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:;W'tjJM'^U'j \^ 

^r([haj0lagta ^amlrr^nsis, 


Cumbrian lrr|(ealagiral Issnriatian. 


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Rev. S. Baring-Gould 1 
. F. Haverfield . 12 
. B.Anwyl . 16 

The Exploration of Clegyr Voya . 

Roman Forts in South Wales 

The Early Settlers of Brecon 

A Survey of the Lordship of Haverford 

in 1577 . . Henry Owen 

The Removal of the Cross of Iltyd at 

Llantwit Major, Glamorganshire . G. £. Halliday . 

Cambrian Arch»ological Association, 
Fifty-Sixth Annual Meeting 

Montgomeryshire Screens and Rood- 

Lofts . Yen. Archdeacon Thomas 

The Hermitage of Theodoric, and the Site 

of Pendar .... Thomas Gray 

The " Golden Grove Book" of Pedigrees . Edward Owen . 

Cambrian Archaeological Association. Routes of the Excur- 
sions ....... 

Popular Lectures at the Annual Meetings 

Pre>Norman Cross-Base at Llangefelach, 

History of the Old Parish of Gresford in 

the counties of Denbigh and Flint . A. N. Palmer 

Forgotten Sanctuaries . Gwenllian E. F. Morgan 

Note on a Perforated Stone Axe- Hammer 

found in Pembrokeshire J. Romilly Allen 






. 180 

J. Romilly Allen . 181 



Llangurig Church, Montgomeryshire. Yen. Archdeacon Thomas 239 



Ancient British Camps, etc, in Lleyn, oo. 

Carnarvon .... Edward Owen 251 

Cambrian Archieologioal Association* Statement of Accounts, 

1901-1902 291,292 

Incised Cross-Stone at rstafell-facb, Breck- 
nockshire, and the Tradition of an 
Ancient Town W. T. Granyille Lewis 298 

The Oldest Parish Registers in Pembroke- 
shire ..... Rev. J. Phillips . 298 

The Early Life of St. Samson of Dol . Rev. W. D. Bnshell 319 

Gileston Church, Glamorgan Geo. K Halliday 339 

St. Brychan, King, Confessor. Rev. S Baring Gonld and J. Fisher 345 

Aboh«olooical NonoEs and Queries , 82, 177, 272, 371 

Reviews and Noticbs op Books .... 263 

^rchaealagia Caiulrreiijjifi* 


JANUARY, 1903. 



CiiEGYR VoYA IS an elevation of igneous rock rising 
some 45 ft. above the fields and the Rhoson Common, 
near St. David's. 

It forms a long parallelogram running north-north- 
east by south-south-west, and is tolerably accessible by 
grassy slopes on all sides save where the rock rises 
precipitously. The north-north-east approach is by a 
narrow grassy slope between two projecting rocks, that 
form natural defences on each side, but a very steep 
slope is at the start. 

The south-south-west slope is more open and less 
abrupt, and it is broken by a terrace easily mounted 
from the road leading from Forth Clais. Above that 
are three horns of rock. Between the two on the left, 
as we ascend, it would be diflBcult to mount, but this is 
not the case between the central and the right hand 

The portion of the long side to the south-east 
panillel with the Alun Valley, and rising above the 
farm-houses crouching below in shelter from the gales 
from the sea, is easy of access except at those points, 
where the rocks start up precipitously. The same 
may be said of the north-west side. 

6th 8KR., VOL. III. 1 


The entire summit has been fortified by a bank of 
stone mingled with earth, but originally a wall of stones 
bedded in earth, that connects the rocky prongs. This 
bank, or rather wall, was originally faced throi^hout 
with large slabs set on end, like the camp of Dinas 
Sylwy or Bwrdd Arthur in Anglesey, with this excep- 
tion, that the latter is faced internally as well as 
externally with slabs set on end. Most of these facers 
have been removed for building purposes, but on the 
south-south-east side one remains in situ. On the 
north-north-west side the face for 30 ft. is intact, and 
five other slabs remain in position. At the north- 
north-east extremity are six still in position, and per- 
taining to an outwork beyond, one slab is still standing, 
and two others are fallen. 

The fort is a rudely rectangular parallelogram, but 
with an adjunct or outwork at the north-north-east 
extremity, beyond that portion of the bank which is 
loftiest. Of this outwork, the two sides that make the 
continuations of the camp in its greatest length are 
formed by abrupt rocks. There is no opening in the 
wall to afford communication between this outwork and 
the main body of the camp ; and those defending it, 
if driven from their position, must have retreated by 
passing among the rocks on their left. 

In The History and Antiquities of Saint DavicTs, by 
Jones and Freeman, 1856, an account is given of the 
south -south- western end, which must be quoted, as it 
no longer applies : the walls having been removed by 
road-menders and the builders of the fences to the 
adjoining fields. 

They say : — 

" The defences at the west end are of a rather complicated 
nature, perhaps to protect the entrance, which seems to have 
been placed near the south-western angle. These stand at 
the very brink of the western slope, which, as has been said, 
is very open. Accordingly, there are- traces of an outwork about 
half-way down the hill." 

Unhappily all this has been levelled, and it is with 


difficulty that anything can be distinguished, and here 
nothing can be planned with any certainty. The 
interior of both the main camp and the annexe have 
been hollowed out artificially, probably with the pur- 
pose of finding the stone to serve for the walls and for 
the large facing slabs. 

The camp takes its name from Boya, a Gwyddel 
chief, who occupied it in St. David's day, and who 
caused him considerable annoyance. When David 
removed from the " Old Bush" — probably Ty Gwyn on 
the slope of Cam Llidi to the valley of the Alun — he 
lighted a fire. Boyas camp commanded the ravine, 
and, seeing smoke rising from it, he went to the spot to 
enquire who had settled there without his permission. 

David pacified him without much difficulty, but 
Boya's wife was inveterate in her animosity, and she 
had recourse to various expedients to force him to 

As these proved unsuccessful, she made, as a last 
resource, an appeal to her gods, and tried to propitiate 
them with a sacrifice. 

For this purpose, she invited her step-daughter, 
named Dunawd, one warm day, to come into the hazel- 
brake on the slope of the Alun, to pick nuts, and that 
she might dress her curls. When the girl laid her 
head in the woman's lap, she shore off her hair. This 
was tantamount to adoption, and then, with a knife 
cut the child's throat, and poured out her blood to the 
gods. This did not avail, and the woman, afraid of 
Boya's wrath, ran away and concealed herself. What 
became of her was never known. She probably pro- 
posed absenting herself till Boya had cooled down, but 
circumstances occurred that made a return impossible. 

During the night, Paucant, son of Liski, another 
Irish pirate, entered the little harbour that now bears 
his fistther's name, stole in the dark up to the crag, and, 
finding the entrance unguarded, burst in with his men 
and slew Boya in his bed. The lAfe of St. David says 
that fire fell from Heaven and consumed the fortress. 


It must be admitted that spade and shovel show no 
evidence of the place having been destroyed by fire. 
If we may trust the '' Life of St. Teilo/' in the Booh of 
Llandaff, David had so won on Boya that he got the 
rude Irish chief to consent to be baptized. Supposing 
this to have been the case, it explains the anger of that 
obstinate pagan, his wife. 

In the Latin and Welsh Lives of St. David it is said 
that a spring flowed where the blood of Dunawd had 
fallen, that was endowed with miraculous healing 
powers, and was called ** Fynnon Dunawd," and the 
place " Merthyr Dunawd," even to this day. Where 
that spring is I have not ascertained. 

There is a reputed well in the rock of Clegyr Voya 
that is supposed always to have water in it, but to fill 
especially when the tide flows. It is a smaU hollow in 
the igneous rock, from which a core or crystal has 
fallen, and is about large enough for the fist to be 
inserted. This "Fynnon'' is still in repute, and its water 
is regarded as sovereign, especially for sore eyes. 

Whilst I was engaged on the exploration of Clegyr 
Voya, I went several times a day to the reputed spring, 
but never found water in it, though the rock and sedi- 
ment at the bottom remained wet. 

A tradition exists that, eighty years ago, a party of 
men resolved on treasure seeking in the camp. The 
first day, they had hardly begun to dig before a pouring 
rain came on which drove them away. They went 
again, and next day a thunderstorm broke over them ; 
but they did not leave till they had uncovered a kettle. 
They attempted the third day to dig out the kettle, 
but on reaching the rock thunder and lightning played 
about it, and the storm continued with such violence, 
and so long, that they retreated and abandoned the 
attempt. The origin of the story seems to be this: — 

It is commonly held that a subterranean passage 
connects Clegyr Voya with St. David's Cathedral, and 
that considerable treasure is hidden in it. 

The grandfather of the present Mr. Davies, of the 


farm under Clegyr Voya, did actually begin to dig 
into the rampart at the south-south-west end, between 
the rocks, and sunk a pretty deep hole : it may still 
be seen. But, as he found nothing at all, he wearied 
of the attempt, and so abandoned it. 

There is a second camp at Penllan, a quarter of a 
mile distant on the edge of the Alun valley, that local 
tradition says was raised by St. David as a protection 
against Boya. 

Leland speaks of the " two castles of Boya," and 
there can be no doubt that he refers to these two. 
Elsewhere, he speaks of "Caerboias' Castle, standing 
by Alen Ryveret, about a quarter of a myle lower than 
St. David's on the said Ryverit" {Itin., vol. v, p. 201); 
and he here clearly means Penllan. 

But this latter camp is distinctively of a diflferent 
and later character, and is essentially a Danish or 
Northman erection, or possibly Saxon ; and if Boya had 
a fortress here, it must have been completely transformed 
by the later pirates. Of this alteration there is no 
trace. That the author of the Welsh Life of St. 
David meant Clegyr Voya is apparent, for he makes 
Boya stand on a ** high rock" in it, and there is no 
rock at Penllan : there all is earth. It was from the 
high rock that Boya observed the smoke from David s 

The camp on Clegyr Voya is 320 ft. long by 100 ft. 
broad ; this is the measurement, including the outwork 
to the north-north-east. The main camp measures 
265 ft. in length. The outwork, or annexe, is at a 
somewhat lower level. A careful and fairly complete 
examination of Clegyr Voya was made at the begin- 
ning of June. Much gratitude must be expressed to 
Messrs. W. Davies, of Rhos-y-cribed, and to Mr. Watts 
Williams, for kind and readily-accorded permission to 
make the exploration. 

The workmen employed were William Narberth, 
John Williams, Peter Cunningham, and Abel Codd, 
who all displayed great intelligence and eagerness, 


and one may be confident that nothing escaped their 

The first excavations done were within the enclosure 
marked l-m. Here a low ruined wall can be traced, 
describing a curve from one mass of rock to another. 
A trench was cut from l to m, but nothing was found 
except a little charcoal at M, and a flat slab set on 
stones built up to support it, some 2 ft. 6 ins. below 
the surface to the top of the slab. It seemed to have 
served as a seat, and was placed parallel with the 
line L-M. 

There is a sunken space at G, with rock faces on all 
sides save one, and that was closed by a semicircular 
low wall. This wall was traced, and the space was 
examined. The floor was of beaten clay, at a depth of 
3 ft. 6 ins. below the turf. Some charcoal was found, 
and numerous water-worn stones, some round, some 
long in shape, like celts, but natural. Many of these 
showed signs of having been used as hammers or axes, 
and were bruised and flaked. Here also was found a 
broken stone lamp, like that discovered at Moel Trigam. 
Numerous sling-stones had fallen over this portion of 
the camp, some split by striking against the rock. A 
little charcoal was found, but no definite marks of 
habitation. There were, however, a good many bits of 
burnt stone and burnt earth. 

Research was made under the rock at n, where a 
hearth was discovered built up against the rock face, 
with much charcoal and ash, but nothing else except 
pebbles. This hearth was only 2 ft. 6 ins. below the 
surface, and rested on rock. There was no bank to fall 
in and encumber the ground at this spot. 

Then trial pits were sunk along the inside of the 
wall on the north-north-west side, and it was ascer- 
tained that the original floor was 4 ft. 6 ins. below the 
present surface. At o, a large hearth was disclosed, 
strewn with potsherds, and among them lay a stone 
celt, partly polished, that had two large flakes chipped 
ofi* it. 


The pottery was very rude and coarse, and consisted 
of the remains of four vessels, none of them with 
ornamentation except one that had a line drawn round 
it. All the fragments were collected, but the pieces 
were so small that it was hopeless to expect to have 
any of the vessels restored. 

At K was another hearth, and the ash lay full a foot 
thick upon it. Here also potsherds were found, and a 
flint arrow-head. 

The outer portion of the camp, or annexe, was 
explored, but without results. Throughout the camp 
were found numerous sling-stones, also pebbles that 
seem to have been employed as hammers; they were 
long water-worn, smooth stones, most of which showed 
indications of having been used. 

The pottery found has been examined by Mr. C. H. 
Read, of the British Museum, and he says : — 

" It is a perilous thing to date forty pieces of rough ware, and 
I can only do it in this case with all reserve. It seems to me 
to belong to the pre-Roman times, and not to be so old as the 
typical Bronze Age. Thus it is very late Bronze Age, or early 
Iron. . Of the two I lean to the latter. The little flint is surely 
worked, and is more like an arrow-head than anything else." 

Mr. R. Burnard, to whom I have also submitted the 
pottery, says : — 

" It is very diflTerent from hut-circle pottery. The pieces are 
small, and I advance an opinion with some reserve, but I think 
it is wheel-made, and I should, say it is at the earliest Late Celtic, 
or it may be much later. The sherds are smoothed on both 
sides, and if the pots were wheel-turned, the hands were used 
for shaping. This may account for the little lumps and depres- 
sions on them. What we consider as rude pottery must have been 
used down to a late period. The fact is, we have a lot to learn, 
and we must dig, dig, and note all finds and compare." 

I had already arrived at the same conclusion. The 
camp at Clegyr Voya is certainly enigmatical. It 
bears the name of an historical Goidel chief, who 
perished in it about the year 520, and yet all the relics 
round in it belong to a much earlier period. The only 


solution I can propose is that these Gwyddel free- 
booters, who were the scourge of the Welsh, were still 
employing stone weapons, no dotibt at the same time 
that they did others of iron and bronze, and that the 
potterjr they employed was rough earthenware, manu- 
factured on the spot from the glacial clay that lies in 
the wawn of Ehosson, and that they did not trouble 
themselves to ornament such coarse stuff as was used 
for cooking. A broken spindle-whorl was also found. 

The camp had obviously been attacked from the 
Bhosson side, as the hail of sling-stones had swept over 
the west wall, and fallen on the further side. 

In only one spot was there any face to the wall 
found on the inside, and it proved that the wall had 
been rudely built up with undressed stones; these 
stones being for the most part small — none too large 
for a man to lift — in course of time the wall had fallen 
into complete ruin. It is diflGlcult, not to say im- 
possible, to determine what was the original height of 
the wall. But from the original surface to the summit 
of the mound of raised walling, it is still in most places 
from 6 ft. to 7 ft. high on the inside. 

Pieces of drift flint and flint flakes were not infre- 
quent, but none showed signs of working, except a 
possible thumb-scraper. 

On the whole, Clegyr Voya .shows no evidence of 
continued occupation. The finds were singularly few. 
The camp had probably been resorted to temporarily, 
and in the summer. 

But that it had been assaulted is certain from the 
abundance of sling stones found in it, scattered every- 
where, not collected in heaps as at Moel Trigam. 

There are in it none of those cairns of stones to serve 
as missiles for defence, that exist in so many other 
camps of a similar character. 

It is certainly to be regretted that the "finds" at 
Clegyr Voya have been so few, but it was well that a 
camp so interesting historically should have been in- 


The camp was carefully planned by Mr. A. Morgan, 
of St. David's. 

It was hoped that it would have furnished a key to 
the diflScult problem of the period when these stone 
camps were raised. This it has failed to do, and all 
we can say is, that it has advanced us another step in 
the knowledge of those mysterious camps which are 
found to exist throughout Wales and Devon, Somerset 
and Cornwall. 

Finally, I may be allowed to add one word on a 
camp called Tregeare that, in conjunction with Mr. 
Robert Burnard, I have recently been engaged in dig- 
ging out, in Cornwall, There again we found plenty 
of sling-stones. But there we found pottery with 
what is generally supposed to be the distinctive Bronze 
Age ornamentation ; and yet, strange to say, one 
sherd had been riveted with iron. This shows that 
the Bronze Age ornamentation in zigzags and chevrons 
was continued much later than has been supposed; 
and we may also surmise that stone weapons were also 
in use long after the introduction of metal. The 
pottery found at Clegyr Voya was singularly thick. 

I must say that I am loth to give up Boya — if what 
was found did actually belong to his period, then he 
lived in a more primitive condition than we should have 
supposed possible in the sixth century. 

The Cambrian Archaeological Association had ap- 
pointed five members to assist in the excavation, but 
untoward circumstances prevented all five from being 
present; however, I was greatly assisted by Mr. W. H. 
Williams, of Solva, who was with me most days, and 
whose geological knowledge came in very serviceable, 
and whose opinion on many points was of the highest 

All the "finds" were sent to the Tenby Museum, 
where they may now be seen. 



BY F. HAVERFIELD, ESQ., M.A., F.S.A., Hon. F.S.A.S00T. 

The Roman fort at the Gaer, near Brecon, is often said 
to have borne in Roman times the name Bannium, and 
that name has been given in the printed programme of 
the meeting of the Association as the title of my Paper. 
In reality, I am not very much concerned about the 
name. I have my doubts whether the Gaer fort was 
ever called Bannium. I suspect that Bannium is not 
a name at all, but, as Horsley suggested, a truncated 
form of Gobannium, the name of a fort or other Roman 
site at Abergavenny. The document in which Bannium 
occurs, the list of the Ravenna geographer, is by no 
means a trustworthy authority on the exact forms of 
place-names, which not unfrequently appear in it shorn 
of their initial or other letters. Thus the fort of 
Braboniacum, in the north of England, appears in the 
Ravenna list as Ravonia, without its first letter and its 
final syllable; and the town of Isca Dumnoniorum 
appears as Scadoniorum, equally without its first letter 
and one of its internal syllables. Even if Bannium 
were, however, the correct name of the Roman fort 
near Brecon, I should prefer to leave it on one side as 
an insignificant item. Our predecessors in the study of 
Roman Britain have paid far too much attention to the 
identification of names. The names with which they 
have had to deal are, with hardly an exception, names 
which never recur except in the topographical lists of 
Ptolemy, or the Ravenna geographer, or the Antonine 
Itinerary. Nothing is known about them ; nothing is 
recorded as having ever happened at any of them ; 
there is no reference to them in literature properly so 
called. Take any of the place-names which can be 
reasonably assigned to sites in the counties adjoining 


Brecon : Bravonium, Magna, Ariconium, in Hereford- 
shire; Burrium, Blestium, Bovium, Nidum, in Mon- 
mouth and South Wales. If I can prove, for example, 
that Bravonium is Leintwardine, as a scholar I am of 
course bound to note the fact, and I may thereby gain 
an item which, combined with other items, will slightly 
advance knowledge. But I should make more progress 
if I could dig up Leintwardine and discover (apart from 
all question of names) what the place was like in 
Romano- British days : whether a military post, or a 
posting-station, or a village, whose inhabitants reached 
such-and-such a degree of wealth, or practised such-and- 
such an occupation. It is by learning these details, 
far DQore than by studying place-names, that we may 
hope to recover some knowledge of the civilisation of 
Roman Britain. The thing is the important matter, not 
the name. 

In respect to the Gaer, the ''thing" is to some 
extent plain. We have before us a small permanent 
fort, which dominates a river valley, and forms the 
meeting-place of several roads. It is not a town or a 
village. Very likely, there was outside the fol*t a small 
collection of huts, where a few women, a few traders, 
and perhaps one or two retired soldiers, squatted. But 
the spot was essentially military. Can we say more 
about it ? To say much more we need excavation. 
But our knowledge of the Roman military system will 
aid us a little. We can put the fort into its proper 
place in that military system, and in some degree form 
an idea of what it was ; what sort of troops garrisoned 
it ; what purpose it served in this far-off corner of the 
Roman Empire. 

For our present purpose two facts about the Roman 
army must be borne in mind. In the first place, that 
army had two chief divisions, the legions and the so- 
called auxiliaries. The legions were brigades of heavy 
infantry, each some five thousand strong, recruited (at 
least in theory) from those who possessed the full 
Roman citizenship : they were the better paid and the 


more trustworthy portions of the Roman army. The 
auxiliaries were organised in smaller regiments, five 
hundred or one thousand strong, of infantry (cohortes) 
and cavalry {aloe) : they were recruited from the 
subjects, not from the citizens, of the empire, and 
Corresponded to some extent to the native troops in our 
African and Indian possessions. 

Secondly the army, in respect of both classes, was 
essentially a garrison army. The legions were posted, 
dne each, in large fortresses of some 50 acres area ; 
the auxiliaries were posted generally in small forts of 
3 to 8 acres each. Both were posted on or near the 
frontiers and the disturbed districts, and there only. 
Thus in Britain there were troops in Wales and in the 
north, but very few in the Midlands, the south, or the 
east. Posted thus, the troops were the garrisons of the 
hill country and the exposed frontiers. Besides them 
there was no field army ; if one was required, it was 
obtained by withdrawing men from the garrisons. In 
general, however, the auxiliaries were posted in the 
front, and the legionary fortresses lay more outside the 
actual area of danger ; so that to some extent their 
garrisons were available, without serious inconvenience, 
for service elsewhere. Thus troops from the Legio II 
Augusta, at Caerleon, could be used more or less safely 
to act at need in Wales, and even in northern Britain. 

The fort at the Gaer was one of the smaller forts 
mentioned in the last paragraph. Probably its usual 
garrison was auxiliary ; but it is conceivable that 
detachments from the legion at Caerleon may have 
been employed on occasion. In any case, it was a 
garrison in the network of forts and roads which helped 
to keep quiet the unruly Silures and other hillmen of 
South Wales. The fort at Gellygaer, lately excavated 
by the CardiflF Naturalists' Society, is another such ; 
probably there were similar forts in other sites which 
yet await exploration. When they were established, 
and how long maintained, is uncertain. The few coins 
found at GeUygaer suggest an occupation from a.d. 70 


or 80 till A.D. 110 or 120 ; and the fact that the masonry 
there, so far as I could see, showed practically no sign 
of repairs or reconstructions, points also to a compara- 
tively brief occupation. And indeed we may well 
believe that by a.d. 110 the hills of South Wales were 
quiet enough to allow of reductions of garrison. The 
conquest of the district, according to our ancient 
historians, began about A.D. 50, but was actually 
eflFected between about a.d. 75 and a.d. 80 : forty years 
later the fort at Gellygaer may have become superfluous. 
Excavation alone can show whether that was also the 
case at the Gaer, and, if so, whether the buildings were 
subsequently squatted in by others than military 
inhabitants. It is, however, likely enough that some 
of the outlying little forts were held long after the first 
period of conquest and pacification. It was found 
possible, in the second and third centuries, to detach 
" vexillations" of the Second Legion to the Roman 
wall for temporary purposes, and this suggests that 
South Wales had tnen become comparatively peaceful. 
But, even so, a fort like that near Brecon may still 
have been kept up. How long it lasted is, however, 
outside our knowledge. The roads and forts of the 
south coast, from Cardiff to Carmarthen, seem to have 
been, at least partially, restored by Constantius Chlorus 
or Constantino, early in the fourth century ; but it is 
hard to say exactly what this restoration was, and it is 
as yet impossible to say how far inland it extended. 
When local research and excavation have gone further 
forward we shall be able to write more fully, not only 
the history of this single fort, but of the system efforts 
and roads to which it belonged. It may still remain a 
nameless fort, a blockhouse A. But it and its kindred 
forts will illustrate the methods of an imperial people 
faced by diflScult hills and stubborn men. 

[The insoriptions found at the Gaer cannot be dated. Some 
tiles of the Second Legion may belong to the foundation of the fort 
(compare Tacitus, Annals, xii, 38. 8). I am told that coins have 
been found at the Gaer, bnt 1 cannot learn their dates.] ^ 




In spite of the striking modern developments of 
Anthropology, Archaeology, Comparative Philology and 
Comparative Mythology, the reconstruction of the pre- 
historic past of Man must always be, at best, of a very 
tentative character, and especially when the evidence, 
as in the case of Breconsnire, is far from abundant. 
What evidence there is appears to be more suggestive 
than conclusive, and the interpretation of it is by no 
means free from ambiguity. However, it is not im- 
possible that, in course of time, further evidence may 
be found, especially if, at some future date, this and 
the neighbouring counties of England and Wales 
undergo a thorough Archaeological and Anthropolo- 
gical Survey. We are fortunate in possessing for 
Herefordshire an excellent Archaeological Survey, in 
the cariying out of which Mr. Haverfield has taken a 
prominent part. We have a most valuable Antiquarian 
Survey of East Gower by Colonel Morgan, and a survey 
of the archaeological remains of Pembrokeshire, with 
maps indicating the position of ancient monuments, 
carried out by several learned members of this Associa- 
tion. It would be an excellent thing if a similar survey 
could be undertaken also for the county of Brecon. 

As the evidence relating to the early settlers of 
Brecon is not abundant, and any clue that may suggest 
a possible solution of the problem is useful, attention 
will be called in this Paper to certain considerations 
derived from the river-names of the district, apparently 
the most ancient place-names that we have. It is 
generally admitted that river-names often survive great 
changes in the ethnology of any country, and Wales is 
probably no exception to the rule. 


For the purpose of the present paper, it will be con- 
venient to treat of the early settlers of Brecon in the 
order of the great stages of civilisation through which 
European man has passed : the stage of stone imple- 
ments, the stage of bronze implements, and the stage 
characterised by the use of iron. In dealing with these 
phases of civilisation, it should never be forgotten that 
they must have largely overlapped ; that, for example, 
the use of stone implements must have continued long 
after the introduction of bronze,^ and the use of bronze 
weapons after the introduction of iron.^ Moreover, 
at any rate in the earlier periods of these stages, some 
parts of a country or district would naturally be in 
possession of the higher phase of civilisation, while 
others would still be in the lower: The distribution of 
early civilisation, like that of more modern times, was 
very largely determined, not by conquest and colonisa- 
tion only, but by economic considerations of barter and 
exchange, and by the direction of the ancient trade- 
routes along which goods passed by a system of inter- 
tribal barter. Hence, a district which was favourably 
situated from this point of view, could steal a rapid 
march in civilisation upon another where the conditions 
were less favourable. Much of the best archaeological 
work to-day — as, for instance, that of Mr. A. J. Evans — 
consists in a thorough and painstaking investigation 
into the ancient trade-routes of the world. 

Of Palaeolithic Man in Breconshire, so far as the 
writer is aware, there are no traces on record. It 
would, however, be obviously rash to infer that, even if 
no Palaeolithic flint implements have been found in 
Breconshire, the men of that period in their hunting 
expeditions never set foot in the county. Roughly- 
hewn flint implements, the most common remains of 
Palaeolithic Man, are naturally most abundant in 

^ At Clegyr Foia, the Rev. S. Baring- Oonld has fonnd indications 
of the use of stone arrows, even in the *' Iron Age." 

^ Mr. J. Romilly Allen has called my attention to bronze objects 
ornamented in imitation of patterns found on implements of iron. 

6th 8RR., VOL. m. 2 


districts like the South of England, where flints abound. 
Where skulls belonging to this period are found, they 
are marked by an extreme dolichocephalism. As to the 
affinities of the Palaeolithic men of Britain, several anthro- 
pologists have suggested that they were closely related 
to the Eskimo, and that, as the ice of the Glacial 
Period or periods melted, they followed the receding 
fringe of it to the North, in quest of the Arctic animals 
that accompanied it. If such was the case, could not 
others, to whom an Arctic climate was not a vital 
necessity, have remained in Britain, and thus established 
a link of connection between Palaeolithic and Neolithic 
Man ? The investigation of the Hoxne Palaeolithic 
remains by Sir John Evans and others, seems to lead 
to the conclusion thatthey are Post-Glacial in character, 
and so far tends to support the theory of continuity. 

The next great phase of civilisation is the "Neolithic," 
or that of the polished Stone Age. Between this and 
the former there must have been, in some parts of the 
world, a transition period, and this has been called by 
Mr. J. Allen Brown ,^ the " Mesolithic," characterised 
by flints of a better form than those of the Palaeolithic 
period. Much, however, remains to be done in tracing 
the continuity of the Stone Age, on the Continent as 
well as in Britain. The chief facts, as at present known 
regarding early man in Britain, afford primd facie 
evidence of a contrast in point of culture between the 
Palaeolithic and the Neolithic periods,^ and this has not 
unnaturally been interpreted as indicating a difference 
of race. 

Breconshire, so far as the writer can discover, has 
yielded no skull which can be assigned to the Neolithic 
Period, vast as that must have been in Britain. The 
skulls of this epoch, mostly found in the Long Barrows, 
are, like those of Palaeolithic Man, remarkably oval and 
dolichocephalic, the dolichocephalism, however, being 
more extreme in the case of the older type. Both 

^ Journal of the Anthropological Institute for 1893, p. 92. 
2 Keane, Ethnology^ pp. 110, 111. 


types have a lower average cephalic index than any 
men in modern Europe, except the Corsicans, and the 
stature of both types was below that of any variety 
now living in Britain.^ This resemblance of type 
between Palaeolithic and Neolithic Man, in spite of 
the contrasts in culture, warns us not to assume too 
hastily a complete difference of race. The spread of 
culture, even in prehistoric times, was by no means 
necessarily coincident with the racial extension. It is 
a remarkable fact that the long-headed or dolicho- 
cephalic type of head is characteristic of Northern, 
Western, and Southern Europe, as well as North 
Africa ; but with this important difference, that in the 
North it is combined with blonde characteristics, whereas 
in the other areas the complexion is, in varying degrees, 
brunette. The prevalent type of head found in Central 
Europe and its outlying districts, is, on the other 
hand, the brachycephalic or broad-headed, and this 
type has now spread into many parts of France, and 
even as far west as Brittany.* There are sufficient 
indications that Neolithic Man of the polished Stone 
Age inhabited Breconshire, and he, too, doubtless con- 
formed to the general dolichocephalic type of Britain. 
In British Neolithic graves this type of skull is 
generally combined with short stature. Within the 
large dolichocephalic area above mentioned, where a 
dark complexion prevails, modern research seems to 
establish the existence of well-marked sub-groups. For 
instance, in the neighbourhood of Pdrigueux, in France, 
the ancient Cro-Magnon type of skull, with its marked 
dolichocephalism, but with an unusually broad face, 
survives conspicuously in the present population ; and, 
as Ripley points out, this type was at one time much 
more widely distributed over Europe than it is now. 
Again, in the case of the Berbers of North Africa, the 

» Riplej, The Races of Europe, p. 306. 

* Riplej, The Races of Europe; Deniker, T/ie Races of Man ; 
Sergi, The Mediterranean Race ; Keane, Ethnology, and Man, Past 
and Present, contain valuable discussions on tliese points. 



(lark dolichocephalic type in question is tall, whereas 
in Southern Europe and in the greater part of Britain 
it is short. Doubtless further researches and dis- 
coveries will bring to light other varieties, especially 
when the exact shape of the skull, as well as its 
dolichocephalism or brachycephalism, is minutely con- 
sidered on lines such as the distinguished Italian 
anthropologist, Sergi, has already laid down.^ That 
great care is needea in these researches is clear from 
the fact that, within the limits of Great Britain itself, 
there are striking differences in stature in different 
districts, even among the men of dark complexion, com- 
bined with oval skull. For example : while the dark 
type in South Wales is usually short of stature, in 
Argyleshire and Inverness it is talL^ Consequently, 
Ripley goes so far as to say that " to class these 
Scotchmen in the same Iberian or Neolithic substratum 
with the Welsh and Irish is manifestly impossible." 
It is on points such as these that much light may be 
expected from the investigations of the Ethnological 
Survey Committee of the British Association. Gradu- 
ally, we may hope to see the various types of the dark 
dolichocephalic peoples of the South and West of 
Europe, and of North Africa, carefully distinguished. 
Until this is done, it is unsafe to indulge in a hypo- 
thetical account of the progress of this prehistoric type 
from the shores of the Mediterranean to the British 
Isles. As there are, undoubtedly, many points of 
resemblance between the native races of North Africa 
and the men of the Northern Coast of the Mediter- 
ranean (not to speak of other European types), some 
anthropologists — as, for instance, Eeane — ^have held 
that the leading European varieties (or, at any rate, 
the dark long-headed type), crossed from Africa into 
Europe at the remote period when both these Continents 
were joined by land bridges ; but, since then, tens of 
thousands of years have elapsed, and he would be a 

^ Sergi, The Mediterranean Race, e,g., p. 121. 
2 Riplej, Races of Eurojye, pp. 328, 329. 


bold man who would venture to speculate what the 
exact physical types, or the languages, or the customs, 
of these ancient travellers were. 

As the ethnology of a county like Breconshire is an 
epitome of the ethnology of the British Isles, it might 
be well to pause a moment to consider (supposing it 
could be satisfactorily proved that the men of the 
polished Stone Age in Breconshire were racially related 
to the men of the Mediterranean seaboard^, through 
what process they would arrive, first in Britain, then 
in Breconshire. Sometimes we arie apt to picture the 
races of early man as travelling in caravan-like pil- 
grimages across Continents. The actual method of 
their extension must have been very different. It 
would be the overflow of the race that would spread 
further and further away from each district, and, in 
occupying a new territory, it would doubtless combine 
very largely with the previous inhabitants. It is in 
the highest degree unlikely that, in the Dordogne 
district of France, for instance, no descendants of 
Palaeolithic Man survived, so that these would affect 
any race that passed into and through their district. 
Hence, the overflow that would ultimately pass over 
into Britain would be a very different combination, 
racially, from that which first arrived in Europe from 
North Africa; and even the British type, if Palaeolithic 
Man in South Britain survived, would probably have 
undergone some modification before it arrived in Brecon- 

In view of the complexity of the ethnological prob- 
lem when carefully considered, it would be rash to 
speculate as to the affinities of the language of these 
early settlers of Brecon. The speech which we call 
Celtic (including the two main branches of Goidelic 
and Brythonic), belongs to the Aryan or Indo-European 
family, and was introduced by later invaders from the 
Continent. Both Irish and Welsh, however, exhibit 
certain features which distinguish them somewhat 
conspicuously from such a language, for instance, as 


Sanskrit, perhaps the most characteristic representa- 
tive of tne Indo-European family.^ One of these 
features is the loss of the original Indo-European ' p' ; 
existing * p' in Welsh being the phonetic derivative of 
an original * qu/ As this peculiarity of Celtic is found 
in both Welsh and Irish, and, moreover, existed in 
some of the dialects of Gaul, we may naturally infer 
that the Celts, who afterwards colonised Britain and 
Ireland, had such a peculiarity before any of them left 
the continent of Europe, and the same may be said of 
other peculiarities which Welsh and Irish have in com- 
njon. Such a curious linguistic change as the loss of 
Indo-European * p' in Celtic cannot but create a strong 
suspicion that the race which first introduced this 
tongue into Britain had learnt to speak it, more or less 
imperfectly, from some race that spoke an Indo- 
European tongue with which the Celte had come in 
contact. All linguistic evidence points to the fact that 
the form of Indo-European which the Celts acquired 
had a close affinity with the Italic group of languages. 
After the Indo-European language in question had 
been modified by the linguistic habits of the Celts on 
the Continent, it is not improbable that the resultant 
language was still further modified in Britain itself, 
through the influence of the language or languages of 
the Neolithic pre-Celtic tribes, whom the incoming 
Celts conquered ; and this process would probably be 
carried a stage further still in Ireland. As to the 
characteristics of the pre-Celtic speech of Gaul, as well 
as that of Britain, as reflected in the peculiar features 
of Celtic generally, it is not easy to speculate, until 
the languages of the Celtic and the Italic groups have 
been most minutely compared. Further, it should be 
borne in mind that the diflerences between the lan- 
guages of the Italic group and Greek (not to speak of 
Sanskrit), are such that even the former may not be 
unmodified by the linguistic habits of non-Aryan 
tongues. Greek, again, as compared with 8anskrit, 

^ Especially in its iiidexional sydtem aud its power of forming 


raises problems of a similar kind. It is unfortunate, 
for us, that Etruscan, apparently a non- Aryan tongue, 
presents no sure aflSnities with Basque, the only sur- 
viving non-Aryan tongue of Southern Europe. If these 
two languages are related, the task of discovering the 
pre-Aryan tongue of Western Europe will be much 
easier. It may well be that, in the vocabulary of Irish 
and Welsh, many words belonging to the pre-Celtic 
language or languages of the Continent and of Britain 
still survive, but it is not easy to say with certainty 
which they are. Probably, too, some of these ancient 
woi-ds still remain in several of the mountain and river 
names of Britain and of the Continent. 

If we are thus at a loss to discover the ancient 
tongue of Breconshire in Neolithic times, it is not so 
difficult to form some estimate of the civilisation of 
that long period. Remains of it, substantially the 
same in character, occur widely distributed in Britain, 
over the West of France (especially in Brittany), in 
the Iberian peninsula, in Mauretania, in Tunis, and in 
Syria, and, sporadically, in the Mediterranean region 
generally. The larger remains consist mainly of blocks 
of stone, sometimes single, sometimes grouped, as in 
cromlechs, stone circles, and alignments. A continuous 
series of such stone monuments has been traced in the 
West of Europe from Spain to Brittany; and, over sea, 
this series seems to connect on the one hand with a 
similar series in North Africa, on the other with the 
stone monuments of Britain. The age of these various 
stone monuments is a question of great obscurity, and 
a Committee of the British Association has been formed 
to inquire into the subject. As there are in Brecon- 
shire several stone monuments of the kind, probably 
going back to Neolithic times, it may not be unin- 
teresting to mention a theory with regard to similar 
structures elsewhere, put forward by one of the most 
distinguished of modern archaeologists, Mr. A. J. Evans, 
in his book on The. Mycencean Tree and Pillar Cult. 
He suggests that the pillar of the Mycenaean worship 
had as its prototype a monolith, in other words a 


" maen hir", like those found in Wales. With the 
pillar was associated a tree, which Mr. Evans thinks 
was, like the pillar, regarded as the abode of a spirit. 
The collocation of tree and stone, he remarks, is still 
frequent in India. Similarly he traces certain group- 
ings of stones to polylithic prototypes, not unlike the 
cromlechs of Wales. In reading this suggestive work, 
an idea occurred to the writer, that possibly the 
ancient Neolithic religion of Britain had also two sym- 
bols in conjunction,— the "maen hir" or the ** crom- 
lech," and the sacred tree, the latter being probably 
the oak, known in other ways to have been regarded 
with veneration in the ancient religion of the Celts. 
It may also be mentioned here that Mr. A. J. Evans 
calls attention to the noticeable connection of birds 
with some of the early religions of the Mediterranean 
area. As an explanation, he suggests that a spiritual 
being was supposed to descend on the sacred tree in 
the form of a bird. Might it be that the proverbial 
** Adar Rhiannon " are a dim and distant echo of some 
such idea in the early religion of our forefathers ? 

In modern archaeology, the extension of a form of 
culture is treated independently of the spread of a race 
or of a language. Sometimes, two or more of these 
movements coincide, but at other times they do not 
In the case of Neolithic Man in Britain, who lived a 
pastoral and agricultural life, as contrasted with that of 
the hunter who preceded him, the domestic ox, the 
sheep, and the pig, seem to have been introduced from 
the Continent. In his recent work on the physical 
features of Britain, Mr. Mackinder remarks that some 
of the wild animals of Britain owed their origin to 
domestic varieties that had wandered from control ; 
for example, the wild boar, the St. Kilda sheep, and 
the wild cattle of Chillingham. In a recent number of 
the ArchcBologia Camhrensis, Professor Boyd Dawkins 
has pointed out the continuity of Welsh farming from 
Neolithic times : the older race apparently largely 
a*ssimihiting those of the later Celtic invaders. 


Before leaving pre-Celtic man in Breconshire and 
discussing the traces of those invaders who introduced 
forms of Celtic speech into the district, we may inquire 
further as to the distribution of those ancient stone 
monuments in the county, which have a primd facie 
claim to be regarded as going back to the Neolithic 
period ; though, in the absence of a complete and 
searching archaBological survey, there remains consider- 
able uncertainty with regard to several of them, 
especially those called in the Ordnance Survey *' Stand- 
ing stones." The same difficulty arises also in the case 
of the various " carnau ; " until they have been carefully 
examined, as was done with the " earn " at Ystradfellte, 
it is not possible to estimate their antiquity. Colonel 
Morgan has kindly informed me that there are several 
ancient remains in the county which are not marked 
on the Ordnance Survey Maps, and it is hoped that in 
any future archfleological survey the sites of these will 
be carefully indicated. 

Doubtless, in remote times, the Neolithic inhabitants 
occupied most of the habitable land outside the impene- 
trable forests and marshes ; and, as much of the lower 
ground in earlier times was so rendered uninhabitable, 
until men with metallic implements could clear it, we 
may reasonably expect to find traces of the earlier 
inhabitants, who were mainly herdsmen, on higher 
ground than the bulk of the present population. In 
very remote times, too, the courses of the streams must 
have been somewhat higher than they are at present, 
especially where the streams are rapid and the soil 
or rock easily worn by water. Nor would it be 
strange if the Neolithic men buried their illustrious 
dead on conspicuous spots, at a level considerably higher 
than those of their own dwellings. This tendency 
would continue into later times, so that this is probably 
the reason why so many ** carnau" are found on 

Among the districts of Breconshire where there are 
probable Neolithic remains, it seems possible to dis- 

26 the: £arly settlbes of Brecon. 

tinguish three main zones ; (a) that of the Wye Valley 
to the north and south of Builth ; (h) that of the Usk 
valley and its adjacent parts ; (c) that of the Beacon 

The district of Buallt (Builth), also known as Buellt, 
and in the Liber Landavensis as Buell, was in ancient 
times a principality by itself. In the ninth century 
A.D., the districts of Gwrthrynion and Buellt formed a 
separate kingdom, the rulers of which traced their 
descent to Pasgen, son of Urien.^ " Gwrthrynion," says 
Mr. Phillimore, ** with Maelienydd and Elfael was once 
regarded as part of Powys, the traditional boundary 
being Rhyd Helyg ar Wy, between Glasbury and Hay." 
In both Radnorshire and Herefordshire finds of stone 
implements are few, but a flint arrowhead has been 
found at Rhayader, and a polished stone hammer at 
Abbey Cwm Hir. Unfortunately, we have no means 
of knowing whether these go back to a period before 
the introduction of bronze. The Neolithic traces on 
the Breconshire side of the Wye may perhaps be 
represented by the two " carnau " on the mountain now 
called "Cam Gafallt" (the *'Carn Cabal" of Nennius), 
and also by the " carnau," and the monument called 
" Saith maen," on " Y Gamrhiw " and " Y Drum ddu." 
Within this zone the apparently pre-Celtic names 
which call for notice are Chwefri, the name of a brook, 
Cymrun in Nant Cymrun, and Ganolwyn in Blaen 
Ganolwyn (with which compare Aber Gynolwyn in 
Merionethshire). Further south, and probably to be 
included within the same zone, there seem to be 
similar traces in a number of scattered cairns, extending 
almost in a straight line from west to east, from Nant 
Ystalwyn to Pant maen Uwyd, and southwards to 
Penyceulan. Near Llanafan Fawr there are two 
"standing stones," and one near the church of 
Llanfihangel Bryn Pabuan, while there is also a stone 
called Maen Cam north-west of Cefn Bran. The 

^ See note bj Mr. Egerton Phillimore in Otoen'i Pembrokeshire, 
p. 224. 


most natural continuation of this zone seems to be in 
the direction of Llanwrtyd, while there is possibly a 
minor zone connected with it on the Eppynt range, 
about the upper waters of the Yscir Fechan. 

The next zone of importance is that of the Usk 
Valley. Here some of the megalithic monuments which 
have a primd facie claim to indicate the pre- Celtic 
character of the district are situated on comparatively 
low ground ; and this raises one or two difficulties. 
Firstly : Was there any desire shown, when a " maen 
hir" or a "cromlech" was erected, for a clear and con- 
spicuous spot ? If so, then secondly : When and how 
was the clearing effected ? And thirdly : Were any 
*• meini hirion" and ** cromlechau ' set up after the 
introduction of metals in imitation of those of the 
Stone Period ? These are questions which await 
further investigation. Returning now to the Usk 
Valley zone, ana advancing along the Valley from the 
Monmouthshire boundary, we find in succession the 
following megalithic monuments : (1) the Maen Hir of 
Cwrt y Gollen ; (2) the Glan Usk cromlech ; (3) a 
Maen Hir, near Llangynidr Bridge ; (4) a Maen Hir, 
near Tretower ; (5) a Maen Hir, near Gileston ; (6) 
the Ty Illtyd cromlech ; (7) a Maen Hir, near the 
latter; (8) a Maen Hir, near Cradoc station ; (9) a 
Maen Hir, a little south of Battle ; (10) after a con- 
siderable interval, a " Stone Circle*' on Mynydd Tre- 
castell. Assuming that some of these, at any rate, 
belong to pre-Celtic times, they suggest the existence 
of a flourishing community contemporaneous with them 
in the fertile Usk Valley. Moreover, there are several 
river-names in the district, which elude derivation on 
sound phonological principles from any known Indo- 
European roots. This is not an isolated phenomenon 
confined to this county, as there are many such river- 
names in Wales ; and the same, or a remarkably aim liar 
name, is sometimes found in places a considerable 
distance apart. It is noticeable, too, that many of 
these presumably pre-Celtic names fall into types 


according to the suffix with which they end. Many, 
for example, end in *-wy/ which, by the way, nowhere 
occurs in Welsh as a separate word, meaning " water," 
as some have supposed. This suffix in Old Welsh, as 
also in Cornish and Breton, appeared in some Brythonic 
dialects as -ou (ow) ; for example, we have Conovium 
by the side of Contvy, the name Monnoi*? by the side of 
Mynw;y, just as we have the Cornish form ' csxadow,' 
equivalent to the Welsh 'caradit^.' Then, again, many 
of these river-names end in -i, a suffix quite distinct from 
-wy, but like -wy widely distributed over Wales. 
Another suffix of the kind is -ach (though in some cases 
this might be Goidelic), and we have also such suffixes 
as -e( = eu = ou), -on, -an. It is the existence of these 
various suffix-forms that confirms the suspicion that 
these words, if we only had the key to them, are not 
meaningless. In the Usk Valley zone there are some 
names belonging to the classes in question, as well as 
others, whicn baffle sound derivation from Indo- 
European roots. For example, there is the name of 
the Usk itself, which in modern Welsh bears the form 
Wysg. In the Liber Landavensis the Welsh forms of 
the name are Uisc, Huisc, Use, and Husc. It is difficult 
to decide whether the * h' was pronounced or not, as it 
was not unusual, in the spelling of Old Welsh, to 
write 'h' — as the Latin writers of the period some- 
times did — where no * h' was pronounced. On the 
other hand, initial *h' has sometimes been lost in 
Welsh, as in elw, gain, for an older helw ( = O. Ir. 
selb). It may be that the name Wysg is equivalent to 
the Irish uisge, water, and that it indicates the ancient 
Goidelic character of the district. It should be noted, 
however, that the classical forms of the name are ^la-xa 
in Greek and Isca in Latin, identical with the name of 
the Exe, known as ** Isca Dumnoniorum.'* In the form 
Isca the name also occurred (according to Holder, in his 
Altceltische Sjyrachschatz, s.v.) on the Continent as that 
of a stream above Lowen, and as the ancient name of 
the Isch in Saargau. Hence it is not impossible, after 


all, that the name Usk is a very ancient pre-Celtic 
river-name. The following, too, appear to be pre- 
Celtic : the Bidan (of the -an suffix type), the Onneu 
(of the -eu suffix class), the Gwdi, the Honddu (in the 
Liber Landavensis, Hodni), the Senni, the Cilieni (all 
of the -i suffix class), the Yscir, and the Sgio. With 
this zone is probably associated that in the neighbour- 
hood of Talgarth, where we have the Croeslechau 
cromlech. Within this sub-zone in the parish of 
Llanelieu, according to an article on Breconshire in 
Owen Jones' Cymru, there was discovered a flint spear- 
head, 7 ins. long, and also an earthen vessel. Unfor- 
tunately, here again we may have a case of the use of 
stone weapons by the side of bronze, or even iron : 
a state of things suggested by the discovery of the 

The third zone of probable Neolithic remains is that 
of the Beacon range, the mountainous district which 
forms the southern hinterland to the Usk Valley. 
Probably this ought to be regarded as a portion of a 
wider zone, extending through the hill country from 
the Usk to the Llychwr. From the point of view of 
Welsh folk-lore, this is a very interesting district, and 
it has supplied Principal Rhys with some of his most 
remarkable fairy-tales, notably those referring to the 
fairy aversion to iron. This district is also interesting 
as being involved in the topography of the " Twrch 
Trwyth' narrative in the story of Kulhwch and Olwen. 
Within this zone some flint implements have been 
discovered, but under conditions which appear to 
indicate that the Bronze Age civilisation had been 
introduced into the vicinity. At Ystradfellte, a cairn 
was investigated in 1898 by Mr. T. Crosbee Cantrill, 
and described in the Archceologia Cambrensis for that 
year. In this cairn there were discovered about fifty 
implements, flakes and fragments of flint ; twenty-one 
sherds of pottery ; some fragments of calcined bones, 
and some fragments of wood-charcoal. Among the 
implements is a beautifully-worked flint knife, which 


seems to have undergone the action of fire. The 
pottery is of clay, with a small percentage of sand. 
Mr. Cantrill expresses the opinion that the remains 
with the weapons appear to have been first cremated 
and then buned, and the cairn aftei-wards constructed 
over them. Through the kindness of Mr. John Ward, 
F.S.A., the writer had the pleasure of examining the 
knife and some of the other fragments in the CardifiF 
Museum. The delicacy of the workmanship of the 
knife seems to indicate that it was made at a time 
when the workmen had abundant practice in making 
objects of the kind. It is not improbable that, while 
we have here an indication of continuity with Neolithic 
times, some of the practices and arts of the Bronze 
Age had been already adopted. 

This upland district has yielded no specimen of the 
cromlech proper, but several of stone monuments and 
cairns, all of which, however, probably do not go back 
to the period before the introduction of metals. A 
little to the south of Mynydd Trecastell, we find a 
maen hir, and in Carmarthenshire, a little to the west 
of this, another. Further south, near the river Usk, 
we have a stone circle, and, to the south-east of this 
and a little east of Llyn y Fan Fawr, there is a 
** standing stone." Further south again, near the river 
Tawe, we find another stone circle, called Maen Mawr, 
and almost direct east of this another standing stone, 
and still further east the stone called " Maen Llia." 
In the whole of this district there are numerous 
" cairns," but the period or periods to which they be- 
long are uncertain. 

The place-names in this district which seem to be 
pre-Celtic are fairly numerous. In addition to some 
which have been mentioned in connection with the 
Usk Valley zone, the following mav be noted. Farteg 
(in Mynydd Farteg, in Monmouthshire), Ystruth (in 
Aberystruth, Mon.), the river Tillery or Teleri (Mon.), 
the Ebbw (for Ebbwy), Sirhowy, Rymi (now Rhymney), 
Tysswg, Tarthwyni, CoUwng, Pen Milan, Seri, Cnewr, 


Crew, Hepste (in the Liber Landavensis, Hepstou), 
Gwrangon (west of Hirwaun), Gwerelech (a little west 
of the Gwrangon), the Rhigos (in the same district), 
Nedd, Gelli Duchlithe (possibly Irish), south of Ystrad- 
gynlais Colliery, Byfre, a little north-east of Craig y 
nos, HaflFes, north-west of Craig y nos, Llia (possibly 
Goidelic), Farteg near Ystalyfera, Ystalyfera itself, 
Bowy in Gelli - fowy, Egel, Clydach (pronounced 
Cleidach = Cleudach, cf. Cloutac in the Liber Landa- 
vensis)y Bodyst, Padest, Eithrim, and Llychwr. As 
river-names with similar suffixes occur over the whole 
of Wales, the whole country, as might have been 
expected, may be concluded to have spoken the same 
language in pre-Celtic times. 

In Breconshire, as elsewhere, the use of bronze 
implements was introduced, though the recorded finds 
are few. The most interesting are probably those 
found near the town of Brecon in 1882, and described 
in the ArcJuBologia Cambrensis for 1884. These con- 
sist of a knife, knife-dagger, two ferrules, and two celts 
or palstaves. The knife is said to bear a close resem- 
blance to the hafted knives found in Italy, and in the 
lake deposits of Switzerland. 

Bronze implements are generally thought to have 
been first brought into Britain by the round-headed 
race of the round-barrows, whose skulls are of a type 
very rarely found in the present population. This 
type of skull, as Ripley, Deniker, and other anthropo- 
logists have shown, is very common in Central Europe, 
and especially in the Alpine regions. In the men of the 
round-barrows of Britain it is combined with greater 
stature than that of the men of the polished Stone Age. 
It is not impossible, however, that bronze implements 
were introduced into some parts of Britain by traders 
from the Continent, even before men of Celtic speech 
obtained a footing here by conquest Indeed, it is 
highly probable that the conquerors were attracted to 
the island owing to reports which merchants brought 
to them. The settlement in the island by Celtic- 


speaking tribes from tlie Continent was probably the 
result of deliberate colonisation, caused by the pressure 
of the population at home. Tribes well-armed with 
bronze weapons, and in close touch with the Continent, 
would scarcely find it diflBcult to maintain their 
superiority over men armed mainly with stone. It may 
also be that the men of the Stone Age were the more 
willing to submit to the dominion of their conquerors; 
owing to the advantage which they gained from the 
improved supply of bronze implements for agricultural 
and similar purposes. In the districts nearest to the 
Continent, the brachycephalic conquering tribes may 
have been numerous enough to intermarry among 
themselves, but in the remoter parts of the country, 
the adventurers who sought new settlements probably 
formed matrimonial alliances, of greater or less duration, 
with women of the older population. The result would 
be a population of mixed race, that had learnt, with 
more or less accuracy, the tongue of the conquerors ; 
which necessity, and not improbably inclination, served 
to disseminate. The newcomers would, doubtless, 
establish themselves securely in the more fertile 
districts, such as the alluvial lands of the river- valleys, 
and at all strategic points. In Breconshire, the con- 
quering race doubtless obtained a firm footing in the 
Valley of the Usk and its neighbouring districts, as well 
as in the Breconshire portions of the Valley of the 
Wye. There may well have been a long time before 
they completely conquered the pre-Celtic population of 
the hills, and the old language may have lingered there 
for a very long period. 

The question has been warmly discussed as to the 
language of the first Celtic invaders. It is held by 
some that the first Celtic-speaking tribes that settled 
in the island of Britain spoke the Goidelic form of 
Celtic, of which Irish is the chief representative ; 
others hold that the Goidelic form of Celtic was not 
carried from the Continent into Britain at all, and that 
the first Celtic language to be brought into Great 


Britain was the dialect of Celtic known as Brjthonic, 
of which Welsh and Bretonare the living representatives. 
Principal Rhys, in The Welsh People and in other writ- 
ings, advocates the view that the first Celtic invaders 
were Goidelic-speaking, and an offshoot of what he 
terms the " Celtican " type of Continental Celt. The 
Brython is regarded by him as having arrived much 
later, and as belonging to another Continental type, 
the " Galatic." Principal Rhys considers these Goidels 
to have spread throughout Wales, and ultimately to 
have sent out colonies from the nearer parts of Britain 
to Ireland. Professor Kuno Meyer, on the other 
hand, in an able and valuable article in the Cymmrodor^ 
expresses a doubt whether the Celts who first invaded 
Ireland went thither through Britain at all. Without 
entering here into a discussion of this subject, the 
present writer, after a careful consideration of the 
various factors of the problem, finds it difficult to 
believe that Ireland would be first colonised by Celts 
direct from the Continent, whence it is not visible, 
rather than by Celts from Britain, whence it is. If 
the first Celts were Goidelic-speaking, then, before 
waves of them passed from South Wales to Ireland, 
there is every reason for thinking that they occupied, 
among other places, the Valleys of the Usk and Wye. 
In which century B.c. they gained possession of these 
lands it would be difficult to say. 

The Welsh language is, however, Brythonic, and the 
question naturally arises, •who of the early settlers of 
Brecon made this the speech of the district. Welsh 
differs from Irish, not only in certain points of phono- 
logy, but also in the relative prominence in its develop- 
ment of certain factors of linguistic change. Old and 
Middle Irish are distinguished by the marked way in 
which linguistic change has operated almost entirely 
through purely phonetic processes. Changes due to 
psychological, as distinguished from physiological, 
causes, are relatively unimportant. Welsh, on the 
other hand, even in the oldest forms in which we know 
6th sbb., vol. m. 3 


it, has undergone far more changes due to mental 
causes, in the break-up of the old declensions and of 
the conjugations of the verb, in the operation of true 
and false analogies, and in the formation of new 
linguistic groups generally. In syntax, as in accidence, 
there are many points of similarity between the two lan- 
guages; but Welsh shows a noticeable tendency to recast 
its sentences on lines similar to those which modern 
analytical languages generally follow. These general 
characteristics are shared also by Breton and Cornish, 
so that their main features were established before the 
Bretons crossed over into Brittany. For example, before 
stem-endings could be employed as plural endings, 
irrespective of the original declension of a given noun, 
the original plural-endings themselves must have been 
lost. Yet, in spite of these differences between Irish 
and Welsh, an analysis of the Celtic roots which the 
Goidelic and the Brythonic branches have in common 
will reveal a much greater closeness in vocabulary be- 
tween Irish and Welsh than between Irish and Breton 
or Cornish. It is not improbable that Brythonic was 
first introduced into Wales at a time when the differ- 
ences between it and Goidelic were obviously dialectal 
only, and that many Goidelic terms (notably some 
compound words) were, by the slight necessary changes 
then required, turned into a Brythonic form. This 
would also happen in place-names, and possibly ex- 
plains why it is that we have now so few undoubtedly 
Goidelic place-names in the Principality. In Brecon- 
shire, for example, the only clear instance which the 
writer has been able to discover is the use of '* Uwch" 
(lake), in one or two place-names on the Beacon range. 
It is certainly surprising that the wave of Goidelic 
Celts should not have left more traces of its presence 
in the place-names of Wales. Is it not, then, probable, 
that the Brythonic Celts, when they entered the 
county along the Wye and Usk Valleys, and settled, 
at any rate, in the more fertile parts, did so some time 
before our era ? It is not unreasonable to suppose that 


the Brythonic tribes were largely aided in their con- 
quests by their iron weapons. Some iron agricultural 
implements may, indeed, have reached the Goidelic 
tribes before their conquest by Brythons ; but it is 
hardly likely that the Brythons would strengthen their 
enemi^ by selling them iron weapons of war. There 
is, indeed, no record of the discovery of any prehistoric 
iron weapon in Breconshire,^ but such finds are 
notoriously rare, as iron so rapidly rusts away in the 
earth. Whether the " crannog" on Llangors lake was 
the work of men who were acquainted with iron, there 
does not seem enough evidence to say. 

In Roman times, the men of the south-eastern 
portion of Wales were known as the Silures, but their 
precise boundaries cannot be determined with cer- 
tainty. As to their appearance, the classical passage 
is that contained in Tacitus, Agncola, c. xi ; where he 
calls attention to the diflferent physical characteristics 
of the inhabitants of different parts of Britain, and 
indicates the probability that these differences could be 
accounted for by a difference in the country of origin 
of each section. The Caledonians resembled the Ger- 
mans, the Silures the men of Spain, and the inhabitants 
of the parts nearest Gaul the men of that country. 
It should be borne in mind that, in Graeco-Roman times, 
Spain was thought to be much nearer to western 
Bintain than it really is. It is interesting to note that 
Tacitus had observed a clear difference in physical 
appearance between the men of the south-east of 
England and the Silures : the probable explanation 
being that, in the case of the latter, the bulk of the 
population was of the old pre-Celtic race. The oft- 
quoted words of Tacitus are : " Silurum colorati vultus, 
torti plerumque crines, et posita contra Hispania Iberos 

^ Nor any " Late-Geltio" object. The nearest discoveries of such 
objects are those of the gold ornaments of Cerriggwjnion, in 
Radnorshire, on the one hand, and those of Dolaacothy on the otlier. 
A ^ Late-Celtic" collar was found in 1896 at Llandyssil, and is now 
ill the Bristol Mnsenm. 


veteres traiecisse easque sedes occupasse fidem faciunt/' 
If we turn to the AnncUs, Bk. xii, 31-40, we find that, 
in their great struggle against the Romans, the Silures 
were under the leadership of Caratacus (Caradog), 
whose name was thoroughly Brythonic, and who was 
evidently himself a Brython. Moreover, the account 
given by Tacitus clearly implies that Caradog was no 
alien to the Silures, but was able to address them in a 
tongue which they understood. In the whole of 
the account given by Tacitus of the stubborn and 
courageous resistance of the Silures to the Romans, 
there is no suggestion that they were linguistically 
diflFerent from the other tribes of Britain ; hence we 
may legitimately conclude that their governing classes, 
at any rate, were, even at that time, Brythonic in 
speech.^ This does not preclude the possibility that, 
in the hilly country of the Beacon range, for example, 
and it may be, from there continuously to Gower and 
Kidwelly, the ancient Goidelic stratum was still domi- 
nant, especially as it could then be reinforced from 
time to time by sea from Ireland. After the departure 
of the Romans it is not improbable, either, that some of 
these hill-tribes, with help from Ireland, may have 
regained possession of the Usk Valley and the neigh- 
bouring districts, and that some such movement is 
indicated in the narrative of Brychan. It will be 
remembered that the districts of Gower and Kidwelly 
are expressly mentioned by Nennius as ones in which 
the sons of Liethan ruled, until they were expelled by 
Cunedda and his sons. 

In discussing the ethnology of Breconshire, the 
writer has not found it possible, within the limits of 
this paper, to enter at all fully into the difficult question 
of the Ogam inscriptions. The discovery of an Ogam 
inscription so far east as Silchester, in a district which 

1 The ancient name ** Abone '* near Venta Silnram (Caer Went), 
seems more Brythonic than Goidelic, the old Irish form being 
* abann,^ river. 


could hardly have been Goidelic,^ makes one chary of 
drawing far-reaching ethnological inferences from two 
or three Ogam inscriptions, found, as they are in 
Breconshire, in the neighbourhood of an ancient avenue 
of communication between Ireland and parts of the 
west of England, such as seems to have run through 
the Usk Valley. Moreover, as Principal Ehys has 
pointed out, the Latin forms of the names found on 
bilingual Ogam inscriptions show clearly that Bry thonic 
was socially the dominant Celtic language, though 
Goidelic may have existed in a position of inferiority. 
Nor is it safe to assume that the Ogam script was never 
used to write Brythonic as well as Goidelic, especially 
as the use in Ogam of **tt" for "th,"and "cc"for 
" ch,'', would have been suggested, not by Goidelic, but 
by Brythonic usage. It seems hardly likely that 
orthographical ideas would have been borrowed from 
Brythonic to be used only in Goidelic.^ There is no 
reason for thinking, however, that any of the Breconshire 
Ogams are written in Biythonic. The " Moqvutreni" 
(Ogam) and the '* Maccutreni " (Roman script) of the 
Trecastell inscription are unmistakably Goidelic* The 
Trallwng and Glanusk Ogams seem to be them- 
selves Goidelic, but the Latin inscription in each case, 
in the form of the proper names, suggests a Brythonic 
influence. Hence, the precise ethnological inference to 
be drawn from these inscriptions is uncertain. 

A line of enquiry which may lead in course of time 
to a fuller knowledge of the Celtic invasions of the 
district, is the careful study of the ancient " British " 
camps, as compared with similar structures elsewhere. 
These, when carefully examined, might indicate the 

^ See Principal Rhys in Report of the Land Commission, 
chap. yiii. Such examples in Breconshire are Canoceni, Danocati. 

2 The nse of " it " for " th," and " cc " for ** eh/' is mentioned by 
Principal Rhys in the Report of the Land Commissioii, cliap. viii., 
and by the Hon. Whitley Stokes in his work on The Celtic Declension, 
in Bezsenberger's Beitrdge, vol. zi., p. 144 

^ Compare also the Cilgerrau Stone. 


relations of the early Celtic tribes of the neighbourhood 
of Builth, Brecon, and Talgarth, and Crickhowell, all 
of which appear to have been important military 
centres in ancient time. 

Doubtless, considerable light would also be thrown 
on the ethnology of the district, by a careful comparison 
of the Welsh dialect of Breconshire with those of the 
neighbouring counties. Similarly, an anthropological 
study of the physical types of the county, such as was 
commenced by Dr. Beddoe in his Races of Britain, 
would no doubt yield important results. 

In dealing with a subject such as this, further 
advance can only be made by following up various 
clues from different points of view. Tne clues may 
often be slight, and from the nature of the subject 
there is much room for error, but the combined result 
of these different investigations may lead to an 
approximately correct bo^ay even if we cannot obtain a 
clear and certain iirtaTii/xfj, Let us hope that, sooner 
or later, this kind of work may be done for the whole 
country by means of a thorough Archaeological and 
Anthropological Survey. 


FORD IN 1577. 


There is at the Public Record Office {Land Rev. Misc. 
Book, vol. 238) a survey of the " Castle and Lordship 
of West Haverford with the Town and County of 
Haverford, otherwise Haverfordwest, late part of the 
possessions of Jasper, late Duke of Bedford," taken on 
the 14th May, 1577, by Robert Davy,^ the deputy of 
John Herberte, Esq., the Queen's Surveyor for South 
Wales, together with the renewal of divers rents at the 
discretion of the said Robert and of Maurice Canon ,^ 
gentleman, the deputy of Sir Edward Mansell, the 
Seneschal of Haverford. . 

The survey begins with the following memoran- 
dum : — 

Fo. 20a. — " The said Castell and Towns of Haverfordwest 
are scituate within the Countie of Pembrooke aforesaid adioyning 
unto a Creeke of Milforde wch floweth into the lande a quarter 
of a myle above the said Towne and Castell being of such 
depth as at a spring tyde a Shippe of xl tonne maie come harde 
to the Towne: And within iiii myles of the said Castell & 
Towne viz at Knapwood Eoade^ a Shippe of greatest burthen 
maie come : wch said Castell and Towne are xii myles from the 
mowth of Milforde aforesaid v myles from the Towne of Pem- 
brooke and ix myles from the Towne of Tinbye.* 

^ Receiver for South Wales in 1595 ; see Owen* a Pembrokeshire^ 
I, 506. 

* He was the father of Sir Thomas Canon, the antiquary. The 
family owned Cilgetty, which passed to Picton Castle upon the 
marriage of Elizabeth Canon with Edward Philipps. 

* Abore Langum ; it is mentioned by George Owen among the 
thirteen ' roades ' of Milford Haven. 

^ The surveyor's mileage is vague, as it generally was until the 
present statute mile was fixed by 35 Eliz., cap. 6, s. 8. 


"The Castbll. 

"The same hath bene a verie proper pyle buylt uppon a 
Rocke and had the Towne in olde tyme on the north side there- 
of : but the Towne now flourishing is all wellneere on the south 
side of it 

" Also the Gatehouse or entraunce therinto is on the west 
side having had in it a Porters Lodge, an utter gate, and ynner 
gate with ii portcullices, all now utterlie decayed (as the rest of 
the roomes hereafter touched are). Also within the utter gate 
and over the ynner gate hath bene Theschequier, of xiiii foote 
square with a prison house under it. 

" Also there is on the said north side a Tower^ sometimes 
consisting of divers roomes & hath adioyning to it the walles of 


a Stable wch was iiiivi^ foote in length & x in bredth. 

" Also from the said Stable forwarde on that side standeth a 
wall of xx«' yardes longe with a Wach Tower in the myddest 
thereof, from thence towardes the north-east a like wall compas 
wise of xl yardes longe, wth a Turrett in the myddest thereof. 

" Also from the said Gatehouse sowthwarde, a short wall of x 
yardes in length : from thence towardes the sowthwest a wall of 
C yardes in length with a Turret' in the myddest : without this 
wall a forced banke borne up with another wall & within that 
circuit a greene walk. 

Fo, 20b. — " Also the Castell greene before you come to the 
mayne building containes half an Aker. 

" Also concernyng the late inhabited pte of the Castell being 
utterlie decayed as before : the gatehouse or entrie therinto hath 
in either side a Lodge, under that gate is a vawte wch seemes to 
have bene made for some privy waye into the Towne but none 
dare search the ende of it : Uppon the east side of the said 
gate a rounde Tower and from that a thicke wall of xxxiiii 
foote longe : At the ende of that another i*ounde Tower under 
which is a stronge prison house called Brehinock. The Soomes 
within this mayne building in brief be these. A hall of xlv 
foote long and xx foote brode with a Chjrmney in it having 
under it a lardge roome (wth a Chymney) called the Coyning 
House out of wch goeth a stayer into a walke called The 
Queenes Arbour, in the east corner whereof is a rounde Turret 
and at ech ende of the Hall a Tower. Also a Chappie of xxiiii 
foote longe and xvi foote brode. A great Chamber (with a 

^ This would seem to be the tower which survives in Back's 
view of the town. 
^ Fourscore and six. 


chymney) of xxxiiii foote longe, and xiiii foote brode. One 
other Chamber (with a Chymney) of xx foote longe, and xiii 
foote brode. A pantrey of xiiii foote square. One other roome 
for offioes of xii foote longe & vii foote brode with other small 
roomes and a Kitchin with iii Chymneys. Also within the 
circuit of these buildings is an ynner Warde or greene of Ixx 
foote square having a Well in it. 

" Ffinally concerning the lymittes and boundes of the said' 
Castell I cannot as yet finde out the certaintie thereof, unlesse 
I should take it by reporte of Jurie who can doe it but by con- 
jecture, and therfore I deferre the doing thereof till tyme of 
more leasure to be had and better evidence to be seene : and 
this the rather for feare to preiudice her ma'>s Inheritaunce. 

" Md. within the said Castell greene or utter Courte the 
Justices of the great Sessions doe begin the same Sessions when- 
soever thei be holden for the Countie of Pembrooke and all 
wan-antes and writtes beare date there and iudgementes uppon 
life and death are geven there, all iudgementes are there affirmed, 
all fynes proclaymed and all adiournements made: Never- 
theles the Justices are forced to sett iu the Towne Hall in 
default of a convenient Shire Hall or Court House^ in ye 
Castell wch in my poore opinion wolde be made as well for 
purpose, as for the keeping of the Courtes concerning the Lord- 

Then follows the Customary of the whole lordship. 

"The Custumarye for the whole Lordshippe of 
Haverfordwest aforesaid. 

''Ffirst the said Lordshippe hath in it iii sortes or kindes of 
Tenauntes, viz. Ffreeholders holding landes and tentes as here- 
after shall appere (some by Knightes Service, Sute of Courte, 
and Relief with Kente and some without Eente and some others 
in free Socage with rent and without rente). Gale Tenauntes 
termed in the Recorde Custumarie (or rather Custome) Tenauntes 
in respect of divers services and dueties accustomed to be done 
and paid by them (as Sute of Courte Heriotts Collecton of 
Rentes and such like). And Tenauntes by Leases of which 
divers be of Landes of late yeres holden by Gale Tenantes at 
Will and these for wante of Survey have their Leases graunted 

1 By the Charter to Haverfordwest of James I, the Justices of 
Great Sessions and the Sheriff and Justices of the Peace of Pem- 
brokeshire were empowered to hold their courts at the Guildhall 
of Havorfordwest : persons attending at these courts were exempted 
from the jurisdiction of the mayor and shetiff of Haverfordwest. 


without reservacon of such dueties and services as are incident 
to their holdinges. 

" Also there are ii Leetes jrerelie kept at the Castell Gate of 
Haverforde, the one witiiin a moneth after Ester the other 
within a moneth after Michaelmas, wherunto all the ftreeholders 
holding of the Castell ought to doe Sute: And all thother 
Tenauntes and Besiantes^ throughout the said Lordshippe in 
respect of their Beysancie saving the Ffreeholders of Camros, 
Stainton and St Ismaell's, who togethers wHh the Gale 
Tenauntes there owe sute to their private Leetes in those 
severall manners only, holden in sorte like as before. 

" Also there is holden yerely at the said Castell Gate a Courte 
baron termed Curia forinseca from xv dayes to xv dales for 
triall of Accdns betwixt ptie and ptie under xls throughout the 
whole Lordshippe wherunto all the said Tenauntes as well 
Ffreeholders as others doe sute, for toUeracon* whereof the 
Ffreeholders have used to make fyne at the Stewardes pleasure. 

" Also before Thordinaunce for Wales there was used to be 
kept at the said Castell Gate a Courte called Curia For (inseca) 
from moneth to moneth, wherein fynes were leavied and re- 
plevies granted, reall and mixte accons were tryed, wch courte 
ever since hath bene discontinued but male be revived forso- 
much as the said Ordinaunce hath not inhibited it. 

Fo. 21a. — ** Also the profites of all these Courtes yet in use 
consist of Reliefes of Ffreeholders, viz. x«. for everie plough 
lande rising to c& for a whole knightes fee consisting of x 
plough lande and so ratablie dowenwarde according to ech mans 
contentes,^ Ffines for offences and Issues and Amercementes f»r 
none apparaunce, all ratable at the Stewardes discrecon. And 
also of Heriottes hapning uppon the death of the Gale 
Tenauntes yelding above vis. viiid Rente, or else not 

'' Also the said fiynes and Amercementes have not bene used 
to be afferde by any Tenauntes as in other Courtes : because 
there are not any Custumarie Tenauntes that holde their landes 
by Copie of Court EoU or by the Rodde, but onlie such as 
before be menconed. 

** Also the Heriott paiable uppon the death of everie of the 
said Gale Tenauntes is the best Beast and if a Tenaunt hold 
divers Teiites he is to paie a Heriott for everie one : This 
heriott and thother Casualties are to be leavied by a Baylief for 
that purpose called The fforeine Baylief of Bowse (ats Ballivus 

^ Residents. 

^ Redemption ; see Otoen^s Pembrokeshire, I, p. 314. 

^ Acreage. 


itinerans, Baylief errant) or his Deputie. and by him to be 
accompted for yerelie. And this Baylief or his Deputie is also 
to serve the said Courtes. 

" Also it hath been used that the Steward at everie Leete 
should cause inquirye to be made of all estrepement* and wastes 
of bowses and hedges of the Queenes Gale Teuauutes, and if any 
be founded faltie and do not amende the same by such days as 
the Stewarde lymittes, That then the Seeves in the Manners 
where such falte is founde (and the said Baylief in the rest of 
the Lordshippe), shall distreine Thoffender, according to the 
value founde of the offence, and the same distresse to keepe by 
the space of one moneth : And if then it be not repaired, the 
distresse to be solde and employed uppon the renacon by over 
sight of iiii of the Queenes Tenauntes next inhaoiting ; which 
use is thought convenient to continue, notwithstanding the 
letting of the Landes by Lease. 

"Md. It is also thought convenient that uppon making 
Leases of thinges yet at Will and upon renewing of Leases 
alredie made (wherin this is omitted) there be reserved, besides 
the annual Kentes So newe AUottmentes, Sute of Courte Heriott 
and all other dueties and services of auncient tyme accustomed. 

