with pedigrees'* read 
" withoat pedigrees". 

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CambrCan 9Tc|)aeological assotiatfon. 



MONDAY, AUGUST 16th, 1875, 

The preliminary arrangementB had been most efficiently carried 
oat by th« Local Committee and its OScera. 

W. &. B. GWTN, ESg.. Flu Cwrt Hir. 

H. S. Mo ,-.--=,-- 

berth. High Shuiff of Uannftrtlien- 

The Bight Hon. and B«v. The Lord 

DynavoT, Dynevor Ciiatle 
The Vieeount Emljn, M.P., QoUen 

John Jones, Eaq., H.P., Blaen Noe, 

C.W. NevUl, EBq.,M.P..West&,Llaii. 

Chaa. Batli, Esq., F.S.A., Flynnonaa 
B. Browne, Esq., Carmarthen 
G. M. Davieg, Esq., Uplands 
V. Daria, Esq., Carniarthen 
T, J. Etbds, Esq., Abei^lasney 
J. Bagnal Evani, Esq., Nont yr Eg- 

Iwya. Whitland 
T. W. A. Evans, Esq.. KidweUy 
Col.G.Orant Fnuicia,F.S.A., Swansea 
B. Oardnor, Esq., CarmaTlhen 
F. Green, Esq., Oaklands 
Bev. J. Griffiths, D.D., Llandilo 
W. M. Griffiths, Esq., Solicitor, Car- 

JT. W. E. James, M.A., Abetgwili 
, Jennings, Esq.. Qelli Deg 
J. Johnes, Esq., M.A., Dolau Cothi 
Bar. L. M. Jonea, B.D„ the Tioarage, 

Bev. Owen Jonee, H.A., St. Ishmael'a 
Bev. O. Jones, B.A., CaiTaarthen 
J, L. O. P. Lewis, Esq., Henllsn 
Ven.Archdn. Lewis, Lampeter Yelfrey 
Sir T, D. Lloyd, Bart., Bronwydd 
Sir John Mansel, Bart., Maes Deilo 

f Car- 
T. T. Monaley, Esq. 
W. E. Nevill, Esq., Ferryside 
Thomas Nicholas, Esq., M.A., Ph. D. 
Douglas A. Onslow, Eaq. 
J. Owen, Esq., 016$ 
Bobert PomaU, Bsq., Llanstephan 
J. L. Fhilipps, Esq., Bola Haul 
E. Frotheroe, Esq., Dolwilym 
J. M. Fenry, Esq., Feterwell 
Kev. S. Pryoe, M.A., Cambray Hoase, 

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J. C. Ricburdson, Esq., QUn Brydui B. Ooriog Thomu, Esq., LUnnon, 

Park, Camiartben Lbutallj 

ReT.ABronBoberts,M.A.,NewcliaT(ih J. W. ThomM, B«l'< Cuniuthen 

J. D. RowIandB, Esq., Cvm&rtlieii Aetley Tbompaon, Eaq., Glfn Abber 

a. SpDirell, Eaq. J.5.TregoaiaK,Baq.,lBeoed,KidweU7 

A. Cowoll Stepney, B*q. "" '—'-'- "-'••' " >»- — 

W. Spurrell, Gtq. 

C^it. O. O. Philippa, B,N. 
Be7. Rupert H. MuitIb, U.A., F.O.R. 

Sraaral BMrstkdH. 
Rev. E. L. Bunwell, U.A., F.S.A. Soot., Helkshai 
UuoTgo E. RubiosoD, Esq., Cardiff. 


The Eael or Cawm)e having been voted to tlie cbair, expressed the 
regret of the Ueetiog at the ncavoidable absence of the onti^oin^ 
President, Sir Watkin Williama Wyon, whom as Prince of North 
Wales they wonid have been glad to welcome in the Sonth. As his 
locum lenenf, bonever, be had great pleasure in resigning the cbair 
to the new President, the Lord Bishop of St. David's, wbom be 
looked upon in that pusitiun as cmphaticallj "the right man in the 
right place", as to biro, in its early history, the Associntion was prin- 
cipally indebted not merely for it« existence, but also for its conti- 
nued snccesB and character. 

The President then assumed the chair, and delivered the follow- 
ing inaagnral address : 

" My Lord Cawdor, Ladies and Gentlemen, Members of tbe Cmd- 
brian Arcbteological Association, — It appears to be the mle in thifl 
and kindred' societies for the President to inangarate the Annna) 
Meeting by tbe delivery of an address either on the general aabjeot 
to the investigation of which the Association devotes itself, or oa 
some particular branch of it ; and I observe that most of my prede- 
ceasora, acting on this principle, have given a sketch of the parti- 
cular antiquities of the county or distiict in which the Society hap- 
pened to be holding its Meeting, by way of gaiding the tbongbts 
and inquiries of the members, and of giving them some idea of 
what they were likely to see or to hear about in tbe course of (he 
following week. For myself, as a new comer into this particular 
district, althoagh by no means a stranger or a novice as regards the 
general operations of the Society, I feel that I should prove but a 
sorry guide to tbe antiquities of Carmarthenshire, — a territory of 
which, as it happens, 1 have, antil within the last few months, 

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knoirn rerj much less than I do of most other p&rta of the Princi- 
pality. I would, tlierefore, ratliei- leave this task to those gentle- 
men who are about either to read pnpers on oar local antiqaities 
or to not as g'uides in onr e:(ci]niion8 ; ^ad therefore I trust that the 
members will bear with me if I give the remarks which I have to 
offer a nomenhat more ffenentl scope, and if I endeaTonr (o cany 
their tlionghts bejond the limits of the region which we are now 
about to explore. It has appeared to me that I might not altogether 
witboat profit call you to consider the qaestion what is the proper 
work of a Cambrian Arohsaological Association, what it can do, 
and especially what it has still to do ; and if, as is very macb more 
than probabls, I omit to notice many particulars which I ongbt to 
have inclnded in the enumeration, 1 will trust to the kindness of 
members to snpply these points in the course of our discussions. 
In all scientific and historical inquiry much is already done if we 
know what we want to find out. " Pradwii qiicuUo, dimidiurr, teien- 
tia"i and I think I shall not altogether have failed in my dnty as 
President of this Association if I have succeeded in proposing ques- 
tions to which its members may endeavour to find answers. 

" But I trust I shall be ptmloned if, before speaking of mora 
general matters, I make a brief digression to somewhat of a more 
personal nature. I feel that I oannot properly enter on the duties 
of the office to which yoar courtesy bas called me without express- 
ing my grateful appreciation of the hononr which the Society con- 
ferred upon me when it took tbe earliest opportunity, after my 
return to the Principality, of electing me its President; and at the 
same time I desire to give expression to the deep interest which I 
have long felt, and shall always feel, in the work and tbe welfare of 
this Association. I may almost claim to speak of myself as on» of 
the fathers of the Society. I had not, indeed, the good fortnne to 
be present st the first two meetings, which were held in tbe years 
1847 and I8i8 ; bat from 1B49 to 1854 I attended every moeting 
of tbe body, and had the honour of taking an active part in ita 
work in tbe capacity of Secretary. Since that date i fear I have 
been an nnworthy and unprofitable member of the Association, a 
mere sleeping partner, a drone in your busy hive. Let me thank 
you for recalling me to an active work in connexion with your body. 
It is especially pleasant to me to see around me to-day, among the 
friends and 8npport«ra of the institution, mnny of those who were 
among its most active members a quarter of a century ago. it is 
also gratifying to observe the progress which this Association has 
made from very small beginnings. It was not unsparingly snubbed 
and pooh-poohed when it first came into existence i and those who 
did not despise it were generally afraid of it, their only donbt hav- 
ing reference to the special ground of fear, as it was not regarded 
as quite certain whether we were papists, or heathen. Neverthe- 
less, the Association has lived, grown, and fiourished. Its organ, 
the ArehiKologia Cambrentii, bas nearly completed its thirtieth 
volume, and has shown no symptom of failing fur want of matter. 

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The meetings, which in the days of the Society's yonth attracted 
little or no attention, hare actaally won for themselves a space in 
the colaiQiia of The Timet, larger (of coarse) than that which is 
allottod to the proceedings of the Convocation of York, and not very 
mnch less than is allowed to the daily reports of the training of the 
Oxford and Cambridge crews. Consequently I think we may now 
oongratnlate ourselves as being regarded by the world as a body of 
established respectability. '* 

" I will DOW approach, with your pei'mission, the special snlyect 
which I have chosen for onr consideration to-nighl^ vii., the work 
which a Cambrian archaeological aasociation has to perform. Yon 
will observe that oar position is in some respects intermediate 
between an archsological society of a more general character and a 
county or diocesan society. A great deal of the work which we 
have to do is local in its character ; and all the more so inasmuch 
OS we have no central home, but have to devote onraelves to the 
investigation of a new district every year. On the other hand, the 
Asaociatiou has a good deal of what may be fairly termed national 
character, in so far as the region over "which its operations extend 
is mainly, though not exclasively, the home and heritage of the 
ancient nation from which most of ns claim to have sprang. A dis- 
trict marked bypeculiarities of race.laDgaage.cnstomfl.ana history, 
although it has, happily for itself, become an iutegr&l portion of 
this great kingdom, and altfaougli in these days it is not easy to 
■ay where Wales ends and England begins, still has to be treated 
in many ways as a separate whole ; and this consideration gives to 
the Society a character of oompletenees and independence which is 
not to be looked for in bodies whose sphere of operation is simply 
local. And I confess that, independently of my own deep interest 
in the Principality of Wales and in all that belongs to it (an int«- 
reat even deepened by my present official connexion with it), I have 
always thought the proceedings of this Society peculiarly interest- 
ing, and its meetings pecnlinrly pleasant, from the mere fact of its 
undertaking to deaf with a territory of considerable extent, not too 
Urge to be thoroughly got up and known, and yet fornting a dis< 
tinct and separate whole ; and this interest is considerably height- 
ened by the fact that the nation inhabiting this district is one of a 
gTonp of tribes with the other members of which it is connected 
with various degrees of affinity, while its history touches theirs at 
several points. And this brings me to the first subject which I have 
now to bring under your notice, namely the work which the Cam- 
brian Arclifflologieal Association has to do in the department of 

" In Wales, Cornwall, and Brittany on the one hand, and in Ire- 
land, the Highlands and Hebrides, and the Isle of Man on the other, 
we find the lost relics of a widely diffused group of nations, in a 
greater or less degree of purity, bnt still in a purer condition than 
is the case anywhere else. At tbe beginning of history we find the 
race already npread throughout the west of Knrope. It had already 

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!tB divisions and BabdiriBions. It had b.\«o on its borders other 
races, Bome apparently representing; the earlier occapftnts of the 
same parto of Europe, others being a later wave of immigranta from 
more eastern countrieB. Here sereral problems occur for Bolatioa 
at once, and we in this conntry are able to approach them trota a 
gronnd of vant^e. How far were the inhabitants of these conntries 
(say of Qanl and Britain) homogeneonB, at the period when the 
light of history first breaks in npon them. That light reToala oer- 
tain ethnological differences between the inhabitantB of certain dis- 
tricts. Have Bnch differences been perpetuated, and are we able 
stilt to reco^ise them in the existing distinction between Owyddel 
and Cymry r In what did such differences originate P Were they 
developed before the great Celtic race reached its final homes in the 
west, or aAerwards F Are they in some measure owing to thepar- 
tial absorption of a pre-eiiating race, Enscarian or Finnish P What 
indications exist of the pre-esistence of snch an earlier occupation, 
or is it possible to trace it in the features, habits, or language of any 
among the present inhabitants of these conntries, or in their local 
nomenclature P What light do monuments throw upon this ques- 
tion P Do the antiquities of other countrieB illnstrate our own in 
regard to this point, to any appreciable extent P 

"In this department alone, as it appears to me, the Cambrian 
Arch Ecological Association has plenty of work ready to its hand. 
And the very great advance which has taken place within the last 
few years in this department of arch Geological science has opened 
more questions than it has closed. When our Society came into 
existence more people than not believed (I am sure I did for one) a 
cromlech to be a Druidical altar, and a circle ofstones to bear some 
special relation to the worship of our heathen progenitors. It is 
now, of coarse, generally understood that our megalithic monuments 
belong to the rites of sepulture rather than to those of religion, and 
that they are in all probability relics of an earlier race, as well as an 
earlier state of things, than those which existed in this country 
when the Dmide were the priests and philosophers of the nation. 
Within the same time discoveries have been made in this coontry, 
but to a greater extent elsewhere, which carry back the human oc- 
cupation of Western Europe to an unexpectedly early date in the 
history of the earth. Geology and archeeology have met and shaken 
hands over the drift. Man was here side by side with animals whose 
existence can only be inferred from their relics in caves or in alluvial 
deposits. The discovery of the lacustrine dwellings, chiefly in the 
lakes of Switzerland, has revealed a very carious stat« of things to 
which, I believe, no parallel has yet been found in this country. 
Bat it is by no means improbable that a careful examination of lakes 
and turbaries, or even of fiords, loaghs, and estaaries may tell as 
something more about the primitive inhabitants of these parts of 
Europe. At present the chief traces of them are to be found in the 
stone remains with which our western shores abound, the primeval 
dwellings and primwval tombs, tho ci/liau and eromlechau, which 

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Are abtrndantlv Bcatt«red over onr heathn and moantuas. Of conras 
these remains are comTnonly found on the contiaent of Earope, and 
even, as it appears, in other pnrta of the world. We in this country 
possess large opportunities of obserrtng them. Whether, as has been 
thought, the comparative absence of wood in regions bordering on 
the Atlnntio was peculiarly &voDr&ble to the formation of settle- 
ments by a people ignorant of the use of metals, or whether our 
rocks and boulders offered an abundant supply of materials, or whe- 
ther onr poor soil and backward agricnltnre has caused these re- 
mains to be spared in Wales when they perished ulsewhere, it is 
clear that in the Principality as well as in Cornwall, and above all 
in those portions of the Principality which most resemble Cornwall 
in their sitoation, remains of the stone period are nnneually abnn- 
dant. Again, the last quarter of a century has witnessed a npid 
growth in the science of comparative philology. The laws which 
were first systematically exhibited by German scholars, anoh as 
Bopp and Orimm, have been lately applied to the Celtic languages 
in relation both to their internal history and stmctnre, and to 
their connection with other idioms. I have little doubt that the in- 
vestigation is n frnitful one, and that we have still a large work be- 
fore as in this particular field. The pages of onr Magazine bear 
witness to the careful cultivation of this branch of palteological sci- 
ence by Bome of our own members. 