" Also it is to be noted as touching the Computacon of the 
Akers with this Lordship,^ that the poll ats the quarter, wher- 
with thei measure, contayneth in length xi foote : iiii of those 
quarters in length and one in bredth doe make a yarde termed 
"virga? terr.** Tenne of those yardes in length iiii tymes 
accounted (wch by a quadrant accompt is xl yardes) make a 
Boode or Slange, iiii of these slanges make an aker : So as 
everie aker is xl. polles longe and xvi brode. Also viii of these 
akers make a Bovate or Oxeland and viii bovates make a 
Garucate ats a plough Lande. So as everie Carucate conteynes 
Ixiiii akers: And for that the common usage of Accompt 
for lande in this Countrie and likewise in Evidences ronneth 
uppon those termes we have in this Survey sett downe the 
contentes according to the same and not by pticular nomber of 

The principal free tenants v^ho held of the Queen as 
of her Castle and Lordship of Westhaverford by knight 
service, suit of court at the Castle Gate, and relief 
without payment of rent, are : — 

^ Spoiling. 

* For the local land measures, see OwerCs Pembrokeshire, I, p. 135 
aad p. 368. 



Robert, Earl of Easex^ ... 
The same aod Henry 

Sir John Perrot 
Henry Longueville 

Lady Newport* 

Talbenny Manor 
Ijangum Manor 

Haroldston Manor 
Manor of De Rape, aU. 

Trefgam Owen Manor (as 



East Dunflton Manor ... 

The same 

Francis Laughame* and 

George Wirriot 
Francis Laughame Mountain Cot .., 

The same West Dunston .., 

Morgan Phillips, E^uire'* Uzmaston Manor 
John Barlow, Esquire*... Great Pill Manor 
Thomas Bo wen, of Rob- Roblinston 

linston, gentleman 
The same — Roblinston — Six bovates- 

ihree oaracates 
five carucates 

seven camcatcs 
five carucates 

five carucates 

two carucates 
two carucates 

half a camcate 
half a carucate 
three carucates 
two carucates and a-hal£ 
capital messuage and five 
late of James Bowen. 

William Warren,^ in ward of the Queen ~ Wolf sdale Manor and two and a-half 


Griffith White, Esquire' Rickaston, in Roose ... two messuages and a 

carucate and a-half. 

Also James Bowen, gentleman, held {inter alia) the 
manor and mountain of Kethingston, otherwise Keiston, 
and three and a-half carucates of land by the same 
services ; but with the addition of a yearly rent of 
forty shillings payable at Easter, and of sixpence 
payable at Michaelmas. 

It is noted that the sixpence was the rent formerly 
paid by the Prior of Pill ; the Easter rental was 
probably added when the property was granted afler 
the dissolution. William Tankard held the capital 
messuage of Lewelston, and three and a-half carucates 
by the same services and a yearly rent of sixpence 
payable at Michaelmas; and Mathias Morse held a 
carucate and a-half there by the same services and a 
rent of thirteen shillings and four pence payable at 
Lady-Day and Michaelmas. Upon this the surveyor 
notes that Morse's rent is not a ** free rente " as shown 
by a comparison of the areas and rents of the holdings of 

1 See Old Pembroke Families, p. 79. 

* Margaret, widow of Sir Eichard Newport, of High Ercall; 
she died in 1598. 

* Of St. Bride's, and his brother-in-law, the last Wirriot of 

* Of Picton. » Of Slebech. 
« Of Trewern. ^ Of Henllau. 


other Gkde Tenants, and by the Lewelston accounts, 
which state that it is paid for customary land. ** Also 
this is paiable at twoe ffeastes, where (whereas) free 
rentes are commonly paid but once a yeare." He 
further says that the Lewelston rents are placed 
under the Castle, ** for that the same are said to have 
been sometime parcell of the demaynes thereof." 

There are fifteen other free tenants of the lordship 

who held closes of land in free socage by fealty and 

suit of Court without rent. The noldings are at 

Sturmyn's Park in Carsfield^ (held by Thomas Revell, 

Esquire), by Eylard's Hill Bridge,' Great and Little 

Lowlard s Mead and West Pelcam. . The total rental of 

the free tenants is 54s. 7d. There were only two 

leaseholders, who each held by leases under the 

Great Seal for twenty-one years as of the manor of 

Lewelston. Alban Stepney* held at a rental of 

£5 6s. 8d., premises of which a note says the true 

names were Anastaceslade, Tyrrellsholme, Churchull, 

Broademoore, Langelande, Todhull, le Pinfolde, and 

Walslande (otherwise Walshlande), '*but the same 

have been so longe occupied together without survey 

that none of the tenauntes doe knowe how to divide 

them severallie, but being measured all together the 

same are founde to containe five carucates and two 

akers of lande, now commonlie called Austerslade." 

The rental of Roger Marcrofl was sixty shillings, and 

he held at Agardhill, upon which it is noted, " the 

premises doe consist of one messuage and twoe 

carucates of lande, called Greate Eylardes Hill, which 

hath bene rented as in olde Recorde at C^. ; which was 

belike when the countrie was in such great disorder 

that the tenaunt thereof founde speciall defence by the 

ayde of the Castell (near which it lyeth) for himself 

and his goodes." 

^ Oashfield in St. Martin's. ^ Elliott's Hill in Garorose. 

' The founder of the family of Stepney of Prendergast ; his hold- 
bg was in and aboat Slade, in St. Martia's. Roger Maroroft was 
sheriff of Harerford in 1570. 


The seven tenants at will, otherwise Gale Tenants, 
held messuages at Lewelston and Pelcam hy suit of 
Gourt, heiiots and rents, which last amounted together 
to U 188. 4A 

Under the heading of " The Town and County of 
Haverforde, otherwise Haverfordwest, and the mill of 
Haverforde," the surveyor reports : — 

Fo. 24a. — Md. "The said Towue is scituate as before is 
remembered and consisteth at this preseut of three pishes viz 
One of our Ladie being the Queenes as impropriate to the late 
Priorie of Haverforde. One other of St. Martine being also the 
Queenes as impropriate to the late Priorie aforesaid. And the 
thirde of St. Thomas likewise impropriate and latelie pourchased 
by Sr. John Perrot Knyght. The same is the best buylt the 
most civill and quickest occupied Towne in South Wales but 
yet greatlie impayred touchyng Traffique since the subsidie of 
Tonnage and Pondage have bene paid and other imposicous 
sought to be lea vied. 

" Also it appereth by olde Charters ratified by the Queenes 
Ma^i^ that now is by her highness Letters patentes dated 
Yu9 Decembris Anno r^ni sui scdo that the said Towne is 
incorporate by the name of the Towne of Haverforde, and made 
to consist (for government) of a Mayor a Shireff ii baylieffes 
and burgesses to be yerelie chosen according to certeine 
Ordinaunces in the said Charter expressed. 

'' Also it is made a Countie of itself ^ by name of the Countie 
of the Towne of Haverforde, and exempted from the Lordship of 
Hav'forde, wherin sometimes it was and that with such 
precinctes So boundes as then were used as belonging to the 
same as well by lande as by water : The Castell of Hav'forde 
with the Diches^ and other th'apptennces & rightes therof only 

jfo. 24fe.— " Also that the Shirefif and the Baylieffes should be 
swome before the ChaunceUor of the said Lordshippe of 
Haverfordwest and Eowse (or his deputie) and before the 
Mayor whose othes in pte are to yelde a faithfuU Accompte 
yerelie af the profites of their OflBces. 

''Also that the said Mayor shoulde or myght keepe the 

1 By 34 & 85 Hen. YIIL, cap. 26, s. 124, it is •nacted that 
Havoifordwest shall be a county in itself, as it hath been before 
this time used. 

^ The Castle moats, which seem to have been extensive. 


Courtes following as in auncient tyme thei were kept before the 
Stewarde of the said Lordshippe and Portreve of the said Towne, 
viz One Courte termed intrinseca as well from moneth to 
moneth as from xv dales to xv dales. Also one other Courte 
de xv^ in xv^ called a Hundreth Courte. And one other Courte 
termed Pipowder Court holden uppon speciall occasion for 
dispach of Straungers^ with expedicdn or for contractes in 
flEEijrer tymes. 

" Also that the said Mayor shoulde be Coroner within the said 
Towne and that both for the Office of Mayor and Coroner he 
should be swome before the said Chauncellor or his Lieutenant : 
And that the said Mayor shoulde be Justice of Peace to all 
intentes within the said Towne. 

" Also the said Mayor by point of Charter shalle be clerke of 
the market within the said Towne: and also that the said 
Corporacon have yerelie within the said Towne uppon the Eeven 
of St. Thomas the Martir one ffaire^ to continue for vii dales 
following with a Courte of Pipowder, as before, to be holden 
there during that tyme : »So as the said ffaire be not hurtfuU to 
the fEiires neere hand to it. 

" Also that the Baylieffes for the tyme being shoulde uppon 
their othe before the Auditor or Auditors yelde a resonable 
Accompt of all and all manner of Issues, fynes, amercementes, 
forfaitures & casualties whatsoever hapiiing within the said 
Towne. And if thei the said Baylieflfes fall to be insufficient 
the whole Towne to answere for them. 

" Ffinally there is in the said Charter a speciall Proviso that 
the same shall not extende to graunt from the Prince the great 
Sessions to be holden before his Justices for that purpose within 
the said Towne and precinct thereof, nor the profites and 
comodities thereof, but that the same shoulde be duelie answered 
by the Shireff of that Towne as before is remembred. 

" Thus much concerning the said Charter besides divers other 

^ It was their civil bosiuess, not the strangers themselves, which 
was despafccbed at this court : it gradually fell into disuse. In late 
times if the mayor could not settle the dispute, he put the Baiters 
back in their original positions : there seems to have been a difficulty 
about enforcing the orders of the court. The criminal basiness of 
fiurs and markets was held at the court of the clerk of the market, 
whose principal duty was to try weights and measures ; the 
standard was originally entrusted to a bishop, who appointed some 
derk as his deputy : the judge of the court, afterwards a layman, 
continued to be called clerk of the market. 

^ It began on the '7th July; Oeorge Owen calls it 'a great 


articles touchyng Liberties and usages not concerning the 
Bevenue and therfore not thought needfull to be touched 

*' Ffurthermore I finde by the Becorde of the Ministers 
Accomptes de Anno xvii** H. vii (being then the possessions of 
Henrie Duke of Yorke^) that all his Revenue well neere within 
that Towne, saving that within the Chardge of the Butler and 
Customer of the Porte of Haverforde, were and had bene 
chardged in iii severall Accomptes. One of the Baylieffes there, 
who were wonte to accompte for the Bentes of assise of all the 
Burgesses within the said Towne the profites of Straungers and 
Chenceries^ of stalles and standinges for Butchers and others, 
the herbage about the Castell with divers other small rentes 
amounting then together as by the said Becorde pticulerlie 
appereth to xxiiii li, xviiig. xid. ob. One other Accompt of a 
Collector of the profites of Aleprize. And one other Accompt 
of the Seriantes of the Towne who did accompte for the profites 
of the Courtes following, viz., Curia intrinseca tenf de quindeii 
in quindenam. Curia intrinseca tenta de mense in mensem. 
Curia Hundredor. Curia de pede pulverizat Curia adrairalitaf 
de finibus felonu et fugitivor. All which Bentes and proStes 
were that yere excused in the said severall Accompts and 
chardged in the said BailiefiTes Accompt.'^ 

The surveyor then sets out two leases for twenty-one 
years under the great seal to the mayor, sheriff, bailiflfe 
and burgesses of the town of West Haverford ; one of 
the tenements, rents, and dues in the town, late part 
of the hereditaments of Jasper, Duke of Bedford,* at a 
rental of £26 125. 4j^., and the other of three corn 
mills in the parish of St. Martin, and the right of 
fishery there at a rental of £10. Whereon the surveyor 
remarks : — 

" Fo. 25a. — The aforesaid mylles doe stande uppon and over- 
thwart one of the rivers called Doygleddy, having that name by 
reason of their force and swiftness by falling from the mountaynes 
in great aboundance uppon everie rage of raigne ; and to prevent 
the perill that might betide them by sodaine floodes, uppon the 
myll leete about a flight shorte from the mylles were polhtiquely 
devised a Headweare with certaine floodgates :' 

1 Earl of Pembroke, King Henry VIIL 

2 Tolls. 3 Earl of Pembroke. 


He goes on to remark that the floodgates have been 
of late neglected and the banks decayed, 

" by reason that the under farmer hath been used without any 
assignementto cut flagges and turfes in a meadow of the Queenes 

He further says : — 

Fo. 256. — " Md. I find also in the former recited Recorde an 
Accompt of the Office of Customer & Butler of the Towne of 
Haverforde aforesaid who -did accompt for prisage of wynes,^ for 
Costome of Wynes and other marchandizes then due to the chief 
Lorde of the soyle : but nowe the said prisage of Wyne is 
claymed by the Erie of Warwick as chief Butler of England. 
The Custom of Wynes by the ffarmore of that Custome and 
impost and in leu of thother Custome the Subsidie of Tonnage 
and Pondage is leavied by the Customer of Millforde with the 
members, wch was not leavipd when the Butlerage was 
accompted for but began Anno prime Eliz. Regine. 

" Also the Shireff of this Towne is accomptable yerelie for the 
profites of the great Sessions & quarter Sessions holden there 
and for all other such like profites there as the Shireff of the 
Countie of P^mbrook accomptes for in the Shire. 

" Ffinally the Queenes mati^ hath more Revenue within the 
said Towne as pcell of the possessions of the late Priorie of 
Haverforde : the Priorie of the Pill, the Hospitall of St. Jones 
of Jerusalem/ Rees Griffs attainted and of CoUedges, Chauntries^ 
and such like."" 

Then follow particulars of certain of the demesne 
lands in and by the town, held by Sir John Perrot for 
terms of twenty-one years at various rentals. Among 
them are six acres of meadow presented " to lye be- 
neth the bridge and is called Cathlott Marshe f^ marsh 

^ The right of the Crown to take two tuns of wine from certain 
flhips ; the duty for which it was commuted by Edward I was called 
** bntlerage." 

^ The Knights Hospitallers, who had a Commanderj at Slebech ; 
the patron is more usnallj known as St John. 

* The grandson and heir of Sir Rhys ap Thomas; he was 
beheaded on Tower Hill in 1581. 

^ Cartlet ; the Jubilee (hardens oecnpy part of the old marshy 
whither the townspeople used to resort to shoot at the batts. 

0TH 8BB., VOL. UL 4 


and herbage by Gwynesdich,^ the boundaries of which 
are the lands of John Vauffhan of Narberte, Doctors 
Parke, the Queen's lands called Austerslade and Lowles 
Meade ; the Black Meadow, near Austerslade, " above 
Bellman's well there ;" " thirtie yardes of land called 
Ffiggeshole, otherwise Ffroghole* and Gostmeade in the 
Queen's high-way leading to Austerslade ;*' the Mill 
Meade from the mill to the *' hedweare" between, the 
two rivers, " on6 parte thereof called Bounde Meade is 
over the river next the lande belonging to Prendergast ;" 
and *' three roodes of lande betwixt the rivers neere 
little Eylardes Mill and Austerslade/* It is noted that 
the new rents assessed by the surveyor are to begin as 
to tenants at will from Michaelmas 1579, and as to 
leaseholders from the expiration of their leases. The 
total rental of the castle, town, and mill of Haverford 
is £56 15^. 9^. 

The survey of the manor of Camrose follows : there 
are seven free tenants, and their total rent is 46s. 6d. 
John Wogan of Boulston, Thomas Bo wen, gentleman, 
John Smyth, and John Tankard (in Easter DudwaH), 
held of the Queen by knight service, relief, and suit of 
6ourt, the others in free socage. William Warren held 
to him and his heirs for ever, at a rent of two shillings, 
the pond and stream to his mill at Wolfsdale, then in 
ruina Thomas Bo wen, as son and heir of Mark Bowen 
of Roblinston, held to him and his heirs for ever, by 
grant to his father, on August 4th, 1545, by William 
Morrice Gwynne, mayor, and the feoffees of the 
Chamberlain s lands, a ruined house and nine bovates 
of land by the cemetery of the church of St. Ambrose* 
at Camrose ; for this he paid eight pence^ and a heriot 

c ' An older name was Gondwjnes dioh, and a later Qneen's 

^ This name was common near the town. 
' Camrose Church is dedicated to St. Ismael. 
• * This rental of eightpence was bought by Sir John Perrot, and 
included in his benefaction to the town. 


of 3s. Ad. to the feoflfees, and twenty shillings to the 
lady of the manor. 

There were three tenants for years in Camrose, who 
all held by letters patent from the Crown for twenty- 
one years. Of the first, the surveyor notes that there 
are 59 acres short in the holding, which he attributes 
to the fact that '^when the premises were first demised 
the particuler was grounded uppon reporte, without 
either estimate or measure made.'' Tnomas Bo wen 
held, as assignee of Roger Marcroft, five parts of the 
mill at Camrose (the remaining part was held by the 
same man as the heir of Walter Wadding^ ; the sur- 
veyor found by record that in ancient time tne premises 
were let at a much higher rent, " when belike there 
were fewe mylles ;*' he further states " the Tenaunt 
hath used to doe suite of Court as other Tenauntes, but 
no fifarmers of mylles doe paie Heriottes.*' John 
Tankard and Thomas Bowen held as assignees of 
Griffith White a carucate or ploughland on Goflfermount, 
alias Coveran (now Cuffem) mountain, said to be 
"but heath grounde neither good for pasture nor 
come.'' As the mountain had been claimea by private 
persons, the surveyor sets out on behalf of the Crown : 
(1) A survey in 1549, when the jury presented the 
King's ploughland at Coffron " knowen by metes and 
boundes and by them perambulated ;" (2) his own 
survey in 1565, "for better evidence when occasion 
should happen," in which the metes and bounds are 
fully set out ; he found then that " sondrie lordes" held 
other parts of the mountain, the principal of them 
being " Anne Ladie Woogan,"^ who at that date had 
granted her interest to Owen Tankard f (3) " a recorde 
of aocomptes" of the collector of Camrose in 1314 ; and 
(4) a survey of 1560. 

There were ten gale tenants at Camrose ; their total 

^ Widow of Sir Jobn Wogan of WistoD, and daughter and 
heiress of William ap Philip of Stonehall. 

' The Tankards were of Dadwell, in Camrose. Owen Tankard 
was the son of John, above mentioned. 



rents amounted to 1195. Ad. There are some good 
Pembrokeshire names among them : Cornock, Rennysh, 
Poyer, Synnet, and Esmond. The place-names include 
Broughton's Lands, Wethered Ford, Le Parock, and 
Calfe Hill. It was presented that it was an ancient 
custom of this manor that the tenants were bound to 
collect the rents, and that they at the Easter leet gave 
the names of three gale tenants to the steward, one of 
whom he chose to be reeve for the year. 

In the manor of Stainton^ with its members Pill and 
Roch, alias le Wood, there were eleven free tenanta 
Among them were Robert, Earl of Essex and Lady 
Newport, each of whom held in Lambston ; Morris 
Walter at Rainbotteshill f Francis Laughame Esquire 
at Barrettes Hill ; the heirs of Richard Bow en* of 
Loghmeiler, and James Bowen, gentleman, at Wood- 
ston and Terston ; Thomas ap Owen of Trellom at 
Terston, Nickell, and Thumton ; David Bolton* at 
Bolton's Hill ; and Hugh Butler,^ gentleman, an infant 
and ward of the Queen, the manor of Johnston, and 
five carucates of land. David Bolton held by a rent of 
a red rose, others held at no rent, and the rent of the 
rest was nominal. The rental of the six "tenants 
by indenture" for twenty one years amounted to 
£7 I5s. Ad. Among the place-names are Ymeshill* in 
Stainton, and Egebegesismore, of which last the grant 

^ The manors of Stainton, St. Ishmael's, and Pill were part of 
the possessions of Pill Priory. 

' In Boch, Morris was of a family of the name of Holmes, who 
settled at Hayerford and took the name of Walter ; from him were 
descended Richard Walter, of Roch Castle, sheriff in 1657, and his 
more famons sister, Lncy. 

^ His daughter and heiress, Katherine, brought Lochmeilir to 
John Sconrfield, of Moat. 

^ He married the daughter of Afark Bowen, mentioned above; 
his family had been at Bolton Hill for some generations. 

* Sheriff in 1599 ; Johnston came to the Butlers by marriage 
with the Tankard heiress. 

® Deemshill, called Zeimshulle in a fine of 1319; see OvoeiCn Pern- 
hrokeskirey I, 173. 

THte LoUDSHiP o^ haVerford IN 1577. 53 

was made by Henry, King of England and Fi-ance, 
lord of Ireland and JHaverford, on the advice of Sir 
Rhys ap Thomas, supervisor of the lordship of Haver- 
ford. There is a grant of a coal mine in Boch, late in 
the tenure of Owen Prendirgast. The surveyor adds 
at the foot **thi8 voucher of ye premisses to be parcell 
of ye manor of Roch and Pill is erroneous, for there is 
no such manor." The fourteen gale tenants paid 
£9 145. 4d. ; one of the tenants, Tege Ormonde, looks 
like an Irishman, the others are Pembrokeshire and 
Welsh and the procurator of the parish church of 
Stainton. The place-names are Copped Bushe, Annable 
PuU, and le ffourde. The surveyor notes that a court 
was held at a place called Black Stone. 

In the manor of St. Ishmael's there were eleven free 
tenants, none of whom paid rent. Among them were 
Sir John Perrot, Lady Newport, John Barlow Esquire, 
Francis Laugharne Esquire, John Wogan of Boulston, 
Esquire, Griffith Wyrriot^ gentleman, and John Wylly : 
they held at Bicton, Great and Little Houghton, le 
Hill (in Dale parish), and at Seavers Hill.^ There 
were no leaseholders in this manor. The nineteen gale 
tenants paid between them £13 186'. lid. ; among 
their names are David Allen, Philip Cocke, David 
Leye, Morris Prosser, Robert Jordan, Philip Hyre, and 
Richard Germyn : they all held in St Ishmael's. One 
holding is described as *' unum toftum edificatum 
vocatum Censarie or Vowrie Lande," upon which the 
surveyor notes — 

**tbi8 gardioe Plott and Tofte (as the reste following) were 
sometinie cottages which served for Chensaries or Vowrye men 
termed Advocarii in the Eecorde (which we commonly call 
innemates') and were Artificers often flitting from place to 
place, the nomber of which is small nowe to that it was when 

* Yonnger brother of George Wirriot> mentioned above. 
' There is a Siver in St. Bride's. 

* Inmates were strangers to whom cottages were sub-let: there 
are many old statutes against harbouring them ; they paid a fixed 
rent for the protection of their landlords. 


Pilgiymages stoode, which causeth that the same in most places 
be utterlie decayed. But in this Lordshippe the Tenaontes 
being Tenauntes at will were forced to occupie them with their 
Tenauntes and paie th' accustomed Bentes and by reason thei 
dwell neere the sea and sett ffisher men aworke, thei have some 
such innemates at this daye. Wherfore it is fitt thei shoulde 
be letten to those that are the presente Tenauntes of the prin- 
cipall landes, but no fynes to be rated for the value of such." 

The jury present that there wad in the manor " a 
seate where a Myll hath bene with a watercourse there- 
unto belonging, and that the same Myll hath bene 
decayed tyme out of mynde/' Also the surveyor found 
by record " that there hath bene a Passage which I 
leame did decaye by reason it was verie dangerous, 
being over a parte of Milforde verie brode in that 

In the manor of Pill, William Tasker held a 
tenement containing a ploughland called Annabale 
Pill, under a lease for lives. 

*' The dwellinge howse* beinge fewer roomes on a floore and one 
lofte at the lower ende of the said howse, containing in all 21 
copies covered with thatch and one little outstall adjoyneing to 
the Hall covered with slate." 

There were several outbuildings all covered with 
thatch, and the annual value of the whole is nil. 

The total rental of the Castle, Lordship, and Town of 
Haverfordwest is stated to be £111 ISs, Z^d. 

The outgoings are: the fee of jC68 6s. 8d. yearly 
for life to Sir Edward Mansell,^ as seneschal of the 
lordships of **Haverforde and Rowse," by grant of 
Philip and Mary, in 1558, and of £6 13s. 4d. as 
chancellor and supervisor by the same grant. The 
surveyor notes, that as the office of chancellor is not in 
force, this fee can be saved after Sir Edward s death. 
The fee of Robert Acton, £6 128. 4d., as constable of 
the Castle, and 30s. lOd. as jailer ; as the Castle is 

1 The old hoQse of the De La Roches on Pill Bhodal; see Old 
Pembroke Families, p. 74. 

2 Of Margam. 


" utterly decayed," the surveyor thinks that these fees 
also may be saved after the life of the holder. Also, 
one PhDip Morgan had for life ** the office of customer 
aod butler of the porte and creeke of Westhaverforde,", 
with a yearly fee of 40^., and of bailiflF of Haverdford- 
west and Rowse, ** which officer collecteth ye casualties 
of this Lordshippe" with a yearly fee of 60^. 8d. The 
surveyor .says, *' which ffees I do not here reprise for 
there is no value of any of the said casualties in this 

Then follows a copy of the report of Davy and 
Canon as to their proceedings, which seem to have been 
conducted with much fairness. The tenants complain 
of their poverty by reason of the heriots, suit of court, 
collection of rents, and the " burthen of servauntes and 
children." The surveyors increased the rents by 
£13 13s. 5d. ; they object to the system of taking fines 
on renewal of leases, and they add " it mai be that 
some which wolde putt ii or iii of these tenements into 
one and make dayries male afforde to give greate ffines ; 
but then shoulde the countrie be desolate of people, 
and the Queenes comoditie and service otherwise much 

The document concludes with the regulations for the 
survey laid down by Lord Burghley,^ the Treasurer, 
and Sir Walter Mildmay,* Chancellor. 

* Lord High Treasurer, 1572-1598. 

< Ghanoellor 9f the Exobeqner, 1566-1589. 




Tbb faculty for the reparation of the Parish Church 
at Llantwit Major included the setting-up of the 

Fig. 1. — The Iltyd Croas, shored up preparatory to its remoyaL 

pre-Norman stones in the western or old church. 
With one exception, this was complied with : the ex- 
ception being the Iltyd Cross-shaft, said by tradition 
to be in situ. 

The Rev. Mr. Vaughan, the late Vicar of Llantwit, 



who, at the time of the restoration in 1889, was about 
ninety years of age, expressed a wish that, when he 
died, he should be buried by the Iltyd stone ; and that 
the stone should not be removed to the church until 
afteY his death. This request was complied with ; but, 
as the stone showed some fresh signs of fracture, the 
present Vicar, the Rev. Henry Morris, thought it 

Fig. 2. — The Iltyd Crosa, iu procosa of removal. 

advisable to accept the kind oflfer of Dr. Charles T. 
Vachell, J.P., to set up the stone, under cover, with 
the other pre-Norman remains (Fig. 4). 

The Cross-shaft of Samson, commonly called the Iltyd 
Stone, measures 6 ft. from the ground-line upwards, 
and 4 ft 2 ins. from the ground-line to the extreme 
base, which tapers from 12 ins. to 7 ins. in thickness 
(Fig. 5). The worked portion of the stone terminates 



in. a picker-line, about | in. in breadth/ a few inches 
below the ground-line— in fact, just under the turf — 
for about 1 ft. 6 ins. to 2 ft. below this, there is every 
indication of the soil having been disturbed ; small 
pieces of crockery and other miscellaneous debris were 
unearthed. Below this, however, the soil showed no 
indication of having been moved below the picker-linei 
There are no signs of either tooling or working in any 
form. It is simply a glacial boulder turned to account : 

Fig. 3. — The Dtyd Cross, after being taken out of the ground. 

on one side the surface is rubbed quite smooth, and 
shows very distinct striations. 

The accompanying photographs, taken by Mr. Guy 
Clarke and myself— when compared with the measurea 
sketch — will give a far better idea of the base than 
any written description (Figs. 3 and 5). 

The cross-shaft stood from 3 ins. to 4 ins. above the 
limestone rock, which probably accounts for its having 
kept its upright position for so many centuries ; but a 
further proof of the stone being in situ was : first, the 


finding of bones immediately under the cross ; secondly, 
the discovery of a rough stone cist, containing an 
undisturbed skeleton, placed within a few inches of, 
and exactly in the centre of, the east side of the cross- 
shaft (Fig. 6) ; from which it is conclusively proveil 
that both cist and cross were put in at the same time. 
Had the cross been fixed after the cist, the cist would 
have been disturbed : which it was not. Had this 
been erected prior to the making of the cist, the cross. 

Fig. 4. — Interior of the Old Weatern Church at Llantwit Major, 
where the Iltyd Cross uow stauds. 

owing to its great weight, would have inclined forward. 
The door of the cist was about 3 ins. above the exterior 
bottom of the cross-base. 

The following notes and sketch-plan, made by Mr. 
John Ward, F.S. A., of the Museum, Cardiff*, will explain 
the position and condition of the human remains found 
immediately around the cross. 

" The whole trunk and skull of one of the skeletons, a, was 
exposed on the south side of the excavation. It lay on its back 
with the head to the west, the upper parts of the legs only 
appearing in sight. The head was slightly inclined to the right, 



Fig. 5. — Section showing Iltyd Croes before remoYaL 

and the arms were so folded that the hands must have rested on 
the trunk. There were no signs of a coffin of any sort (Fig. 6). 
*' The other skeleton, B, was at a slightly higher level, and it 
lay further to the east, the head only appearing in the excavation. 



This body had been placed in a rude cist, stones having been 
placed close around it, and then roofed in by larger stones. The 
skull, as I saw it, was unprotected above ; but it was probably 



C I 


B-^^ -.J. ^ 

^ ^^-^^ ^-^""^ 

Fig. 6. — Plan, showing Human Remuns disoovered beneath the Iltyd Cross. 

covered with a stone when found. The upper part was visible, 
and it was somewhat turned to the left.^ 
" Besides these, the thigh and pelvic bones of another skeleton 

^ Mr. Ward had no opportunity of noting |the exact position 
of this skeleton with reference to the cross, as the shaft had then 
been removed, and the excavation widened. — G. E. H. 


(c) were brought to light at the west end of the excavation, and 
they were at a somewhat lower level ; and, in fact, may be said 
to have passed under A. 

" All the bones were in a condition more resembling those of 
prehistoric than of ordinary churchyard burials. They were 
excessively brittle, throuf^fh loss of the gelatinous matters, and 
were much fractured without displacement, a bone appearing 
to be sound until the attempt was made to ipove it. There is 
little doubt, therefore, that these interments were very ancient 

Fig. 7.— View of Cist beneath the Iltyd Cross. 

I may add that they rested upon the undisturbed natural 

" Skeleton A. — I was unable to get out a femur or any other 
long bone for measuring purposes ; but it was obvious that this 
skeleton related to a tallish person, of somewhat strong build. 
The vertebrae column and the right femur had been pushed 
inwards — perhaps on the occasion of the burial of B (Fig. 6). The 
pelvic boneis were much decayed and broken ; but th6 short 
distance of the undisturbed femur from the sacrum, together 
with the bold, supraciHary ridges, seemed to me to indicate a 


man. The sutures of the skull showed no signs of having welded 

— at least on the outer table. They were moderately intricate ; 

and, in picking up the fragments, there was not the slightest 

coherence along their lines (Fig. 8). Further, the inner side of 

the skull exhibited, to some extent, the satiny glossiness which 

one associates with youth, rather than old age. The teeth, for 

an azlcieni: skeleton, were little worn ; but the wisdom teeth 

exhibited about the same amount of wear. There was no sign 

of decayed teeth. All these conditions led me to regard, the 

Fig. 8. — View of Hole where the Iltyd Cross stood. 

skeleton as belonging to a man, who died in not later than 
middle life — perhaps early middle life. 

" Skeleton B. — Of this, only the skull was available for exami- 
nation ; it was much crushed. I examined the upper pieces 
only. The skull looked decidedly youthful. There was no 
question as to the open sutures, and the supraciliary ridges were 
very slightly developed. 

" Skeletons C. — Near the left side of the skull a was most of 
the shaft of an adult femur (a), which undoubtedly belonged to 


some remains of pelvic bones, about 5 ins. or 6 ins. to the west 
of that skull. Nearer to this skull was the femur (c) and os 
innominatum (b), and of a child, which seemed to me to also 
relate to some interment earlier than A; its direction would 
indicate that the body lay, like the others, with the head to the 

''The whole of the middle of the trunk of skeleton a had 
sunk several inches below the level of its upper portion and 
legs, doubtless owing to the great weight of St Iltyd's cross- 

Mr. Ward further states that there was no evidence 
to show that this spot was the original position of the 
Iltyd Cross. 

Mr. Ward, however, did not see the excavation in 
progress ; and, as the stone itself had been moved prior 
to his visit, hence he could not see the relative position 
of the cist B to the cross-shaft. This, however, I care- 
fully noted when the cross was being removed. 


Cambrian 9[rcbaeologtcal iagsioc^atton. 






On MONDAY, AUGUST 18th, 1902, 




Local Committee. 
Chairman.— TKE MAYOR OF BRECON (David Powell, Esq.). 

Mr. C. W. Best - 

Ven. Archdeacon Bbvan 

Rev. E. L. Bevan 

Mrs. Bradley 

Mr. T. Butcher - 

Mr. R. D. Cleasby 

Rev. J. L. DAvaES 

Miu M. Davies - 

Mrs. Dawson 

Mr. John Doyle 

Mr. T. A. Davies 

Mr. Davhd Evans 

Rev. Preb. Garnons-Williams 

Miss Garnons-Williams 

Mr. Ivor James - 

Mr. Nathan John 

Mr. MooRE-GwYN (H»gh Sheriff) 

Miss Philip Morgan 

Colonel W. L. Morgan, R.E - 

Mr. Ellis Owen - 

Rev. J. Price - 
Mr. R. T. Raikes 
Mr. H. C. Rich - 
Rev. Chancellor Smith > 
Mr. Hadlby Watkins - 
Colonel Thomas Wood - 

6tB 8IB., VOL. m. 

Penbryn, Brecon. 

Ely Tower, Brecon. 

The Vicarage, Brecon. 

Cefn Pare, Brecon. 

Lion Street, Brecon. 

Penovre, Brecon, 

Llanddew Vicarage, Brecon. 

County School for Girls, Brecon 

Hartlmgton, Burnsall, Yorkshire. 

Pendarren, Crickhowell 

Brecon County Timeit Office, Brecon. 

Ffrwdgrech, Brecon. 

Abercamlais, Brecon. 

Old Vicarage, Brecon. 

County School for Boys, Brecon. 

DyflFryn, Ystradgynlais. 

Buckingham Place, Brecon. 

Brynbnallu, Swansea. 

Brecon and Radnor Express Office, 

Llanveigan Rectory, Brecon. 
Treberfydd, Bwlch, R. S. 0. 
Watton, Brecon. 
The Castle, Hay. 
Watton, Brecon. 

Gwernyfed, Three Cooks, R. S. 0. 



Hon, Local Treasurer. 
Mr. H. £. Bbadlst, National Provincial Bank of England, Brecon. 

Hon. Local Secretariu, 
Lieut-Col. R. D. Gab^tons- Williams, Tymawr, Brecon. 
Mr. Gbobgb Hay, The Watton, Brecon. 

General Secretaries of the Association. 

Rev. Canon K Tkeyob Owen, F.S.A., Bodelwyddan Vicarage, 

Rhnddlan, R. S. 0. 
Rev. C. Chidlow, M.A., Lawhaden Vicarage, Nturberth. 



MONDAY, AUGUST 18th. 1902. 

A pnblic reception of the Members of the Association was held iu 
the Parish Hall, at 8 p.m., on behalf of the Local Committee, by the 
Major of Brecon (Mr. David Powell) and Lieut.-Col. E. D. Garnons- 

In rising to welcome the members, the Major, as Chairman of the 
Local Committee, said : — 

Ladies and Gentlemen. — It has fallen to mj lot, as Major of this 
ancient and historic town, to ofiPer jon a heartj and cordial welcome 
as members of the Cambrian Archaaological Association, on this, the 
third visit to the count j town. Although the cordiality of our 
welcome cannot well be surpassed as regards the spirit in which it 
is offered, I much regret that I am one whose tastes and studies for 
archseologj do not in any way qnalifj me for the duties which 
devolve on me this evening. When the Societj first visited Brecon 
in 1853, nearly half a century ago, it had been only a few years in 
existence. Now it has attained a Jong and honourable period of 
existence, during which time the aims and objects of the Associa- 
tion have been fulfilled. It lias endeavoured by personal investi- 
gation and inspection to visit all objects and scenes of historic 
interest. In this way a record of all objects of antiquity has 
been made, and this should form a basis for the construction of 
future history. I think I may safely say, without being unduly 
partial to my own town and county, that there are few places which 
surpass it for the natural beauty of its surroundings or the historic 
interest attached to its varied scenes. I can only express the hope 
that the weather may prove favourable for the tours of inspection, 
and that members of the Association on leaving Brecon will be 
favourably impressed by the purity of its air, and the natural beauty 
of its surroundings ; also that the visit may prove productive of 
much benefit for the furtherance of the objects which the Associa- 
tion has in view. On behalf of the Local Committee and towns- 
people generally, I offer you a most hearty and cordial welcome to 
the town of Brecon. 

Lord Glanusk thanked the Mayor and the Local Committee for 
their hospitality, and for the time and trouble they had given in 
arranging for the Society the excursions of the next few days — 
excursions which he hoped they would all enjoy very much. The 


Mayor has said he possessed no great arohaoolo^oal lore, and ho 
(the speaker) was afraid he mast admit the same himself. 

*' Some men are wise, 
And Bome are otherwise." 

He regretted to inclade himself in the last category. He again 
thanked the Mayor for the welcome he had extended to them on 
behalf of one of the most ancient bodies, and one of the most ancient 
boroughs — a town whose walls had defended it against attack in 
more tronblons times than these. On the walls of that room that 
night they saw their ancient flag with crest and motto : *^ Y ddraig 
goch," etc., the red dragon on this occasion, apparently, with a 
smile on his face, extending the right hand of fellowship for all who 
chose to grasp. He thanked the Mayor and the Local Committee 
for the way in which they had greeted the Society, and trosted that 
this would not be the last — as it was not the first— occasion on 
which they wonld have the hononr of receiving the hospitality of 
the ancient town of Brecon. 

The proceedings concluded with a Conversazione, which was 
much enjoyed by the members. 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 19th, 1902. 

A Public Meeting was held in the Parish Hall, at 8 p. if., at which 
Lord Glannsk delivered the following Presidential Address : — 


LiDiES AND Gbntlbmek. — It is my pleasant duty to open the 
proceedings of this evening, by offering on behalf of the residents in 
the county of Brecknock a hearty welcome to the Society of 
Cambrian Arcbaaologists. 

The limitations of time and distance must of necessity prevent 
your seeing all that yon would wish to visit. The castle of Bnilth 
and the ancient Slarman Stone are beyond our reach. The castle 
and walled town of Hay must remain unvisited. The castle and 
town of Crickhowell are, I believe, beyond our compass, while the 
curious church of Patricio, with its beautiful screen, rood-altars 
in situ, and its font of the eleventh century, fixing the date of ihe 
parish, must be left till you can approach them from a nearer centre. 
Still, enough can be seen to give a fair idea of what the district was 
before it became a county — of the warfare of long-forgotten 
ancestors— their ecclesiastical buildings, their domestic habitations, 
and much else worthy of note to those who study the science of 

MiLTTART Antiquities. 

The military antiquities of Brecon form a group not the least 
interesting amongst the curiosities of the county. 

The Dinasy or primssval fortress of the Britons, was, in every case 
within the county of Brecknock, a walled enclosure on the top of a 


hill, its size only limited by the extent of the summit, sarrounded 
by a dry wall for the purpose of defence, a diagonal wall sometimes 
down the hill forming a covered way for entrance or egress, or 
possibly leading to a spring of water. At one end of the camp, 
indications of a gate with exterior defences, the interior filled 
with shallow excavations, some 3 ft. deep. Here the spade will 
reveal the dwellings of the ancients borrowed into the hillside, 
probably once roofed with bonghs of trees. The tribal residence : a 
place of protection for the aged, the women, and children, a fold for 
the cattle, a rally ing-point for the warrior. 

This county is studded with these rude villages, no longer clearly 
distinguishable, and somewhat inaccessible to the antiquary ; 
crowded, no doubt, with wonder-stricken warriors and terrified 
women, when the civilised 'legions of Rome marched through the 
woodland valleys of Siluria. 

Issuing from these hill- forts, and fulling with sudden rush upon 
the Roman legions, the Britons met with some success in the earlier 
years of Roman invasion ; they had but little chance of victory when 
once the Roipans had organised their power. 

The Rohan Roads. 

Roads have been in all ages the first necessity of military occupa- 
tion. The English in the nineteenth century have advanced their 
railway to the north-west frontier of India, are pushing an iron road 
northward through their new territories of South Africa ; while from 
the north the rail-head on the bank of the Nile has been carried 
southward immediately in the rear of our victorious armies. 

So the Romans, more than eighteen centuries ago, joined their 
landing-places in the south with London, and from thence carried a 
network of roads to the most distant parts of Britain. 

Antonine's Itinerary II. — Of these three only concern us. The 
first leading from London to IJriconium (Wroxeter), a point near 
Shrewsbury, and thence to Chester and the north ; this was the 
highway from the capital to North Wales. At Uriconium it was 
joined by military roads from South Wales ; and, as the Roman 
legions passed freely between north and south, Uriconium became 
the objective of the northward road of Brecknock. 

Iter. VII. — To approach South Wales from London, the road 
passed Windsor (Pontibus), and Reading (Calleva), and was, so far, 
the first stage of a road to Portsmouth. 

Iter. XIII. — Beypnd Reading the traveller had the choice of two 
routes : one by Cirencester (Durocernovium), and Glo'ster (Glevum), 
Ross (Ariconium), Monmouth (Blestium), to Usk (Burrium) to 
Caerleon, where it joined the alternative route. 

Iter. XI V, — This road bifurcated from the one just described about 
seventeen miles west of Reading, and passing Bath, then called 
Aque Soils, went by Bristol to Abone, a place on the south bank of 
the Severn, represented by the Severn Tunnel of the present day . 


CrossiDg the Severn by boat, the traveller passed oq to Caerleon 
(Isca), where the alternative roate from London had also its 
terminns. From this point a single line of roate led to Caer- 
marthen (Maridnnnm), at which point oar interest oeases. 

From Caerleon and Usk another ronbe connected Soath and 
North Wales, passing thix>agh the modern ooanties of Hereford and 
Salop to Wrozeter, said to be Wrekin Castle, the Camp of the 

These are the only main military roads it is necessary to bear in 
mind. Roughly, we may say they represent the roates now followed 
by the Great Western, the North Western, and the Hereford and 
Shrewsbury Railways. 

Iter, XIL — From Caerleon the coast road ran through CardiflT 
and Neath to Muridunnm (Caormarthen). From Muridunum an 
important vicinal road follows the Towy River to Llandilo, whence 
it is shown in the Ordnance Map following the modem road from 
Swansea to Llandovery, from which place it runs still northward 
into North Wales. 

At or near Llandovery it was joined by another road, the most 
important we have to deal with — Via Julia Montana ; this led east 
and west through the whole length of the Vale of Usk, from the 
source of the river past Brecon to Abergavenny. It connected the 
camp at Oaerbannau with Caermarthen and Abergavenuy. 

Cardiff to Caerbannau, — To approach the Brecon camp from the 
Channel is a ix)ad which, starting from Cardiff, follows the course of 
the Taff River northwards. It bifurcates at a point called Dolygaer 
(the Camp Meadow), south of Pont Twyn Reservoir. The western 
road follows TafiP Fechan in a north-westerly direction ; it probably 
passed west of the Beacon, down the Tarell Brook to Caerbannan. 

The eastern road can still be traced. Crossing Glyn Colwyn 
above, and to the east of the Brecon and Merthyr Railway, it keeps 
to the top of the hill, finally descending to Talybont, near which 
place it probably joined the Via Julia Montana, already described, 
and may have been intended as a short route to Abergavenny. 

Neath to Chewier, — The last road to be described is the Saru 
Helen, or Sam Lleon, "the Road of the Legion," connecting Neath 
with Chester, the camp of the legion from which perhaps tiie road 
takes its name. 

From Neath the road leads along the ridge of Hir Fynydd (" the 
long mountain'') ; it can be traced in places through Blaensenny, at a 
spot a mile south of Penpont, and occasionally until it arrives at 
the camp near Brecon. 

After passing the Gaer, the route leads to Brecon, and can thence 
be traced northward up the Valley of the Honddu. A mile above 
Lower Chapel, it leaves the modem road to Builth, and ascends the 
mountain, rejoining the road at the summit of the Eppynt, by a 
mountain inn, Cwm Awen. It follows the Dihonew Brook to 
Maesmynis, thence probably to Builth, crossing the Wye, and so to 


Llanyre, m Badnonsbire, where there is a camp, from which the 
road passes again to the north, its objective being probably Wrozeter. 
Caerbannau will be seen to be a spot of considerable importance, 
the junction of most of the military routes, and very favonrable for 
a camp of permanent occupation. 

Roman Camps. 

Roman camps were always aiTanged on the same plan. The 
oamp at Gaerlmnnan was constructed to contain about 1,500 men. 

The fair day's march of a Roman soldier was twenty Roman 
miles, eqairalent to about eighteen miles English. Roman armies 
neyer halted, even for a single night, without forming an entrench- 
ment capable of receiving the fighting men, beasts of burden, and 
baggage. We should, therefore, expect to find on each approach to 
the camp at Caerbannau, at a spot regulated by the exigencies of 
mountain travel (but within eighteen miles), a subsidiary entrench- 
ment, good enough, perhaps, for a summer residence, amply sufficient 
for a night's rest while on the march. 

From Brecon to Gobnnnium is twenty-two miles. This was 
BMuie two marches, the camp being situate in the valley of Cwmdu, 
just below the half-way inn of modern days. Carved stones indicate 
that the camp was permanently occupied. The farmer at Gaer 
told me that his father had ploughed up '* an old Eoman in a stone 
coffin." — What did he do with him? *' Ploughed him in again." 

In the opposite direction, towards Caermarthen, is a camp on 
Trecastle Hill, about fifteen miles from Caerbannau. 

On the Sarn Helen the journey from Neath to Brecon was broken 
Ht a camp near the boundary of the county, about sixteen miles from 
Brecon, and perhaps twelve miles from Neath. 

Northwards we find a camp on the rise of Eppynt. Builth 
would have been an appropriate resting-place ; though the Castle 
field, with its numerous entrenchments, has never been recognised 
as such. At Llanyre, in Radnorshire, a few miles further, a Roman 
station is marked on the Ordnance Map, too distant from Brecon to 
have been covered in a single day. 

The last road from Brecon to Cardiff has a station at the Aberdare 
Hill, fifteen miles from Brecon. 

If the right cause for minor entrenchments is that here assigned, 
they fit into their places in a singularly appropriate manner. 

Castles of the Tekth Century. 

The time succeeding the departure of the Romans does not seem 
to have left any mark on the fortifications of this county. The 
DinaSy already described, was the habitation of a tribe, the Roman 
Castra the resting-place of an army. 

The earliest castles are of more domestic character : for the 
accommodation of the lord and his household, for the protection of 


his tenants, and for the safe-keeping in war time of their flocks and 
herds. The earh'est of these works are said to date from the ninth 
and tenth centaries. They were thus constmcted : first wa^ thrown 
np a cone of earth, from 12 ft. to 20 ft. in height, the soil being 
obtained from the contents of a circomscribing ditch. Connected 
with the mound is usually an inclosure or base-court, more or less 
rounded. This inclosure also had its bank and ditch on its outward 
face, the rear resting on the ditch of the mound. The mound and 
outer bank carried palisades. 

Where the base-court is of moderate area, as at Bnilth, its plat- 
form is often slightly elevated by the addition of part of the contents 
of the ditch. 

The mound at Builth stands on the edge of a natural steep above 
the Wye. Here the ditch is discontinued. 

The reason for placing the mound at one side was to allow of the 
concentration of lodgings and stable, and to make the mound form 
part of the exterior defences of the place. Builth is a small but 
characteristic fortress of this kind. Mounds may also be seen at 
Brecon, Crickhowell, and Bronllys. That timber was the usual 
building material is shown by the Welsh law that tenants were to 
attend fbr repair or rebuilding, each with his axe in his hand. 

NorMan Castles. 

It was in the eleventh century that the Normans adopted a more 
permanent fortress, and the old-fashioned structure of timber began 
to be replaced by walls and towers of stone. No military masonry 
has been discovered in Wales of a date prior to the Norman Con- 
quest. At first, the Normans used two classes of fortress. Where a 
castle was built in a new position, they employed masonry. Where 
the site was old, they were content to repair the existing works of 
timber, leaving to a more convenient season the building of a more 
permanent structure. 

When Bernard de Newmarch entered Brecknock, towards the end 
of the eleventh century, he found the earthworks of Brecon and 
Huilth already existing, and occupied them with fortresses of a 
Norman character. At Brecon he established his strong and capa- 
cious castle, of which the mound and much of the masonry can 
still be seen. The country was parcelled out amongst his followers ; 
thirteen castles represent the number of his knights. The essential 
feature is a keep, standing at one corner of a triangular court, with 
a curtained wall, strengthened by bastion towers at the comers. 
The minor details will be best described by local antiquaries upon 
the spot. 


Such are the ancient and mediaeval structures of offence and 
defence. Happily, the necessity for camp and castle has passed 
away. Tour Society may journey through the length and breadth 


of the land, encoantering no danger that need oanse a flatter in the 
most timid heart With the fortress of ancient days joa will have 
the opportnoitj of comparing the hospitable hearth of the modem 
mansion, and may be snre of finding in each locality you may visit 
the hearty welcome which it has been my daty this evening to 
offer, in the name of the people of Brecknock, to the Cambrian 
ArchsBological Society. 

Afber the President had been cordially thanked for his Address, 
the following papers were read : — 

"The Early Settlers of Brecon." By Prof. E. Anwyl. 

" The Exploration of Clegyr Voia." By the Rev. S. Baring-Gould. 

"Roman Forts in South Wales." By P. Haverfield, F.S. A. 

WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 20th, 1902. 
On this day there was no Erenicg Meeting. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 21st, 1902. 

The Annual General Meeting of the Association was held in the 
Parish HalL The following Report was read by the Senior General 

Annual Report foe 1902. 

The Journal, — The following papers have been pablished in tho 
Archa^logia Camhrmsis^ between July, 1901, and July, 1902 : — 

Prehistoric Period, 
" Wanten Dyke." By J. M. E. Lloyd. 
" Prehittoric Interments near Carditf." By J. War<l. 
** Camps and Earthworks of the Nowtown District." By D. R. Tlionuis. 
" Crug-yr-Avon." By J. Griffith. 

" Cairn and Sepulchral Cave at Gop." By W. Boyd Dawkins. 
"The Chevron and its Derivatives." By J. R. Allen. 

BomanchBrUish Period. 
No papers. 

Early Christian Period. 
No papers. 

MeduBval Period. 
Sir S. R. Olynne's " Notes on the Older Welsh Churches." By D. R Thomas. 

"Dolforwyn Castle." By R. Williams. 

** The Oldest Parish Registers in Pembrokeshire." By J. Phillips. 
*' The Church of Llanfihangel Glyn-Myfyr." By Harold Hughes. 
" Flintshire Subsidy Roll, 1592." By D. R. Thomas. 
" Old Farm-Houses near St. David's." By J. R. Allen. 
" Discoveries at Llangendeime Church." By T. P. Clark. 
" Not«8 on Old Llandaff. " By G. E. Halliday. 

It is mnoh to be regretted that although discoyeries of Roman 
remains of great importance have been made at Gaersws, Cardiff, 


Gellygaer, and Caerwenh, no aooonnt of them has been sent for 
pnblication in the Journal, 

The following works on Welsh history, folk-lore» and antiquities. 
Lave been received for roview. 

"Celtic Folk-lore, Welsh and Manx." By J. Rhys. (Oxford, Clarendon 

Press, 1901.) 
" Cardiff Records," vols. iL and iii. By J. H. Matthews. (London, Elliot 

Stock, 1900-1901.) 
** Notes on the History and Text of our Early English Bible and its 

Translation into Welsh. By G. L. Owen. 
" A List of those who did Homage and Fealty to the First English Prince of 

Wales, in a.d. 1301. By E. Owen. (Privately Printed.) 
*^ Portfolio of Photog^phs of the Cromlechs of Anglesey and Carnarvon. 

By J. E. Griffith. (Bangor, 1900.) 
"Diocesan Histories, Llandaff." By E. J. NewelL (London, S.P.C.K., 

" History of Neath Abbey." By W. de G. Birch. (Neath, J. E Richards, 

" Ewenny Priory." By Col. J. P. TurbervilL (Loudon, Elliot Stock, 1901 .) 
" Life and Times of Griffith Jones of Llanddowror." By David Jones. 

(London, S.P.C.K.. 1902.) 
" Life and Work of Bishop Richard Davies, and William Salesbury.*' By 

D. R. Thomas. (Oswestry, Caxton Press, 1902.) 

Several other books on Welsh subjects have been issued during 
the past year, bnt we regret that, as their authors or publishers 
have not sent review copies to the editor, he is unable to enmxMrate 

The '* ArchsBological Notes*' in the Journal might be made fuDw 
and more interesting if the Editor were better snpported by the 
Local Secretaries. 

Mr. Harold Hughes and Mr. 6. £. HalHday have sent early 
information about recent discoveries and contemplated vandalism, 
and thus rendered good service to the cause of Welsh archaeology. 

The illustrations for the Journal continue to I;e satisfactorily pro- 
duced by Mr. Worthington G. Smith and Mr. A. E. Smith. The 
thanks of the Association are due to Mr. Harold Hughes, Mr. G. E. 
Halliday, and Mr. W. G. Smith, for gratuitous work in making 
drawings to illustrate papers in the Journal, A large number of 
photographs of Bronze-Age nms in the British Museum, and the 
museums at Devizes and Welshpool, have been taken by the aid of 
the Special Hlnstration Fund of £10 a year. 

The Index to the Yolume of the Journal for 1901 has been com- 
piled by the Rev. Canon Rupert Morris, D.D., F.S.A., for which 
gratuitous help the Association is greatly obligeil. 

Index to the Fifth Series of the Archoeologia Cambrensis. — Mr. 
Francis Green's Index has been ready for publication for some 
months, and awaits the decision of the General Meeting as to what 
is to be done with it. 


Fresercatim and Destruction of Ancient Monuments, — The atten- 
tion of the members should be specially directed to the good work 
being done by the Pembrokeshire Association for the Preservation 
of Ancient Mono men ts, as reported in the January number of the 
Journal. It seems desirable that others should follow the admir- 
able example thus set by the premier county of the Principality. 

It 18 satisfactory to learn that the Gross-shaft of Samson Iltyd 
and Ebisar, at Llantwit Major, has now been placed with all the 
other pre-Norman inscribed and sculptured stones inside the old 
western church, where thef no longer run any risk of damage fram 
the effects of the weather or ignorant vandalism. A full account 
of the removal, by Mr. G. E. Halliday, F.R.I.B.A., appears in 
the present number of the Journal, 

Mr. John Ward, F.S.A., informs us that the series of casts of 
pre-Norman crosses and inscribed stones of Wales, being made 
under his direction by Mr. Clarke, of Llandaff, for the Cardiff 
Museum, is nearly complete as regards Glamorganshire and 
Pembrokeshire. When this work is concluded, in the course of a 
year or two, Cardiff will possess a gallery of early Welsh sculpture 
of national importance, which will be a fitting climax to the labours 
of the late Prof. J. 0. Westwood in the past, and Principal John 
Rh^s in the present. 

No very flagrant example ot the destruction of ancient remains 
in Wales during the past year has come under notice, but Basing- 
werk Abbey appears to be falling into ruin through neglect. 

Eeeeni Discoveries, — The finding of a hoard of eighteen bronze 
axe-heads on the Tanyglanau Mountain, Montgomeryshire, in June 
lasty and the subsequent dispersal of the specimens, calls attention 
to the necessity of devising some means for preventing such objects 
from falling into the hands of persons who do not understand their 
true scientific value. Two of the axe-heads in question were 
exhibited in the window of a draper's shop in Machynlleth, 
belonging to Mr. W. M. Jones. 

The Llantwit Major hoard of bronze implements is, we understand, 
still in private hands, and the specimens have been nicely polished 
up 80 as to produce a better decoratiye effect. 

The Limoges Enamel from Penmon, — The following letter, from 
the Rev. H. M. Ellis, has been received by the Committee : 

** Exbury Rectory, Southampton, 

"June 13th, 1902. 
*' Dear Sir, — I have in my possessiun a Limoges Enamel, found 
at the restoration of Penmon Church, by my father, the late Rev. P. 
Constable Ellis. I desire to present it to Penmon through your 
Society, if your Society will undertake for its being put in a case or 
frame and fixed in Penmon Church, and will also make a not« of 


the matter in tbe Society's Journal, with a view to preventing its 
disappearance through carelessness. 

" I am, yours truly, 

" H. M. Ellis." 

The enamelled plaque, which has been described and illustrated 
in the Archceologia Camhrensis, Ser. Ill, vol. i, p. 42, is about two 
incl:es square. It has been handed over to the Editor temporarily 
by the Rev. H. M. Ellis. We recommend that, with the assent of 
the Eecter of Penmon, Mr. Ellis's kind offer should be accepted, and 
that Mr. Harold Hughes be asked to design a suitable frame for 
the relic, and superintend its fixing in the church. 

Preservation of Trt Ceiri, Carnarvonshire, — On the 7th May, 
I90I, a meeting of the Committee for the preservation of Tre 
Geiri was held in the rooms of the Honourable Society of 
Cymmrodorion, Chancery Lane, London. 

The following resolution was proposed by Mr. Romilly Allen, 
seconded by Colonel Morgan, and carried unanimously : — *' That the 
plan of Tre Ceiri be completed by Mr. Harold Hughes, with the 
additions of sections and photographs ; that these should be pub* 
lished, and the attention of the British Government and of the 
Welsh people be called to the desirability of providing funds for 
preserving Tre Ceiri as a National monument" 

The survey was proceeded with last summer, attention being 
chiefly given to the ground outside the south-west entrance. 

It is intended to continue the work this autumn. 

It would be a great thing if the site were sufficiently explored to 
ascertain the age of the remains. There is no reason that work of 
this nature should be delayed till the survey is completed. 

The Funds of (he Association, — The unexpected death of our late 
excellent Treasurer, Mr. Lloyd Griffith, last Christmas, locked up 
the funds of the Association for twelve mouths ; but as the Senior 
General Secretary had some subscriptions in hand, and others 
would soon be due, he was asked to undertake the Treasurership for 
the interval, until a new one was appointed. To this he readily 
acceded, and by that means the liabilitiea of the Association have 
been met without any further inconvenience. He will submit hia 
Statement of Accounts to your consideration. 

The careful and satisfactory management of the funds, by the 
late Treasurer, for so many vears, claims the grateful acknowledg- 
ment of the Association, and the Committee have expressed to Ins 
orphan daughter their sense of his good services and their own loss, 
and their hearty sympathy with her in her bereavement. 

Excavations in Wales. — Mr. Baring-Gould having obtained per- 
mission to explore the site of Ty Gwyn, near St. David's, and 
pubsequently tiiat of Clegyr Voia also, applied for tbe sanction of 
the Association to undertake it ; and requested that some of our 


members should be nominated to cooperate with him, and also 
hoped that a grant woald be made for the fartherance of the work. 

The Dean of St. David's, the Canon in residence, Mr. Edward 
Tjaws, and Mr. Chidlo w were named on the committee, and consented 
to act ; bat were nnable to do so at the time required. 

The Chairman of Committee had previously replied to Mr. 
Baring-(jould that he had little doubt the Association would make 
him a grant for the purpose specified. He has completed the 
work, and will give an account of the exploration. The sam ho 
asks for is only £S 10s., and we recommend that the General 
Meeting shall allow the same. 

The New Treasurer. — Your Committee recommend that Col. 
Morgan be asked to accept the office of Treasurer, in succession to 
Mr. Lloyd Griffith. 

Losses of the Association through Death, — The Association has to 
regret the loss through death of one of its earliest members ; one 
who had filled for a short time the office of General Secretary for 
South Wales, had often helped the Association with his purse, was 
honoured as a Vice-President, and had been chosen for the Presi- 
dential Chair during the Jubilee Meeting of the Association, held at 
Aberystwith in September, 1896, Mr. Frederick Lloyd- Phi lipps. 

SirS. Glynne's ''Welsh Churches''.— -Sir Stephen Glynne's **Notes on 
the Earlier Welsh Churches" have now been completed. Fifty 
extra copies have been printed in consecutive form for separate 
publication, and these are now offered to the Association by Arch- 
deacon Thomas, on the condition that he is refunded the six guineas 
paid by him to redeem them, and four guineas for postage and other 
expenses: ten guineas in all. 

Election of Officers, Members of Committee, and Members. — Tlie 
Committee propose that the Rev. Preb. Garnons- Williams, and the 
Rev. S. Baring- Gould, be made Vice-Presidents of the Association. 

The retiring Members of Committee are A. N. Palmer, Esq., 
Egerton G. B. Phillimore, Esq., and Thos. Mansel Franklen, Esq. 
The Committee propose the re-election of A. N. Palmer, Esq., and 
Thos. Mansel Franklen, Esq., and also the election of the Rev. 
John Fisher, B.D., and the Uev. E. J. Newell, M.A. 

The following is the list of Members who have joined the Associa- 
tion since the issue of the last Report, and who now await the formal 
confirmation of their election. 

England. Proposed by 

Oeorge fiehren«, Esq., Fallowfield, Manchester . Mrs. Johnes. 

F. B. Bond, Eaq., St Augustine's Parade, Bristol Rev. S. Baring- Gould. 
Eraest A. Ebblewhite, Esq., F.S.A., 1, Paper 

Buildings, Temple, Loncfon . . Canon R. Trevor Owen. 

Miss Jones, Welsh Qirls' School, Ashford, Kent . Eev. C. Chidlow. 


North Walis. Prapoted b$ 

CoL O. LL Q. Eyans, Broom Hall, Chwilog, 

R.S.O. .... Canon R. Trevor Owen. 

William B. Halhed, Esq., Biynderwyn, Llanrwst. 
J. Herbert Roberts, Esq., M.P., Bryngwenallt, 

Abei^gele . . . .A. Foulket Roberts, Esq. 

The Rev. Thomas Lloyd, The Vicarage, Rhjl . L. S. Roberts, Esq. 
T^ie Rev. T. H. Vaughan, Glyndyfrdwy Vicarage, 

Llangollen . . L. S. Roberts, Esq. 

E. Morris, Esq., H.M.LS., Wrexham . . L. a Roberts, Esq. 

W. A. Foster, Esq., Glyn Menai, Bangor 

South Wales. 
Brectmshire : 

Charles W. Best, Esq., Penbryn, Brecon. Rev. Preb. Garnona- Williams. 

J. A. Jebb, Esq., Watton Mount, Brecon . Rev. C. Chidlow. 

Rev. P. W. Green. B.A., Llywel Vicarage, 

IVecastle .... Rev. C. Chidlow. 
Miss Philip Morgan, Buckingham House, Brecon. Lord Glanusk. 
Gamons - Williams, Lieut. - Colonel, R.D., Ty 

Mawr, Brecon Rev. Preb. Gamons-WiUiams. 

Rev. John Price, M.A., Llanfeigan Rectory, 

Brecon .... Rev. H. Rirkhouse. 

Hadley Watkins, Esq., 33, The Watton. Brecon . H. W. Williams, Esq. 

Cardiganthirc : 

The Rev. H. Meredith Williams, Lledrod Vicarage. 

Carmarihenthire : 

Shipley Lewis, Esq., Solicitor, Llandilo . J. F. Hughes, Esq. 

Birch Jones, Esq., Llandilo . . . J. F. Hughes, Esq. 

Olamoryanthire : 

. W. D. James, Esq., The Linden, Cardiff 

Rev. M. B. Jones, 6, Martin Terrace, Abercynon . Edgar Jones, Esq. 

Mrs. Wayne Moigan, Maesycoed, Pontypridd . Herbert Kirkhouse, Esq. 

Rev. W. M. Morris, The Parsonage, Abei-gwynfi . H. W. Williams, Esq. 
T. Aneuryn Rees, Esq., 11, Courtland Terrace, 

Merthyr Tydfil . . C. Wilkins, Esq. 

John E. Richanls, Esq., Journalist, Neath . Rev. C. Chidlow. 

H. M. Thompson, Esq., Whitley Batch, Llandaff . Rev. C. Chidlow. 

J. L. Wheatiey. Esq., Town Clerk, Cardiff . Rev. C. Chidlow. 

Pembrokeshire : 

Arthur H. Thomas, Esq., A.R.I.B.A., Haver- 
fordwest . H. W. Williams, Em). 

Radnorshire : 

George Griffiths, Esq., Standard Office, Llan- 

drindod .... Rev. C. H. X>rinkwater. 

Place of Meeting for 1903. — The Committee recommend that 
Portmadoc be chosen as the place of meeting for 1903. 

The adoption of the Annual Report of the Association was pro- 
posed by Mr. Alfred Lloyd, F.R.C.S., seconded by Mr. H. W. 
Williams, and carried nnanimonsly. 


FRroAY, AUGUST 22nd, 1902. 

A public meeting was held in the Parish Hall, at which the 
following papers were read. 

" Biychan Brycheiniog." By the Rev. J. Fiaher, B.D., and the Rev. S. 

" Brecon Castle." By Mr. John Lloyd. 
"The Forgotten Sanctuaries of Brecon." By Miss Philip Morgan. 

The President moved a hearty vote of thanks to all who had 
been so kind as to read or to write papers for discussion dunng the 
week. His lordship made special mention of the two ladies — Mrs. 
Dawson who had attended all the excursions, and whose great 
knowledge had imparted to them most interesting information ; and 
Miss Philip Morgan, to whose charming paper and speech, delivered 
in most musical tones, he had listened with the greatest admira- 
tion. She had given him " a dig '' in what she had said as to the 
vanished cross from the hedge on the Greenway side of the road 
by Peterstone ; but he must saj, in his own behalf, that he never 
saw that cross, and did not even know where it stood. With 
regard to what Miss Philip Morgan had said as to the preservation 
of these ancient monuments, he was glad to say that the present 
Bishop of St. David's had requested the churchwardens to make a 
list of this and other ecclesiastical property in their several 
parishes, which would doubtless protect them against loss in future. 
In the course of their wanderings the last few days they had found 
more than one instance of what he must call absolute vandalism, 
where ancient monuments and buildings of the county had been 
destroyed for purposes as trivial as the mind of man could con- 
ceive. This, however, was now made a question of politics, the 
Government from time to time making provision for the pre- 
servation of public property ; and he believed it to be the duty 
not only of the nation, but of every individual, to preserve the 
monuments handed down to us by our forefathers. 

Mr. Romilly Allen, in seconding, said the papers on the present 
occasion had risen decidedly above the ordinary average, and he 
desired to express his great appreciation of Miss Philip Morgan's 

The motion was warmly adopted. 

A resolution of condolence with the representatives of the late 
Mr. Lloyd Philipps, Vice-President of the Society, was passed on the 
motion of Archdeacon Thomas, seconded by Col. Gwynne Hughes 

Mr. R. H. Wood, F.S.A., said he was sure that it would bo the 
wish and desire of the members of the Society and their friends 
who had joined in the week's excursions to acknowledge the ser- 
Tioes of, and thank, the local secretaries to whom they were so 
deeply indebted. The thorough knowledge of the locality possessed 


by Colonel Ghtrnons-WiUiams had enabled him to take them moat 
beantifal driYes through this charming conntrj, whioh all had so 
mnch enjoyed, whilst his knowledge of antiquities had made their 
Tisifcs to the various churches and places of very great interest. 

Mr. Edward Owen seconded, and the resolution was passed with 

Colonel B. D. Gamons- Williams, in reply, remarked that he was 
very much better at organising than at speaking ; but he should 
like to say that all the thanks were certainly not due to himself or 
to his co-secretary, Mr. Hay, though they had, of course, takea 
their share ot the work. The committee whom they represented 
had taken a great deal of trouble in working out the programme 
and in carrying out the arrangements ; and he assumed that it was 
as representatives of the committee that he and his co-secretary 
received this vote of thanks. He was very glad that the arrange- 
ments had proved satisfactory, and that the meeting had been suc- 
cessful from that point of view. It could not help being successful 
from the point of view of the objects of interest to be seen, for 
this county, as they knew, was full of such objects ; while those who 
had been asked to contribute papers responded with alacrity at 
short notice, and their services had been most useful and valuable. 
The work of the secretaries had been quite free from difficulty. 
Wherever they had gone to ask for hospitality, or for papers, they 
had been received with open arms— everybody seemed ready to 
welcome them, and to do everything they could to make the visit 
a pleasant one. It was a great pleasure to all of them to know that 
their efforts had been successful. He felt that there was a great deal 
more for the Society to see in this district, and he hoped it would 
not be another thirty years before they came back to Brecon. In 
concladiug his remarks. Colonel Gamons- Williams thanked Mr. 
Best for kindly conducting the excarsion on Wednesday, when he 
was called away. 

It was proposed by Mr. Mearic Lloyd, duly seconded, and re- 
solved with great cordiality, that the best thanks of the Society be 
given to those who had so liberally dispensed hospitality during the 
visit. The speaker affirmed that the members nerver had experienced 
greater kindness, and the hospitality was the more appreciated from 
the entertainers having been at such pains to make everybody feel 
thoroughly at home. 

Lady Hille-Johnes moved a vote of thanks to the Vicar of Brecon 
for the free use of the Parish Hall, and to the ladies of the Church 
House County Club, for placing their rooms at the disposal of the 

The motion was seconded by the General Secretary, and carried 

Archdeacon Thomas proposed the cordial thanks of the Associa- 
tion to the Pi*esident As rather an old member of the Association 


it had been his privilege, he said, to see many president's oconpy 
that hononred onair, bnt he did not think they had ever been 
favoured with one who had taken so high interest in their work and 
excursions, in their arrangements and in the saccess of their meet- 
ings : one who himself was well stored not only with general know- 
ledge, bnt with local knowledge of the most serviceable kind, and 
who, occapyine the highest position in this county, would be a 
guarantee for the preservation ot the great monuments it had been 
their privilege to see. 

The resolution was duly seconded, and adopted with acclamation. 

The President returned thanks. He said that personally he had 
been put to no trouble whatever, as the whole thing had been taken 
out of his hands by Colonel G^mons-Willia'ms, and those who acted 
with him. He (Lord Olanusk) concurred in every word that had 
been said as to their and the local committee's efforts, and among 
other people to whom he should like to express his thanks was the 
contractor for the conveyances. He did not suppose that a hundred 
people, taken about the country, had ever been better served than 
the Society on this occasion by Mr. Dix, of Merthyr, whose horses 
were exceedingly good, and the drivers uniformly civil and obliging. 

The President announced that the Association had elected two 
new Vice-Presidents — Mr. Baring-Gould, the well-known archaeo- 
logist, and a man of great learning ; and their old friend, the Bev. 
Prebendary Gamons-Williams. By the election of Mr. Gamons- 
Williams a great compliment and honour had been paid to the 

Lord Glannsk made use of these parting words : '* We have had 
a most enjoyable week. We have listended to many words of 
wisdom from persons of great knowledge, and you leave me with a 
greater interest in the county in which 1 live than I have ever 
had before." 

6tb sis., vol. m. 


Srcbaeological Botest anti ^mrioi. 

TsTRAD Yw : Its Original Situation. — Of the cantrefs and 
commotes of Wales some take their names from leading physical 
characteristics, such as Arfon, Nant Conwy, Dyffryn Clwyd, Ystrad 
Alnn, Denddwr, Dengleddyf, and Glyn Rhondda. A large number 
are clearly derived from personal names, such as Meirionydd, 
Bhnfoniog, Gwynllwg, Cydweh' (Oadwal), Catheiniog (Cathen), 
Gwerthrynion (Gwrtheym), and Edeymion. There is a third class, 
which can only be explained on the supposition that the district 
took its title from some principal centre within it, which was either 
the residence of the chief or the meeting-place of the community. 
To this class belong not only such obvious instances as the cantrefs 
of Mon (Aber£fraw, Cemais, Rhosyr) and the commot«s of Tegeingl 
(Rhuddlan, Prestatyn, Cownsillt), but others also, in which the facts 
are obscured through the disappearance of the name in its original 
application. It cannot be doubted that Cemais in Dyfed, Geneu'r 
Glyn and Pennardd in Ceredigion, Caer Einion, Rhiwlallt, Tin- 
daethwy, Ystum Anner, were, first of all, names of places before they 
were used to designate fairly large districts ; and if the place so 
styled could be in each case identiOed, something would be done to 
elucidate the early history of the Welsh territorial divisions. 

One of the names of this class is Ystrad Yw. At first sight it 
i4}pears to belong to the first group mentioned, that of names which 
are at once explained on consideration of the natural features of the 
district. But the resemblance to such forms as Ystrad Tywi and 
Ystrad Alun is deceptive. In this south-eastern comer of Breck- 
nock, the only valley important enough to give its name to the whole 
region is that of the Usk, and Ystrad Wysg is a form nowhere to be 
found. Nor may we follow Theophilus Jones in his bold alteration 
of Ystrad Yw into Ystrad Wy, " the vale of waters, "^ for this form 
also is entirely without authority. Hence what we have to look 
for is some spot within the limits of the historical Ystrad Yw, 
where the name finds ready explanation, and where a primitive 
centre may be supposed to have stood. 

It is perhaps as well to say that in this enquiry we need not con- 
cern ourselves about Roman roads. Ystrad cannot be derived from 
the Latin Stratum or StratOy which in modem Welsh would yield 
" Ystrod," but is from a cognate Celtic root which has the vowel 
short, and denotes, not the levelled road, but the level *' Strath," or 
valley-bottom. 2 A tract of alluvial land, such as is to be found at 
Ystrad,. near Denbigh, Ystrad Gynlais, and Ystrad Meurig, is what 
must be kept in the mind's eye in our endeavour to trace Ystrad Yw 
to its origin. 

* Hutory of Breconshirt, p. 878 of the reprint of 1898. 

* Whitley Stokes, Vrhdti$eh»r Spracluchatz, p. 313 ; Loth, Mott LcUim dantUs 
Langues BrittoniqueSj p. 217 ; Phillimore, T Cymmrodor, vol. xi, p. 150. 


Ajb to the bounds of the district so called (which was probably at 
one time a cantref, thongh it is nowhere explicitly described as 
sncb), they offer no special difiBcnlty. It was one of the districts 
claimed in the twelfth centnry for the diocese of Llanclaff, and the 
limits of the diocese as enlarged by this and other claims ai*e so 
described in the Liber Landavensis (pp. 42 and 134 of the edition of 
1893), as to show that Tstrad Yw was parted from the rest of 
Brycheiniog by the river Crawnon, Bnckland Hill, and a line which 
ran thence to the source of the Grwyne. It was, in fact, identical 
with the modem hnndred of Crickhowel, which was in Leland's 
time the hnndred of " Estradewe,"^ and which includes the eight 
parishes of Llanfibangel Cwm Dn, Llangynidr, Llangattock, Crick- 
bowel, Llanelly, Llangenen, Llanbedr Ystrad Yw and Partrishow.' 
At an early period, perhaps before the time of the Norman occupa- 
tion of Brycheiniog, Ystrad Yw was divided into two commotes or 
lordships, sometimes known as Ystrad Yw Uchaf and Ystrad Yw 
Isaf,' but also as Eglwys lail and Crng Hy wel,* from two well- 
known places within them ; well known, that is to say, at the time, 
for the site of Eglwys lail has not been satisfactorily determined.^ 
Henceforth, there is a disposition to limit the name Ystrad Yw to 
the western division, which was held of the lord of Brecknock by 
Picard and his descendants* ; but the name Llanbedr Ystrad Yw, 
and the inclusion by the Liher Landavends in **Istratyu," not only 
of " lannpetyr," but also of " merthir issiu,*' t.e., Partrishow (p. 279), 
leaves no doubt as to the extent of the original district. 

The key to the name is to be found, I believe, in that of a farm, 
situated about half a mile south of Bwlch, on the main road from 
Breeon to Crickhowel. In the new 1-in. Ordnance Map (Sheet 214) 
it appears as Llygadwy ; but Theophilus Jones, in a passing 
reference (p. 417), calls it Llygadyw, and on the occasion of our 
Association's visit to the district in August last, I ascertained, by a 
wayside enquiry, that the local pronunciation is Llygad Yw. The 
information was all the more valuable in that it was followed by a 
little amateur etymology, connecting the name with " ywen, a 

^ Janes, BrewnMrt, p. 382. 

' These parishes also form the joint manor of Tretower and Crickhowel 
(Appendix M to Report of Welsh Land Commission). 

* Peoiarth MS. 147, as printed in voL i, Pt. ii, of Mr. Gwenogvryn Evans's 
Report on MSS. in the Welsh Language. 

* See the lists of cantrefs and commotes in the Myvyrian Archaiology, The JRed 
Book ofHergett (ed. Evans, vol. ii, p. 410); Hengwrt MS. 34 (C^mwrorfor, vol. ix, 
p. 330) ; and Leland's Itinerary (v. 19). 

* Jones (BreconshirCf p. 424) says that the brook which flows past Llangynidr 
Church is called lail, and he fixes Eglwys lail accordingly here. But in 
Peniarth MS. 147 (RepoH, p. 918) " Llan Fair a Chynydr" and ** Eglwys lail" are 
aeparately mentioned ; and this appears to be also the case in the *' Taxatio" of 
Pope Nicholas, though " Sco Kened" may possibly be Aberysgir. 

* Picard was one of the original donors to Brecon Priory ; see the charter of 
1104 to 1106 in Archaologia Cambrenne, 4th Ser., vol. xiv, pp. 142, 148. A 
charter of his grandson, John Picard (ibid,, p. 168), shows that the gitt was of 
Und and tithes in " StradewL" 


yew tree, and tlias satisfying me that there had been no attempt to 
alter it to its present form in the interests of a oonneotion with 
Ystrad Tw. Now, at LijgsA Yw a little stream takes its rise, 
whioh flows east for abont two miles over level ooantry, and finally 
faUs into the Bhiangoll, in a tme ^' strath*' or " ystrad,** close to the 
castle and village of Tretower. Its name is given by Theophilos 
Jones as '* Ewyn" (pp. 416, 417), which looks like an attempt to 
improve npon " Yw," and at any rate requires confirmation before 
it can be accepted as the ancient name of the streamlet. My infor- 
mant could not give me any distinctive name of the brook : a kind of 
ignorance which, unhappily for antiquaries, is not uncommon. 

The use of " llygad" (eye) to denote the source of a stream is by 
by no means uncommon. The Rheidol takes its rise in Llyn Llygad 
Rheidol, beneath the crags of Plynlimmon. " Licat arganhell*' 
appears in the Liber Landavensis (p. 173), "arganhell" being shown 
by another passage (p. 75) to be the name of a stream. In the 
Mirdbilia of Nennius (p. 217 of Mommsen's edition), rererence is 
made to " fontem qui cognominatur Licat Anir," and as the place is 
said to be in " Ercing" (Archenfield), and the texts seem to allow 
us to read " Amir," we have probably to do with the source of the 
Ghimber (" Gamber Head" in modern maps), which is often " Amir" 
in the Idber Landaventis, Llygad Yw itself is mentioned, though 
not by that name, in a document drawn up in 1234, included in the 
Cartulary of Brecon Priory, and printed in Archcsologia Camhrensis, 
4th Ser., vol. xiii, p. 283. The situation of the land of Bernard 
Fychan is indicated, and mention is made of a brook which *' descend- 
it A/onte iuht^is BogfUek versus villam de Straddewy." This brook 
can be none other than the Yw or Ewyn, for " Boghlek," or to give 
the better form found on p. 285, "Bochelet," is Buckland, first 
found in the Liber LandavensU (pp. 42, 134) in the name '* Llech 

Thus the original Ystrad Yw is the little vale in which stands the 
Boman fort of Y Guer, and which merges into that of the Rhiangoll 
at Tretower. It will thus seem quite natural that Llanfihang«l 
Cwm Du should figure in the " Taxatio" of Pope Nicholas (p. 273) as 
" eoclesia de Stratden** ( = Stratdeu), and that Tretower should in 
the older records be " villa Stradewi."^ But whether the Welsh 
lords of the district had a fortress at Tretower itself, bearing the 
name Ystrad Yw, or whether their home was in a different quarter 
of the valley, must be left for the present an open question. 

^ The west gate of Tretower waa known as Forth Bychlyd : see a charter ci. 
Roger Pichard the second in ArchcBologia GambrensiSy 4th Ser., voL xiv, p. 221 — 
** quamdam partem terre mee apud Stretdewi iuxta portam oocidentalem qne 
dicitur Porto Boket,'* - 

* The charters in the Brecon cartulary invariably have this parasitic t at the 
end of the name, but no inference need be drawn from this, save that nen- Welsh 
clerks, having once got hold of a Welsh name by the wrong end, were, as in the 
classical instance of " Gannoc" for Degannwy, exceedingly slow to give up their 

J. B. liLOTD. 

'^vthudU^h Cambrtnats. 


APRIL, 1903. 



{Reprinted by permission from the " MorUgwneryshire Collections,^^) 

One of the duties of an archdeacon being to inspect 
periodically the fabrics and the furniture of the churches 
and their records, I have, in the course of my visits, 
met with many beautiful remains of screens and rood- 
lofts, and witn occasional notices of the removal of 
others. As some of them are marvels of skill in design 
and execution, and yet their history is little known, it 
will not be uninteresting to recall briefly their purpose 
and history, and to place on permanent record some 
account of those at least within the county. 

Their Origin. — In the ordinary division of our parish 
churches into nave and chancel, we are reminded that 
the chancel derives its name from the Cancel! i, lattices 
or balusters, that marked off* the portion where the 
divine offices were celebrated from the body of the 
church where the people joined in the worship. For 
the first three centuries, indeed, of the Christian era, we 
find no record of any such partition ; but if we may 
argue from analogy, it is most probable that something 
of the kind did exist. For, just as the great festivals 

6th aiB., VOL. m. 7 


and the sacraments of the Christian Church were the 
evangelical development of those of the Jewish Church, 
so it is most likely that in the arrangement of the 
fabric, the divine pattern followed in the Tabernacle 
and the Temple would influence that of the Ecclesia. 
And we do find, as a matter of fact, that from the 
early part of the fourth century, that is, " after the 
time of Constantino, tapestry, a veil, curtain, or balus- 
trade, like an altar-rail, was employed, like the modem 
Greek * iconostasis,' as a screen to mark the division."^ 
These screens, mentioned by St Augustine, St. Gregory 
Nazianzen,Theodoret, Sozomen, Synesius, St German us, 
St Paulinus, St. Gregory of Tours, and the Council of 
Chalcedon, had three doors ; one facing the altar, a 
second fronting the Gospel side, and a third the Epistle 
side. Before them veils were dropped at the consecra- 
tion. In their construction more substantial and 
permanent materials were early employed. The screen 
of the Apostles at Constantinople was a lattice of gilt 
brass ; that of Tyre, erected by Paulinus, of carved 
wood ; and one of stone, c. 340, remains at Tepekerman. 
In England, the earliest form appears to have been 
that, not of screen work, but of curtains drawn across 
the narrow chancel arch of our pre-Norman (and early 
Norman) churches, and is alluded to in an early Anglo- 
Saxon Pontifical as " Extenso velo inter eos et popu- 
lum ;'* and, later on, by Durandus in the thirteenth 
century : " interponatur velum aut murus inter clerum 
et populum."* 

The earliest wooden screen work known to Mr. 
Bloxam in this country is a loft in the Norman church 
of St. Nicholas, at Compton, in Surrey ; and almost 
the only one of the thirteenth century he had met with 
was at Thurcaston, in Leicestershire. Specimens of 
screen work of the fourteenth century are more 
numerous, but still rare, while those of the fifteenth 
and early sixteenth centuries are frequent 

^ Walcot.t's Sacred Arclupology. 

^ Bloxaoi, Gothic Ecclesiastical Architecture, vol. ii, p. 35. 


Form. — They occur under several forms : earliest as 
simple screens ; later, but still early, as rood screens, 
that is, screens with a figure of our Lord on the Cross 
and the Virgin Mother and St. John on either side. 
Sometimes ttiey have a lofb above them, upon which 
was also a rood : and occasionally the rood was placed on 
a beam, more or less carved, and extending across the 
nave at the chancel arch. 

In Wales, we have mention of roods as early as 
A.D. 935, when in the Dimetian Code of the Laws of 
Howel Dda it was enacted that " one of the three places 
where a person is not to give the oath of an absolver, 
is at the church door ;^ for the * Pater is there to be 
chanted before the rood" (canys canu y Pader adyly 
[dyn] yna roc bron y groc). Although comparatively 
few now remain in our churches, it is evident that they 
were at one time general. Small windows high up in 
the church wall, which lighted them, corbels on wnich 
their beams rested, the remains of the stair and the 
doorway by which they were approached, and occa- 
sionally fragments of the screen itself, attest their 
former existence. 

Use. — It will be asked what was their use and pur- 
pose : were they simply ornamental, or had they a ritual 
and liturgical use ? At first they appear to have been 
simply a low partition to divide the nave from the choir 
or cmancel. The next stage was the introduction of a 
beam above it, extending across the arch and supported 
by a row of columns. Then followed the graidual 
elaboration of these several parts. A simple cross 
placed over the centre gave prominence to the prime 
doctrine of the Atonement and its bearing on the 
Christian life. " God forbid that I should glory save 
in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which 
(or whom) the world hath been crucified unto me and 
I unto the worW (Gal. vi, 14). Between the support- 
ing pillars a little tracery was introduced. Then came 

1 Bj the chnrob door appears to be meant here the screen door 
from the nave into the chancel. 



the transition from the symbolic to the realistic, and 
the substitution of the Crucifix for the Cross. " For I 
determined not to know anything among you, save 
Jesus Christ and Him crucified" (I Cor. ii, 2). The 
awe and reverence which the-, sacred Figure called 
forth in those " before whose eyes Jesus Christ was 
opeply set forth crucified" (Gal. iii, 1), expressed itself 
in the more elaborate ornamentation of |dl the. sur* 
roundings, and the figures of St. John and the Mother 
were added on either side. The prominent position 
thus given to the Virgin Mother and St. John must 
have tended greatly to promote the cultus of Hagio- 
logy, which spread so rapidly }n the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries. And when the rood screen came 
to be enlarged into a rood loft, the crocketed niches 
were filled with statuettes, and the panels sometimes 
painted with pictures of the saints. 

The Epistles and Gospels, which were read at first 
from **Ambons," raised desks or pulpits, and after- 
wards from the screen, were now read from the rood 
loft, as also wer^ certain public notices, as Letters of 
Communion, Bishops' Pastorals, the proclamation of 
Treaties and Actsof Couticils. From it, too, penitents 
were absolved, the benediction of the bishop was pro- 
nounced, and elect abbots were presented to the 
people. Sometimes the lofts contained an altar ; more 
often altars were placed under them at the west side, 
and were thence called " rood altars."* In later 
times they were used as organ lofts and singing 
galleries. . 

Being used for so many purposes, and occupying so 

■ . ■, ; • 

1 '^Besides the altars at Petercbnrch (in Herefordshire), tbe only 
rood-loft altars I have met with yet existing in this coi^ntry are 
two beneath the rood loft in the little church of Patricio, near 
Crickhowel, South Wales : one placed on each side of the entrance 
into the chancel, westward, and against the screen supporting the 
rood loft. Both of these altars are of plain masonry, with the 
usual thick, projecting, covering slabs and altar-stones, each marked 
with the five crosses, and the under part of each chamfered.'* 
(Bloxam, vol. ii, p. 140). 


important a position, they were richly ornamented. 
The vaulting, which curved out from the traceried 
screen and projected on either side, was ornamented 
with elaborate designs ; the sides of the loft were 
pierced with graceful open tracery ; the junction of the 
panels was set off with delicate icanopy work, and the 
horizontal bands were enriched with beautiful vine, 
oak, and other patterns ; and the whole was in some 
cases adorned with, rich colouring in vermilion, blue, 
and gold. The images themselves were enriched with 
gold and jewels. Thus Gruffydd ap Meredydd ap 
Dafydd says of the famous Rood of Chester : — 

*' Llun ei oren mab llawn aar a main.^" 

When we think of the havoc and destruction with 
which they were visited by the Reformers and their 
successors, we cannot but ask why they were so 
grievously maltreated, and what could have led to the 
determined and wholesale ruin that overtook such 
beautiful specimens of ecclesiastical art, such marvels 
of delicate design and workmanship, as made them the 
chiefest ornaments of our Pre- Reformation Churches. 
The answer must be, the abuses which sometimes ac- 
companied them. And when it was determined to do 
away with the abuse, small consideration was given to 
distinctions and exceptions, " De minimis non curat 
lex." The desire to instruct an ignorant and impression- 
able people through"ur*-eye, for everywhere ** Segnius 
irritant animos demi^sa per aures, Quam qusa sunt oculis 
subjecta fidelibus,'' led to the introduction of devices 
and tricks, by means of which, as in miracle plays and 
puppet shows, a greater realism was produced, and 
deeper emotions excited of pity, awe, and devotion. 
Mr. Walcott quotes the statement that *' many super- 
stitions were connected with Roods * with rolling eyes 
and sweating brows, with speaking mouth and walking 

1 Myv, Arch,, p. 308. 
^ Sacred Archceology. 


The abuses laid against them, though often interested 
and exaggerated, were no mere invention ; and their 
influence on the unreasoning popular mind was great. 
The miraculous image of the Virgin at Penrys, in 
Glamorganshire, is thus described by contemporary 
poets, and it is hard to imagine greater credulity : — 

** Delw Veir nid dilaynrach 
Na Mair o'r nef am roi'n iach." 

RisiART AP Rts 1480—1520. 

** Mae nawnef mewn nn ynjs 
Mae hjn o rad jm henn Kjs 
Mae djDion jrma dynnir 
Mair o'th wyrth hyd mor a thir 
Yna i daethost veadith fawr 
I*r He hwn o'r nef i'r llawr 
Dj ddelw bob dydd a welynt 
Yn yyw' a gad o nef gy^t-^** 

Lewts Morganwq. 

" O daw lief y dall y vydd 
E wyl y dall olau dydd 
O daw angall an dynged 
E ddaw gras iddaw oi gred 
O daw byddar at arall 
E glyw lief o glwyf y llal 
Vae glaf ar vaglau ovwy 
O gor Mair ny ddygir mwy 
Ych delw i iachan dolnr 
Chwi a iachewch dolor a char." 


And in the same spirit. Gruff, ap Mered. ap Dafydd, 
in his poem " I'r Grog o Gaer " (The Rood of Chester), 
already quoted, after praising " Delw fyw f Arglwydd 
eurlliw," declares : 

'* I ddelw unmab Mair ydd addolaf 
O ddilys araith gwaith gwerthforaf." 

The Nemesis came at last, though not all at once. 
In 1 Edward VI (1547), by the Kings injunctions, all 
images which had been, or were, abused with pilgrimage 

1 The Day of " Y Ddelw fyw" was September 9th. 


or offerings ot fifcnything* made thereunto were ordered 
to be taken down and destroyed ; by ecclesiastical 
authority, however, and not ** by that of any private 
person/' (Bloxam, vol. iii, p. 90). On the 1 7th November 
that year, " at nyghte was puUyd downe the Rode in 
Powlles with Mary and John, with all the images in 
the churche. Item also, at that same tyme was pullyd 
downe throrrow alle the Kynges domynion in every 
churche alle Roddes (Roods) with alle images and every 
precher preched in their sermons agayne alle images." 
(Ibid). From that time forth Archbishops and Bishops 
in their visitations made inquiries whether the Act 
had been carried out. Thus in 1576, Archbishop 
Grindal enquired " Whether your roodlofts be taken 
down and altered, so that the upper part thereof with 
the soller or loft be quite taken down unto the cross 
beam, and that the said beam have some convenient 
crest put upon the same." A lingering affection, 
however, ^till clung to them for their beauty and their 
ancient use ; and not a few have survived to our own 
day, and many more would have remained had it not 
been for, the vandalism, indifference, and utilitarianism 
of later generations. Of many of them we find still 
some fragments, even in our restored churches, and of 
the destruction of others we have written memoranda. 
Thus, to take the Archdeaconry of Montgomery alone, 
we have in Cedewain Deanery not only the beautiful 
remains of the Newtown Screen (of which presently), 
but also fragments found on the wall-plate at Kerry, 
from which the new screen in that church has been 
reconstructed. At Llanmerewig, a portion of the old 
screen remained in situ, and other portions were re- 
produced by the Rev. John Parker (Vicar 1827-44) 
in the altar-rails, in the pulpit and desk, and in the 
front of the gallery ; and tnese have been reconstructed 
in the restored screen. At Llandyssil, so late as 
17.98 — 1802, " the parishioners removed the old rood- 
loffc." ; 

In Pool Deanery, at Buttington, the rood beam and 


isome remains of the screen are left. At Guilsfield, al- 
though the old rood-loft is gone, there still remains the 
doorway and the staircase tibat led up to it, as well as 
some of the tracery of the side screens ; but at Welshpool, 
a petition to the Bishop for its removal (1 728-38) alleged 
that *' a great number of the very common sorte of 
people sit in it (under pretence of psalm singing), who 
run up and down there ; some of them spitting upon 
people's heads below." 

In Caereinion Deanery, a beautiful screen still stands 
in its place at Llangynyw; and at Llanllugan the rood- 
beam remains ; but at Manafon and Meifod fragments 
only survive. At Llanerfvl, the minutes of Vestry 
inform us that on the 15th July, 1675, the rood-loft 
was ordered to be taken down, except the door under 
it, which was to be left to make a distinction betwixt 
the nave and chancel, and that with the timber, seats 
by way of a gallery were to be erected below the font. 
A fragment of it, presented by the Rev. J. Mc'Intosh, 
Rector, may be seen in the Powysland Museum. A 
richly-carved shrine, however, has escaped destruction. 
In Llanfyllin Deanery, in the old church of Llan- 
fihangel, there were portions of a screen of very 
graceful character. At Pennant Melangell, affixed to 
the front of the west gallery, are considerable remains, 
representing the legend of St. Melangell and the hare. 
At Llanrhaiadr the Rural Dean, in 1791, ^'ordered that 
y** old cancelli be removed \' but some portion was pre- 
served on the ends of two benches in the chancel, and 
'* the footframe is still in the floor, and marks, where it 
was inserted *in the walls, are still to be seen on both 
sides. Fragments of its carved portions, corresponding 
in style and workmanship with that at Pennant 
Melangell, are still to be found forming supports under 
the benches" {Mont. Coll., 1872, p. 307). At Llan- 
gedwyn, the Rural Dean reported in 1749 that the 
rood-loft had been converted into a gallery for Sir W. 
Williams' family, who had a seat adjoining to the 
chapel. At Llanwddyn, some bands of carv^ foliage 


that formed the cornice of the rood-loft in the old 
church, and some of the bosses from its undervaulting, 
are fixed in front of the choir stalls in the new church. 
In the adjoining deanery of Oswestry, within our 
Powysland, though not in Montgomeryshire, a finely 
wrought screen has survived at Llanyblodwel. At 
Whittington, in 1753, the loft was transformed into 
a pewed gallery, the entrance being by an external 
staircase. At Selattyn, in 1751, it was "ordered 
that the cancelli between the church and chancel 
should be taken away," and the only relic was a 
small band of the tracery on one of the supporting 
beams of the gallery, now preserved in the restored 

Returning to the churches of Montgomeryshire, but 
outside the diocese of St. Asaph, we find in the adjoin- 
ing deanery of Arwystli, and diocese of Bangor, the 
very fine rood-loft at Llanwnog, which has escaped the 
fate of the one at Llangurig, which was taken down 
and appropriated piecemeal during some repairs in 1836, 
but had fortunately been sketched and described by 
the Rev. John Parker some eight years before ; and 
that at Llanidloes with its exquisite tracery, which was 
taken down in 1816, and no trace of it left. 

In the deanery of Cyfeiliog, we find at Cemmaes, 
over the altar, a band of beautifully carved vine-leaf 
cornice ; at Llanbrynmair, now on the pulpit " a frag- 
ment of somewhat rude carving, probably from an 
ancient rood-screen'* {Mont. Colly vol. xix, p. 308), and 
at Llanwrin the screen itself, with ogee cinquefoiled 
tracery in the compartments. 

The fine rood-loft and screen at Montgomery, in 
the neighbouring diocese of Hereford, have happily 
survived the gauntlet of the past ; and at Trelystan, in 
the same diocese, a portion of the arcading with its 
tracery remains. 

At Uananno, just across the border in Radnorshire, 
is a beautiful rood-loft, which has been described and 
figured in the Arch. Camb., 4th Ser., vol. v, p. 45. 


The Rev. John Parker's drawings include other neigh- 
bouring screens, at Llanbadarn Fjnjdd, Bugeildy, and 
Bettws, near Clun. 

It will be both appropriate and interesting here to 
quote the statement of the late Mr. Matthew H. 
^oloxam with regard to rood-loft images, and to give 
his description at large, especially as it relates to this 
diocese, though not to this county : — 

" Of the rood-loft images, out of the general destruction by 
authority in the reigns of Edward VI and Elizabeth, I know of 
one set only that has escaped. This is in the little church of 

Carved Wooden Paoel from Rood Loft in Bettwn Owerfyl Goch Church. 

Bettws Gwerfyl Goch, near Corwen (diocese of St. Asaph), where 
ihe image of the Crucifix of St. Mary and St. John, rudely carved 
on a wooden panel in low relief, and formerly affixed to or in 
front of the rood-loft, are still preserved and placed as a reredos 
over the holy table. The panel, 4 ft 3 ins. wide by 2 ft 3 ins. 
in height, is divided into five compartments, each from 7 J ins. to 
8 ins. wide. The central compartment contains a rude re- 
presentation, in low relief, of the Crucifix, the figure of which is 
very indistinct ; on the sides of the head of the cross are the 
words * Ecce Homo ;' on the compailraent on the one side next 
to the Crucifix, rudely carved in low relief, is tlie figure of the 
Blessed Virgin, in a veiled head-dress, a nimbus over the head, 
and the hands folded on the breast ; by her side, in the outward 
compartment, are represented the pincers, thorns, and nails. 
In the compartment on the other side of the Crucifix, St. John 
is represented holding his right hand to his head, and in th^ 


compartment beyond this are carved the hatnmer, the reed, with 
hyssop, like a club and spear. The whole is a specimen of very 
rude carved work of the fifteenth, or early part of the sixteenth, 
century"^ (voL ii, p. 42). 

If this panel was ever placed above the screen, it 
was a very an usual form of the rood, the figures of 
which stood out clear to the eye, the figure of the 

Carred Images of the Bleased Virgin and Our Lord from Mochdre Church. 
{Photograph by Mr, Jones,) 

Saviour on the Cross being also on a larger scale than 

^ A cbaracieristic distinction between screen work of an earlier 
date than the Gfteenth centary and screen work of that period, will 
he fonnd to consist in the slender cjlindrical shafts (often aunnlated) 
with monlded bases, and capitals which pertain to the early work of 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centnries, with the mallion-like and 
angular edged bars, often faced with small bat tresses, which form 
the principal vertical divisions in that of the fifteenth centary 
{Ibid., 1, 260). 


the others ; and if, on the other hand, it was affixed to 
the screen, it was a very uncommon position for it. 

There are, however, in the Powysland Museum two 
figures, the one of Our Lord, and the other of the 
Virgin Mother, from Mochdre Church, presented by a 
former vicar, F. W. Parker (1863-1870), which were 
undoubtedly parts of the rood, and stood upon the 
screen ; the third figure, St. John, is missing. We do 
not know when they were removed from their proper 
position ; but perhaps it was in 1789, when the vestry 
"Agreed to build a new gallery from the singing 
gallery across the church, to join the old gallery; 
perhaps earlier. At all events, they had be^n stowed 
away on the top of the wall-plate, and found there 
during the restoration of the church in 1867. The 
Cross to which the figure of Our Lord was attached is 
gone, and the figure itself ip somewhat mutilated and 
decayed. The height of the figure is 19 ins. ; the 
arms and feet are gone. The head, with its crown of 
thorns, is bent forward ; the hair full, the brow deeply 
furrowed, and an expression of pain rests upon the face. 
The carving is roughly executed, but the general effect 
is expressive and sad. The figure of the Virgin is 1 ft. 
3^ ins. high, and stands on a pedestal Ij ins. She 
is represented in a long flowing robe, with a long veil 
falling down her back, and at cloak gathered round the 
shoulders. She appears to have worn a crown, but 
the wood is much worm-eaten and decayed, and the 
hands and nose are gone. The whole shows remains of 
colouring in white, gold, and vermilion. 

Having now traced the general history of these 
gems of ecclesiastical art, and seen the vicissitudes and 
perils to which they have been subjected, we are in a 
better position to appreciate their value, and, I hope, 
will be more keen to admire the beauty of their design 
and the extreme delicacy of their workmanship. We 
in this neighbourhood are fortunate in having preserved 
to us some excellent specimens, such as those of 
Montgomery, Llanwnog, Newtown, Llangynyw, and 


Pennant Melangell ; and I propose now to treat of 
them individually and in detail. And it may be as 
well to say at the outset that of the two faces of the 
rood-lofty the one looking east towards the altar is, as 
a rule, more elaborate than the one facing the nave ; 
and to add that the geqeral tradition of their transfer 
from some dissolved monastic church is not borne out 
by their own story (except in that of Montgomery); 
nor is it likely that they who destroyed them in the 
one place, would go to the great cost of transferring 
them to another church. The true solution would 
appear to be that the skilled artists who produced 
them were members, conversi or lay brethren, of some 
neighbouring abbey, such as Strata Marcella, Cwm 
Hir, or Strata Florida, and that in that sense they may 
have come from thence. 


The earliest reference I have found to this rood-loft 
is a brief record in the Rev. Walter Davies's " History 
of the Parish," which appeared first in the Cambrian 
Quarterly Magazine, 1829 (and was reprinted in vol. iii 
oiGwaith Gwallter Mechain, 1868), which states that 
"the church contains an ancient relic in a most 
exquisitely carved rood-loft" (p. 76). In 1830, the 
Rev. John Parker, then vicar of Llanmerewig, visited 
the church and made a most careful and artistic draw- 
ing of this rood-loft and its details, as well as of the 
painted glass figure of St. Gwynog ; which drawings, 
through the courtesy of Mr. Stanley Leighton, his 
nephew, -were reproduced, by photo-lithography, to 
illustrate Mr. D. Walker's account in the Collections 
for 1871. The present illustrations are from excellent 
photographs by Mr. John Owen, of Newtown. 

Lewis's Topographical Dictionary, 1833, gives a 
somewhat fuller note : — 

"The church .... contain^ some beautiful specimens of 
ancient sculpture: the screen and rood-loft are exquisitely 
carved,. and in a state of excellent preservation; the chancel 


window is embellished with stained glass, in which the Patron 
Saint is represented in episcopal vestments, with a mitre on 
bis head and a crosier in his hand, and underneath the figure 
is the inscription, ' Sanctus Gwyuocus cujus animse propitietur 
I)eu3. Amen,'" 

This glass, which has been removed from the east 
window to one on the rood-loft stair^ in the north 
Wall, is not described quite accurately. The name is 


Rood Screen and Loft in Ll&nwnog Church : West Side. 
{Photograph by] Mr. J. Owen,) 

not given in the nominative but in the vocative case : 
''See (Sancte) Gwinnoc (e),"and the invocation, "cujus 
animsB propitietur Deus'* must have belonged to some 
other figure, now lost. The figure of the Saint stands 
within a crocketed canopy of tabernacle work ; and he 
is vested in an alb, over which is a stole with fringed 
orphrey, a chasuble and cope. The head is encircled 
with an aureole, the right tiand is raised in blessing, 

^ The steps are formed of rade sqaare blocks of wood. 


and the left holds a pastoral staff, richly ornamented, 
and with the crook turned inwards. 

Sir Stephen Glynne,^ who visited the church in 
1855, mentioned as "its great feature the fine rood-loft 
in fair condition, of Late Perpendicular character, with 
much panelling and open work to the rood-loft itself;" 
adding that it "somewhat resembled that at Llananno, 
in Radnorshire ;" and again in 1866, after the partial 
restoration of the church, he added that "the rood-loft 
and screen remain complete, though rather rickety. 
The loft has the usual vine-leaf cornices with Tudor 
flower, and has panelling, alternately plain and sculp- 
tured ; below the loft is open tracery, and the qudsi 
roof with ribs and bosses, the latter have letters. The 
overlapping cornice is supported on wood posts ; in the 
centre is the door with pierced spandrels. The west 
side is the richest, but the east has also panelling.*' 

Still later, in 1871, Mr. David Walker, of Liverpool, 
contributed to the fourth volume of the Montgomery- 
shire Collections an elaborate account, with illustrations, 
from which I make the following extract : — 

" The position of the screen, which extends the entire width 
of the nave, is at the distance of about one-third the length of 
the church, from the east end, and is placed so as effectually 
to mark the line of demarcation between the nave and the 
chancel ; a rude stair, formed within the thickness of the north 
wall, on the west side of the screen, leads to the rood-loft, 
formerly occupied by the choir, the internal dimensions of 
which are 24 ft. by 7 ft. wide. 

" The eastern face indicates an entirely different treatment in 
several details to the other face ; for instance, the front of the 
loft is spaced for panels of a different degree of richness and 
character to those on the west front, and the details of the 
cornices generally are dissimilar, although all have undoubtedly 
been executed by the same hand, with the exception of the 
panels on the west front of the rood-loft, which are an unfor- 
tunate modem innovation, without an approach to the style 
of the old work. Admirable in treatment and spirited in 
execution as this rood-screen undoubtedly is, its denuded 

' Notes OTj Old Ghnrcbes {Arch. Camh.y 6th Ser., vol. i, p. 145). 











state leads one to feel regret that those who were responsible 
for its preservation in time past should have so far forsaken 
their trust as to huve allowed much of the very beautiful 
detail that adorned it to be removed, leaving what was once 
rich and varied in outline now little else than skeleton framing. 
. . , Owing, in all pri:ji>abiUty, to a constructional defect in the 
suuth wall of the navo, the effect of the screen on the west 
front is somewhat marred by a deflection in the longitudinal 

** By comparing the details of Llanwnog Screen with those of 
the Newtown Screen, it will at once be observed what a strong 
resemblance they bear to each other. The treatment of the 
foliage and enriched i>ortions generally is unquestionably the 
work of the same craftsman, and too much cannot be said in 
pmise of the singularly conscientious style in which the work 
has been executed ; tiie thoroughgoing crispness and vitality 
given to multitudinous complex geometric forms, combined 
with perfectly harnioniotis treatment, render these screens of 
paramount excellence. What, for instance, can excel the 
cornices from the Newtown Screen, or the openwork ornament 
which ori^^inRlly must have crowned the rood-loft ? The 
delicacy with which tliey are carved is no less striking than 
the skill in which the requisite light and shade are maintained." 

If, however, the treatment of the foliage and enriched 
portions generally is unquestionably the work of the 
same craftsman us the Newtown Screen, as Mr. 
Walker mentlonR, then the presence here of the Tudor 
flower and the rose, and the perpendicular openings on 
the eastern face of this loft, show conclusively that the 
Newtown Screen could not be of the early date to 
which he assigns It. The width of the rood-loft is 
HiXt not seven, feet, and the flooring is altogether gone, 
and shows the tracery and ribs of the vaulted panelling 
beneath. The bosses at the intersections of this panel- 
ling are formed, some of foliage and some of letters, 
most of which appear to be repetitions of I.H.S. ; M. 
(? Maria); and W, 

Two semi'dragons are carved on the lowest band of 
tnwery, one holding in its mouth the stem of a vine 
branch, the other bending its head on its breast. The 
panels of the undervaulting are in two patterns : the 

6th ssb., tol. iil S 


upper consisting of a number of foliated circles, the 
lower of a network of vesicas relieved with inner cusps. 


This rood-loft stood in the old charch until the 
church was taken down in 1856, and it extended 
across both the nave and the aisle. The Terrier of 
1791 describes it as the " partition between the church 
and chancel, faced with various old carved work 
in wood, painted and guilt {sic)y said to have been 
brought from the Monastery of Abbey Cwmhir, in 
Radnorshire, at its dissolution." 

The Rev. John Parker, c. 1830, made some beautiful 
drawings of its exquisite details, but unfortunately 
did not make a sketch of the whole as it then stood — 
as he did in so many other cases —so that we cannot 
tell exactly what it looked like. But, happily, Mr. W. 
Basil Jones^ saw it in position, and thus described it in 
the ArchcBologia Camhrenns, 1854, 2nd Sen, vol. v. : — 

" This is an extremely elaborate specimen of its class, rich with 
carving and with gold and colour. It runs across both nave 
and aisle, and is divided into two compartments by one of the 
wooden piers. The projecting arched canopy, which formed 
the rood-loft, is not so divided, but forms a single piece. It is 
now set upright on the top of the screen, and the open parapet, 
which originally surmounted it, is now fixed behind and 
concealed by it. The whole is of the Latest Perpendicular, but 
bears no marks of cinquecento." 

From this it is evident that the loft had been 
previously tampered with, and its form altered ; and 
when it was removed from the old to the new church, 
further mutilation took place. The lower portion below 
the open arcade has disappeared altogether; and in 
order to fit it in as a reredos and sort of dado on the 
three walls of the small apsidal chancel in the new 
church, the supporting pillars were shortened, so that it 
should not interfere with the east window, and the 

1 Afterwards Bishop of St. David's, 1874-1897. 


central opening widened, so as to enclose the Holy 
Table. The record of its removal was inscribed on a 
brass plate attached to it in its new position '} — " This 
screen was removed from the old Parish Church, and 
restored, and put up in its present form, at the expense 
and under the direction of the Rev. J. P. Drew, of 
Milford, by the skill and labour of John Jones, Carver, 
Parker's Lane, in the year of our Lord, 1856. John 
Edwards, M.A., Rector; J. P. Drew, W. A. Cooper, 
Churchwardens." In this position it stood in 1870, 

Portion of Carved Rood Screen formerly in Newtown Church. 
{Drawn by Rev, John Parker, Photograph by Mr. T. Pryce.) 

when Mr. David Walker, Architect, of Liverpool, made 
a careful drawing and description of it for the Mont- 
ffomeryshire Collections of that year : — 

" The length of the screen, as now fixed, is 32 ft. 4 ins., 
being about ten feet less than when in its original position across 
the nave (and aisle) of the old church. The moulded supports 
under the lower cornice have also been reduced almost four 
feet in height. The upper portions remain unaltered. The 
carving and panels are in an excellent state of preservation ; 

^ Nothing is now known of this plate. 

b - 


and, although dark with age, still bear the tool-marks as fresh 
as when cut. The enriched and interlaced cornices have traces 
of colour — vermilion and gold — with which it was at one time 
decorated, the effect of which, when standing as a rood, most 
have been considerably heightened by the light through the 
perforations of the exceedingly rich and varied panelling. The 
cornices are carved in a remarkably free and characteristic 
manner; the top cornice represents a conventional treatment 
of the leek, the middle cornice the vine, and the lower entwined 
palm leaves ; the execution of the work is such that deep relief 
is obtained, whilst the tendrils and stems are delicate and well 
under-cut. The variety of the panels is very curious, some of 
the designs being particularly quaint and very few alike ; the 
hand of the artist is apparent in every line, and it is gratifying 
to find that so excellent and interesting a monumental remain 
has escaped mutilation ; the date of the work is evidently that 
of the first half of the fourteenth century."^ 

This date differs by more than a hundred years from 
that of Mr. Basil Jones, and, of course, involves a much 
earlier style ; but we ourselves, judging from some 
features of the design, and from evidence supplied by 
comparison with Llanwnog, think that Mr. Basil Jones 
was right ; and we rather wonder at Mr. Walker s 
satisfaction with the non-mutilation — unless, of course, 
he meant it by contrast with what might have been. 

When, in 1875, the small apse was, in its turn, taken 
down to make way for the present chancel, the rood- 
loft was once more removed, and this time the uprights 
disappeared ; and it has not been replaced. It now 
lies in the cellars at the rectory, where all that can be 
said for it is that it is in safe keeping from wind and 
weather. Mr. Fish bourne, when rector, had some hope 
of replacing what was missing, and putting it up again 
in the church ; and a meeting of the parishioners was 
held to consider the matter, when it was decided to 
obtain the opinion of Mr. Kempson, Architect, of 
Llandaff and Hereford, the designer of the beautiful 
new reredos at Berriew. Mr. Fishbourne, however, was 
himself removed soon afterwards to Gresford, and the 

1 Mont. Coll., 1870, vol. iii, p. 212. 


purpose remains in abeyance. But Mr. Kempson has 
prepared a plan for its restoration, the cost of which 
is said to be £600. What an opportunity for a memorial, . 
that would at the same time beautify the church and 
perpetuate the munificence of the restorer ! 


This is curious, as it combines two screens with the 
rood-loft : one on the west side facing the nave, 
with five open arcades on each side of the doorway, 
and on the east side another screen, with four return 
miserere stalls on each side. Between the two, at 
the base, is an open space, now occupied as a ladies' 
choir, but formerly appropriated as pews. The western 
screen appears to occupy its original position, and may 
have had no loft. The spandrels of the arcade are 
all filled with tracery of the same pattern, that of 
the entrance being a little wider and more elaborate. 
The lower portion is concealed by the woodwork of 
the old pews, used as a casing, but has some orna- 
mentation of Jacobean character inside. Above it, if 
ever there existed a mooding, or curved roof of panel- 
work and tracery, it has disappeared, and the space is 
now filled with almost plain panelling. But above it, 
fonning the western face of the rood-loft, is a series of 
twenty-four canopies, ogee cinquefoiled, terminating 
in slender crocketed tinials. These are divided from 
each other by buttresses, which are carried up to the 
hollow moulding of the beam. The upper part above 
the canopies is occupied by two rows of open panels, 
the upper square - headed, the lower with pointed 
arcading. This, however, difiers in character from the 
screen below it, but corresponds with the flat canopy 
work of the stalls on the north-western wall of the 
chancel. A close inspection shows that the western 
face has been curtailed at the north end, in order to 
fit the width of the chancel, and the beam on the 
eastern side lengthened at the south end for the same 


purpose. The tradition is — and it is likely to be true — 
that this screen and its rood-loft were brought hither 
from Chirbury Priory, some time after its dissolution. 
The arcade, now open, has evidently been filled with 
boarding^ and tracery-panels, for the grooves remain, 
similar to that preserved on the north wall.^ Whether 
the western face ever stood on the east side of the loft 
or not, I cannot say ; but, in any case, one of the faces 
of the loft is missing. Of late, some plain panelled 

Rooil Screen and Loft in Montgomery Church ; West Side. 

boarding supplied its place, and an inscription on one 
of the pieces tells when and by whom it was put vip. 

BlT . BY . MO' . RECtR . J AN VARY . 1718 .» 

^ The purpose of this was to exclude draughts ; one effect of it, 
according to Darandus, was to prevent the laity in the nave joining 
with the clergy and choir in the singing. 

2 Mr. Parker, in his drawing of this side of the screen, here by 
kind permission reproduced, has replaced the tracery, to restore its 
original appearance. 

3 Maurice Owen was curate from 1670-1678, and afterwards 
rector for forty-three years ; he died in 1721. 


On either side ot the entrance were winofs with 


a 5 

o ♦ 

.3 I*. 



panels of open Tudor tracery ; some of which have 
been worked into the front of the new choir-benches. 
The thick coating of pale drab paint which encases the 


whole work eflfectually prevents seeing whether it was 
originally set off with colour. 

The rood-loft rests on a plain stone corbel on the 
south side, and is approached by a naiTOw stone stair- 
case, leading from the Pointed door in the south wall of 
the chancel, in the thickness of the wall, which, how- 
ever, projects slightly on the outside. 

This constructive feature appears to indicate that 
there was a rood-loft here as early as the erection of 
the chancel ; and, I take it, of earlier date than the 
western screen : but who transported the Chirbury 
Screen hither? We have no documentary evidence 
whereby to answer this question ; but the principal 
family in the parish in the latter half of the sixteenth 
and the first half of the seventeenth centuries was 
undoubtedly the Herberts, who were the Governors of 
the Castle, and it may be that George Herbert has a 
covert allusion to this in the opening stanza of his poem 
on " The Cross.'' 

'* What is this strange and nnconth thing 
To make me sigh, and seek, and faint and die, 
Until I had some place where 1 might sing, 

And serve Thee ; and not only I 
Bat all my wealth and family might combine 
To set Thy honour up, as oar design." 

In support of this it may be noted that on either 
side of the western entrance is an angel bearing a 
shield, which in the one case is blank, but in the other 
bears a sheaf of arrows — the Herbert crest. 

And it is still more likely that what he may so often 
have looked upon with reverence as a boy — on the 
rood of his parish church — may have suggested those 
other pathetic stanzas on " The Church." 

" *0 all ye who pass by, behold and see ! * 

Man stole the fraifc, but I mast climb the tree; — 
The tree of life to all, but only me. 

Was ever grief like mine t 
" Lo ! here I hang, charged with a world of sin : ' 
The greater world o' the two ; for that came in 
By words, but this by sorrow I must win. — 
Was ever grief like mine f* 


Pennant Melangell. 

Towards the end of the last century, that observant 
traveller, Thomas Pennant, records that he paid a visit 
to " the Shrine of St. Monacella, or, as the Welsh style 
her, Melangeir': — 

" Her legend relates that she was the daughter of an Irish 
monarch, who had determined to marry her to a nobleman of 
his court. The princess had vowed celibacy. She fled from 
her father's dominions and took refuge in this place, where she 
lived fifteen years without seeing the face of a man. Brochwel 
Yscythrog, Prince of Powys, being one day a hare hunting, 
pursued his game till he came to a great thicket ; when he was 
amazed to find a virgin of surpassing beauty, engaged in deep 
devotion, with the hare he had been pui*suing under her robe, 
boldly facing the dogs, who retired to a distance howling, not- 
withstanding all the efforts of the sportsmen to make them 
seize their prey. Even when the huntsman blew his horn, it 
stuck to his lips. Brochwel heard her story, and gave to God 
and her a parcel of lands, to be a sanctuary to all that fled 
there. He desired her to found an abbey on the spot. She 
did so, and died abbess at a good old age. She was buried 
in the neighbouring church, called Pennant, and from her 
distinguished by the addition of Melangell. Her hard bed 
is shown in the cleft of a neighbouring rock. Her tomb 
was in a little chapel, or oratory, adjoining to the church, 
and now used as a vestry room. This room is still called 
* Cell-y-bedd,* or the Cell of the Grave. Her reliques as well 
as her image have been long since removed ; but I think the 
last is still to be seen in the churchyard. The legend is per- 
petuated by some rude wooden carving of the Saint, with 
numbers of hares scuttling to her for protection. She properly 
became their Patroness. They were called 'Wyn Melangell' 
(St. Monacella's Lambs.)i" 

Portions of the carved stone shrine still exist in the 
wall of the church and the lych-gate. 

Her popularity is attested, not only by the Large 
offerings made at her shrine in pre-Reformation days 
(** Oblaciones ad rcliquias/' £2 I65. 8cZ.), but by many 
more recent pilgrimages to this most beautiful spot, 

1 Tour in Wales, vol. iii, p. 173 (ed. 1810). 


which has been apostrophised with its story in the 
following descriptive lines copied from Mr. Parkers 
**Book of Drawings f' — 

The Vali of Peknaht. 

'' A Vale in the heathclad hills 
Concealed in the moors of Berwjn ; 
A Yale among Celtic deserts 
In the border of Powysland ; 
A Vale of Retreat from the world, 
Yet lovely with waving bowers : 
This was thine abode, Melangell ! 
Tbj cloister, Maid of the North ! 

" A Chnrch in the secret vale, 
A secret and solemn refuge, 
Where the foe dropp'd the sword of warfare 
And remembered the fear of the Lord ; 
A tomb in the hallowed ground, 
A grave in the woodland Valley ; 
This was thy bed, O Yorwerth ! 
Thou first born of Owen Gwyneth. 

'* A stream in the highland Vale, 
A foaming and roaring torrent. 
That falls down the cavom'd rocks 
From the height of the mountain above. 
0, beaatifal Vale of Pennant ! 
This is thy Cathedral Service, 
Pi-ide of the north western Valleys, 
Hotli music and poem to thee.** 

In another tone, we find, in the Selections from the 
Letters of Robert Southey, by his son-in-law, a playful 
and amusing letter in rhyme, addressed to his little 
daughter, Edith May, on April 25th, 1820, after one 
of his many visits to his friend, the Right Hon. C. W. 
Williams- Wynn, at Llangedwyn : — 

*' I was obliged to stay | at Llangedwyn till to-day ; | though 
I wished to come away, | Wynn would make me delay | my 
departure yesterday | in order that he | and I might go and 
see I a place whereof he | once sent a drawing to me. | And 
now 1*11 tell you why | it was proper that 1 | should go thither 
to espy I the place with my own eye. | Tis a church in a vale | 


whereby hangs a tale, | how a hare being pressed | by the 
dogs and much distressed | the hunters coming nigh | and the 
dogs in full cry | look'd about for someone to defend her | and 
saw just in time | as it now comes pat in rhyme | a Saint of 
the feminine gender. And so on/' 

Again, ten years later, in a poem on the " Portrait ot 
Bishop Heber," he recounted an excursion from Llan- 
gedwyn, in which they 

" Together sought Melangel's lonely church 
Saw the dark yews, majestic in decay, 
Which in their flowering strength 

Cyfeiliog might have seen ; 
Letter by letter traced the lines 

On lorwerth's fabled tomb ; 
And curiously observed what vestiges, 

Mouldering and mutilate, 
Of Monacella's legend there are left 
A tale humane, itself 
Well nigh forgotten now." 

To the facile and skilful pen of the Rev. John Parker, 
so often already alluded to, we owe both an excellent 
drawing and the detailed description, contributed in 
1848 to the Third volume of the Archceologia Cam- 
hrensis : — 

** The original situation of this curious fragment is uncertain. 
At present, it is fixed in the front of the west gallery ; but al- 
though it is not easy to point out any place that would exactly 
suit it, I imagine it must have been a part of the western side 
of the rood-loft, or of a gallery above the screen. 

" Within the branch work of a running border, such as is 
frequent in chancel screens, and enclosed in casement mould- 
ings, the legend of St. Melangell, or Monacella, is represented. 
The cleverness and ingenuity with which the story is told, in 
spite of the trammels imposed upon the artist by the require- 
ments of the running border, are deserving of remark. The 
various figures, although carved in equally strong relief, and 
occupying equal intervals of the branch work and foliage in the 
runnia<» border, are nevertheless at five several distances in 
point of size. There is no grouping. The workmanship is 
minute, but rather grotesque ; and the different animals are all, 
more or less, out of drawing. They are painted in red and pink 


and white ; the tracery panels under them, alternately red and 
blue ; the leading members of some pale colour. The branch- 
work and the foliage are also of light colours ; but the chro- 
matic decorations are much faded, and there is not light enough 
to ascertain them. 

" I. — ^First compartment. Brochwel Yscythrog, Prince of 
Powys, on horseback ; his bridle tied on the mane of the horse ; 
both arms extended ; in his right hand a sword which he is 
brandishing. He wears long hair under a flat cap ; a close- 
fitting coat and girdle, both painted red, and sits in the high 
saddle of the Middle Ages. He is the most distant figure of 
the series. 

** II. — The second compartment is partly damaged in the 
branch-work, but the figure is entire. The huntsman, half- 
kneeling, tries in vain to remove the horn, which he was raising 
to his lips for the purpose of blowing it, when it remained fast 
and could not be sounded. 

*' III. — In the third, St. Melangell, or Monacella, is represented 
as an abbess; her right hand slightly raised; her left hand 
grasping a foliated crozier ; a veil upon her head. The figure, 
seated on a red cushion, is larger than that of Brochwel, and 
smaller than that of the huntsman. 

" IV. — A hunted hare, crouching or scuttling towards the 
figure of the Saint. The hare is painted red. 

" V. — A greyhound in pursuit ; the legs, entangled among the 
branches of the running border, can hardly be distinguished 
from them. The dog is painted of a pale colour. 

" VI. — A nondescript animal, intended, I suppose, for a dog. 
In this and the Y^ compartment the hounds are supposed to be 
further from the eye than the hare, which is the largest figure 
in the whole range. 

"One tracery panel has its gouge-work painted red; the 
gouge-work of the next is blue ; that of the next is red ; and so 
on alternately." 

The screen itself, on the rood-loft of which the above 
formed a cornice or frieze, still remains in its position 
between the chancel and the nave. It comprises four 
compartments on each side of the doorway, or entrance, 
which is just double the width of the side divisions ; 
the spandrels are filled with tracery of the same design, 
and of fourteenth-century character. 





Although Llany bled wel is not actually in the county, 
a part of it was in early times the property of the 
Lord of Pennant Melangell, who was also Lord of Bryn, 
and of Ruytdn of the Eleven Towns. There was, 
moreover, an ecclesiastical as well as a civil tie between 
the two places ; for the township of Bryn paid a portion 
of its tithes to the vicar of Pennant. This church, too, 
like Pennant, has its screen, though it has not its 
legend ; and it still remains to mark the division 
between the nave and north aisle, and their chancel 
and chantry respectively. Along the western face of 
the beam runs a band of tracery, in which, as there, 
animal carvings are found amid the entwining foliage, 
and there is a further correspondence in the fragment 
of an ancient coffin-lid in the churchyard, with its 
hunting legend, forming, it may be, the connecting 
link with the donor of the screen. 

This screen, mentioned by Vicar Worthington in 
1736, in connection with a dispute concerning a seat, 
extends across the nave and north aisle, and contains 
arcading of eighteen bays, with similar traceiy in each 
compartment, that is, two arches with an ogee crocketed 
finial within each. It was considerably repaired and 
renovated through the care of Mr. John Parker, the 
vicar from 1844 to 1860. 


Tn the History of the Pansh oj Llangurig, by Mr. 
Edward Hamer and Mr. Howell W. Lloyd, 1875, we 
have this account : — 

" On the north side of the chaucel are to be seen traces of a 
narrow winding stone staircase, which formerly led to the rood- 
loft, which existed in the church previous to the year 1836. 
Remains of * an elaborately -carved screen and rood-loft are still 
preserved/ is the statement made in Lewis's Topographical 
Dictionary, published in 1833. Three years later, when the 
church was repaired, the screen and loft were taken down, and 


the churchwardens, who must have been ignorant of its value, 
allowed anyone who expressed a desire to become possessed of 
samples of the tracery to carry away specimens, so that literally, 
bit by bit, it disappeared, and not a vestige of it was left when 
Mr. Evans, the present vicar, was appointed to the living in 
1852. It was, undoubtedly, the principal object of interest in 
the church, and its fate is a sad example of the shameful neglect 
and utter indifference through which so many similar relics 
have disappeared from the churches of the neighbourhood. 
Fortunately the late Rev. John Parker, of Llanyblodwel, visited 
the church in the summer of 1828, and his artistic and accurate 
pencil has preserved for us admirable drawings of the screen, 
which, through the kindness of Sir Baldwin Leightou, we are 
able to reproduce." 


Portion of Kood Screen in Llaugurig Church. 
{Dranm hy Rev. /. Parker, Photograph hy Mr, T, Pryce.) 

When Sir Stephen Glynne saw^ it about the year 
1829, " a large portion of the rood-loft screen remained, 
having pretty good carved wood-work and vine-leaf 

In " A Description of the Church/' by Col. Lloyd- 
Verney of Clochfaen, 1892, Mr. Arthur Baker, who 
superintended the restoration of the church under 
Sir Gilbert Scott, R.A., in 1878, assigns the rood screen 
to the last quarter of the fifteenth century, c. 1475, and 
states that the only relic found remaining was a frag- 

^ Notes on Old Ghnrches, in Archceologia CamhrensU, 1901. 


nient of the carved cornice, which had been replaced in 
its original position, and notes that in general design 
the screen is similar to many others in Montgomery- 
shire and other parts of Wales ; the centre arch being 
of a characteristic local type, and like one at Gyffylliog, 
near Ruthin, and one at the church (Llangynyw), near 


This screen remains in situ, and consists of five 
bays on either side of the entrance; but most 

Rood Screen in Llangynyw Church. 
(Drawn by Rev. J. Parker. Photograph by Mr. T. Pryee.) 

of the supporting pillars have been cut off just 
below the tracery. The designs of the tracery are 
worked out in six patterns of much beauty, and that 
above the entrance is heraldic, and may give the clue 
to the donor. On either side of an impaled shield a 
lion guardant passant stands as a supporter, and in 
the spandrels above, within foliated circles, a winged 
dragon. At the west end, under the gallery, is a 
corresponding piece, with the shield and supporters 
above and the dragons below ; a graceful cresting 
finishes ofi^ the bottom. The beam is cased with a rich 


band of the pomegranate pattern on the chancel side ; 
but on the west it is of plainer character, of alternate 
ragule and inclined ribbon patterns, similar to one of 
the bands on the Llanwnog loft, except above the 
entrance, which has a piece of vine-carving affixed. 
This fact, combined with the second spandrel, seems to 
show that there must have been a canopy of some kind 

Rood Screen in Llangynyw Church. 
(Draton by Rev, J. Parker, Photograph by Mr. T. Prycc.) 

over this portion. Probably the screen was surmounted 
at one time by a rood-loft, and when that was taken 
down, in accordance with Archbishop Grindal's enquiry, 
a band of the carved work was placed on the east side 
of the beam, and the ruder carving on the west added, 
and the whole surmounted with a " convenient crest." 
The heraldic device may point to the '' Red Dragon" 
of Powys and the " Lion" of the Lords of Powys of the 

Oth BBS., VOL. ra. 9 


House of CSrnvyn, to whom Mathrafal, with most of 
the parish, oelonged. 

The illustration has been photographed by Mr. Pryce, 
of Pentreheylin, from one of the beautiful sketches 
made by the Rev. John Parker, and kindly placed at 
our service by Mr. Stanley Leigh ton, M.P. 


There are some modern screens and lofts, put up 
within the last few years, which deserve honourable 
mention. Although for elaboration and richness of 
detail they cannot be compared with those of 
Llanwnog and Newtown, they are, all of them, speci- 
mens of excellent workmanship, and great ornaments 
to their churches. 

1. Ghdlsjidd. — The compartments of the open screen 
are broad and high, and the spandrels filled with 
geometrical tracery, which may be best described as of 
the rose character. It has the vaulted overhanging 
canopy, but no loft, properly so called. It was designed 
by Mr. Street. 

2. Llansantffraidy like Guilsfield, has the vaulted 
canopy and no loft ; and its pointed arcading is filled 
with decorated tracery of more varied and graceful 
character. It was designed by Mr. J. 0. Scott, and is 
a memorial to Mrs. Hayhurst, of Melyniog, and late of 

Manafon. — This screen consists of one narrow com- 
partment and two wide ones on each side of a very 
wide entrance. The tracery is Perpendicular, and 
formed of adjoining foliated spaces. The cresting is of 
an uncommon form. The design was by Messrs. 
Douglas and Fordham, and the screen was presented 
by Mrs. Williams, of Henllys and of Barmouth. 

Llanfechain screen consists of three equal compart- 
ments on each side of the entrance, having the heads 
filled with Perpendicular, varied with geometrical 


tracery. It is surmounted by a Tudor cresting, and 
has over the centre a Calvary Cross. It was designed 
by Mr. Douglas of Chester. 

When we turn from screens and rood-lofts to the 
cognate subject of churchyard and wayside crosses, it 
is remarkable that there is not, as far as I know, a 
single instance of the survival of either the one or the 
other in the county ; and this notwithstanding the far 
more durable material of which they were made ; nor can I 
recall to mind more than one place-name that seems to 
hand them down: that of " Gungrog" (Cefn Grog) near 
Welshpool. The adjoining Abbey of Strata Marcella, 
with its township of Tirymy nech (Monksland), would 
readily explain the name, were it not that it appears 
to be of much earlier date than the Abbey. It is 
not, I believe, because they never existed ; the bases of 
some of them may still be doing duty for sundials ; 
yet we have no record of their demolition. Their non- 
existence now, however, is the more noticeable by way 
of contrast to the adjoining counties. Thus in Merion- 
ethshire we have the extremely early Cadfan Stone at 
Towyn, and all but the head of the cross at Cor wen. 
In Flintshire we find the Celtic crosses of Maen 
Achwyfan and Dyserth, with the mediaeval crosses of 
Hanmer and Newmarket, and in Denbighshire Elisor's 
Pillar (the head of the cross is lost), of the ninth 
century, and the fourteenth-century cross in the Church- 
yard of Derwen. This last is the more significant, 
because it controverts the plea that where there was a 
rood within the church a cross outside would be 
superfluous, and that vice versd, a churchyard cross 
would render an inside rood unnecessary ; for here at 
Derwen both evidently co-existed. The four faces of 
the cross bear sculptured representations of the Holy 
Trinity, the Judgment, the Virgin and Child, and the 
Crucifixion with the Virgin and St. John at the foot ; 
but this last is the rood. In the church, and in 

9 = 


excellent preservation, is a fine roodloft, with sixteen 
panek ornamented with tracery, and having a band of 
the vine pattern as a cornice. In the top of the western 
beam and at its central point is a socket, or mortise, to 
receive the foot of the rood, which would face the 
congregation. This, indeed, is no longer there, but its 
witness remains. It is worthy of mention that this 
parish adjoins that of Bettws ; and their two churches, 
which are only about five miles apart, are both of them 
noteworthy for their rare ecclesiastical remains.^ 

Mem. — This article was written in the first instance 
for, and read in part before, the Newtown Clerical 
Association ; and nas subsequently been enlarged and 
illustrated for its present use. 

1 Swpra, p. 94. 





Befohb January, 1894, I was unaware of a hermitage 
having existed in these parts. At this date, Miss 
Talbot kindly sent me volume i of the Margam and 
Penrice MSS.y by Dr. W. de Gray Birch ; and in it 
I found that a mile or so from where I live in the 
parish of Margam, there existed as far back, and 
probably before the year a.d. 1147, the Hermitage of 
Theodoricus; but where was it situated? No ruins 
existed to mark its site, no tradition survived about it, 
and the building had disappeared completely. 

In the earliest charters of Margam Abbey we find 
mentioned as a landmark the Hermitage of Theodoric ; 
but as no ruins indicated its position, it was not 
possible to fix its site. The original charter founding 
the Abbey of Margam is not extant ; but its text is 
found in an Inspeximus by Edward le Despenser, Lord 
of Glamorgan and Morgan, dated July 13th, 1358,, of 
an Inspeximus by Hugh le Despenser, dated Oct. 9th, 
1338. In this document the Earl William notifies to 
the Bishop Nicholas^ and others concerned, that he has 
confirmed the gift which Robert* his father gave to the 
monks of Clairvaux : ** That is to say all the lands 
which extend between Kenfig and the further bank 

» A.D. 1149-1183. 

^ Bobert of CaeD, natural son of Henry I, King of England, 
ConBol or Earl of Gloncester. He became possessed of these lands hj 
his marriage with Mabilia, the heiress of Bobert Fitzhamon, the 
leader of the Norman knights, who retained Kenfig and district in 
addition to Cardiff as his share of the conquest 



of the water of the further Afan, which is to the 
west of the Hermitage of Theodoricus as the water 
aforesaid descends from the mountains. All this land 
I grant to the monks as it goes through the mountains, 

ft c 

Fig. 1. — Map of Lands given to the Monks of Clairvanx, and Orants of Land 
by Caradoc Uerbeia to Pendar, etc 

namely, from the source of Kenefeg water between the 
source of Rudelf (Ffrwdwyllt) and Gelli-fret (Gellivrith) 
on to Red-Kewelthi (Rhyd Gyfylchi), that is the ford 
of Kewelthi, into Aven (Afan river) in wood and in 



plain, in fields and in pastures and waters, in moors 
and marshes, also all the fisheries of Aven, that no one 
may interfere with them on the other side, nor put 
their hand to fishing in the whole of Aven except by 
their consent." 

This certainly points to the site of the Hermitage as 
being near the river Afan, where it falls into the sea, 
and just to the east of it. 

In the midst of the lonely sand-dunes near the old 
mouth of the River Afan (in 1836-38 it was diverted, 
and is now further west), some fifteen or sixteen years 

Fig. 2. — Ridge and Flat Green -Glazed Tiles, and Fragments of Earthenware 
Vessels from the Hermitage of Theodoric. 

ago, I picked up a tile-stone having a neatly-made nail- 
hole at the top part ; and later I discovered part of a 
wall ; still later I found some green glazed earthenware 
tiles, ridge and flat,^ and several pennant-atone tiles, 
similar to the first one I found. Three years ago I had 
the sand cleared off around a pile of stones, and found 
a building about 85 ft. in length, which is here shown 
in elevation and plan : water then prevented further 
clearing of the ruins. I have recently (in this year) 

1 See p. 149, No. 66, Arch. Camb., April, 1900, illustrations of 
similar old ridge-tiles fonnd in Llantwit Major Church. 



■ 1 


■'. 5 

T ^ , 


j^^k. I 













discovered among the nuns part of a piscina or holy- 
water stoup. 

The three upper story windows were dormer windows. 
The stone work of the centre one, under the seat-like 
slabs, is of dressed green CoUwn or Quarella stone, the 

f — •""""^ 


IMCHE>IZ , J^ L, 3, ^O ^1 f=00T. 

Fig. 3.— Roof- tiles of Pennant Stone from the Hermitage of Theodoric. 

other two are in rubble masonry. The quoins, jambs 
of the windows, and muUion of the easternmost window, 
and the long slab and base of a pillar, are of the same 
green stone, with the exception of three Sutton stones 
in the jambs of the westernmost window. 
The iron stanchions and saddle-bars in the western- 



most window and in the small centre window are well 
preserved, as also are the shutter-hooks still remaining 
inside the easternmost window. The key is simply 
rust, being completely oxidised. 

I consioor the fact of the iron-work being so little 
wasted somewhat of a proof of the rapid be-sanding of 
the ruins, which covered up the iron-work and pre- 
served it from the action of the salt sea air, so 
injurious to iron. 

The small window west of the doorway is 10 ins. 

Fig. 4.— Base of Pillar, Oreen 
CollwD Stone, from the 
Hermitage of Theodoric 

Fig. 5. — Key found in the 
Ruins of the Hermitage 
of Theodoric. 

wide by 7 ins. high ; it has three iron stanchions and 
one saddle-bar. 

The stoup or piscina was found in the sand in the 
eastern part of the building, indicating clearly the 
position of the chapel. The stoup is carved in Sutton 

Through the top step on the left side in descending 
is a hole, 5 ins. square, which continues through the 
block of masonry ; it probably held the upper part 
of a hand-rail. The narrowness of the steps, 7 ins. 


tread and 7 ins. rise, would necesisitate the use of a 

The remains of walls at a considerable distance from 
the main building shows the establishment was an 
extensive one. The true meridian is marked on the 
plan, and shows the orientation of the chapel to be 
12 deg. north of east. 

No part of the north walls of the building have been 
uncovered ; they lie under a high hill of sand. 

Fig. 6.— The Holy- Water Stoup, found among the Ruins of the Hermitage 
of Theodoric. 

On referring to the paper on Llantwit Major 
Church, in the April (1900) number of the Archceologia 
CambretisiSy by Mr. G. E. Halliday, it will be seen 
that the green glazed ridge-tiles found in the church 
are veiy similar to those found at the Hermitage. 
Similar tiles were found in Nicholaston Church, Gower 
(Davies' West Gower, vol. iv, Plate opposite p. 496). 
It is stated (p. 403) that similar ridge-cresting has 
recently been found at Cardiff Castle. 

Finding these ancient ruins exactly where the 
charters indicated the Hermitage, or Grange of the 



Hermitage, to be, I came to the conclusion I had dis- 
covered the ruins of it. The discovery of the stoup or 



If ^^^^^^F 

if . 


piscina shows a chapel was attached to the Grange, and 
I have no doubt if further clearing were undertaken the 
small chapel would be found : it seems probable that 
the flat, and one of the three kinds of ridge or crest 



tiles, came from the chapel. With regard to the stoup 
or piscina, the eminent architect and antiquary, Mr. 

Fig. 8.— East Window of Cryke Chapel (Crugwallt). 

J. T. Micklethwaite, F.S.A., writes me : ** The fragment 
you have found may belong either to a holy- water stoup 
or to a piscina. Very likely, the circle of the bowl was 



Fig. 9.— West Wiudow of the Chapel of Cryke (Crugwallt). 

completed under a niche in the wall. There is no 
detail to fix the date exactly, but I think it not earlier 
than the thirteenth century, and it may well be the 



fourteenth/' The Hermitat]fe itself apparently gave way 
to the Grange upon the Abbey becqmhig established ; 

and as the farms were worked by the convenn, or lay 
brethren, chapels for their use w^ere attached to the 
granges, aja in this instance. Thus Bishop EHas gave 
permission to the Abbot and Convent of Margam to 




celebrate services in their **Graiigia de Melis,*^ 
A.D. 1239. 

We find chapels were attached to the Court Farm 
(the "Grangia de Melis") at Port Talbot Station, 
probably the Chapel of St. Thomas ; this chapel is still 
in existence.* Penhydd Waelod, near Bryn ; Hafod : 
the Chapel of this Farm, stood until recently. Crug- 

1 " The OraDgia de Melia." So named from the word " meljs," 
sweet ; the land which is occasionally covered by the tidal waters, 
and the grass thereby made sweet for sheep, which thrive well npon 
it. Meols, in Wirral, on the Cheshire coast, has a similar meaning 
(Dr. Birch, History oj Mar gam Abbey), 

* Professor Westwood says the Port Talbot Stone, near Court 
Farm, was evidently intended to commemorate the St Thomas to 
whom the neighbonring, bnt now long-destroyed, Capel St. Thoma 
was dedicated. I believe St. Thomas's Chapel is the bailding in the 
Conrt Farm known as " Yr Hen Gapel." The locating of the site 
of the Chapel of St Thomas at the Conrt Farm, the '' Grangia de 
Melis," may not be readily accepted, by reason of Professor West- 
wood's qnotation which follows : " the stone evidently intended to 
commemorate the neighbonring bnt now long-destroyed" Capell S. 
Thomae in terr& qnam W. Comes Gloncestriae dedit Willelmus 
filio Henrici inter aquas de Avene et Neth (italics are mine). From 
a charter of confirmation by Nicholas, Bishop of Llandaff. 

A Harley Charter 75c. 36 ; Clark, dcccxxviii, proves that the 
Chapel of St. Thomas stood to the east of the river Afan, and not 
between the waters of Afan and Neath. In the deed Leissan^ and 
Avein,* sons of Morgan, promise the monks of Margam not to dig 
or plough the land between the Walda of the English " Gwal 
Saeson" and Meles in Avene Marsh (see Note 1), for they and their 
father have given the pasture of all the lands, arable and not arable, 
in *' Melis," in moor and in marshy to the monks, between Avene 
and the Chapel of St. Thomas. 

The '' Gwal Saeson" is a stone wall which originally extended 
from the River Afan to the River Ffrwdwyllt, passing jnst sonth of 
the Conrt Farm along its fields. At the point where the wall joined 
the Afan the river runs at right angles to it, bnt afber continniDg 
abont 430 yards in a sonth-westerly direction, the river turns to the 
south-east and runs parallel with the wall at about 430 to 450 
yards distance from it 

The greater part of the wall is in existence, and is still known as 
the " Ghwal Saeson" ; it and the River Afan (as it ran then) and the 
Ffrwdwyllt River enclosed a parallelogram of about 1500 yards by 

♦ Occur in A.D. 1200-1205. 


wallt ; Trisant,^ the chapel probably called in the Abbey 
deeds the Chapel of Hafodheulog ; Eglwysnunyd,^ 
Stormy, Cornell, Resolven, near Neath ; Llangewydd, 
Tre-y-gedd, Baidden, Llanfeithun, and at the Grange 
of Theodoricus. 

I was inclined to think the name implied the dedica- 
tion of the Chapel of the Grange to St. Theodoric, 
but since reading in Dr. de Gray Birch's Neath Ahhey 
that Sir Richard de Grandvilla had two nephews, 
Giraldus and Theodoricus,* I think with Dr. Birch that 
the latter probably founded the Hermitage. Had the 
dedication been to St. Theodoric, the motiks would 
have been careful to call it the Grange of the 
Hermitage of St. Theodoricus. In the Bull of Pope 
Urban HI, referred to elsewhere, he names it the 
Grange of Theodoric's Hermitage. The Pope would 
have been careful to name it by its dedication ; the 

430, or 1400 acres ; the most of it is now covered by the water of 
the Float 

This deed, and the sepulchral stone to St. Thomas found near the 
Court Farm, proves clearly that the " Capell St. Thomae," was, and 
probably is, at that farm. 

^ Capel Trisant. 

* Eglwysnnnyd ; Nanydd is probably a later form, as *' dd'* was 
not in use at the time the chapel was bailt, the '^ dd" only coming 
into ase after the fonrteenth centnry (see Stephens' Lit. of the 
Kymry), Doubtless Nynyd is the Welsh adaptation of Non, or 
Nonnita, or Nonna. " Egloose Nuuney*' it is called in the Crown 
Sale to Sir R Manxell, Knt., a.d. 1543, and hero we have phoneti- 
cally the key to the ancient spelling of the modern Nunydd; 
Nunney indicating Nynyd or Nonna. The Norman scribes and 
their successors, in compiling deeds relating to the Abbey, wrote 
phonetically words they could not spell : Gyfylchu they write 
Kewelthi; Rheanell Brook, Ranel, called to this day Ranallt, 
although named on Ordnance Maps Arnallt. Breton legends state 
that the miracle play of St. Nonna was performed at Dirinon, a 
parish in Brittany (Baring-Gould's Welsh Saints, pp. 189, 190, and 
Arch, Camb.j 3rd Ser., vol. iii, p. 251). 

^ Rice Merrick, in his Book of Olamorganshire Antiquities, 
wys: "Hee ("Sir R. de Granavilla) had also a brother named 
William and two nephewes, the one named Giraldus, the other named 

6th sbr., vol. III. 10 


farm of Llaumihangel he names as the Grange of 
St. IViichael in the same Bull. 

It seems to me most probable that the young man of 
noble birth, Theodoricus, founded the hermitage after- 
wards known by his name. It is a name met with but 
once in all the charters of Neath and Margam, and on 
that occasion we find it as a witness to Sir Richard de 
Granavilla's pious dedication of his lands to the service 
of God. In this charter Sir Richard de Granavilla 
gives to God and to the Holy Trinity of Neeth (after- 
wards the dedication was to St. Mary) and to the 
monks serving God therein, according to the rules 
of Savigny, in France, for the health of the souls of 
his lord Robert (natural) son of the glorious King 
(Henry I) and of his wife Mabel, daughter and heir ot 
Sir Robert Fitz-Hamon, and of his children, and for the 
health of the souk of himself, the grantor, and of 
his ancestors, and of his wife Constance, various lands 
at Neath and in Devonshire. 

As I mention before, one of the witnesses to this 
deed was Theodoricus, the nephew of the grantor. 

The family of Granavilla is traced to RoUo, first 
Scandinavian conqueror of Normandy. Sir Richard de 
Granavilla was a brother of Sir Robert Fitz-Hamon, 
Prince of Glamorgan, Count of Corbeil, Baron of 
Thorigny and Granville. Their father was Hamo 
Dentatus, sixth Earl of Corbeil. Thomas Fuller, D.D./ 
states that Sir Richard Grenville, Knt., "lived and 
was richly landed at Bideford .... This Sir Richard 
would have none make him rich . . . this knight • . . 
according to the devotion of those darker days, gave 
aJl to God, erecting and endowing a monastery dedi- 
cated to the Virgin Mary at Neath for Cistercians. 
This having finished, he returned ... to Bediford." 

One writer^ states, '* Sir Richard . . . then took the 
Signe of the Crosse, and (as the superstitious manner 

1 « History of the Worthies of England." — Dr. Birch, Ifeatk 

2 Rice Merrick's Book of Glamorganshire Antiquities, a.d. 1578. 


was in those days) went towards Jerusalem, in which 
journey hee dyed." 

There is no direct evidence that the nephew founded 
the Hermitage of Theodoricus, but I think it exceed- 
ingly probable. There is but one Theodoricus men- 
tioned in all the numerous MSS. of Margam and Neath 
Abbeys, and the Hermitage is named after a person 
called Theodoricus. 

Theodoric may have been dedicated to God from his 
infancy by his parents, who regarded him as " given of 
God/' and named him Theodoric accordingly. Or the 
young man, whatever his motives may have been, 
whether disappointed and tired of the world, or fired 
with zeal for his Master's service, or, it may be, in 
emulation of his uncle's pious example, determined to 
offer himself to God, and to found a hermitage in 
which he and others, weary of the world, might lead 
the contemplative life, and pass their span of time in 
prayer and thanksgiving, imitating the monks in this, 
but living a harder and more austere life. Lewis 
Morganwg, in his ode to Leision Thomas, last Abbot 
of Neath, says : — " The bells, the benedictions, and the 
peaceful songs of praise, proclaim the frequent thanks- 
givings of the White Monks." 

The hermits sought more desolate places for their 
dwelling than did the monks; and renouncing all 
worldly things and loving poverty ; living at a distance 
from the world, and united to God alone ; and, leading 
the life described in the Liber Landavensis^ as " vitam 
sanctam, vitam gloriosam, vitam castam et cum raro 
pane, tenui veste, macerate facie," carried out their 
ideal of service to God. 

The family of the Fitz-Hamons and de Granavillas 
evidentlv had strong religious zeal. Sir Richard de 
Granavilla, as we have seen, founded Neath Abbey, 
and took " the Sign of the Crosse," and went to 

^ Liber Landaveiuis, p. 2. 

10 9 


Palestine like the Crusader of whom Spencer writes in 
his poem, the Faerie Queene : — 

" Upon his breast a bloody cross he bore 
The dear remembrance of bis dying Lord. 
For whose sweet sake that glorious badge he bore 
And dead as living Him adored ; 
Upon his shield the like was also scored 
For Sovereign hope which is His help he had.*' 

Sir Robert Fitz-Hamon, Sir Richard's brother, bad 
four daughters : Theodoric's cousins, two of whom em- 
braced the religious life ; and another, Mabilia or 
Mabel, with her husband, Robert, Earl of Gloucester, 
gave her dower lands to Margam Abbey. 