" X wish also to find ont how mnch has been done in the course of 
the last ten or twenty years in the practioally new study of compa- 
rative mythology. I am not awaro that the laboan of comparative 
mythologists have been brought to bear to any appreciable extent 
on the fertile fields of Welsh, Armorican, and Irish tradition. The 
truth is that in studying the traditions of any oonntiy there is not 
only a great deal to be done, but also a great deal to be nndone. 
We have to dig away a great deal of rubbish before we get to the 
foundations. Those ingenious artists in a certain midland town who 
are said to fabricate Roman medals and Egyptian scarabcei by the 
gross have long had their counterpart in the class of men to be 
found in every country, and not altogetJier wanting in oar own, who 
cook np genuine traditions into a mesa of fabrication, conjecture, 
and confusion. There is a grand opening for a Welsb scholar in 
this direction. A thorough sifting of the earlier Welsh poems and 
romancea, and of ench curious nncertified fragments as those which 
bear the name of Triads and others of the same stamp, which shall 
first strip off the modem additions of a self-oouscions age, shall fix 
OS near as may be the date and occasion of the poem or document, 
shall precipitate in a solid form the small amount of ascertainable 
fact, and shall also discover a vein of primitive tradition capable of 
being illustrated by the traditions of other countries, and especially 
by those of the cognate races, will be a work worthy of the energies 
and abilities of any critical inquirer, Whether aach an inquirer is 
to be found among onrselves I do not undertake to say, but at all 
evente oar Society may do something in the way of encouraging snch 
an inquiry. 

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Again, the histoty of Britain nnder and after the Roman occnpa- 
tion wants nach attention. The data for the hieturj of the Roman 
period are not abundant, bnt so far as thej exist they are on the 
whole clear and nneonivocal. Far different is the chara«;t«r of the 
documents, facts, and memorials to which we mnst look for evidence 
of the state of things immediately following the withdrawal of the 
Roman forces from Britain. It is a period of obscurity as regards 
the history of every country, above sjl Ets regards the history of onr 
own. The twilight of the old Roman world, the dawn of the middle 
age, ia beset with diScnlties historical and ethnological. As regards 
onr own country we are still slmont at the beginning of the inquiry. 
The inveNtigstion is full of interest, and embraces a vast nnmber of 
Bubsidiary problems. What relics of Roman life and civilisation con- 
tinued to exist in the towns, in the country, in South-Eastern Brit- 
ain generally, or near old centres snch as York, London, or Colchester? 
Can we find trustworthy traces of a Roman Christianity in Britain F 
Whence came such Christianity as existed among Britons, Picts, 
and Irish p How for was the Latin language the language of 
the people ? How far has- it been taken np into Welsh ? Why was 
Oanl Romanised and Britain not, if it was not, or so far as it was 
notr' What is the troe history of the Britons of Armorioa, and is 
there any fonndation for the supposition thst they were mainly 
emigrants from the insular Britain P To what extent were the 
Britons of Lloogr exterminated, enslaved, or absorbed by the Eng- 
lish nation? The early bardie remains, the legends of the Welsh 
saints, and the heroic cyclvt of King Arthur and his companions, all 
belong to this period ; their investigation and criticism form part of 
the inquiry, and any results of such an investigation will throw 
great light on the history of the period. Two other points deserve 
especial notice in connection with the same period of history. First, 
we have the existence of a widely extended British kingdom, lasting 
down to the middle of the tenth centn^, in a district now as tho- 
roughly Teatonised as any other part of the island. I speak of the 
kingdom of the Cumbrians and Strathclyde Welsh. Some of the 
oldest Welsh poetry appears to have come from that district, and it 
is pretty clear that one or more emigrations from it to that which 
we now call Wales took place dnring the obscure period of which 
wo are now speaking.' This Society might with much advantage 
devote especial attention to the history and antiquities of Cumber- 
land, Strathdyde, end Oalloway. The local names throughout that 
region are largely suggestive of a British origin, and yet of such an 
origin the present inhabitants seem to show no traces whatever, 
Bnt historical documents are full of the vestiges of the Celtic in- 

" The other point to which I wish to call yoor attention is the 
existence of monumental insoriptione belonging to this dark period, 

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both elsewhere and abandantly id Wftlea. A good deal has been 
done already in ibis departnieDt, especially bj & distiDguished palee- 
ographer whom I am glad to see present, but mnch remains to be 
done. These inscriptions in general are very scanty, rarely faring 
anything beyond the name of the person interred and that of his 
father; bnt the names have an anmistakoably Celtic complexion. 
And in some few instances in this coantry there is found side by 
side with the Latin inscription in debased Roman characters, an- 
other inscription, sometimes a Celtic rendering of it, in a rode cryp- 
tic alphabet, the key to which waa discovered in Ireland. On the 
whole the phenomena snggest the idea the graves thns inscribed aro 
largely those of Irish chiefs. Welsh tradition and local nomencla- 
ture point to the existence of Irish raids, and even of Irish settle- 
ments, in Wales, of which we here find confirmatory evidence. In 
this we have a large subject opened for observation and inqoiiy. 
The real nature of the Gaelic settlements in Wales, whose existence 
ia undeniable, presents a hitherto unsolved problem. 

"I may be thonghtto be anticipating if I here notice akindredqnea- 
tion. What is the true origin of the Tentonic colonies in Sooth Wales, 
of which the Englishry of Pembrokeshire presents the most notable 
example P The history of the establishment of Flemings in that 
district scarcely aObrds a sufficient explanation. The ezistenoe of 
Flemings in Qower has not even the support of tradition. No doabt 
these districts were thoroughly conquered and fendalisod, and Eng- 
lish as well as Flemish colonists occupied them nnder the gnidance 
of Norman lords. Bnt I cannot help snspectiug that those districta 
were partially Teutonised long before the period assigned for the 
Flemish immigration. Very likely there were Scandinavian settle- 
ments on the coast, and on the shores of Milford Haven. " Fish- 
gard" and " Kasgard", as well as " Skokholm" and " Skoroar" have 
a Danish air about them : "Freystrop"muRt surely have been founded 
by a heathen settlement of Teutons, whether Scandinavians or not. 
This throws back the colonisation of Bhos far beyond the Flemings. 
A careful examination of local names may do a good deal towards 
solving the question. 

" The history of the dark period of which I have just been speak- 
ing is, in fact, the first chapter in the history of Wales. Bnt the 
history of WaJes has yet ta be written. We want a continnona his- 
tory of the Principality from the time of the Teutonic conquest of 
England down to, or a little beyond, the death of the last Llywelyn, 
with a second volume, and probably a not less interesting one, to 
bring us down to the reign of Henry YIII. I do not wish to disparage 
the work of labourers in this field when I say that very little has 
been done yet towards the accomplishment of this task. It is mora 
than one man's work. One archit«ctonic mind may writo the book, 
bnt many must prepare the materials. Besides the criticism of the 
chronicles, we must give our bards another sifting, and we must ex- 
amine charters and other docnments of every kind. This Society is, 
I hope, gradually accumulating facts for the fntnre historian of the 

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Principality. And out history mnBt not be a mere record of events. 
We want to know something' of the political and BOoial condition of 
the coantrr. We want an insight into its institutions and its manners 
at ancoessive periods. A social history of Wales may, indeed, with 
much advantage be broaght down to a later period than the rei^ 
of Henry Ylll. Family relics, and above all family letters, wonld 
afford considerable materials for a description of the oonntry 
as it existed even down to the last century. It would be very inter- 
esting to compare its social state with that of England at the same 
peri(3. In particular we ehoald be veiyglad to learn, and I should 
think it would be by no means impossible to make out, the social 
history of the Welsh language, tt would be interesting to trace ita 
gradual dying oat in certain distriote and its dying down in others. 
When did our gentle-folk give up talking Welsh in their familien, 
and when did they (to so great an eit«nt as is now unhappily the 
case) give up spealcing it altogether F If the story of Qaeen Cathe- 
rine and her husband's relations is trustworthy, it was possible for a 
Welsh gentleman of good lineage to appear at the English court in 
the early half of the fifteenth century, and to be deaoribed as a 
" goodly dnmb creatnre." But it mast nob be forgotten that at the 
same time, or very little earlier, an English gentleman nsed Norman 
French as his ordinary language. Probably it was the fiery trial of 
the Wars of the Koses which pnrged the ooantry of it for all but for- 
mal and official purposes. There can be little donbt that English bad 
become the ordinary language of the Welsh gentry by the middle of 
the sixteenth century, bat I cannot help snapeoting that their know- 
ledge of Welsh was for some time afterwards more considerable 
than is the case in onr own time. I think it wonld be fonnd upon 
examination that a larger proportion of the Welsh clergj; were con- 
nected with the leading famOies of the Principality during the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries than has been the case since. 
This may not in eveiy case prove, but it does to a very considerable 
extent imply, a more estensive knowledge of the vernacular on the 
part of the higher classes than very oommonly exists in our own 
time. I may be wrong in this conjecture, but many phenomena 
upon which I will not dwell at present appear to me to point in that 
direction. But this at all events would form a very interesting, and 
I think a profitable, field for inqniry. 

" Onr Association has an important work to perform, and it has 
already done good service, in the way of both iUnstrating and pre- 
serving material antiquities. Some of these, indeed, may now claim 
the protection of the law. But it is necessary that the law should 
be put in force, and we may regard onr local secretaries and other 
active members partly in the light of antiquarian detectives charged 
with the duty of arresting the wanton destruction of national monn- 
ments. One class of such monuments only needs to be let alone. 
If camps and other earthworks are not levelled or ploughed away, if 
cromlechau and meini-hirion are not blown up, or turned into gate- 
posts, and if inscribed atones are simply protected and undisturbed. 

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notbiog more is wnnted or can be expected. It is otherwise witb 
mudiffival antiqnitieB, a more interesting, more nnmerons, and more 
perishable class. Take first the case of actual rains. In Wales, 
and especially in South Wales, we have a great store of military an- 
tiquities. This region is a paradise of castles, perhaps no district 
in Enrope can compare with this in the mnltitnde and interest of its 
military remains. A great deal has been done by one of onr mem- 
bers, nnhappily not present this week, in the way of explaining and 
illnstrating antiqaities of this class. The qneation of preserving 
memorials of this kind is a very difficult one. Restoration of them, 
in the ordinary acceptation of the term, is simply ont of the qnes- 
tion ; bnt it is perfectly legitimate to prop and patch so as to arrest 
decay. I think it will be found that our Society has done good 
work and that it has still a work to do, in calling attention to the 
need of occasional repair, and above all to the mthless destmction 
which is taking place in so many of onr ancient castles. In domestic 
remains of the middle ages, not being castles, the Principality is 
(on the whole) comparatively poor. The grand palace of the bishops 
of St. David's, the abandonment of which I fear I cannot altogether 
deplore, is no doubt an example of this class to which few rivals can 
be found ; and here and there, especially near the English frontier, 
there are interesting domestic buildings of the middle age, or 
of the sixteenth and seventeenth centnries. Bnt, on the whole, 
Wales is poor in antiqnitiesof this sort. In many parte of the Prin- 
cipality the rural gentry were very indifferently lodged, even down 
to a very recent period, and the buildings in the town, most have 
been generally poor and mean. 

" I now turn to the chnrchoa of the Principality, which are, of 
course, of a lower rank than the correisponding class of antiquities 
in England, and are in many pari^ of the conntry utterly without 
interest. Still there exist large numbers of rural churches in various 
parts of Wales, which, though small and rude, have in their kind 
an interest which is peculiarly their own. The churches of south- 
western Pembrokeshire afford the most remarkable example of the 
truth of this statement. Bnt it is also true of other parts of the 
Principality. The prevailing passion for restoration has reached 
even to this remote comer of the kingdom. For this, as a Welsh 
Bishop, I cannot lose this opportunity of expressing my thankfol- 
nesB. Some of us remember the miserable condition in which many 
(I fear I must say nearly all} the countiy churches of the Princi- 
nality were a quarter of a century ago. In this respect the change 
nas been very remarkable and beneficial. In this diocese alone 
about £350,000 was raised by voluntary subscription, during the 
episcopate of my predecessor, for the erection and restoration of 
churches. Probably the total amonnt expended was not much short 
of half a million. Bnt while I rejoice in this improvement as a 
Bishop, I cannot conceal my regret as an archfeolof^st that the «eid 
for churcn restoration has not been at all times according to know- 
ledge. I believe it requires a greater architect to restore a church 

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than to build one ; and I am anre it requires & greater architect to 
restore a charcli like Llanbadarn Fawr, or one like Hftnorbier, than 
to deal with Boston or St. Mary Rodcliff. An architect, for example, 
who shall deal with one of oar rade, solemn, quaint, Welsh conntry 
chnrches, wantfl not merely artistic skill, bnt something of poetical 
feeling. They need to be treated with Uie most rererent care. 
Better do nothing than do too mooh. I speak, of course, sow only 
of that which is bett«r in point of art and feeling, since even this 
must occasionally give way to necessity. I think oar Society has 
done a great deal, but I am quite sure that it has still very mach 
to da in the way of stopping anadvised and hasty reatoratioa. It 
ia necessary to be on oar guard in this matter, not only against the 
devices of country builders and fourth-rate architects, — for even 
arcbitcots of established reputation are far too fond of doing too 
much ; and unluckily the great mass of our country gentlemen and 
conntry clergy, who chieSy manage these things, and whose zeal 
and liberality certainly deserve all praise, do not know what is 
worth preserving. They see a tumble-down old ohnrch with a 
broken-backed roof, with sash-windows, with rotten pews, unspar- 
ingly whitewashed within and without, but none the cleaner for it ; 
and from want of edncation in this department of antiquities, or 
periiaps from an inherent want of imagination, they cannot conceive 
that of which it ia the wreck, and to which it may with judicious 
oare be brought back ; and so they call in an architect, and the 
artdiitect leaves little of the old church but its four walls, sticks in 
tracery and capitals the like of which were never seen in England, 
decorates its bore walls with oil the oolonra of the rainbow, and fiUa 
it with all manner of pretty little tiny kickshawa till the young 
ladies are convinced that he has made a sweetly pretty thing of it, 
aa no doubt he has. 'O'eti magn^iqve, mai» ca n'eti pa* la guerre,' 
Much caution, much discretion, much experience, much judgment, 
are wanted for thia task on the part of the architect, and some 
TJrtaea akin to humility and faith on the part of other peo|)le. In 
ezpresaing it£ appreciation of good restorataon, and in difinsing such 
knowledge as will enable others to do so, this Society will perform 
a good work. If any one here desires to see what really good 
restoration is, he cannot do better than make a pilgrimage to St. 
David's. So for as tbo work has gone, it ia aa good aa it can 
be. All that was defective and dangerous in the parte of the church 
now restored hoa become solid and sound. Nothing haa been re- 
newed simply because it looked old and weather-beaten, or except 
BO far as there was a mechanical necessity for doing it. Old things 
which were of no good date, and whioh were out of character with 
the good mediteval work, have been replaced by other work ; but 
the new work does not force itself upon the eye. Merely decorative 
additions are in strict harmony with the feeling of the plaoe. Where 
a difficult question arose between restoring the presbytery to its 
original condition, and retaining laterworkof good date, though not 
a particularly good apeoimen of that date, the architect, aa it aeems 

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tn me, hit npon a moat felicitous compromise. On the whole, I feel 
bound to expreM iny peroonal obligationn to Sir Gilbert Scott, not 
only for what be has done to the renerable cbnrch in wbicb my 
official seat is placed, but for baring Ret an excellent example to 
nrchiteots, which I trnst thoy will not forget in dealing with the 
less important but scarcely leas interesting chnrches of thia diocese. 

" I have run as rapidly as I could through some of the principal 
matters with which, as I think, our Aasociation has to deal, and in 
dealing with which it may atill do good aerrice. In ao limited a 
time 1 coold not be expected to tonch on every moot point, neither 
is it desirable. Let me express my hope that the Ueeting which 
we are inaagnrating to-night may be not only pleasant but profit- 
able, and that it may be the meana of accnmnlating solid materials 
for the history of oar country, as well as of diffnsing an intelligent 
interest in its antiqnitiea. 

" I cannot close this address without a few words about the illna- 
triouR man whose place I am most unworthily called to take, and 
who has so lately entered iut« bis rest. He was certainly in many 
ways one of the most remarkable men of our age. To say that be 
was a man of immense learning is to say nothing. To most of ua 
to epeak of a person as learned conveys no more meaning than it 
does to speak to an Englishman who has never been out of his own 
island of a great monntain or a great river. Not only is great learn- 
ing a thing only to be found here and there, bat even the power of 
estimating or appreciating it is scarcely less rare. But perhaps 
there has been no one in our time in any country, and certainly no 
one in onr own, whose learning has been so vast and ao varions as 
that of the late Bishop Thirlwall. Bat all these stores of learning 
would have been both impossible and useless without the great 
inttillectaol gifts and moral qualities which enabled him to acquire 
and to apply them. In cleamesB of mental vision, in sonndness of 
judgment, in sober caution whether in receiving or rejecting evi- 
dence, he stood without a rival both as a historian and as a theolo- 
gian. Those who addict themselves to such studies as form the 
especial object of this Association will find in him a perfect example 
of calm and judicious inquiry into the records of the past. It is 
gratifying to us to remember the interest which he took in the pro- 
ceedings of the Society. He was one of its Patrons from the begin- 
ning, held the office of President in 1859, and attended and took 
part in the proceedings of three or four of its Meetings. He was in 
all points a great man, a grand and noble intellect and character. 
In many respecta he atood alone, and, so for, the venerable and soli- 
tary sanctuary from which he derived his title was an apt symbol 
of his mind and character. Bat though he stood apart he was at 
alt timea ready to carry to contending factions a message of peace 
and conciliation. May those who take npcn themselves the office of 
searching the records and investigating the relics of past times, — 
but above all may those whose minds are engaged on the highest 
problems which oan occupy the thoughts of man, and upon a right 

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Bolntioa of which the fntare, whether of the hnman race or of indi- 
vidnala, lai^elj depends, — leftm to emulate his candour, his feai-less 
love of truth, and his power to strip off fallacies and deceptive 
appenrancee, and to see things as they are." 

The President next called upon Mr. Robinson, the General Secre- 
tary for Sontb Wales, to read the Annual Report. Owing to an 
accident it had not arrived from Cardiff in time for the Meeting, so 
that a brief enmrnary of its contents had to suffice for the occasion. 
It is, however, inserted here aa adopted at the Committee meeting 
on Wednesday evening, 


" Your Committee have the pleasure to announce, that at no period 
since the cominencement of the Association has it been in a mora 
satisfactory position than at present. Notwithstanding the resigna- 
tion of some of it« members and the removal of others, its nambers 
are not only fnlly maintained but so largely increased as to exceed 
those of any previous period. 

" In the year 1865, when tbe Society met at Llandilo, the list of 
members, even with a large accession, contained only aboat 150 
names, more than half of which have since been removed by death 
or resignation. At present the number exceeds 300, and your Com- 
mittee venture to hope that this most satisfactory increase is an in- 
dication that the objects of this Association are becoming more 
widely appreciated and better understood. 

" It will be within the memory of those who were present at the 
Ruthin meeting in 18^4, that the latter number was fixed upon aa 
the utmost limit the Association conid be expected to attain. Acting 
npon this opinion, your Committee limited the issue of the ArchaO' 
logia Cambrentit of 1855 and 1856 to 300 copies, and, in consequence, 
that issue has been entirely exhausted, so that a complete set of the 
third series is not readily to bo procured. Hence it was considered 
in 1869 desirable that in 1870 the fourth and present series shonld 
be commenced, so that all who subsequently joined the Association, 
might be able to procure a complete set. 

"The appended statement of acconnte for the past year shows an 
improved regularity in the payment of subscriptions, although this 
regularity is stilt capable of improvement. 

" Tonr Committee regret their inability to announce the com- 
mencement of the contemplated work on " The Inscribed Stones of 
Wales", under the care of Professor Westwood, the requisite number 
of 150 subscribers being still far from complete. The same appa- 
rent apathy is also shown by the manner in which the Rev. Robert 
Williams has been supported in his publication of T Greal. The 
greater part of the literal English translation has also been issued to 
the few subscribers, and fully realises their expectations not only as 
to the care and fidelity with which the work has been produced, but 
also the general appearance and finish of the volumes. 

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" The eighth number of the Bevue Oelti([tte (coDolading the second 
Tolnme), oondncted by M. H. Q&idoz, a member of this ABsociatJoa, 
has also been issned, and fnlly Boatains its reputation, as the lit«- 
miy co&tribatioiiB, nithont exception, proceed from the most dis- 
tinftoishcd Celtic scholars of the age, and it is a matter of sarprisa 
that he has not been enabled to nnmber more supporters of the 
"Bevoe" among the members of this Association. The present 
nnmber contains, among other contribntiona, one by Mr. Whitley 
Stokes, who has made additions and corrections to hu article on the 
"Ancient Irish Goddess of War", and an excellent article by M. 
Adolphe Pictet on the Names of Riren, styled " Une Enigmo d'On- 
omastiqne FluTitile." 

** It will be necessary dnring this meeting to elect a tmstee in the 
place of the late Sir Stephen Glynne, and amongst other names 
which may be suggested, that of G. T. Clark, Esq., of Doirlais Honse, 
has an additional claim npon yonr consideration, inasmuch as his 
time and Talnable services have always been readily given for the 
advancement of the objects of this Association. The Committee 
trosb this saggestion will have the unanimoos approval of the mem- 
bers on Friday evening next. 

" Another matter must alao be considered on that occasion ; the 
General Secretary of the Association for North Wales, the Rev. 
E. L. Barnwell, after twenty-one years of office, finds it necessary to 
be relieved of his duties, or at lea^t of part of them. With a view 
to such a change, permission was given at the Wrexham meeting to 
Professor Babington, the permanent Chairman of the General Com- 
mittee, to make sQch arrangements to meet this contingency as he 
thought necessary, subject to the approval of the members of the 

" After many vain attempts to End a gentleman able and willing 
to nndertake these duties, it was thonght they might be transferred 
wholly or in part to the acting editor. The Rev. D. Silvan Eyans 
was accordingly solicited to accept this arrangement, and your Com- 
mittee regret he was nnable to do so. On his declining, a similar 
application was made to the Rev. I>. R. Thomas, the historian of 
the Diocese of St. AsAph, who has kindly consented to act, on the 
condition that he may be at liherty to resign, if he finds his accept- 
ance of the office interferes with his other duties. Mr. Thomas pro- 
poses, in fact, to consider his office for the year as one of trial, 
his acceptance of it being on the understanding that if he feels it 
necessary to resign it should not be incumbent npon him to find a 
snccessor, bnt that the present General Secretary for North Wales 
should resume his duties. 

" The Committee propose that the thanks of the Association be 
given to the Rev. D. Silvan Evans for his valaable services, as Editor 
of the Arckceologia Camhrensis for the lEwt five years, as welt as for 
his consenting to join the Editorial Committee, and readiness to 
assist in any way that he is able. 

" The Committee also propose that the Lord Bishop of St. David's 

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and Lord Aberdare be enrolled as patrons of the Society ; and tbat 
the Hon. Wm. O^ea Stanley and A. J. B. Beresford Hope, Esq., 
M.P., be elected aa Yice-Presidents ; also that the thanks of the 
Association bo prosented to Sir Wfttkins Williams Wynn, M.P., for 
bis semces to the AsBociation, as its President, dnring the past 

" Snbject to the approval of the members, the Committee snggest 
the appointment of M. Oaidoz as Corresponding Secretary for France 
in place of M. Didron, and of Dr. Barham for Cornwall. 

" The retiring members of the Committee ara Professor Babing' 
ton, Joseph Mayer, Esq., P.S.A., and the Bev. Hnffh Priobard ; and 
yoar Committee recommend tbeir re-election. They also recom- 
mend that J. R. Cobb, Esq., Brecon, Ber. D. Silvan BranB, Llany- 
mawddwy, R. H. Wood, Esq., F.S.A., Rngby, and H. W. Lloyd, 
Esq., Kensington, be added to the Committee. And the^ further 
propose the following members as local secretaries for their respec- 
tive conntieB : — Bev. Walter P>ans (late General Secretary for Sontb 
Wales) for Flintshire ; J. R. Cobb, Esq., Brecon, for Brecknockshira ; 
Rev. Prebendary Klorris, Training College, Carmarthen, for Car- 
ntarthenahire ; J. W. Lnkis, Esq., Cardiff, for Glamorganshire. 

" There is one feature in the present meeting on which the Com- 
initt«e and the whole Association cannot bnt dwell with signal plea- 
snre. In this, onr second visit, after twenty years, to the connty of 
Carmarthen, we have the privilege of being able to place at our bead 
one who, man^ years back, was one of the most active officers of the 
Association ; it would not be too mncb to say its mainstay in a time 
of special difficulty. Those whose memories can go back to the 
earlier days of the Association must know well how much the As- 
sociation owed to the present Bishop of St David's. It is then with 
special propriety, and with special satisfaction to the Association 
that we find ourselves this year gathered together under the head- 
ship of a prelate, to whom we, as a body, feel a debt of gratitnde for 
services long past, bnt not forgotten, while in his public character 
we can yet more than others hail in him a worthy successor even of 
the great man in whose seat he site, and whose loss oar Association 
has its own ground for lamenting, besides those common to it with 
this diocese and with the whole nation. 

'' The following names, having been submitted to the Committee, 
have been approved of, and admitted aa new members : 

" Roberta, Rev. Aaron, Mansel Street, Carmarthen 
Green, Francis, Esq., Oaklands, Carmarthen 
Griffiths, W. M., Esq., Carmarthen 
Harries, A., Esq., Carmarthen 
Hearder, G. J., Esq., U.D., Carmarthen 
Jonee, Rev. Owen, Carmarthen 
Thomas, J., Esq., Carmarthen 
Joseph, T., Esq., Ty Draw, Pont y Pridd 
Williams, Rev. B., Cenarth, Llandyssil 

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Hoist, J. J., Esq., CardiS' 

Bath, Charles, Keq., Ffynnon&n, SwansAa 

Lloyd, MJBH G. L., Brecon 

Jennings, Richard, Esq., Gelli Deg', Kidwelly 

Webb, BeT. T. W., Hardvrick Vicw«ge, Hay 

Ijewis, h. T., Esq., Cadoxton Lodge, Neath 

Dav!es, D., Esq., Ton, Tstrsd, Pont y Pridd 

Bees, D. Rhys, Esq., Tonn, Llandoreiy 

Phillips, Edward James, Esq., Llanelly 

Owyn,W. E. B., Esq., PIhs Cwrt Hir, Carmarthen 

Lloyd, Kev. Evan, M.A., Llanatephan 

Morgan, H. S., Esq., High Sheriff, Carmarthenshire 

Prothero, E., Esq., Dolwilym, Whitland 

Allen, J. BomUly,Bsq., 5, Albert Terrace, Regent's Pk.,N.W. 