There is, I think, every probability that Theodoric, 
sprung from a family given to good deeds, should 
desire to devote his life to God in his way ; and to that 
end founded the Hermitage, which was the forerunner 
in the monastic life in Margam of the great Abbey. 

As I have remarked, we have reason to believe the 
hermits lived together as a conventual body. We have 
handed down to us the names of three, who were 
probably contemporaneous : Theodoric, Meiler, and 
Coch. The Hermitage of Theodoric may have been 
a considerable establishment, having several hermits 
dwelling in it. 

In some way, the fact of the existence of the Hermit- 
age, standing as it did within the lands of Theodoric^s 
cousin Mabilia, Theodoric being its founder, may have 
given rise in Mabilia's mind to the idea of dedicating 
these lands, which she inherited, to a much larger 
retreat for men serving God in the contemplative life, 
and one more in accordance with the ideas of the day 
regarding the monastic life. 

"The Cistercian Order, established at Neath in* the early 
years of the twelfth century, had arisen in France at the close 
of the preceding century, by the institution of a few Benedictine 
monks of Molesme in Burgundy, who desired to correct the 
want of discipline among the Benedictines, and for this object 
retired to a secluded site in the diocese of Chalons, and there set 


up, under the protection of the Duke of Burgundy, the Convent 
of Citeaux, or Cisterciupa, in a.d. 1098, where they lived under 
a new and stricter rule modelled on that of the Order they had 

Here, then, was a strict and austere Order, which 
Brother Meiler, the hermit, and the Brethren of Pendar 
had become menobers of, which appeared fitted to suc- 
ceed the hermits, whose lives were still more severe and 
ascetic, but whose rule was not suited to the times and 
was passing avf^ay ; and thus it probably appealed to 
the mind of Mabilia and her husband, and maybe the 
idea was fostered and encouraged by Theodoric himself. 

To quote again from Dr. Birch, in his Neath Abbey, 
he says : — 

" An eloquent writer^ has declared that our monasteries (and 
he might have added the hermitages of an earlier period) were 
the refuge formerly for those who felt their incapacity for the 
struggle after virtuous happiness in the business of life. Their 
chief glory was, however, not so much in being in retreats — a 
mere practical end — but in the exalted idea which they gave to 
the laity, the general people, and the gay world. The spectacle 
of men, separated from vanity and devoted to heaven, tended to 
exalt and ennoble the human mind." 

The echo, as it were, of the name Theodoricus, 
reaches us but faintly through the long centuries which 
have gone their way ; but how vividly does it recall to 
us in Margam a beloved and venerated name ? When- 
ever the name is mentioned, we have at once in our 
thoughts another young man of noble birth and ancient 
lineage, bearing the same name — a name which seem- 
ingly thanks God for a good life given to us — short 
tma one, it is true, but one which has left a lasting 

Heir to the estate in which the Hermit dwelt in 
far-off times, and whose relatives once possessed it ; 
descended from ancestors who, like those of Theodoricus, 
came from Normandy to this land under the banner of 

1 Dr. Birch's J^eath Ahhty, p. 89. 

2 "Prince Metternich."— iTi-a^A Abbey, p. 29. 


William the Conqueror, he, like Theodoricus, dedicated 
his life to his Lord and Master. " I only live for God's 
Glory," are his recorded words.* 

" A young layman, who takes so active a part in a Church of 
extreme ritual as to walk himself in a Church service at the 
head of a guild or club of young men as their warden, with the 
emblem of the Cross attached to the collar of the Order, would 
seem to many to be a religious enthusiast, or even a fanatia 
But for the aforesaid ordinary mind to understand that this 
young master of hounds and this young layman is one and the 
same person, would seem an incredible mytL Yet, so it was in 
the case of Theodore Talbot"^ 

Both of these young men were brave servants of our 
blessed Lord : the one, in the dim and far-distant days 
of seven-and-a-half centuries ago, gave up the pui-suits 
and pleasures of the world, and bore tne solitude of 
the lonely dwelling by the shore of the Severn Sea, to 
pass his time in praise and thanksgiving. The other, 
in our days, unmindful of the scoffing world, also gave 
himself to God's service. 

When Elgar, the Hermit, was visited by Teacher 
Caradog, who wished to see if he were alive or dead, 
he, to his joy, found him alive. 

" Caradog, descended from a noble family, with bended knees 
begged £lgar to give him an account of his life. Elgar told 
him that, through the bounty and goodness of God, holy spirits 
administered to him, and declared to him what is true and 
always promise what is right ; describing to me the present life 
to be as a flower of the field, and the future as the odour of 
balm, comforting me that I might not faint in the way, who, 
having vanquished the enemy, should be rewarded with a 
heavenly crown/** 

This was the reward both young men sought — each 
in his own way. 

Miss Talbot has recently built a beautiful church, of 
Early English architecture, at Port Talbot, dedicated 
to St. Theodore, distant only two miles from the 

1 RtcolUctioM ofT. M. Talbot, by Sir Baldwyn Leighton, Bart. 

2 "Elgar, the Hermit."— ZiA<rr Landavftisis, p. 281. 


Hermitage. It was built in memory of Mr. Theodore 
Talbot, and his sister, Miss Olive Talbot. 

By whom was the Hermitage occupied ? By a 
solitary hermit — a recluse — as we to-dav think the 
inmate of a hermitage was ? I believe this hermitage 
was occupied by a conventual body of hermits. It 
seems probable that Meiler, the hermity from the in- 
terest ne takes in Margam Abbey, was at one time an 
inmate of the Hermitage before the dawn of the Abbey 
days. The Hermitage was in existence before the 
founding of the Abbey of Margam, as it is mentioned, 
as we have seen, in the foundation charter. The Abbey 
was founded in 1147, according to the Annales ae 
Margan : " a.d. 1147, Fundata est ahhatia nostra quce 
dicitur Margan^ 

As showing the difBculty of ascertaining at the 
present day what a hermitage really was, I mention 
here a grant to Margam Abbey, by William Camerarius/ 
of the Hermitage of St. Milburga (note the dedication 
to a saint is preserved, as it would have been, doubt- 
less, in the case of Theodoricus), at Bristol, with its 
chapel, appurtenances and liberties, meadow, pastures, 
waters, cultures and easements ; the Abbey providing 
a religious — i.e., regular or monastic — chaplain, unless 
the grantor excuses the provision of the same. This 
hermitage was clearly not the small cell of a recluse, 
and the provision of a religious chaplain would seem to 
indicate that the hermits were lay brethren similar 
to the Cistercian conversi. 

The brethren of Theodoric's Hermitage doubtless 
farmed the adjacent land, and perhaps fished ; and, like 
the monks of St. Anthony in Cornwall, who acted as 
pilots to ships passing to Falmouth, may have served 
as pilots for the Abbey ships,* and others coming into 
the harbour of the Avan. 

* Or Chamberlain. 

* Mr. Clark, in the Land of Morgan, records an amnesty in which 
the men of Bristol, among other matters, were to give np the Abbot 
of Margam's ship to the cellarer of that hoase. Gimldas Cambrensis 


The gift which Griffin ab Ivor, Lord of Seinghennydd,* 
made to the Abbey of Margam, clearly shows that 
a hermitage stood very much on the same footing as an 
abbey (see B on Map, Fig. 1). In one of the earliest of 
Margam Abbey deeds, this gift is mentioned : — 

" William, Earl of Gloucester, son of Robert of Caen, notifies 
to his steward, barons, and all his men — French, English, and 
Welsh — that he has confirmed the gift which Griffin ab Ivor 
has made to the Abbey of Margam, by Brother Meiler, Awenet, 
for making a hermitage or abbey, if possible, viz., upon the 
water of Taf, all the land called Stratvaga,' and all Brenkeiru 
(Bryn-cyriawg), and from Berkehu-taf (Bargoed TafiQ to Bargau 
Remni (Bargoed Rumney), and all Karpdawardmenet (? Cae'r- 
bedw-ar-y-mynydd), and all Maislette, and from MauhanLshead 
(? Maes-ynys) to Taf and fisheries in Taf, and all the land of St 
Gladus (Capel Gwladus district), with its pastures, as far as 
Brohru-caru (Vochrhiw) ; and on the other side of St Gladus, 
as far as Hen-glau (Hen-glawdd), as far as the water called 
Eidliha (Nant Cylla), and* all the lands of Masmawan (Maes- 

It seems to me that all these possessions indicate 
that if a hermitage were established on the lands, it 
would be an extensive one, and inhabited by a con- 
ventual body of hermits. 

In the far-off days when the Hermitage is first men- 
tioned to us in the charter founding the ancient Abbey 
of Margam, its situation must have been in winter 
desolate and weird in the extreme ; isolated, and 
difficult of access, and in stormy winter days the roar 
of the tide on either side and the hoarse cry of the sea 
birds made it a truly fitting spot for a dwelling for 
persons who wished to live far from their fellows, and 
to be alone with Nature and with their Maker. Twice 

tells as that in the twelfth century the Monks of Margam, when the 
county was snATering from a scarcity of food, sent a ship to Bristol 
for com ; but the winds were contrary and the ship was delayed, 
when, lo ! a field of corn belonging to the Abbey suddenly ripened 
a month or more before its time. 

^ He married Mabel, daughter of Earl Robert of Oaen. 

2 ? Ystrad Vargocd. 


a day at high tide — ^the Hermitage, standing near the 
head of a long narrow strip of land, having the sea on 
one side, and on the other an estuary, up which the 
tide flowed for two miles to two miles and thre^- 
quarters, according to the height of the tide — would 
almost appear as if it stood on an island. To reach the 
Hermitage from where Taibach now stands, a mile and 
a-half to the north, the traveller would have to go nearly 
as far as Morfa Bach, and then back along the narrow 
strip of land a total distance of six and a-half miles, 
the tide being full in ; and, even at low tide, the 
muddy pills and creeks in the estuary would probably 
prevent a short cut being made from the main land. 

In the Beaufort Progress ^ a.d. 1684, mention is 
made of this strip of land, and gives us a picture of it 
at high tide and in summer : — 

" Margham is a very noble seat .... Its scituation is among 
excellent springs .... at the foot of prodigious high hilles of 
Woods, shelter for ye Deer, about a mile distant from an arm 
of the sea, parting this shore and the County of Cornwall, below 
which, and washed almost round with the salt water, is a Marsh, 
whereto the Deer (ye tide being low) resort much by swimming, 
and thrive to such an extraordinary weight and fatness as I 
never saw the like . . . ." 

The tide is now shut out by sea walls. 

Several charters mention the Hermitage of Theo- 
doricus in describing the boundaries of the Abbey 
lands. In a Bull of Pope Urban III, directed to 
the Abbot and Brethren of Margam Abbey, in response 
to their request, taking them under the protection 
of St Peter and the Pope, and confirming the several 

Cnts made to them, we find the Hermitage at this 
e (November 18th, 1186) had become the Grange of 
Theodoricus' Hermitage ; so that, thirty-nine years 
after the founding of the Abbey, the Hermitage had 
given way to the farm. The latest charter mentioning 
the Hermitage is one by Richard, Earl of Gloucester, 
between a.d. 1246 and a.d. 1249. After this date, no 
fiirther mention is found of it ; and, judging from a 


detailed account of the Abbey Granges which the Abbot 
drew up in a.d. 1326 for the Abl^t of Clairvaux, in 
obedience to the mandates of the Apostolic See, and of 
Clairvaux, followed by complaints of losses caused by 
mortality, wars, nearness to the high road, and that no 
small part of the land adjacent to the shore is subject 
to inundation of sand, I conclude that the Hermitage 
was overwhelmed by sand-storms, and lost to human 
ken from about a.d. 1300 to A.D. 1898, a period of five 
hundred and ninety-eight years. A Bull of Pope 
Urban YI, addressed to the Bishop of Llandaff, sanctions 
the appropiiation of the patronage of the Church of 
Aberavon (Aven) by the Abbey, because, among other 
things, the Abbey lands and possessions adjacent to 
the sea shore had become unfruitful, owing to inroads 
of the sea (probably sand is meant); dated July 17th, 
A.D. 1383. In the Patent Rolls of the eighth year of 
King Richard II, October 28th 1384, it is set forth 
that the Abbot had delivered a petition showing how 
Edward le Despencer, out of consideration for the losses 
which the sand-storms had inflicted on the Abbey, had 
bestowed on it the advowson of Aberavon Church. 
Pope Urban VI, by a deed, dated at Naples, April 29th, 
1384, allowed the Abbey to apprbpriate the Church of 
Penllyn for the same cause. 

After seeing the plan of so much of the Grange of 
the Hermitage as I was able to unearth, Mr. J. T. 
Micklethwaite wrote to me, on February 24th, 1902 : — 

" The building you have unearthed seems to be an interestiDg 
one ; and, so far as I can judge from the drawings, it may be 
the first half of the fourteenth century. It is not a hermitage 
in the usual sense of the word, but it seems to have been a 
dwelling-house of some sort, and may have belonged to a grange, 
or a cell of the smaller sort." 

In writing to Mr. Micklethwaite, I should have called 
the building the Grange of Theodoric's Hermitage, as it 
is termed in the Papal Bull. I am inclined — ^if it is not 
presumptuous in me after the above opinion — to place 
the date as 1227, solely for this reason : we find from 


the Annales de Margan that, in 1227 a.d. the Welsh 
cleared the Grange of Theodore, burned several horses 
and great flocks of sheep ; and it seems probable from 
this that the buildings were also destroyed, to be 
rebuilt at that time, or perhaps somewhat later. 

It is interesting to discuss the question of the over- 
whelming of the Duilding by the sand-storms. Were 
they covered slowly, or at once ? When I discovered 
the ruins, I was puzzled to know what part we were 
iD, and I later found we were in the upper story. 
Dividing two of the rooms, I found a clay partition 
3 ins. thick, plastered with mortar on each side, still 
standing, supported by the sand, although the floor 
had disappeared. This seems to me to prove that the 
sand enveloped the building quickly ; otherwise, if the 
sand took a considerable time to reach the upper 
story, this fragile partition would have crumbled and 
fallen by the action of the wind and rain, to which 
it would soon be exposed after the buildings were 

It is also interesting to note here, on this subject, as 
confirming in some degree the date I have assigned 
to the overwhelming by sand of the Hermitage, the 
tradition which is mentioned in Davies's West Gower^ 
Pt IV. In a grant, dated June, a.d. 1317, by Sir 
William de Breos, Lord of the seigniory of Gower, to 
his huntsman, William, and Joan his wife, he gives 
liberty to them to take hares and rabbits, foxes, and 
other animals, in the sand-burrows of Penard. Mr. 
Davies remarks on this : — 

" Here, then, we have indisputable evidence, that in 1317 A.D., 
Penard burrows existed as a fact. The tradition is, that it 
was formed by a terrible storm all in one night, and .... the 
conclusion is almost irresistible that both these burrows^ were 
formed at the same time, and the church and village of Sted- 
woriango were overwhelmed when the sand-storm occurred, and 
consequently the be-sanding of these two churches (Penard 
and Penmaen) must have taken place previous to A.D. 1317/' 

* The other burrows being Penmaen. 


Seeing the short distance between the Hermitage 
and Pennard (only thirteen miles), it seems probable 
that the same terrible storm covered up the Hermitaga 

The approximate dateof a.d. 1300 for the be-sanding 
of the Hermitage is also, to some extent, incidentally 
corroborated by a Margam Abbey deed. St. James s 
Church, at Kenfig, in the neighbourhood of the Hermit- 
age, was covered by sand, and in this deed we find a 
new church mentioned. It is a demise, by Fr. Thomas, 
Abbot of Margam, to John le Younge, burgess of 
Kenfig for his life, of land formerly belonging to the 
Office of the Master of the Works of the New Church. 

Dated at the Monastery of Margam, Sunday before 
St. James's Day, July 25th, a.d. 1307. 

This seems to point to the recent erection of the new 
church, some time prior to a.d. 1807. I am not cer- 
tain, however, that the new church referred to may not 
be the Early English part of Margam Abbey church. 

In the deed of Pope Urban VI, dated at Naples, May 
29th, 1384, before referred to, one of the clauses refen* 
to the heavy debts of the Abbev, which made it im- 

Eossible for it to repair its builaings, now dilapidated 
y the ** Horrida ventorum intempeines" dreadful and 
unseasonable gales, which had thrown down or rendered 
insecure the greater part of them. Here we have 
evidence of dreadful gales actually overthrowing the 
Abbey buildings at the same time as the inundations 
of the sea are mentioned as having occurred. It cer- 
tainly seems that at that time (prooably about 1300), a 
fearful and unusual storm must have raged — in fact, a 


In the Abbey deeds, in a late twelfth - century 
charter, is a grant by Philip, son of Griffin, and 
Morgan, his son, and his wife, to the Cistercian Order 
and to Margam Abbey, by the hands of Brother Meiler 
of certain lands, apparently near Cymmer, and adjacent 


to the River Taf,^ and to Brother Meiler and the house 
of Pendar all the pasturage in his land except culti- 
vated lands and meadows. GriflSth, or Griffin, ab Ivor 
was the Lord of Seioghennydd. 

Another charter, by which William, Earl of Glour 
caster, confirms a gift which Griffin ab Ivor made to 
the Abbey of Margam by the hand of Brother Meiler' 
Awenet, of lands east of the Taf, in the neighbourhoods 
of Ystradmynach, Stratvaga, and of Capel Gvvladq^, 
for building there a hermitage or an abbey. 

In another charter* is recorded a grant of land by 
Gunilda, wife of GeoflFrey Sturmi (after whom Stormy,, 
Pyle, is named) to Margam Abbey. One of the 
witnesses is Brother Meiler the hermit. 

And yet another charter* is also witnessed by Brother 
Meiler the hermit : it is a grant of land by Chenewtbur 
and his brothers Blethin, William, Cbenwrec, and 
Riderec, in perpetual almoign to the Abbey of Margam ; 
this land is situated near Llangewydd. 

It is strange that we find writers who say that 
Margam was called at one time Pendar. Cliffe, in his 
Book of South Wales, 1848, says : " Margam once called 
Pen-dar," and Mr. Clark, describing a deed from the 
Penrice MSS., a.d. 1155, in his Cartw, calls it a "Grant 
by Caradoc Uerbeis to Brother Meiler and the Brethren 
of Pendar, otherwise Margam." David Morgan, in his 
Hanes Morganwg, p. 392, says : " Historians say the 
original name of Margam was Pendar, on account of the 
number of oaks growing there, then as now." However 
the tradition arose that Margam was once called Pendar, 
it is dispelled by the words of the charter before men- 
tioned, by which Philip, son of Griffin, and Morgan his 
son, gave to Margam Abbey certain lands near Cymmer 
and the Taf, and also give to Brother Meiler and the 
house of Pendar the pasturage in his, Philip's, lands. 
This certainly shows that Margam and Pendar were 

1 Talbot MSS,, 10, C. D. IV (Glarks). 

2 T, 11; MCCCCVII (Clark's). ■ 
^ Harley Charter 75b. 


existing contemporaneously. It seems clear, however, 
that Brother Meiler was in some way closely connected 
with Margam Abbey (probably for the reason I give on 
page 139)^ and I had thought that I might have been 
able to locate Pendar as being at any rate in Margam, 
and possibly as being the site of the Hermitage of 
Theodoricus, neeing that Brother Meiler is called in two 
deeds " the hermit," and that a Brother Meiler was 
evidently the ruler of the house of Pendar. 

I have reluctantly, however, been forced to abandon 
this idea and to seek for Pendar elsewhere; and, further 
on, I give my reasons for the location I give to it 
I may be wrong ; nevertheless, one of the objects of 
these notes is that it may induce others to investigate 
the subject. 

It is a curious but puzzling fact that there appear to 
have been two Brother Meilers, distinguished fortu- 
nately for us by the description added to each : one^ 
Brother Meiler the hermit, the other Brother Meiler 
Awenet (Awenydd, as I think). 

We find from Giraldus Cambrensis that in his time 
there was a notable man living in the neighbourhood 
of the City of the Legions, or Caerleon, a certain man of 
Wales called Mailer, a diviner of the future and having 
knowledge of secret things. This I believe is the 
Meiler Awenydd^ or, as the Norman scribe writes it in 
the deed of GriflSn ab Ivor, as near phonetically as he 
is able to, Awenet : the lands given by the hand of 
Meiler Awenydd being those of the Lord of Seing- 
hennydd, are near the abode of Meiler, Caerleon. 
I thmk this is the only occasion in which Meiler 
Awenydd occurs, and nothing seems to have come of 
the project of forming a hermitage or abbey. 

^ ^' Awenydd," a poet, a genins, one inspired. '^ Notandam antem 
quod in bis nrbis Legionnm partibas fait diebns nostris yir 
qnidam Cambrensis, cni nomen MaUeras, fatomm parter et 
occnltomm scientiam babens." Giraldus Cambrensis, qnoted bj 
Leland, wbo adds : '^ Mira snnt immo inoredibiKa refeH de hoe 
Meilero'' (Heame's Leland^i Collectanea), 


That Griffin, son of Ivor, Lord of Seinghennydd, was 
a benefactor of Margam Abbey, is clear ; the Abbey 
Roll represents a grant by him to the Abbey of 100 
acres of arable, 12 of meadow, and common of pasture 
land at Lecwithe, the fisheries of Helei (Ely river), and 
common of pasture of Seinhei (Seinghennydd), etc. 
His body, and that of his mother Nesta, to be buried 
at Margam. 

Having no direct evidence as to the site of Pendar 
much must be left to conjecture. I have no doubt it 
is not in Margam, and certainly not the site of the 
Hermitage ; but I am inclined to think that Brother 
Meiler the hermit was its ruler, and not Meiler Awenydd. 
I have no doubt it was situated in or near the land of 
the Lord of Seinghenydd, with whom Meiler, the ruler 
of Pendar, seems to have had much influence. 

I have come to the conclusion that Pendar is Cefn 
Pennar. We have several examples of a letter being 
dropped in Welsh place-names — perhaps for the sake 
of euphony : thus, Cefn Pennar is easier for colloquial 
use than Cefn Pendar — so, probably, Pendar became 
Pennar. Thus Pengarth becomes Penarth, and in Gower 

Professor Rhys gives an example in his Lectures 
on Welsh Philology^ p. 361, in Llanol, the name of a 
farm in Anglesey, which, he says, is probably the name 
of an extinct church or chapel, and that it may be 
supposed to stand for Llanfol or Llanbol. Here the 
" f " or "b" is dropped, and the word becomes Llanol. 
The neighbouring house is Pembol. The accent in 
each — Pendar, Pennar, Penarth, Llanol, is on the last 
syllable. I am helped to this conclusion by the 
situation of the land given to Brother Meiler and the 
Brethren of Pendar^ by Caradoc Uerbeis. I was able, 
when Dr. Birch wrote asking me if I knew its situa- 
tion, to locate it as being in Llanwonno parish, and 
between the three stream^, the Ffrwd, the Clydach 

* Talbot MS8. No. 54. 


(Ynis-y-bwl district), and Llysnant, which joins the 
Clydach at Felin Gelly. These lands are just two 
miles south of Cwm Pennar, and it is probable that the 
lands belonging to Pendar joined them (see Plan, 
Fig. 1, lands marked a). On this land, some 1,200 
to 1,500 acres, we find on the Ordnance Map, north 
of the Ffrwd, the ruins marked " Mynachdy," on 
supposed site of monastery (see 6-in. Ordnance Sur- 
vey Sheet, XIX and XXVIII) ; and Capel Fynach- 
log is also marked and near by Glyn Mynachesau ; also 
there is Gelli Fynaches. Dr. Birch, in his History oj 
Margam Abbey, places the date of this deed as certainly 
anterior to a.d. 1147, which, being the date of the 
foundation of Margam Abbey, shows that the house of 
Pendar was founded first 

The ruins of a monastery on lands given to the 
Brethren of PendAr suggest either the removal from 
PendS^r or Pennar to the new site, or the establishment 
there of a branch house ; these lands being so near 
Cefn or Cwm Pennar strongly suggest to me that 
Pend4r and Pennar are one and the same place. 

The grant is by Caradoc Uerbeis, in perpetual 
almoign to God and St. Mary, and to the Cistercian 
Order and Brother Meiler and the Brethren of Pendir, 
of all his land between the three waters, Frutsanant, 
Cleudac, and Nantclokenig, in wood and plain, which 
wood is called Hlowenroperdeit, with concession of 
Margam, Caduwalan, and Meriedoc, sons of Caradoc, 
in whose fee the land stood, and of the grantors 
brothers, Joaf, Grunu, and Meuric, his son, and his 
wife Gwladys, for 20 sh, (see a on Map, Fig. 1). 

We have yet another deed suggesting the site of 
Pendar as being Cwm Pennar, or Cefn Pennar. This 
is the grant by Philip, son of Griffin, referred to on 
page 144. It gives to Margam Abbey by the hands of 
Brother Meiler of all the land of Eniseleueu,^ viz., 
from Pistilcoleu (Pistyll-goleu on the Clydach) to 
Charamaru (Cymmer), and as the road lies from Cham- 

^ Probably Ynys-oleu. 


maru to Killecheireh/ over the nearest hill next 
Luhmeneh,' stretching as far as the road leading to 
Frutroulin,' and from Frutreulin to Pistilcoleu and on 
to the river Taf ; and to Brother Meiler and the house of 
Pendar, all the pasturage in his land except cultivated 
lands and meadows, for 2 ^A., and reception of the 
grantor into the fraternity of Margam. The pasturages 
thus granted are all in the vicinity of Cefn Pennar, 
convenient for the grazing of the cattle of the house, 
and, therefore, to some extent it points to the site of 
Pendar being Cefn Pennar (see o on Map, Fig. 1). 

With reference to the question of hermits and their 
rule of life, we find in a Harley Charter, dated a.d. 
1205 {Talbot MSS., 288-10), recorded the confirmation 
to Margam Abbey by Morgan, the son of Caradoc, of a 
meadow which had belonged tx) the Hermit Coh, or 
Goch, in the Marsh of Avene. This gives us the name 
of another hermit, of probably the time of, and living 
perhaps with Meiler the hermit, at Theodoricus' 
Hermitage, and possessing land near by. I mention 
this as somewhat strengthening my idea of the hermits 
living as a conventual body. 

I have said the sand dunes are lonely ; the vast waste of sand 
is lonely at all times, but more especially so when the wind 
soughs through the rushes,^ as if couiplaining because they 
hinder it from carrying the sand with it for company on its way. 
After a storm you see traced on the smooth sand perfect semi- 
circles, sometimes complete circles; these are made by the 
points of the rushes, bent and circled around by the wind, as if 
to mark their protest at the rough treatment. In winter the 
rushes, for very dulness, put on their gray garb, reserving the 
green for the promise of spring. 

But it is at night, when the sad silent moon lights up the 
dunes and tints them cold and silvery, that they seem the more 
desolate, and the moan of the restless tide which hovers over 
the waste adds to the feeling of solitude which comes over you. 
In summer time the dunes have some beauty. Now and again 

1 (?) CSl-y-oeirw. 2 (p) Lli-j-mjuydi 

* Pfrwd-rhiw-veleuv 

* ProperLj sea sedge {Ammophila arundtnacea) 

«TH SIB., you m. 11 


you come across a bright orange-red flower^ in some of the 
hollows, contrasting pleasingly with the greenish-gray of the 
rushes. In some parts, too, on the landward margin of the 
dunes, are tiny wild dwarf-roses (Burnet or Scotch-rose, 
Bosa spinosissima), with pale-pink blossoms, which scatter their 
fragrance around, and nestle close to the sand for fear of the 
winds; small wild pansies (Viola tricolor) keep them company. 
Mingling with them is found the delicious dewberry {Rvhug 
caesius). The sea spurge (Euphorbia paraJias) is very abundant 
on the sands. 

As you approach the beach, and the sun shines brightly, 
occasional glimpes arc had of the bright blue of sea between the 
golden-coloured hills, and you are glad at a beantiful bit of 
scenery with such line difference of colour. These peeps of the 
sea tell you the sands are not limitless — an idea which comes 
over you as you pass hillock after hillock of the same yellow 
sand, with tufts of rushes which never vary in colour — and that 
you are not shut out entirely from the world of life and stir. 

You are wrong in thinkinj:^ there is no life in such a dreary 
waste. Sit quietly on a hillock, and soon a rabbit will come 
and look out from a hole higli up in the face of a steep sloping 
bank of sand in front of you ; if you move you just catch sight 
of the little white " scut,'* as bunny retreats to warn his family. 
If you sit on, your approach is forgotten — you had not come 
along without bunny scouts seeing you — and you will presently 
see rabbits come from their holes in all directions. Some scamper 
aimlessly off, others sit up for very joy of living, and for delight 
in having such a paradise for their own, with rich feeding-ground 
close at hand in the fields. But, if it happens to be windy, and 
you feel the driven sand sting you sharply in the face, as it will 
then, never a rabbit will you see ; he hears the roar of the wind 
outside his burrow, and lies close, perhaps by reason of thinking 
that in such a din his foe — man, stoat, or weasel — may steal a 
march on him. Hares speed past you, and the whirr of the 
pheasant is not absent You may be so fortunate as to see a 
Shellduck^ bringing her brood out of a deserted rabbit-hole, their 
home ; she is taking the ducklings for a bathe and a swim in 
the sea. Watch them waddle across the beach, and you will 
soon see the little family, with the mother, tossing about in the 
tumbling waters. Sir Ralph Payne-Gallwey, in Shooting, writes 
of the Shellduck (Shellduck or Shelldrake) : " We have seen a 
Shellduck, when the tide was low, unable to lead her brood to the 

^ One of the Iris species; it has sharp-edged and sword-like 
leaves. It may be Iris fcetidissima, although the blossom is not 
of the usual colour. ^ Tadoma comut(i. 


sea, cany them on her back, each duckling holding on by a 
feather, having, while she lay down, climbed up and ensconced 
themselves with the greatest ease." 

You will often startle a partridge with her little brood ; and 
very pretty they are as they scurry off to hide in the rushes. 

The solemn white owl loves the dunes, and a species of hawk 
hovers generally on the sea-side fringe of the dunes. I once 
had two from the dunes, and kept them for years : they became 
quite tame. The buzzard likes the dunes when small rabbits 
are about. 

Of course, the green plover, the " peewit" is there, flying in 
circles over your head with plaintive cry, at times approaching 
quite close — so close that you hear the fan-like hum of the 
wings, and so like a fan that the French name the bird 
" Vanneau." Here and there you come across a flat stone, with 
a little heap of broken shells by it. It is one of the slaughter- 
stones on which blackbird or thi^ush has cracked the shells of 
snails to get at the succulent food insida 

In the winter, when the sun is bright — as it is at times even 
in this land — and there is a bite of frost in the air, a walk 
among the dunes is pleasant ; but you have to walk with half- 
closed eyes, the sand, with the rime on it, glistens and dazzles 
so. At this time you hear the " honck-honck" of the grey 
geese, chiefly the " white-fronted."' and, I think, the " greyleg,*'^ 
which visit us from icy northern lands, as they fly high in the 
air overhead in their well-known wedge-like flight. I wish 
I could tell of all the birds we find there, but I do not know 
them by name. 

The beach, too, has somewhat of sadness about it, for up in the 
sand-hills, at its margin, partly embedded in the sand, are piled 
the wreckage of days gone by ; and as you walk along it you 
come across spars or parts of hulls that tell of recent wrecks and 
human suflFering. If you are laggard, and evening still finds you 
there, the sea looks black and the sand hills assume weird 
shapes ; then it becomes uncanny, and you are glad to hasten 
your steps homeward ; the only sound of life is a quick rustling 
of the rushes, now and again as a rabbit starts off frightened at 
your footsteps. 

Such, then, is the scene amid which the ruins of the ancient 
Grange have remained so long hidden. The ruins, as you look 
upon them, add in your thoughts to the desolateness of the 
place. You wonder what catastrophe could have piled up moun- 
tains of sand over and around them, and driven the brethren 
back to the Abbey home. The catastrophe happened so long 

^ Ansfr alhifrons, ^ Ansa* dnereus. 


ago, that it is difficult to realise that six hundred years well- 
nigh had passed since faces had looked out from those dormer 
windows, and since people had passed in and out of the dwelling, 
and went up the same steps we can go up to-day. 

The dwellers there thought, when the fierce Welshmen from 
the hills came and destroyed their cattle, that worse could not 
befall them. But worse still was to come : the blinding, irresis- 
tible sand enemy came like an avalanche, to drive them away, 
and to hide for so long and so completely their home, that even 
the name of the Grange was no more to be seen in the Abbey 
Charters as of old ; and the monks wondered, as they wandered 
over the desolate waste, where its position had been. 

It is long since the brethren, hearing cries from the ship- 
wrecked, used to hasten to the rescue ; and it is long since the 
cry for help came wailing to the Grange from Susannah and her 
companions in their ill-&ted voyage. No brethren hastened to 
their help while they battled for life in the furious surf, for even 
before this they had gone, driven away by a ruthless enemy, and 
the Grange lay hidden under its winding-sheet of sand, and the 
cries were unheeded. 

Close upon six hundred years have passed since then, and yet 
we know the names of those who perished. They were Philip 
Filias, Thomas de Wallare, John le Kede, John de Chorchehey, 
Thomas de Penmark, Henry le Glovare, and a girl named 

The Abbot and Lord William La Zousche,Lord of Glamorgan, 
fought ever the wreck, and the case was tried in the County 
Court, at Cardiff, on January 18th, 1333. The Abbot won, for 
the jury found that he had the right of wreck, '' a tempore quo 
non extat memoria." 

The great Abbot, probably John de Cantelo, became the 
owner of the boat, valued at 40«., three bales of wool, 60^., a 
small box, and a cask worth 8d} He was glad of even this 
windfall, so much had the sand impoverished him. 

The rush which grows on the sand is the arundo arenaria ;^ 
planting it is the only means of stopping the drifting of the 
sand. It grows freely, throwing out in all directions long 
underground stems or rhizomes, which bind and hold fast the 
hillocks, which would otherwise only too gladly accompany 
the wild winds from the sea. 

For some reason, the planting of this rush was abandoned for 
years, and, in consequence, hundreds of acres of land were 

^ To arrive at the value of these sums to-day we should mnltiplj 
tbom by ten or fifteen. 

^ Linnaend. Now called Ammophtla arundinacea. 


covered by sand. The late Mr. Talbot tried hedges of brushwood 
in lines along the sands ; but the sand made light of them, and, 
Uke boys who wishing to reach their prey over a wall, cause 
some to bend against it, as in leap-frog, then others to mount 
and over, piled itself against the obstruction, and soon enabled 
the later-coming sand to pass over and on in its career of 
destruction. Planting was afterwards resumed and the sands 

I here offer my grateful thanks to Miss Talbot for 
her assistance in enabling me to uncover the ruins, and 
to Dr. de Gray Birch for allowing me to draw so freely 
as I have from his Histories of Margam and Neatn 
Abbey ; and 1 also beg to thank Mr. J. T. Mickle- 
thwaite for his valuable information, and Mr. Edward 
Roberts, Swansea, for his help in elucidating the mean- 
ing of place-names — in this ne is a master. 

These fragmentary notes are compiled in the hope 
that they may lead to the discovery of the actual 
site of Pendar. I had hoped to keep Pendar for 
Margam, but so far I have been unsuccessful 

I head these notes as First Part, hoping I may some 
day be able to give Part Two. 




CoNSiDERABLK attention has recently been directed to 
what is perhaps the best known collection of Welsh 
pedigrees still remaining in manuscript, the Golden 
Grove Book (in four volumes), now the property of the 
earl of Cawdor ; and there appears to be fair hope of 
settling jsonie of the questions to which it has given 
rise — questions relating to its authorship and its 

In the number of our Journal for October, 1898 
(5th Ser., vol. xv, p. 377), Mr. Stepney-Gulston drew 
attention to " this extremely interesting manuscript," 
gave a brief account of its arrangement, of its supp<ied 
compiler, of its past possessors and present owners ; and 
suggested **that if any enterprismg person, society, 
or firm of publishers, obtaining permission, could sec 
their way to the reproduction of the said Golden Grove 
Book in a printed fonn, it would undoubtedly prove 
of inestimable value to all those interested in the 
genealogical history of Wales." 

In the next volume but one of our Journal (5th Ser., 
voL xvii, p. 277, October, 1900), in the course of an 
article under the somewhat misleading title, " Welsh 
Records/' Mr. J. Pym Yeatman dealt with the author- 
ship of the Golden Grove Book; and, whatever maybe 
thought of that gentleman's argument, or of his con- 
clusions, it must be admitted that his was the first 
real attempt to grapple with the important and funda- 
mental questions of its source, date, and authorship. 

"Take," says Mr. Yeatman (p. 279), "the 
Golden Grove Book, almost the latest of the great 
[Welsh pedigree] authorities; that is obviously 
drawn from many sources, and a list is given to 


distinguish some of them (since they are only 
quoted in the body of the book by initials), but 
this list curiously omits the two leading lights 
which inspired it, William Lewis and David Ed- 
wards, whose notes are passim ; both of them are 
constantly referred to, and generally by name, so 
that it was unnecessary to mention them amongst 
the list of the initialed. It is well known to Welsh- 
men that William Lewis, of Llwynderw, * copied 
Edwards' works and arranged them on a new 
method, setting the one under the different chief- 
tains, and the others together in a separate volume/ 
This is stated by Edward Prothero, junior, under 
date August 12th, 1842, in a series of letters, to 
be found with the volumes now in the Bodleian 
Library, under Additional C, 177. Now this is 
precisely the arrangement of the Golden Grove 
Bookf so that it is obvious that the writer, as 
he acknowledges, had access to Edwards, though 
possibly through his copyist Lewis/' 

Mr. Yeatman next traces the fortunes of the genealo- 
gical manuscripts of David Edwards, of Rhyd-y-gors, 
satisfactorily proving that several of the volumes now 
in the Heralds' College, called the Prothero MSS. 
(because they were purchased from Mr. Edward 
Prothero), and certain others in the Bodleian at Oxford, 
catalogued as Additional C 177-179, at one time con- 
stituted one complete and connected collection, which 
had been formed by Mr. Edwards, of Rhyd-y-gors, in 
the county of Carmarthen, who towards the end of the 
seventeenth century had acted as deputy to one of the 
OflBcers of Arms. Mr. Yeatman, after exposing the 
ignorance of the Heralds* College authorities of the 
Golden Grove Book, as well as of their own volumes, 
observes : — 

" A visit to the Bodleian resulted in finding 
Edwards' five^ volumes there, with Prothero's 

^ Qucei'e three. 


account of his sale of the others to Heralds' 
College. That Prothero's not very positive beliet 
that the whole of the volumes in both collections 
were the work of David Edwards, was accurate, 
has been proved by the aid of photography, the 
University authorities (unlike some Welsh owners 
of MSS.) having very generously permitted photo- 
graphs to be made of parts of these books, which 
prove that they formed part of the collection at 
Heralds' College, and were in the same hand- 

Mr. Yeatman then proceeds to deal with the con- 
nection, which he had already shown to exist, between 
David Edwards's volumes and the Golden Grove Book. 
Prothero (according to Mr. Yeatman's rather confused 
account) seems to have thought Edwards's volumes to 
have been *' only rough copies of some better books," 
and to have considered the Golden Grove Book to be 
the, or ** some" of the, ** better books." Mr. Yeatman's 
conclusion is different. He adduces ** ample evidence 
to show a common origin between the Golden Grove 
Book and David Edwards ; or, rather, that Edwards 
was the groundwork of the other, and that he made 
his book up from the older authorities, probably pre- 
sented to him through William Lewis." 

I now leave Mr. Yeatman for a brief space, in order 
to draw attention to the latest pronouncement upon 
the Golden Grove Book, contained in an article in ITie 
Ancestor (No. 4, January 1903), upon "The Value 
of Welsh Pedigrees," by Mr. H. J. T. Wood. The 
object of this writer is thus stated in his own words : — 
"At first sight it is undoubtedly an astounding proposi- 
tion that an eighteenth-century MS. such as the Golden 
Grove, should be a good authority for eleventh- and 
twelfth-century pedigrees; yet that there are good 
primd facie reasons for such being the case, I hope 
to show in the present article." How far Mr. Wood 
has succeeded in demonstrating his highly hazardous 


proposition, I will not stay at this moment to inquire.^ 
What he has to say concerning the Golden Grove Book, 
is as follows : — 

" This is the latest and tnost accessible of the 
general collections of Welsh pedigrees ;^ it appears 
to have been compiled in the years 1752-65, and 
contains some later additions, chiefly in the hand- 
writing of Theophilus Jones, who used it for his 
History of Breconsldre, published in 1805, and 
states in effect that it is the book of the Arwydd- 
feirdd (Chief Bard),'* taken by command of the 
Earl of Carberry/ Mr. Pym Yeatman names 
Evan Evans as the compiler/ It is certainly not 
by Hugh Thomas, as stated by Mr. Horwooa,* for 

^ As indicating Mr. Wood's competence for his task, and know- 
ledge of WoIkIi historical anthorities, I qaote the following remark : 
**It is possible that the arguments advanced with respect to the 
later ones [t.^., to Welsh pedigrees of later date than the ' passing' 
of the Uiws of Howell Dda] are applicable to them [t.e., those earlier 
than that period], at all events for some time previous to this date 
[i.D. 942] ; since the laws of Howell Dda are known to have been 
founded on those of Djfnwal Moelmud, who probablj flourished 
about A.O. 400, though there was another chieftain of the same 
name, who is said to have lived about eight hundred years earlier." 
And Mr. Wood calmlj proceeds to quote as from documents ''of an 
earl J date and considerable authority," the late sixteenth- or early 
seventeenth-century forgeries, known as the Moelmutian Triads. 
As for two Dyfnwal Moelmuds, one living B.C. 400, the other 
A.O. 400, even if we admit the existence of one, there is not the 
slightest justification for Mr. Wood's adoption of the bipartient 
methods of Solomon. 

' It is, of course, not more accessible than any of the British 
Museum collections. 

' This shows that knowledge of Welsh, in which language all the 
early collections of our pedigrees are written {vide Dr. Gwenogvryn 
Evans's Catalogue of the Peniarth Library)^ is not amongst the 
qualifications of Mr. Wood for estimating ''the Value of Welsh 

* (NoU by Mr. Wood). Vol. ii, p. 140, and cp. p. 139 with the 
Golden Grove, G. 1080. 

* {NoU by Mr. Wood). NoUs and Queries, Ser. 9, v. 359. [Mr. 
Wood is evidently ignorant of Mr. Yeatman's later and more 
elaborate article in this Journal.] 

* {IfoU by Mr. Wood). Second RepoH of the Historical MSS. Com- 
mission. Appendix, p. 31. 

158 THE "golden oeovb book*' 

he died in 1720 ; but it is possible that some 
of his MSS. are now bound up with it/ On going 
through the pedigrees, it will be seen that certain 
dates in the seventeenth century constantly occur. 
In the case of Breconshire these are 1644 and 
1686, the dates at which the collections of pedigrees 
of Richard Williams, of Llywel, sometimes known 
as Dick Howell Williams, and David Edwards, 
ot Rhyd y gors, are known to have been made,* so 
that it would seem that the immediate source of 
the Golden Grove was, as regards Breconshire, the 
work of these two genealogists. A similar state 
of affairs is found in regard to the other counties,' 
the conclusions being that the Golden Grove is a 
copy and continuation of pedigrees drawn up in 
the seventeenth century. Going further back, 
references will be found to various other pedigree 
writers under their initials (a list of thirty has 
been insei*ted by Jones at the beginning of the 
fii-st volume) ;* so that it would appear that the 
book, in its present form, contains a continuous 
series of additions made to existing pedigrees, 
each addition being within the reasonable know- 
ledge of its author, and is not a collection of pedi- 
grees made at a late date, and therefore of little 
Mr. Wood does not carry us much further than Mr. 

Yeatman had already taken us, and we will accordingly 

return to the latter gentleman. 

^ This is not the case. 

2 It would be interesting to know Mr. Wood's anthority for this 
statement The dates are, no doabt, approximately, if not actually, 
correct ; but it would be well to substantiate the point. 

* Not of North Wales. The families of Gwynedd are summed 
up very briefly, and the careless manner in which, this part has been 
written betokens either a summary closure of the scribe's labours, 
or lack of interest on the part of the writer he was copying from in 
families of whom he knew nothing. 

^ This list of '* authorities " is not in the hand of Theophilus Jones, 
but in that of the individual whose initials '' K E." are at the foot 
of the same folio. 


Nowhere in his paper does Mr. Yeatman give the 
date at which William Lewis (or " Lewes," which was 
the spelling he most frequently affected) flourished. Of 
David Edwards, he says that he was appointed deputy 
to Sir Henry St. George, Clarencieux, on August 1st, 
1684, "and it was probably not his first appointment ; 
he appears to have ceased to act in 1686, the later 
pedigrees [in his volumes in the Heralds' College and 
Bodleian] not being his work." But it is clear that for 
present purposes Mr. William Lewes is the more impor- 
tant personage, and upon him, therefore, we will con- 
centrate our attention. Now, scattered amongst the 
collections of Hugh Thomas, the Breconshire herald 
and antiquary, in the British Museum, are several 
letters of William Lewes, written to his friend and 
fellow genealogist, Hugh Thomas, then living in London. 
The volume, entitled Harleian 6831, is thus described 
in the Museum Catalogue : ** A large folio containing 
Mr. Hugh Thomas's Genealogical History of the 
Ancient Nobility and Gentry of Wales, and of several 
families descended thence now living in England ;" and 
this is followed by another title, which has nothing to 
do with the volume to which it is presumed to refer. 
Of any attempt to set forth its actual contents there 
has hitherto been none, though it has been dipped into 
by many historical workers and pedigree-hunters. In 
the course of compiling A Catalogue of the Manuscnpts 
relating to Wales in the British Museum for the Honour- 
able Society of Cymmrodorion, I have just finished an 
exhaustive calendar of its contents ; and, as directly 
bearing upon the matter in hand, I quote the following 
passage irom a letter written to Hugh Thomas by 
Mr. William Lewes, of Llwynderw, which will be found 
at folio 307. The date is January 19th, 1709-10 :— 

'*You will receive herein an extract of the 
pedegree you desir'd taken out of the rough 
drawght of Mr. Edward's out of Mr. Rich'd W'ms 
booke. If I have bin any way short in it be 


f leased to communicate y'r further thoughts, and 
shall endeavour y'r satisfac on. I am weary long 
since of these unprofitable studies, w'ch the bad 
disposition of the times and the prodigious ignor- 
anse of most of the gentry in these parts have so 
much decry 'd and undervalued that it were almost 
madness in any man to concern himself in such an 
affair. I had it in my thoughts heretofore to 
transcribe all ye genealogies that I have dispersed 
confusedly in severall oookes into one or two 
volumes in another method then [than] Mr. 
Edwards or those before him have done ; that is, 
to put all ye descendants of a patriarch in the 
same booke, viz., for instance, the descendants of 
Kradoc Vreichvras, as Bledhin ap Maynarch, Drym 
panog, Woogans, Griff. Gwyr, &c., in one continued 
series, and the title in every page thereof to be 
inscribed Kradoc Vreichvras. But res angusta 
domi obstructed that design, tho' I have made a 
considerable progress in it, being not enabFd to 
keep an amanuensis or to travell forreign counties 
for further knowledge therein.'* 

It will be observed that this letter contains practi- 
cally the same passage as that which Mr. Yeatman has 
already quoted from a letter of Mr. Edward Prothero, 
junior. It is therefore clear that either Lewes had 
written an identical letter to some other of his corres- 
pondents, which letter came into Prothero's hands, or 
(which is the more probable) that Frothere had seen 
the letter in the Harleian volume, and had made a 
copy or an abstract of it. Now I quite agree with 
Mr. Yeatman that the arrangement of pedi^ees here 
described is the arrangement of the Golaen Grave 
Book, and that the author of that book must have 
drawn his material from either Edwards or Lewes. 
The letter of Mr. William Lewes, however, carries us 
much beyond the point at which we had arrived with 
Mr. Yeatman. In the first place, we find that Mr. 



Edwards had not thought of such an arrangement, and 
that the order and sequence of the pedigrees in the 
Golden Grove volumes are due to Lewes alone, who, by 
the end of 1 709, had " made a considerable progress" 
with his new method. Secondly, we learn that Mr. 
Lewefs had come into possession of some of Edwards's 
"rough drawghts;" and, thirdly, that these in turn 
hiid been taken from the book, or books, of Mr. 
Richard Williams, of Lly wel, co. Brecon. In several of 
his letters to Hugh Thomas, William Lewes refers to the 
genealogical work of Richard Williams, and it is evident 
that he placed considerable confidence in his pedigrees.^ 
Mr. Lewes had also other authorities ; for, in a post- 
script to the letter from which I have quoted, he 
observes : " I can't find in all ye bookes I have, neither 
in a transcript of M'r Ro. Vaughan's Ludlow booke, nor 
in Mr. Edwards' booke of Norman adventurers any 
armes assigned to S'r Hugh Surd wall, kt., lord of 

^ Hugh Thomas (Harleian 4181, 
this Bichard Williams as follows : — 

f. 1006) gives the descent of 

David Goch of Baylie in Trayan Qla8=FQwoDllian dau. of Jenldn David ap 

in Lhyuel. 


Jevan, etc. 


Jonet dau. of Roger =Tbo. David Jenkin D'd= 
Jenkin Rbys Qooh Qoch, of Qoch. 

ap Jenkin Prichard, Baylie. 
of Aberyskir. 

Angharad, dau. of Jeukin= 
Jevan dby. 


WiUiam=^Angharad dau. 



of Jenkin D'd 

Hoel William of Llywel ; 
living 1644. 

Jenkin Thomas. 

Margaret, = Thomas 
dau. of Jenkin, 
Griffith of Devy- 
Boweo, of nog, a 
Dcvynog. tailor. 

Richard Williams, of Lhywel, attorney-at-law, and a 
great Berald, often mentioned by the letters, Mr. 
R. W., of Lhandhew, and by the letters, D. fl. W., 
that is, Dick Hoel Williams. He was a most notori- 
ous adulterer, and a most subtill lawyer. He mar- 
ried Nest, dau. to Thomas Sevan of 

Gwenllian, sole heiress of Lhanthew,=: Thomas Gones 
which her father purchased and (? Jones or 
left her. Games). 


It is pretty well agreed by those who have ex- 
amined the Golden Grove Book, that it is no more 
than a copy, and probably a slavish copy, of some 
other collection ; and I think it will be allowed that 
the evidence is strongly in favour of the paternity of 
Mr. Lewes's work. It is obvious that this point cannot 
be absolutely settled until Mr. Lewes's " one or two 
volumes," arranged according to " another method than 
Mr. Edwards or those before him," are discovered ; and 
the question therefore arises. What has become of the 
Llwynderw manuscripts ? An excellent little work 
entitled Hanes Plwyfi Llangeler a Phenhoyr (1899), 
written by Mr. Daniel E. Jones, Llandyssul, gives some 
information on the subject. It is there stated — Llwyn- 
derw being a farmstead within the former parish — 
that Mr. William Lewes flourished from about 1680 
to 1760. He was the fourth son of John Lewes, 
of Llysnewydd, and married Cecily, the daughter of 
leuan David Lloyd, M. A., of Llandyssul, and owner of 
Llwynderw, of which place Lewes became leaseholder. 
Duriug his residence there he brought together a 
number of books and manuscripts which the Rev. 
Theophilus Evans, the author oi Drych y Prif Oesoeddy 
characterised as the finest collection within his know- 
ledge. He died childless. The greater part of the 
manuscripts, together with the printed books, found 
their way, according to the author of the work 
just mentioned, into the British Museum. This, I 
think, must be an error — at any rate, so far as concerns 
the manuscripts. It is also said that Dr. Gwenogvryn 
Evans, in 1897, came across several of the Lewes MSS. 
at the Heralds' College amongst the Prothero collection, 
and this statement there need be no hesitation in ac- 
cepting as absolutely accurate. One thick manuscript 
volume {cyfrol drwchus) of pedigrees is at present in 
the possession of Lieut. -Col. Lewes, of Llysnewydd. 
It should not be forgotten that Mr. Lewes never was 
an Officer of Arms; so that his work, however dis- 
tinguished it may be, has not the cachet which attaches 


to the infinitely less valuable collections of Hugh 

We next come to the point, Who was the copyist 
of the Golden Grove Book ? The volumes have been 
ascribed to the hand of Hugh Thomas, a conjecture 
which Mr. Yeatman has shown to be impossible.* 
That gentleman, the only critic who has not rested 
content with the imaginings of others, thinks the 
writer was the Rev. Evan Evans, distinguished 
amongst his contemporaries by the bardic title ** leuan 
Brydydd Hir." "It is of his period, dated 1751-1771, 
and is initialed as the work of E. E.'' It is truo, as Mr. 
Yeatman observes, that some of the pedigrees are 
brought down to the second half of the eighteenth 
century, and that this is just the period of the Rev. 
Evan Evans. But Mr. Yeatman appears to have 
hit upon the unfortunate Prydydd Hir only because 
he could not find another *' E. E." of that period to 
whom, with any degree of probability, he could ascribe 
the writing of t\\Q Book. Yet Evan Evans, the poet, 
is not known to have had any taste for pedigrees ; not 
a word referring to the considerable labour that the 
copying of the four volumes would necessarily entail 
can be found in his letters, or in those of his contem- 
poraries. His handwriting is also very different to that 
of the Golden Grove Book. I have, therefore, been 
unable to accept Mr. Yeatman's identification.* There 

^ It is Qsaally assumed that Hugh Thomas's province as Deputy- 
Herald comprised the whole of South Wales. This was not so ; the 
coanties of Cardigan and Radnor were outside his jurisdiction. 

^ Mr. Stepney-Gulston {Arch, Camb., loc. ciL) states that p. 1372 
of the Golden Qrove Book ends with the note : ** 23 Nov. 1760, com- 
piled by Hugh Thomas, Deputy Garter King of Arms 1703." No 
8Qch note appears upon that page, nor have I been able to discover 
it. It can, of course, be no more than a reference to a pedigree 
drawn up by Hugh Thomas in the year 1 703. 

* My friend, Mr. J. H. Da vies, barrister-at-law, points out to me 
that it will not do to dismiss the claims of the Hev. Evan Evans 
too cavalierly. The poet can be proved from his correspondenoe to 
have been in the neighbourhood of Llwynderw during the summer 
of 1765 ; but he was back at Llanfair Talhaiarn, in Denbighshire, 


is, however, little doubt that the copyist was a person 
bearing the initials " K E.** He has written at the 
foot of the first leaf of the work, ** Carmarthen, July 
1765, E. E.," which evidently commemorates the day 
upon which he commenced or ended his labours. 
Now, this is not long after the death of Mr. Lewes, 
the exact date of whose decease is unknown, the parish 
registers of the period 1755-1760 being wanting. It 
has already been stated that Mr. Lewes married Cecily 
Lloyd, who died childless. He next married Catharine 
Pryce, of Rhydybenau, which union also proving fruit- 
less, he adopted a niece, Ann Beynon, the daughter of 
John Beynon, of Trewern. She survived him, and in 1762 
married the Rev. Richard Thomas, rector of Llanfyrnacb, 
who took up his residence at Llwynderw. No children 
having blessed their union, the pair adopted a nephew, 
John Beynon, afterwards a successful lawyer, and a 
niece, Elizabeth Beynon. The latter married Walter 
Pryce, of Rhydybenau, on November 15th, 1764. The 
entry in the parish register relating to their marriage 
is given in Jones's Hanes Plmyji Idangeler a Phenboyr, 
p. 128. The witnesses signing the register are William 
Beynon and Emanuel Evans. In tne latter I would 
recognise the copyist of the Golden Grove Book 

A letter of inquiry addressed to the local historian, 
Mr. Daniel E, tJones, was returned to me with the 
notification that he had left the neighbourhood. A 
second communication to the Rev. W. Williams, vicar 
of Llangeler, brought a courteous reply to the effect 
that the signatures of the two witnesses were almost 

by the end of September, after a detention for a whole month at 
Bala by reason of illness. It is cnrions that in the letter to 
Mr. Richard Morris, from which the above partionlars have been 
gathered, the poet shonld end his epistle with the words : '* I con- 
tinue still at my leisure honrs to transcribe old MSS., and hate 
collected a great many notes to illustrate Jfenniut^ which, please 
Ood I lire and be well, shall be one day or other published*' {Gwaitk 
Jeuan Brydydd JBir, p. 200). But not a word about having in hand, 
or in anticipation, the transcription of Mr. William Lewes's new 
arrangement of pedigrees. 

OV P£l)IGRfi£S. 165 

certainly written by them respectively, and a rough 
tracing of that of Emanuel Evans. After careful com- 
parison with the Golden Grove Book, I have no doubt 
of the identity of the hands. The circumstances 
which led to the writing of the volumes may well 
have been the following : — Both David Edwards, 
of Rhyd-y-gors, and William Lewes, of Llwynderw, 
died without issue. The manuscripts of the former 
were speedily dispersed, a number of volumes going 
into the possession of Mr. Lloyd, of AUtyrodyn (spelt 
" AUtyncfine" by Mr. Yeatman), in the parish of Llan- 
dyssil, CO. Cardigan, from a descendant of which family 
they were purchased by Mr. Edward Prothero, to be 
again sold by him to the Heralds* College. Three 
volumes (Mr. Yeatman says five) are in the Bodleian 
Library at Oxford. Several volumes remained in the 
Edwards' family, according to the account of Mr. 
Prothero, quoted by Mr. Yeatman. Others, perhaps 
the major share, came to Mr. Lewes. The Lewes col- 
lection, in its turn, was scattered far and wide in a few 
years after the death of its patient collector and com- 

f>iler. But it is most likely that this did not take place 
at any rate, so far as relates to the "one or two 
volumes" which Mr. Lewes had written in 1709-10 **in 
another method") until after they had been copied by 
"E. E."in 1765. 

Of this *'E, E.," or Emanuel Evans, as I take him to 
be, I have been able to discover nothing certain. I think 
he was of the family of Pensingrug, in the parish of Llan- 
geler.^ This is, however, no more than conjecture, which 
I hope one of our Carmarthenshire members will either 
substantiate or demolish. One thing is certain, namely, 

^ An extraordiDary attempt of some members of tbis family to 
claim descent from Sir Walter Havard, *' a Norman knight, who 
came from Havre de Chrace, in France, in 1056/' and from ** Roderick 
the Great, about the ninth century," fortified by references to the 
Lewes' MSS., is exposed in Jones's Uanes Plufyfi Llangeler a Fhenhoyr, 
p. 137. The family of Pensingrug, during the eighteenth centnry, 
delighted in a peculiar selection of truly ** Christian" names; 
Meuosalem, Luther, and Joshua occur. 

Ora BBB., VOL. ni. 12 

166 THE ''golden grovb book" 

that Emanuel Evans was intimately acquainted with the 
Llwynderw family, for he witnesses to the marriage of 
Elizabeth Beynoii, great-niece to Mr. William Lewes, 
about four years after the death of the genealogist. 
Nothing would be more natural than that he should 
have taken a copy of Mr. Lewes's magnum opus — the 
value and originality of which must have been well 
known^-either upon his own account, or for a wealthy 
patron. It is hardly likely that this patron was the 
Earl of Carberry, as suggested by Theophilus Jones — a 
suggestion apparently accepted by Mr. Wood — inas- 
much as that earldom had become extinct in 1712.* It 
is, of course, possible that the copy may have been made 
several years prior to the date which it bears, but 
against such a contention is the fact that the rest of 
the volumes appear to be strictly contemporary with 
the date "July, 1765,'' written on the first page; 
and if the transcript had been executed during the 
lifetime of Mr. Lewes, it would almost certainly bear 
traces of his amendments or additions. 

Of its fortunes, until it came into the possession of 
the house of Cawdor, I am entirely ignorant, nor am I 
able to improve upon the speculations of Mr. Yeatman 
on the courae it may have run. It may not be amiss to 
add to his suggestions a connection between Rhyd-y-gors 
and Stackpole Court created by the marriage of one 
of the collateral descendants of David Edwards, the 
herald, with a member of the family of CampbelL* 

^ It should be observed, on behalf of Tbeophilos Jones, thai he 
does not, even " in effect", say that the book " taken by command of 
the Earl of Carberry*' was the one now known as Th< Golden Grove 
Book, although I am disposed to agree with Mr. Wood that this is 
what he meant What he actually does say (dealing with the 
pedigree of Wilkins of Lanqaian, Hisf. of Brecknockshire, old ed. ii, 
139-40; new ed., 238) is :— " A MS. in the handwriting of Mr. 
Thomas Wilkins, Rector of St Mary's Charch, differs from the etHy 
part of this pedigree, as does Spencer's Survey, but I copy the MS. 
from the broks of the Arwydd-feirdd," taken by command of the 
Earl of Carberry,which I have generally found correct." 

^ I have appended a pedigree of the family of Bhyd-y-gors, which, 
with its ramifications, should be of interest to Carmarthenshbre i 
It ought to be easy to bring it up to date. 

OF PBDiaRBES. 167 

It is, perhaps, too soon to attempt to estimate the 
authority to be attached to The Golden Grove Book as 
a collection ©f pedigrees. We know too little of the 
great mediaeval collections of the true Arwydd-feirdd, 
upon which it and most of the other late collections pro- 
fess to be founded. We do not know how closely David 
Edwards, Richard Williams, and William Lewes followed 
their predecessors, or how far they were amenable to 
those influences that render much of the work of the 
regular Officers of Arms of the second half of the six- 
teenth, and first half of the seventeenth, centuries, 
absolutely unreliable. Of original authority it has 
not a scrap, apart from the additions to many of the 
pedigrees which its copyist, or Theophilus Jones (to 
whom it was lent for many years), were enabled to 
supply from their personal knowledge. As one who 
knows the Welsh pedigree manuscripts at the British 
Museum pretty thoroughly, I may be permitted the 
remark that I am inclined to rate The Golden Grove 
Book rather low, though decidedly higher than the 
pedigree collections of Hugh Thomas. While echoing 
Mr. Stepney-Gulston's longing to have it in print, I am 
bound to say that I do not think it would satisfy the 
desire of those who wish to see Welsh heraldry and 
genealogy fixed upon a true historic basis. This will 
never be until we have a scientifically-edited version, 
or, better still, a facsimile, of one of the magnificent 
collections of pedigrees formed before the genealogically- 
* spacious' days of Elizabeth, of which there are several 
volumes in the great library at Peniarth. 

In placing the volumes in the Public Record Office, 
and in permitting them to be freely examined there, the 
late and present noble owners have conferred a great 
boon upon Welsh genealogists ; but I cordially agree 
with Mr. Yeatman in thinking that if Lord Cawdor 
would transfer them to the British Museum, upon the 
same liberal conditions, their value to students would 
be immensely enhanced, because of the opportunities of 
comparison with other collections which the great 
Bloomsbury institution alone affords. 




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( Continued from page 8 1 . ) 




Boute. — Carriages left the Bulwark at 9 a.m., and took the road, 
which goes in a westerly direction up the valley of the Usk, 
along the south bank, through Llanfaes and Llanspyddyd, as far 
as Penpont, where the river was crossed in order to reach 
Trallwng, the point furthest away from Brecon. The return 
journey from Trallwng was made in an easterly direction, 
along the north bank of the Usk to Y Gaer {Banniutn\ thence 
turning north-east by Penoyre to Llandefaelog-fach, and back 
to Brecon. Pen-y-crug was visited on foot from Penoyre. In 
the afternoon, the churches of Brecon were visited on foot 

Luncheon was provided at Penoyre, by invitation of R. D. 
Cleasby, Esq. 

The following objects of interest were visited : — 

Llanspyddyd [Church and early Crossed Stone). 

Aberbran {Ancient Mansion, belonging formerly to the Game family). 

Trallwng (Church and Ogam Inscribed Stone), 

Y Gaer {Roman Station of Bannium and Afaen-y-Morwynion). 

Battle {Maenhir), 

Penoyre (Residence of R, D. Cleasby, Esq,, and Roman Inscribed Stone). 

Pen-y-Crug (Ancient British Camp), 

Llandefaelog-fach (Church and erect Cross-Slab of Briamail), 

Brecon (St, John's Priory Church). 

Btecon St. Mary's Parish Church), 



Boute. — Carriages left the Bulwark at 9 a.m., proceeding by road 
north-east to Talgarth, thence south to Llangorse, and west 
back to Brecon. 


Luncheon was provided at Gwernyfed, by invitation of Col. T. 
Wood ; and Tea at Llangorse, by invitation of Col. R. D. Garnons- 

The following objects of interest were Visited : — 

Uanddew (Church and Mtdiaval Inscribed Cross-Slab). 

Llanvillo {Unrestored Churchy with Rood-left and Norman Doorway, with 

Sculptured Lintel), 
Biynllys {Castle and Church), 
Talgarth (Church), 

Gwernyfed (Mansion of seventeenth century), 
Llangorse (Church with Inscribed Stones and Crannog). 



Boute. — Carriages left the Bulwark at 9 A.M., taking the high road 
down the Usk valley in a south-easterly direction to Glanusk 
Park, and making a slight detour to reach Llanfihangel 
CwM-DU and Tretower. The return journey from Glanusk 
Park to Brecon was made along the road on the opposite 
bank of the Usk, through Llanthetty and Llanfrynach. 

Luncheon was provided at Glanusk Park, by invitation of the 

The following objects of interest were visited : — 

Uanhamlach (Church and Inscribed Stone of Moridic), 

Scelhrog (** I'ictorinus'* Inscribed Stone). 

Llansantfifread (Church and Grave of Henry Vau^han^ the Silurist). 

Pen-y-gaer (Roman (f) Camp), 

Llanfihangel Cwm-d(i (Church, with Rood-screen, and Inscribed Stone of Catacus, 

the son of Tegemacus), 
Tretower {Church, Castle, fortified Mansion, and Roman Inscribed Stones). 
Glanusk Park (the residence of the Rt, Hon, Lord Glanusk; Ogam Inscribed 

Llanthetty (Church and Inscribed Stone of Gurdon the Priest), 
Pencelli (Remains of Castle), 
Llanfiynach (Church and Inscribed Stone), 



Bonte. — The members assembled at the Railway Station at 8.10 a.m., 
and were conveyed by train in a westerly direction up the 
valley of the Usk to DevvNock, and thence by carriage further 
west to Llvwel. The return journey was made by the same 


"^^"t? *^ . 9. . .^. ..:>... 1^ 


Erect Cross-slab of Moridic at Llanharolach* 

ftHfiCOlf l4EfthNa— EXClTRStOKS. 173 

route. In the afternoon, the remaining antiquities of Brecon, 
besides the churches, were visited on foot. 

LuNCHBON was provided at Ffrwdgrech, by invitation of David 
Evans, Esq. 

The following objects of interest were visited : — 

Devynock (Ckutrk and Inscribed Stone), 

Trecastle {Earthworks (f Norman Castle), 

Llywd {Church), 

Ffrwdgrech ( The residence of David Evans, Esq. ; collection of Roman Antiqui- 
ties from Bannium), 

Brecon {Remains of Castle and Town Walls, Newton House, and Christs 


Prehistoric Eemains. — The prehistoric antiquities seen during 
the excursions were inferior, both in quantity and quality, to those in 
other parts of Wales where the meetings of the Association have 
been held It is not altogether easy to explain this ; certainly, it 
would be unsafe to assume that all the important monuments have been 
destroyed. The prehistoric remains visited on the first day com- 
prised only a maenhir, or standing stone, near Battle, and an ancient 
British hill-fort of the usual type, called the CrOg, lying two miles 
north-west of Brecon. On the second day the site of the crannog, 
or lake-dwelling, discovered on a small island near the shore of 
Llangorse Lake, by the Rev. E. N. Dumbleton, in 1869, was 
examined. It is interesting as being almost the only example in 
Wales of a kind of pile structure which is common in Ireland, 
Scotland, and Switzerland. All that can now be seen is a row of 
piles sticking up above the surface of the water. On the same day, 
had time permitted, the party should have seen the remains of a 
chambered cairn on Manest Farm, a mile south-west of Tal-y Llyn 
Junction, known as Ty-Iltyd — that is to say, the House of Iltyd. 
The chamber has been denuded of the cairn which once covered it, 
exposing the large flat slabs of stone forming the sides and roof. 
The chamber was very possibly used as a hermit's cell at one time, 
and there are several small incised crosses carved on the slabs, either 
during the period of its occupation, or by pious pilgrims to the spot 
after the cell had been deserted. Iltyd was a contemporary of 
St David and St Samson, and gives his name to Llantwit Fawr, in 
Glamorganshire. A large number of churches are dedicated to him 
in South Wales. A parallel case of the probable use of a NeoHthic 
burial chamber as a dwelling-place at a much later period is Wayland 
Smith's cave, in Berkshure, which is mentioned in a Saxon document 
of the eighth or ninth century. 

0TH 8KB., VOL. m. 13 


Bomano-Britiflh Bemains. — The Roman station of Bannium, now 
called the Gaer, which was seen on the first day's excursion, is 
situated three miles west of Brecon, in a strong position formed by 
the junction of the river Yscir and the Usk. Extensive masses of 
masonry are still visible above the ground, and the plan of the 
fortification can easily be traced. From time to time Roman 
antiquities are found on the site, consisting chiefly of Samian ware, 
various other kinds of pottery, blue glass beads, coinsj bricks, and 
tiles. Some of the tiles are stamped " LEG II AVG," showing that 
the station was occupied by the Second Legion (Augusta), the head- 
quarters of which was at Caerleon-on-Usk. Most of the relics found 
here were shown to the members on Friday, when they visited 
Ffrwdgrech, near Brecon, the residence of Mr. David Evans, the 
proprietor of the Gaer. If the site were to be systematically explored, 
it would doubtless yield a plentiful harvest of antiquities ; and, in 
laying bare the plan of the buildings and perhaps discovering 
inscribed objects, the excavators would certainly throw much light 
on the Roman occupation of Wales. At present, although most of 
the finds are preserved, no record seems to be kept of the exact 
spots where the antiquities were dug up. Near the Roman station 
of Bannium is a sepulchural monument, sculptured with the figures 
of a Roman soldier and his wife, known as the Maen-y-Morwynnion, 
or " Maiden Stone." It bears an inscription, now nearly obliterated. 
There is another " Maiden Stone" near Benachie, Aberdeenshire; 
but this is an early Christian monument, with interlaced ornament 
upon it. Then there is the " Maiden Castle," near Dorchester, and 
many other instances of the use of the word might be cited. Between 
the Gaer and Brecon there is an ancient paved trackway, which is 
called Roman, but may be of almost any age, from the prehistoric 
period down to the time of Bernard Newmarch, the conqueror of 
Brecknockshire. Mr. F. Haverfield read a valuable paper on 
Bannium at the Evening Meeting on Tuesday. He said that, as far 
as outward appearances went, there had been no reconstruction 
of the walls, and that consequently the place had been occupied for 
a comparatively short period. To judge from the evidence of the 
coins found on the site, the period of occupation would be from 
about A.D. 70 to A.D. 120. After that time, the country was no doubt 
subdued, and a strong garrison would be unnecessary. Mr. Haver- 
field strongly advocated the use of the spade, as the speediest method 
of solving the various archaeological problems connected with the 
struggle between the stubborn Silures, fighting for freedom amongst 
the fastnesses of the Brecknockshire hills, against the might of 
Imperial Rome. At Penoyre House, the residence of Mr. R. D. 
Cleasby, near the Gaer, the party had an opportunity of examining 
one of the most beautifully-cut Roman sepulchral inscriptions in 
Wales. Unfortunately the slab is broken in half, so that the ends of 
all the lines are missing, thus affording the assembled antiquaries an 
endless field for speculation. The stone was found a few years ago 



at Battie, near Penoyre, and also not far from 
the Gaer. Other Romaa inscriptions of in- 
ferior interest were seen during Thursday's 
excursion at Tretower and Scethrog. 

Early Christian BemainB. — The valley of 
the Usk, between Devynock and Crickhowel, 
contains an unrivalled series of inscribed and 
sculptured stones of the early Christian period, 
dating from about a.d. 500 to a.d. iooo. In 
fact, no district in Wales affords a better 
opportunity for the study of the development 
of monuments of this class. The series com- 
mences with the rude pillar-stones, the inscrip- 
tions on which are simply debased copies of 
Roman epitaphs, differing from them in two 
respects: (i) that the letters are very ill-formed; 
and (2) the lines, instead of reading horizontally 
from left to right, read vertically upwards from 
bottom to top. It is true that there are about 
a dozen pillar-stones in Great Britain with in- 
scriptions cut horizontally, after the Roman 
fashion, but these are exceptions of very early 
date, as three of them have the Chi-Rho mono- 
gram, and two contain the Roman formula 
"Vixit annos . . ." The Celtic fashion of 
making the debased Latin inscriptions read 
vertically upwards instead of horizontally, pro- 
bably arose from the fact that the Ogam 
inscriptions must read vertically because they 
are cut on the angle of the stone; and as 
many of the monuments are both bi-literal 
and bi-lingual, it would never do to have the 
Ogam inscription reading one way and the 
debased Latin inscription another. An ex- 
ample of a pillar-stone, with a debased Latin 
inscription entirely in capitals, was seen on 
Friday's excursion at Devynock. The mem- 
bers had an opportunity of examining speci- 
mens of the bi-literal and bi-lingual inscriptions 
at Trallwng on Tuesday and at Glanusk Park 
on Thursday. The most interesting feature 
of the Glanusk inscription is that it gives the 
rare Ogam letter X as the equivalent for the 
Latin P. The inscribed stone at Llanfihangel 
Cwni-du (seen on Thursday) is a good instance 
of the transitional type in which several mi- 
nuscule, or small letters, are mixed with the 


Erect Cross-slab of 

Briamail at 


capitals. The inscription means: "Here lies Cattoc, son of 
Teyrnoc." Somewhere about the year a.d. 700, the capital letters 
ceased to be used, and the inscriptions were afterwards entirely in 
minuscules. Ogams also became obsolete, and as there was no 
further reason for continuing to make the Latin inscription parallel 
with the Ogam inscription, or vertical, the old Roman custom of 
cutting the letters in horizontal lines was reverted to. At the same 
time Celtic ornament and figure sculpture begins to make its appear- 
ance on the monuments. The best example near Brecon is the 
well-known cross-slab of Briamail, at Uandefailog-fach (seen on 

Ifedisdval Bemains — With the exception of Brecon Priory Church, 
which is too well known to need description here, the ecclesiastical 
architecture of the district is somewhat poor. Most of the churches 
have been either over-restored or rebuilt, so that very few old features 
now remain. Of the smaller village churches, that at Llanvillo, with 
its finely-carved rood-screen, and a doorway having a highly orna- 
mented lintel, was distinctly the best worth seeing. Mediaeval 
military architecture was represented by the round keeps of Brynllys 
and Tretower, which are of the thirteenth century, and are built on 
the same plan as those at Pembroke, Coningsborough in Yorkshire, 
and Coucy in France. At Tretower there is also a fortified mansion 
of the fourteenth century, built round a courtyard, and having an 
interesting gateway and hall, with a massive timber roof. 