Godsal, Philip Wm., Baq., Isooed Park, Whitchnrch, Salop 

Xiewis, Kev. Chaacellor, Rectory, Dolgelley 

Sonthem, F. R., Esq., Lndlow 

MiddletoQ, J., Esq., Cheltenham 

Jones, Rev. Latimer M., Vicarage, Carmarthen 

Horton, H., Esq., Ystrad, Carmarthen 

Chidlow, Rer. C., Conwyl Caio, Llandilo 

Williams, Rev, David, Rectory, Uerthyr, Carmarthen 

Haghes, Professor Thomas UcKenny, M.A., F.S.A., F.G.S., 

Woodwardian Professor of Geology, Cambridge 
Davis, Valentine, Esq., Carmarthen." 

The following is the statement of the aoooonts of the Society to 
January let, 1875 : — 



£ < 
To Editor'- - - 60 
„ Wood-engraving - 36 
„ Steel ditto - - S6 1 
„ Printing - - 190 
„ Balance - - 37 

AudiUd and found eorrtct. 

By balance - - - 
„ Bale of boolu - 
„ Wrszham Meeting ~ 
„ SubfcriptioDi, etc. - 

Brecon : 2Ath March, ltj7S. 

JoBSPK JoBBPB, F.S.A., TVeomnr. 

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Starting at 9 A.u. from the AsBembl; Booms, — n spot rendered 
noteworthy as that where Sir Richard Steele breathed Us last, — 
a lai^e party set off, Qnder the guidance of the Rev. A. RobertB, to 
inspect the remains of the Castle, which, protected on one side by 
its elevated position, and on the other by the Tovry, so commanded 
the snrronnding district that one aould not bat admire the military 
skill of the ancieot Britons in selecting such a site for their myr- 
ddin, as well as that of their snccossors, the Romans, who enclosed 
the earlier works withia their eattrum or eaer of Miiri- or Mari- 
dMMitm ; and who, in their turn, were in af^er time succeeded by the 
Normaa invaders, who erected the keep and strengthened their 
position by massive works, portions of which still remain. Here 
were anbaeqnently the courts of chancery and exchequer for South 
Wales, and a mint established. It is now nsed as a gaol. 

The nest point of interest was the crypt of St. Edward's Chapel, 
a Bubstruotnre of massive strength, 31 feet long by 17 feet broad, 
and 9 feet 8 inches high to the apex of the barrel -vaulti ng ^ lighted 
by deeply splayed openings on the sooth side, and having a lofty 
recess at its west end, and two smaller ones at the esst. It is now 
nssd as a wiae-vault. A carved represeutetion of the Calvary, let 
into the wall, still marks the site of St. Uaiy's Chapel, in the rear 
of which are many vanlted rooms and passages. But the most 
eocleeiastical looking crypt of all was that which now forms the 
vault of the Sheaf Inn, where a double arcade of fonr bays, with 
barrel- vaulted roo&, and what may hare been an ambry in the wall, 
seem to attest a former religious nse. 

A vallum with its dyke of considerable extent, bat tmcertain ori- 
gin, next engaged the attention of the party, who were divided in 
opinion whether it formed a part of the Roman oircnmvallation, or 
was the dyke thrown up in l&il to defend the town from the attacks 
of the Parliamentary forces of Fembroksshire. Its position and 
present extent seem to corroborate the latter view ; but it may have 
followed in part the lines of the ancient defences. 

Thence the visiters proceeded to the site of the scanty rains of 
the house of the Grey Friars, where had been buried Edmund Tudor, 
Elarl of Richmond, the father of Henry YII, and whose tomb was 
transferred, after the Dissolution, to St. David's Cathedral ; and 
Sir Rhys ab Thomas,' who was on the same occasion removed to 
St. Peter's. Here, too, until lately, were shown fragmente of the 
tombstone of Sir John Stradling. Fortions of the chapel were seen 
iu the walls of an adjoining house ; and near it, at the Cawdor Arms, 
. a massive chimney of the kind popularly designated Flemish. 

' Id the inventory of the gooda of the "Carmarden Orcy Frian", giren 
in the Archaoloffia Cambrtnti* for 187S (" Oiiginal DocumenU", p. xxxix), 
special mantioD is made of both theM tomba. 

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The pamh church of St. Peter's contains several objecte of inte- 
rest, and nmongthem. the moral tablet recordinfj^ the martTrdom of 
Bobert Perrar, Bishop of St. David's, which iook place Uarch 30, 
1555, on the aonth side of the Market Gross. It is singular that no 
TneTDorial of this event has been erected on the spot, the only record 
of it being the aforesaid tablet of late erection. The gigantic efBgy 
of Sir Rhys ab Thomas, in tbe robes of the Ghuter, is said to be 
second only in size to that of the mythic Qay Earl of Warnick, and, 
with that of his wife, was described by Mr. Blozam. In close proz- 
imity was the tomb of Walter Devepoui, Bar] of Essex, on whose 
death, in 157?, the funeral sermon was preached by Bishop Richard 
Davies, tbe coadjutor of William Salesbnry and Chancellor Hnet 
in the first translation of the New Tsatanient into Welsh. 

At II o'clock the party set ont, through a drenching rain, to 
Llanstophan, where the church was inspectod nndor the guidance of 
Mr. Freeman, who drew atlention to the tower as a cbaraoteristio 
feature of Pembrokeshire churches, — and, indeed, of the whole inter- 
vening oonntry as far as Monmouthshire ; to the barrel- vaulting as 
seen in the basement ; and to the rude arches bnilt up without 
moulding, splay, or capital, and looking as if they had been simply 
cut ont of the wall. The stoup still remains in tbe porch, and there 
is a sqnint on tbe north side of the chancel-arch. In the arcade of 
tbe chancel-aisle lies a tombstone to tbe memory of Rice Lloyd of 
Llanstephan, ob. 1622, a descendant of Morris Lloyd, son-in-law to 
Sir Rhys ab Thomas, who held the Castle, and fought for Henry at 

The continuance of the rain somewhat interfered with the carefal 
ezamination of the remains of the Castle, which occupies the sum- 
mit of the steep hill, and presents a singnlariy piotnreBqne view. 
The most interesting portions are the keep, the chapel, and the ori- 
ginal gatehonse, for which a later one had been substituted, more 
to the left as one enters. The space within tbe walla had been 
divided into two wards by a cross- wall (now almost destroyed), with 
which the keep was connected, so that the occnpante of it conld 
commnnicate with either ward. The probable date of the Castle, 
to jndge from an Early English corbel in the great hall (the only 
distinctive detail remaining), is tbe latter part of the thirteenth 

Sir James and Lady Hamilton courteously entertained the nnme- 
roQB company with a snmptnons hoBpitali^r> for which the thanks 
of the Association were tendered by the President, and acknow- 
ledged by Sir James Hamilton, together with an announcement of 
a donation of ten guineas to the Local Fand. Sir James had also 
kindly secnred for the amosement of bis gneete the attendance of 
the well known Aberdare choir, whose performance of national tun 
excited aniversal applause. 

On the homeward jooraey some of the party stopped to eutmine 
the Meini Llwydion that survive of a cromlech at Llwyn Du, and two 
other apright atones on either side of the ancient Sam or causeway 

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iliat led from Bhydl^dan towards Carawrthen. GaBtell Moet, a 
ruined honae of the fifteenth century, and at one period the seat of 
a family called Byd or Reed, well known in the annaU of Carmar- 
then, waa also visited ; whilst other members inspected what was 
stated to be a Boman altar, and two meahirs, in the ^rotinds of 
Ystrad, — a place probably ao called from its cIobb proximity to the 
Tia Jnlia, — and where the membera were hoapitably received by 
lire. Horton. 

£vEim«j MESTtsa. 

The President called npon FrofeBsor Babington to give a remmi 
of the day's exvnraion, after which Mr. Blozam gave a deaoription 
of the effigy of Sir Bbys ab Thomas and its pecnliarities. 

The Rev. D. R. Thomaa then drew the attention of the Aasociation 
to the serioos injury done to Llanstephan Castle by the thonghtleas 
conduct of eztmrsioniata, with a view to bringing its inflaence to 
bear apon the evil ; and Colonel Grant Francis anpported it with 
the suggestion that a custodian should be appointed, as had been 
done with such marked advantage by the Duke of Beaufort in the 
case of Oystermonth Castle ; and the President promised to repre- 
sent the feelings of the Association to the lessees and owners of the 

The President then called npon Professor Westwood, who gave n 
very lucid and interesting account of" Inacribed Stones" in different 
conntrieB, and particnlarly in Wales ; of the form and importance of 
their inscriptions, and the character of their ornamentation. The 
address was farther illnstiated by rubbings of several of those atones 
which had been differently read by Mr. Rhys ; and the Professor 
ezpreBsed his satisfaction that after his thirty-five years of labour in 
the field, the subject bad been taken np, from a philological point of 
view, by so able a Celtic scholar as Mr. Rhys. The address will be 
printed in the Joamal, with a Lst of those in Carmarthenshire. 

Mr. Rhys briefly vindicated the readings of some of the above 
inscriptions, whion h« had already published in the Archaologia 
Camhreaaia, one or two of which, it was hoped, might be tested 
daring the present meeting. 

Mr. Uowel Lloyd mentioned an early inscribed Btone, formerly in 
the wall of Llanfor Chnrch,' near Bala, which was stated in Sygonae 
(April 7, 1875) on the authority of the author of Diuertaiio d« Bardia, 
to be that of the Llywarch Hen, whose connection with the district 
Mr. Lloyd illustrated by reference to his writings, and supported by 
a somewhat ingenious reading of the inscription. 

The Bev. D. R. Thomas admitted the traditions, and added that 
a spot adjacent to the church was called *' Pabell Llywarch Hen", 
but could not agree to Mr. Lloyd's interpretation of the ioscnption 
which he rather read as cavosehukqu, and in this opinion Mr. 
Bbys and Professor Westwood concurred. 

The President then called apon Prebendary Morria to read a paper 
' Now in the wall of the porch of the rebuilt church. 

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on Llanstephan Castle, compiled cliiefly from the notes of Lady 
Hamilton, giving man j detaile of its cheqaered history, and starting 
some qaeiitions of genealogy and archit-ectnre, whereupon 

Mr. Freeman pressed the want of a good Historj of Wales, so 
forcibly stated in the inaagnrtJ address, and illastrated it by the 
difBcnlty of dealing properly with the reigns of Harold, Wllh'am 
Rafus, Henry II, and others ; and by the amnsing confusion that 
prevails as to the two Cromwells. The history should be written 
Dy a Welsh scholar, who coald compare the language and history of 
his country with those of other countries; who wonld sifl and ex- 
amine and state his snthorities, and do for Welsh history what 
English and German scholars were doing for theirs. He wanted to 
know more accurately what had occorred after the Bomsns had 
departed, and down to the eleventh or twelfth centuries. Here it 
was that the importance of the inscriptions which hod been dis- 
cussed would be seen, as declaring not simply individaal names, bnt 
as throwing light npou the nomenclatare and customs of the time, 
sach as the nse of prenomena and the date of their discontinnance. 
A year ago he wonld have said that the President was the one man 
capable of sooh a task, bat now more important dnties occnpied his 

The President in reply stated that no snch idea bad entered bis 
thoughts, and again urged its importance, and hoped that every 
meeting of fcha Society wonld help forward- in one way or another 
that olgect. 


The first object of attaction this morning was the remains of the 
Ansliu Priory, dedicated to St. Teilo and St. John, & small portion 
of which has heen converted into cottages ; in one of these the lid of 
a cofGn forms a coping stone ; in another & pointed window was seen 
walled np, and in a third the entrance to a vaulted pasdage, or per- 
haps a large drain, is pointed out as having been opened some fifty 
yeaT« ago, and since closed ap. The Nun's Walk is now a garden. 
In another portion of the grounds the foundatiou walls were exposed 
to view a few feet below the soil, of what was probably the chapel. 
The whole of the ground hereabouts ought to be carefully examined, 
and in the oase of any building or other operations carefnl measure- 
ments and ground plans should be made of all remains of the old 
buildings and cemetery. Its history is more fnlly treated of in Mr. 
Alcwyn Evans' paper on Gnrmarthen Castle and Priory. 

In Priory Street the decayed and withered trunk of "The Old 
Oak" received its dae share of attention. According to one account 
it is of vast antiquity, and with its existence is bound np the fat« of 
Carmarthen, For when the Old Oak goes, then the town will be 
swallowed np by the encroaching sea. According to another and 
more prosaic one, it is related to have beenplanted on May 12th, 1659, 
when Charles II was proclaimed king at Carmarthen. Its planter 

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ivaa JoLd Adams, an ancestor of the second President of the United 
States ; and its present forlorn condition is dne to the malice of an 
occapier of the adjoining cottage, who, resolving to got rid of the 
overwhelming shade which it cast over his hooae, bored a bole into 
it snd filled it with poisonons ohemicalB. 

Id the vicarage garden were seen (inter alia) a Roman altar 
broDght from the castle, a Roman inscription let into an onthouse 
ivall, a ricblj carved boss, sod the flagstone into which was inserted 
the stake to which Bishop Femtr is said to have been bound. 