We are indebted to Dr. Geoige Norman, of Bath, for kindly 
allowing us to reproduce his excellent photographs as illustrations to 
this report. The Pentre Poeth Ogam stone, one of the most 
interesting of the group of inscribed monuments in the upper valley 
of the Usk, is now in the British Museum, and therefore it could not 
be seen on the Friday's excursion when a visit was paid to Devynock, 
which is not far from the site where the stone originally stood. 

Balance Sheet of Accounts — As, up to the time of going to press, 
the Editor had not received the Balance Sheet of Accounts, it does 
not appear in the present number of the Journal. 






















The Pentre Poeth Ogam Stone (Front) 



The Pentre Poeth Ogam Stone (Back). 

Inscribed Stone at Llanfihanoel Cwivt-dO. 
{From a Photograph by Dr. Oeorge Norman,) 

Erect^Ceoss-Slab of Briamail at Llandefaelog-fach, 


{From a Photoyraph by Dr. Ottonje Norman.) 

Font in Llanvillo Church, Brecknockshire. 
(Frwn a Photograph by Dr, George Norman,) 

Font in Brynllys Church, Brecknockshire. 
{From a Photograph by I)r, Oeorge Noi'man.) 

St. Mary's Church, Brecon. Eauly English Piscina. 
{From a Flwtograpk by Dr, George Norman.) 

Tketowek Court, Breuknockjshike. Exterior of Entrance 

(From a Photoyraph by Dr. George Norman.) 











^ 4 






w ^ 
^ I 



S c> 
8 ^ 




2 a 

W S5 






O ^ 
o ^ 



£ ^ 





9rc|)aeotog(ral Jl^otes ann (Brntiti. 

Encaustic Tiles in St. David's Cathedral. — It would appear 
that the presbytery, the choir, and the darU before the rood-screen 
in St. David's Cathedral were originally laid with encaustic tiles. 
" There has been a good deal of disturbance, both in front of the 
altar and near St^. David's shrine," writes the learned authors of the 
History and Antiq^iities of St. David's ;^ " but, in the former position 

Encaustic Tile Pavement in St. David's Cathedral. 

at least, there are signs that the prevailing arrangement was inter- 
rupted by a border of tiles laid parallel to the wall. Between the 
parclose and the lowest step a central passage, equal in width to the 
doorway of the parclose, is marked off by borders running parallel 
to the walls. West of the parclose the tiles are set square, and a. 
line of flagstones is laid down the centre of the choir, an arrange- 
ment wliich may or may not be original." The tiles in the dais 
were set diagonally, bnt they were replaced by new ones in 1848, 
as the ancient ones were completely worn out. 

The tiles in the presbytery are excellent representations of 
fifteenth-century encaustic work. Some few are modern, and they 
are good copies of ancient ones. 

0th 8BB., VOL. in. 

1 See p. 128. 



Tradition assigns the oonstmction of the present throne to Bishop 
John Morgan (1496-1504), and his arms remained upon it UDtU 
near the time of Browne Willis.^ The erection of the throne neces- 
sitated the removal of the parclose further eastward, and it would 
appear that the choir and presbytery were laid with tiles about this 

They are set diagonally, and some of the larger patterns contain 
as many as sixteen tiles. It seems not unlikely that they came from 
the celebrated manufactory at Malvern, as the arms of the Berkeley 
family are found on many of them. The patterns are principally 
enclosed in plain borders of yellow and purple, and these are 

Encaustic Tile^Payement in St. David*8 CathedraL 

also set diagonally. Some designs represent vine-Ieayea and 
grapes, and the Tudor rose is also a notable feature on many of 
these tiles. The arms of Edward the Confessor, the Beauohamp 
family, as well as freqaent representations of the Berkeley arms, 
are to be met with. Only one tile is depicted with the sacred 
monogram i . H . c. upon it, and some of the mutilated inscriptions 
have the words Deo gratiat upon them. In the chancel of the 
church at Carew, in the same county, we find the arms of Sir Rhys 
ap Thomas, the See of St David's, and the Berkeley coat, with the 
legend Adjuva nos Domine ; and many of the patterns in this Pem- 
brokeshire charch may be found in St. David's Cathedral. We are 
reminded that these tiles in Carew Church were probably placed 

1 Browne Willia, p. 8 ; Men, Sac,, voL i, p. 23. 



there when Sir Rhys ap Thomas Held posseBsion of the neighbouring 
casUe.^ He was born a year later than Bishop Morgan, who pro- 
bably laid down the encanstic tiles in St. David's Cathedral ; and 
he died twenty years after him. So that the date of the tiles in 
Garew Chnrch is, doubtless, the same as may be assigned to those 
in the Cathedral Charch of St David's. 

In the well-known Hiitory of St, David's the authors mention 
that '* between St Darid's shrine and the Earl of Richmond's tomb, 
there are one or two broken tiles shown as the footprints of 
Cromwell's horse;" and, they add, "the tradition has obtained 

Encaustic Tile Pavement in St. David's Cathedral. 

such credence as makes it uncourteous, and scarcely safe, to criti- 
cise it"« 

Alfred C. Fbteb. 

An Epitaph on a Tombstone to be found amongst the Ruins of 
Llamfihangel Trefheltgen Church, near Llandtfriog, Cardigan- 
SHf BEL — " Here Lieth the body of the Reverend David Da vies, late 
Vicar of Kenarth ; and of his son James. The father died Jaly the 

^ Sir Rhys (or Rice) ap Thomas (1449*1525) played an important part in the 
revolution which placed Henry VII on the throne ; and Fuller remarks that, 
** well might he g^ve him a Garter by whose efifectual help he had recovered 
a Crown" (Worthies, 1662). 

* See History and Antiquities of St, David's, by Jones and Freeman, p. 129. 

180 ilrcujbologioal notes and quiries. 

20th, aged forty-six years ; the son Angnst 1st, aged nineteen years, 
and both in the year 1768. 

** The ritual stone the wife doth lay 
O'er thy respected dust,' 
Only proclaim the mournful day, 
When she a husband lost. 
In life to copy thee I'll strive, 
And when I shall resign, 
May some goodnatured friend survive 
To lay my bones with thine." 

The above was copied about sixty years ago by Mr. J. Dl Jones, 
of Hawen Hall, who happened to be passing the churchyard, which 
was very fortunate, as the little song is now nearly obliterated, 
with the exception of the names. I find, through the kindness 
of Mr. Barker, the Diocesan Registrar, that the above-mentioned 
succeeded the Rev. Richard Davies in 1749, and held the living 
until his death in 1763, when he was succeeded by the Rev. John 
Davies. It is regrettable that the memoi*ial stones are allowed to 
decay without an attempt being made to preserve them. 

Cenarth Vicarage. D, H. Davies. 


To the Editor of the " Archceologia Camhrensia.^ 

S(B, — A much wider interest is now taken in archsBological 
knowledge than was formerly the case in days gone by, and it is 
pleasant to find that many artizans take an intelligent interest in the 
history of their country and the story of the past. I venture to 
hope that the Cambrian Archceological Association may bo able to 
stimulate and direct this zeal for knowledge and guide it into a right 
direction. Some learned societies give popular lectures at their 
Annual Conferences. For example, the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science always deputes a member to deliver a popular 
lecture, illustrated with lantern slides, to the working men of the 
city they are visiting. These lectures are very highly appreciated, 
and after the British Association had visited Bristol, several working 
men told me how much they had enjoyed the lecture delivered to 
them. Could not our Association undertake a similar duty for 
Welsh Archaeology at our Annual Meetings ? Many of our members 
are pre-eminently well qualified to deliver such lectures, and I am 
sure they would be appreciated by the people of the town we visit. 

I am, Sir, yours very faithfully, 

Alfred C. Fbter. 
13, Eaton Crescent, Clifton, Bristol, 
February 20th, 1903. 


JULY, 1903. 



The village of Llangefelach is situated four miles north 
of Swansea, on the high ground between the valley of 
the Llwchwr and the Swansea valley. The nearest 
railway station is Morriston, from which it is two miles 
distant to the westward. The walk from the station 
to the village is uphill the whole way. 

The tower of the old church of Llangefelach still 
stands on the south side of the churchyard, but the old 
nave and chancel have been pulled down and rebuilt on 
the north side of the churchyard. There are two paths 
across the churchyard, one going from east to west 
across the middle of it, and the other going in a north- 
westerly direction from a gateway in the south 
boundary wall to the new church, which lies at a much 
lower level. The ancient cross-base stands to the west 
of the last-mentioned pathway, and between the tower 
of the old church and the south wall of the church- 

The cross-base is of millstone grit, and measures 3 ft. 
9 ins. long by 2 ft. 2 ins. wide at the bottom, and 3 ft. 

6th sbb., vol. m. 15 


3 ins. long by 2 ft. wide at the top, by 2 ft. 2 ins. high. 
The socket for the shaft of the cross is 1 ft. 7 ins. long by 
1 ft. wide by I ft. 1 in, deep. The batter or slope of tlw 
four &ces is not the same, the west &ce sloping very much 
more than the three others. There is a moulding on the 
top of the base on the west side, but not on the other sides. 
The cross-base has two serious cracks, forming irr^alar 

«NCHE^ ,iz ,9 ,6 


F^. 1. — Croes-Base at UaDgefekch : Plan. 
Scale, ^linear. 

mitre-joints at the north-east and north-west corners. 
These may have been produced by the freezing of the 
water which collects in the socket. If a hole were to 
be bored in the bottom of the socket to allow the water 
to escape, all danger of further damage would be 
avoided. The marks of the pick used by the sculptor 
for dressing the stone can still be very clearly seen, 
showing that there has been hardly any weatiiering 



during the centuries which have elapsed since the 
monument was erected. 

The cross-base is sculptured in relief on four faces, 
thus : — 

Norik Face, — ^A five-cord plait, with round pellets in the meshes 
of the plait. 

S(yu!bh Face, — On the left a diaper key-pattern, and on the right a 
triangnlar key-pattern. 

Fig. 2. — Cross-Base at Uangefelach : Section showing Socket for Shaft. 
Scale, ^ linear. 

Fust Face, — Interlaced work, composed of Stafford knots and 

Wesi Face, — A triangnlar key-pattern. 

It appears, then, that only two kinds of ornament 
are used on the Llangefelach cross-base, namely, inter- 
laced work and key-patterns. The filling in of the 
meshes of the plait-work on the north face with round 
pellets is a peculiar feature which does not occur except 

15 « 


in South Wales. When the number of cords in a plait 
is uneven, the ends cannot be joined together so as to 
complete the pattern. In this case, the plait being 
made with five cords, it will be noticed that there are 
two loose ends. It would have been possible to com- 
plete the design by carrying a cord right round the 
top of the plait and thus joining the two loose ends ; 
but this way out of the difficulty does not seem to have 
occurred to the sculptor of the monument. The Stafford 

Fig. 8. — Cro88-Baae at Llangefelach : North Fftoe. 
Scale, ^ linear. 

knot-pattern on the east face is a very common one in 
Celtic art ; and the only remark to be made about it is 
that the sculptor has made a mistake in the interlace- 
ments at the left-hand lower corner of the panel, which 
are incorrectly executed. 

The triangular key-pattern on the west face is not of 
unusual occurrence in South Wales, and reaches its 
highest development on the cross of Houelt, son of Res, 
at Llantwit Major. A similar triangular key-pattern 
is to be seen on the south face, combined with a diaper 








key-pattern (at the left-hand lower corner), of which 
there are other instances on the cross-base now used as 
a font at Penmon in Anglesey, and on the crosses at 
Termonfechin, co. Louth ; St. Brecan's, Aran Island ; 
Kilfeuora, co. Clare ; St. Andrew's, Fifeshire ; and 
Winwick, Lancashire. 

The reason why the small square of diaper key- 
pattern is introduced at the left side of the south face 
is because the left-hand upper corner of the cross-base 

Fig. 4. — Cross-Base at Llaogefelach : South Face. 
Scale, iV linear. 

was broken oft, either before the stone was shaped or 
during the process of dressing, so that the triangular 
key-pattern (which is of greater depth) could not be 
continued right to the end. Perhaps this defect in the 
block of stone may also explain why the batter of the 
west face is so much greater than that of the other 
three faces. We have here a good instance of the 
difference in the methods of work adopted by the 
modem stonemason and his predecessor in pre-Norman 
times. A modern mason would undoubtedly have 
wasted his time and material in removing the portion 


of the stone where the flaw occurred, so as to make 
the cross-base perfectly symmetrical. The old Welsh 
mason, on the other hand, ** uses his head to save his 
heels" by ingeniously adapting his ornament so as to 
conceal the defects in the stone. Another striking 
instance of the same method of utilising a defective 
piece of granite occurs in the case of the Maiden Stone 
in Aberdeenshire. As an instance of the opposite 
method, we have the grinding away of a large propor- 

Fig. 5. — Crofls-Base at Llangefelach : East Face. 
Scale, ^ linear. 

tion of the Koh-i-noor diamond to make it suit 
European ideas of symmetry. 

Crosses with socket-stones or bases are the rule in 

Ireland, but the exception in other parts of Great 

Britain. The following is a list of the cross-bases still 
existing in Wales : — 

Penmon (cross, standing id field near charch). 
Penmon (now used as font in charch). 


9 V 

5 r 

5 s 


Coychurch (cross of Bbisar), 

Llandoagh (cross of Irbic). 
Margam (great- wheel cross of Conbelin). 

The usual method of erecting a cross in pre-Norman 
times was to dig a hole in the ground and place the 
lower part of the shaft, which was left rough, in the 
hole, and fill in the earth round it. This was very 

Pig. 6.— CroM-Baae at Llangefelach : Wept Pace. 
Scale, 1^ linear. 

clearly shown in the case of St. Iltyd's cross at Llantwit 
Major, recently removed. 

It is stated in the Life of St. David that he built a 
church at a place called Llangevelach in Gower. It is 
also referred to as a monastery in the district of Gower, 
at a place called Llangevelach, in which he afterwards 
placed the altar sent by Pepian, with which he had 
cured the blind king Erging by restoring sight to 
his eyes. 

Judging from the dimensions of the socket-stone at 


Llangefelach the cross must have been one of consider- 
able size, probably not less than 8 ft. or 10 ft. high. 
It is to be noped that if the shaft and head of the cross 
have not been destroyed, they may some day be re- 
covered. A thorough search in the churchyard might 
lead to the discovery of some of the missing portions 
of what must have been, when perfect, one of the finest 
monuments of the kind in Wales. 

We are indebted to Mr. T. Mansel Franklen for 
kindly allowing us to reproduce his admirable photo- 
graphs to illustrate this paper. 







The old parish of Gresford contained, besides the 
chapelry of Holt, with its sub-chapelry of Isycoed 
(containing the town and liberties of Holt and the 
townships of Sutton, Dutton Diffaeth, Dutton y brain, 
Caeca Dutton and Ridley), the townships of Gresford, 
Burton, Llai, Gwersyllt, AUington, Marford, Hoseley, 
Burras RiflFri, Erlas, and Erddig. 

The parish, therefore, was of enormous extent, con- 
taining, with Holt and Isycoed, 19,572.551 statute 
acres, and without those chapelries, now distinct 
parishes, 13,427.070 acres. 

With Holt and Isycoed I have here no concern. 
Erddig, Erlas, and Burras RiflFri were not only quite 
distinct from each other, but touched at no point the 
main body of the parish. Erddig and Erlas were, in 
1851, transferred to Wrexham in exchange tor Burras 
Hovah. I have dealt with Erddig, Erlas, Burras 
Rifl&i, and Burras Hovah elsewhere (see my " History 
of the Country Townships of the Old Parish of 
Wrexham^'). What, therefore, I propose to describe as 
" the old parish of Gresford" in this essay is the area 
surrounding the parish church of Gresford, comprising 
the townships of Gresford, Burton, Llai, Gwersyllt, 
AUington, Marford, and Hoseley — an area containing 
12,063.715 acres. 

Llai, treated as a township at least as early a^ 1660, 
was, in Norden's Survey {a.i>, 1620) spoken of as a 
hamlet of Burton. Hunkley, treated in the same 


Survey as another hamlet of BurtoD, had, by 1600, lost 
that status, and become a mere district. At an earlier 
date (in 1435) it was put on the same level as Llai, 
Burton, and Allington, and treated as a township. 
Gresford, Burton, Llai, Burras Riffri, and the greater 

girt of Allington were in the mediaeval manor of 
urton ; Gwersyllt and Erddig, in the manor of Eglw- 
ysegl ; and Erlas was in the manor of Isycoed. Hem, 
in Allington, formed a manor by itself, and another 
portion of Allington — Cobham Aimer — was part of 
the manor of Cobham Aimer and Cobham Isycoed 
All these are in Denbighshire, and their courts have 
long ceased to be held. But Marford and Hoseley, 
which are in Flintshire, form a manor even now, 
the courts whereof are still held, though at irregular 

The whole of the parish of Gresford, except Marford 
and Hoseley, has been for centuries in the lordship, 
commote, or hundred of Bromfield or Maelor Gymra^ 
( Welsh Maelor). But this was not always so. Domes- 
day Booky for example, describes Gresford, Allington, 
and Hoseley as in Exestan, or Estyn, hundred — that is, 
in Hopedale, and in the county of Chester. Afterwards 
the Welsh acquired possession of all this district, 
which they formed, with other townships, into the 
commote of Merford, the town and parish of Hope, or 
Estyn, being, however, not included, as remaining 
more or less in English hands. Then came the times 
of the Anglo-Norman lords of Bromfield, who made that 
lordship co-extensive with its present area, taking into 
it — that is to say — all the townships which lay within 
the parish of Gresford. But, in 1415-16, a writ was 
issued to the escheator of the county of Flint, com- 
manding him to take a moiety of the town of Trefalyn 
( = Allington) into the king's hands, the same together 
with the free chapel of St. Leonard having been found 
by inquisition to be parcel of the lordship of Hopedale 
(see Thirty-Seventh Report of Deputy-Keeper oj Public 
Records). Spite of this, the Earl of Arundel, lord 


of Bromfield, seems to have retained the townships in 
question ; and in 1435 there was a suit concerning 
them, wherein the Queen, as lady of Hopedale, re- 
covered them from the Earls heirs, the jury on the 
assize saying that the towns of Llay, Burton, Hunkley, 
and Trefalun were, from time immemorial, parcel 
of the lordship of Hope and Hopedale, which lordship 
was wholly within the county of Flint (see the same 
Report). Five years later, however, we learn inci- 
dentally that the widow of the last Earl of Arundel 
enjoyed as part of her dower, not merely the bailiwick 
of Almore and the park 9f Merseley (both within 
AUington), but also the provostry of Marford, which 
last is still a part of Flintshire. 

All this is very puzzling. But it is perhaps possible 
to put one's finger on the key to tne explanation. 
I find that, in the seventh year of Edward IV, the 
lordship of Bromfield was divided into two rhaglotries, 
representing two earlier Welsh commotes : the rhag- 
lotry of Wrexham, which included Wrexham Regis, 
Acton, Esclusham, Minora, Cristionydd, Ruabon, March- 
wiel, etc. ; and the rhaglotry of Merford, which took 
in Merford, Burton, Gwersyllt, Cobham Aimer, Holt 
(or the district around it), and Sesswick. Gresford and 
Allington almost certainly belonged to this last-named 
rhaglotry, as did also Sutton and Eyton. In a copy 
of a deed of about the same time, which I have seen, 
"Dytton DiflPeth" is described as being "in com, 
Fflynt,'\and was, therefore, doubtless in the same 
rhaglotry. Although the courts for these two rhag- 
lotnes were held at Holt Castle, they were nevertheless 
held separately. Now, it will be perceived, as I shall 
show more fully hereafter, that the rhaglotry of Mer- 
ford would have been identical with the Domesday 
himdred of Exestan, if only it had included Exestan 
(that is, Estyn, Easton, or Hope) itself. We can 
therefore understand how the holder of the lordship 
of Hope might lay claim to the whole rhaglotry 
of Merford, and, by ignoring actual arrangements and 


making an appeal to Domesday Book, might get 
judgment in his favour. For, in all questions of 
" ancient demesne," as well as in other questions, such 
as mills, fisheries, and the like, the evidence of Domes- 
day Booh was long considered conclusive. This is how 
I explain the temporary success of the attempt of the 
owner of Hopedale to get hold of a large part of the 
old rhaglotry of Merford. This claim, so far as the 
greater portion of the district claimed, must have been 
afterwards set aside, probably on the ground of pre- 
scription ; but it was successful so far as the Lower 
Merford Mill and the head or caput of the rhaglotry 
was concerned, for Merford and Hoseley are still parts 
of Flintshire, and Merford Lower MUl was not severed 
from that county until 1884. The courts of the two 
rhaglotries have long ceased to be held, for the courts 
of Merford which still persist represent only the two 
servile townships of Merford and Hoseley, just as the 
courts of Wrexham Regis, which still persist, represent 
the township only, and not the rhaglotry, of which it 
was the centre and caput. 

Before I leave this discussion, I will copy from the 
facsimile of Domesday Book all the entries relating to 
the parish of Gresford which occur in it : — 

** Hugo & Osbns & Rainalds ten geetford . in extan hd . 
Thoret tenuit ut lib. ho . Ibi xm hide geld . Tra e xii car. huge 
ht V hid . Osbns yi hid & dim . Rainalds i hid & dimid . In 
dnio e i car & dimid . Eccla & pbr ibi & vii uilli & xn bord . & 
un francig . Int^. oms hnt ii car & dimid . In toto m . Silua nn 
leuu Ig & n lat & n aire acciptr . Osbn* ht molin annona sue 
curie molente . Tot T . R . e uuast erat & uuast recep . Mode 
ual LXV sol . De hac tra hui^ m iacuit I hida T . R . E in eccla S. 
Cedde dimid in chespuic & dimid in Kadeuoure . hoc testat^ 
comitate sed nescit quom^ eccla pdiderit." 

That is :— 

" Hugh, Osbem, and Kainald hold Gretford in Extau hundred. 
Thoret held it as a free man. There are thirteen hides at geld. 
There is land for twelve teams. Hugh has five hides, Osbern 
six and a half, and Kainald one hide and a hal£ A church and 
priest are there, and seven villans and twelve bordars and one 


Frenchman. Between them all they have two and a half teams. 
In the whole manor there are a wood four leagues long and two 
broad, and two eyries of hawks. Osbern has a mill grinding for 
his own court. The whole in the time of King Edward was 
waste, and waste they [Hugh, Osbern, and Rainald] found it. 
Now it is worth sixty-five shillings. Of the land of this manor 
one hide in the time of King Edward belonged to the church 
of S. Chad, half in Ghespuic and half in Badenoure. This the 
county testifies, but is ignorant how the church lost it." 

Thus we see that in the time of Edward the Con- 
fessor, a free Englishman, Thoret, held the manor 
of Gresford, which, however, was then waste. Then, 
at th^ time of Domesday Survey, instead of Thoret, 
were Hugh, Osbern (probably Osbern fitz Tezzo), and 
Rainald (probably Rainaldus Venator) — all Normans, 
and there was one resident Frenchman. A church, 
served by its priest, was in existence, and Osbern had 
his own mill — perhaps on the site of Gresford Mill. 
Note how extensive the manor was, for it included 
Ghespuic and Radenoure, in each of which places the 
church of St. Chad had formerly half a hide of land. 
The " church of St. Chad " denotes the bishopric 
of Lichfield and Chester. ** Ghespuic" is, undoubtedly, 
Sesswick, in the parish of Bangor is y coed. But where 
was "Radenoure''? Mr. William Beamont identified 
it with Radnor in Somerford by Congleton. However, 
it was in the manor of Gresford, and, I believe, on the 
western side of Dee, as Sesswick is. Mr. Egerton 
Phillimore most ingeniously conjectures that "Rade- 
noure" stands for " Rhedynvre," a translation into 
Welsh of the English name " Farndon.'' The church 
of Famdon was dedicated to St. Chad, who is called in 
a late Welsh Bonedd^ " Siatt Rhedynfre." Moreover, 
in 1087, the Bishop of Lichfield and Chester actually 
had a part of Famdon. However, Farndon, in its two 
portions, is fully described in the Survey^ under the 
name " Ferentone." I doubt, indeed, whether the 
Domesday manor of Gresford extended to the Dee, and 
feel certain that it did not stretch beyond the river. 
" Radenoure,*' it would seem, is to be sought in that 


southern extension of the Domesday manor which in- 
cluded Sesswick. " Radenoure"" is to be read " Radnor," 
and designates a hamlet, the old name of which has 
been lost. 

Now I resume my extracts from Domesday : — 

" Toret lib ho tenuit alentvne . Ibi in hide geld . in exestan 
hd. In Eitone tenuit s . cedde i hid in svtone i hid geld 
tenuit isd . scs . Hos iii m qdo hugo comes recep . erant Wasta . 
Modo ten Hugo f Osbni de eo . & ht dimid car in dnio & iii 
seruos & vn uill & v bord &, ii francig . Int^ oms hnt j car & 
dimid . Ibi mohn de iiii sol . & dimid piscaria & iiii ac pte . 
Silua n leuu Ig & dimid lat . Ibi n haie . val xxx sol . Ibi iiii 
car plus possent ee . T . k . E uall xx solid/* 

That is:— 

" Toret, a free man, held AlHngton. Three hides are there at 
geld. In Exestan hundred. In Eyton St. Chad held one hide, 
and in Sutton the same saint held one hide at geld. When Earl 
Hugh received these three manors they were waste. Now 
Hugh fitz Osbem holds them of him, and has half a plough 
team in demesne, and three serfs and seven villans, and five 
bordars, and two Frenchmen. Among them all they have one 
plough team and a half. There are a mill yielding four shillings, 
and half a fishery, and four acres of meadow. The wood is two 
leagues long and half a league broad. There are two hays. It 
[the manor] is worth thirty shillings. There could be four 
plough teams more. In the time of King Edward it was worth 
twenty shillings." 

From this we see that Toret, or Thoret [Thurold], 
the same free Englishman who held Gresford, held 
AUington also. If the mill mentioned was in Allington, 
we may be certain it was one of the two Rossett Mills. 
If not, it was probably Fickhill Mill, or some other 
mill on the Cly wedog. As to the wood, we have still 
some reminiscences of it in the names '* Holt," " Com- 
mon Wood," and " Isycoed" (Below the Wood), As to 
the two " hays,^' or spaces enclosed with a hedge for 
sporting purposes, we may with some confidence 
identify them with Mei-sley Park and Eyton Park, 
which were not disparked and tilled until about three 


hundred years ago, and belonged to the Lord of Brom- 

There is one other entry in Domesday Book relating 
to Eyton, which is interesting enough to quote : — 

" Scs Cedde tenuit Eitvne t . R . E . Ibi i hida . in exastan 
hvnd In Eitvne ht isd . scs un uillm & dimid piscaria & dimid 
acra pH & ii ac silue . Valuit v solid . Eex E. ded regi Grifino 
tota tra que iacebat trans aqua de uocatur . Sed postq . ipse 
Grifin forisfecit ei : abstulit ab eo banc tra & reddit ep6 de 
Cestre & omib} suis hoibs qui antea ipsa tenebant." 

That is :— 

" St. Chad held Eyton in the time of King Edward. There 
is one hide there. In Eyton has the same saint one villan and 
half a fishery, and half an acre of meadow, and two acres of 
wood. It was worth five shillings. King Edward gave King 
GriflBn [Grufifydd ap Llewelyn] all the land which lay across the 
water which is called Dee. But afterwards the same Griffin 
forfeited it, and [King Edward] took froni him this land, and 
returned it to the Bishop of Chester, and all hi^ men who before 
held the same." 

I complete the series of extracts from Domesday 
Booh by quoting the following entry concerning 
Hoseley : — 

" Ipsa eccla tenuit & ten odeslei . Ibi dimid hida geld . Tra.e 
i car . Ibi e uns uills redd viii denar . Val. m solid . Wast 
fuit ." 

That is:— 

'* The same church [of St. Werburgh, Chester] held and holds 
Odeslei. There is one hide at geld. There is land^ for one 
plough team. There is one villan, rendering eightpence. It is 
worth three shillings. It was waste." 

Of Hoseley I shall speak hereafter. But the frequent 
occurrence of the word ** waste" points to the border 
feuds that were continually going on. The Welsh, in 
short, were steadily pressing on the English in the 
eleventh century. Edward the Confessor would not 

^ I Bhall hereafter show that the " terra," the land under onlti- 
vatioii, iu Gresford, Allington, Hoseley, and Sesswick, can oven now 
be traced. 


have given the land of Eyton to Gruffith if the Wekh 
prince had not already wasted it ; and we have no 
difficulty in understanding how St. Chad lost his 
possessions in Eyton, Sesswick, Radnor, Sutton, and 

Of the information- furnished by the Domesday 
Survey we must make much, because for two hundred 
years and more after the date of it, a dark veil rests on 
the parish and district ; and when it is raised we find 
not only the mass of the population but all the lords of 
land are Welsh-speaking. The English have either 
been driven out, or have been absorbed and assimilated. 
Such absorption and assimilation would be easy to 
understand if we assume, as we may fairly do, that in 
** the first English epoch" the underlying servile part 
of the people remained Welsh-speaking. Welsh, in 
any case, the district became, for we know as a fact, 
that at some date after the taking of the Domesday 
Survey, the parish of Greaford and the rest of Bromfield 
became severed from the county of Chester and sub- 
jected to the Prince of Powys Fadog ; and although 
after the passing of Bromfield and Hopedale (Maelor 
Gymraeg and i r H6b) into the possession of Anglo- 
Norman overlords in the time of Edward I, the Angli- 
cising of the parish went gradually on, we see how 
slow this development was, not merely by an examina- 
tion of various local deeds, but more clearly and fully 
by an inspection of Norden's Survey of the Manor of 
Burton taken in 1620, when most of the inhabitants, 
and nearly all the fields and farmsteads, bore Welsh 
names. After this date, however, and especially after 
the great Civil War, the eastern and central parts of 
the parish became rapidly Anglicised, and at a Vestry, 
held on June 3rd, 1764, "the Welsh Testam. and 
Common Prayer" were ordered to " be lock'd up in 
church chest and not to be used any longer till ordered 
by the Bishop." 

Here are the names of the townships and districts in 
the central and eastern parts of the old and undivided 


parish of Gresford : Burton. Hunkley, Llai, Gresford, 
Allington, Lavister, Hem, Aimer, Horseley, Merford, 
Hoseiey, Burras, Hewlington, Holt, Sutton, Cobham, 
Dutton, Ridley, and Erlisham. They are all, save perhaps 
Llai and Burras, English, and can be traced back either 
to the time of the Domesday Survey, or to the time two 
or three hundred years afterwards, when all the inhabi- 
tants spoke Welsh. They could not have been named 
— or only Holt could have been named — during this 
"second Welsh epoch," as we may call it, and could 
only have received their appellations in the " first 
English epoch" which preceded it. 

Now is there anything to show under what circum- 
stances this large district ceased to be English in any 
form, and became again predominantly and almost 
exclusively Welsh ? How was " the second Welsh 
epoch" ushered in ? 

First of all, as I have hinted, the mass of the popula- 
tion, even during the first English epoch, probably 
remained Welsh-speaking, so that the bulk of the 
inhabitants were quite ready to accept Welsh overlords. 

But is there any evidence for the supposition of a 
Welsh conquest of the district from the English, of a 
substitution of Welsh for Anglo-Norman overlords ? 

Harleian MS., No. 1969 (British Museum), one of 
the third Randle Holmes' MSS.,^ contains the following 
paragraphs :-r- 

" Eynydh, one of the 15 Tribes, he was the sonne of Morien, 
the Sonne of Morgenav ap Elystan ap Gwaethvoed. Aliter, he 
was the sonne of Gwerugwy ap Gwaethgar or Gwaedhvawr. 
His mother was Gwenllian vz Rees ap Marchan of Kuthyn Land. 

" This Eynydh lived in the time of David ap Oweu Gwynedd, 
Prince of Northwales [1170-1203, A. N. P.]. He came to 
Bromfield in the time of Blethyn ap Kynvyn, Prince of Powys 
[died 1073 A. N. P.] & warred vnder him against the English. 

^ The third Randle Holmes was born in 1627 and died in 1700. 
He quotes his authorities: E. P. [Edward Paleston], E. R. [Edward 
RobertsJ, R. M. [R. Matthews of Blodwell], S. V. [Simwnt Vychan] 
and S. 1., or S. C. 

6th seb., vol. m, 16 


The Prince ^ve him the Townshipps of Alington and Gresfori 
He married EUena f. h. Llewelyn ap Dolphyn." 

Eunydd is represented as having two sons, Ithel and 
Heilin. MS. 1969 continues thus : — 

** Ithell ap Evnydh. he had for his part Alington & Gresford 
& Lleprok vawr & Lleprock vechan and nant in Englfield. 
He = Gwlady8 f. h. Griflf. ap Meilir ap Eees Sais." 

Scores of Welsh pedigrees represent Ithel ap Eunydd 
as inheriting AUington and Gresford from his father, 
and Lewys Dwnn declares " Eynydd'' to have been lord 
of Dyffryh Clwyd, '* Trevalyn^' ( = Allington), aod 
** Gressfort," and to have been the son of " Morien ap 
Morgeney ap Gorestan ap Gwaethvoed, lord of all 

The tradition, hereafter to be more fully discussed, 
that the sons of Ithel ap Eunydd gave land on which 
to build the church of Gresford, may here also be 

New, not to point out how impossible it was for one 
who fought with Bleddyn ap Cynfyn to have been con- 
temporary with David ap Owen Gwynedd, we have the 
fact that at the time when Eunydd, or his son Ithel, is 
represented to have been in possession of Gresford and 
AUington, the Domesday Survey was taken, and this 
Survey knows nothing of either father or son. Nor 
could Bleddyn have aftenvards conquered the two 
townships and given them to Eunydd, for Bleddyn 
died thirteen years before the great Survey. 

What, then, are we to say to this story ? In its 
present form it cannot be accepted, yet it is probable 
that it represents a distorted version of a series of 
events which actually happened. For, when we next 
get to settled ground, we find most of the landownei-s, 
or liheri tenentes, of Gresford and AUington, belonging 
to a great Welsh cenedl, or clan, claiming to he descended 
from one or other of the sons of Ithel ap Eunydd, from 
Trahaiarn ap Ithel and Einion ap Ithel mainly. If 
Eunydd was a historical person at aU — as I believe he 


was^ — it may even be that he was associated with 
Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, who promised him all the land in 
the Marches that he could win from the English ; and 
although neither Eunydd nor Ithel could have won 
Gresford and AUington during Bleddyn s life, Ithel may 
have done so afterwards, or, at any rate, the sons ot 
Ithel may have done so. I have elsewhere given 
reason for believing that about the time of Domesday 
Survey the Welsh m this district were steadily pressing 
on the English settlements east of Offa's and Wat's 
Dykes, and it is certain that not long after 1087 all the 
eastern part of Denbighshire, mentioned in the Survey 
as a part of Cheshire, fell into Welsh hands. Domesday 
Book itself does not mention by name a single township 
or district in the central or western parts of Bromfield : 
a sure proof to me that these two parts were not then 
under direct Norman rule. It does not even mention 
the three western townships of Gresford parish : 
Gwersyllt, Burton, and Llai. 

Gwersyllt, in the middle of the fourteenth century, 
was mainly in the hands of David ap David ap Morgan 
Sutton, who is said to have obtained it by marriage 
with Marsli, daughter of Howel ap David Llwyd, 
derived from Sanddef Hardd, or Sanddef the Fair. 
As to the two other townships just named, these may 
not have been mentioned in Domesday Book, because 
they were already in the possession of this Sanddef 
Hardd, from whom most of the landowners of the two 
townships, as well as some in AUington^ claimed 
descent, for example, the Santheys, Lewyses, and 
Burtons of Burton, the Powells of Horsley, and, in the 
female line, the Trevors of Trefalyn Hall. To these 
may be added the Matheys of Hopedale. 

Most of the great families of Allington, on the other 
handy claimed the abovenamed Ithel ap Eunydd as 
their stock-father — the Lloyds of Yr Orsedd Goch, the 

^ Id 1620 there was a qnillet in the fields of Allington called 
" Erw Eunydd," that is, Eunydd*$ erw, or acre. Now Ennydd is a 
Fery nniisiial name, and not to be confoauded with Ednyfed. 

16 =* 


Aimers of Aimer, the AUingtons of AUington and 
Gwersyllt, the Griffithses, the Trevalyns, the Davieses, 
the Merediths, and others. The rowells were also 
descended, in the female line, from Ithel ap Eunydd ; 
while the Langfords of Trevalyn House were descended, 
on the female side, both from Ithel ap Eunydd and 
Sanddef Hardd, or at least from the two families of 
which Ithel ap Eunydd and Sanddef Hardd were the 
mythical founders. 

When we come to the southern part of the undivided 
parish, our attention is called to the Suttons of Sutton 
(from whom the Suttons and Lewyses of Gwersyllt 
sprung), the Erlases of Erlas, and the great family of 
Burras and elsewhere, represented by two mediaeval 
tombs still standing in Gresford Church. All these 
claimed to hold their lands by descent from Elidur ap 
Rhys Sais, which Rhys Sais is believed to be the 
" Rees" who, according to Domesday Book, held Erbis- 
tock in the time of Edward the Confessor as " a free 
man." It does certainly look as though the children 
of Rhys Sais became after the time of Domesday 
Survey, the lords of land in the manors of Erbistock, 
Eyton, Sesswick and Sutton, instead of those named 
in the Survey. 

The Welsh pedigrees are not wholly trustworthy, 
but they cannot be ignored. And if we remember that 
the title to land of Welsh freemen was derived by the 
fact of their descent from a common ancestor, and that 
the line of this descent was formerly indicated by the 
possessors' names — names often, therefore, of an inordi- 
nate length — we cannot afford to neglect the Welsh 
genealogies, although these were nearly all written 
down, in systematic form, at a comparatively late data 
We are bound to criticise those pedigrees, and we can- 
not always accept the early portions of them ; but if we 
deal with them in a rational spirit, they will generally 
be found to yield a substantial historical result. 

I bring forward these pedigrees, therefore, as evi- 
dence of the conquest by three great Welsh clans of the 


greater part of the old undivided parish of Gresford. 
Assuming this to have happened, we understand, 
firstly, the predominantly Welsh character of the 
parish in the middle of the fourteenth century ; and 
we understand, secondly, the fact of most of the free 
tenants belonging to one or other of three families, and 
bearing arms attributed to Ithel ap Eunydd, Sanddef 
Hardd, or Elidur ap Rhys Sais. 

This is the best account I can give of the dark era 
of Gresford history, extending from the end of the 
eleventh to the middle of the fourteenth century. 

I may as well copy here Edward Lhuyd's description 
of the bridges in the parish of Gresford over the 
Alyn (" Y Pynt ar Alyn"), as they were about the 
year 1699 : — 

"(1) Pont y Kyuydhion [HuntsmerCs Bridge] dhwy vilhdir 
vyclian odhiwrthy Ihan" [two short miles from the church or 
village]. This must be that we now know as " Gwastad 
Bridge." (2) Pont vradley yn is ; that is, Bradley Bridge, lower. 
(3) "Pont wersylht qwarter yn Is etto;" that is, Gwersyllt 
Bridge, a quarter [of a mile] lower still. This must be now 
represented by the foot-bridge at Gwei-syllt Mill, or the stone 
bridge at the Wilderness Mill, (4) Pont y Capel keen, milhdir 
yn U ; that is. Bridge of the old Chapel, a mile lower. (5) " Pont 
Resford agos i banner milhdir yn is etto;" that is, Gresford 
Bridge, near half a mile lower still. (6) " Bont issa, led day 
goitie yn is ;' that is, " The Lower Bridge, the breadth of two 
fields lower." (7) "Pont yr Orsedh, vilhdir yn is na'r Bont 
issa ;" that is. The Orsedd [or Rosset] Bridge, a mile lower than 
Pont Issa. (8) " Pont Allington, vilhdir yn is ;" that is. Ailing- 
ton, a mile lowf^r. This is now called ** Cock's Bridge." 
(9) "Pont Ehyd Ithel, banner milhdir yn ts;" that is, Bridge 
of ItheUs Ford, a half mile lower. It is now simply called 
" Pont Ithel," and is merely a/oo^ bridge. 

Edward Lhuyd also mentions " Pont Pulford," or 
Pulford Bridge, over the Pulford brook, and ** Ware 
hooks Bridge ' over the Dee. There is now no bridge 
over the Dee within the limits of the old parish 
of Gresford ; but a piece of land called ** the Weare- 
hookes," containing about one hundred acres, '* parcel 


of the manor of Hem," is mentioned in 1649, so tbat 
the bridge miLst have been near Aimer. 

In Norden's Survey, another bridge is mentioned, as 
being in the manor of Burton, and therefore in the 
parish of Gresford — **the Receiiuo" Bridge upon deuen," 
The Devon, I believe, was a mere brooklet running 
through Merslej Park, adjoining upon the liberties 
of Holt ; and in Pl^ Defon, just over the Holt border, 
we have a reminiscence of its name. 

Samuel Lewis says, in his Topographical Dictionary 
of Wales, published in 1833: — "Fairs for cattle are 
held [at Gresford] on the second Monday in April, the 
bust Monday in August, Easter Monday, June 24th, 
August 2l8t, and October 22nd" — six in the year. I 
noticed also the following entry in the parish register: 
**The Fairs began at Gresford 4th Decemb', 1752." 
The 4th of December, it will be observed, does not 
coincide with any of the dates in the year given by 

Finally, Edward Lhuyd says : " Their Wakes the 
Sunday after All Saints.' 

I shall now proceed to treat of the several townships 
which make up the old parish, as above defined. I 
have reason to hope that Mr. Chancellor Trevor 
Parkins will contribute a separate paper on the history 
of the parish church of Gresford. 


27 Nov., 1448, Llay, Burton, and Hunkele, inspeximus and 
confirmation at the instance of John Donne, armiger, of the 
tenor and record of a plea which was before John de Holland, 
justice of Chester, in his session at Flint, on Monday the 
morrow of the Holy Trinity, 7 Ric. 2, between Eichard, Earl of 
Arundel, and the said King, on which the towns of Llay, Burton, 
and Hunkele, and a moiety of the town of Trefalen were ad- 
judged to the King, in which record it is set forth that the said 
towns were parcel of the lordship of Hopedale, which lordship 
extended longitudinally from the towns of Pulford, Dodleston, 
and Pulton, to a certain stream called Redalok [Rhyd Talog], 


running between Tale and Hopedale, and going round by the 
metes and bounds then known between Yale and Hopedale, to 
Hanothelyk [Hafod Helyg ?], and thence following the stream 
called Nantoryvoyle [Nant y forwal ?], to the stream called 
Kegydok [Cegidog], and thence following the Kegydok to the 
stream called Alyn, and thence following the Alyn to the Dee, 
on the north part, and from the Eedalok, following on the south 
the bounds and metes of the lordships of Mohald and Hawardyn 
to the aforesaid town of Pulford ; that the said lordship came 
into the hands of Edward, King of England, conqueror of Wales, 
by the forfeiture of David ap Gruff', brother of Llewellyn ap 
Gruff', late Prince of Wales ; that the said King gave the said 
lordship to Eleanor his Queen for life, who demised the same to 
John, then Earl of -Warenne, for a term of years ; that the said 
Earl illegally annexed a certain portion of the said lordship, to 
wit, the towns of Llaye, Burton, and Hunkele, and a moiety of 
the town of Trefhalen, to his lordship of Bromfeld and Yale ; 
that the same towns descended consecutively as parts of the 
said lordship, to John his son, John his son, Eichard, Earl of 
Arundel, and Richard his son. Also inspeximus and confirma- 
tion of the tenor of the record and process of an assize of novel 
disseisin, which John Earl of Huntingdon arraigned in the 
court of Katharine, Queen of England, at Flint, on the feast of 
St. Hilary, 1435, against John, Duke of Norfolk ; Roland 
Lentale, Kt. ; Edward Nevile, and Elizabeth his wife, touching 
his freehold in Llaye, Burton, Hunkele, and Trefaleyn, whereon 
the said Earl recovered against the said defendants 200 mes- 
suages, 100 tofts, two mills, two thousand acres of land, 100 acres 
of meadow, 200 acres of pasture, a hundred acres of wood, and 
a hundred acres of turbary. The jury on the assize say that the 
towns of Llay, Burton, Hunkeley, and Trefalen were from time 
immemorial parcel of the lordship of Hope and Hopedale, which 
lordship was wholly within the county of Flint, and within the 
bounds of which lordship the lands set forth in the plaint were, 
being portions of the said towns; that the said lordship ex- 
tended longitudinally from the towns of Pulford, Dodleston, 
and Pulton, in the county of Chester, to a stream called 
Eedealok, running between Yale and Hopedale, and going round 
hy the bounds and metes of Yale and Hopedale to Hanothelik, 
thence following the stream Nantorevongull to the stream 
Kekidok, thence following that stream to the stream Alyn, 
thence following that stream to the Dee, running between 
the county and [so!] Chester and Hopedale on the north, 
and from the lower part of the Redealok to the valley be- 
tween Le Roslwre and Kilirwa, and following the valley of 


the Kekidog, thence following that stream to the stream 
Anondwy [Afon ddu], in Ughmynyth [Uwch y mynydd], and 
so by the old bounds to Redemore [Redmoor], crossing from 
thence to the stream Merebrok, viz., to the spot where of old it 
WHS accustomed to run, and so following it to the Alyn on the 
south and following the Alyn to a place where of old the 
stream Anonduy in Hopewen [Hope Owen] used to run to the 
water Alyn, and following the Anonduy to PontebenehuU, and 
thence to a ditch called Clauth myssh, thence to Le Maynvry- 
nion [Meini Gwynion], thence by the old bounds Nantererard, 
thence to Perthyvellin, thence to Kynarton Bridge on the 
south, 80 following the old bounds to Fomonforwell [Ffynnon 
Forwel] bridge, thence to Pulford bridge, thence by the known 
metes to the Dee on the east [27 and 28 Hen. 5, m. 2 (12).] 

Oct. 20, 1448. John, Duke of Exeter. An inquisition taken 
at Northope on Thursday, the Feast of St Thomas the Apostle 
last past, finding that the said Duke died seized in his demesne, 
as of fee tail, of the towns of Llay, Burton, and Hunkelay, a 
moiety of the town of Trefalyn, together with the free chapel of 
St Leonard, and two mills, parcel of the lordship and manor of 
Hope and Hopedale ; that the same descended on the death 
of the said Duke to Henry his son ; that the said Duke died on 
the fifth day of August 1447 ; and that the said Henry was 
seventeen years of age on the said fifth day of August : the 
sheriff is commanded to take the said lauds eta, into the King's 
hands. [27 and 28 Hen. 6, m. 4 (1).] 

From Thirty- Seventh Annual Report of the Deputy- Keeper 
of the Public Records, pp. 271 and 469. 

{To be continued,) 





** How is the gold become dim ! how is the most fine gold changed ! 
the stones of the sanctuary are poured out in the top of every street." 

LamentcUionSy iv, 1. 

When the Cambrian ArchsBological Association visited 
Brecon for the first time, nearly fifty years ago, the 
occasion was made for ever memorable to the town by 
the Paper read by Mr. Freeman on *' The Churches of 
Brecon," in the course of which he made use of the 
following sentence : *' I know of no English town of 
the same size which presents greater attractions to the 
architectural enquirer, than this of Brecon." He, of 
course, referred to the splendid churches at the Priory 
and Christ College, and to the then interesting Chapel 
of St. Mary, which remain to us of the extensive 
ecclesiastical buildings erected in Brecon during 
mediaeval times, and which, by their grandeur, suggest 
what we may have lost in the monasteries, chapels 
and crosses, which have disappeared so completely, 
that their very existence is forgotten even by the 
oldest inhabitants. 

It is not, however, unreasonable to suppose that 
those, who built the noble churches we still possess, 
must have erected crosses and chapels not unworthy 
of the sense of beauty and reverent devotion with 
which their minds were inspired. 

There are consecrated pieces of ground in this 
parish, on which buildings once stood, where our fore- 
fathers worshipped in the days of old, and in which 
the Divine Service was celebrated, that are now 


desolate, or used for secular purposes ; and there are 
spots in our streets where crosses rose of which no 
trace remains, and hardly a memory lingers, though 
closely connected with the religious and civic life of 
the borough. But though these have perished, and 
their builders have passed away, the parish church, 
which was their glory and pride, as it is ours, still 
watches over the town they created, ** the only witness, 
perhaps, that remains to us of their faith and fear." 

The Vanished Crosses of Brecon. 

In mediaeval times Wales was particularly rich in 
the number and the form of its stone crosses ; the few 
crosses that remain show a surprising variety of design, 
and by their beauty suggest how much we have losf. 
There were market crosses and preaching crosses, 
churchyard crosses and weeping crosses. Crosses of 
every kind were placed by the wayside, on hig^hways, 
on lonely moors and mountains, and sometimes at 
cross-roads and other places suitable for funerals to 
rest. For in those far-off days of reverent faith, it was 
not thought strange or superstitious to consecrate the 
commonest matters of every- day life, by placing the 
emblem of the Christian religion wherever men 
gathered together, so that their thoughts might be 
raised from the things of earth to those of Heaven. 
In the words of a fifteenth-century writer : — 

" For this reason ben crosses by ye waye, that when folke 
passinge see the crosses, they sholde thynke on Hym, that dyed 
on the crosse, and worshyppe Hym above all thynge. — Dives et 
Pauper : " Printed by Wynken de Worde, 1496." 

All varieties of crosses may have been represented 
in mediaeval Brecon, the town of which we known so 
little as it then appeared ; but there are only three of 
the position and use of which we are certain. Of their 
form we know nothing. In 1292, John de Bello 
(Battle Abbey), mason, designed the Eleanor crosses 


of Northampton, Stratford, St. Albans, Woburn and 
Dunstable ; these were the most beautiful memorial 
crosses in Europe. In 1260, Reginald, Prior of Brecon, 
was elected Abbot of Battle, and there was also con- 
stant communication between the two places. Brecon 
Priory, as a cell of Battle Abbey, was bound to 
entertain the Abbot and his suite for two days at 
his annual visitation. The influence of John the 
Mason's beautiful designs may have affected the Brecon 

It will be interesting to consider the purpose and 
object of these crosses, as far as we can realise the same 
from the positions in which they were placed by our 
forefathers, as shown in Speed's maps of the town of 
Brecon, published iu 1610. These maps are only 
bird's-eye views,, and yet in some of the details we can 
verify to-day, they are so extraordinarily accurate, 
that we may safely conclude the crosses were actually 
standing at that time, as shown, more especially as 
they are placed exactly where we should expect to find 
them, from other evidence that is available. 

The Market Cross was in front of Mrs. Hughes' 
shop in High Street Inferior, and its memory is still 
preserved in the name of Butter Lane, which clings to 
the adjacent street. These market crosses were also 
called Butter crosses ; they were generally covered 
with a roof (surmounted by a cross) to shelter the 
market people from the rain, the sides being open, and 
they originated in towns where there were monastic 
establishments, as in Brecon, where the Benedictines 
at the Priory probably sent a monk on market days to 
preach to the assembled country-folk, that they should 
be true and just in all their dealings. The market 
cross also gave the religious house — in our case the 
monks at tbe Priory — a central point to collect the 
tolls paid by the farmers, etc., for the privilege of 
selhng in the town. 

That market crosses were common in Wales is 
suggestf^d by a line in Canwyll y Cymi^, published 


early in the seventeenth century. Vicar Prichard 
says : — 

" Be thy ooDdnct in each lonely scene 
The same, as if thoa on the cross wert placed." 

The Rev. W. Evans, Vicar of Lawhaden, whose 
translation of 1815 is used, has a note to the effect 
that the market cross is meant. This seems to show 
that in the good vicar's time it was so general a thing 
for the business of the mart to be transacted beneath 
the shadow of the cross that no explanation was 
necessary, as was the case in 1815, when crosses 
had disappeared from Llandovery, Brecon and else- 

The Preaching Cross stood on the Bulwark, to the 
east of the little Norman chapel of St. Mary, to the 
west of the yew-tree shown in one of Speed's maps. 
Preaching crosses were connected with the coming of 
the Friars, who specially used them for open-air 
services, and for preaching to larger congregations 
than the smaller churches — such as St. Mary s then 
was — could contain. The Dominican Friars arrived 
in England in 1222. In Brecon they built the great 
church and monastery of Blackfriars, now Christ 
College, which, in the latter days of Queen Elizabeth's 
reign, was still called by their name; and we can 
imagine one of them standing on the steps of the cross, 
the open space of the Bulwark crowded with people, 
whilst the Friar preached of Repentance and the 
Judgment to come. 

In the eighteenth century John Wesley also preached 
on the Bulwark, which recalls a similar coincidence in 
his career mentioned by Miss Florence Peacock : — 

" There was a Preaching Cross at Massingham, in Lincoln- 
shire : until about thirty years ago there stood a sycamore tree 
in the village street. It was named " The Cross Tree," and no 
doubt occupied the place where the cross once stood. Did John 
Wesley realise, as standing beneath it he preached to the crowds 
that flocked to hear him, that as the shadow of the sycamore 
fell upon him, so on that very spot had the shadow of the cn>ss 


fallen, centuries before, upon those who then spoke to the 
ancestors of the men and women listening to him of things 
spiritual and the life eternal ?" 

The High Cross was the most important of all the 
crosses in Brecon, and was placed in High Street, 
where Games' fountain now stands ; at its foot pubUc 
meetings were held, proclamations were made, and 
much civil business was transacted. The old stocks, 
which are still preserved in the Guildhall, probably 
stood in front of the High Cross. On July 4th, 1645, 
Capt. Richard Symonds, an oflficer of King Charles I's 
army, journeyed from Cardiff to Brecon on the King's 
business, and, in those days of war and strife, yet found 
time on his arrival here to make the following note in 
his Diary : — 

" Almost in every parish the crosse, or sometimes two or three 
crosses, perfect in Brecknockshire and Glamorganshire." 

We may conclude that the crosses in the town of 
Brecon were then untouched, but by March, 1650, the 
High Cross had been shattered, though it still remained 
in its place. 

Henry Vaughan, Silurist, has left us a description of 
the Assizes held in " our Metropolis" on that snowy 
March day, the pomp and circumstance of which he 
watched in bitterness of heart, contrasting the gay 
gathering in High Street in front of John AbeUs 
timbered Town Hall [whose sundial, bearing its words 
of ancient wisdom : Soles nobis pereunt et imputantur 
(" Our days perish, and are laid to our account") 
looked down upon the scene], he says : 

" 'Midst these the cross looks sad." 

That dial has long " ceased to mark the drawing nearer 
of Eternity," and has vanished, with much else that 
was precious, we know not where. 

We may feel sure that the High Cross was destroyed 
mider the Act passed for the demolition of crosses 
everywhere. The name lingered on into the latter 


part of the eighteenth century, long after a conduit 

fiven to the town by one of the Jeffreyses of the 
^riory, had taken its place, being known as "The Cross" 
in the old Book of Orders. It may be noticed that the 
High Cross, like the Preaching Cross, commanded an 
open space. All traces of the three crosses were 
probably removed when the Act of 1776 came into 
force, and Brecon was " improved" by the removal of 
the gates and other relics of its not-inglorious, though 
in those days unappreciated, past. What fanaticism 
in the sixteenth century, and the fury of the Civil War 
in the seventeenth century, luid begun, ignorance and 
indifference completed in the eighteenth. In the words 
of Mr. Buskin : 

" The feudal and monastic buildings of Europe, and still more 
the streets of her ancient cities, are vanishing like dreams ; and 
it is difficult to imagine the mingled envy and contempt with 
which future generations will look back to us, who still possessed 
such things, yet made no effort to preserve, and scarcely any to 
delineate, them." 

The Lost Chapels of Brecon. 

There were five chapels in various parts of the 
parish of which records remain ; there may have been 
others, such as the oratories in private houses, but we 
do not know of them. 

The Prisoners Chapel. — There was a chapel near the 
Borough Gaol, close to the Struct Gate, in which the 
prisoners heard Mass. This is mentioned in an In- 
denture in the Corporation Chest dated 1519. We 
do not know to whom it was dedicated ; might this 
have been a Brecon St, Peter ad Vincula f 

Benni Chapel. — About the middle of the thirteenth 
century, William de Burchell, with the consent of his 
wife Edith, gave to the Church of St. John at Brecon, 
five acres of his land at Benni, which extend as far as 
a certain maish or moor below the high road leading 
from " Breken" to Aberyskir. This William Burchell 


styles himself Lord of Benni, and states that at the 
petition of himself and friends the Prior of Brecon had 
given William's chaplain leave to officiate and say 
Mass for the souls of the deceased in his Chapel of 

St. Nicholas' Chapel. — The chapel within the Castle 
of Brecon was dedicated to St. Nicholas, a favourite 
patron of castle' chapels, who was also chosen as their 
patron saint by the Dominican Friars, when they built 
their church on the other side of the Usk, of which 
the chancel alone remains entire. The exact site of the 
chapel in the castle is unknown, but it is possible that 
the windows in the ruined fragment that remains may 
have belonged to it. Divine Service was performed 
here, and the Mass sung by the monks of St. John's. 
In 1410, Morgan ap Rhys, Vicar of Brecon, was 
nominated by John, Prior of Brecon, and the convent 
there, to be Chaplain of the free Chapel of St. Nicholas 
within the walls of Brecon Castle. Though no grants 
to this chapel are preserved, we learn from Dugdale 
and Giraldus Cambrensis that there formerly were 
territorial possessions belonging to it, for the latter 
tells us that William de Breos detained certain lands 
which had been given to the Chapel of St. Nicholas at 
Aberhodne, when the priest serving there, whose name 
was Hugh, saw in a vision a reverend person assisting 
him, and heard him speak these words : '* Go tell thy 
lord, William de Breos, who presumeth to hold those 
possessions, which were anciently given to thy Chapel 
in pure alms, this saying : 

" JEToe aufert jiscus quod non accipit Christies. Dabis impio 
miliii quod non vis dare sacerdoti." 

[" The public treasury taketh what Christ getteth not I Thou 
wilt, then, give to an ungodly soldier what thou wouldst not 
give to a priest ! "] 

Thereupon the priest went to the Archdeacon at 
Uanddew, and relating what he had seen and heard, 
the Archdeacon told him they were the words of St. 


Augustine, and showed him where, adding that " the 
detinue of tythes should be improsperous." 

In this chapel Masses must have been said fo^ the 
souls of the ill-fated Staffords of successive generations, 
the last being for Edward, Duke of Buckingham. 

St. CoUharine's Chapel. — Another forgotten sanctuary 
in the parish is the Hospital of St. Catharine, the 
name of which at least is kept in remembrance by the 
designation which has clung to it. The Spital Barn 
stands near the site of St. Catharine's Chapel in the 
Watton, nearly opposite the Barracks, and this also is 
holy ground. 

This Hospital seems to have been independent of the 
Priory, and was probably raised at the expense and for 
the convenience of the bailiff and burgesses of Brecon, 
though undoubtedly with the permission of one of the 
early priors. It may have been a house of entertain- 
ment for the pilgrims on their way to St. David's 
Cathedral, and for the large throngs who came on 
pilgrimage to present their offerings at the shrine of 
St. Alud on the hill above, the Hospitium being on 
the high road from Abergavenny and outside the walls 
of the town. 

The first time we find St. Catharine's mentioned is 
in a deed dated May 6th, 1475, which Hugh Thomas 
saw in the Corporation Chest at Brecon, by which 
** Wm. Vaughan, Esq., Bailiff, and the Burgesses of 
Brecknocke, grant a lease of the lazar or hospital of 
St. Catharine in the suburbs of the said towne to 
Wm. Goldsmyth and Wm. Perpoynt, Burgesses." 

There is an indenture, dated April 22nd, 1515, 
between the municipal ofiicers of Brecknock (amongst 
whom is Rhys y Cigwr, father of Hugh Price, ttie 
founder of Jesus College, Oxford), and Sir Thomas ap 
Hoell, Chapellan, of the same town, which 

** witnesseth that for very love confidence and aifection, and for 
the good and valuable conversation, service and benevolence that 
the said Sir Thomas hath heretofore done and hereafter intendeth 
to doe during his life to the said town, they give and graunte 


unto him the Chappell of Saint Cateryne, sitting and lying 
without the subburbes of the said towne, with all other houses, 
landes, orchers, garden, &c., belonging to the saide Chappell, 
relickes or pardonners that goeth unto the couutrey in the 
behalfe of the saide Chappell with the commodities almouse 
deeds of charitie, or anything that shall be given or bequeauen 
to the sayd Chappell .... The saide Sir Thomas doynge for 
the premises this observances following : first, he shall keep his 
Hall secundary in the quere Sundaies and holydaies at matens, 
mass and evensong within the Chappell of our Ladie, within the 
saide towne of Brecknocke, and also kepe our ladies mass daily, 
having sufficient company with him, with pricked songe, else to 
be excused, also kepe the organs, and teach two children 
liinitted by the bailie their pricked songe and plaine songe upon 
his own cost and charge dureing the said tyme, and also to sing 
mass at the Chappell of Saint Kaireine when he is disposed." 

This Sir Thomas ap Hoell became Vicar of Brecon 
a few years later, when he succeeded Sir Thomas ap 
leuan, the vicar who signed the agreement, dated 
1520, with Robert Salder, last Prior of the Priory of 
St. John the Evangelist. In the changes which 
followed the departure of the monks and the aliena- 
tion of Church property, St. Catherine's Hospital, and 
the lands belonging to it, were diverted to secular uses. 
The Mass was no longer sung before its altar; no 
priest was set apart for ministering to the sick and 
dying who worshipped within its walls. The Borough 
being in debt to Edward Games, Esq., of Newton 
(first Recorder of Brecon, and Member of Parliament 
for both shire and town, who lies buried under the 
high altar in St. John's Church), the grateful bailiff 
and twenty-four councillors " elected and chosen by all 
the hole towne and commonalitie of the same of their 
assent and consent to order and governe the same," 
gave the Hospital, and all the lands belonging to it, to 
him and his family, in reward for the good services he 
had rendered the ancient borough. 

Hugh Thomas, in his MS., 1698, says : — 

" Within less than a quarter of a mile from the town gate in 
the Watton ward stands a great barn, called the Spital,of which 
6th bkr., vou in. 17 


there is a traditiou and generally believed, that it was once a 
hospital and chapel that belonged to the noble family of the 

Gameses of Newton St. Catherine's is no where now to 

be found, therefore I presume it must needs be this Spital, as 
further appeareth by the font now to be seen there, and pair of 
stairs that lead up to a pulpit, as also a piece of ground adjoining 
to the Spital is to this day called the churchyard ; in which 
piece of ground there has been seen standing several yew trees 
l>y persons now living in the town, and within these ten years 
sculls and other bones of dead bodies have been taken up 

There is yet another reference to the Hospital in a 
deed, which was in the possession of the late Rev. 
Prebendary Herbert Williams, dated November 30th, 
1749, in which Sir Humphrey Ho warth, of Maeslough, 
in the county of Radnor, Knight, conveyed to the 
Rev. Thomas Williams, Vicar of Brecon, 

"the tithes of com and grain arising, growing and becoming due 
within the Liberty, Hamlett and precints of the Watton, 
commonly called the Spittle or Spital Tythes." 

In a letter written lately to the Breco7i County Times, 
an " Old Inhabitant" says : 

" That seventy years ago she remembers St Catharine's Chapel 
as a wheelwright's shop. It had a very high-pitched roof, 
which was rapidly falling into decay ; there were steps at one 
end, which, the wheelright used to say, led up to a pulpit in 
old times, when it was a chapel. In a cottage close by, a holy- 
water stoup was used as a hearthstone to receive the ashes. 
Behind the cottages (which from their high-pitched roofs and 
walls, nearly a yard thick, must have belonged to the Hospital), 
a large arched well stood in a yard (it was a very deep one, 
and a workman tried to tind the depth, but faQed). It was 
then filled up with rubbish, the old barn-Uke building taken 
down, and cottages built on the site/* * 

St. Alud's Chapel. — Of the vanished chapels in this 
parish dependent on the Mother Church of St John 
the Evangelist, the most interesting was that built on 
Slwch Tump, to commemorate the martyrdom of the 
Christian Saint, Alud, by a pagan Saxon Prince in the 
fifth century. 


St. Alud was one of Brychan Brecheiniog's daughters 
—the twenty-third — and lived at. Ruthin, in Gla- 
morganshire ; this may have been Roath or Ruderi. 
The chapel stood to the north of the British Camp on 
Pencefnygaer, about a mile east of Brecon, and not far 
from Slwch farmhouse. 

In the British Museum is a MS.^ account by Hugh 
Thomas, the Breconshire Herald, written about the 
end of the seventh century, of the legends connected 
with the life of this saint, which has not been pub- 
lished. Hugh Thomas came of an old Breconshire 
family descended from Brychan. He was a Catholic, 
a fact which has nowhere else been recorded excepting 
in this MS., and in his boyhood he passed some time in 
Brecon under the care of two Catholic ladies, his 
kinswomen, from whom he learned the traditions 
handed down through successive generations since the 
departure of the monks one hundred and fifty years 

The MS. (in his quaint but pleasant style) opens as 
follows : — 

[Only the spelling has been altered, and the punctua- 
tion — of which there was none — added.] 

"S. Lhud, that is Anger ; she is commouly called S. Alud or 
Aled, but Giraldus Cambrensis calls her Alraedha, who is the 
only author that makes any mention of her ; his words are 
these : — 

" * There are dispersed through several provinces of Cambria 
many churches illustrated by the names of the children of 
Brychan; of these there is one seated on the top of a certain 
hill in the region of Brecknock, not far from the principal castle 
of Aberhonddu, which is called the Church of Saint Almedha, 
who, rejecting the marriage of an earthly prince, and espousing 
herself to the Eternal King, consummated her life by a 
triumphant martyrdom.* " 

" But gives no further account of the matter, to supply which 
defect the country thereabouts gives us all the particulars, 
which will not be amiss to subjoin in this place, as a testimony 

1 Harl MS. 4181, Ff. 141-143. 

17 » 


of God*s Providence to preserve the memory of His servants, 
and the undeniable credit of the traditions of the innocent 
country people, which is thus briefly and obscurely touched by 

" It seems, that having from her infancy dedicated herself 
wholly to the service of God, in her riper years being violently 
pressed by a young Prince to marriage, to free herself from his 
solicitations and those of her family, she secretly stole away 
from her father's house in a disguise, resolving for a time to 
conceal herself in the neighbouring villages, not doubting that 
God, for whose sake she had renounced the world, would 
support her. But behold the great patience and victory of the 
lioly, royal maid ! All bowels of human goodness were shut up 
against her, so that her name, Lhud or Anger, seems to have 
been given her by Divine inspiration (as well as those of all her 
brothers and sisters), anger being poured out against her like a 
flood, weight added to weight, and burthen to burthen, till her 
life was taken away with great violence. 

" The first place she retired to was the village of Llanddew, 
or Trinity Church, about a mile from Brecknock" [in the seven- 
teenth century the Welsh system of mileage was still in use, one 
mile being equal to two English of the present day], " where she 
was so ill-treated, that fleeing from hence, she retired to a village 
called Llanfillo, three miles farther, to live in greater obscurity, 
which, joined with her poverty, beauty in rags, was the cause 
she was treated as a common thief, who despised human good or 
riches, but sought Heaven, or rather God. From hence, fleeing 
back again to another village called Llechfaen, within a mile of 
Brecknock, where the former scandals had reached before her, 
she was treated with such scorn and contempt that nobody 
would receive her, but forced her to lie in the street and the 
liigh road, which ever since is called of her name in Welsh, 
Heol S. Alud. After which she resolved to retire to some 
solitude, never more to converse with mortals; and such a 
solitude she found upon a hill called the Slwch, now Penginger 
Wall (a corruption of Pencefhygaer), near the town of Brecknock, 
which W61S then overgrown with wood. Here, that she might 
receive no further insults, she desired the Lord of the Manor to 
give her leave to dwell, which was very courteously granted, 
with a promise of other charity, upon which she there built 
her a little cell or oratory, and was used often to go down to 
the Castle of the Slwch, to beg her bread, where she was very 
hospitably relieved, for which she prayed that the Blessing of 
God and plenty might always be there. 

" When her thoughts were settled in a little tranquility after 



all these storms, by way of prophecy she said : That by the 
secret judgment of God a chastisement would rest on the village 
of Llanddew for the injuries done to her ; that the village of 
Uanfillo should be plagued with thieves, as they are to this day 
above all others, and the village of Llechfaen with envy, as 
indeed they are almost continually in contention and law with 
one another. 

" But this sweetness did not last long, nor could any place 
give her security from the persecutions of our common enemy, 
the Devil, for the fame of her great patience and piety beginning 
to be reported in the neighbourhood, her importunate lover, 
impatient to know if it were his lost mistress, went to her 
retirement to see, where, finding her alone at prayers, a violent 
fear surprised her soul at the danger of the place and person, so 
that she thought to flee down to the Lord's house at the bottom 
[of the hill], which the young Prince perceiving, mad with rage 
and despair, pursues her, and cuts off her head, which, rolling a 
little down the hill, a clear spring of water issued out of the 
rock, where it rested. This being presently known, she was 
taken up and buried in her own little cottage, which was there- 
upon turned into a chapel, and the secret history of her life by 
this cruel death revealed to the whole world, and her innocency 
made to outshine the sun, God working many miracles by her 
intercessions, in testimony of His great favour for her, in the 
eyes of all those who so much injured her. I take the following 
account from Giraldus : — 

" ' The day of her solemnity is every year celebrated in the 
same place the first of August ; whereto great numbers of devout 
people from far distant parts use to assemble, and by the merits 
of that holy virgin receive their desired health from divers 
infirmities. One special thing usually happening on the solem- 
nity of this blessed virgin, seems to me very remarkable, for you 
may often see there young men and maids, sometimes in the 
church, sometimes in the churchyard, and sometimes while they 
are dancing in an even ground encompassing it, fall down on a 
sudden to the ground. At first they lie quiet, as if they were 
rapt in an ecstasy, but presently they will leap up, as if posses- 
sed with a frenzy, and both with their hands and feet before the 
people they will represent whatsoever servile works they unlaw- 
fully performed upon Feast days of the Church. One will walk 
as if he were holding the plough, another as if he were driving 
the oxen with a goad, and both of them in the meantime singing 
some rude tune, as if to ease their toil. One will act the trade 
of a shoemaker, another of a tanner, a third of one that is 
spinning. Here you may see a maid busily weaving, and 


expressing all the postures usual in that work. After which all 
being brought with offerings unto the altar, you would be 
astonished to see how suddenly they will return to their senses 

" * Hereby through God's mercy, who rejoices rather in the 
conversion than destruction of sinners, it is certain that very 
many have been corrected, and induced to observe the holy 
Feasts with great devotion/ *' 

Giraldus Cambrensis, Archdeacon of Brecon/ was 
residing at this time at Llanddew, and wrote as an 
eye-witness of the miracles he records. Hugh Thomas 
was not correct in saying Giraldus was the only author 
who makes any mention of St. Alud, for William of 
Worcester, a fifteenth-century antiquary [B. 1415], 
has an entry in his Itinerary of which the following is 
a translation : — 

" S. Alud^ Vii^in and Martyr, one of the 24 daughters of the 
Ruler of Brecknock in Wales at 24 miles west of Hereford, 
sleeps in the church of cloistered virgins in the town of Usk, 
and was martyred on a mound at one mile from Brecknock, 
whence a spring [or well] arose, and the stone where she was 
beheaded there remains ; and as often as anyone in honour of 
GOD and the said Saint shall say the Lord's Prayer, or shall 
drink of the water of said fount, he shall find at his will a 
woman's hair of the said Saint upon the stone by a huge 

There can be no doubt that she was buried here on 
the spot where she was martyred, and not at Usk. 

This legend bears a remarkable resemblance to the 
story of St. Winifred's life ; but our saint cannot be 
accused of plagiarism, as she suffered two hundred 
years before the North- Welsh saint. 

The infuriated lover, the beheading, the spring of 
water bursting forth where the saint's head rested, are 
all similar ; but St. Alud's end was final, whilst St. 
Winifred, by a miracle, lived for fifteen years after 
her decapitation. 

Canon Jessop tells us that, " in the thirteenth 

1 B. 1146— D. 1223. 


century the Lives of the Saints became very different 
in tone from what they had been in the earlier ages ; 
they were overloaded with fabulous stories and in- 
credible incidents, which were not for edification/' 

The earliest mention we find of St. Alud's " little 
chapel" is in a grant made by Bernard, the Norman 
Bishop of St. David's 1116-1149, to the Prior and 
Convent of Brecon, of *' The Chapel of Saint Haellide 
ex nostra proprio dono'^ (of our own gift, a free-will 

In a document, dated July 5th, 1152, David Fitz- 
gerald, Bishop of St. David's, at the petition of Ralph 
the Prior and the whole Convent, confirms to them 
the Church of St. Aissilde granted them by his 

In the agreement between the last Prior, Robert 
Salder, and the Vicar of Brecon, Sir Thomas ap leuan, 
in 1520, whilst the parish church and other chapels 
belonging to it were made over to the Vicar, the 
Prior excepted the " Chapel of Saint Eylet with all the 
tythes, offerings^ and emoluments belonging to it," on 
the condition, that the said Prior and Convent and 
their successors should cause all Sacraments and 
Sacramentals to be administered within the aforesaid 
Chapel. It appears from the care taken to confirm 
the possession of this Chapel, that it was of some 
importance. The Welsh Princess was evidently a 
popular Saint, and the miracles attracted the pilgrims, 
who brought their gifts and offerings to leave before 
the altar. 

In the Augmentation Office, in a roll of the "Surveys 
of the possessions^ in Breconshire of the religious 
houses of the Duke of Buckingham forfeited to the 
Crown," the following occurs : '* Possessions on the 
Dissolution The Curate's stipend for cele- 
brating Divine Service in the Chapel of St. Alice in 
the parish of Brecknock." Theophilus Jones was of 
opinion that this was the same building as St. Alud's 


In the Inquisitio post-mortem of Thomas James, 
Lord of Slwch, 1551, his manor is described as Slwch 
and Saint Aylett, or Haylett. 

From the site of the chapel, at a short distance, 
can be seen Alexanderstone farm, which Theophilus 
Jones suggests (vol. ii, p. 151) may be a corruption of 
Alud or Alyned-stone ; in that case it may, before the 
Reformation, have belonged to this chapel. 

The Saint's name is variously written AJud, Aled, 
and Elyned ; but Hugh Thomas doubtless gives the 
local pronunciation of his time when he says : " A 
Chapel of Ease called by the people thereabouts 
St. Taylad." This is an interesting instance of the 
final •* t" of saint being joined to a name beginning 
with a vowel, as it marks the same corrupt usage 
which has made such words as " tawdry*' and " Tooley 
Street" so familiar in English annals. These words 
sprang, of course, from " Saint Audrey" [Etheldreda 
of Ely], and from '' Saint Olave," or Olaf the Dane, 
by a process of popular elision exactly similiar. 

To return to Hugh Thomas' (who believed as firmly 
in the "Fate of Sacrilege" as ever did Sir Henry 
Spelman) MS. : 

" But since this general profanation of all holy Feasts, and 
the destruction of her Church and Altar, where she relieved 
those, whom she chastised, this miracle has cea3ed, but not her 
indignation or anger ; for Mr. James Thomas, now Lord of the 
Slwch, who gave me this tradition of the Saint's safFerings and 
martyrdom, told me this Church was under the protection of 
the monks of the Priory of Brecknock, and that there was 
settled upon a Priest, for saying Divine Service there, two 
meadows adjoining to the north side of the Churchyard, and his 
dinner every Sunday at the Priory of St. John the Evangelist, 
and a can of beer every day. When Religion went to rack, and 
the land of the Priory sold in the time of King Henry VIII, 
this went off amongst the rest, and the Church stript of all its 
Ornaments and Pastor, and left to tumble to the ground. 
Therefore in the time of the Parliament's Rebellion against 
King Charles I, his father, Thomas James, of Slwch, made it a 
bam, and built a beast-house at the end of it, till he found 
himself almost ruined by an insensible decay of fortune {or the 


panishment of his sacrilege, and that the family had never 
prospered since ; that therefore he cleaned it out, and left it 
empty, pulled down the beast-house, and often promised to 
repair the Chapel, but the top is now quite fallen to the 
ground, and the walls will shortly follow it. To this place the 
young people of the town did use to come every May Day, and 
have many sports and diversions, I suppose from an abuse of a 
devout custom of visiting the Church in former times, but this 
is now quite laid aside. The laud, for maintaining a Priest to 
say Mass in it, is now in the possession of Sir Edward Williams, 
Knt., of Gwernyfed." 

It was a common belief that a curse fell on those 
who touched Church property. When Stukeley 
visited Glastonbury in 1776, he says '} '* I observed 
frequent instances of the townsmen being generally 
afraid to make such purchases [of stone from the ruins J, 
as thinking an unlucky fate attends the family where 
these materials are used, and they told me many 
stories and particular instances of it." 

In an old map in the writer's possession (of a 
property belonging to her in the parish of Llanham- 
lach). one field is called '* Close S. Ailed." This may 
have been land given towards the maintenance of the 
chapel, or it may have been the place to which the 
saint fled on being refused shelter at Llechfaen. No 
Heol S. Alud can be traced at the present time. The 
chapel once standing at Llechfaen may have been 
dedicated to her. 

A charming sonnet on St. Elyned was written by 
the late Mr. John Lloyd of Dinas : a poet who was 
worthy of the wider fame which he has missed. 


<' Fair Elyned, this window doth coramand 
A low flat hill, whereon tradition says 
Thy life was freely rendered, in the days 
When yet the cross on this benighted land 
Had feeble hold, by persecntion's hand 
Fiercely assailed : oh ! while secure we raise 
Temple and altar, well becomes as praise, 
And reoolleotions of the martyr band : 

^ Itinerarium Curiosum^ Iter. VI » 


Nor least of thee, for of a prinoely race, 

And sex ill-form 'd snch pang to undergo, 

That thoQ hast won in history a place 

Is proof thy spirit qnaii'd not from the blow. 

Would that the conquerors of the earth could trace 

Such proud escutcheon, such desert might shew.*' 

John Lloyd, of Dinas. 

St. Alud's Chapel is a little more than one mile 
from the town of Brecon, and is reached by Cerrig- 
cochion Lane, which, as its name suggests, is a rugged 
walk cut in the red rock, overhung with oaks and 
hazels, bordered with blackberry brambles and ferns 
and harebells. This ancient " Pilgrims' Way" leads to 
the site of the chapel, and was the " St. EUan Layne" 
mentioned in an account of the revenue of the Priory, 
28 Hen. VIII. It was the direct route from St. Alud's, 
by what is now Wellington Place and King Street 
to the Monastery. The land now belongs to Lord 
Tredegar, and on the Ordnance Map is marked as 
'*site of St. Elyned's Chapel." Sir Richard Colt 
Hoare visited the spot one hundred years ago, and 
was able to trace some small vestiges of the building. 

To-day the spot may be identified by a fine old yew 
tree, about 6 ft. in diameter, spreading its branches 
over a well, now almost choked by mud and weeds. 
The following is, an account of a visit paid to the 
Saint's shrine a few years ago, by Mr. Butcher and 
Mr. Greorge Hay, of this town : — 

<' On ascending from the well to the hedge there is a small 
mound, and on its summit may clearly be traced an oblong 
square, on which " Capel St. Alud" once stood. The spot is now 
completely grass-covered, and not even a solitary stone appears 
above the surface. At a short distance is what might have been 
the churchyard ; there are clusters of plants growing in it at 
irregular intervals, with leaves resembling the common sorel, 
and these, according to tradition, mark out the graves of those 
who were buried here. On leaving the field, and taking the 
lane in the direction of Slwch farm-house, we noticed that many 
of the stones, forming a wall on the right side of the lane, 
were dressed, and we were informed that these had been taken 
from the ruins of the adjoining church Mr. Geoi^ge Hay hers 


discovered two very interesting stones, one in which a groove 
was cut for fastening the hinge of a door. On reaching Slwch 
farm-house, a dressed stone that had been removed from the 
wall in the lane, and now used as a curb-stone for the fold-yard, 
was pointed out to ns. It was originally the ciU-stone of a 
window, neatly chamfered, and formed the base of the muUion. 

If some of our local antiquaries could be persuaded to 

undertake the work of making excavations on the site of St 
Elyned's, some interesting information might be obtained." 

So, to-day, not one stone is left upon another to tell 
us of the faith and devotion of a past age. A yew- 
tree alone marks the spot where the sainted martyr 
gave her soul to Grod ; a green mound alone recalls the 
memory of the chants of praise and prayer, which, 
ascending to Heaven through the long centuries, 
broke the silence of that lonely height. 

Priest and chapel, and the local veneration of the 
Saint, have passed away ; but, standing on this holy 
ground, we may lift our eyes to the eternal hills and 
remember, that the Faith once delivered to the saints 
is still ours, and is of the things which abide for ever. 





My attention was first called to the existence of the 
perforated stone axe-hammer which forms the subject 
of the following note, by Mr. Edward Laws, F.S.A., 
the learned author of Little England beyond Wales. 
In the work just referred to, Mr. Laws describes the 

Fig. 1. — Perforated Stone Axe- Hammer from Llamrhian, Pembrokeshire. 
Scale, \ linear. 

axe-hammer in question as having been found near the 
Longhouse cromlech in North Pembrokeshire. When 
the members of the Cambrian Archaeological Associa- 
tion visited the Longhouse cromlech during the Fish- 
guard Meeting in 1883, the possessor of the axe- 
hammer, who lived in the neighbourhood, exhibited 
it at the cromlech, and Mr. Worthington G. Smith 
made a drawing of it which is now in the volumes 
of his sketches^ in the Shrewsbury Museum and 
Library. After this, it appears to have been lost 
sight of, and it was not until the end of last year 
(1902) that I ascertained its whereabouts. The axe- 

1 Vol. V, p. 205. 



hammer is Daw in the possession of Mrs. MarycHurch, 
of Cardiff; and it is my pleasant duty now to thank 
her, in the name of the Association, for her kindness in 
allowing this remarkably beautiful little object to be 
illustrated in the ArchcBologia Camhrensis, 

Fig. 2.— Perforated Stone Axe-Hammer from Llanrhian, Pembrokeshire. 
Scale, \ linear. 

Whilst the axe-hammer was temporarily lent to me 
to be photographed, I took it to the Museum of Practical 
Geology, in Jermyn Street, London, to find out what 
material it was made of. The courteous Curator, after 
submitting it for inspection to his petrologist (who 

Fig. 8. — Perforated Stone Axe Hammer from Llanrhian, Pembrokeshire. 
Scale, } linear. 

kindly refrained from knocking a chip off it), informed 
me that it was of diorite, a very hard volcanic rock 
composed of hornblende and feldspar; or, in other 
words, granite without any quartz in it. 

The hammer-axe is 3 ins. long by 1^ in. wide by 
1^ in. deep at the axe end, 1^ in. deep at the hammer 
end, and | in. deep at the socket, which is not in the 



middle of the length. The socket-hole for the handle 
is f in. in diameter at the top, f in. in diameter at 
the bottom, and ^ in. in diameter at the narrowest 

The surface is beautifully polished, and feels smooth 

Fig. 4* — Perforated Stone Axe- Hammer from Llanrhian, Pembrokeshire. 
Scale, { linear. 

and almost greasy to the touch. The mottled colour 
is produced by the black grains of hornblende and the 
yellowish- white grains of feldspar. 

The description of the object given in Mr. Edward 

Fig. 5. — Perforated Stone Axe- Hammer from Llanrhian, Pembrokeshire. 
{Drawn by Miss Katherine QmoaU in 1884.) 

Laws's Little England beyond Wales (p. 17), is as 
follows : — 

"This is an exceedingly pretty diabase perforated axe, so 
small and so beautiful that it almost looks as if it had been an 
ornamental appendage. It was found in a stone coffin (or cist), 
which, is not very clear. It was accompanied by a coin of some 
sort, and of course it was only placed as a charm or what-not in 

FOtJNt) IN PteMBROKlESHlKl!). 227 

a comparatively recent grave. This tomb was near the great 
cromlech of Long Housa" 

Mr. Laws appears to have been misinformed, for the 
present possessor of the object, Mrs. Marychurch, 
assured me in a letter dated September 13th, 1902, 

" The hammer I have was not found near the Long House 
cromlech, but in a stone coffin dug up from the land of my 
grandfather, Mr. John Williams, of Trearched in Llanrhian 

I wrote again to Mrs. Marychurch, asking her 
whether the stone coffin in question was the one dis- 
covered by R. Fenton, the historian of Pembrokeshire, 

Fig. 6. — Perforated Stone Axe-Hammer from Llanrhian, Pembrokeshire. 
{Reproduced from R. Fenton s "History of Pembrokeshire") 

in the Beacon tumulus in 1805, and received the 
following reply : — 

" I think you are quite right in your surmise. 1 have just 
had a conversation with my cousin, who is a contemporary of 
mine, and she well remembers, as I do, the legend connected with 
the hammer. It was found about the date mentioned (1805), 
in a stone coffin. My grandfather had been blasting the rock 
you mention (The Beacon), for the purpose of getting stones for 
repairing the hedges, etc. There was no body in the coffin, but 
the little hammer was there, and a coin, which I think was a 
sort of penny. I think my sister has it. I will make inquiries, 
but I am quite certain in my own mind that the little hammer- 
axe is the one referred to by Mr. Fenton. There has never 
been one found near the Long House cromlech." 

Next we have the account of the opening of the 


Beucoij tumulus, given by Fenton in his History oj 
Pembrokeshire, pp. 32 to 34. 

" More westward, at the back of a farm called Tref Ednyfed, 
there is an earth work known by the name of Castell Hafod, or 
the caxtle of the summer residence, which, from its form and 
site facing the north, I am inclined to think was a Gadru,m 
cBstivum of the Romans ; the Roman road from Loventium to 
Menapia, however obscured, and by some disputed, from being 
miscalled, and variously called, by the names of Via Flandrica, 
Hen fordd, or the old way ; Fordd y Lladron, the thieves* way ; 
and Fordd Helen, being in several places to be traced, not above 
two miles to the south of this encampment. In a small field 
above it are many of those stone enclosures denominated CSst- 
, vaen ;^ and, still more southward, is an ancient tumulus, or, as 
the country people erroneously term it, a beacon, which, in 
company with my friends, Major and Captain Harries, of Cry- 
gl&s, who politely contributed evQvy assistance to give fadhty 
to my researches, I opened on Saturday, August 3rd, 1805. 
Over the centre of the tumulus ran a boundary hedge, to make 
which, much of the height had been lowered, and its shape 
rendered very irregular. We made our opening as near the 
middle as the hedge would admit of ; and, after taking away 
the earth and the sods on the surface, found large stones placed 
round in form of a cone ; some loads of which removed, we 
came to the natural soil, having discovered nothing indicative 
of interment but a few bits of charcoal. There was a great deal 
of blueish clay intermixed with the stones, that must have been 
brought from some distance, the soil here being of an opposite 
quality — very light and dry. However, not discouraged by our 
ill success on one side of the hedge, we began our operations on 
the other ; proceeding but slowly, as we came to an immense 
stone, visibly extending in length six feet, and lost under the 
hedge. It seemed plaistered, and, as it were, cemented to the 
stones it covered, with the same kind of clay we found on 
the opposite side. The gentleman farmer, on whose ground it 

^ '^CistvaeD, Englished, literally a stone cheat; whenever it oocors 
in the following pages, is intended to signify that simple species 
of sepulchre, consisting of an oblong enclosure, formed of coarse 
side and end flag^ with an incumbent stone of great weight by 
way of lid. Yarioas are the uses which autiqaariee ascribe to 
them, merely on the ground of conjecture ; bnt I presume I may 
boldly pronounce them all sepulchral, having opened many of the 
most perfect ones, and found them, from their contents, invariably 
of that character." 


was, lent his assistance, and the work went on for a little time 
more spiritedly; yet, night coming on, obliged us to desist. 
On Monday morning the operations were renewed with addi- 
tional powers, and the obstacle to our discovery got rid of : 
namely, the incumbent stone eight feet ten inches long and 
Yery thick, covering a Cistvaen four feet and a-half long, two 
feet four inches broad, and two feet deep, containing nothing 
but the finest dry mould, interspersed — as an ingenious medical 
gentleman then present fancied — with some very minute 
particles of a substance like bone. The sides of this primitive 
sarcophagus were formed of two large clegyr^ stones, un- 
conscious of any tool, only with their inner faces naturally 
rather smooth, the ends of two large coarse flags, and the 
bottom paved with smaller of the same kind. Adhering to the 
clay amongst the earth — thrown out some days after — were 
discovered a small stone hatchet of the same shape and size as 
that represented (Plate I, No. 3 of * Antiquities'),, and a small 
circular stone, of a species easily hewn, with a hole in the 
centre, and a few marks on one side something like numerals. 
The hatchet, though perforated to admit of a handle, was too 
small, and the edge too blunt to be used as a warlike weapon, 
and was most likely worn as an amulet or an ornament, being 
composed of a species of marble or inferior gem, known by the 
name of Lapis nephriticits Oermanorum^ clouded with different 
colours, and interspersed with small black specks of a metallic 
substance, with its surface — though smooth — incapable of a 
bright polish, from an inherent oiliness it possesses. The 
circular stone — several of which I have in my possession of 
different sizes — is found all over the country, and, seemingly, 
the general concomitant of sepulchral rites." 

To make the extracts we have given intelligible to 
the reader, it may be as well to explain exactly where 

^ " Clegyr, in the Welsh language, is a rock ; but, in Pembroke- 
flliire, almost generally, yet chiefly in the English parts of it, it is 
used as an adjanct to describe any large fragment of coarse stone 
which has not been wrought into form by the art of man." 

^ '^ This is a stone foand in several parts of Germany, particularly 
Bohemia ; but it abounds in South America, which the Indians 
work into various forms, as those of little pillars, fish, heads and 
beaks of birds — always perforated. The Brasilians suspend them 
bj their lips. Boot, in his book, De Gemmis^ gives a description 
of this stone, agreeing with the appearance of that which this little 
hatchet is composed of: ' Plernmque ex viridi, albo, csaruleo et 
nigro oolore mixtio est — semperenim superficies pingas quasi oleo 
innncta esset videtur.' " 

6fH BkB., VOL. U(. 18 


the different localities are situated relatively to Llan- 
rbian, near which they all lie. Llanrhian is on the 
road from St. David's to Fishguard, and is seven miles 
north-east of the former place. It is a mile from the 
north coast of Pembrokeshire, and the Via Flandrica 
runs within a mile of it to the southward. 

The Beacon is marked on the Ordnance Map (scale 
1 in. to the mile, Old Survey, Sheet 40 N.W.), at a 
point 1 mile east of Llanrhian. It is also shown on the 
Ordnance Map (scale 6 ins. to the mile, Pembrokeshire, 
Sheet 15 N.W.) on the division between two fields, as 
described by Fenton, immediately south of the road 
from Llanrhian to Mathry. The word " Beacon" does not 
appear on the 6-in. Ordnance Map, but the name seems 
to survive in Bickny, a house close to the tumulus to 
the westward. It is on high ground, being 300 ft. 
above the sea, although only a mile from the coast. 

Treyarched Farm, where Mrs. Marychurch s grand- 
father (from whom she inherited the stone axe-hammer) 
lived, is half a mile south of the Beacon, and a mile 
south-east of Llanrhian. 

The Long House cromlech^ is two and a-half miles 
north-east of Llanrhian, and about two miles north-east 
of the Beacon. 

Tref Ednyfed, mentioned by Fenton, is close to 
Llanrhian on the east, and on the way to the Beacon, 
but the earthwork called Castell-Hafoa does not appear 
to be marked either on the 1-in. or the 6-in. Ordnance 

From what has now been said there can be no 
reasonable doubt that the hammer-axe belonging to 
Mrs. Marychurch is the one described by Fenton as 
having been found in the earth taken from inside the 
cist under the Beacon tumulus. It is highly improb- 
able that two axe-hammers, so nearly corresponding in 
size and character as the one illustrated and described 
by Fenton and the one now in the possession of 

^ Described and illostrated in ArckcBologia CambrensiSy 4th Ser^ 
▼ol. iii, p. 140. 


Mrs. Marychurch, should have been discovered within 
two or three miles of each other. The illustration 
made for Fenton by J. Basire, and published in 1809, 
is evidently drawn the same size as the original, and 
corresponds exactly, both in size and shape, with 
Mra. Marychurch's axe-hammer. 

Sir William Wilde, in his Catalogue of the Antiqui- 
ties in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy^ p. 79, 
divides the perforated stone hammers and hammer-axes 
found in Ireland into the following five classes : — 

(1) Celt-shaped, with a cutting edge at one end and rounded 
at the other end, and having the hole for the handle nearer one 
end than the other. 

(2) Like the first variety, but narrower, and with the hole in 
the centre. 

(3) Egg-shaped, with both ends rounded and the hole in 
the centre. 

(4) Maul-shaped, with the hole nearly in the centre. 

(5) Stone battle-axes or axe-hammers, with a cutting edge at 
one end and the other end rounded ; deeper at the ends than in 
the centre, and having the hole nearer one end than the other. 

The stone axe-hammer from the Beacon tumulus 
belongs to the last of these classes. 

The following list shows the number of instances in 
which perforated stone axe-hammers have been found 
with sepulchral remains. 

List of Pkbfobatbd Stone Axe-Hammers found in Barrows in 
Great Britain. 

Locality not given. (4 ins. long, found in a barrow) — J. Anderson's Scotland in 
Pagan Ttmei ; Bronze ana Stone AgeSy p. 309. 

Whitehall, Stronsay (found in barrow) — Scotland in Pagan Times ; Bronze and 
Stone Agesy'p. 807. 

Ormiegill, Ulbeter. (4 ins. long ; found in a homed cairn with Neolithic imple- 
ments) — Scotland in Pagan Times; Bronze and Stone Ages^ p. 246. 
Breckingo, Thrumster. (5 ins. long ; found whilst demolishing chambered cairn ; 
no burial recorded) — Proe. Soe. Ant, Scot.^ vol. xxix, p. 6. 

Crichie, Inverurie. (4^ ins. long ; found with burnt burial) — Scotland in Pagan 
Times ; Bronze and Stone Ages^ p. 106. 

18 » 


Cletigfa«ad, Glenberrie. (8{ ini. l<mg)^8coUand in Pagan Time* ; Bronze S9d 
SUme Agei, p. 820. 

Doune. (2} int. long ; found with urn of food-venel tjpe) — ScoUand is Pagta 
Tknee, p. 83. 

Craigengolt. (Particulan not given) — Baron A. de Bonstetten'i Eseod $wr In 
Dolmens, pL 4, fig. 1. 

Island of Aran. (8$ ins. long ; kind of burial uncertain)— Proc Soc Ant. ScoL, 
vol. xxxvi, p. 100. 

CHiapelton Farm, West KUbride. (4 ins. long ; found with burnt burial under 
inverted urn)— R. Munro^s Prehistoric Scodand, p. 149. 

Seghill, near Newcastle. (6^ ins. long ; found in a cist without any remaim of 
bones) — Proc. Soc, Ant, LoncL, Ser. 2, voL iv, p. 60. 

Weaverthorpe. (4§ ins. long ; found with unbumt burial) — Proc 8oe. AnL 

Lend., Ser. 2, voL iv, p. 460. 
Oanton, No. xviii. (5 ins. long ; found with burnt burial)— W. Oreenwell's 

British Barrows, p. 158. 
Ganton, No. zxxi (8^ ins. long and broken, found with burnt burial)— jSri^ 

Barrows, p. 179. 
Cowlam, No. IviiL (4^ ins. long; found in barrow unocmnected with any boriil) 

^British Barrows, p. 222. 
Rudstone, No. IxviiL (5i ins. long, found with unbumt burial and bronie 

dagger-blade) — British Barrows, p. 266. 
Qoodmanham, No. Izxxix. (4 ins. long; found with burnt burial) — Briti^ 

Barrows, pp. 86 and 298. 
Pickering (5 ins. long ; found in a field in which there is a barrow)— T. Bate- 
man's Ten Tears* Diggings, p. 237. * 
Robin Hood's Bay. (4 ins. long ; found on site of mutilated barrow)— E. 

Howarth's Catalogue of Sheffield Museum, p. 10. 
Broughton in Craven (6 ins. long ; found in an urn with burnt burial and bronze 

dagger-blade)— ^nc»en^ Stone Implements, p. 208. 
Skelton Moor (4} ins. long ; found with burnt burial inside cineraiy urn)— 

Ancient Stone Imptem^mts, p. 211. 
Danby Moor. (4^ ins. long ; found with burnt burial)— .^ncteni Stone Imple- 

ments, p. 211. 
Westerdale Moor. (Found with burnt burial inside cinerary urn) — Ancient SUme 

Implements, p. 21 1. 
Sledmere. (Size not given ; found with burnt burial)— Troiu. B. Biding AnL 

Soe., voL ii, p. 21. 
Huggate Pasture. (5} ins. long ; kind of burial not Tecorded)^Unpublished. 

Winwick. (5 ins. long ; found with burnt burial and bronze spear-head inside 

cinerary nm)— Trans, of Hist. Soc of Lane, and Cheshire, voL xii (I860), 

p. 190. 
Glaughton Hall, Garstang. (Size not given ; found in wooden case with borat 

burial, and pair of Scandinavian bowl -shaped brooches) — Archaological 

Journal, vol. vi, p. 74 ; AncieM Stone Implements, p. 210. 


Borrowash. (6 ins. long ; found with unburnt burial) — E. Howarth'i Catalogue 

qf Sheffield Muaeumy p. 4. 
Carder Low, Hartin^n. (3 j ins. long ; found with unburnt burial and bronze 

dagger-blade) — T. Bdteman's Vettiges of the ArUiquitie$ of Derbyahire, p. 63. 
Parcelly Hay, Hartington. (4 ins. lonjr ; found with unburnt burial and bronze 

dagger-blade) — T. Bateman's Ten Years' Diggings^ p. 24. 
Kenalow, Middleton-by-Youlgrave. (Broken and imperfect ; found with unburnt 

burial and bronze dagger-blade) — Vestiges of the Antiquities of Derbyshire, 

p. 28. 
Stand Low. (5] ins. long ; found with burnt burial and bronze dagger-blade.) 

Hartshill Common. (Size not given ; found in a tumulus in 1773, but particulars 
of kind of burial not stated) — Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica, 
vol. ix, p. 16. 

Tbrowley. (4^ ins. long ; found in urn with burnt burial) — Ten Tears' Diggings^ 
p. 165. 

Wflton Heath, Brandon. (4g ins. long ; found with urn) — Ancient Stone Imple- 
ments, p. 193. 


Hove. (5 ins. long ; found with burnt burial (?), amber cup, and bronze dagger- 
blade)— iStiwea: Archaol, CoU., vol. ix, p. 120. 

Lamboume. (8^ ins. long ; found with burnt burial and bronze knife) — Archao- 
logicL, voL lu, p. 60. 

SDowsbill. (6} ins. long ; found with unburnt burial, two bronze dagger-blades, 
. - and bronze pin) — ArchoBologiay vol. lii, p. 72. 

Upton Lovel, No. 4. (4| ins. long ; found with unburnt burial and implements 

of bone and stone)— ^ir R. Colt Hoare's Ancient Wilts., p. 76. 
Ashton Valley, No. 6. (3} ins. long ; found under cinerary urn with burnt 

huriBX)— Ancient WUts., p. 79. 
Ashton Valley, No. 8. (4J ins. long ; found with burnt burial) — Ancient 

WUU., p. 79. 
Rollestone. (3^ ins. long; found with unburnt burial) — Ancient Wilts., p. 174. 
Normanton, Bush Barrow, No. 168. (Dimensions not given ; found with unburnt 

burial and bronze and gold objects) — Ancient Wilts. ^ p. 204. 
East Rennet. (6| ins. long ; found with unburnt burial) — Archo&ologia, vol. xliii, 

p. 410. 
Wilsford. (1 in. long; found with unburnt burial) — Ancient Stone Implements, 

p. 213. 
Stonehenge. (9 ins. long ; kind of burial not recorded) — Archceologia, vol. xliii, 

p. 411. 
Stonehenge. (7 ins. long ; kind of burial not recorded)— A rchteologia, vol. xliii, 

p. 411. 
Windmill Hill, Avebury. (6 ins. long ; found with incense cup and seven 

skeletons) — Salisbury Volume of Memoirs of Meetings of R. Arckoeol. Inst.^ 

1849, p. 110. 
Selwnod, Stonrton. (51 ins. long ; found with burnt burial and bronze dagger- 
blade)— -4ncic?i< Storu Implements, p. 211. 
Bulford Down. (5i ins. long ; found in cist with unburnt burial)— Uvpvhlhhed. 



Winterbounie Steepleton. (4 ins. long; found with burnt burial) — Amdad 
Stone ImplemenU, p. 210. 

Locality not givtn. AnderU Stone Implements, p. 195. 

TreTelgue. (4 ins. long ; found with unburnt burial) — W. C. Borlase'i Kenia 
ComubicBf p. 87. 

It will be seen from the above Table that, so far as 
Great Britain is concerned, perforated stone axe- 
hammers are characteristic of the Bronze Age and not 
of the Stone Age, except in a few cases in Scotland. In 

-*>Vi»^il^^^^B&^B5^H^j^ > -.-T: 

Fig. 7. -Perforated Stone AxeHammer8 and Uriia from Stone- Age Burials 

in Denmark. Scale, | linear. 
{Reproduced from the " Mcnioiree de la Socuft^ des AntiquaireM du Nord,'*) 

Scandinavia, however, exactly the reverse is the case, as 
such objects are there very frequently found accom- 
panying Stone- Age burials in dolmens and graves. A 
large number of beautiful specimens are illustrated 
in A. P. Madsen's Gravh0Je^ and in his Paper on " Une 
Centaine de Tombeaux de I'Age de Pierre" in the 
Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaires du Nord for 

1 From Dolmens at St. Rorboek, Udby, and Gnndestrnp (see 
Plates 8, 16, and 18). 

Stone Axe-Hammers ForM> in Den31ark. 

{After A. P. Madgen.) 

Stone Axe-Hammers Found in Denmark. 
{After A. P, Madsen.) 



There are three reasons which may be suggested to 
explain why stone axe-hammers are so frequently found 
associated with burials of the Stone Age in Denmark, 
and with burials of the Bronze Age in Great Britain : 
namely, (1) that they were objects prized by the 
deceased during his lifetime ; (2) that he would require 
weapons in a future state of existence ; and (3) that 
the axe was a symbol associated with the worship of 
some deity. There is ample evidence that the cult of 

Fig. 8. — Perforated Stone Axe-Hammers and Urns from Stone- Age Burials 

in Denmark. Scale, ^ linear. 
[Reproduced from the " Mhnoire» de la SocUU des ArUiquairea dii Nord") 

the axe was widely spread in both the Stone and the 
Bronze Ages. 

AlS instances of the cult of the axe in the Stone Age, 
we have the remarkable series of sculptures of stone- 
axes on the dolmens of the Morbihan^ in Brittany, and 
the not less remarkable figures, with owl-like heads 
and stone axes, on the walls of the artificial sepulchral 

* See Report of Brittany Meeting of C. A. A., in Archceologia Cam- 
hrtntiB^ 5th Ser., vol. yii, p. 43. 



caves in the Department of la Mame^ in France, ex- 
plored by Baron de Baye. The stone aze-heads on the 
dolmens of Brittany are represented in some cases 
without any handle, and in others hafted according to 
the method practised by the Neolithic inhabitants of 
France. The best sculptures of this kind occur on the 
sides of the passage leading to the chamber in the 
great tumulus on Gavr' Inis, on the roofing slabs of the 

Fig. 9. — Perforated Stone Hammer- Azee from Stoue-Age BuHaLb in 

Denmark. Scale, ^ linear. 

{Reproduced from the " MSmciree de la SocidU de» Antiquairet du Nord.**) 

chambers of the Dol-ar-Marchand and the Kercado 
tumulus, and on a stele found in the chambered cairn 
of Man^-er-H'roeg. The axes are associated with 
symbols of unknown meaning, but not with human 

The artificial caves in the Department of la Mame 

.1 Ulastrated in E. Cartailbac's La France PrekUiorxquey p. 241 ; 
and Baron de Baje'g Archdologie Prihistorique, 


are excavated in the chalk, and contain burials of the 
Neolithic period. On the walls of the Grotte du 
Courieonnet is sculptured an owl-headed deity (forcibly 
recalling similar representations in Mycenaean art), with 
a complete stone ^xe in its handle on the lower part of 
the figure. In another grotto, at Eazet k Croizard, the 
same owl-headed deity appears with the breasts of a 
female, but without the axe. 

Another proof of the prevalence of the cult of the 
axe during the later Stone Age in Europe is furnished 
by necklaces of stone and and amber, having perforated 
pendants in the shape of axes and also of hammers. 
In France^ such pendants have been found in the 
Dolmen de Rogarte at Carnac, in Brittany, and the 
AU^e Couverte de la Justice (Oise). 

In Scandinavia they have been found in the dolmen 
of Stege, Denmark,* and in Bornholm and Bohuslan, 
Sweden;^ and in Ireland* in one of the chambered 
cairns at Sliabh-na-Caillige, co. Meath. 

Coming next to the Bronze Age we have evidence of 
the continued existence of the cult of the axe in the 
sculptures on the cist at Kilmartin,^ Argyllshire, and on 
the rocks of Bohuslan,® Sweden. Stone pendants in 
the shape of an axe have been found in a Bronze Age 
cist at Strypes,^ Elginshire, and miniature bronze celts, 
intended for use as pendants, have been found at 
Glasserton,® Wigtonshire, and Arras,® Yorkshire. 

The recent discoveries made in Crete by Dr. A. J. 
Evans, at Knossos,^® and Mr. D. G. Hogarth, in the 

^ Arch, Camb,, 6th Ser., vol. xvii, pp. 805 and 308. 

' J. J. A. Worssae's Industrial Arts of Denmark, p. 31. 

^ O. Montelins' Les Temps Frehistoriques en SuMe^ pp. 24 and 39. 

* Transctetions R. /. A,, vol. xxxi, p. 32. 

* Jour. Brit, ArcJi. Assoc, vol. xxxvi, p. 146. 

• A. Holmberg, Skandinaviens Hcdlristningar, 
7 Reliquary for 1897, p. 46. 

® R. Mnnro's Prehistoric Scotland, p. 186. 

• In the York Mnseum. 

^^ Jour. R. Inst. Brit. Architects, 3rd Ser., vol. x, p. 97. 


Birth Cave of Zeus^ in Dicte, show that the double- 
edged axe was the universally-accepted symbol of Zeus 
ill the Mycensean age. The hammer of Thor,* the 
Scandinavian god of thunder, is a symbol of the same 
kind which was used as a charm in the Iron Age. 

The last survival of the cult of the axe is the use 
of stone celts as amulets, and for protection against 

The cult of the axe is, in fact, spread over nearly the 
whole world. A Hittite sculpture, in the Royal Museum 
at Berlin,* shows a divinity holding an axe in one hand 
and a trident in the other ; and in quite recent times 
the ceremonial stone axes of the Pacific Islands were 
objects of reverence if not of worship. When we reflect 
upon the part played in human progress by the axe, 
which enabled the first clearing in the primaeval forest 
to be made and the first dug-out canoe to be built, thus 
paving the way to migration of races of men by land 
and sea, it is not surprising that an implement of such 
might should be considered as the most fitting to place 
in the right hand of a god. 

1 have to thank Mr. Reginald A. Smith, F.S.A., 
of the Department of British and Mediaeval Antiquities 
in the British Museum, for particulars about the stone 
axe-hammers in the national collection. 

Mr. Edward Laws begs me to say that his informa- 
tion about the finding of the stone axe-hammer near 
the Longhouse cromlech was derived from the same 
source as mine, namely, from Mrs. Marychurch. 

^ Monthly Review (Jobn Marray) for January, 1901. 
'^ MonacUblad of the Royal Society of Antiqaaries of Stockholm 
for April, 1872, and March, 1875. 

^ Sir John Evans* Ancient Stone Implements^ p. 61. 

* EepoH of the U. S. National Museum for 1896, Plate 28. 




When the late Sir Stephen R. Glynne, Bart., visited 
this church about the year 1830, and described it in 
minute and faithful detail as it then was,^ he declared 
it to be upon the whole *' singular from its rudeness." 
Since then, thanks to the unstinted munificence of the 
late Chevalier Lloyd, K.S.G., of Clochfaen, and the 
master-hand of the late Sir Gilbert Scott, it has under- 
gone a thorough restoration and adornment, and may 
now be fitly described as singular in its massive 
simplicity and enrichment. No attempt has been made 
to interfere with the lines of the edifice, nor even to 
enlarge the north aisle to its former size; but no 
expense has been spared to secure excellence in material 
and workmanship, and to render it worthy of its 
sacred purpose. A series of richly-painted windows 
depicts the legendary story of its foundation, while a 
number of historic personages and heraldic shields 
portray the line of the chieftains of Clochfaen, the 
ancestors of the restorer. The sum expended by the 
Chevalier on the memorial was £11,000. 

The legend of the foundation is curious and instruc- 
tive, and although it became overladen with later and 
foreign matter, it bears the stamp of consistence and 
probability. The founder, Curig Lwyd (Curig, the 
Blessed, or Holy), was one of that large body of 
Armorican refugees who, having been forced to quit 
Brittany in the sixth and seventh centuries, rounded 
the Land's End, and coasting northwards, finally landed 
at the mouth of the Ystwith, where Padam had already 
settled, and had made the evangelisation of Powys, or 
Mid Wales, his special aim. As Cadvan and Tydecho, 

1 Areh. (Jamb., 6th Ser., vol. i, p. 144. 


and Sullen and Trinio and others, had already advanced 
north-eastwards, so Curig, either from choice or under 
direction, proceeded eastwards along the trackway that 
led up the ravines of the Rheidol, and across the bleak 
moorlands of Plinlimmon towards Kerry and Elvael, 
where indeed Padarn had already preceded him, as we 
may infer from the foundation of Llanbadam Fynydd, 
Llanbadarn Fawr, and Llanbadam y Gareg. After 
resting on the eastern brow of Plinlimmon, at a spot 
thence, and still called after him Eisteddfa Gurig 
(Curig's Seat), and having taken a survey of the wilds 
of southern Arwystli, stretched out before him, he 
continued his course along the main trackway till he 
reached the point on the banks of the Afon Gwy (The 
Wye), where the road bifurcated in two directions, one 
trenaing north-eastwards towards Cedewen and Kerry, 
the other south-eastwards towards Gwarthrenion and 
Elvael (Radnorshire). In this lonely and wild but 
beautiful spot he raised his primitive oratory, that he 
might from it, as a centre, carry his mission of glad 
tidings to the surrounding district, and at the same 
time provide shelter and guidance to travellers acroiss 
that mountainous waste. The typical story of the 
opposition and miraculous conversion of K. Maelgwn 
is a counterpart of the legends of St. Tydecho and 
St. Cyndeyrn, and represents the conflict between 
Paganism and Christianity, with some of the material 
changes which the latter introduced. The sanction at 
last extended to the new comers was wise and politic ; 
for it inaugurated a new epoch in the people s life : for 
the yoking of wild beasts to the plough typified the 
change trom hunting to agriculture, from the precarious 
prey of the chase to the settled cultivation of the land. 
An institution so benevolent, useful, and Christian 
must soon have attracted others, both men and women, 
to join it ; for the genesis of the Celtic Church was 
tribal and familiar, rather than monastic or heremitical. 
It was probably to this trait that Huw Arwystli 
alluded when he sang : — 


"Da fyd fu ar d^ feadwy 
A'i leian gynt ar Ian Q-wy. 

And the local name of a part of the village may be the 
tradition, in this particular instance, of this founder's 
original home, FrankwelL Later on, Curig appears to 
have been made a bishop, probably of Llanbadarn, or at 
least in the district of which Llanbadarn was the 
ecclesiastical head, and his " staff" continued long 
afterwards to be treated with great veneration at the 
neighbouring church of St. Harmon's. With his repu- 
tation for sanctity there grew also an ascription ot 
miraculous powers and an increasing cultus : — 

" Nerthwr 'n yw'r gwr a garwyd 
Gwych iawn ao a ohwyr addolwyd.'* * 

Huw Cae Llwtd. 

Nor were these powers confined to himself personally ; 
they were extended to his " staff" also, and Giraldus 
Cambrensis tells an amusing story of the strictly 
business terms on which they were put into operation. 

" In this same pro\dnce of Warthrenion and in the church of 
St. Germanus there is a (reputed) staff of St. Curig* covered on 
all sides with gold and silver, and resembling in its upper part 
the form of a cross ; its efficacy has been proved in many cases, 
but particularly in the removal of glandular and strumous 
swellings, insomuch that all persons afflicted with these com. 
plaints, on a devout application to the staff, with the oblation of 
one penny, are restored to health. But it happened in these 
our days, that a strumous patient on presenting one halfpenny 
to the staff, the humour subsided only in the middle ; but when 
the oblation was completed by the other halfpenny, an entire 
cure was accomplished. Another person also coming to the staff 
with the promise of a penny was cured ; but not fulfilling his 
engagement on the day appointed, he relapsed into his former 
disorder ; in order, however, to obtain pardon for his offence he 

^ Prosperity rested oa the house of the hermit and the nuD on the 
banks of the Wye. 

' Onr protector is the man beloved • • and honoured with waxen 

* '^Bacnlns, qui sancti Cyrici dicitar." Editio 1685, p. 67. 


tripled the oflfering by presenting three pence, and thus obtained 
a complete cure."^ 

This staff continued in great repute until the Refor- 
mation, when it was committed to the flames and 

Long, however, before this, an element of much 
confusion had been introduced through the adoption of 
the legend of another Curig, the child-martyr of Tarsus, 
and his mother, Julitta, This probably took place at 
some renovation of the church ; for it was the custom 
of the Normans to re-dedicate edifices built under the 
British rule ; and it was no d(yubt due to the influence 
of Crusaders, who in their travels abroad had become 
acquainted with the story of the youthful martyr and 
his widespread cultits. The effect of it was to mix up 
the two stories, and, regardless of chronology, to treat 
them as one ; and the endeavour to combine them in 
the painted windows tends to perpetuate the confusion 
and to stereotype their inconsistency. We will now take 
the windows in detail, beginning with the east window, 
and following the order and substance of the late 
Col. Lloyd- Vemey's Handbook.* The east window, a 
Perpendicular of three lights, has in the head of the 
tracery " figures representing KingMaelgwn Gwynedd 
handing to the nun Julia a box containing the deeds of 
the land which he devoted to the Church." That is to 
say. King Maelgwn, sixth century, is made contem- 
porary with the child martyr of the fourth century, and 
the donation is made in the manner of far later centuries. 
On each side are angels bearing scrolls, from the 
Te Deum : " Te martyrum candidatus laudat exercitus.'** 
On the left is depicted the martyrdom of the boy, and 
beneath it a representation of Julitta, also martyred, 
with the inscription " Beatu^ Julitta martyrio corona- 

^ Giraldns GambreDsis, Itinerary (Bohn, p. 335). 

* History of Radnorshire^ p. 548. 

* A Description of the Parish Church oj Llangurigy Mimtgomery- 
shirey by Col. Lloyd- Verney, of Cloohfaen. LoDdon, 1892. 

* " Thee the white-robed army of martyrs praiseth." 











tur/' The central figure in the window is that of the 
other St. Curig, represented as a bishop, with a pastoral 
staff or crook turned outwards, which, however, is not 
in accord with the description of the real one seen and 
described by Giraldus Cambrensis as a crozier : " In 
hac eadem prouincia de Warthrenion in ecclesia vide- 
licet Sancti German i, Baculus qui Sancti Cyrici dicitur 
inuenitur ; superius in crucis modum paulisper utrinque 
protensiis, auro et argente undiq. contectus."^ 

To the right is a representation of his landing at 
Abei-ystwith : '* Beatus Cyricus Ystwyth fluvii ostio 
navem appellat ;" and, below, another of his building 
the church at Llangurig : " Sancta Cyricus ecclesiarn 
©dificat,*' betraying an unhappy transposition, by the 
workman, of the adjectives in this and the martyrdom 
of Julitta. 

At the base of the window are the representations of 
the four brothers of Llangurig, leuan, Owain, Siencyn, 
and Gwilym, and their (eldest) sister Elen ; all of whom 
are subjects either of complimentary poems or of elegies, 
by Huw Cae Llwyd and Huw Arwystli. 

Of the five windows on the south side all but the 
third contain armorial shields of ancestors of the house 
of Clochfaen, from Madog Danwr (Madoc the Fire- 
bearer), who in 1197 received from Prince Gwenwyn- 
wyn for his services in the field, Llangurig, Aberhafesp, 
and Dolfachwen, down to Rhys Lloyd, 1699 to 1737, 
with their matrimonial alliances. The third window 
has a representation of St. Michael, with scales and 
sword weighing the dead ; and in allusion to the good 
works of the three ladies commemorated the seven 
corporal works of Mercy, plus that of burying the dead : 
" Pan cteddit yn claddu'r meerw yr oeddwn i gyda thi 
hefyd" {Tobit, xii, 12, 13). 

The centre of the fourth window is a representation 
of Dunawd or Dinothus, first bishop of the celebrated 

1 Itin, Camhr. 1585, 67. " The staff is extended just a little on 
each side after the manner of a cross, and is covered all over with 
gold and silver.** 


college or monastery of Bangor Iscoed, but with the 
arms of the See of Bangor, in Carnarvonshire : perhaps 
an allusion to the foundation of that See by his son 

In the fifth window is a representation of (1) St. 
Elidan holding a spear in one hand and the model of a 
church in the other, in allusion to the legend of Julitta 
making waxen images of him ; and (2) of St. Maurice, 
the patron of soldiers : " Militum pat ran us" {sic)y the 
Commander of the "Theban Legion." 

In the west window the central figure is that of St. 
David, and on either side of him the arms surmounted 
by a crown of six of the Welsh kings, viz., Trahaiaro 
ap Caradawc, Gruftydd ap Cynan, Howel ap leuaf, 
Rhys ap Gruffydd, Gwenwynwyn ap Owain Cyfeiliog, 
and Gruflfydd ap Wenwynwyn. 

On the north side the first window from the west 
represents in the first light King Maelgwn in full 
armour (of the fifteenth century), surrounded by his 
attendants, with the river Wye in the background. 
" Maelgwn F. Rhysevelauni (should be Cassivelauni) 
Arwyslise Rex ;" in the second, Julia, or Julitta, is seen 
making wax images of St. Elidan at her shrine on 
the banks of the Wye : ** Virgo sanctiraonialis Vagae 
fluminus ripis cereas S^ Elidani imagines fingit." 

In the third-light, King Maelgwn, overcome by reli- 
gious fervour, oflTers a deed with a red seal attached, of 
the church lands of Llangurig, to an image of the infant 
St. Curig, his white horse running away and the Castle 
(or Court) of Clochfaen embedded in the lands under 
the hills ; the background of the whole represents the 
view seen from the north above the church : " S** 
Cyriacus a Maelguno Rege tribus agri portionibus 
donatum^' (for donatur). 

In the second north window the central figure is the 
Blessed Virgin, with the Infant Saviour on her knee 
and Angels holding a crown above her head« In ihe 
lights on each side are two figures with their coat- 
armour. On her right are Trahaiarn ap Caradawc, 


who was slain on Carno Mountain : " Trahai?*n Vene- 
dotiae et Provisiae (should be Povisiae) Rex occisus est 
1080;" and Howel ap leuaf, who succeeded him as 
Lord of Arwystli ; " Howel filius leuan Arust^ise (sic) 
Dominus, qui obiit a.d. 1186." On her left Meilir, 
who, with his brother Gruffydd, was slain in the same 
battle of Carno ; ** Meilir qui cum fratre ejus Griffudd 
occisus est 1080; and below him Merinedd, daughter 
of Gruffydd ap Cynan, who brought Arwystli as her 
dower to her husband, Howell : ** Merinedd Howelis 
uxor, Griffini Regis filia." 

A brass on this window bears the following additional 
Latin inscription : 

" Trahaiarn F. Caradoci Venedotia Povositeque Rex Dominus 
Arwystliae et Meilir F. Ilhiwallawn F. Cynwyn Princeps Qui in 
pmelzs apud Carnaw Montem in Uimetia commisso Eheu occisi 
sunt Ano 1080. Merinedd Howel F. leuav uxor Domina 
Arwystliae Quam provinciam Pater ipsius Griffinus Conani filius 
Rex Venedotiae ei concessit. Idem Howel F. leuav Arwybtliaj 
Dominus qui obiit An^ 1185. Quorum animabibus (sic) 
Propitietur Deus. Amen." 

The third window has for its central subject St. 
Michael, and on one side of him Prince Gwenwynwyn, 
" Gwinwynwyn Povosiae Princeps ;" and on the other 
Madoc Danwr, the Fire-bearer :" " Madocius Ignifer 
Donoinus de Llangurig." 

A brass beneath the window bears this further 
explanatory inscription : — 

"In Memoriam Gwenwynwyn Provisiae Principis Anno 
Salutis Mccxviii vita defuncti qui Militi suo Comitique fideli 
Madoco Ignifero terras omnes apud Dominium de Llangurig 
maneriaj de Aber Havesp atque Dol Vachwen magnamque 
Parochiae de Llanidloes partem dono concessit Arwystle anno 
Mcxcvn post Xp*™° subacta Quorum animabus propitietur 
Deus. Amen." 

* In briefly reviewing this series of painted windows 
we are struck, in the first place, with their predomin- 
antly local bearing, each person, scene, and event 
depicted being connected, or believed to be connected, 

tfTH 8KB., VOL. III. 19 


with the district, and helping in some way to illustrate 
and reproduce its ancient story. In the next place, we 
note the novelty of the subject-matter, and the skill 
with which the designs have been worked out. But, 
when we remember the lavish outlay so ungrudgingly 
made by the donor, we cannot but regret that so little 
care was exercised over the wording of the inscriptions, 
alike on the windows themselves and on the brasses 

The most interesting individual feature in the interior 
is the restored rood-screen. Originally there was a loft 
above it ; but in the year 1836 the whole was taken 
down, and the vicar and churchwardens appear to have 
allowed anyone to help themselves to the remains; so 
that only a small fragment was left, and that has been 
replaced in its original position on the new one. When 
Sir Stephen Glynne visited the church he found "a 
large portion of the rood-loft screen remaining, having 
pretty good carved woodwork and vine-leaf cornices ;'** 
and, fortunately, in the previous summer the Rev. 
John Parker, Vicar of Llanmerewig, had made most 
accurate sketches of the interior of the church and of 
the details of the screen.^ With the aid of these 
sketches and the fragment the new screen reproduces 
the old one exactly, save that the loft is omitted here. 
The style is late-fifteenth century, and the execution is 

The font is of Perpendicular character, an octagonal 
basin upon similar stem and moulded base. Each face 
of the basin is ornamented with a double panel of 
arcading, with foliated heads and spandrela The 
upper part is much broken and mutilated, probably 
during the Commonwealth, for it is evident that a 
change was then eflFected in the ancient loyalty of the 

^ The whole of the windows were desigDod from Mr. J. T. W. 
Lloyd 8 instractions, and exeoated bj Messrs. Barlison and GrjHs, 

^ Arch Camb,y 6th Ser., vol. i, p. 144. 

•^ Montgomeryshire Coliecitons, vol. ii, p. 31 ; and ffistory of the 
Parish of Llangnrig, p. 31, 












parish, " a place formerly of very strong fame, but now 
pointed at as the Puritans and Roundheads of Wales."^ 
The name and the date cut upon its side mark the 
Restoration of the old order and the joy of the inscriber 
in 1661. 

The brass-eagle lectern stands upon couchant lions, 
and is very handsome — and a most rare thing in such a 
situation — the church is illuminated by acetylene gas. 
An organ occupies the north chamber of the chancel, 
and the pulpit stands in the south-east angle of the nave. 

The roof is of the hammer-bea,m type, and in the 
chancel the angels bear on their shields the implements 
of the Passion, and are copied from the old church of 
Cilcain, in Flintshire. In the nave the shields have 
instruments of music, the harp, horn, lyre, pipe and 
flute, dulcimer and triangle. The stone corbels that 
carry the principal rafters are carved to represent the 
ruin of St. Curig, the Bishop St. Curig, the arms of 
Madoc Danwr and King Maelgwn — Maelgwn himself, 
and a bunch of lilies (purity). 

Externally a great improvement has been wrought by 
the rebuilding of the south wall and the porch, and by 
raising the tower and superimposing upon it a loftier 
steeple. In the south wall the priest's door into the 
chancel has been omitted, and two windows, with 
double-foiled lights inserted. On the tower a corbel 
table supports a battlemented parapet, and the newel 
stair at the north-east angle has been similarly treated, 
80 as to raise it some feet above the tower, upon which 
a picturesque spire, the lower portion square and the 
upper octagonal, has been erected of timber covered 
with sheet lead ; the height of the tower is 48 ft., and 
that of the spire and vane 16 ft. This tower is very 
massive, and has some noteworthy features ; its base 
is formed of huge undressed boulder-stones, and the 
western door, at one time the main entrance, has a 
broad elliptical arch formed of only two stones. 

^ History of Prottstant Noncunfoiviity in Walts^ 2nd ed., p. 71. 



The Church having been early appropriated^ to the 
Abbey of Strata Florida, occurs in the Norwich Taxa- 
tioTif A.D. 1253, as "Cist' Ord'is — Ec cia Lanberit que est 
monachor' cist' ord'is 1 1 . mVd." This tenth of two maits 
(265. 8rf.) rose in the next forty years to thirty-two 
shilHngs, for in the Lincoln, or P. Nicholas TaxcUion, 
A.D. 1291, we find " Beneficia Abb'is de Strata Florida 
Cycester' ordinis £16 dec. £1 125." The n>onks were 
probably good friends of the fabric ; but it was more 
fortunate in the munificence of the local lords of Cloch- 
faen, to whom respectively the rebuilding in stone, the 
font, the arcade, the tower and the rood-loft are attri- 
buted. In 1535 the Valor Ecclesiasticus of Henry VIII 
returns the gross value of the Vicarial Income as 
£10 25., net £9 95. \Qd. 

The sources of this income were : — 

£ s. 


Tithe of corn and haj . 


1 6 


Tithe of wool and lambs 



Offerings at the four seasons 


4 13 


Glebe land . 



10 2 

Dednctions : — 

Procuration to Bishop 

. 10 

„ at Visitation 

. 2 





9 9 




In the last century the Commuted Value was 

returned at . . . 177 

To which were added from Llanidloes . 106 

„ „ Trefeglwys . 18 

Commuted Value of Vicar's Income, T. R. C. 301 

The Rectorial Tithes were returned 26 Henry VIII, 
i.6., 1534, as worth 24 marks, i.e., the same as in 1291. 

^ Mr. S. W. Williams, F.S.A., suggests with great probability 
that the grant was made by Howcl ap leuaf, the first of the Lords 
of Arwystli, buried in the Abbey, 1 184. 


In 1547 (l Edw. VI) they were in the hands of Sir 
Richard Devereux, Receiver-General of the Abbey 
property, to whom they were leased. In 1577 they 
were leased for twenty-one years to Robert, Earl of 
Essex ; in 44 Elizabeth (1601-2) to Sir Henry Lindley 
for a similar period ; but, in 1605, James 1 restored 
them to the young Earl of Essex. Subsequently they 
passed into the hands of the Steadmans (who had like- 
wise possession of Strata Florida), and thence to the 
Powells of Nanteos, who held them in 1722 ; but 
before 1762 they were sold by Dr. Powell to Sir Watkin 
Williams Wynn, Bart, in whose family they still 

In the '• History of the Parish," by Edward Hamer 
and H. W. Lloyd, published in 1875, it is stated that 
"at present only two volumes of registers are in 
existence. A third volume, which existed thirty years 
ago, was accidentally destroyed through the wilful 
carelessness of the Parish Clerk,"^ and the same state- 
ment is repeated in the ** Handbook," p. 12. But, on the 
occasion of my visit, I made particular inquiry about 
the missing volume, or any fragments that might have 
survived, and Mr. Hughes, the Vicar, brought down 
from a shelf in the vestry cupboard a bundle oi leaves 
of most dilapidated entries, eaten into and worn away 
by damp and decay, and in an apparefitly hopeless 
condition of confusion. Entrusted with the care of the 
papers I have succeeded in arranging them in complete 
consecutive order, as follows: baptisms, 1686-1758; 
marriages, 1683-1754 ; burials, 1686-1756. They are 
too seriously injured to make out the register complete, 
but there is enough left to set out in order the bulk of 
the names and a large proportion of the dates. The 
binding will require the greatest care and skill, as each 
page, or fraction of a page, will have to be laid out 
most tenderly and gummed on transparent sheets, 
through which it can be read. I am now, at the request 
of the vicar and churchwardens, arranging for its 

1 P. 34. 

250 llakgUrio cHtJKoa, MoxtooMfttiYsHme. 

binding, and, if successful, it will be a notable rescue of 
a lost and valuable record.^ This register is on paper, 
not parchment, and, as so often the case, has sundry 
forms and memoranda on the outer leaves : a Certificate 
of Character, Form of Certificate for Burial in Woollen, 
and the names of those that were excommunicated. 

The second volume contains the baptisms and burials 
from 1758 to 1812; the corresponding marriages are 

From these and other sources we are able to present 
the following list of the Vicars of Llangurig : — 

1561. Lloyd, D(om) Thomas, Priest, resident and kepeth 

1572. Gwyn, John, M.A., 4th son of Owain Gwyn of 

158-. Lewis, David.* 

[1668. J . . ., Relicta Thoma Harding, Clici nnper Vicarii de 
Llangirricke. Sep. 18° Junii.] — Trefeglwys Register, 

1683. Wilson, Hugh, Vr. of Trefeglwys, 1674 (Tho. Williams, 

1689. Williams, William (Tho. Williams, Curate). 

1698. Jones, William, B.A. 

1700. Ingram, Thomas, LL.B. of Jesus College, Oxford; 
Canon of Bangor 1703-1711. 

1712. Pritcbard, Thomas, B.A., 1758, John Jones, Curate. 

1765. Price, Edmund. 

1788. Lewiss Thomas, M.A. 

1805. Anwyl, Maurice, B.A. 

183 ? James, James. 

1841. James, Evan, Curate from 1831. 

1852. Evans, John, J.P.^ 

1876. Griffith, Griffith Williams, Rector, Llanfihangel Ysceie- 
fiog, 1883. 

1883. James, Evan. 

1892. Hughes, Thomas Henry, Association Secretary C.P.A.S-, 
1879 to 1891. 

^ This has now been very succch'sfuliy carried out. May, 1903. 
2 Bishop Mejrick's Return. Browne-Willises Bangor, p. 267. 
5* Povni$ Fadog, vol. ii, p. 292. < Add, MS. 9865. 

^ Bailt Plas yn llan as a residence, which was boaght bj 
Mr. J. y. W. Lloyd. 



Transcribed by Edward Owen, Esq., from the British Museum 
Additional MSS. No. 28,800.^ 

Folio 5. Castell Odo, on Mynydd Ystum, in the 
parish of Aberdaron ; with a special enclosure in the 
centre for the commander-in-chief of the district, with 
a high moniid in the upper part of the oval, either for 
erecting the beacon lights — their mode of telegraphing 
— or for the flagstaff. There are two huts for the 

\} This is a small maiinsoript volume, written in the year 1871 bj 
Mr. J. G. Williams, of Penlljn, Pwllheli, a gentleman who, I believe, 
has been for some years deceased. He had manifestly taken great 
interest in the prehistoric remains of his neighboarhood ; and as some 
of these (not strictly within the district of Lleyn) will be visited by 
the Association daring the forthcoming meeting at Portmadoc, the 
descriptions of a careful observer, penned over thirty-five years ago, 
cannot bnt be of value to those members who attend. They will be 
80 good as to remember that the remarks in the present tense refer 
to the year 1871 or thereabonts. The account of each camp is 
accompanied by a plan, and in view of the changes that many of 
these structures are undergoing it is desirable to reproduce these ; 
bat 1 understand from the Editor that there are difficulties in the 
way. I have omitted some passages which are in the nature of 
speculations rather than records of direct observation, but I have 
otherwise adhered closely to the manuscript, except in the matter of 
punctuation, as to which the writer seems to have had pecnliar 
ideas. The opinions occasionally expressed may not commend 
themselves to modern antiquaries. It should, however, be borne in 
mind that the manuscript is published for its author's facts and not 
for his fancies, and that had he lived to pnblish it himself he would 
possibly have modified and improved it in various directions. 
I have reproduced his remarks upon the scandalous neglect of local 
history in our elementary schools, as they are not without interest 
in view of the forthcoming changes in our educational system. Any 
additions of my own are placed within square brackets. It would 
appear that the author had written a larger work upon the Moated 
Mounds of Wales, which the publication of the present work may 
bring to light — Edward Owen.] 


sentries. Said to be in a fair state of preservation. 
(With plan.) 

Fo. 6. Castell Caeron, — The remains of an oval 
British camp called Castell Caeron, in the parish of 
Bryncroes. This is nearly destroyed, but the original 
form can be distinctly traced. (VV^ith plan.) 

Fo. 7. Castell Llanengan. — An oval British camp 
on the farm of Ty newydd, in the parish of Llanen- 
gan. This camp commands the mines at Penrhyu 
du, and communicates with Castell Odo and Castell 
Caeron. The powder magazine for the use of the 
Tanrallt mines is erected in the upper part of this 
camp. In a fair state of preservation. (With plan.) 

Fo. 8. Castell Cilan, — A circular British camp on 
the farm of Cilan, in the parish of Llanengan, near the 
Penrhyn du mines. This is in a fair state of preserva- 
tion. (With plan.) 

Fo. 9. Cccstell Yscuhorhin. — A British camp, with 
moat, on the farm of Yscuborhin, in the parish of 
Llanengan, near the Penrhyn du mines. The precipice 
overhanging the sea is too steep to continue the 
rampart. The farmer is now carrying away the soil 
from the rampart as top-dressing for his farm. It is 
also being undermined by the miners, who are working 
the antient mine here, so in a few years this camp will 
be lost. (With plan.) 

Fo. 10. Pen y Gaer. — A British oval camp on the 
hill above the village of Llangian. This is nearly 
destroyed by the farmers, and the miners working 
the ironstone quarries on the north and south of the 
camp. The form is distinctly visible. (With plan.) 

Fo. 11. Castell Abersoch. — The remains of an oval 
British camp near Abersoch. This commands St. 
Tudwell's Roads, the mines at Penrhyn' du, and the 
confluence, or aber, of the two rivers. This camp is 
nearly destroyed. The above form [referring to the 


plan] was pointed out to me by the present tenant, 
whose father-in-law held the farm when the present 
turnpike road was made, when a number of stone 
hammers were found, which he described. [The plan 
shows the turnpike road from Pwllheli to Abersoch 
running almost through the centre of the camp. (With 

Fo. 12. Castell March. — A circular British camp 
in the sand-hills, on the farm of Castellmarch, in the 
parish of Llangian. This is well placed for strategy, 
being out of sight, yet it commands, through the 
opening of the sand-hills on the sea shore, the St. 
Tudwells Roads and the mines of Penrhyn du. (With 

Fo. 13. The Camp on Rhos Bottwnog. — The remains 
of a group of cyttiau gwersyllt, or huts in the encamp- 
ment, on the farms of Ffrid and Cefn y Gaer, on Rhos 
Bottwnog, in the parish of Llaniestyn. There appears 
to have been a large camp on this plain, as there are 
several distinct remains of circular huts here. Mr. 
Pritchard, the farm bailiff to Robert Lloyd Edwards, 
Esq., Nanhoron, informed me he has destroyed many 
of them last year in cultivating the land hitherto lying 
waste, and these will also be destroyed, as all the land 
about here is to be brought into cultivation. 

The distance between the two ovals is about 
100 yards, and about 20 yards between each of the 
others. N.B. — I look upon these [the above] nine 
camps as the mine-protecting camps, the same as those 
in Cardiganshire. (With plan, showing five hut- 

Fo. 14. Tomen Faivr. — A circular British camp on 
the farm of Glanllynan, in the parish of Llanystumdwy, 
near the Afonwen Station on the Cambrian Railway. 
This is in a fair state of preservation. The tenant in- 
formed me that about twenty years ago, when his 
father was carting away the soil from the south part 
of the rampart, he found a cannon ball of from three 

254 ANCIENT bRlTlSfi CAMPS, lEtC., Ill LLEYN, 

to four pounds in weight, which shews that this camp 
was occupied by soldiers when Criccieth Castle was 
besieged, and tnat it was bombarded from the sea. 
(With plan of a circular camp and moat.) 

Fo. 15. Tomen Pendorlan. — The remains of a British 
camp near the Afonwen Station on the Cambrian 
Kailway. This is now very imperfect. The north part 
of the rampart and part of the moat is intact. Near 
this camp, in the adjoining field, were the remains of 
an old house called Llys Einion, which was entirely 
destroyed in 1870. This is supposed to have been the 
residence of Captain Einion, the brave governor of 
Harlech Castle, who being compelled to surrender 
from starvation, erected this house in view of the old 
castle. This house was also heavily bombarded from 
the sea ; as I was informed by the old woman who was 
the last tenant, that when she and her husband wanted 
weights to keep down their fishing-nets in the sea, they 
had only to go to their garden, to dig up cannon balls 
which weighed about four pounds. (With plan of a 
circular camp and moat, very greatly ruinated.) 

Fo. 16. Castell Gwgan. — The remains of a British 
camp on the farm called Castell Gwgan, in the parish 
of Llangybi. The moat and rampart have been 
destroyed, but the original form can be distinctly 
traced. (With plan, showing a house built upon the 
exact site of the camp.) 

Fo. 17. Ancient Fortress at Nevin. — The remains ot 
a British camp on the promontory at Porthdinllaen, in 
the parish of Nevin. (With plan.) 

Fo. 18. Graig y Dinas, Pistyll. — A British camp 
on the farm of Graig y Dinas, in the parish of Pistyll. 
Great importance, in a strategical point of view, must 
have been attached to this camp, being situate on the 
brow of the hill fronting the south-east, and out of 
sight of the enemy landing on the shore immediately 
underneath. This being, in a manner, a double camp, 
the enemy would be surprised by a superior force. This 

CO. cArKarA^oK. '256 

camp hIso commands the entrance to the pass through 
the Eifl mountains, so that the enemy coming through 
them would also be taken by surprise at their exit, in- 
telligence of whose movements would be conveyed to 
the camp from either Tre'r Ceiri or Caer Cribin, on the 
summit of which the late Government erected a beacon 
to communicate with Ireland during the late rebellion. 
(With plan of three adjoining enclosures.) 

Fo. 19. Castell Gwrtheyrn. — A double camp in Nant 
Gwrtheyrn, otherwise Vortigern's Valley, in the parish 
of Llanelhaiarn. This is a suitable retreat for such a 
tyrant. (With plan of a double camp.) 

Fo. 20. Tomen Gwindu. — The remains of a British 
camp on the farm of Gwindu, in the parish of Dolben- 
maen. This was destroyed by the present owner of 
the property in 1869, but the original form can be 
distinctly traced. It is now part of a gorse field. 
(With plan.) 

Fo. 21. Camp y Foel — A British camp on the farm 
of Y Foel, in the parish of Clynnog. This is in a good 
state of preservation, and communicates with Dinas 
Dinlle. (With plan.) 

Fo. 22. Dinas Dinlle. — Plan of a British camp on 
the farm of Tan Dinas, in the parish of Llandwrog. 
This camp shows considerable military skill in the 
formation of a curtain or blind. The same mound is 
here, as in the other Dinases, as a station for the com- 
mander-in-chief (With plan.) 

Fo. 23. Pen y Gaer. — A British camp on the hill 
called Pen y Gaer, in the parish of Llangybi. The 
rampart was only formed on the west and south, the 
east part being too steep and rocky to continue it. 
This camp commands the pass leading by Llanelhaiarn 
to the sea, as well as the narrow vale leading through 
the vale of Dolbenmaen to the sea at Purtmadoc. 
(With plan.) 

Fo. 24. Caer Engan. — The remains of a Britibh camp 

256 ANCtfilJT tolttStt CAMPS, ETC, tN LLEW, 

on the farm of Caer Engan, in the parish of Llanllyfni. 
It is nearly all destroyed, but the remains of the ram- 
part are distinctly visible. (With plan.) 

Fo. 25. Dinas Criccieth. — The present castle erected 
by Edward I occupies the ancient British camp, as the 
name ** Dinas" implies. That term is always used by 
the natives when referring to the hill on which the 
Castle stands. 

Fo. 26. The Camp on Llys din isa. — The remains of 
a camp on the farm of Llys din isa, near the Brynkir 
Station on the Carnarvon and Avonwen line of rail- 
way. The mounds of the huts are distinct ; some of 
them are now about 2 ft. in height. The oval indicates 
the quarters of the commander. I was informed by 
the tenant that he has destroyed a great many of 
the huts within the last few years, when cultivating 
the fields hitherto lying waste, but never found any 
relics. The space between the oval and the circular 
huts may be about 20 yards, and between the circular 
hut^ about five yards. (With elaborate plan, showing 
the arrangement of the hut-circles.) 

Fo. 27. Section of the Ramparts. — Shewing the 
formation of the earthworks of the early British 
camps formed previous to the invasion of Britain 
by the Romans, shewing the first military period. The 
second [period] shews the camps are all made on the 
type of the e.nly British, but during the period of, or 
after, the Ronjan invasion, as all the ramparts are 
formed of stone instead of earth. (With plan, showing 
section of rampart formed of earth capped with stone.) 

Fo. 28. The second military period, or stone ram- 
parts : — 

Graig y Dina^. — A British camp on the farm of 
Lluar Bach, in the parish of Clynnog. The great 
peculiarity of this camp is that it has three ramparts 
formed of large stones quarried out of the moats on 
the north side, fronting the sea, the south being too 
steep to continue the ramparts. The same mound is 


formed here iis in the other Dinas, for planting the 
standard, or for the commander-in-chief. (Plan of 
triple- walled camp.) 

Fo. 29. Dinas ddu. — A British camp on the rock 
above the turnpike road leading from Portmadoc to 
Beddgelert. This is worthy of its name and situation, 
being almost impregnable. It also commands a view 
of the sea at Portmadoc, which formerly flowed to the 
base of this rock ; also the Pass of Aberglasllyn. This 
Dinas, like the others, has its prominent mound, or 
high rock within the camp. (With plan.) 

Fo. 30. Dinas Emrvjs. — A British camp on a high 
rock above the road leading from Beddgelert to Llan- 
beris, which Pass it commands. There are the founda- 
tions of eight cyttiau gwersyllt, or huts, in the camp. 
This camp is well placed for strategy, being difficult 
from the adjoining rocks, and surrounded with oak 
trees. (With plan of the camp, showing the sites 
of the hut-circles.) 

Fo. 31. Cam Pentyrch. — A British camp on the 
hill called Carn Pentyrch, in the parish of Llangybi. 
The loose stones inside the camp appear to have been 
thrown up out of the moat. The south part of the 
camp, being too rocky, was formed as a terrace, which 
is distinctly visible. There are the foundations of five 
stone-built cyttiau gwersyllt, or huts, within the camp. 
(With plan, showing the hut-circles.) 

Fo. 32. Cam Bodean. — A British camp on the hill 
called Carn Bodean, in the parish of Nevin, shewing 
the foundation of eight cyttiau gwersyllt, or soldiers' 
huts, within the camp. (With plan, displaying the 

Fo. 33. Cam Madryn (not examined). 

Fo. 34. 2VeV ceiri. — The plan of TreV ceiri, as 
copied from Arch. Gamh. for 1855. 

[In a lengthy description, which seems to be based 
on the account of Sir T, L. D. Jones- Parry, the 
writer dissents from the Rev. E. L. Barnwell's view 


that TreV ceiri was earlier than the time of Cunedda, 
and one of the last refuges of the Gael. Contends 
that it was erected entirely by the later Britons, or 
after the Roman invasion.] 

Under this section the author observes : — 
" In examining all the camps in this district along the coast 
from Dinas Diulle to Aberdaron on the west, and on the south 
to Moel y Gest, or Portmadoe, then in the east to Dirias Emrys, 
or Beddgelert, then along a north line to Dinas Dinlle, there are 
no less than twenty-four camps formed of earthen ramparts, and 
are either circular or oval, some witli a moat, others without, 
some of them with only one entrance, others with two, there 
are no appearances whatever of anything approaching a stone 
wall — in fact, nothing but pure mother earth and travel 
Therefore these camps were all formed by the Antient Britons 
upon one model, long before the Eomans invaded this island, or 
there would have been some variation in form ^nd make." 

Fo. 38. Tomen Nevin. — The Tomen or judicial mound 
near the town of Nevin. This is 225 ft. in circum- 
ference at the base, and from 18 to 20 ft in per- 
{)endicular height. It is now used by the sailors as a 
ook-out station, who have erected a tower on the 
sunorait. (With plan.) 

Fo. 39. Tomen Dolbenmaen. — The Tomen or mound 
of judicature in the village of Dolbenmaen. This is 
360 ft. in circumference at the base inside the moat, 
and about 20 ft. in perpendicular height. (With plan.) 

Fo. 396. Camp cU Tomen y MAr. — A British camp near 
Tomen y MAr or Mons Hiriri, in the parish of Traws- 
fynydd. According to Pennant it had two entrances, 
through which the tramway is now made. It is nearly 
destroyed. I have seen this camp described by the 
Rev. Mr. Barnwell as a Roman amphitheatre. (With 
plan, which shows an almost perfect oval formation.) 

Fo. 40. Toinen y MAr. — Plan of the Tomen or mound 
of judicature at Mons Hiriri, in the parish of Traws- 
fynydd. The circumference at the base inside the 
moat is 381 ft., and about 36 ft. in perpendicular 
height. (With plan.) 


Fo. 41. The Tymvald Mound, Isle of Man.'— This 
mound is 246 ft. in circumference, and 18 ft. in per- 
pendicular height, with three terraces. (With plan.) 

Fo. 42.-4 Short Histoi^y of these Mounds as Places 
of Judicature. — These mounds were all made after the 
model of those erected by Moses, and adopted by 

the great Welsh law-giver, Dyffnmal Moelmud 

The Romans were more civilised than the modern 
Frenchmen, for they respected the monuments erected 
bv the people whom they conquered, as in this instance, 
the Judicial Mound at Tomen y MAr is left intact, also 
the oval camp near it, against which they must have 
fought to have gained possession of the place. For 
they erected or formed tneir camp of masonry, bricks 
and stones, on the plain to the south of the mound, as 
no buildings of any kind had been discovered on the 
north, east, or west, according to the testimony of the 
present tenant, who was born and bred in the farm ; 
and it is only during the last century the mound has 
been so injured in the summit. The same with the 
mound at Dolbenmaen ; the summit was scooped out 
in the first instance to form a cockpit, about sixty 
years ago ; afterwards an attempt was made to sink a 
shaft in hopes of finding treasure. Instead of which, 
as I was informed by an old man of the village who 
was one of the workmen, they found nothing but soil — 
not a stone larger than his fist. 

About the year 1840, a similar mound to these had 
to be removed, to make way for extending the ore- 
dressing floors at the Goginan lead mines, near Aberyst- 
wyth. This was done under the superintendence of 
the late Geo. Fawcett, Esq., the head manager of the 
extensive mines worked by John Taylor and Sons. 
Being determined to ascertain whether this was a 
sepulchral mound or not, he caused two levels to be 
driven right through it, under his own immediate 

]} Introduced, without doubt, for purposes of comparison with the 
toinennan previously described.] 



direction, as now described to me by one of the miners 
who worked in one of the levels. He says the whole 
mound was composed entirely of earth, scarcely a stone 
a pound in weight, and [they] were Siidly disappointed 

at not tinding any relics of the supposed dead 

If these mounds, and others of a similar type, as well 
as the oval and circular camps in England and Wales, 
were examined by an Indian officer accustomed to hill- 
forts, and not by non-military men who are too fond of 
writing on military subjects, fewer mistakes would be 
made. It would also tend to enhance the value of the 
early history of our country. He would then separate 
the Early British from the Roman, instead of, as at 
present, Romanising everything in Wales. During 
ray search in this district of Carnarvonshire, i.e., from 
Beddgelert on the east to Aberdaron on the west, I 
have not found a footprint of the Romans in hill or 
dale. — Note : The above is an extract from my larger 
work on the Tomens of Wales in MSS. 

Fo. 49. Cromlechs (Table of).^ 


1. Rhiw 




5. Penllech 

I Plas jn 

Tyn y Muria . 
Tyn y Muria . 
Tyn y Muria . 

Fridd Coch ... 

6. Abererch Cromlech 

7. Dolben- Ystuni Cegid 

maen i >)acli 

Beudy Crom- 
Penrhiawn ... 
Bach wen 

Preaent Condition. 





Down ; supports and capstone perfect. 
I These three are in a line, north and south, aboat 
I 20 yds. from each other. They are partially 
I down ; the capstones are perfect. The upper 
' one is now used as a sheep-fold. 
In a good state of preservation, and protected 

by the landlord. 
Two of the supports are down ; the capstone 

perfect, reclining on the third. 
The capstone was thrown 'down in 1863 by the 
tenant for the sake of one of the uprights to 
be used as a lintel for his new buildings on 
the farm ; but he was disappointed, as it fell 
in such a position under the capstone as not 
to be removed. 
This is perfect, and protected by the tenant 



[^ Some of these are figured in Mr. J. E. GriflSths's beantifal Port* 
folio of Photographs oj the Cromlechs of Anglesey and Carnarvonshire.^ 


Note. — I have searched the parish registers of Aber- 
erch for the word ** Cromlech, ' as there is a farm in 
the parish of that name with a cromlech (No. 6 in the 
above list), but the earliest entry records the death of 
Mrs. Elizabeth Roberts, Cromlaech, in 1783. I assume 
this district all went under one general name of " Llys 
Patric," as there are several entries of births, deaths, 
and marriages from 1679, made in the presence of a 
justice of the peace from Llys Patric, but when the 
district became enclosed, and divided into farms, this 
was then called * Cromlaech,' from the cromlaech being 
on it, to distinguish it from Llys Patric. 

Fo. 52, Meini Hirion, — Two meini hirion, about 
200 yards apart, in a field on the farm of Pemprys, in 
the parish of Llanor. No. 1 is 7 ft. high and 11 ft. 
in circumference. No. 2 is 8^ ft. high, and 1 1 ft. in 
circumference. (With sketch.) 