At eleven o'clock a large party set oat in carriages np the narrow 
bat beantifn) vallej of Cwm Gwili, and through Cynwil Elfed, 
irbere "Cromwell's chimney" was daly inspected, to examine the 
remarkable earthworks known as "Clawdd Mawr", the Great Djke. 
Extending aa marked on the Ordnance If ap, about a mite and a half 
in length, bnt judging from local names,' continued at one time along 
the brow of the hill to the outpost marked " Caer Blaen Minog", it 
forms a strong barrier across the watershed that divides the waters 
of the Towy and the Teivi, and was manifestly the key to the pos- 
session of the high lands on either side of it. Of its history nothing 
is known, but adjoining it are a large circular British camp, — a fine 
cromlech which occupied the centre of a circle containing four or 
five others, which, however, have been grBdnallj broken up and need 
for walls and gateposts, — and nnraerous "cmgaa" or burial mounds 
in all directions. In one of these, viz., " Cmg j Dum", some aurei 
of Hadrian were discovered a few years ago. Another, prononnced 
" Cmg Poth," and leaving it doubtfal whether " porth" or " poeth" 
were Uie word represented, with the known presence of the Roraans 
in the neighbourhood, induced some of the meinbers to trace for 
some distance an old road that led from Llangeler to Cwm Dnad, 
imd was supposed by some to be Roman, bat the result of the exa- 
mination was very decisive in favour of its being an old British 
trackway and not a Roman road. 

On retaruing to the little inn at Cwm Dnad, a very acceptable 
luncheon bad been kindly prepared for them by Mr. Valentine 
Davis, after which the carnages proceeded through very narrow 
and ancient roads to Traws Mawr, where Captain Davies hospitably 
refreshed the excursionists with tea and coffee, after a careful exa- 
mination of the interesting carved and inscribed stones, which have 
been removed hither for greater security. These included the Seve- 
rinna stone removed from Llannewydd churchyard, and inscribed 
Severini fili Severi ; another, bearing on one side a cross, and on 
the other the legend cvnsoni ; and a third marked with a plain cross 
and four holes in the iingles formed by the arms. Owing, per- 
haps, to these stones and a misapprehension of the name " Traws 
Mawr," it has been more than once asserted that this was tbe 
site of a religious house once subject to Strata Florida ; bnt of 
soch a connection there does not seem to be any corroboration in 
tbe records of that establishment, whilst the name appears to repre- 
sent the civil "trajectus", rather than the eccleeiastical " crux ;" 

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aod to 6ncl ite parallel in the Troatre of Uonmonthshire, tlie Trawatra 
of English Uaelor, and the Trawafynydd of Moqb Heriri. A abort 
drive past the little renovated church of Llannewjdd and Bhjrd y 
Marchog brought the party to their next halt at the site of SL Si- 
cholas Chapel (Croes Feini) and CMstell, an adjoining circular earth- 
work fortified with a deep snironnding foas, and prononnoed to be 
of medinval age. 

From this point the majoritr made for home, but a few Eealons 
members found their way to Merthyr Monaoh, where they were re- 
warded with a twilight inspection and enndry rabbinge of the Ca- 
tVTVB stone, which lies on the eastern aide of the ohnroh porch. 
Another tedioas threading of rongh and watery lanea brought them 
at last to Carmarthen at a very late hour. 

The evening meeting being for the transaction of bnsinesB, ww 
limited to the members of the Committee, Profeeaor Babington in 
the chair. 

The report having been read by Mr. Bobinson, a diBcnesion onaned 
npon one of its clauses, and it having been resolved that it shonld 
be replaced by one of Mr, Freeman's, the report, as amended, was 
approved and adopted by the Committee. 

It was resolved unanimously that the Kev. D. B. Thomas be 
elected General Secretary in place of Bev. E. L. Barnwell resigned. 

That Mr. Thomas be reqaested to accept the editorabip of the 
ArehcBohgia Cambrenti*, in place of Bev. D. Silvan Evans resigned. 

That the Bev. E. L. Barnwell be elected Treasarw in place of 
J. Joseph, Esq., F.S.A., resigned. 

That G. T. Clark, Eaq^ F.S.A., be eleotad a Trastee in place of 
Sir Stephen B. Qlynne, Bart., deorased. 

That the best thanks of the Association be given to the Bev. B. 
L. Barnwell for his foithfal services as one of the General Secre- 
taries for a period of twenty-one years. 

To the Bev. D. Silvan Evans for his efficient services as Editor of 
the Archaologia. Cambr&ntig for the last five years. 

To Mr. Joseph for his kind offices as Treasurer &om the year 1859 
to the present time. 

That Abergavennv be the place of meeting for 1876, and thai E. 
A. Freeman, Esq., M, A., D.C.L., bo reqaeated to accept the office of 


A strong party were conveyed by rail to Wkitland Station, where 
they separated into two divisions, one of which was to go by carriage 
through Llanboidy, and the other by train to the Gldg Quarries, 
and both to meet again at Dolwilym. The carriage party made at 
once for the church and chair of Canna. The church (Llangan) is a 
poor and dilapidated stmctore, now disused. The cbair, a nearly 
cubical atone, slightly hollowed npon the upper snrface, with the 

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legend "CEuma" mnniDg along its edge, BtRnds or rather lies in aa 
adjoining field. ^ Tradition baa aagigned a peculiar virtae to this 
Btone in oonnectinn with the sacred well now at a little distance from 
it, bat formerlj, to judge from the great moiatare of the aoil, spring- 
ing ap at its base. Patients, after bathing a specified number of timea 
in the well, were required to sit or lie a cerbiin unmber of hours on 
the stone ; and it is asserted that the hollow on the surface was pro* 
dnced by the mnltitnde and frequency of the devotees. A walk across 
the fields brought this party to Pardaa, where Mr. Thomaa hos- 
pitably receired them. The famous QTenvendanns stone, which had 
been removed a few years ago trota " Pare j Uaen" to its present 
position in the field behind the house, was examined, and its inscrip- 
tion proved to confirm Mr. Rhys' reading. From thence, passing 
Caer Emlyn, the next halt was at the Cefn Brallau Cromlech, 
in the field called " Pare y Bigwm", near Llanhoidy, already de- 
scribed in the pages of the Archceologia Cambretuu for 1872, p. 184. 
The remaining stones of this cromleoh are of more than oi^inaiy 
size, and some of them were removed about fifty years ago to Maes- 
gwynne gronnds. The usual- indications of divine displeasnre at 
such sacrilege are said to have been manifestod on the occasion in 
the shape of thunders and lightnings, and the raining of the road 
along which it was with vast difficulty drawn. 

An inscribed stone, much weather worn and built into the wall of 
Llanboidy Church, greatly tried the skill of Professor Westwood 
and Mr. Rhys, who appeared to agree in their reading of it as hato 
..,FiL-LTHARH- COCC-, i.e., Mavo.-.the son of Llywarch Qoch. 

Others occupied the time in examining a Tomen near the Maes- 
gwynne Arms, and within sight of the camp at Hafod. 

The fine cromlech at Dolwilym, beautifully placed on the steeply 
sloping side of the narrow valley of the Taf, was next inspected. 
One or two of the stones have disappeared, but the rest are perfect, 
and their great sise is in keeping with the hugeness of the cairn that 
mnst at one time have covered them, the surrounding circle of stones 
having a diameter of nearly forty yards. An illustration and also a 
description with careful measurements of this cromlech are given in 
the Arehceohgia Oambransi* for 1872, where also it is statod to have 
had the two names of Bwrdd Arthur and Owal y Vilast. 

The G16g party on reaching the quarries were received by Mr. 
Owen, the chairman of the company, who took them over the work- 
ings, and explained the whole process of raising, splitting, and pre- 
paring the slatos ; and Professor Hughes added to the interest of 
the occasion by describing the nature and peculiarities of the slato 
beds, and their charactonstic fossils. 

The two sections, into which the excursionists had been hitherto 
divided, now found themselves reunited at the well furnished tables 
of Dolwilym, and seemed to be unanimous in their approbation of 
the good things so liberally supplied by the hospitable owner, 

■ For an illuitration and aceeimt of it, tee Arch. Cantb., 1872, p. S3S. 

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Mr. Prothero. The brief interral between tbe Inncheoo and the 
retam jonme; was tttken advantage of to inepect tbe early Maltese 
Cross, in the charchyard of Llanglydwen, noticeable for an anti- 
miity not later than the ninth centnry. The chnrch has a smalt 
Norman font, with the cable ornament. The chancel arch is plain 
and pointed, and of similar oonstmction to those already noticed at 

Etkmino Mkktibo. 

Profefflor Babington having given a riivmi of the two days* ex- 
cursions, and Professor Westwood having followed him with special 
reference to the ioBcribed stones seen in their course, the President 
called upon Mr Alowyn Eyans to read his paper on " Carmarthen 
Castle and Priory", which will appear in the pages of the Jonmal. 

Colonel Grant Francis, P.S.A,, was then called npon to read his 
paper on "Henry de Qower, Bishop of St. David's, 1328-1347"; 
this also will be printed. The statement that the palace at Lamphey 
was an earlier work of the Bishop than that at St. David's, gave 
occasion to tbe President to recall a triangular dnel on that point 
that had taken place twenty-fbnr years ago between Ur. Freeman, 
Mr. Babington, and himself. (See Areheeotoaia Cambrenm, 1851, 
p. 324, and 1852, p. 198.) 

The President called npon Mr. Romilly Allen to read his paper 
on the "Coygan Bone Caves", which were to be visited the follow- 
ing day. 

Mr. Allen began with a brief historical riiumi of cave- exploration, 
from the mammoth's teeth songht in the German caves for medi- 
cinal parpoaes in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and the first 
systematic exploration by Dr. Bnckland of the cavern of Qaileworth 
in Franconia, and the discoverieH made in the same year at Oreston 
near Plymoath, down to the present date. He then described the 
hygena-den at Coygan, first explored by Dr. Hicks of St. David's 
and himself, the animal remains found there, and the singular pro- 
cess by which the markings and scorings of the bones were verified ; 
and then proceeded to show the variations of landscape and climate 
which must have existed at the time, and the way in which alt this 
bore npon the study of aichfeology, conolnding with a scientific 
aooonnt of the process by which caves were originally fonnd in the 
limestone rock^, where they are almost solely fonnd. 

Professor McK. Hnghes followed with some interesting criticisms 
as to the value of the evidence that bone-cavea supplied, ranging his 
treatment of it nnder the three heads : 1, the period during which 
it was possible the cave conld have existed or been fit for habita- 
tion ; 2, the time necessary for the accnmulation of the deposits in 
or nnder which tbe remains occur ; 3, the character, condition, and 
association, of the remains themselves. 

Several other papers were put in, and taken as read on account 
of the lateness of tbe hour. 

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Mr. Freeman propofled the followine resolation : " That tlie beat 
thankB of the Assoc iatioit be given to Lord Dynevor, Sir James and 
lAdy Hamilton, Mr. Frotheroe, Mrs. Horton, Mr, Valentine Davis, 
and the manj other ladies and gentlemen to whom the; are in- 
debted for kind and hospitable entertainment." In a happy vein 
of hnmonr, which elicited peals of laughter, Mr. Freeman dwelt on 
the TirtDea of pies in general, and especially of those snpplied at 
Cwm Dnad ; and was seconded by Professor Weetwood, who dwelt 
particDlarly on the ready and pleasant welcome so often afforded 
dnrinf? their excursions. 

Professor Babington next proposed the thanks of the Association 
to the Local Committee, to wham he attributed so much of the 
pleasure and the snccesa of the Meeting ; and he wonld especially 
conple with the motion the names of Mr. Rapert Morris, Captain 
Philipps, and Dr. Hoarder. 

Mr. Barnwell, in seconding the motion, bore wituesa to the diffi- 
culties which an experience of twenty-one years made him well 
aware belonged to the office, and he begged especially to compliment 
his old &iend and pnpil. Prebendary Morris, on the efficiency of his 

Mr. Blozaro, in proposing a vote of thanks to the ladies and 
gentlemen who had contribnt«d articles to the Masoam, bore the 
Btrongest testimony to the value of local temporary musenius such 
as that at Carmarthen. His own interest in them was shown by 
the fact of his being Hon. Local Secretary for the South Kensington 
Museum, and still more by having one in his own honse. 

Chancellor Allen, in seconding tbe vote, saggested that private col- 
lections would be greatly enhanced in valae if objects of interest, 
when found, were sent to each willing and able experts as Mr. Bloxam 
that they might be correctly described, and their proper value known. 

The President then announced that the next place of meeting 
would be Abergavenny ; that Mr. Freeman had accepted the office of 
President ; and that he himself hoped to have the pleaanre of being 
present at it. 


Kidwelly Church and Castle were the attraotire objects of the 
morning excursion, with Mr. Freeman to explain their architectural 
features, and Mr. Bloxam to expatiate on their monumeute. 

On the way from the station to the church the scanty remains of 
old houses lately existing were observed. One of tbe two, near the 
church, has been pulled down very lately; and the site of the one 
formerly near the bridge is now occapied by the house of Mr. Evans, 
the present Mayor. Fortunately, however, they have been engraved 
in the Joamal. 

Of the church, Mr. Freeman pointed out the cartailed proportions 
of the nave, and the peculiar position in which the tower was now 
lefl. A blank bnttrcss and a broken wall showed that it had otice 

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extended &r to the west of its present limit ; and the tower had 
then atood about the middle instead of, ae now, at the north-west 
ang'le. The yuan parapet, too, at the junction of tower and spire 
was peculiar ; and the whole gave the impression that it had been 
the work of some local architect who might hare travelled into 
Northamptonshire, and had tried to combine the styles he met 
with. The form of the chnrch, too, although cmcifonn, was not of 
the Dsnal cmciform type, as the transepts started from the nave; 
and there was no central tower, as is the case in monastic chnrchea. 
The main arches were segmental in form, making an angle with 
the pillar, bnt with ditcontinnoas imposts, and no capitals to the 
sbafVs; the change of mouldings at the junction, which is rare in 
England, and reminded him of later French work; whilst the great 
breadth of the nave withont aisles seemed to belong to acme Sonth 
Gaulish chnrch. The choir was stately, and on the sonth side were 
some good fourteenth century windows as well as sedilia and piscina, 
and there were numerous altars in different parts of the church. 