Fo. 53. Maen hir in the farmyard at Plasdu, in the 
parish of Llanarmon. This is 10 ft. 2 in. in height, 
and 10 ft. 3 in. in circumference. (With sketch.) 

Fo. 54. Maen hir on the farm of Penybont, in the 
parish of Llangwnadle. This is 9 ft. in height, and 
2 ft. 1 in. in the square. This, like the others, is 
well protected by the tenants. (With sketch.) 

Fo. 55. Note. — ^I have prepared a history, in the form 
of questions and answers, of the parishes comprised in 
the Union of Pwllheli, for presentation to the public 
schools here, but find the schoolmasters cannot use 
them, as being contrary to the orders of the Council of 
Education in London, they being specially confined to 
the books sanctioned by them, which are non-historical. 
For I find by an examination of the boys who have left 
these and other schools, they are as ignorant of the past 
or present history of their own country as a babe. In 
reference to these monuments of the past, I refer to 
them in the following familiar way : — 

Q. Should these monuments or memorials of our 
forefathers be destroyed or preserved ? 

Cth ser., vol. in. 20 


A. They should be preserved, and every care taken 
of them ; they should be looked upon in the same light 
as gravestones are in a church- or chapel-yard. 

Q. What are the cromlechs supposed to represent ? 

A. Little doubt now exists but that the same idea 
has been carried down with respect to the cromlechs as 
with the judicial mounds from the time of Moses : as 
the cromlechs represent the ark in a rough way, the 
same as the open chests over the graves in our church- 
yards do the cromlechs. 

Q. What do the Meini Hirion represent ? 

A. Headstones over the grave of sooie distinguished 
person, other than a Druid or a soldier. 

Q. What is the diflFerence in sepulture between these 
three pei-sons, so as to distinguish the one from the 
other ? 

A. The chief Druids, or high priests, are supposed 
to have been buried under the cromlechs, as represent- 
ing the sacred ark. The soldier, or commander-in-chief, 
when he falls in battle, is buried under a 'earn'; stones 
are thrown over the grave by passers-by, so that in 
time a large earn is formed as a monument. The 
civilian of eminence is buried with a large stone at the 
head of the grave, now called Maen Hir, some of 
which bear inscriptions, others do not, according to the 
period of time when they were erected. 


laetotetDS anH BaUtta of Soo&s. 

Thb Life and Work op Bishop Davibs and William Salesbdrt, 
with an Account of sbme Early Translations into Welsh of the 
Holy Scriptures and the Prayer Book, together with a Tran- 
script of the Bishop's Version of the Pastoral Epistles of St. 
Paal, etc. With Illastrations and Facsimiles. By the Ven. 
D. R. Thomas, M.A., F.S.A., Archdeacon of Montgomery. 
Oswestry : The Caxton Press. 1902. 

This book will be welcomed by all students of Welsh History and 
Literature. It is the first scientific attempt to give a succinct account 
of the movement which led up to the printing of the Bible and 
other books in the Welsh language. It differs from the earlier 
works of the Bev. W. Hughes and Charles Ashton, in that the 
author has gathered together a &:reat amount of additional material, 
and that he has thoroughly sifted his facts. The book shows on 
every page evidence of careful and painstaking research, and in this 
respect forms a striking contrast to the usual class of book on 
Welsh literary subjects. 

Archdeacon Thomas deals with the early versions of Holy 
Scripture, as found in the New Testament and the Book of Common 
Prayer He traces the origin of each version, and brings out 
clearly the efforts that wore made by Bishop Davies and William 
Salesbury to perfect the translation. He also brings together, in 
the form of memoirs, all that is known of Davies and Salesbury. 
Apparently, the Archdeacon was led into this study by his discovery, 
in 1891, of the original manuscript of Bishop Davies's translation 
of the Pastoral Epistles of St. Paul. The circumstances under 
which this discover was made are interesting. It appears that an 
exhibition of Ecclesiastical Art was held in connection with the 
Rhyl Church Congress of 1891. In the Catalogue of Loans appeared 
the item. ** Lent by P. B. Davies-Cooke, Esq., of Gwysaney, Mold : 
91. MS. in Welsh, Epistles of St. Paul, etc." This was quite suffi- 
cient to excite the curiosity of the Archdeacon, and, on an inspection 
of the document, he discovered that the MS. was in the autograph 
of Bishop Richard Davies. 

The owners of the Gwysaney collection have always allowed 
students the use of their manuscripts, and for this reason the con- 
tents of the library were supposed to be well known. The discovery 
of such an intensely interesting document came as a surprise, and 
suggests the existence in other less-known libraries of valuable MSS. 
relating to Welsh Histo^. 

Bound up with the Gwysaney MSS. was a Draft Petition and a 
Bond on parchment. The Petition, of which only a fragment re* 

20 « 


mains, was addressed to ''Tour good Lordships" — apparentlj the 
Welsh Bishops. It asks them '' to wyll and require and commaoiid 
the learned men to tradoete the boke of the Lordes Testament into 
the Tnlgare Welsh tong." 

XTnfortnnatelj, there is no cine as to the identity of the peti- 
tioner or petitioners, though it has been suggested that ibis 
might be the Petition which lolo Morganwg mentions. lolo states, 
on the authority of the Bey. Eyan Eyans (leuan Brydydd Hir), 
that such a petition, addressed by Thomas Llewelyn of Begoes in 
Glamorganshire to Bishop Dayies, was proseryed in the Llyfr Gwjb 
Bhydderch at Gloddaeth. 

Archdeaoon Thomas is inclined to doubt that this is the petition 
referred to. We agree that it is unlikely to be Thomas Llewelyn's 
petition, but we think that lolo may haye misstated the information 
giyen him by Eyan Eyans. The latter was the last man in the 
world to make the mistake of referring to Llyfr Gwyn Bhydderch, 
one of the treasures of the Hengwrt Collection, as a Gloddaeth 
manuscript He was well acquainted with both libraries, as his 
letters and transcripts proye. There is at Gloddaeth (now in- 
corporated in the Mostyu Collection) no MS. known as Llyfr Gwyn 
Bhydderch. Bat it is quite likely that Eyan Eyans did inform lolo 
that he had seen a petition presented to the Welsh Bishops, asking 
for a translation of the Bible into Welsh. 

A reference to Evans's Letters shows that he was allowed access 
not only to the Gloddaeth Collection, but also to that at Gwysaoey. 
He appears to haye borrowed a large number of MSS. from the 
latter collection, and it is therefore almost certain that he did seethe 
petition now printed in the book before us. He may haye informed 
lolo of this, but the addition of Thomas Llewelyn's name is so 
characteristic of Iolo*s welUknown mania for attributing eyoy 
honour to his natiye county of Glamorgan, that we cannot help 
suspecting its genuineness. We think that the Archdeacon's sug- 
gestion that the petition emanated from William Salesbury is 
plausible, and a certain amount of confirmation is found in the 
eyidence quoted from his other works. 

The bond which accompanies the petition is in the common form 
of those days. It was usual, on the purchase or mortgage of Utod, 
for the yendor to enter into a separate bond to maintain the usual 
ooyenants. The bond refers to a *' payr of Indentures of bargeyne 
and sale made betwyne the said William Salesbury on*thone parte, 
and the aboye named Thomas ap Byce Wyn on thother parte.^ 
We should be inclined to say that, this being a oonyeyance hj 
" bargain and sale," must refer not to money borrowed from Thomas 
ap Byce Wyn, but to land bought by the latter from Salesbury. 
There is no eyidence that any connection exists betwe^i this hood 
and the money required for printing the Welsh Testament ; but if 
there was any connection, then it is reasonable to assume that 
Salesbnry actually sold his land to raise money to pay for printing 
his book. 


Deeds of bargam and sale were supposed to be enrolled either at 
Westminster or in the Courts of Great Session, and a searoh at the 
Record Office might bring this deed to light. 

Perhaps the most yalnable chapter in the book is that deToted to 
the life of Bishop Richard Davies. It contains a mass of fresh 
material, and puts the Bishop in quite a new light — as far, at any 
rate, as the administration of his diocese is concerned. Bishop Dayies 
was accused of being a *' great impoverisher of his See, and that his 
sacoessor complained that all bis Lands, even to his very doors, 
were on Lease bj his Predecessor; and that all his houses, excepting 
one, were down to the ground, and in great ruin." To this the 
author replies, that the houses were in a state of dilapidation before 
ever he saw his See, and that he had probably no option but to lease 
his lauds. Judging from the bequests in the Bishop's will, he cer- 
tainly did not die a rich man. He left his wife a water-corn mill at 
Pontargothi, with two parcels of land adjoining, also tenements and 
lands at Abergwili and Llanpnmpsaint. His son Richard got eight 
score sheep and lambs, eight kyne, and two oxen. His daughter 
Margaret got the sheep and cattle at Llawhaden, and the sum of 
£20. His son-in-law, Hagh Batler, was allowed to choose either 
*' the graye geldinge called Llanllochayme, or the baye holland,'* with 
saddle, bridle, and furniture, and also the ** Abridgements of the 
Statutes of England." His other sons got his books, but the whole 
estate appears to have been small. Unless it can be shown that he 
was prodigal or thriftless, we think the will affords clear proof 
that he was not successful in enriching himself at the expense 
of the See. 

Thoagh the Bishop was nominally in the possession of the estates 
of the See, the Archdeacon shows that his actual revenue was very 
small. It was stated in the year 1888, that of the tithe in the 
diocese of St. David's amounting to X35,000 per annum, only some 
£9,000 found its way into the coffers of the Church. 

The fact is, that this diocese, as well as the other Welsh dioceses, 
suffered severely after the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The 
Court favourites got the major share of the lands and possessions 
of the Church ; and, not content with the property thus obtained, 
they continually harassed Bishop Davies and his predecessors. The 
Bishop, as may be seen from the documents printed in this book, 
waged incessant warfare with the lay impropriators, and threw 
down the gauge to such powerful noblemen as the Earls of Pem- 
broke, Leicester, and Arundel. 

Corroborative evidence of this will also be found in the preface to 
Dr. David Powell's edition of GercUcPs Itinerary, It would be 
tedious to enter into the details of these disputes ; but the facts 
garnered by Archdeacon Thomas from the Record Office and other 
sources have done much to retrieve the Bishop's character from the 
aspersions cast upon it with regard to his conduct and adminis- 
tration of the affairs of the See. 

The Archdeacon has not been able to throw much additional light 


upon the hintorj of William Salesbury. The dates of his birth and 
death still remain a matter for conjecture. He was certainly bom 
at Llansannan, if the copy of his work on Botany, now at the Welsh 
Library of Aberystwyth College, is genuine. 

In that work, which is an eighteenth-century copy of a lost origi- 
nal written by Salesbury, the following words occur : — " I saw it (a 
plant) growing in the meadow below the Hall ap Meredydd ap 
Qronow, in Llansannan, the parish in which I was Iwrn." 

Local tradition places his birthplace at Cae-Du ; but the Arch- 
deacon inclines to think that a ruined house near Hendre Aled, a 
quarter of a mile further south, was the actual spot. We do Dot 
know whether the remains of a terraced garden at Cae-Da was 
pointed out to the Archdeacon ; but, some years ago, whoi we 
visited the place, the form of the old garden could still be distin- 
guished, and we were told that many rare and curious plants grew 
on the spot. This may be some corroboration of the theory that 
Cae-Du was the dwelling-place, if not the birthplace, of Salesbury; 
and, in a matter of this kind, it is perhaps safer to follow local tradi- 
tion. Judging from the present appearance of the house, too, it 
must have been a place of some consequence many years ago — the 
home, at any rate, of a prosperous yeoman. 

We cannot agree with Archdeacon Thomas, even though he is 
backed by the opinion of Dr. Gwenogvryn Evans, that the Book 
of Proverbs published by Salesbury has any claim to be considered 
the first book ever printed in Welsh. Dr. Evans has set forth bis 
reasons in the lucid and bright preface to the reprint of the Ixx^ 
The case stands thus : Sir John Price, of Brecon, brought oat his 
Primer in 1546, which date appears on its title-page. William 
Salesbury, about this time, also published a Book of Proverbs, 
known as Oil Synnwyr Pen Kembero ; but this book b not dated. 
It was printed by Nicholas Hill, or Hyll, who is known to have 
printed other books between the years 1546 and 1558. Apparently, 
only one book printed by Hill in 1546, has survived; no book 
printed by him in 1547 is known ; but there exists one book printed 
in 1548. All his other books were printed between 1550 and 1553. 
Two books printed by Hill bear no date. 

From internal evidence it appears that Oil Synnwyr Pen could 
not have been printed before 154j6, as the author refers to John 
Hey wood's Collection of Proverbs first printed in that year. 

In any case, therefore, Salesbury's book cannot claim precedence 
in point of time over the Primer; at best, it may have b^n printed 
in the same year. 

Dr. Evans, in support of his opinion that it was printed in the 
same year, relies upon certain peculiarities of orthography found in 
the Oil Synnivyr Pen and in Salesbury 's Dictionary of 1547, but not 
in his other works. But these peouHanties of orthography, though 
they might be of importance in considering the case of other writen, 
are beside the point when we deal with William Salesbury, because. 


as his sabseqaent books show, he was continaally changing his 

Dr. Evans's argument may also be nsed to prove the exaot 
opposite of that which he wishes to demonstrate, for Salesbary, in 
the Synnwyr Petiy uses forms not to be fonnd at all in his Dictionary 
of 1547, but which are the prevalent forms in the books published 
hy him in 1550 and 1551. 

In the Preface to Oil Synnwyr Pen Salesbnry says : — ** If some 
of my country had been so good as to leave me my own, I should, 
it may be, have done as much benefit and general good, in snch 
matters as lay within ray power, as any other Welshman. Bnt now 
that they have so utterly plundered and despoiled me ; well, instead 
of doing, I can only wish, my country a good turn, and pray God to 
pot a better spirit in the hearts of ray opponents." 

Archd'eacon Thomas thinks that the occasion of the wrong re- 
ferred to here wan the abolition of the Welsh custom of gavel- 
kind in 1543^ by means of which Salesbary lost his claim to certain 

Dr. Evans disagrees with this view, and attributes the trouble to 
differences of opinion between Salesbnry and his father caused by 
the former's adherence to the Protestant faith. We do not know 
what evidence there is for the statement that Salesbury's father 
quarrelled with his son. On the other hand, there is some evidence 
that Salesbnry fell out with his nieces, the daughters of his brother 
Robert, over the partition of some lands. This is referred to by the 
old genealogist, John Griffiths, of Gae Cyriog, and a petition sent 
hy William Salesbnry to the Court of Star Chamber affords some 
confirmatory evidence of the fact. 

In this petition Salesbnry states that, as he was going to London 
'' fh>m hys sayd ountree abought hys necessare affayers," having in 
his possession a certain box of evidence concerning diverse lands 
of inheritance, *'on 21 'Jan. last past [no year is given], about 
7 o'clock in the morning, and in the highway betwixt Wrexham and 
Holt, certain persons : that is to say, Ellys Price, Doctor of Lawes ; 
John Lloyd, Esquier; Richard ap John, and Kydwaladr ap John 
Wyn, with one other whose name as yet is unknown, made an 
assault and affraye upon the said William Salesbnry, and violently 

g lucked him beside his horse, putting kim in fear and danger of his 
fe. Then and there they feloniously took from him the said box 
of evidence, and one wallet of canvas wherein was certain things 
and stuff to the value of 20 shillings and above, and they still keep 
the same. And for further accomplishment of the same their evil 
and mischievous purpose, they procured ye same Richard ap John 
to pursue and dog ye said William Salesbnry by the space of thirty 
miles, till he came to the place aforesaid, where they accomplished 
their said purpose. And, as your poor orator is bnt ' a very pore 
gentylman havyng ffewe ffrynds in the ountree,' he asks his 
Itajesly that letters of privy seal be directed to Ellis Price and John 


Lloyd, directing them to appear in iAie Star Chamber at West- 

From this petition it appears that Salesbary's qoarrel laj with 
Dr. Ellis Prioe and John Lloyd, Esqaire, the former of whom was 
the nnole and the latter the hnsband of one of Salesbary's nieces. 

Archdeacon Thomas says that Salesbnry " has been aoonsed 
of usurping possession of Plas Isa, and depriving his brother's 
daughters of their inheritance, and of even trpng to do more^ hat 
that he was prevented by Dr. Ellis Prys." We see, therefore, that 
there is some ground £(k the statement that Salesbary's troubles 
arose out of litigation as to the rights of his nieoes in certain lands. 

The suggestion that the change in the law of gavelkind had 
something to do with this litigation is very plausible ; but Ardi- 
deacon Thomas, following other writers, is mistaken as to the nature 
of this change. 

On the death of the father, according to the Welsh laws, 
his land was partible among his sons; but, in the event of his 
having no sons, the daughters did not inherit. The SUUtUum 
WcUliae of 1284, though it preserved the old Welsh laws, neverthe- 
less made manv changes in them, so as to bring them more into 
consonance with Engl^h law. One of these changes was to make 
land partible among daughters, if there were no sons. This hsd 
always been ihe rule with regard to gavelkind in England. By the 
Statute 34 and 35 Henry YIII, o. 26, all gavelkind lands in Wales 
were made descendible to the heir, according to the common law 
of England. 

Applying these principles to the case of Salesbnry, we find that 
his brother Robert, having died in 1540, before the new Act was 
passed, his lands would be divided among his daughters. 

But when Foulk Salesbnry, William s father, died in 1546 or 
thereabouts, Wilh'am, by reason of the Act passed in 1543, and not 
Bobert Salesbary's daughters, would inherit the land. This may 
have been the cause of the dispute, or,* it may be that William 
claimed the lands left by his brother Bobert ; but we fail to see 
what legal claim he had in 1540 to his brother's lands, seeing that 
Foulk Salesbnry, his f&ther, was alive. 

We disagree with the Archdeacon's remarks about the aatho^ 
ship of the H^elsh Primer of 1546. He thinks that the cost of pahli- 
cation was borne by Sir John Price, and that he employed ** his 
friend and fellow -student," Salesbnry, to do the editorial work. 
Apart from the fact that there is no evidence that Sir John and 
Salesbnry knew one another, and that it is most unlikely that they 
were fellow-students, we do not think he has sufficient grounds on 
which to base his opinion. It is said that the pre&ce to the Primer 
is similar in its phraseology, its purport, and its tone to other 
Prefaces and Dedications by Salesbnry. On the question of phrase- 
ology, we join issue, and the purport and tone of prefaces written to 

» Star Chamber Proceedingg, Bundle 29, No. 178. 


religious works of this cbaraoter are always apt to ran in the same 

Besides, it is inconceivable that the man who wrote the Primer 
of 1546 also wrote the Dictionary of 1547, because not only the 
orthography bnt the lingnistio system of the two are diametrically 
oppo«9d. In both of the books, for instance, the Welsh alphabet is 
printed. In the Primer it is given as follows : — 

a, 6, c, d, d, e, ff, /, g, A, t, k, I, Ih, m, n, o, p, r, rh, », «, u, v, y, w. 

In the Dictionary it appears as : — 
a, 6, c, ch, d, dd, «, /, /, g, gh, k, t, k, I, II, m, w, o, p, r, «, m, st, 

But, apart from this, it is, we think, clear that the author of the 
Primer was a native of South Wales ; for not only does he use 
words which do not occur in the North Wales dialects, but he 
spells other words as they were, and are, prononuced in Sonth 
Wales. We do not get the North Wales plurals ; the anthor writes 
pynckeu^ not pynckieu. It would be easy to point out many of the 
distinctions of the South Wales dialects iu the book. 

Salesbnry himself, in his preface to the Ledionary of 1551, says : 
— "One more cantion I add: that I be not made snbjeot to the 
judgment of the men of Dyfed alone ; for, as a native of Gwynedd, 
unfilled in the dialect of Dyfed^ I may perchance have employed, 
not only some terms, bnt even sentences (for we differ in both 
respects), which may sound in their ears somewhat ridiculous, inapt, 
or irreverent ;" so it is quite clear that he did not write the prefi^ce 
or any part of the Primer. 

Moreover, we have the direct testimony of Bishop Davies that 
Sir John Price was the anthor of the book, and we think his testi- 
mony should alone be sufficient to decide the question. 

There are other interesting questions raised by the account of 
William Salesbnry ; whether, for instance, there is any substance in 
the story that the Salesbnrys were descended from one Adam de 
Saltzbnrg. We were under the impression that the Rev. John 
Williams (Glanmor), in his Records of Denbigh^ had successively 
demonstrated the origin and source of this myth. Salesbury's 
Bojoum at Oxford has never, we believe, been proved, though it has 
been generally accepted as a fact 

Many intricate questions arise out of the different renderings of 
parts of the Bible, of which the Archdeacon gives us specimens. 
Apparently, Salesbnry made use of the older versions when they 
were accessible to him, but his translation is always more faithful to 
the original, and he did not hesitate to sacrifice style in order to 
convey the exact meaning. 

Archdeacon Thomas thinks that the version of the Pastoral 
Epistles in the Gmjsaney MS. is a late revision of the printed text 
of 1567. Apart from a comparison of the two versions, there is no 
means at present of testing the truth of this statement Besides, 

270 lifiviisws AND jtoncES oi' Boolcs. 

the &ot that one version is more Bnished than the other does not 
really prove anything, because it is clear that Salesbary himself 
translated the printed version of 1567, while it is equally clear that 
the Owytaney M8S. text was the work of Bishop Davies. 

It is idle, therefore, to form conjectures on this point, and 
Archdeacon Thomas has wisely refrained from discussing the ques- 
tion at length. Nevertheless, we are not sure but that the unearth- 
ing of this particular MSS. may not help us to solve another v^ 
perplexing question. 

Wo refer to the translation of the Bible and the Apocrypha into 
Welsh by Bishop Morgan. It has always been a mystery how the 
learned Bishop succeeded in completing his difficult task within so 
short a space of time. He was only forty-seven years old when it 
was published. Is it probable that one man unaided succeeded in 
carrying through this immense task within a space of not more than 
twenty years? 

Sir John Wynne tells us that Bishop Davies and Salesbury were 
busily engaged for two years in translating books into the Welsh 
language ; and the Bishop himself, in the Epistles to the Welsh 
People which precedes the New Testament of 15t>7, states that they 
were working upon the translation of the Old Testament 

The existence of the Gwysaney MSS.^ though it points more 
directly to a recension of the 1567 version of the New Testament, 
may in the face of the above facts, have been part of an 
attempt by Bishop Davies to translate the whole Bible. It is not 
merely that Bishop Morgan succeeded in carrying through his great 
undertaking within so short a space of time, but we must also 
consider the excellence of the translation and the purity of the 

In spite of the introductiou by Morgan of many idioms foreign to 
Welsh, his translation of the Bible is admitted on all sides to be a 
masterly example of pure and idiomatic Welsh. 

This leads us to ask whether Morgan had the aid of Bishop 
Davies's MSS. translation of the Old Testament. At present there 
is no evidence that he ever saw Davies's MSS. translation, but it is 
within the range of probability that this MSS. may some day be 
discovered, and we shall then be able to apportionate the credit to 
the two men, or to continue to marvel at the industry and ability of 
Bishop Morgan. 

Archdeacon Thomas has done a distinct service to Welsh litera- 
ture by bringing together in his book all that is at present known of 
the first translators. The book is well printed, and its get*up 
reflects great credit on the printers : The Caxton Press Co., of 

J. H. Davik. 


Abertstwtth, Its Coubt Lbet, ktc, 1690-1900. By Georoi Etke 
Evans, Welsh Gazette Office, Aberystwyth. 

This handsome and beantifally-printed work reflects great credit 
upon the author and upon the publisher. Mr. Evans has edited the 
various docaments embodied in the work with most commendable 
care and accuracy. From the lists which he gives, together with his 
annotations, it is possible to construct a very satisfactory history of 
the town of Aberystwyth during the last two centuries. Moreover, 
we obtain, especially with the aid of a description of Aberystwyth 
Castle by Mr. Harold Hughes, a valuable insight into the mediaoval 
condition of the town and neighbourhood. One of the most valuable 
lists in the book is that giving an account of the books printed from 
time to time at Aberystwyth. There is also a list of the chief events 
connected with Aberystwyth in the nineteenth century; but this 
list is not so uniformly complete as it might have been. The work 
contains much interesting information, as, for instance, that Lewis 
Morris (Llewelyn Ddu o Fob), of Penbryn was presented as a 
bargess in 1760. We learn also that in 1799 eleven jurymen were 
unable to write their names. The valuable revenue which Aberys- 
twyth derives from its leases is traced to the foresight of a Mr. Job 
Sheldon, a Scotchman, who became Mayor of the Borough. Those 
interested in apparent references to Irishmen in Welsh place-names 
will welcome the name Wig y Gwyddyl, given in a map by Lewis 
Morris to a part of Aberystwyth Beach, opposite the Queen's 
Hotel. There is also an interesting account of the " Corpse Bell" 
rang by the bellman through the streets of the town before funerals, 
a cnstom still existfng in Machynlleth, and also, until lately, found 
at Carnarvon. Mr. Evans duly chronicles the visits of distinguished 
men, such as Edward Irving, Keble and Tennyson, to Aberystwyth. 
Among the most interesting sections of the work are the accounts 
of punishments now obsolete, and the history of religious movements 
in the borough. The work appears to be singularly free from 
inaccuracies, but a few minor blemishes occur hero and there. For 
example, in a note on p. 62, Lithfaen should be Llithfaen, while 
* Meylltyrn-yn-Lleyn' has apparently been taken to be the full name 
of a farm : the name of the farm is simply Meylltyrn, or Meillteym, 
and the words should read " Meylltyrn in Lleyn." Capel y Groes 
should be given as " The Chapel of the Cross'* not ** The Chapel of 
Cross." On p. 75, **homiletic** is wrongly written as "homeletic," and 
on p. 102 '* flagelators'' is given for '*flagellators." "Mawddwy** is 
also given as '* Mawddy." ** Clorianneu Eur" should be rendered 
** Golden Scales." In the list of subscribers the name " J. Mortimore 
An^s" should read '' J. Mortimer Angus." It is to be hoped that 
Mr. G. Eyre Evans will continue his investigations into the history 
of Aberystwyth and the neighbouring districts, and that others will 
follow his example in publishing records of other towns and districts 
which are still unedited. 

E. Anwyu 


SLrcfiaeologtcal iBotes anH (Bvitms. 

Thb Inscuibbd Pillar of Samson at Llantwit Major, Glamob- 
OANSHIRB. — The diyiding of tbe words of the inscription on this 
stone, given by Mr. Westwood and Messrs. Haddan and Stnbbs, 
leaves two words in it quite meaningless, and also destroys the oon- 
straction of the words immediately preceding them. 

Mr. Westwood reads it thns : — 

"In nomine Di snmmi incipit crax Salvatoris qnae preparavit 
Samsoni apati pro auima sua et pro anima Inthahelo rex et pro 
Artmali teoan (?)." 

Messrs. Haddan and Stnbbs have read it in the same way, except 
that they have correctly left oat the word pro before Artmali, follow- 
ing the inscription, and have made the last word tecain. By 
reading the whole sentence, which on the stone runs on thronghoat 
without any spaces between the words, in the way suggested below, 
a better sense is made out of it, and the meaning of two words in it 
is shown, which, according to the other dividing, have no sense at 
all. I therefore believe it should thus be read : — 

" In nomine Di summi incipit crux Salvatoris quae preparavit 
Samson i apati pro anima sua et pro anima Inthahelo rex et Artmal 
t tecaon.** 

The words put in italics, in this suggested reading of the inscrip- 
tion are, I believe, exactly the Early Welsh words, i apcUy for the 
Modem Welsh Tr abad (the abbot), and i tecaoK, Y deacwi (the 
deacon), which we would expect to see used in Samson's time, in 
the ninth century. It may be objected to the last words i tecatm 
(the deacon), that the i should belong to Artmal to mark its 
oblique case. I cannot see that any of the proper names in the 
inscription has the terminal sign of oblique case, and the nomina- 
tive farm of the word rex joined to luthaAelo, goes for to prove the 
entire disregard of this in the inscription. With this suggested 
dividing of the inscription, I would read it thus in English : — 

" In the name of the Most High God, the Cross of the Saviour 
was begun, which Samson the abbot, /or his soul prepared, and for 
the soul of Inthahelo the king, and Artmal the deacon." 

The word for, put into italics in my translation of it, is put on the 
stone twice, evidently through the negligence of the carver, by i in 
Welsh, and pix> in Latin. 

John Davibs. 

Excavations Proposed to be carried out at Abbrtstwtth Gastlb. 
— In July last, on the advice of Dr. Henry Owen, I had the honour 
of being invited to insp>ect the Castle at Aberystwyth, with the view 
of reporting to the Mayor and Corporation as to the advisability 


of carrying out ezoavations, the general linee to be followed, and the 
added interest in the buildings to be expected therefrom. 

With my report I submitted a plan (here reproduced). The 
walls visible above the ground are indicated in block. The pro- 
bable positions of the remaining portions are drawn with hatched 

The following, taken from my report, dated July 22nd, 1902, will 
give an idea of the work at present visible, and my recommendations 
with regard to the question of carrying out excavations. 

*'The Castle consisted of an inner ward contained within an 
outer. The containing walls of each ward formed a slightly irregu- 
lar four-sided lozenge-shaped figure, the longest diameter lying north 
and south. At the north, west, and south angles of the inner ward 
were drum towers, probably three-quarters exposed on the outside. 
The great gatehouse occupied the eastern angle. The- gatehouse and 
towers were connected by curtain walls. On the north-west and 
south-west sides were intermediate towers, the former containing a 
small second gatehouse. Of the large gatehouse, much is visible. The 
buildings on the north side of the entrance- way have been excavated 
to a great extent, probably in 1845. On the southern side, however, 
large portions of the walls are covered over, and the interior is 
filled up with dSbria. The northern and southern buildings of the 
gatehouse each contains the remains of a turret staircase. The 
work in situ shows that the gateway was defended on the outside 
by a portcullis and doors, and on the inside by doors. The gate- 
house in the north-west wall still exists with indications of a three- 
fold defence — a loop extending vertically, the full width of the 
passage, to the working chamber of the portcullis above, the port- 
cullis itself, and the inner doors. Of the other towers, only a small 
portion of the western is visible in situ. There are, however, 
numerous large masses of masonry scattered around, which prove, 
with a certainty, the existence formerly of towers in the positions 
I have indicated. The appearance of these masses is quite in 
harmony with the statement that the Castle was blown up by the 
Parliamentary forces about the year 1646. I will briefly enumerate 
the data proving the existence of the various towers and curtain 
walls. Around the position 1 have indicated for the northern 
tower are numerous masses of masonry. To the north of the tower 
is a large block with the outer face worked to a curve, the inner 
faces being straight-sided. This evidently formed a portion of an 
outer wall of a tower. To the north-west is another large mass with 
inner and outer faces straight, the angles apparently being those 
of an octagonal figure. Within the mass is contained a portion 
of a circular staircase. Besides the small portion of the western 
tower visible in situ, on the east is a mass containing a fragment 
of a circular staircase. A mass in the centre of the tower combines 
the fragment of the well of a staircase with the internal and 
external faces of a tower ; while a mass to the west evidently forms 
a portion of the same structure, though its exact position is not 


PE.E.X. lOO 50 O 


Plan of AbeiTstwyth Gastls. 


qoite dear. Of the intermediate tower in the sonth-west onrtain, 
two masses indicate : one, the onrved external face of a tower with 
internal straight sides ; the other, the fragment of the well of a 
circnlar staircase. Aronnd the position I have indicated for the 
Boathem tower are nnmerons large fragments of masonry, though, 
for the most part, they do not contain sufficient data to indicate the 
shape or size of the tower. A mass, however, combines a portion 
of a staircase well with the internal straight sides of a tower. 

"The position of the curtain walls are fairly well defined by the 
mounds and fragments which follow their course. The plan I have 
shown can only be taken as approximately correct. The exact 
positions of the towers and walls must remain hidden, till revealed 
by the pick and shovel. Of the exact position of the junction of the 
curtain walls with the gatehouse towers I am uncertain. 

"Of the outer ward, drum towers, three-quarters of their cir- 
cumference exposed on the outside, exist, to a great extent, at 
the northern and southern angles. The outer gatehouse occupies 
the eastern angle. Of the western angle nothing is visible. 
Probably, any tower which occupied this position has disappeared 
with the cliff on which it stood. Opposite the gateway, in the 
inner north-west wall, are the remains of an outer gateway be- 
tween the two bastions. In the south-east wall are the remains 
of a small bastion. The towers were connected by curtain walls. 
A large extent of the outer face of the north-west curtain, between 
the gateway and the northern tower, is visible. The starting of the 
wall to the south-east of the gateway is to be seen. Of the south- 
west wall the work of excavating, carried on lately by your 
Surveyor, has opened up the outer face for the extent of about 
53 ft, measuring from the southern tower. Further portions are 
again visible about the centre of the wall. Of the north-western 
portion, I fear all remains will have disappeared, together with the 
cliff which supported it. The outer face of the south-eastern wall, 
between the south tower and the bastion, is in a very perfect condi- 
tion, though the upper part has been destroyed. There are indica- 
tions of the wall starting again on the north side of the bastion, 
though the exact line- it took is entirely conjectural. The starting 
of the north-eastern wall from the northern tower is visible for the 
length of about 35 ft. The position in which it terminated at the 
other end remains to be discovered. 

"Of outer defences we have the remains of a ditch (probably dry) 
on all sides, with the exception of a portion of the south-west. The 
steepness of the cliff probably rendered it unnecessary in this 
position. It would appear that the ditch continued till it opened 
out on the ground sloping towards the sea beyond the northern 
tower, and on the cliff on the south-west side. 

*'The general scheme of the defences, I believe, is incompre- 
hensible to most of those who visit the ruins. It would, un- 
doubtedly, be of great historical interest to trace accurately the 
positions of the various towers and walls. There should be little 


diffionltj in tracing tboRe of the inner ward. The approximate 
positions of the ancient towers is an ascertained fact. The inner 
and onter faces of the remaining walls shonld be laid bare. I would 
further recommend that the soathem gateway bnilding be excayated 
in a manner similar to the northern. By lowering the groand 
slightly, it might be possible to bring to light the fonndations 
of the eastern wall of the northern gateway bnilding. It would be 
of great interest to discover the manner in which the curtain walls 
were connected with the gateway building. There appears to be 
some foundations of buildings, at a a on Plan, at the south end 
of the inner ward. It would be well to cut a trench in this position. 
With reference to the outer ward, the work your Surveyor has com- 
menced in reopening the ditch on the south-west side might be 
continued with advantage. It would be well to ascertain if the 
south-west wall takes a turn inwards beyond the last point where 
it is visible; but, as I mentioned above, I fear the remainder 
of this wall has entirely disappeared. The bastions and portion 
of the north-west wall, not at present visible, can easily be broaght 
to light. I further recommend that the ditch be opened in front 
of the bastion gateway, and a simple light wooden bridge be con- 
structed across it. The manner in which the eastern walls termi- 
nated each side the great gateway is a point of much interest 
South of the gateway the ground has been so much disturbed for 
pathways, etc, that it may not be easy to trace the foundations 
of the wall. To the north, however, the entire length of the wall 
could be traced. Possibly there may have been a small bastion 
projecting from this wall. Of the outer gateway, it would be well 
to clear out the southern building in a manner similar to the 
northern. By lowering the ground slightly at the entrance, it might 
be possible to come across signs of a drawbridge. 

" With reference to the mounds without the walls, I feel strongly 
against the removal of either that to the north-east, or that in front 
of the entrance. These mounds probably were connected originally, 
and formed the outer work of the ditch. 

" Of other works, it would be of interest to open up the well. 
A parapet wall, about 3 ft. in height, might be built around the top, 
and the well protected by a simple wrought-iron grid. The interior 
of the northern tower of the outer ward might be cleaned oat The 
rubbish should be removed from the so-called * dungeon' of ^ 
outer gateway. Certain heaps of rubbish should be cleared away 
from the grounds, and the buildings should be treated with that 
reverence their historic and artistic associations demand. 

" I trust you will allow me to emphasise one point, namely, that 
all works of excavation should be carried on with greatest care not 
to damage old work, and that rubbish excavated should be carefully 
examined ; and, if any articles, even fragments, be found, they be 
carefully kept, and their exact position be noted— auch fragments 
may include portions of old broken bottles, clay smoking-pipes* 
coins, etc., not to mention objects of greater interest." 


Shonid excavations be carried out, I hope, at a later date, to have 
an opportunity of describing the resalt in the pages of Arctweologia 

It may be of interest to note the various vicissitudes through 
which the structure of the Castle has passed. I have to thank Mr. 
George Eyre Evans for the following data.^ 

Of the early Castle of Aberystwyth and its successors, which 
stood on the hill above Tan-y-Castell Farm, the other side of the river 
Ystwyth, we have no concern. In 1277, at " the feast of St. James 
the Apostle, Edmund, the King's (Edward I) brother, came with 
an army to Llanbadarn, and began to build a castle at Aberyst- 
wyth.^ It is with the remains of the Edwardian castle we are at 
present interested. In 1282, at "the feast of St. Mary of the 
Equinox, Graffndd, Sou of Maredudd, Son of Owain, Son of Gruffad, 
Son of Lord Rhys, and Rhys, Son of Maelgwn, Son of the Lord 
Rhys, possessed themselves of the Town and Castle of Aberystwyth ; 
and they burned the Town and Castle, and destroyed the Rampart 
that was round the Castle and the Town, sparing the lives of the 
Garrison because the days of the Passion were near."* 

Within a year or two, Mr. Evans informs us, the Castle was 
repaired by King Edward. 

In 1404, the Castle was taken by Owen Glyndwr, and retained 
till 1407, when it was retaken by Prince Henry (afterwards 
Heniy V). The same year, however, it was again taken by Owen 
Glyndwr, but retaken again by Prince Henry in 1408. 

In 1637, Charles I ordered a mint to be erected within the Castle. 
The mint was removed to Oxford in 1642. 

In 1644, " some thirty men of the King's Garrison in the Castle, 
thinking to surprise fifty of the Parliamentary Forces then at 
Llanbadern, were repulsed, and thii*teen of them drowned in the 
Pond or Leet near the Town, which supplied water to our Lady's 
Mill ; Lieutenant Powell was one." 

About the beginning of November, in the following year, 1645, 
Parliamentarians, consisting of Cardiganshire men, laid siege to the 
Castle. On April I4th, 1646, Colonel Whiteley delivered the 
Castle to the besiegers. Probably it was in this year that the Castle 
was mined and blown up by the Parliamentary forces. 

From the Court Leet presentments we gather, that in 1739 
stones were being pulled down and carried away from the towers 
and Castle walls; and, in 1742 and 1743, the large tower was being 

In 1835, the ruins were generally repaired and propped up. 

In 1845, certain excavations were made ; the eastern gateway and 
entrance cleared ; a so-called dungeon discovered in a tower on the 
north side of the gateway ; the well was opened. We are informed 
that it was filled to the top with stones and other portions of ruins, 

* George Eyre Evans, Aberystmjth: Its Court Lcct, a.d. 1690-1900, pp. 91-96. 
' Brut y Ttfvrysogum, Rolls Edition, p. 368. 
' Ibid., p. 372. 
6th seb., vol. m. 21 



inolnding fragments of hewn freestone, and that it was cleared oot 
to the bottom, a depth of 60 fb. 

In 1901, the extension of the marine promenade round the Castle 
point was commenced. Harold Huohbs. 

Small Brohzb Spbab-Hiad found at Trbgaron, Cardioanshiri.— 
This object is now in the possession of the Rev. D. L. Davies, Vicar 

O y 

Small Bronze Spear- Head 

found at Tregaron, 


Scale, f linear. 

Lower Portion of Pre-Normin 

Gross-Slab at St. lamael's, 


Scale, ^ linear. 

of Talgarth, Brecknockshire, and was exhibited bj him on the 
occasion of the visit of the Association to Talgarth, during iht 
Brecon Meeting in 1902. 


Pbb-Norman Gross-Slab at St. Ismael's, Pbmbrokeshire. — The 
illnstratdon here given o^ the lower portion of a pre-Norman cross- 
slab at St. Ismaers, Pembrokeshire, is taken from a rubbing 
snpplied by Mr. Henry Edwards, of Priory Street, Mil ford Haven. 
It was fonnd about the year 1884, half bnried in rnbbish and grass, 
when the cbnrch was being restored, and is now on the north side 
of the tower. The slab is 3 ft. 8 ins. long, by 1 ft. 6 ins. wide. In 
the centre of the slab is the shaft of a cross with a foar-cord plait, 
having horizontal breaks at regular intervals on each side of it. 
We are indebted to Mr. Edward Laws, F.S.A., for communicating 
the above account. 

The "Golden Grove Book" of Pedigbees. 
To the Editor of the ^^ Archceologia Camhrensis.'* 

Sir, — With reference to Mr. Edward Owen's paper in your April 
namber, it may be worth while to note that Theophilus Jones, in a 
letter dated April 8th, 1810, writes " . . . . I wish to continue the 
pedigrees in the books given me by my late respected friend 
Mr. Vaughan, of Golden Grove, down to the present day . . . The 
books I have just alluded to I have undertaken by Mr. V.'s direction, 
to place at my death, either in the Bodleian, the Heralds' College, or 
Borae other pablic literary dep6t ** 

The first Lord Cawdor acqaired Golden Grove from the Mr. 
Vaaghan above mentioned. 

Your obedient servant, E. A. 

WgLSH Iksoription in the Churghtard of Llanoatoc Fbibion 


To the Editor of the ** Archceologia Gambrensis,** 

Sir, — Last Good Friday I paid a visit to the above church, which 
is five miles west from the town of Monmouth. In the churchyard, 
immediately east of the south porch, I found a Welsh inscription on 
a freestone slab Ijring flat on the ground. I took a copy of the 
lettering, and checked it on a subsequent visit ten days later. In 
the reign of Elizabeth, Welsh was the vernacular, even in the streets 
of Monmouth ; but it died out very considerably in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the county town before the Civil War, and has 
now retreated west of the river tJsk. Hence it is interesting to 
find a Welsh tombstone inscription so far east, at such a late date. 
The question is as to the true reading of the words. So far as I 
have been able to decipher them, they run as follows : — 


21 • 


which in modern spelling wonid perhaps be " Hereunder lidh the 
bod If of James Walters, deceased the ISth day of April Anno Domini 
1690. Gwedihwn haiob ar yr lesu hwn ddigon yu hawdd adnahu 
a davgos % ni gwir nteuni pryd y ddaw y gwiwion xw gwely. IF. H!" 
The Welsh of this would mean : '* Let as all pray to this Jesns (that 
He will) suflSciently plainly manifest and show to us true light 
when the worthy ones come to their bed." The reading presents, 
however, certain difficulties, and my interpretation is merely tenta- 
tive. I hope some Welsh scholar will throw a better light on the 
subject So far as I can ascertain, the existence of this interesting 
inscription is at present unknown to anyone but myself. This i« 
hardly surprising, since the letterinj^ is very much worn by the 
boots of the village boys, who make a Sunday playground of tliis 
part of the churchyard. I should add that the stone has a debased 
wheel-cross carved at top, and several crosses in the top margin. 
Until some clear and satisfactory interpretation of this inscription 
is forthcoming, it will almost rank with the Welsh cryptograms at 
Usk and Peterston-super-Ely. Can there have been a desire to 
puzzle posterity, or why all this mystery in the wording of epitaphs? 

Yours faithfully, 

John Hobson Matthews. 
Stanley Lodge, Monmouth, May 7th, 1908. 

"The fiLEDWiGAN Thresher.*' 
To Vie Editor of tJie ** Arch/Eolngia Cambrensis.** 

Sir, — Would you kindly insert, in one of your issues, the following 
correction of an error which has appeared for many years, from time 
to time, in different periodicals and books, such as Camhro- Briton^ 
vol. i, p. 264 ; Catherall's Historij of North Wales, p. 53 ; Hatus y 
Cymry, by Rev. O. Jones, vol. i, p. 305 ; and several others, under 
the heading "The Lledwigan Thresher" {Hen Ddyrnurr Liedwigan). 

Lledwigan is a farm in the parish of Llangristiolus, near Llan- 
gefni, Anglesey, and Morys Lloyd is said to be the well-to-do 
occupier of the farm at the time of the rebellion, in the reign of 
Charles the First. A party of the Parliamentarian soldiers, abont 
thirty in number, according to tradition, visited Morys Lloyd's farm, 
and found him in the barn threshing. They demanded a large som 
of money of the farmer, or his life in case of refusal. He instantly 
replied that he would only yield the one with the other, and partially 
closed the barn door, so that his assailants could only enter one by 
one. He then attacked them as they appeared with his flail, and 
managed to kill eight or ten of them, and would probably have 
killed more, had not the thongs which connected the two parts of 
the flail accidentally got broken. The party soon overpowered the 
defenceless man, and they showed him no mercy. 

Probablv the tradition is well founded, as far as the incident is in 
question, but the topography is certainly at fault. All local evidence 


tends to show that this happened, not at Lledwigan, bat at a farm 
three miles from Lledwigan, called Plas Bach, in the parish of 
Cerrigceinwen. Morys Lloyd was bnried by the chnrch of Cerrig- 
ceinwen, and his tombstone was removed from the churchyard, and 
used for many years as a flagstone in the floor of the chnrch. 
Fortunately, it had been placed face downwards, and the inscription 
was preserved from injury. 

In making certain alterations in the church, the stone was dis- 
covered, and the matter was reported to Mr. John Williams, of 
Lledwigan, who was then churchwarden, who took care of the 
precious relic, and placed it beyond the reach of further desecration. 
Whether Mr. Williams's share in restoring the stone is accountable 
for the error of locating the incident at Lledwigan I cannot say. 

I have in my possession an old MS. in which the incident is 
related as having happened at Plas Bach, and a well-established 
tradition points to a mound near this farmhouse as the place where 
the soldiers were buried. 

The other day, while searching old wills in the Bangor Probate 
Court, I came across the will of Morys Lloyd, where it is distinctly 
stated that he lived in the parish of Cerrigceinwen, and not in that 
of Llangristiolus. 

I beg to enclose a photograph of the inscription on the tomb- 
stone, which is now secured in the wall of the chnrch. In all 
the transcriptions I have seen the **X" after the word " Dros** is 
omitted. Its use in the sentence is not very evident, bat as X is 
equivalent to CA, I am inclined to the opinion that it stands for 
Charles, and, if 1 am right, the sentence will read as I represent it 
in the translation below. 

16 5 3 

The inscription is interesting from the fact that it is in Welsh ; 
those of sach an early date are almost invariably Latin or English 
(Literal Translation.) 

This is the spot in which Mo(rys) Lloyd was interred on the 
third day of October, 1647, after having fought a good fight for 
Charles his King and his country. By his side was buried his rib, 
Jane Rees Owen, as bedfellow, for him the fourth November, 1G53. 

Bryn Dinas, Bangor. J. K. Qkifpith, F.L.S. 


A Note upon Muriau'r Dre (Trk'r Qwtddelod), CARNARvoKSHiRr. 
— Muriau'r Dre is a collection of hut-circles and walls, upon a 
marshy piece of land belonging to Gwastad Annas farm in Nant 
Gwynen. It is exactly one mile below the Pen y Gwrbyd Hotel. 

Six hut-circles of small stones yet stand 1 ft. or 18 ins. abore the 
ground : these are lettered A, B, c, E, F and O in the accompanying 
plan. Two other circles, d and H, are complete in outline only. 
Foundations of walls, always curved in plan, sometimes almost 
" scalloped," cross and recross the site in the most bewildering way. 
One can only suppose that the town was inhabited for a considerable 
time, and that the six larger circles are the newest, and are mainly 
built ont of the superstructure of older dwellings — <lwelling8 whose 
foundations were left because the builders were too lazy to remove 
them. But even this theory does not fully explain what is found at 
T. and M, unless one also assumes that the huts in the earliest viUnge 
were joined, each to the next, by a piece of wall, so that huts and 
joining walls together form an enclosure. So purposeless did these 
foundations appear^ until they were planned, that really the sugges- 
tion of the Oosstping Chiide that they were *' dry paths for use in 
wet weather," seemed not improbable. At K on the plan is an indica- 
tion of a dam to form a lodge for water. N is the only rectangular 
structure on the site : from the fact that a streamlet flows throogh 
it one may conjecture it to be a house, but its connection with the 
long foundations is puzzling. Upon the opposite site of Nant 
Cynnyd is an acre or two of those tiny angular fields which mark 
ancient culture. Along the very brook lies an ancient trackway. 
There is a ruined cromlech about 300 ft. to the south ; and some 
standing stones, which may be artificial, are found between the 
cromlech and the river. 

The town has never been properly explored ; but, apparently 
many years ago, a hole 3 ft. deep was made in the centre of circle 0, 
holes 1 ft. deep in A, E and F, and circle C has been pecked at. All 
else is untouched. 

The bibliography of the site is scanty in the extreme. The 
25-in. Ordnance Map marks the huts "old sheep-folds." Prof. 
Rhys quotes in ** Celtic Folklore,*' p. 632, from the ArckcBologia 
Cambrensis for 1862, a remark based upon a note from Charles 
Reed, Esq., communicated in 1860 to the Proceedings of the Society 
of Antiquaries, Ser. li, vol. i, p. 161, whicb states that " within 
half a mile of Llyn Llydaw there are the remains of a British town 
not marked on the Ordnance Map, comprising the foundations of 
numerous circular dwellings. In some of them quantities of the 
refuse of copper smeltings were found.'* There is no British town 
within half a mile of Llyn Llydaw, but Muriau*r Dre is only just 
over one mile away. Though a brief inspection last summer 
revealed only charcoal and no copper slag, yet the existence ot 
excavations, which that casual explorer of forty years ago did not 
trouble to fill up, is conclusive as to the identity of the site. 

There is some rustic folklore relating to the site in Jenkin's Bedd 


MimiAU'R DrE IK 

Nant Gwtoent. 



Gelert (Portmadoc, 1899), which Prof. Rhjs discusses in the work 
raentioaed above. 

Doubtless the modern roadway to Cwm Dyli has swallowed up a 
good many huts and walls. A mischievous boy, if the idea occnrred 
to him, could easily perplex beyond all understanding the fonnda^ 
tions which still remain. It is greatly to be hoped that, when the 
Association meets this summer at Portmadoc, some competent 
antiquarians will visit and investigate this promising site. 

Rev. G. C. Chambrer. 

Restoration of St. Mary's Church, Haverfordwest. — We 
gladly publish the following appeal for help to repair one of the 
finest churches in South Wales : — 

** We beg to solicit your kind interest and help in connection with 
the above work, which we hope to take in hand at once. It 
practically means the completion of the Restoration of this ancient 
and historic building, parts of which (the north aisle and chancel) 
were finished some years ago. A great deal, however, still remains 
to be accomplished, some of the work being of absolute urgency ; 
especially on the tower, where the bells and town clock are situated, 
and in the nave, the roof of which is in a very bad state and part not 
even watertight. 

" Plans and specifications are being prepared by Mr. W. D. Caroe 
(the architect to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners), but, as the sum 
required will not be less than £3,000, we fell that it is a task 
beyond the hope of local effort to accomplish ; but, considering the 
very important and in some respects unique position which the 
church occupies, as mentioned in the brief details given on the 
annexed page), we consider it has a special claim far beyond the 
limits of its own surroundings or of its own congregation, and we 
feel confident that an appeal made on its behalf to all interested in 
Pembrokeshire will not be in vain. We, therefore, venture to place 
these details before you and to solicit your kind help, either by a 
subscription or donation, or in any other form you prefer. 

*' Trusting to receive a favourable response to our appeal, 
" We are, yours faithfully, 
C. E. G. Philipps, Bart., 
Lord Lieutenant of the Town and County of Haverfordwest. 
J. H. Davies, M.A., Vicar. 
F. R. Greknish, Mus. Doc. (Oxon) ) Church - 
Herbert J. E. Price j wardens. 

** Subscriptions may be sent to the Rev. J. H. Davies, M.A., 
St. Mary's Vicarage, Haverfordwest. 

Wooden Fiourb found at Strata Florida, Cardiganshirk.— Tiie 
I remarkable carved wooden figure here illustrated belongs to the 

Rev. D. L. Davies, Vicar of Talgarth, and was exhibited by him 
when the Association visited his church during the Brecon Meeting 



Wooden Figure fuiiud at Strata Florida, 
Cardigaushire. Scale, { linear. 

VV^ooden Figure found at Strata Florida, 
Cardiganshire. Scale, | linear. 



in 1902. It is stated to have been found at Strata Florida, 
Cardiganshire. Mr. C. H. Read, F.S.A., of tbe British Mnsevm, 
to whom the fignre has been shown, expresses an opinion that it is 
of foreign origin, probably North American. 

Two Fodbteinth-Centubt Inscriptions at Pwllcrochan, Pem- 
BROKBsuiBE. — There are in Pwllcrochan Church, Pembrokeshire, 
two fonrteenth-centurj inscriptions in Lorn bardic capitals which, 
althouflfh of considerable interest, have never been previonslj illus- 
trated. The first is built into the corner of the north aisle outside, 
and the second into the sonth wall of the nave inside. The photo- 
graphs were taken by Mr. Gauntlett Thomas, son of the Bector. 

Fig. 1. — Inacription No. 1 in Pwllcrochan Church, Pembrokeshire. 

The readings are as follows : — 

No. 1. 

ANNO : DNI : M i III : XL 









" In the year of Oup Lord, 1342, 
was this church constructed anew 
with this chapel by Sir 
Ralph Beneger, sometime 
Rector of this chnroh, who 
held the living for — years." 




Fig. 2. — Inscription No. 2 in Vwllcrochan Church, Pembrokeshire. 

No. 2. 

** Who passes over him often 
let him pray God that He 
may give to him the highest joys 
of the Saints of Heaven He ruled over 
this chnrch built it and 
well covered it and other 
buildings. May his seat be in Heaven. 
Amen. Our Father." 


We are indebted to Dr. Henry Owen, P.S.A., and the Rev. David 
Bowen, Vicar of Monktou, for directing attention to these inscrip- 
tions, and supplying photographs of them. 

An account of the Benegers will be foand in Dr. Henry Oweu*s 
Old Pembroke Families, p. 65. Pwllcrochan Chnrch is described by 
Sir Stephen Glynne, in the Arch. Camh,, 5th Ser., vol. v, p. 127. 
It was visited daring the Pembroke Meeting of the Association in 
1880 (see "Report" in Arch, Camb,, 4th Ser., vol. xi, p. 343). 

Inscribed Stonb at Lltsdikgwyn, Carkarvonshirb. — The monu- 
ment here illustrated has been recently discovered, and will be 
visited during the forthcoming Meeting of the Association at Port- 
madoc, in August. Llysdingwyu is situated three-quarters of a mile 
north-east of Brynkir railway station, on the line from Carnarvon 
to Pwllheli. The inscription is in debased Roman capitals, in three 
horizontal lines near the top of the stone at the right-hand side. 
It reads 




We are indebted to the courtesy of Mr. J. Allen Jones, High 
Street, Criccieth, for allowing us to reproduce his photograph of the 

Old Swokd and Cannon-Ball found at Rhtd Llydan, Radnor- 
shire. — The sword and cannon-ball, of which we give an illustra- 
tion, were dug up some years ago at Rhyd Llydan, in the parish of 
Llanbedr Painscastle, Radnorshire. Rhyd Llydan is situated on the 
Bach Nowey, and is the ford below the eminence crowned by the 
site of the famous fortress of Painscastle, where many a sanguinary 
battle was fought in days gone by. To those who care to read 
between the lines, what a tale of tragedy these ancient relics unfold ! 
We seem to see the warrior girding on his sword, and bidding an 
unconscious last farewell to his home and family, and setting out to 
the attack of the famous castle. But the ford which guards the 
approach is fiercely defended ; we hear the din of battle and the shouts 
of the leaders, mingled with the roar of the cannon ; our warrior 
uses his sword well, but against the cannon it is useless ; the fatal 
ball strikes him, he falls to rise no more, and finds a grave on the 
spot where he fell. 

The sword and cannon-ball are now in the possession of Mr. Ljke, 
of Rhyd Llydan, to whom we are much indebted for his kindness in 
allowing them to be photographed, and bringing them down to Hay 
for that purpose. M. L, Dawsok. 

Inscribed Stonb at Llysdingwyn, Carnarvonshire. 
{From a Photograph by J, Allen Jones, Ifiyk Street^ Criccieth.) 

Old Sword and Cannon-Ball found at Khyd Llydan, 


Proposed Reparation of St. Illtyd's Chukch, at Llantwit 
Major, Glamorganshire. — Mr. G. E.Hallidaj,F.B.I.B. A., Diocesan 
Sorveyor and Reparation Architect, reports on the condition of the 
Tower thus : — " Evidently this crushing of the columns" — on which 
the Tower rests — "and the gradual thrusting outwards of the 
arches, more particularly to the east and west, has been going on 
for a very considerable time, and at some period beyond present 
recollection it must have been of a very serious nature, as we find 
the early carved caps have in some cases been replaced with roughly- 
masoned stones, and without any regard to the original intention of 
their corresponding shafts. These and other precautions, such as 
placing two buttresses in the western church to receive the thrust 
of the arches, have answerrd a purpose for some time, but of late 
years the Tower has been, and is still, moving in a south-westerly 
direction. It is impossible to say exactly how long this gradual 
subsidence may continue without doing serious damage ; but it is 
certain that the matter most be faced at an early date, as the 
western piers are now 3 in. out of perpendicular in their height of 
6 ft. 3 in., and the eastern piers are 2^ in. out of perpendicular, all 
inclining the south-western pier. When this pier is unable to with- 
stand this combined pressure, the Tower will fall." 

As fully a third of the floor of the Eastern Church will be taken 
np for the Tower reparation, it is proposed to lower the whole to 
its original level— a work which, through lack of funds, was deferred 
when the Western Church was restored in 1899. During the past 
thirteen years, £2,300 has been expended on the Church, and the 
parishioners are organising a bazaar to help the present venture. 
The resources of the neighbourhood being totally inadequate, an 
appeal is hereby made to the liberality of all interested in the pre- 
servation of the ancient monuments and church of Llantwit Major. 

Subscriptions may be forwarded to I. B. Nichol, Esq., F.S.A., 
The Ham, Cowbridge. 


Excursion I, — Page 170, line 4, for " Penpont" read " Aberbran." 
Tea at Brecon was provided by H. O. Avolyne Maybery, Esq., 
The Priory. 

Excursion 11. — Page 171. Tea at Llangorsewas Twt provided by 
Col. Gamons Williams, but by ** Mrs. Bradley, Cefn Pare." 

Excursion III, — Page 171. Tea at Llunfrynach was provided by 
Lt.-Col. R. D. Gramons Williams, Tymawr. 

Excursion IV, — Pages 171 and 172. Route, lines 4 and 5. The 
return journey was not made by the "same route,*' but by carriages 
all the way to Ffrwdgrech, Tea was provided at Brecon by J. A. 
Jebb, Esq., Watton Mount. 


" Thb Hbrmitaqb 0? Thkodobio." 
To the Editor oj the ^^ Archceologia Cambrenais,** 

Sir, — ^In the Plan and Elevation of the " Hermitage of Theo- 
doricos" a blander has been made : I never thought of looking at 
the scales. 

Now in the Plan I sent np there are two scales given : the one 
for Plan and Elevation, 4 fb. = 1 in. ; scale for details }-in. to the foot 

In the print one scale is given, 2 feet to an inch, which is nothing 
to the Plan or details. 

The Plan and Elevation should be m^irked: scale 14 ft. to an inch; 
scale for details, |^-in. to a foot. 

I give in the letterpress the length of the bailding : 85 ft. ; by the 
scale it works out, 12 ft. ; the slab, 5 ft. by the scale, 10 ins. ako ! 

Perhaps yon will correct this in next Nnmber otArc^ Camb. 

Tours truly, 

Thomas Grit. 
Underbill, Port Talbot, April 26 th, 1903. 


The four plates of sculptured capitals are from photographs kindly 
supplied by Mr. J. W. Phillips, of Haverfordwest. They are the 
most remarkable specimens of thirteenth-century figure-sculpture 
in Wales. The monkey will appeal to our young friends who 
believe in the now-discredited doctrines of evolution. 

Mbibtino of thb Assooiation at Poktmadoc. — The Annual Meeting 
of the Association for this year will take place at Portmadoc, 
Merionethshire, on the 17th of August and four following days. 
The President-Elect is R. H. Wood, Esq., P.S.A. 

ScTUTUKEU Capital of Arcade in St. Mary's Church, Haverfordwest. 

S<'i'LPTiREi» Capital of Akcade in St. Mary's Chirch, Haverfordwest. 

•Sci'LprrKED Capital of Arcade in St. Mary's Church, Haverfordwest. 

ScuLPTUBEp Capital of Ajrcape in St. Maby's Church, Haverfordwest. 



Q •-.• 


© o o o 

00 t0 O 09 

|lrchaeal0jgia Camtr^ufiis. 


OCTOBER, 1903. 





Canon Liddon well said, *' The veneration for anti- 
quity, especially antiquity in association with human 
history, is a natural and a legitimate sentiment ; indeed, 
not to feel it is to lack some of the finer elements of a 
well-balanced mind.'' With this leading thought before 
me, I will endeavour to describe the circumstances 
attending the discovery of the stone which forms the 
subject of this account, as well as an ancient tradition 
connected with the locality, and which, I trust, may 

£rove interesting to the readers of the Archceologia Cam- 
It appears that in 1897 the County Council of 
Breconshire required a quantity of stones for highway 
and other purposes in this district, and one of its 
employes, named Daniel Jones, was engaged, on 
March 26th of that year, in getting them from a dis- 
mantled cottage called Ystafell-fach. It is situate on 
the farm known as Llawdre. On the following day 
these stones were removed to the main road between 
Llanwrtyd and Llandovery, and at a point about 

6th 8BB., VOL. III. 22 


li^ mile from the former town. Subsequently, Ernest 
Davies, a rural postman of Llanwrtyd, while speaking 
to Daniel Jones, chanced to observe amongst them 
one with, to him, some strange incisions upon it, 
and thereupon asked him to place it on the side of the 
road for preservation. It was accordingly put in an 

stone with Incised Cross at Yptafell-fach, Brecknockshire. 

erect position near the end ot Berthddu Bridge, which 
spans the brook known as Nant-cae-fach, that is, the 
Brook of the Little Field. Doubtless many persons 
must have seen the stone, but no particular notice 
seems to have been taken of it till Mr. Robert Lloyd 
Williams, solicitor, Grays, Essex, who, while paying a 

Brecknockshire. 295 

visit to Llanwrtyd, evinced much interest in this object 
of antiquity, which resulted in his writing a letter to 
the chairnoan of the Llanwrtyd Parish Council as 
follows : — " I assure you and all your Council the stone 
is almost of incalculable value to archaeologists, and 
your Council ought to take the greatest care that It is 
not taken away and placed in some museum, where but 
few would journey to see it. I must tell you also that 
such stones are so rare that I believe there are not 
more than two others existing in Wales, and three in 
the Isle of Man, where they have been placed in the 
churchyard at Onchan for preservation, and jealously 
taken care of. They are termed Runic stones. I do 
not know of one in England. The stone must be to 
the memory of some Welsh chieftain or prince, who 
lived at least 2,000 years ago, before an alphabet was 
in use. It is claimed by no one, but is now in such a 
position that I am astonished that it has not ere this 
Dean irretrievably defaced." A copy of this letter 
appeared in The Brecon and Radnor Express of the 
6th November, 1902. 

No further steps were apparently taken to gather 
a few facts as to the history of this stone, until the 
present writer called upon the Vicar of Llanwrtyd, the 
Rev. W. Tudor Thomas, who manifested such a kindly 
interest in the matter as to promise me his valuable 
assistance. We accordingly sallied forth to view the 
stone, and with the said Daniel Jones as our guide, we 
were conducted to Ystafellfach. This cottage would 
seem to have been made such out of what was once 
apparently a large house or building. And now we 
may ask: Does the name " Ystafell" shed any light 
upon the history of this spot ? The word " ystafell " 
may generally be rendered chamber, upper room, or 
stable. Philologically, however, "ystafell" is imme- 
diately borrowed from the Latin "stabulum," which has 
the various meanings of standing-place, abode, habita- 
tion, dweUing, cottage, hut, but especially a staU, stable, 
or inclosure. Without entering at great length into 

22 2 


the question as to how ** stabulum " in Latin became, 
after passings through its several phonetic and other 
changes, ''ystafell" in Cymraeg, the statement will, I 
think, be generally accepted. '* Stabulum," like many 
Latin words that may be cited, passed, as the result of 
the Roman occupation of Britain, into the Welsh lan- 
guage. I am inclined to think, then, that in this 
name, " Ystafell," we are carried back to Roman times. 
Again, we ask for evidence. I have already mentioned 
that this stone was found on Llawdre Farm. This is 
the local pronunciation of the name, but I think it is 
simply a corruption of Llawr-dref, that is, Town-Area, 
But what evidence do we possess that this was at any 
time the site of a town ? We made careful inquiries, 
and found a tradition still existing among the people 
of this locality that there was a town, to quote the 
words of our informant, ''yn amser y Rhufeiniaid," i.e., 
in the time of the Romans ; and in proof of this we. 
were told that on Llawr-dref Farm, over an area of 
about three or four acres, large stones weighing from 
three to five tons have been unearthed. It is some- 
what strange that these stones, which in byegone ages 
formed the foundation of what was probably an ancient 
ecclesiastical edifice, were used in our modern times in 
the laying of the London and North- Western Railway 
which runs hard by. Furthermore, on this same farm 
is a field known as " Cae'r-groes," that is, " field of the 
cross." And here I may remark that the word "croes," 
a '* cross," is met with in the names of a few fields in 
this neighbourhood, one of which, called " Bon-y-groes," 
i.e.y " base of the cross," is near the parish church. Mr. 
Jones, Ty'nypant Farm, Llanwrtyd, who is well versed 
in local antiquities, is of opinion that a town existed 
there in ancient times. He showed me at his house an 
incised cross-stone, rather similar to the one found at 
Ystafell-fach. He also informed me that two or three 
similar stones might be seen in the vicinity. Whether 
this stone was erected to the memory of a member 
of the Ancient British Church, or served some other 



purpose, 18 a problem which will receive a proper 
solution at the hands of the learned readers of this 

The photograph here given of this stone was kindly 
taken by Mr. Hugh Mortimer, of Messrs. Mortimer 
and Sons, photographers, Llanwrtyd. They have a 
number of mounted photographs of it for disposal, price 
one shilling each. 

The greatest length of the stone is 3 ft. 3^ ins., and 
its greatest breadth is 1 1 f ins. 

It was removed on 2 1st January to the parish church 
of St. David. 





My friend, Mr. C. F. Egerton Allen, has kindly pointed 
to me a slip of the pen in my former Paper, which 
I hasten to correct. It was, of course, not John 
Laugharne, of St. Bride's, but his successor, William 
Barlow, whose death called forth Sir John Philipps's 
characteristic letter to the Council, offering to re- 
present Haverfordwest in the second Parliament of 
George I. 

My references to Robert Holland, Rector of Prender- 
gast in 1591, and of Walwyn's Castle in 1607, have 
led to an interesting correspondence with his descen- 
dant, Thomas Erskine Holland, K.C., Chichele Professor 
of International Law at Oxford. Professor Holland is 
unable to accept the statement that his ancestor was at 
one time Vicar of St. Mary's, Haverfordwest No 
direct evidence that he held the living has come to 
light, and there is a strong presumption that if he had 
actually done so, there would have been some indication 
of the fact in the family papers in the possession of the 
Professor. But if he never was the incumbent of St. 
Mary's, his connection with the parish has to be 
accounted for. His name appears at least twice in the 
fragments of the Registers, bracketed with that of 
*' Mr. Eynon." One of these instances I have given on 
p. 125 of the Arch. Camh. for April, 1902; the other 
will be found on p. 121, where the extract given should 
be read " of Mr. Holland and Mr. Eynon," as I have at 


last been able to decipher ** Ey/' Now "John Eynon, 
Clerk," died in September, 1612. It was natural to 
regard hira as Robert Holland s successor. This view 
is, however, scarcely borne out by the evidence. 

Possibly an examination of the Diocesan Registry 
archives at Carmarthen would throw some light on 
what must be left for the present an open question. 

The problem is further complicated by the way in 
which Robert Holland's name first appears in the parish 

In the Churchwarden's account for 1588, the receipts 
are given as follows : — 

Tbo hole booke w'ch was then rated for the preestes 

wages and the Preacher amounted unto . xziij2&. iij«. 

Whereof I have receaved as foUoweth : 

Imprimis, receaved for the preestes wages and the 

Preacher the sum of . . . xviijZ6. 8*. 8d. 

Item, more 1 re'd for burialls and lead the some 

of . . . . . jfl». iijc?. 

Item, more I receaved for offring the some of . xxxiiij«. 

It., more I re' of M'r W'j Walter, merchante, 

the some of . . . . x^. 

The hole some of my chardge what I have receaved 

amonnteth unto .... xxjlb. xujs. jV. 

Then come, "as disbursements": — 

Imprimis, paid unto Mr. Holland, by M'r T. 

Walter .... xxxij*. iijc?. 

Item, more p'd unto M'r Parrie at the first 

entringe .... xxxvj^. 

Item, more paid unto Parrie the 22 of myd- 

som' ..... iij76. vJ5.viij(i. 
Item, more paid unto Middleton for Michaelmas 

quarter . . . . iiij/6.vj». viijf?. 

Item, more paid unto the clerke for his hole yeares 

wages .... i\jlh. vjs. viijrf. 

Item, more paid unto M'r Kinner . . ij76. xs. 

The account is unusually lengthy, and with some 
other churchwarden's accounts of the last quarter of 


the sixteenth century will, I hope, be dealt with in 
another article. 

If it were not for the express mention of the "preeste, 
one would take it for granted that the payments to 
Messrs. Holland, Parrie, and Middleton were made to 
them as " Preachers" for the time being — ^and this 
seems to me the more probable explanation. But what 
about the " preest" ? Was the living vacant for the 
whole year ? or was the Vicar under suspension ? Un- 
fortunately, the Churchwarden's accounts for 1587, 
1589, and 1590, are missing. 

It will be remembered that the first entry in the 
" Holland" Register was the burial of " Thomas Lewes, 
Clark." The position of this entry at the beginning of a 
new book suggested the double inference that it 
marked the beginning of a new incumbency, and that 
the new incumbent was Robert Holland. The former 
inference was, in all probability, correct ; the latter 
was probably incorrect. On this point the Church- 
warden's account for 1588 throws no light, but it 
shows that Holland was in Haverfordwest three years 
before he obtained the Rectory of Prendergast, on the 
opposite bank of the Cleddau. 

At one time he lived in Dew Street. The house is not 
known, but it could not have been many yards from 
that in which I am now writing. This fact, known 
from some old deeds, has been confirmed by the dis- 
covery of the account of the " Rate to pay the preestes 
and clarkes wages" in 1591. Robert Hollands name 
appears amongst the Dew Street occupiers, but with 
no sum entered against it. This exemption is easily 
understood if he was himself the " preeste ;" or if, 
as is much more probable, he simply took part of 
the duty in which he was a resident. Perhaps John 
Eynon was himself a non-resident pluralist. At any 
rate, his name has not been found in any rate-book 
of the period as an occupier. 

Since the appearance of my first article on the 
Registers, I have succeeded in deciphering some dates 


which had sorely puzzled me. I have thus ascertained 
that the " Holland Register" and the '* Ormond Regis- 
ter" were originally parts of one book. The last entry 
in the former is a baptism on April 20th, 1627 ; and 
the first entry in the latter is a baptism on May 7th of 
the same year. 

I have also been able to add another sheet to those 
previously examined. There are thus sixteen in all. 

The sixteen sheets range over fifty-eight years — 
1590 to 1648 :— 

1690, October— 1599, September. 
1612, September— 1615, July 22nd. 


1627, March— 1646, November 12tb. 
1647, May 20th— 1648, August 20th. 

1614, January (O.S.)— 1643, December. 

There is an hiatus from December, 1621, to Septem- 
ber, 1624. The two missing pages correspond to the 
liiatiLS in the Burials Register from May, 1593, to 
January, 1595 (O.S.). 

The older portions, dating from Queen Elizabeth's 
reign, have been dealt with already. The Burials 
Registers for the reigns of James I and Cliarles I have 
been lost, except for one period of two years and ten 
months — September, 1612, to July, 1615. 

The first entry is : — 

"John Eynon, Clerk, was buried Septem." 

Above this entry a few letters are faintly trace- 
able : — 

" es Heverfordwest 
mond olerok 


It may safely be assumed that this marks the com- 


mencement of the incumbency of William Ormond, the 
successor of John Eynon. William Ormond died in 
1666. If he was eighty at the time of his death, he 
would have been twenty-seven when he became Vicar 
of St. Mary's. His advanced years explain his not 
having been reinstated at the Restoration in the living 
from which he had been ejected fifteen years before, 
and which appears to have become vacant in 1660 by 
the retirement of Adam Hawkin, the Puritan incum- 
bent. At any rate, there was an Episcopalian clergy- 
man in the living long before the great ejectment — the 
Black Bartholomew — of 1662, when Hawkin had to 
quit St. Ishmaels. This living, on the northern shore 
of Milford Haven, some ten miles from Haverfordwest, 
he had held together with St. Mary's. Nominally, 
Hawkin was a " bloated pluralist" — nominally only — 
for though he was appointed in 1657 to the charge, not 
only of St. Mary's, but of the other two town parishes 
and of Prendergast as well, his income was a very un- 
certain quantity. He was supposed to receive £100 
a-year from his Haverfordwest parishes ; but it was 
principally charged on the revenues of the Cathedral, 
the tithes of some parishes being allotted for the 
purpose. Now, the North Pembrokeshire farmers 
were quite as unwilling to pay tithes in the seven- 
teenth century as they were in the last quarter of the 
nineteenth century ; and poor Hawkin, with his four 
town parishes, and St. Ishmael's to boot, was often in 
sad straits for cash. His correspondence — begging 
letters included — may enliven the sober pages of the 
Arch. Camb, at some future time. If Adam Hawkin 
held St. Ishmaers with St. Mary's, William Ormond 
had similarly held Walton West It must be confessed 
that the combination is not quite so outrageous in the 
case of the Episcopalian; for Walton West— not six 
and a-half miles away — could be served with much less 
difl&culty. When I was a boy, the Rector of Walton 
West, an eccentric old man named Brown, lived in 
Haverfordwest, at the foot of Prendergast Hill, and 


kept a school, which turned out some very respectable 
scholars. When the troublous days of the Puritan rule 
were over, this quiet country parish would oflFer the old 
man a calm retreat, while his former parishioners in 
the town were handed over to the care of a younger 

I am not quite sure that William Ormond had not 
other cures besides St. Mary's and Walton West. We 
shall see that entries from other parishes found their 
way occasionally into the registers of the town parish ; 
while the connection with Walton West was only 
brought to light by the accidental discovery of an 
entry in a book in the Diocesan Registry. 

He could not have boen exactly a model parish 
priest ; for the parishioners (acting through the cor- 
poration) sometimes, if not regularly, engaged another 
clergyman to do the preaching. 