Mr. Bloxam thcnght the staircase in the north wall of the chancel 
led to n dornvt indun, or the residence of an anchorite, in which 
case the circnlar opening wonid serve the doable pnrpose of a light 
to the staircase and also a squint. He then drew attention to the 
sepulchral arch on the south side and the sepulchre on the north, 
the tatter being a recess for entombing the rood during the interval 
hetvreen Qood Friday and Easter morning. Among the monu- 
ments, one was the mutilated effigy of a civilian clothed in the tumca 
(alari>, and belonging to the fourteenth centnry ; another bore the 
head of a lady, in relief, and was of the same date. There was also 
a cross of tba fifteenth century, which had been appropriated by an 
alderman of later days. There appear to have been two ways of 
approach (one being by a staircase in the wall) to the rood loft, 
which once divided the chancel from the nave ; and belonging to 
tbe same pericd there might he seen outside in an angle at the foot 
of the tower an alabaster figure of the Virgin and Child, which had 
occupied the niche in the sonth porch until a few years ago, when 
the vicar, in protest or in dread of its perversion to idolatrons uses, 
bad it removed and hidden, and it was only exhumed now for the 
occasion of the visit. 

Leaving the chnrch, and passing over the ancient bridge with its 
curious archways, and under the ruined gate that once connected 
the Castle with the suburbs, and divided the Englishry from the 
Welshry and foreigners, the great entrance to the Castle was 
reached. A full and detailed description of the Castle, by Mr. G-. T, 
Clark, in the Arehaologia Coanhre^ttit for 1852, illustrated with 
ground-plans and drawings of its most interesting features, shoold 
be careftilly studied by those who wish to know its history. 

Mr. Freeman pointed out to the nnmerons assemblage the most 
striking parts of the bnildings, having previously made an examin- 
ation of the ont«ide, — a plan he strongly recommended on all such 
occasions. The Castle, exclusive of its outer works, consisted of 

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two wards, the inner one containing the principal rooma, as the ball, 
kitchen, and the remarkable chapel in the third storr of the project- 
ing tower, the npper portion of whioh has beea skilnilly tnmed into 
a polygonal apse. 

After partaking of refreshment very kindly provided by the 
Mayor, the wliole party retarned to Oarmarthen, where they divided 
into gronpB, some bound for Ltandilo and Dynevor, the rest for 
Langbame and the Cuygan Caves. The former partv, atler passing 
Ty Owyn, once the residence of Sir Richard Steele, halted for a few 
minates at Llanarthney, where a mbbing was taken of the onriooa 
wheel-cross against the church tower ; bnt of the legend, owing to 
the crambling condition of the stone, only the words " merci" and 
" £lme" conld be deciphered. 

Another halt was made at the Gtolden Chore lodge gate, and a 
hasty mn to inspect the " Eindon" Stone {Archteologia Oamiirenrii, 
1871, p. 339). 

Aft^ entering the park of Dynevor the old parish chnrch of Llan- 
dyfeisant was seen in the process of rebnilding ; bnt no tidings were 
heard of any Roman discovenes daring the operation, althongh it is 
said to occupy the place of a Roman temple. 

At the modern Castle, lately known as Newton, Lord Dynevor 
received the crowd of visitors in the most hospitable manner, and 
snbseqaently pointed ont some of the cnriosities in the house, snob 
as the stirnipa said to have been those of Sir Rhys ab Thomas, 
and two ancient chairs, with his arms, within the garter, one of 
which was exhibited at the Llandilo Meeting in 1855, and in which 
the late Lord Dynevor, when a member of the Commons, was always 
chaired. Of the remains of Dynevor Castle little conld be made 
ont owing to the absence of a gronnd-plan and the shortness of 
Ume. The keep, however, is circular, the basement being snpplied 
with air and light by three curious openings of small dimensions. 
The floor above has no lateral opening at all. The third and highest 
story led to some discussion at the Meeting of the Society in 1855, 
bnt no satisfactory conclusion was arrived at. In Book's engraving 
it is represented as having a small conical roof, which, however, 
has long since vanished. 

Of the nnmeroos company that preferred a visitto Langbame one 
section proceeded direct to the Coygan bone caves, where their re- 
searches do not appear to have been rewarded by any fresh disco- 
veries. Professor Westwoud, however, stopped at Llandawk Chnrch 
to inspect the Barrivendi stone, and where the hospitable rector had 
prepared a substantial collation for bis expected visitors. This stone 
which has been described in the volnme of 1867, p, 443, has hitherto 
served for a lintel stone at the church door, but is no longer to re- 
main there, as it was removed iu anticipation of the visit, and will 
be placed by the rector's order in a proper and secure position. 
This stone, which has ogham characters, is remarkable aa illustrating 
the antiquity of the custom which calls the son of John Williams 
William Jones. The remainder of the excursionists, headed by lit. 

:>, Google 


BIoxaiD, inspected the chnrch and cutle. The former, probably 
built by Sir Uoido de Brian, has been restored in very good t«8le l^ 
Ur. Earrieon, the present incnnibent, nnlesa exception msy be taken 
to IcBTing bare the rongh mbble work of the interior of the nave 
and transepts as if these were onter walls. In the cfaancel is a 
monnraent of Sir John Powell, one of the judges of the seven bishops. 
In the nnrth tmnsept lies a cirilian of the fourteenth century. In 
a sqnint in the sonth transept temporarily lies a small ornamented 
cross of the tenth century or thereabont, lately disinterred in the 
churchyard. A drawing of this was made, and will shortly be giren 
in the Jonmat. The interior of the castle has been transformed into 
private garden, and contains little of interest, bnt the view of the 
exterior from the water side is very striking. Of outworks no re- 
mains coold be made out, nor does the castle at any time appear to 
hare been a strong one. It is of very late Edwardian character, 
with additions of the time of Elizabeth, which are said to have been 
tbe work of Sir John Perrot. 

In the vicarage was exhibited a ragged and dil^idated oope of 
the fourteenth or fifteenth centniy, for there was some discussion on 
this point. In Lewis* Dictionary it is orroneonsly called the mantle 
of Sir Guido de Brian. The carriages returned solate that many 
were prevented from joining the party at the Bishop's palace. 

As a finale to the annnal meeting, the President invited the mem- 
bers of the Association and a large party of friends to a conversazione 
at Abergwili, where in the conrse of the evening his lordship read 
some interesting and valuable notes that he had compiled upon the 
history of the lordship and the palace. The chapel, which is be- 
lieved to have been built by liiad, when bishop ofthis see, was 
inspected with proportionate interest. Several early and cnrions 
books laid ont in the library were also examined with mncb cariosity, 
bnt perhaps not more than that with which the ladies of the party 
regarded some beantifal specimens of jewellery which had been lent 
for the occasion. After enjoying his lordship s pleasant hospitality 
the party returned to Carmarthen, and bo ended the Carmarthen 
meeting of the Association in 1875. 

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Thi TempoTUy Mnsenm was placed in the Iftrge hftU of the ABaemblr 



Stone celt foond on Caoran Gaer in the pariah of Lhwddewi Yelfre;. 

Stone celt with two Bocketa fonnd on the farm of Llan, pariiih of 
Uan Tall teg, CarmarthenBhire. 

Stone celt, laxger, fonnd in the hamlet of Grondn in Pembrokeshire. 
J. P. O. Lewis, -Esq., Henllan. 

Stone axe fonnd at Cl&wdd Coch, near Uanym^ nech, 1875. 

Rev. D. B. Thomas. 

Stone pierced hammer fonnd at Llanmadoc, Qower. 

Sixteen flint arrow-heads, of different sizea, (rom Ooat's Hole, Pari- 
land Cave, Oower, fonnd mixed with fosail bones. 

Colonel a. Grant Francis, F.S.A. 

Five stone celt« from Camao and Erdeven, the smallest of which ia 
less than 2 inches. These are part of a collection made bj a late 
Cnr£ of Erdeven, consisting of thirty stone aud foar bronze (x\ta. 
An acconnt of these will be fonnd in the Arehwologia Citmbreiieu, 
1860, p. 211. 

A spindle- whorl of clay, ornamented with small ciroles, fonnd in the 
churchyard of Clocsenog, Denbighshire. 

Bronze da^er found in cutting tarf in the parish of Qyffylliog. 

Bronze armlet from France. 

Celt without flanges or stop-rib, said to have been foand near Mar- 

Square- socketed celt, ordinary French type, with slight ornaments, 
from Britanny, figured in Arch. Camb., 1860. 

Small socketed celt from Pont MooBsoii, 3 inches long. 

Paaktah from the mountain above Llangollen, nearly 7 inches long, 
and annsnally massive. 

Rer. E. L. Barnwell. 

Hilt of bronze sword found in digging out a fox at Stackpole. 

Earl of Cawdor. 

Spindle-whorl fonnd at Manorheer Castle, below twelve feet of accn- 
mnlated mbbi&h, under the retiring-room adjoining the great hall. 
J. U. Cobb, Esq. 

Portion of Roman pavement found at Pompeii. The Earl of Cawdor. 
Cinerary nm from Cardiganshire. 
Cinerary nm &om Essex. 

DicilirrM.;, Google 


Lachrymal (brooie) fonnd near Qoginan Lead Mines in Cardiganshire. 

Cnriona knife. 

Boman key from Pembrrn, Cardiganahire. 

Dark cla; patera from Pembrjm, 
" ' " jedlea (broc 

Poor ancient Roman needles (bronse) from Llsudilo. 

iter. D. H. Davies, Llannon. 
Earthenware Limp from FompeiL 

Piece of Boman f^ass &om Loncaram, GlamorganBhire. 
Lamp foand in a tomb at Rome, 1833. 
A cnrioufl collection of forty-two impressiona &om ancient gems, 

collected by Janes, the Welah bard, in iUnstmHon of the moaical 

instrumente of the anciente. 
Two raaes from Pompeii 

Cohmel G. Grant Francis, F.S.A. 


Twelve bronse medals (modem) illnBtmtire of local snbjeota. 

One hundred and eighty-nine early impressions of brass and copper 

tokens relating to Wales, ifisaod in the seTenteentli, eighteenth, 

and nineteenth centuries. 

Colonel G. Grant Fraads. 
A collection of Greek silver coins, abont fonr hundred in number, 

including, among odierB, those of Athens, Corinth, Rhodes, Ephe- 

sns, Actinm, Syracnse, Abydos, ^Sgina, Chalcedon, Abdera, etc 
A collection of Roman hrass and denarii, about fonr hundred in 

number, Tfae brass extend from the coins of Augnstns to those 

of Julian. Amonf^ the denarii are those of Brutus, Antony, 
Medal of Clement X. 
Uedal of Innocent XI. . 
Uedol of battle of Hastings. 
Jewish alielcel, cast of. 
Quarter-noble of Edward I, noble of Edward III, angel of James I, 

crownpiece of Oliver Cromwell, the Yigo and Edinburgh crowns, 

pennies of Edward I (Dnblin) and John, groat of Henry III,ooiQa 

of Elizabeth, Cbarlee II, James II, and Anne. 
Collection of tokens, nineteenth centary. 
Anglo-Gallic coins. 
Stnmese dollar and Japanese money. 

Rer. D. H. Davies, Llannon. 
Denarins of Oens Cornelia (Scipio) ; below cxsab an elephant £., 

sacrificial emblems. 
Second braes of Kero, Vespasian, Domitian, Antoninns Pins. 

Rev. R. H. Morris. 
Rose-noble and half-angel of Charles II, and two other gold ooina 

with an old leathern purse folded sqnare. 

J. P. G. Lewis, Esq., Henllan. 
Bronse medal of Sixtns IIL fi., CITI afebftio BRKves xtbemat DIES. 
J. Bagnall, Esq. 

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Fire-gninea pieoe of Charles II, 1680. Bev. L. U. Jones. 

Seven siege- pieoeB, — two Colchester ; two Newark, 1646 ; one Car - 

liBle,16i6; oneBristol; one Pontefraot, 1648. R. Drane, Esq. 
Silver coins, varions, of Elizabeth, Charles II, and Anne. 

Mrs. Davies, Trawa Mawr. 
English and other coins in gold and sitrer. 
Denarii of Vespasian, Korra, Trajan, Hadrian, Cotnmodns. 

B. Pamall, Esq. 
Three Roman brass coins found in Roman miae-workings near Gais 

Three old Spanish gold coins. 

Mr. T. M. Daviea. 
Penny of King John. 

Half-noblfl, groat, and half-groat of Heniy T. 
Half-groat and penny of Henry VI. 
Shilling of Heni^ VIII. 
Silver coins, vanona, of Elizabeth, James I, Charles I, Charles II, 

William III, and Anne. 
Crown of the Commonwealth. 

Mr. C. Finoh. 
A cabinet of coins exhibited by F. Green, Esq. 
Gold, silver, and oopper coins, English, c^ varions periods. 

J. H. Barker, Esq. 
Medal of the ITile. " Rear- Admiral Lord Xeleon of the Nile." B., 

"Almighty God has blessed His Majesty's armB." 

Mrs. G. G. Philipps. 
Brass coin of Uaximian foand in Qneen Street, Exeter, 1862. 
Brass coins of Gallienns, Victorinns, Tetricns, Claadins Gothicns, 

and Constans ; also one of Gelo of Syracnse, fonnd at Longhor, 

Carmar thenshi re. 
Twenty brass coins of Gallienns, Clandina Gothicns, Postnmns, Vic- 
torinns, Tetrions, Constantias Mazimos, Constans, and Prohna, 

fonnd in the Forest of Dean. 
Brass coin of Maximian, 
Denarins of Gordian III, and brass ooins of Nero, Trajan, Antoni- 

nns Pins. 
Halfpenny slmck dnring the Wars of the Rosea. 
Graat of Henry VI, penny of Edward I, twopenny piece of Charles I, 

halfcrown (1690), gnnmoney, and severu other coins. 

C. Bath, Esq. 
Various brass of Trajan, Gordianns III, Constantias, M, Antoninus. 
Jewish coin, cast. 
Penny of Canute. W. Spurrell, Eaq. 


Conrt-aword formerly belonging to a member of the Parry family, 

county of Denbigh. 
A pair of spurs belonging to Sir Thos. Tyldesley, killed 25 Aug. 1651. 
The Bishop of St. David's. 

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Sword and pistol found in the wall at No. 5, Quay Street, Carmar- 

then. L. Morris, Esq., Uoant Pleaeaat. 

Silver mounted rapier, temp. Charles I, Charles II. Blade engraved 

" L'tmour et le monde wnt deux csniiillBB. 
L'an trouble le c<Bur, I'autre lei enCrulles." 

K. Drane, Esq. 
Sword presented hj Earl Carbeny to a tenant residing at Parkneet, 
Newcastle Emif n, afler the Rentoration, aa a mark of esteem, and 
in conai deration of his acqoainting His Lordship of the approach 
of Crontwell's army to the Castle, giving sufficient time for Hin 
Lordship to escape. Ur. J. M.- Evans, Newcastle Emlju. 

Sword, said to be tbat of Sir Rhys ap Thomas. 
Six hatchet- heads, iron. 

Colonel G. Grant Francis, F.S.A. 
Flint muRket, foreign make, and hatchet prodoced in evidenra 
against the Rebecca rioters at the special assize, Deo. 1813. 

Mr. James Davies, Hall Keeper. 
Indian tomahawk. Mrs. D. Davies, Trows Uawr. 

Official sword of the borongh. 

The Uavor and Corporation of Carmarthen. 
Indian matchlock, sword, and belt, taken in the Indian Mutiny. 

F. Green, ^sq. 
Crossbow found a hnndred years ago at Kidwelly Caatle by the 

ancestors of Mrs, Eicon of Llanelly. 
Blunderbuss with spring bayonet. 
Sword found near Llandilo, 
Sword used daring the Peninsular war. 

Rev. D. H. Davies, Llannon. 
Dagger, Baid to be the one used by the assassin of James III of 
Scotland. Mr. E. Riley. 


Gold signet-ring with three Senrsde-Iis, fonnd at Hanorbier. 
Silver signet-ring " found in a garden near Kidwelly Castle, 1848, 

and presented by Rob, Dnnkin, Chief Steward of the borongh of 

Kidwelly, Duchy of Lancaster, to the Earl of Cawdor." 

Earl of Cawdor. 
Silver seal, probably of the sixteenth century. 

H. W. Lloyd, Esq., Eensington. 
Ori^nal seal, silver, of Kidwelly Corporation. 

The Mayor of Kidwelly. 
Gold ring, thirteenth centuiy, probably aoclesiastical, fonnd at Man- 

orbier Castle in 18?3. J. R. Cobb, Esq. 

Masonic seal fonnd on the body of a Rnsaian officer after the battle 

of Alma. Lent by Edward Riley, Esq. Rev. D. H. Davies. 
Silver ring discovered in the mins of Oyetermouth Castle, inscribed 

lESUS BEX HAZABETE in Longobardic type. 

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Ei(^t hnndrad &nd seTeDtytwo casts of seals relatiog to Wales, 
royal, butmial, ecclesiasdcaJ, cine, and personal. 

Colonel G. Grant Francns. 

Impressions of the corporate seals of Carmarthen, Kidwelly, 
LaD^ame, UaTerfordwest, Pembroke, Cardigan, Newport, Dea- 


The Hirlas Horn, presented by Henry Earl of Richmond to David 
ap Evan in recognition for service rendered in the expedition 
■R^nst Richard III. It was afterwards ^ren to Richard EaH of 
CWbeiy. " The monnting of the horn is obviously modem, bat 
the stand appears to be geDnine. It consists of the same heraldio 
snpportera as are foand on the tomb of the donor in W^eetminster 
Abbey, which U itself a work of high art, executed by Torrigiano, 
a contemporary of Michael Angelo." 

Goblot, silver gilt, with cover, embossed with flowers and Cnpids. 
Inscription : " Cnm in ladis more prisoo Dresdie, Regis et Prin- 
cipis Blectoris Sazonia matropoti, ziii Id. Sept. hdccvii solenniter 
habitis, Johannes Robinson SS. Theol. D. Ecclesica Cathedralis et 
metro politico Christi CantnariensiB Canonic ns, Sacne Regin 
Majestatis Magnn Britannicn Abiegatns Extraord. et Pleniputen- 
tiarioB Excel! entissimns validiBsimna, etiam snam aortem, ad id 
invit^tns, tentaret, prima et regia, ut dicunt, brabea, atqne inter 
ilia et hoc de qno legis impetrat." 

A lobster's claw in gold, found in the King's Palace, Coomassie, set 
as a breastpin. The Earl of Cawdor. 

Ancient gold watch, marking the honra only. J. H. Jenldns, Esq. 

Gold watch of very early French character. 

James Nightingale, Esq., Wilton. 

Silver teapot. Date, 1689. Q. A. Hntcbins, Esq. 

Silver pnnch-ladle, Ump. Qnaen Anne. Dr. Hoarder, 

Massive silver cup, 12 inches high, the gifl of Sir Hngh Myddelton, 
citizen and goldsmith of London, to Uie Corporation of Denbigh, 

Two silver maces, the gift of Sir Thomas Myddelton of Chirk Castle 
to the Corporation of Denbigh, 1676. 

The Mayor and Corporation of Denbigh. 

Two silver maces with silver-gilt crowns, presented by Earl Cawdor, 
Mayor, 1808. The Major and Corporation of Carmarthen. 

Two silver maces, 1632. The Mayor and Corporation of Pembroke. 

Silver mace. " Water Nicholas, Mayor, 1655." 

The Mayor and Corporation of Newport. 

Two silver maces, 1630. Mayor and Corporation of Haverfordwest. 

Two silver maces, i. s. The Mayor and Corporation of Kidwelly. 

Silver mace, "c. B., 1647." 

The Mayor and Corporation of Cardigan. 

Two silver maces. The Portreeve of Langharne. 

D,g,t,.,.d.i. Google 



Early English shepherd's costril, pierced bj a pick at time of dis- 

An earthen veBsel of Komano- British manafactnre. 

A piece of Tjree potter; of nnbnmt clay formed by the fingers, aaid 
to be the only kind of pottery known to the inhabitants of the 
woBtem isles of Scotland as late as the end of the last centnry. 

Foar old Dntch tUes, illnstrating "Cast the beam ont of thine own 
eve", " The washing of Pilate's hands", " The Bi^tiat's head in a 
charger", and " The Gircnmoision". 

R. Drane, Ksq. 

Pieces of pottery, green, with thomb ridge. Considerable qaantities, 
and almost the whole of a broken pitcher, were fonnd at Uanor- 
beer Castle, near the Great Hall. J. R. Cobb, Esq. 

Two specimens of pottery &om Faviland Care, Oower. 

Dish from exhumed charch on Penmaeii Barrows, Oower. 

Col. G. Grant Francis, F.S.A. 

A small tea serrice, complete with stand, of Swansea ohina (nine 

Small dessert set, three dishes, seven plates, each punted with ft 
different flower, and stamped "Swansea". 

One plate of Swansea cliina, one ditto of Nantgarw. 

One plate of old dclf ware. 

One small cnp and aaaoer (exquisitely painted) " Swansea". 

One flower vase, " Swansea". 

Two large bowls (one with cover) of old Chinese, with figures, 

Tweire other specimens of old Indian and Chinese ware. 

UisB Stokes. 

Two small vases of " Nantgarw" china. 

One Chinese flower rase from Fonthill Abbey. 

An old picture of the Virgin on glass. 

Hiss Grans. 

Jag of " Swansea" china, and other specimens of china. 

iSn. Stephens, Castle Hill. 

A Limoges enamel dish, measuring 21 in. by 15, with a represen- 
tation of the Creation of Man and "Every Uving thing". On the 
obverse side cherubs, flowers, and fruit. 

B. Goring Thomas, Esq. 

Six dessert plates of" Swansea" china. Urs. Philip Jones. 

Four pieces of Swansea china, and several other specimens of old 
china. Mrs. Simmonds. 

Specimens of Swansea china, seven pieces. 

An old cord dish. 

Miss Thomas. 

One email plate with coat of arms and name of Thomas Lewis. 

One ditto stamped "T. and Eliz, Lewis, 1794", aaid to be local 

Foar antique round diehes. 

Miss Lewis, 

D,g,i,.,.,i.:, Google 


Diab of early d«lf ware. 

Old dish discovered id Priory Gardens daring the flood, 1826. 

Cabinet of old ohina, specimens of Bow, Chelsea, Derby, Dresden, 
Eggshell, Japanese, Woroester, Wedgwood, Leeds, Plymonth, old 

* Ur. 0. Finoh. 

Specimens of old china were ahto exhibited by the following : — 
Hr. J. H. Smith, six pieces ; Mrs. EranB, four pieces ; Mrs. IHvta 
Trans MnwT, ten pieces of old Wedgwood; Mrs. B. Jones, ararietj 
of bine, blae and white, red Wedgwood; Mrs. Jones, Emparinm, 
a large number of pieces ; Mrs. Danbeney ; Mr. Stephens, eleven 
pieces ; Mr. R. M. Davies, a veij large cbina punoh bowl, bean- 
tifally painted ; Mr. Q. Bagnall, two smaller bowls ; Mrs. M. 
Jones, a carious pnszle jug ; Mrs. D. B. Thomas, wassul cup and 
double magnnm bottle stamped "T. 1770." 


Blnminated pedigree of Artbnr Langhame, a scion of the family of 

Langharne of St. Bride's, compiled 1675. C Bath, Esq. 

Facsimile and antograph sigDatares of Carmarthen mayors and of 

sovereigoB of England from 1400 to 1876, folio, 
ftocorda of Carmarthen Town Conncil from 1582 till 1603, original 

parchment mannsoript. 4to. 
The fourteen earliest onart«rs granted to Cardiff. MS. folio. 

Mr. Alcwyn C. Evans. 
Old register book of the parish of St. Ishmael's, 1 560. 

Ii«T. 0. Jones. 
Copy of inscription on Carew Cross. Miss Scbawe Protheroe. 
Synopsis of inscribed stones in Soath Wales and Monmouthshire, 

according to Camden. 
Diaiy in " Coelbreu y Beirdd." 

Rev. A. Boberts. 
Rubbings from Priory Church, Brecon. 
Early Christian iuBcriptious, Ireland, by Petrie (three Nos.) 

H. W. Lloyd, Esq. 
Baptismal register of St. Peter's, Carmarthen, 167M689. 
Letter of Walter Scott, in which, writing of the murder of Sir 

Francis Kinloch by his brother Gordon, he speaks of a murdered 

man who is not dead. 

R. Drane, Esq. 
niuminated missal said to have belonged to the late Yen. Arch- 

deaoon Williams. 
A charter for the towne and conntie of Carmarthen, in the conntie 

of Carmarthen, 2 Jacob i, 1607. 
Charter, 4 George III. 
Minute book of council commencing March, 1799. 

Msyor and Corporatton of Carmarthen. 
Charter of 22nd Henry YI. 

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iDBpezimDs chartflr tinder Beal of Dnoh^ of lAnouter, 82 Hen. VIII. 
Charter of 4 Edward VI. 
Charter of 16 Jamea I. 

MaTor and Gorporalion of Kidwelly. 
Charter of Sir Qaido de Brian to the hnrgesaes of Talacham, and 

translation of the same. 
Deed of assignment from trasteea of Wfaitmill, Cnrran meadow, 

Uap^oD, and three acres of land to other tmstees, boing burgesses 

of Ijangharne. 27 Deo. 1658. 
" A Booke of Sarvev of the Castle, Lordship, and Uanor of Tallang- 

hame, alitu Laugname, the 2nd day of October, in the 84th year 

of the Rayne of oar Soreraigne Lady EliEabeth", taken on the 

attainder of Sir John Perrot. 
Charter of William III granted to Thomas Powell, giving right of 

holding markets and »ir8. Translation of the same. 

The Portreeve of Laoghame. 
Charters of Richard II, 1377; Edward IV, I4t>l ; Henry VIII, 

1509 ; Charles II, 1642, with a transUtion. 

The Uayor and Corporation of Pembroke. 
Charters of 1st Richard If, 1377; 9th Richard II, 1386; 2nd 

Henry IV, 1401 ; 2nd Henry V, 1414; 8th Henry VI, 1430 

5th Edward IV, 1466 ; 24ch Henry VIII, 1533 ; Ist Mary, 1553 

2nd Elizabeth, 1559 ; 2nd James I, 1604; 7th James I, 1609 

tith William and Mary, 1695. 
John JlaSBslwycke, his deede for a mesanage, 16 Henry V. 
A feo ferme to John Howell and Margaret his wifie by John Jeffery 

Clerk and others graanted at 2b. 3d. per ann, in the Mydet, in the 

Hill Streets, now in the tenure of John Rowes heirs. 31 Henry 

Dondin £100 given by John ap David to the Town Council in 1648. 
Indenture from Lewis Sutton to Matthew Synnett. 40 Elizabeth. 
Deed 33 Henry VI, Wra. Dyer and others. 
Deed 16 Elizabeth, Thomas Woogan. 
Bond for £10 between Thomas Vogles and Joha Sutton, 5th Ed- 

ward VL 
Feo ferme of a 3d parte of a Burgage in the midell towue. John 

Jeffrey; Henry ap Rhydderch. 3L Henry VIIL 
Deed 16 James 1, IdlR 

Bond of David Jurdan to William Vawer for 100 marcs. 22 Elis. 
Deed of 1381 sale of land. 

Deed 4th Henry VIII Philip Bees and Philip Robyn. 
Deed Wm. Roffu, John Rowe, and others, conveying Burgage to 

David Maunsell and others. 17 Henry Vl. 
Conveyance of Burgage by Sydan Philip to David Owyn Clerk. 

14 Henry VI. 
Deed 12 Edward IV, conveyance of Burgage by John Watoyn 

Clerk, chaplain of St. Mary the Virgia to Robert Smyth and 

Indenture 14 Henry VIII between John Richards and others. 

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I Vftyre of Bristol for £100, 

Bond from Lewis Sntton to Ronrer Syanett for £100. 89th Eliz. 

lioase from William 0^70 to Thomas Higday . 1 Uaiy. 

Bond for fifty ponnda from Thomas Hill, John y{tde and others, to 
the Mayor, Vice Comes, Bailiffs and BnrgeBses of Haverfordwest, 
16 Car. 1640. 

Letter of O. Cromwell to the Mayor snd Aldermen of Havreford- 
west, 14 July, 1648, giving order that the castle of Bavreford- 
west be speedily demoHebed ; coantereigned by Samnel Lort and 
John Lort. Mayor and Corporation of Haverfordwest. 

boroaeh of Denbigh for militaiy services. Temji. Edward I, cire. 

1290, m Xorman French not dated. 
Charter of 20 Nov., 22 Henry VII (1506), confirming chartera of 

Richard III, Henry IV, Richard II, Edward I to Henry de Lacy. 
Charter of 26 May, 1 Henry VJII (1509) confirming charterH of 

Henry VII, Richard II, Edward II, Edward I, to Henry de Lacy. 
Charter of 25 April, 5 Edward VI (1550), Inspeximns of all thepro- 

vions charters. 80 April, 4 Elizabeth (1562), Confirmation of 

charter of Edward VI annexed. 
Ooveming charter, 14 Charles II (1638), Inspeximns of 29 Eliss., 18 

Edw. I, 6 Edward III, 2 Richard II, 2 Richard III. 
Grant from aldermen, bailiffs, and capital bargesses incorpontting 

the Company of Corvizers. 4 Sep. 40 Elizabeth, 1598. 
Inquisition into the charities of the borongh in the name of Oliver 

Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England. 13 

Jnly, 1655, 
Copy of the warrant of the Privy Conncil concerning mnsters of 

soldiers, from the Earl of Pembroke. 
Worrant from the Privy Conncil of Qneen Elizabeth in 41st year of 

her reign (6 Feb. 1598) to join the connty of Denbigh in muster- 
ing soldiers. Signatures : " Tho. Egerton, C.S." (Lord Keeper), 

" Nottingham." " Essex." " Northe." " W. KnoUys." " J, 

Order of Lord Protector Cromwell to restore to Wm. Jones the 

vicarage of Denbigh, of which he had been deprived by William 

Garter claiming nnder institation made fourteen years previoosly. 

24 August, 1654 

Warrant from Earl of Northampton transmitting a further order 

of Conncil abont musters. 19 Feb. 1618. 
Earliest election of a bnrgess or freeman by the aldermen, bailiffs, 

and capital burgesses or common council. 17 June, 1701. 
Letter of Sir Thomas Myddelton to Colonel Twistleton of Denbigh 

Castle applying for a ^ront of money to a poor inhabitant, Hugh 

Dryhnrst, from funds in the hands of the corporation. 12 July, 


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Letter of Sir HdkIi Hyddelton to t^e aldermen, bulifib, and capital 
borgesses on t£e death of bis oousin Panton, the recorder recom- 
mending his coaBin Hnfth Parry to bo recorder. 18 Uarch, 16X8. 

Letter from William Lloyd, Psnporcbell, Bending II*. to tbe alder- 
men, to be spent in any liqnor tbey please on the restoration and 
coronation of Charles IL 23 April, 1661. 

Order from the Privy Conncil of Charies II (5 March, 1680) to chief 
magistrates of Denbigh to enforce tbe taking of tbe sacrament by 
corporate and other officers. Signatures ; " Woroester", " Sun- 
derland", " Bathe", " H. London", " LeoUne Jenkins", " Thomas 

Answer of tbe corporation of Denbigh to the order of the Privy 
Conncil of Charles II, abont the taking of oaths by corporate and 
other officers. 15 Jnne, 1680. 

Uayor and Corporation of Denbigh. 

Original letters of the Dnke of Wellington. Mr. C. Finch. 

Letter from John Tbnrloe, Cromwell's private secretary, 16 Dec, 
1653, to Thomas William Lloyd of AUtycadno, High Sheriff of 
Carmarthen, desiring him to proclaim Cromwell Lord Protector. 

Autograph letter of Shelley to his pablishers, 18 December, 1610. 
"Ilisve in preparation a novel. It is principally constituted to 
convey metaphysical and political opinions by way of conver- 

A copy of Bishop Richard Davies' funeral sermon preached on 
Walter Earl of Kssex in Carmarthen parish church, 16 Nor., 1576. 

Sketch of Carmarthen bistoij b^, and in the handwriting of, Dr. 
Meyrick, the historian of Cardiganshire. 

Mrs. Buckley, Bryn y Caerau. 


An ecclesiastical dish, measuring 16 in. in diameter, in laten, with 
escallop border, and the " Temptation of our first Pareuts" in 
centre. There are two inscriptions ronnd, but very obscure. 
R. Goring Thomas, Esq. 

Shoemaker's rule, bearing the date "1664 i. b.", illustrative of the 
French fashion in use in England in the reign of Charles I. 

Coelbren y Beirdd. 

Look from Oystermouth Castle. 

A bronze figure of Mars, emque eettio, found at foot of London 
Bridge. Col. 6. Grant Francis, F.S.A. 

Brass altar candlestick, enpposed to hare been used in a Monastery 
in Pembrokeshire. 

Small China tea-caddy and mug '' very old", 

Hr. Hurlbatt. 

Three cinque cento panels itinstrating the creation, temptation, and 
expulsion of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden. 

The Bishop of St. David's. 

Portion of handle of piteher. 

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Two pieces of sofl Bandetone, Biipposed to be stjles for drawing, that 

with the hole beiog mach worn at the end. 
Piece of ridge tile. 

Lacqaered knob, object and nse nnknown. 
Dranghtsman of horse bone, probably 12lli oentaiy. 
Leaden button foand oq the rampart. 
Leaden bolts, of which thirty -six were fonnd at the bottom of a 

well 32 fl. deep. 

From Manorbeer Castle, by J. R. Cobb, Esq. 
Pair of ladies dress shoes, middle of last century, 
lady's knife and fork, cornelian handles, silver monnted, in tapestry 

case, 18tb cent, 
larger knife in leathern case, 18th cent. 
Ennting-knifs sheath, 16th oent., and key discovered deep in the 

moat of Cardiff Castle. B. Drane, Esq. 

Large ancient salver. B. Goring Thomas, Esq. 

A collection of Barmeee articles — boxes, coins, photographs, and 

Burmese writing ; Burmese " permits" to trade, written with a 

style on papyrus, bearing kinf^'s seal ; oak bos made of a piece of 

beam of Temple Church j Indian box. tin. Stephens. 

A handsome Affghan chiefs shawl, taken at Istalip, 1842, and a 

portion of the outer gate of Ohnsnee Palace. Urs. Kyle. 

Two large Chinese feather fans. Mr. R. M. Davies. 

Collection of sheUs. Mr. F. Davies. 

Chinese lady's shoe, said to be 150 years old. 
Fiji chieftnin'a head-dress ; beads from Fiji islands. 
Eastern bottle. Mrs. B. H. Morris. 

CurioDS early clock and inkstand. 

Carved oak panel from St. Alban's, Hertfordshire. Mr. C. Finch. 
Ivory Headed cane, inlaid with silver, snpposed to be a relic from one 

of the stranded ships of the Spanish Armada. 
Link and rings puszle, said to have been a Welsh device for fasten* 

ing a gate. Mr. W. Spnrrell. 

Glass beads taken from a skeleton, supposed from the situation of 

the grave and form of sknll to be one of the aboriginal inhabi- 
tants of Jamaica. 
Carved idol taken during the Chinese war, 18U. 
Indian fi gores : "blacksmith", "tailor", "washerman", "acrobat", 

native carving. 
Indian brooch " Taj Mahal", Delhi, painted by native artist. 
Ivory Chinese jnggler : Indian fan of ostrich feathers — of ferns. 
Fine specimens of Indian carving: writing case, bookstand, card box. 
Several memorials gathered from the grave of Sir H. Havelook, 

Sir H. Lawrence, and the Memorial Gardens, Cawnpore. 

Q. A. Hutchins, Esq. and Mrs. B. Jones. 
Two Chinese boots, scales, and two Pans. Mrs. Daubeney. 

Large model of Kidwelly Chnrch, made by Mrs. K. B. Evans, in 

1842, showing the shatters on the windows, necessary on acconnt 

of the fairs then held in the churchyard. T. W. A. Hraos, Esq. 

,,;. Google 


Two Ohinese idols. Mrs. D. Daviea (Trawa Vawr). 

Two specimens of old tapestiy work. 

Silver brocaded silk dress, temp. Elizabeth. Uias Stakes. 

Three pairs of old shoe buckles. 

A bowie-knife — an lodian knife — n Burmese idol. 

A pair of cnrionB boots, made by a Carmarthenshire man in Bristol 

Eev. D. H. Davies. 

A cnrioQS back-scratcber. E. Riley, Esq. 

A quaint speoimen of old tapestrj, illustrating the parable of " Dives 
and Lazaras". Mrs. W. E. James. 

Foar oaken taUies, notched varionsly, determining the price of cer- 
tain articles sold at Lsngharne. The Portreeve of lAughame. 

Upper molar (2) of Elephas primigenios, from Cojgan Cave. 

J. Bomilly Allen, Esq. 

Teeth and bones of Rhinoceros tichorinus, Hyiena speltea, Eqnos 
caballas, var. fossilia ; Bos primigenias, Cervns tarandns, fonnd 
in Coygan Cave. Dr. Hoarder and Rev. R. H. Morris. 

Swansea Gnide. By the Rev. John Oldisworth, Master of the Free 

Grammar School. The Natural History by Dr.Turton. 12mo,1802. 
Oldisworth's Tenby Guide, with Notices of other Towns in Wales. 

Sir John Prise's Bistoriee Brytannicee Defensio. 8vo, 1573. 
Pontici Vimnni Britannise Historia. 12mo, 1534. 
Qildaa de Conqnestn Britanniie. 12mo, 1568. 
Gildas' Epistle. 12mo, 1638. Translated. 
Oweni Epigrammata. 12mo, 1742. Vratislaviee. 
Summary View of tfae Articles exhibited agninst the late Bishop of 

St. David's (Watson). 12mo, 1701. "After Bishop Watson's 

deprivation the see of St. David's waa vacant five years and eight 

months, antil the election of tfae very learned and reverend Dr. 

George Bull thereto, 23 March, 1705." 
Bywyd Robinson Crasoe. l2mo, Caorfyrddin, 1810. 
Burgess' Christian Knowledge. 3rd ed. 12mo, 1805. 
H. Llwyd's Britannicte Deacriptionis Fragmentnm, 12mo, 1572. 
Burton's History of Wales. 12mo, 1695. 
Ditto. 12nio, 1?.^3. 2nd ed. 
Works of Jndge Jenkins upon divers Statotes. " By David Jenkins, 

I)risoner in Newgate." 
Welsh Piety, or a farther Account of the Circulating Welsh Charity 

Schools, 1745-6. By Griffith Jones, Llanddowror. 8vo, 1747. 
Evans' Sermons to Yoong People. 12mo, 1772. 
Scarrow'a Letters rendered into English by J. Davies of Eudwelly, 

Life ana Death of Vavasor Powell. 12mo, 1671. 
Dr. Powel's History of Wales, " augmented by W, Wynne, A.M." 

8ro, 1702. 

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Tlomu Pogb's " British and Oatlandisb Propbesies, reiy antient, 
foretelling the eerersl rerolntioiis which hath and shall berall the 
■oepter of England ; the late wars ; the late King's death ; his 

Highness' oanqnest and airiral to the scepter, &o and that 

his Highness that now is shall conqaer most of them. Also hia 
Highness's lineal desoent from the antient Princes of Brittain, 
dearly manifesting that Hee is the Conqaeror they so long pro- 
pheeied of." 1658. 

Fleetwood's Ijifh and Uiraolea of St. Wenefrede, etc. 8to, 1713. 

Philipps' Pedigrees of Carmartheashire, Pembrokeshire, and Car- 
diganshire, in continoation of Lewis Dwnn, to abont 1 700-1710; 
together with Lists of Sheriffs of the three Counties, from their 
first Appointment, Henry YIII. 

Sir T. Philipps' Pedigrees of Glamoi^nshiFe, from MSS. of Sir 
Isaac Heard, Knt., Garter King of Arms. 

Owen's Review of the Trae Nature of Schisms. 1657. 

Royal Institntion of Sontb Wales, per Col. G. O. Francis, F.S.A. 

Speed's Theatre of the Empire of Great Britain. 

Sammes' Antiqaities of Ancient Britain. Plates. 1676. 

Francis Green, Esq. 

Powel's Histoiy of Wales, black letter, 1584. 

Llyfr Gweddi Gyffredin, bUck letter, 1664. C. Bath, Esq.