One of these '' lecturers" — as they were usually called 
— was Stephen Goflfe, the father of the three brothers 
of that name, who played more or less important rdles 
in the ecclesijistical and political turmoils of the Civil 
Wars and the Protectorate. Another — a man of a 
different ilk — appears as the Preacher in St. Mary's 
during the first Civil War. He was paid £7 10^. 
a quarter. He is called " Dean Warren f he signed 
his receipts "Edw'd Warren." Now, who can tell 
where this Dean came from ? There was no Dean at 
St. David's then, nor for two hundred years after. 
Was he an Irish refugee ? He was certainly a Eoyalist. 
But it is time to return to our Registers. 

These four pages contain the burials for two years 
and nearly eleven months — September Ist, 1612, to 
July 22nd, 1615. The total number is 164, an average 
of about 55 per annum. The monthly summary is as 
follows. The years are O.S. throughout : — 

September — February ... ... 10 

March ... ... ... ... 4 

— 14 






March ... 




April ... 
May ... 





July ... 












March ... 






. 37 


The contrast becomes even more striking when the 
figures for the earlier period are anal3rsed. 

On the entries from 1590-2, no stress can be kid, 
for *' the last two yeares in the ould record are vary 
unperfecte." There is, however, no reason to distrust 
the record from January 1595, to September 1599. 
For these three years and seven months we have 114 
burials — an average of 30.4 per annum. This, however, 
includes the heavy death-rate from September 1596, 
to March, 1597, when there were 82 burials in about 
eighteen months : 24 of them in two months. September 
5th to November 4th, 1597. In the previous eight 
months, January 1595, to August 1596, there were 
19 burials : six of them being in the first three weeks. 
In the last eighteen months of the period, April 1598, 
to September 1599, there were only 13. Thus there 
were 32 burials in twenty-six months, or, excluding 
three weeks of January, 1595, 26 in twenty -four 

It will be remembered that the missing leaf— of two 
pages — covered the two years and eight months : May 
1593, to January 1596 ; which, with the average num- 
ber of entries to a page — twenty-four — would give an 
average of 18 burials a year. 

The fewness of the burials in 1598 and 1599 is most 


remarkable. One expects an epidemic, in a time of 
extreme sickness and heavy mortality, to be followed 
by a low death-rate for the next year, or year and a- 
half ; but even this would not account adequately for 
the fact that there were only eight burials in 1598, 
and only five in the first six months of 1599. 

Was there any other burial-ground used by the 
parishioners ? 

There is a well-attested tradition that, for some 
generations after the suppression of the monasteries, 
the burial-ground attached to the Dominican house in 
Bridge Street was used as a town cemetery. This 
ground was in St. Martin's parish, and burials there 
would not be entered in the Register of St. Mary's. 
Thus, if people from St. Mary's Parish were occasionally 
buried there, it would help to explain the extra- 
ordinarily low death - rate indicated by the Burial 
Registers for the last decade of the sixteenth century. 
Doubtless, there were not a few still living who 
cherished a secret reverence for the faith of their 
fathers, and of whom some would desire that their 
dust should rest beneath the walls of the desecrated 
shrine. It is deeply to be regretted that all traces 
of the ecclesiastical buildings have been ruthlessly 
swept away. The monuments and eflSgies of the dead 
were wantonly destroyed, and the very graves were 
plundered. Within the memory of some who are not yet 
old, there were lead coffins broken up and sold. Ground 
was never so valuable in Haverfordwest that there 
could have been any urgent necessity for the profana- 
tion of the old "God's Acre" that lay between the 
town wall and the banks of the Cleddau. 

I give this conjecture for what it may be worth. 
For my own part, I regard it as offering the most 
probable explanation of the fewness of the burials 
registered in 1598, and also of the very low death-rate 
which the registers indicate for the other years, when 
neither plague nor famine swelled the tables of mor- 

306 Tfifi OLDICST PAtttSH tlRGISTBltS 

Some explanation is certainly needed, for we have 
other means of testing the accuracy and completeness 
of the record, and of estimating the probable death-rate 
of the Parish. 

The Baptismal Register is practically complete from 
January, 1614, to December, 1621 ; and from Septem- 
ber, 1624, to December, 1643. In the years 1630- 
1634, inclusive, though none of the leaves are missing, 
there is so much that is wholly or partially illegible, 
that no reliable figures can be given. In 1615 and 
1616, the number of baptisms was 37 and 41. For 
the four years 1617-1620, the average was 31.5; for 
the five years 1625-1629, it was 33.2. For the eight 
years 1635-1642, it was 35.1 — the highest number 
being 42 and the lowest 28. 

The steady increase in the annual average of chris- 
tenings was, no doubt, due to a corresponding increase 
in the population of the Parish. A document of the 
year 1574, recently unearthed by Dr. Henry Owen, 
throws a little light on this. This document, the 
report of a Royal Commission on the Lordship of 
Heverford, out of which the borough was carved, states 
that originally the town lay more to the north of the 
castle than it did in Queen Elizabeth's time. This 
statement becomes more significant when we remember 
that, in 1405, old Haverford was burned by the French 
allies of Owen Glendower. The only building within 
the walls which we know to havo escaped this destruc- 
tion, and to have survived to our own day, is the 
Church of St. Mary. It is not improbable, but by 
no means certain, that St. Martin's was equally for- 
tunate. Standing in the centre of the doomed Castle- 
town, its peril would be greater. St Thomas's, as 
well as the Dominican House by the river-side, layout- 
side the walls. The stately pile of the Augustinian 
Canons was still farther removed from the perils of the 
siege. . 

The town was not rebuilt exactly ou its old site, but 
more to the south and south-west. In the sixteenth 

IN t^wMBftOKfiSHmR. 307 

century, the centre of its civic life was the Church of 
St. Mary. Close under the shelter of the church stood 
the Guildhall. The Council Chamber stood above the 
north porch. The other Municipal buildings were in 
the inomediate vicinity. Around the churchyard walls 
and in the burial-ground itself were held the Saturday 
market, the largest and most important of the then 
principal markets of the county. The expansion of an 
English provincial town in the sixteenth century was a 
slow process, though the capital was growing at a rate 
which already awakened the anxiety of the Govern- 
ment, and which led to enactments for the arrest of its 
growth that proved to be worse than futile. Such 
expansion as Haverfordwest was capable of achieving 
would be for the most part in St. Mary's parish. The 
position of Bridge Street would secure to it a good share 
of any increase of the trade of the town ; but the arrested 
development of the other parts of St. Martin's parish is 
curiously attested by what we know of City Road and 
Barn Street. City Road was known in old time as 
Cokey Street, being the road to Cokey Grange, the old 
mansion which figures in thirteenth-century lawsuits, 
and which is now represented by the substantial farm- 
house of Cuckoo Grove. It figures in the municipal 
papers of the seventeenth century. Here, in 1652, 
was the " house of recouerie", or convalescent home for 
those plague patients whose strength of constitution, 
aided by the kind nursing of the " strange woman," had 
enabled them to survive the attacks of this terrible 
pestilence, in spite of the appalling nostrums which 
were prescribea for them by ** Mr. Benjamin Price, 
Apothecary." It was always one of the principal 
thoroughfares for the rural traflfic upon which then, as 
now, the prosperity, and even the existence of the town 
depended, for through it must have passed the greater 

?art of the trade of St. David's and Western Dewisland. 
'et it scarcely extended beyond the present site of 
Rock Cottage, above the Crescent, unless the few cottages 
on the bank immediately beyond Rock Cottage may 



be regarded as representing the furthest limit of the 
old street.^ The Terrace and the rows of cottages that 
make it one of the most respectable artisan quarters in 
the town, were all built in the nineteenth century. 

Barn Street, too, was one of the old streets. Its 
name is so old that no reliable tradition of its meaning 
has been preserved. Yet, above the localities now 
known as Spring Grardens and Kensington Gardens, 
there were at the end of the eighteenth century only a 
few cottages. Kensington Terrace, Perrott s Terrace, 
and Lloyd's Terrace, were all built within my own 
recollection. The row of smaller houses adjoining 
Kensington Terrace can scarcely be older than the 
beginning of the last century. 

That half of the population of the town in the time 
of James I lived in St. Martin s parish, may be regarded 
as certain ; but the bulk of them were very poor. For 
this we have conclusive evidence in the accounts of the 
collectors for the Army Assessments under the Long 
Parliament. One paper will be sufficient to quote. It 
is the account for the autumn quarter of 1647. The 
total amount was £30 7^. 6cZ. The following is the 
summary : — 

£ 8. d. £ s, d. 
High Street Ward ... ... 5 15 10 

Market Street 

St. Maryes Ward ... 


Bridge Street Ward 
Ship Streetward ... 
St. Marty n's Ward... 

St Thomas Ward ... 
Dew Street Ward ... 

4 1 
2 U 
1 19 

i 16 


1 7 


3 4 



2 8 


1 12 

1 7 


U 10 10 

10 8 4 

5 8 4 

^ In a field jnst behind those cottages, tradition locates the burial- 
ground of the victims of the Plague. The " pest-house" was some- 
where in North Gate. No doubt, like the '* House of Reooverie," it 
was outside the town wall. 


The collectors' districts not being id«ntical with 
the parishes, the £4 7s. 6d. under the head of 
" Landholders'' can only approximately be divided be- 
tween them ; but more than half is certainly charged 
on St. Mary's. The figures show that, apart from 
the Landholders' payments, St. Mary's Parish paid 
£15 105. 6d.; St. Martin's, £8 Os. 8ct. ; St. Thomas's, 
£2 8s. lOd, 

The thinness of the population of St. Thomas in the 
last quarter of the sixteenth century, and the com- 
parative poverty of the parish at that time, is shown 
by a fragment of paper which came into my hands 
some years ago : apparently the only parochial paper of 
that century which had escaped destruction. 

In 1578, the rate for the relief of the poor for St. 
Thomas's Parish amounted to £2 17^. id., of which 
£1 2s. Sd. was contributed by fifteen persons in 
quarterly payments, and £1 14s. 8d. by five persons in 
weekly payments. The recipients of the relief were 
three in number, each of whom received id. per week. 
The names of the three are worth preserving : Thomas 
Cathlott, Elnor Batho, and Irysh Ellen. 

Poor Ellen may well have been a survivor of the 
immigration from the Sister Isle which was bitterly 
complained of in the time of Henry VIII. Batho is 
an old Pembrokeshire name, which had not become 
extinct in the last quarter of the eighteenth century, 
for the Bathas of Deem's Hill, by Steynton, were 
among the early Pembrokeshire followers of John 
Wesley. Possibly " Elnor" was a relation of John 
Batho, the last Prior of the Augustinian Canons of 
Haverford, who cut such a sorry figure in the Star- 
Chainber trial about the Priory lands in 1560. Cath- 
lott is to me the most interesting name of all. It is 
the old form of Cartlett ; and this, as far as my obser- 
vation goes, is its only appearance in the Haverfordwest 

It is high time to return to the study of our Regis- 
ters ; but, I hope that no apology will be needed for 

•th beb., vol. m. 23 


this lengthy, yet I venture to think, not uninteresting, 

In King James's day, the Baptismal Register of an 
urban parish like St. Mary's would be practically equi- 
valent to a Register of Births. One consideration, 
however, must not be overlooked. As St Mary's 
Parish was the wealthiest and most important of the 
three town parishes, though not the most populous, so 
its church was the fashionable church of the town — it 
was, in fact, the town churchy and the Baptismal 
Registers would frequently include names of children, 
bom in other parishes, but brought to St. Mary's to be 
christened : because their parents had been christened 
there, or because their relatives attended service at St 
Mary's, or because it was fashionable to have one's 
children christened there. Some deduction must there- 
fore be made from the numbers on the Baptisnaal 
Register if we would ascertain the birth-average of the 
parish. In 1615 and 1616 there were more christen- 
ings than usual — 37 and 39 ; and there had been 
12 in the last eleven weeks of 1614. There were 
probably some local circumstances to account for this, 
rossibly the zeal of Stephen Goffe, the newly-appointed 
** Preacher," helped the young Vicar to ferret out 
parents who haa been negligent of that which both 
ruritan and Anglican regarded as a sacred duty : the 
presentation of their children for the initiatory rite of 
the Christian fellowship. 

Making due allowance for the christening of the 
children of non-parishioners in St. Mary's, the 126 
Baptisms registered for the four years, 1617-1620, will 
indicate an annual average of rather fewer than 30 
births. This would represent a population in the 
parish of between eight and nine hundred — about one- 
third of the population of the borough —a result which 
agrees with the conclusion arrived at in my former 
paper. The proportion of births to deaths in London 
in 1583, a year comparatively free from plague, was 29 
to 23. This proportion holds good even if we hesitate 


to accept Dr. Creighton's low estimate of the death- 
rate of that year, which he puts at 23 per 1000. In 
the absence of any data to the contrary, we should not 
be prepared to find the death-rate of the overcrowded 
capital exceeded by Haverfordwest — a rural town, with 
every advantage in its facilities for natural drainage, 
and with a water supply which was fully adequate to 
the requirements of the population. If we assume an 
annual birth-average of 30, and an annual death-average 
of 25, we shall certainly not be putting the latter 
figure too low. It would mean a death-rate of 30 per 
1000. In 1613 there were 96 deaths — more than one- 
tenth of the inhabitants of the parish. There is no 
conceivable local reason that the mortality should have 
been heavier in St. Mary's than among the poorer, 
and at least equally crowded, population of St. Martin's. 
Of these 96 burials, 56 took place in four months — 
September to December. 

The proportion of burials to christenings — to the 
annual average of christenings — was much greater than 
that in London in the plague year, 1636. In London, 
in that year, the proportion was 25 burials to 10 chris- 
tenings. In Haverfordwest it was at least three to one. 
Dr. Creighton calls the London Plague of 1636 '' one of 
the second degree. '* In 1625 the mortality from plague 
had been more than three times as great ; and the pro- 
portion of burials to christenings nearly eight to one. 
But no other year between 1625 and 1665 witnessed a 
mortality in London approaching that of 1636. 

The mortality in Haverfordwest in 1613 thus ex- 
ceeded the death-rate of a plague year " of the second 
degree" in the capital. 

But was the plague in Haverfordwest in 1613 ? No 
evidence to that effect has yet been discovered. There 
was "a great plague at Carmarthen*' in 1604, and 
again in 1606. In both years the Great Sessions had 
been held at Golden Grove. The plague was there 
again in 1611, when an ex-Mayor, Evan Long, — Mayor 
in 1606 — was among the victims; but Spurrells ^iV 



tory contains no further reference to the plague before 
the terrible year 1651. Unfortunately, the Register 
of Burials for our parish for the years 1601-1611 has 

In 1613 the Mayor of Carmarthen, Edward Atkins, 
died within a fortnight of his election ; but neither in 
the list of mayors, nor on the inscription on his tomb- 
atone in St. Peter's, is there any reference to the plague. 

The internal evidence of the Register is not decisive. 
The heavy mortality in the autumn had its parallel in 
the London Plague of 1636 ; and other instances mi^ht 
be quoted from the Notes on the Plague in Lancashire, 
which we owe to the indefatigable industry of Mr. 
W. E. Axten. There was not, however, the wholesale 
sweeping away of families, which was a usual feature of 
the plague mortality, and which is clearly traceable in 
the records of the Haverfordwest plague of 1652. 

Prices of wheat and other grain ruled high in 1612 
and 1613, but they were not so high as to suggest 
anything like the veritable famine of 1596. 

Apart from the heavy death-rate which it reveals, 
and of which as yet I have not been able to discover 
any explanation, this fragment of Burials Register con- 
tains comparatively little of interest The nomen- 
clature calls for no special remark. The only ** Ap" is 
Jenkin ap Jevan, who died in November, 1613, when 
the sickness was at its height. " Housewife'' occurs as 
a surname, " Woogan" turns up more than once, and 
Margaret Barlow was buried August 20th, 1613 ; but 
there is nothing decipherable to connect the wearers of 
these names with the influential families of Wiston and 
Slebech. The exceptional mortality, whatever its 
cause, had its victims among the well-to-do, for there 
were several interments in the church and some in the 
" Chauncell," both of which, and especially the latter, 
were reserved for the burial of members of the " Upper 
Ten/' Jenken Vawer was buried in the church on 
January 29th, 1614. He was the brother of the 
William Vawer, of Bristol, who founded the **Blackcoat 


Charity," out of which twelve or thirteen ** decayed 
burgesses'' of Haverfordwest receive an allowance of 5^. 
per week. I had almost forgotten the first appearance 
of one surname, which is supposed to have been a 
variant of the old Pembrokeshire name of Carew = 
Caerau. On November 8th, 1614, Jane Powell and 
Marie Carrow '' were buried in one grave/' Such 
double interments in the same narrow bed are not 
infrequent in these pages. George Carrow was buried 
"Decembris prime/ One lengthy entry, which has 
become tantalisingly incomplete, records the burial in 
the church on December 18th, 1613, of somebody from 
Bristol, and the first letter of the Christian name was 
** J "; the rest of the name is illegible. But the visitor 
from Bristol must have been a person of some impor- 
tance, to have been buried in the chancel. 

Among the burials in the gloomy autumn of 1613 
were " a little beggar boy of the Almshouse," and, 
again, " a little boy out of the Almshouse/' The pastor 
of the parish evidently did not take the trouble to 
find out the names of these little waifs. Perchance 
the " Chief Shepherd" gave them a more cordial wel- 

" Henry Smith, Freemason," was buried " July 16th, 

A hundred years later, or even fifty years later, there 
would be nothing very remarkable in such an entry. 
Its occurrence in the time when James I was king is 
somewhat startling. 

One only remains to be noted : 

*' William, G win of Moilgrove, whose corpse was seized for debt 
dae to Edmond Packer for his diett daringe the time of his 
im prison men t — he was buried in the north [aisjle before Mistresse 
Scourefejlde's seat on fryday, Januarij 14, 1613." 

Under the third window of the north aisle, nearly 
opposite the pulpit, a stone in the wall bears the 
following inscription : — 


'' Here lieih under this place 

the body of James Scoarfield gent, 

who died ye 2 day of March 1614. 

Also Margaret his wife who 

died the 28 day of September 


James Scourfield was buried on March 5th, 1614. 
The day and the year of his wife's death are difficult to 

Not far from this stone the inpecunious gentleman 
from Moilgrove found his last lodgings. Presumably, 
he was a kinsman either of Mistress Scourfield or of 
her husband. One is tempted to identify him with the 
William Gwynne who, twenty-five or thirty years 
before had been the principal defendant in the law- 
suits brought before the Privy Council by George Owen 
against the men who, to gratify the spite of their 
master, Sir John Perrott, or their own, had on his 
showing treated him with cruel indignity.^ 

On January 9th, 1614, eight weeks before the funeral 
of Mr. Scourfield, Edmond Packer was buried in the 
same church. 

This fragment of the Burial Register, the latest 
exta,nt,* ends with the burial of " Thomas Tanner, an 
apprentice to Arthur Harris, smyth, July 22nd, 1615.'' 

The Churchwardens' account for the year enables us 
to add a few names to the list. It contains an unusual 

** A note of the bnrialls in this year 1615." 

Imprimis, John Phillipes daughter was bnried in 

the bell house on Whitsondaie . . iij«. iiiji. 

Arthur Harris fether was bnried in the bell honse 

the 8 of Julie, 1615 . . . iij«. iiij<^ 

The first of these was " Johan Phillips, May 28," 
but old Harris does not appear in the Register unless 
there is an error somewhere in the date, and he is the 
" Richard Harries, Janij 30." 

^ See Owen's Pembrokeskirey voL ii. 
^ See note at the end of the article. 


Four other items follow. 

P'd 22». liijU p'd. The 22 of november, 1615, MV 

Came was buried in the channcell and the bell y's xxs, y8. 
Rec* The 24 of November John David's wieffe was 

buried in the bell house . . . iijf. Ad. 

Beo' The 2 December Catterin Lloyd's child was 

buried in the Ohurch path ... vjs. 

The 22'M'ch 1615, Matthew Sjnnet was buried 
in the Channcell, the bells vs. xxs. . zzv«. 

Becejyed of Mr. Adams for the bells . ys. 

' The explanation of these entries is furnished by the 
" Order of Burialls" and the " Order of the Bells," 
which appear at the end of some of the Churchwardens' 
accounts. The copies which follow are taken from the 
Churchwardens' account for 1633 — the earliest I have 
been able to find, but they are evidently transcripts 
of much older documents. 

Order of Burialls. 

For as much as in the Church of St. Maries . of the towne 
and County of Haverfordwest and in the chauncell of the same 
much disorder hath bin heretofore suflfered and used . touch- 
ing the burialls in allowinge soe many of the meener sorte . as 
well strangers . as townes men and women . to be buried in the 
sayd church an chauncell soe as by the meaues thereof there 
is little or . no . Eoome left for the buriall of those who are 
of the auncient sorte of people and such as have borne the 
chieffe places of office within this towne as other gent' of 
quallitie . and worth that may happen to dy within the same 
for redresse whereof wee the maior Justices of peace Alder- 
men and SherifTe of the sayd towne and county and the church- 
wardens and others of the parish of St. Maries whose names are 
subscribed beinge now . assembled & mett to gether for Con- 
ference there aboute and of other conceminge the repayre of the 
steeple and spire and other decaies of the sayd Church doe fully 
agree and order from henceforth no manner of person or per- 
sons whatsoever either stranger or freeman women or children 
shal be admitted to be buried within any p'te of the body of 
the sayd Church Chauncell or Isles thereof . savinge such as 
have beene Aldermen of this towne or ther wives and for everie 
such as shall be there biuried ther shall be payd unto the 
Churchwarden for the time beinge before the grave be opened 


the some of twenty shilliugs towards the rcpayer of the sayd 
Church & chancell & other good uses of the sayd Church and 
likewise between that there shall be none buried heereafter in 
the north side of the Church as far as the Chancell extendeth 
against but such as have beene on of the Comen Councell of 
the Towne or ther wives and for every such as shal be ther 
buried to be payd as aforesayd the some of thirteene shillings 
iiijd. and there shal be none buried within the body of the 
sayd Church above Church doors of either side of the sayd 
Church but such as ther shal be payd for them the some of six 
shilling viijrf. And such as shal be buried beneath the Churdi 
doores to pay for everysuch buriall the some of three shillings 
iiijd. And for every on that shal be buried in either of the 
Church porches of the sayd Church the some of two shillings 
and a faire stone to be layed on evrie of these buriaUs 
and that ther shall be a due and fitt difference held of the 
persons so allowed to be buried in these places that it may be 
done accordinge to their Antiquity and Qualitie . And allso 
it is agreed that if ther happen any stranger of note and 
worth to die within ther towne who desireth to be buried in 
any of the places aflforesayd that yet notwithstandinge ther 
shalbe noe such buried before the maior and two or more of the 
cheefest of the brethren shall assent there unto & to paye doble 
the Eate for his so admittance to be buried within the sayd 
Chauncell lies or . bodie of the sayd Church before the grave be 
opened and to be at the charge of a fayre stone to be layed uppon 
him accordinge to this order. 

Order of the Bells. 

For as much as upon consideracion had by the mayor and 
Comon Counsell of this towne and County of the state of the 
bells of the p'rish of St. Maries within this towne & County 
which are greatly decayed and of the ill usage . of the sayd belb 
in ringeinge of them at the death of every one whereby no 
benefit comes to the parish. Therefore it is at this time by the 
sayd Mayor and comon counsell Churchwardens and others the 
parishioners of the sayd p'rishe of St Maries ordered and decreed 
that if any p'rson shall desire to have all the bells Rung after 
the death of any person beinge a burgesse of this towne a 
burgesse wiffe or a burgesse childe that then they shall paye for 
the same Yiijs. and after the death of any Foreiner or stranger 
xvj«. And allsoe if any p'rson shall desire to have but on bell 
ringed after the death of any such p'sons beinge burgesses . 
theire wives and children that they shall pay. for every, day 


that they shall have the sayd bell ringed ij«. vid. and after 
the death of any forenier or stranger vs. and that the church- 
wardens of the sayd p'rishe for the time beinge doe take order 
for the payment of those somes by them that shall soe desire it 
before such time that any bell be ringed the third bell for the 
burriall only excepted and all such somes the sayd Church- 
wardens shall soe receive aforesayd to be by them accompted 
for to the p'rish in theire accompt of Church wardenshipp at 
th'end of theire yeare. 

Mr. Synnet had been Mayor in 1615, and was thus 
ex-Mayor when he died in March 1615 (O. S.). The 
account contains another entry relating to the funeral. 

Paid George Carrow when Mr. Synnet was buried for 
mending the great olapp of the great bell by the 
appointment of the mayor . . . ijtf. 


More paid for gloves to the ringers . iij«. 

Opposite to the Order of Burial in the 1633 account 
IS the following : — 

The some of zzij^ viijtf. viijcf. is Rated on the inhabitants of 
St. Maries which is to be disbursed as foUoweth 

For the minister for bis yeeres wages which 

is to be paid quarterly . ziij^. vj«. viijcf. 

To the Clarke for his yeeres wages which is 

to be paid quarterly . v/6. 

Moore to the said Clarke for keeping the clocke 

for waahinge the surplesses & table clotbes 

& oyle for the clocke & broomes for the 

Church is to be paid quarterly . . ilb. 

Also it is agreed that the churchwarden shall 

from tyme to tyme see the leads cleaned and 

to get one to oleene them to whom he is to 

paye six pennies to the pece x8, 

Som'a xxlb. xyjb. viijdL 
Ethelred Wogan 
John Pryn, Churchwardou. William Bowen. 

John Gibbon William Baetmau. 

William Williams W. Morgan. 

Morgan Walter Rice Yaughan. 

Of the Signatories to this account, Ethelred Wogan 
had been Mayor in 1629, and was again in 1639. 


William Williams was then Mayor, and filled the same 
office in 1641 and in 1649. William Bo wen had been 
Mayor in 1627, and was probably William Williams's 
successor after his third mayoralty. William Bateman 
had also been Mayor twice, in 1627 and 1631. Rice 
Vanghan reached the chair in 1645, and John Pryn 
in 1648. 

William Bowen is one of the few worthies of that 
day whose sepulchral monuments have escaped the 
vandalism of eighteenth-century churchwardens and 
nineteenth-century church restorers. 

He has, in fact, two monuments. The older contains 
the names, eta, of himself and wife and his son Thomas, 
also an Alderman, and his wife. The second monu- 
mental stone, erected by his grandson, William Bowen, 
in memory of his wife, also records the names of his 
grandfather and father, and their wives. William 
Bowen, senior, died in 1656, at the age of 70. BUs 
grandson, born in 1657, died in 1731. All three were 
Aldermen of Haverfordwest. 

N.B. — Since this article was sent to the press 
another fragment of four pages has been discovered. 
It contains marriii^es of 1595 and 1596, and burials of 
1618 and 1619. It is very much torn. 

{To be ecntinued,) 




{A Leeturt ddivered at Caldey Priory, December 18«A, 1901.) 

475.— Birth of St. Dubric. 

491.— Birth of King Arthur. 

517. — St. Dubric crowns King 

525. — Birth of St. Samson and St. 

530. — St. Samson goea to Llautwit. 
550. — St. Samson goes to Caldey 


552.— St. Samson leaves Caldey 

555. — St. Samson crosses to Brit- 

1^57.^ — St. Samson at the Council 
of Paris. 

560.— Death of St. Dubric. 

580.— Death of St. Teilo. 

598.— Death of St. Samson. 

Kanged round the centre of the great reading-rooni in 
Russell Square is what is perhaps the largest book in 
the world. At all events the British Museum has no 
other which can rival it. It is not yet complete, but 
it consists already of some seventy folio volumes, each 
containing six or seven hundred closely-printed pages. 
It is the Acta Sanctorum^ the Lives of the Saints, the 
tales, that is, which once upon a time were told by many 
a Calefactory fire, as 

** Each in tarn essayed to paint 
The rival merits of their saint," 

or which were read in the Refectory, what time the 
silent monks consumed their frugal meal. A treasure 
indeed, if it were but authentic history ! We find, 
however, that in almost every case some centuries 
elapsed between the death of the saint and the com- 
piling of the legends of his life ; so that although the 
Acta show us what wjis thought about these holy men 
in later days, and therefore have in any case their 
value, yet they in general show us little more. There 

^ This date only is trustworthy, 
jectnral, and, at best, approximate. 

The others are merely con- 


18 however for the most part an historical substratum, 
much as it may have been idealised, and there are just 
a few of the Lives, some five or six, perhaps, although, 
alas ! no more, which are in tJie main trustworUiy 

And such a one is the life of St. Samson, Prior of 
Caldey, Abbot of Llantwit, and in later life Arch- 
bishop of Dol. It is true that it was not compiled, as 
we now have it, for many years after the Archbishop's 
death ; it however follows very closely a much older 
life, written by one Enoch, whose uncle was a kinsman 
of the saint, and who had conversed with Anne, 
St. Samson's mother. And of this life there are happily 
three texts, the French, the Breton, and the English, 
as they have been called, which are represented by the 
Acta, by a life which has been edited by one Dom 
Plaine in the Analecta Bollandiana, and by the Liber 
Landavensis ; and all alike are founded upon Enoch's 
Life, and follow it very closely, so that it is possible to 
reconstruct the original account with very considerable 

In dealing, therefore, with St. Samson's life we are on 
historic ground. There may, indeed, be miracles re- 
corded which are only due to the devout imagination 
of the writer ; but they are few, and they are not 
grotesque, as when we read elsewhere of some decapi- 
tated Cornish saint, who carries his own head under 
his arm, or crosses from Armorica upon a paving-stone. 
They are rather, when they do occur, devout imaginings 
of pious souls, to whom the eternal world seemed very 
near, and angel ministry a fact of everyday occurrence. 

The life of St. Samson will divide itself most readily 
into two parts, the first extending from his birth, 
about the year 525, to the year 555, when at the age 
of thirty he crossed to Brittany, the second covering the 
remainaer of his life. It is with the first part only I 
propose to deal ; the years, that is,which Samson spent 
at Llantwit and on Caldey Island, and in the neigh- 
bouring districts of South Wales. 


Not far from Cowbridge, in that fertile tract of land 
which separates the uplands of Glamorgan from the 
sea, there lies a little village known to-day as Llantwit 
Major. It lies to the south of the great coal-basin of 
South Wales. The Vale of Glamorgan, which is the 
name the district bears, has little in common with the 
hill country to the north. The one is agricultural and 
peaceful, and the other mercantile and busy. The 
northern carboniferous districts tell of modern life; 
the Vale suggests the spirit of an older world, eccle- 
siastical and feudal, whicn indeed has long since passed 
away, but which is represented there by many a ruined 
castle, many an ancient church or desecrated priory, 
and, in the little village of Llantwit, by the remains of 
what was fourteen hundred years ago, and for many 
centuries to follow, a thriving University. And though 
the sympathies of some may rather turn to the teeming 
valleys full of hope and industry, the sources as they 
are of that sea power on which the Empire must 
depend, yet there are others to be found who take a 
very different view ; the Ahh6 Duine, for example, who 
has done so much for the saints of Brittany, writes as 
follows : ** When I had thus,'' he says, " seen Cardiff, 
the modern town, the material town ; when I had 
breathed the fog of the coal-carrying pity, it was 
delicious to escape to Llantwit, village of peace, with 
air so pure, so mild, where life itself is hushed to 
silence, motionless, and lulled to sleep by the magic 
rays of the bright August sun ! Place,'' he goes on 
to say, " before your eyes a very modest row of houses, 
small, with old thatched roofs, walls red or yellow, or 
white with lime, the doors bright green ; within the 
windows, flowers ; upon the window-sill a cat, her paws 
tucked in, as solemn as a sphinx ! All that one saw 
was smiling, child-like, primitive." 

Doubtless the Abb^ Duine has his share of the 
romantic spirit of his race. His words are those of 
sentiment ; but a more balanced and prosaic writer 


bears a similar witness : the late Professor Freeman 
writes as follows ; 

" The whole series of buildings at Llantwit Major is one of the 
most striking in the kingdom. Through a succession of civil 
and domestic structures of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, the traveller gradually approaches the grand group 
composed of the church and the buildings attached to it; lying 
as they do in a deep valley below the town, they present a 
miniature representation of the unequalled assemblage at 
St David's." 

And no doubt the Professor is quite justified in what 
he says. The church itself is most remarkable, and in 
the churchyard there are relics witnessing to a far 
distant past. There is a cylindiical pillar, described 
by Mr. J. Romilly Allen in tne Archceologia Camhrenm 
for 1899 ; there is a fragment of a cross, erected, as its 
legend tells us, by one Abbot Samson — not our saint— 
for his soul's weal, and for the souls of King Juthael, 
and Arthmael the Dean ; there is a cross, long buried 
out of sight, but found and re-erected in 1793; and 
there is yet another monument, which bears the inscrip- 
tion : " Samson placed this cross for his soul." 

There was also an ancient tithe-bam to be seen until 
quite recently. It was a structure of huge size, which 
dated from the thirteenth century. And there were 
other buildings which have disappeared. And we still 
have a fragment of the mediaeval monastery, and a dove- 
cot of the thirteenth century, cylindrical in shape, and 
covered by a domical vault, such as we find at Angle 
and at Manorbier in Pembrokeshire. 

And to this secluded spot there came, in the sixth 
century, one Iltyd, called the Knight. He was a native 
of Armorica, which we to-day call Brittany, and was 
great-nephew of Germanus of Auxerre, who had in his 
time, with his companion Lupus, come to Wales to 
combat the Pelagian heresy ; and he was also pupil of 
St. Cadoc, Cadoc-Doeth, the famous Abbot of Llan- 
carvan, five miles north of Cowbridge, who, with a more 
than princely hospitality, was wont, it is said, to feed 


each day one hundred clergy, and one hundred workmen, 
and one hundred men-at-arms, as well as one hundred 
wid9W8 and one hundred poor, together with servants, 
squires, and guests almost innumerable. 

But Iltyd, Iltyd " Farchog," or the '' Knight," pre- 
ferring poverty and self-denial to a rough soldier's life, 
established in this sequestered spot a monastic College, 
erecting, not of course a noble pile of buildings such as 
we find to-day at Oxford or at Cambridge, but, as the 
manner was, a square enclosure with a mound and 
palisades, and in the enclosure bee-hive huts for his 
monks, and seven churches, which are said to have been 
built of stone, though this, in the sixth century, appears 

And by degrees this quiet and remote community 
became a school for learning, nay, a University, which 
lasted, little as men now remember it, for certainly not 
less than a thousand years. And amongst St. Iltyd's 
early pupils were David, patron saint of Wales, Paulinus, 
Gildas, Padern, Teilo and Oudoceus, famous men each 
one of them, and last, not least, St. Paul de L6on, whose 
tapering spire is now the glory of the north of Brittany. 

And to this seat of learning and of prayer there was 
attached an island known as Ynys-y-pyr,^ an island to 
whose shores, the wind being fair, one tide would take 

* This island mast be certainly identified with Caldey. Arch- 
bishop Usher did indeed suggest that it coincided with a part of 
the present town of Llanellj, called Machjnnis, formerly an island ; 
and, as the matter seemed of little importance, the suggestion was, 
until quite recently, accepted without question. It was, however, 
only an obiter dictum, resting on no eyidence ; whilst, on the other 
hand, not only do we find in Cald^ Island a site more easy of access 
for the Llantwit monks, and with clear evidence upon it of early 
ecclesiastical occnpation, but, in the Life of St. Paul de L6on, 
written by one Wromac '* moine de TAbbaye de Landavensis,*' in the 
year 884, we are expressly told that there was a certain island, Pyr 
by name, within, it is said, the border of Demetia, in which St. Iltyd 
spent much of his time, and where he was associated with, amongst 
others, St. Paul de L^n, St. David, St. Gildas, and St. Samson. 
And this decides the matter, for Pyr (see Dugdale's Mouasticon, 
Camden, Leland, and others) was most indubitably the former name 
of Caldey. 


the hardy and fearless sailor monks from their own 
little harbour. 

And, one day, in the early part of the sixth century, 
there came to the monastery gates a certain Amon, 
with Anna his wife, a daughter of King Meurig of 
Glamorgan, bringing with them a little lad of five years 
old, as Hannah and Elkanah brought of old the infant 
Samuel to Shiloh. Like Samuel, he was also a child of 
miracle. With prayer and fasting Amon and Anna 
had asked a child of God. No child, however, had 
been vouchsafed to them until, at the advice of 
St. Dubricius — " Dubric the high saint" — they resorted 
to a certain wise and holy man^ who instructed Amon 
to make a silver rod, whose height should equal that of 
his wife, and give it to the poor. He, nothing loth, 
made three rods, not one only as prescribed, and with 
the desired effect ; for on the following night an angel 
came to Anna in a dream, and said ; *' Thou shalt bear 
a son, and call his name Samson, and he shall be seven 
times whiter than that silver which thy husband gave 
for thee to God." And so, obedient to the heavenly 
messenger, St. Iltyd at the sacred font gave to the 
child the name of Samson. 

And now five years have passed away, and Amon, 
resolutely putting from him what must certainly have 
been the very strong temptation to retain his son, and 
make of him a leader of men, brings him to Llantwit, 
and he is made a neophyte ; and in due time becomes a 
student and a monk, a priest, an abbot, an ai*chbishop. 
He was, it is said, instructed in the Old and the New 
Testaments, and in all manner of philosophy, to wit, 
geometry, and rhetoric, and grammar, and arithmetic, 
and all the arts then known in Britain. Indeed, so apt 
a scholar was he, that on one and the same day he learnt 
the alphabet,^ and also the digits such as were then in 
use, and in a single week the mysteries of syntax ; 
whilst in the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures he 
surpassed his master. 

^ Stib una eodemque die viceruu elem^ Ussarcuque offtumt iotas, — 
AcUi SS, Julii, vi, 576. 


And there are charming legends told of him, which 
possibly may not be true, but which at least bear 
witness, and with no uncertain voice, to the simple 
healthful lives lived by these monks, their fondness for 
the animals of whom they saw so much, and for the 
open air in which their lives were spent. Indeed, in 
reading of the Celtic monks, we seem to live beneath 
the open sky ; we breathe the air of the Book of Ruth ; 
we are with David on the hillside, or with Abraham at 
his tent door ; nay, even with One Greater, as He 
walks and teaches amidst the wayside flowers of 

For instance, all the boys are one day in a field 
engaged in winnowing corn, when suddenly an adder 
darts out of a bush and strikes one of the monks. 
*' Run, one of you boys, tell Father Iltyd,'' cries the 
steward. And Samson runs, and asks with tears for 
leave to attempt the cure himself. And, Iltyd having 
given him leave, he runs back quickly, rubs the bite 
with oil, and by God's blessing cures the monk. 

Again, we read how the boys would take it in turn 
to scare the sparrows from the barley, and how, when 
it came to Samson's turn, he gathered them all together 
like a flock of sheep and drove them into a barn, and 
then lay down himself in the field and went to sleep ; 
and how the other boys, who had little love for him, 
surprised him in his sleep, and, being glad that they 
haa found him thus neglectful of his duty, went to the 
master, saying : '* Master, him whom thou lovest we 
have found sleeping, disobedient, lazy" ; and how, 
when Iltyd came, the boy said quietly, " I found the 

Elunderers in the corn, and, with the aid of God, I 
eep them in prison for the common weal." And this 
appears to have been St. Samson's way, for, when an 
old man, and Archbishop of Dol, he treated^ in like 
manner the wild birds of Brittany, collecting them 

1 This is, of oourse, a very oommon monastic legend. A similar 
tale is told, for example, of the hermit Sigar, of Northaw, near 
St. Albans {Ge$ta Abbatum, vol. i, 97-105), and of many more. 
6th skb., vol. m. 24 


together in the monastery court, and there imposing 
silence on them till the morning, lest they should 
disturb the prayers of the monks. 

Of course we need not take these legends for more 
than they are worth ; but when we find such tales told 
over and over again, as of St. Jerome and his lion, or 
St. Hugh of Lincoln and his swan, and very many others, 
we understand that they imply a simple, quiet mode 
of living on the part of the monks, which did not scare, 
still less do any harm to the timid denizens of wood 
and mere. Their dumb companions recognised the 
saints and hermits for their friends, and kindness 
generated trust. In fact, the old monk understood, as 
the modern tripper now seems powerless to understand, 
the sanctity of animal life, and of them the words of 
Coleridge had come true a thousand years and more 
before the Ancient Mariner was penned ; 

" He prajeth best who loveth best 
All things both great and small." 

But now the time had come for Samson to be made 
a deacon ; and the Archbishop Dubric coming one day 
unexpectedly to Llantwit, Utyd and the brethren 
prayed him that he would confer this dignity upon the 
youthful scholar. Their prayer was granted ; and to 
the eyes of the Archbishop and the Abbot, and of the 
Deacon who was serving at the Holy Sacrifice, die 
eyes perchance of the soul to which the things of the 
spirit are more real than those of which the senses may 
take cognizance, it seemed as though a dove descended 
visibly and rested on his shoulder, there remaining till 
the mass was at an end. 

And, after this, St. Samson seems to have redoubled 
those austerities which had already evoked his masters 
protest. We are told of abstinence in food and drink, 
of fasting, cold, and nakedness ; how in the summer- 
time he avoided shade, and in the winter-time declined 
to use the second garment which was customary in the 
monastery ; how his one garment served him night 


and day ; how he refused to eat all flesh ; and how, it 
IS quaintly added — and what a flood of light this throws 
upon the habits of the Celtic monks ! — no one ever saw 
him tipsy, or unable to speak plain. 

But all were not as Samson was. There was at 
Llantwit no immunity from jealousy and bickerings, or 
from that struggle for preferment which, from the time 
when the mother of James and John asked that her sons 
might sit on the Saviour's right hand and his left, has 
never left the Church, still less the world : and certain 
nephews of St. Iltyd, who were afraid that Samson's 
merits might secure for him the post of Abbot, which 
in the Celtic church was more or less hereditary, and 
might therefore be expected to descend at St. Iltyd's 
death to one of them, were not content with ordinary 
measures, but even tried to remove their rival by the 
use of poison. Their agent was the monastery baker. 
He was forgiven by Samson ; but he did not repent, 
and, on presuming to receive the consecrated cup at 
Samson's hand, was seized and torn by the evil 
spirit, and only rescued by the prayers of the saint. 

And now St. Samson had been made a priest, the 
Heavenly Dove appearing at his ordination as before, 
and by this time he must have become of some impor- 
tance in the Brotherhood. He probably, however, felt 
that such an atmosphere of strife and jealousy was bad 
for all concerned ; and it was therefore no doubt much 
to his satisfaction that he received one day an intima- 
tion from his master, Iltyd, that in the night the 
Abbot had seen a vision, and had been bidden to ask 
him whither he desired to go, and to speed him on his 
way. St. Samson felt but little hesitation as to what 
reply to make. There was, as we have seen, not far from 
Llantwit an island monastery, lately founded by an 
" excellent and holy priest" called Pyro, and it appears 
that Samson had long wished to join him there, but 
had refrained from taking any action in the matter lest 
he should offend St. Iltyd. His opportunity had now, 
however, come. He told the Abbot of his wish, and 



Iltyd, though in great distress, and beating, it is said, 
upon his breast, and counting it as though his very 
soul were being torn from liim, was yet obedient to the 
heavenly vision, and forwarded the youthful Samson on 
his way. 

And so St. Samson came to Caldey, then called 
Tnys-y-Pyr, Pyr's Island. There is a neighbouring 
village on the mainland, which is now called Manorbier, 
but which was probably then known as Maen-y-Pyr, 
Pyr 8 Stone ; the stone, a cromlech, is there still. 
These two names have been not improbably derived 
from Peredur, of whom the Mabinogion has so much to 
say, but possibly were due to this same Pyro, ** excellent 
and holy priest." But, be this as it may, upon this 
island he renewed, and certainly with better oppor- 
tunity than he had hitherto enjoyed at Llantwit, his 
accustomed life of quietness and prayer, and even some- 
thing more than his old austerities ; though whether 
more were possible we may well doubt ; for, in addition 
to what has been above recorded, we are told that from 
the time of his diaconate he had never used a bed, but, 
when compelled by natui-al weariness, had learned to 
lean himself against the wal V ^nd so to snatch a little 
sleep. To some of us such stories seem, perhaps, to be 
alike unedifying and incredible ; but we must not 
forget that Samson, whether in Ireland or in Wales, in 
Cornwall or in Brittany, did, under these austere condi- 
tions, missionary work which might have taxed the 
powers of a Selwyn or a Patterson ; and not, I think, 
incredible ; for those who have seen the little chapel of 
St. Gowan, planted in its rocky gorge, on the wild 
coast of Pembrokeshire, will not forget a sort of niche 
in the rock, of which foolish things are said by August 
trippers, but which is probably the place where one of 
these old hermit monks was wont, instead of lying 
down, to take, as Samson did, the little rest which he 

^ *^ Qnod si, ut homo, opus haberet pro camali fragiliiate qnies- 
cendi, seipsnm parieii, ant alicajns rei durae firmamento iccIinaDS, 
nnnqnam in leoto dormitabat" — Acta SS. JtUii, vi, 579. 


allowed hiiriself ; believing, as did Samson, that the 
sufferings of this present time were not worthy to be 
compared with the glory which should be revealed in 
him ; and that through suffering came detachment from 
things earthly, and through detachment knowledge 
of God. 

But Samson was not destined long to enjoy the quiet 
and secluded life which was so dear to him. One day, 
as the monks were going forth to their daily labour in 
the fields, they found at the monastery gate some 
strangers who had spent the night in the Guest-house, 
and who asked to see St. Samson. St. Samson's many 
austerities do not seem to have deprived him of some 
sense of humour, so he asked them what their business 
was, and when they said it was for Samson's private 
ear, " Unless," he said, " you state here in my presence 
what is the object of your journey, you shall not see 
Samson as you desire to do." And Pyro seems to have 
been mightily amused, — perhaps it did not take much 
to amuse a monk, — but, thinking that the joke had 
been carried far enough, explained to the strangers 
who the young man was ; on which, we are told, they 
fell on his neck, and told him of their errand. That 
errand was a sad one : Amon, Samson's father, was 
very ill, and he desired to see his son once more before 
his death. And here we find an instance of that 
strange detachment, as it seems to us, from the re- 
lationships of human life, which was and is so charac- 
teristic of monastic life. Christ had said, '*He that 
loveth father or mother more than Me, is not worthy 
of Me ;" and this St. Samson characteristically held to 
mean that it was wrong for him to go to his father's 
bedside even at such a time. ** I have come out 
of Egypt," he said, ** and it is not for me to return to 
it, for God is able Himself to heal the sick ;" and, say- 
ing this, he turned away, and went off swiftly to his 
work. But Pyro seems to have had more of the milk 
of human kindness, or, as the biographer very justly 
says, a truer guidance of the Holy Spirit. He laid no 


istress, indeed, upon the duty of a son ; but lie recalled 
St. Samson, and ne gently urged him not to neglect his 
duty to a departing soul. " It might be God would 
grant to him to sow the seeds of spiritual life." He 
clearly knew what arguments were likely to prevail. 
And he was right. St. Samson says at once 

such indeed be the will of God ! I am prepared to 
suffer all things for His sake, and that I may win 
souls ;" and, turning to the messengers, he adds : *' Go 
back, and on the mon-ow I will follow." So in the 
in the morning he commenced his journey, in company 
with a young man who was a deacon, ana on the third 
day came to Amon. Yet not without adventure bj 
the way. The Celtic monks were sailors, and the dense 
and awful forests which then clothed the land were to 
them full of witchcraft, and of evil powers, of serpents, 
and of unclean things. They passed into the sombre 
depths, as Stanley did into the forests of the Pigmies, 
and the oppression and the gloom weighed hard upon 
them. So we are not surprised to find that Samson 
found "a homed and hairy witch/' who, with eight sisters 
and a mother, dwelt in the darkness of the forest, and 
whom he slew in the name of Jesus Christ ; or that, on 
his return, in company with Amon, whom he had 
healed of his disease, and with his uncle Umbrafel, he 
met and slew a serpent of prodigious size. 

He left behind, apparently upon the western border 
of Glamorgan, his mother Anna and her sister Afrella, 
well and carefully provided for ; and, with his father 
and his uncle and the deacon, came back to the island, 
where they again found Dubric the high Saint, whose 
custom^ it was to spend his Lents upon it. 

St. Samson's troubles were, however, not yet at an 
end. It is said, in the life of St. Dubricius, in the 
Liber Landavensis^ that he was wont* to visit in the 

^ ** Mos erat illi episcopo totam pene paschae quadragesimam in 
eadem ducere insula." — Ada SS. Julii, vi, 581. 

* " Vir beat89 memoriae Dabrioias visitavit locum beat! Dduti, 
tempore quadragesimali, ut quae emendanda erant corrigerei) et 


season of Lent a place belonging to St. Iltyd — which 
was no doubt Caldey Island — '* that he might correct 
what wanted amendment, and might confirm such 
practices as might deserve to be retained ; for," it is 
added, " there lived there many very holy men, but 
also many who were led astray by jealousy." This 
estimate of the community on Inys-y-pyr is certainly 
abundantly confirmed by what is found in St. Samson s 
life. St. Dubric had received, we are told, from the 
deacon who accompanied St. Samson, a full account of 
the journey. He had told the Archbishop of the witch 
and of the serpent, and of Amon's cure, of all, in fact, 
that had befallen, not concealing his own cowardice ; 
and Dubric had, in consequence, promoted Samson to 
the post of cellarer, an office of much importance in a 
monastery, but one whose duties were, we should have 
supposed, not much in accordance with the young 
monk's austerity and other- worldlinees. And so it 
proved to be the case. Complaint was made by the 
disappointed candidate that the new cellarer wasted 
the mead ; and the Archbishop and St. Samson went 
together to the cellar to investigate. Nor does it 
appear that Samson was absolved from the charge 
of over-liberality ; though, as it was believed, the 
miracle of Cana was repeated,^ and the cellarer's bounty 
thus received Divine approval. 

But Samson soon received promotion. The Abbot, 
Pyro, " excellent and holy priest," was himself perhaps 
not always sober ; and one dark night, returning to the 
monastery, he fell headlong into a well, which, from 
the permanence of geological conditions, could not be 
far from that which still supplies the island with its 
pure and abundant streams.* His cry — he only uttered 

servaoda con soli dare t. Ibidem enim mulfci sanctissimi viri conver- 
sabantur, mnlti qnadain livore decepti, inter quos frater Samson 
morabatur filius Amon." — Lib, Lan» Vita s. Dubric, p. 78. 

^ " Lantemis signnm crncis imposuifc; et dum episcopus vonit 
plena omnia et perf^ta reperta sunt." — Acta SS* Julii, vi, 582. 

^ " Idem Piro in tenebrosa nocta, at, quod est gravius, ut aiunt, 
per ineptam ebrietatem in claustra monasterii deambulans, solus in 


one — was heard by the brothers, who drew him from 
the water in an almost dying state. Their help, how- 
ever, had come too late. Poor Pyro died in the course 
of the night. The Archbishop held a chapter after 
matins ; and the monks with one accord elected 
Samson as their Abbot. He ruled his little flock for a 
year and a half, and set to the brothers — some of whom 
perhaps had walked in Pyro's footsteps — an example of 
moderation, and something more, in food and drink and 
sleep. And such an example was perhaps much needed, 
for we must not think of these Celtic monks as being 
strict ascetics. On Caldey, at least, the food was 
plentiful, the cups were overflowing with mead. But 
hunger and thirst, not meat and drink, rejoiced the 
Abbot s heart ; nor, as we have said, did he ever rest 
upon a couch. He lived, whatever others round about 
him may have done, the spiritual life ; and we are 
therefore not surprised to read that as from time to 
time he offered the Holy Sacrifice his eyes were opened, 
and he saw the angels worshipping the Sacred Presence. 
But, at the end of the year and a half, there came to 
Caldey certain Irishmen on their way home from Rome; 
and, for some reason, Samson, with the leave of the 
Archbishop, went with them ; and as he went from 
place to place, the blind, we are told, received their 
sight, the lepers were cleansed, the evil spirits were 
cast out, and many were converted from the error of 
their ways. How long he remained in Ireland does 
not appear ; but in those days, although all journeying 
by land was difficult and perilous, yet was the sea as 
easily sailed as it is now ; and so we find St. Samson 
now in Wales, and now in Ireland ; now giving a name 
to a Cornish church, or to an island in the far-off 
Scillies ; now ruling as Archbishop of Dol, and now 
awaiting in the Channel Islands opportunity for a suc- 
cessful expedition. The fact is, Ireland, Wales, Com- 

putenm valde yastnm se pradcipitarit, atque nnnm clamorem nln- 
latas emittens, a fratribus fere mortnus a laon abetraotua est, ei oh 
boc ea nocte obiit." — Acta S8. Julii, yi, 582. 


wall and Armorica were nearer to each other than 
St. Davids, for example, was to Lichfield. So, when 
the time was come, St. Samson — not, however, without 
something like a mutiny on the part of his crew, which 
he quelled easily enough with the Divine assistance — 
came back to the island, reaching it, as it is said, the 
wind being favourable, upon the second day. 

On Caldey he finds his father, Amon, and also his 
uncle, Umbrafel, whom he sends back to Ireland, there 
to fill the place of an Abbot, from whom he had cast out 
a devil. But he has convinced himself, and he is prob- 
ably right, that God is calling him to live a life of more 
austerity than can be lived amidst his monks. And so 
he " passes into the silent life." He takes with him 
his father, Amon, and the aforesaid Abbot, and a brother 
who was a priest, and, crossing to the main land, goes 
out into the ** wilderness," not far away, however, from 
the sea. They probably went westwards into the 
peninsula which lies between the " Severn Sea'*' and 
Milford Haven, now called Castle Martin Hundred; 
and, as it happens, there is still to be seen near Stack- 
pole, at Rock Point, a cave which satisfies the main 
conditions of the narrative, whilst in the immediate 
neighbourhood there is a farm, which, for whatever 
reason, bears the name of Sampsons Farm. But, 
whether at Stackpole or elsewhere, he found an appro- 
priate place, where, in an enclosure, was a fountain of 
delicious water ; and there he left the three who were 
with him, left them, if we may dare to parallel the 
solemn scene within the Garden of Gethsemane, to 
watch, whi^pt he went on to pray. For himself he 
found a cave " whose mouth was towards the east." 
We all have read of the cave in Shakespeare's Cymbeline, 
six miles from Milford Haven, where the lowness of 
the roof compelled the old Belarius and the two sons 
of Cymbeline to stoop and say their morning orisons ; 
and it was in some such cave, at Kock Point or else- 
where, that Samson spent his quiet days, accustomed, 
it is said, to the discourse of angels, through whom he 


commended himself to the Most High. The brethren 
brought to him one loaf every month, a large one, we 
may hope, and every Sabbath day he went to com- 
mune with them, and they joined together in the 
breaking of the Holy Bread. 

And here at last he had found seclusion and repose. 
But he could not long be hid. St. Iltyd had apparently 
retired from Llantwit. The mother -house was in 
want of an Abbot ; and the retreat of Samson having 
been betrayed to the sacred synod, they came and 
lovingly compelled him, much against his will, to under- 
take the duties of Abbot of the * Monastery founded 
by St. Germanus.'^ 

It was the custom in the Celtic Church, not only 
that three Bishops should unite in ordination, but also 
that three Bishops should be ordained together ; and 
Dubric, coming one day to the " Monastery of St 
Germanus," — Llantwit, as we may presume — brought 
with him but two candidates for the episcopate, and 
therefore needs must have a third. Why not St 
Samson ? Others, however, greater than St. Dubric 
had preceded the Archbishop, for, as St. Samson 
waited his arrival, he had seen in a vision three Bishops 
crowned with golden crowns, who told him that they 
were Peter the Apostle of Christ, and James, the 
brother of the Lord, and John the Evangelist. And so 
St. Dubric, knowing of the vision by the revelation of 
an angel, doubted much if he might dare to consecrate 
again a Bishop who had thus been consecrated by the 
Chief Apostles ; his doubts, however, were overruled, 
the sacred number three being thus completed to the 
honour of the Holy Trinity. And at this time not only 
Dubric, Iltyd, and the Deacon, as before, but all who 
stood by saw the Heavenly Dove, which rested on 
St. Samson's shoulder; and to St. Dubric and the 
monks, who, like Sir Galahad or Sir Percival had power 
to gaze on heavenly things, there seemed to flow from 

^ " Abbatem earn nolentem in monasterium qaod ut ItioDt a 
Bancto Germano fuerat constructum constitnenint." — ActaSS. Julii, 
vi, 583. 


St. Samson's mouth a stream of fire as he rehearsed the 
sacred canon of the Mass. 

But we are near the end. St. Samson's work was 
henceforth to be done in Brittany, and not in Wales ; 
and on a certain Easter Eve, when, as his manner was, 
he had prayed all night before the altar, there stood 
by him a man in shining raiment, who admonished him 
to play the man, and to depart out of his native land 
and from his kinsfolk, and to serve God beyond the 
seas. Nor was he disobedient to the heavenly vision. 
He put the matter before St.Dubric,who could not resist 
the will of God, but, with St. Iltyd, gave to him his 
blessing. And when he had ended the solemnities of 
Easter he set sail, and coasted, eastwards as it would 
appear, along the shore of what is now the Bristol 
Channel, until he came to a monastery called Docunni, 
or Dochor ;^ visiting by the way his mother, who 
was, as we may remember, daughter of the King of 

Arrived at Dochor, he was induced by a certain 
monk called Winnian to travel on by land, that on his 
way *' he might destroy the works of the devil." And 
so, by way apparently of Gwent, Morgan wg and 
Demetia, or what is now South Wales, he passes on to 
the * Auferrean Sea,' which washes the south-west coast 
of Pembrokeshire, that, in obedience to the heavenly 
voice, he may cross to Brittany. And legend gathers 
thickly round his retreating steps.^ He overthrows an 

^ Clark, in his Charters, Dowlais, 1885, identifies this Dochor, 
or Docunni, with Llandoagh, called also Llan Doch, or Llan-Doch- 
Penarth, near Cardiflf. To many of the charters in the Liber 
Landaventis we find appended the names of the Abbots of Lancarvan, 
Llantwit, and Docunni. They were clearly the three leading abbots 
of the diocese. Docwin, who gave his name to the Abbey of 
Docunni, was the same as Cyngar of Somerset, son of Geraint, 
who, after founding Badg worth and Congresbury, returned to 
Wales, and founded there the Abbey of Llangenys and ** Llandoc.'* 
(See Capgrave, Vita Cungari, and Usher's Ant., pp. 4-73, 1117, 
4th ed.). 

* These miracles are usually located in Cornwall. If, however, 
Dochor was Llandoagh, and it is difficult fo resist the identification, 


idol, slays a serpent, raises a dead man to life, brings 
water out of the living rock. And it is said that aa 
he went a company of monks preceded him with psalms 
and hymns ; then came the Saint alone, engaged in 
constant prayer by night and day, and then another 
company of monks sang their recessional. These are 
of course but legends, but they are legends which were 
written down, unlike most legends of the saints, almost 
within the lifetime of the holy man, and therefore 
show to us at least the estimate then entertained 
of him. Nor are they indeed, in the highest sense, 
untrue, for they are but the expression in material 
terms of heavenly things. There were spiritual giante 
in those days : a Boniface, an Aidan, aColumba, would 
go forth in prayer, and in their inmost selves alone 
with God, and kingdom after kingdom would be won 
for Christ ; whilst meaner men would be companions of 
these master spirits, near to and yet apart from them ; 
and so it was the victories of Christianity were won. 
But here we end. Of Samson's work in Brittany we 
may not speak ; but here in Wales, at Llantwit, on the 
Isle of Caldey, and in the Cave at Rock Point or 
elsewhere, his character was formed ; and it is pleasant 
to remember that, some thirteen centuries ago, there 
went out from amongst us one whose life indeed was 
moulded in a very different form from what to-day is 
possible, or even much to be desired, but who had 
surely a sevenfold measure of that spirit of self- 
surrender which is the only force by which great 
things are done. 

the land joumej mast almost of necessity have been from tbence to 
Pembrokeshire ; a journey undertaken possibly with the aid of 
St. Samson's Irish horses, which we afterwards find in Armorica, and 
which would have joined him from Llantwit. From Pembrokeshire 
he would have crossed the ** Auferrean Sea" to Padstow, on his way 
to Brittany. 

the early life of st. samson of dol. 337 

Suggested Identification of St. Samson's 

On leaving Caldey with his four companions, 
St. Samson made his way, as his biographer informs 
us, to a most lonely desert {vastissimam eremum)} 
Now, a glance at the map will show that on crossing to 
the mainland he had two lines of country, and two 
only, open to him, one towards the north, and the other 
towards the west. But towards the north he would 
soon have come to Narberth and the important Abbey 
of Whitland ; whilst on the other hand, towards the 
west there lies a district, now the Castle Martin 
Hundred, which has, even at this day, comparatively few 
inhabitants, and which in St. Samson's time was prob- 
ably a very lonely desert indeed. It is to the west, 
then, that we may assume him to have bent his steps. 
And presently he finds a **fort," and in it a spring of 
water, near the River Severn, which was the name 
then borne by the whole of the Bristol Channel, and 
further on a cave,^ which is described as being under- 
ground and facing to the east, and which is said to be 
planissimus and secretissimus. And there soon after- 
wards he brings to light a pleasant spring, fons dulcis 

Now what planissimus may mean is doubtful ; but 
all the other conditions of the problem are sufficiently 
well satisfied by a cave, which is sometimes called 
"Rock-shelter," and which is to be found near Bosheston, 
in the immediate neighbourhood of Stackpole Court. 
It does not face, indeed, directly to the east, but rather 
somewhat east of south. The biographer, however, was 
not writing for an Ordnance Survey, and doubtless 

^ Vastissimam eremnm {sic) adire fecit, ac juxta Abrinum (sc. 
Sabrinnm) flnmen castellam admodam delicatum reperiens, atqne 
in eo fontem daloissimum inveniens, habitaculnm suis fratribns in eo 
&cere cogitavit. — Acta SS, Julii, vi, 582. 

' Qaodam die silvam perambnians, reperit planissimum atqne 
secretisflimnm specnm, ostinmqne ejns ad Orientem sitnra. — Acta 
S8. Julii, vi, 582. 


south-south-east, is near enough. And it is a cave which 
very properly would be described as " most secluded," 
and, as JPlaine's biographer puts it, " underground" 
{suh terra). It is situated on a tongue of elevated land 
known as Rock Point ; and on another hill which faces 
it towards the west, but which is separated from it bj 
the Bosheston Mere, are traces of an ancient camp, at 
a distance from the " Severn Sea" of something over a 
mile. The country also in the immediate neighbour- 
hood is exceptionally well- watered and well- wooded. 
The cave and camp are at no great distance from each 
other as the crow flies, but it requires a very consider- 
able detour to cross the Mere, which lies between them. 
The cave, which is not a large one, was explored some 
years ago by Mr. Laws and others, and there were 
found in it some unburnt human bones, and a portion 
of the handle of a sword. These objects are now in the 
Tenby Museum. 

A mile to the north of the camp and cave we find 
" Sampson's Farm," "Sampson's Cross," and " Sampson's 
Bridge," but no tradition of St. Samson now remains 
upon the country-side. The farm {see Fenton) has 
been Sampson's Farm for at least one century, and 
probably for many more. Again, a mile to the north 
of Sampson's Farm we have St. Petrox Church, 
which bears the name of St. Petroc, Samson's contem- 
porary. The cave is now both small and low, but the 
configuration of the ground suggests that it may at one 
time have been larger. There are in the immediate 
neighbourhood menhirs and other primitive remabs, 
but they are of no great size or importance. 

The Caldey Stone. 

It has been suggested that having regard to the 
close connection of Dubricius {Dyfng) with the island, 
the Ogam inscription " Mail Dubr" on the well-known 
Caldey Stone may possibly refer to him, and be taken 
to mean ** The (tonsured) servant of Dubricius," 

, 339 



The church of St. Giles, at Gileston, stands within a 
few feet of the manor house, the old churchyard, with 
its cross and yew trees, forming part of the lawn, and 
combine in the making of so picturesque an old-world 
group rarely met with in these days. 

The church and manor overlook the Severn, near 
Aberthaw, and command a splendid view of the 
Channel, with the Somersetshire hills in the far dis- 

The quaint little church, only 50 ft. from east to west, 
is full of archaeological interest. Within a few feet of 
one another are the well-preserved remains of each 
period of architecture, from Norman to the fifteenth 
century. It is, however, to the latter period that the 
church more particularly owes its distinction : first, 
perhaps, to its curiously embattled and corbelled belfry, 
but more especially to the almost unique south door, 
which has remained for some four hundred and fifty 
years in an almost perfect state of preservation. The 
wrought-iron hinges are as when first attached to the 
oak ; so is the drop-handle, although the plate, with 
its cloth backing, is somewhat damaged ; yet, strange to 
say, the lock and key are coeval with the door itself. 
Tne latter assertion is on the authority of Mr. John 
Acutt, expert to Messrs. Chubb and Co., who is a very 
able authority in matters connected with locks and 
keys, both old and new. The coat -armour and 
foliage carved between the ribs in the upper portion 
of the door is not cut in the solid, but is planted on 
and rebated into the frame and ribs. It is wonderfully 
preserved, even to the powdering on the shields, which 
is quite distinct. 



Fig. 2.— Gileston Church : South Door. Drawn to inch scale. 

GiLESTON Church. — South Door. 
From a photograph by Gny Clarke. 



I am indebted to Mr. Iltyd Nicholl, of The Ham, 
Llantvvit Major, for the following information respect- 
ing the six carved shields : — 

Fig. 3. — Coats of Arms on South Door of Gileston Church. 

No. 1. — " (Ermine) a bend (gules), a mullet for difference. 
" Probably the arms of the Walsh family, who held half the 
manor of West Orchard in St. Athan, adjacent to Gileston, and 

6th sek., vol. ui. 



also the Lordship of St. Mary Church, near Cowbridge. 
Elizabeth Welsh, heiress of the elder line, married John de 
Anne, tivip. Henry VI, and so conveyed those manors with 
Llandoiigh Castle to the Anne (alias Van) family, by whom they 
were subsequently sold. 

No. 2.—" Umfreville, Lords of Penmark 1104-1350. 

" There were several families of this name, the most impor- 
tant being the Earls of Angus. The various branches were 
distinguished by differences in their shields, but in all the chief 
charge was one or more cinquefoils. The heiress of Umfreville 
married St. John, but an heiress of a junior line married 
Cantelupe of Cantelupestone (now Candleston), in Merthyr- 

No. 3. — " A hand couped, holding a sword, was the crest used 
by Giles (see monument in Gileston Church). 

No. 4. — " (Sable) a cross-crosslet in saltire (argent). 

" This was the arms of the Giles family, who held Gileston in 
1262, and probably earlier, and who continued to reside there 
until the failure of the direct male line at the latter end of the 
seventeenth century. A younger branch acquired Nash Manor 
before 1377 ; their coheir married Came, and the crosslet or 
cross ' Julian' of Juel appears among the Came quarterings ou 
monuments in Cowbridge Church and Ewenny Priory. 

No. 5. — " As carved on church door at Gileston, and on the 
Giles slab in the church ; appears as a * chevron between three 
coronets, out of each issuing two feathers.' 

" These same arms, impaled by Boteler, are to be seen on a 
carved stone over the porch at Binham House, co. Somerset, 
which was the property of Robert Boteler, who married Anne, 
sister of Mathew Giles, of Gileston, who died 1618. It would 
therefore at first sight appear that this coat-of-arms was con- 
sidered by Boteler to be the arms of Giles. But I have reasons 
to believe that this coat is intended for the arms of Cantelupe, 
and should be correctly : ' a chevron between three leopards' 
heads, jessant de liz.' This might easily, by inaccurate or by 
careless copyists, be altered in the course of time to an appear- 
ance of crowns and feathers. This coat is also to be seen in the 
Came shields at Cowbridge and Ewenny. 

" The earlier part of the pedigree of the Giles family, pre- 
served in old genealogies, and to some extent corroborated by 
references in contemporary charters, is deficient in details as to 
the families with whom the Giles' intermarried ; but it is not 


improbable that they were descended from Walsh, Cantelupe, 
and Umfreville, as were so many other families in that part of 

No. 6. — *' A boar's head : may be a crest, or denote a connec- 
tion with the Cradoc family. 

" Sir Matthew Cmdoc bore three boars* heads, as on his fine 
altar-tomb at Swansea, 1531. Jennet Cradock, of the same 
family, was the first wife of John Giles, of Gileston ; she died 
before 1529. Assuming that the door of Gileston Church is of 
the date circa 1510, though from its style it might be earlier, 
that marriage would account for the boar*s head." 

The writer quite agrees with Mr. Nicholl "that from 
its style it might be earlier," and that the whole 
appearance of the door, taken with its ironwork, mould- 
ings and carving, point to an earUer date, probably 
between 1450 and 1480. If this is so, the " boar's 
head," as connected with the Cradock family in 1510, 
would surely be a coincidence. It appears to the writer 
that the door is coeval with the old roof-timbers, which 
have only been exposed to view during the last few 
weeks ; they were formerly hidden by a plaster ceiling. 

This roof is certainly earlier than 1510. The cornice, 
moulded principals, stopped for bosses at their inter- 
sections with the longitudinal tie, speak for themselves. 

Again, the door to the rood-stairs, although some- 
what patched, still retains a portion of the iron plate 
once attached to the drop-handle, of similar character 
to the south door. 

The rood-staircase is in excellent preservation, and 
gives an example of the disregard paid during the 
fifteenth century to the remains of an earlier period. 
In this instance a portion of the stairway is roofed by 
a late thirteenth-century sepulchral slab. 

In the neighbouring church of Llantwit Major, this 
fifteenth-century desecration is even more apparent ; 
there these early stones were used for window-sills, 
steps, and in fact wherever a large stone was wanted. 

The Manor House is not without its interest, although 
most of it is comparatively modern. The porch and 



fine oak staircase are said to have been designed by 
Inigo Jones, but a few of the early oak principals and 
moulded purlins may still be seen re-used in the roof. 

In conclusion, the writer would like to draw attention 
to the great similarity existing between Gileston Church 
and Nicholaston Church, in Gower. Both these churches 
overlook the sea : their internal dimensions are identical, 
viz., 47 ft. The fonts are practically of the same 
design, the former composed of Sutton stone and the 
latter of stalagmite. The holy-water stoup at Giles- 
ton is similar in shape to the piscina at Nicholaston : 
the one church has a pedestal piscina and the other a 
pedestal stoup, and in both cases the chancel arch is of 
rubble masonry and of very similar outline. 




This great father of a saintly family is most difficult to 
treat of satisfactorily. He was not inaptly described 
by Skene as ** the mysterious Brychan."^ The short 
Latin tract generally known as the Cognatio de 
Brychan is almost our sole authority for his legend. 
There are two versions of it. The older one occurs in 
the Cottonian Collection, Vespasian A, xiv, entitled 
** De situ Brecheniauc/' and was written in the late 
twelfth or early thirteenth century, but evidently copied 
from a MS. probably a couple of centuries earlier. It 
has been printed by Rees in the Cambro-British 
Saints,^ ** with the greatest inaccuracy ;"^ but a list of 
Corrigenda will be found in Y Cymmrodor.* The other 
version also occurs in the Cottonian Collection, J)om\tm\i i 
(at the end), but differs widely from the previous one. 
This was written about 1650, but the copyist had 
before him a MS. of probably the thirteenth century, 
which he was not always able to read. It has been 
printed, with many inaccuracies, by Theophilus Jones 
in his History of the County of Brecknock} Both 
documents give the list of Brychan's children in nearly 
the same order. 

According to the legend, there was a King Tewdrig 
of Garthmadryn, who came to live at a place called 
Bran Coyn, near Llanfaes. This was supposed by 
Theophilus Jones to be a field called Bryn Gwyn, near 

1 Four Ancient Books of Wales, vol. i, p. 43. 

> Pp. 272-275. 

• Mr. Egerton Phillimore, in T Cymmrodor, vol. vii, p. 106, 
farther remarks that the original copyist clearly did not understand 

4 Vol. xiii, pp. 93-95. ^ Vol. i, pp. 342, 343. 

346 ST. bkychan, king, confessor. 

Llanfaes, in the neighbourhood of Brecon. Tewdrig 
had a daughter named Marchell. He said to her: 
*' The sharpness of the cold weather doth greatly affect 
thee ; wherefore it is well to procure for thee a fur 
garment. I will send thee to Ireland, along with three 
hundred men, to Anlach, son of Coronac, King of that 
country, who will marry thee." Then Marchell de- 
parted with her retinue, and arrived at Lansemin on 
the first night, and there a hundred of the men died 
of cold. There are to-day two places called Glansefin, 
on the brook Sefin, near Llangadog, in Carmarthenshire. 
On the second night she reached Metbrum, which 
has been supposed to be Meidrim, in Carmarthenshire, 
and there a second hundred died. The third night was 
spent at Porthmawr, a warmer place, by St. David's 
Head.^ Thence she sailed, with the hundred men left, 
to Ireland, and arrived safely, along with her attend- 
ants, at the court of Anlach, who received her with 
dancing and joy, and made her his wife. Aflerwaids 
Marchell brought forth a son, who was called Brachan, 
later Brychan.* *' And Anlach returned with Queen 
Marchell, and the boy Brychan," and several captains 
to Wales. Brychan was born at Benni, the ancient 
Bannium, near Brecon, and was sent to be fostered by 
one Drichan. *' And in his seventh year, Drichan said 
to Brychan, * Bring my lance to me.' And Drichan 
in the latter part of his life became blind ; and whilst 
he lay watching, a certain boar came from the wood, 
and stood by the banks of the river Yscir ; and there 
was a stag behind him in the river, and also a fish 
under the belly of the stag, which then portended that 
Brychan should be happy in abundance of wealth. 

^ Caerfarchell, near Solva, is supposed to take its name from her. 

^ The name firocagni ( = Broccagni) occarred on a stone, now 
lost, which is said to have been at Gapel Mair, near Llandjssol, 
South Wales. We have here the early form of Brychan, in Irish 
Brocdln (Prof. Rhys, Welsh Philology^ p. 393). Brychan, as a comnion 
noun, means in Welsh a coarse kind of home-made cloth, a tartan 
or plaid, and is a derivative from the adjective brych (Irish, 6rec^, 
variegated or speckled. 


Likewise there was a beech-tree standing on the side 
of the aforesaid river, in which bees made honey, and 
Drichan said to his pupil Brychan, *Lo, I give thee 
this tree full of bees and honey, and also of gold and 
silver ; and may the grace of God, and His love, remain 
with thee here and hereafter ." . 

After that Anlach gave Brychan as hostage to the 
King of Powys ; " and in process of time Brychan 
violated Banadlinet, the daughter of Benadel (the 
King), and she became pregnant, and brought forth a 
son named Cynog."^ 

The Cognatio goes on to give the names of the wives 
and sons and daughters of Brychan, and adds that he 
was buried in Ynys Brychan, near Man {Mannia), 
apparently in Scotland.* 

The grave of Anlach his father '* is before the door of 
the Church of Llanspyddid,'' where there is also to be 
seen in the churchyard, on the south side of the church, 
a stone with crosses and circles, popularly called the 
" Cross of Brychan Brycheiniog."^ Llanspyddid is 
usually said to be dedicated to a reputed son of 
Brychan, St. Cadog. 

The first diflficulty we have to surmount is the 
identification of Brychan's father. 

In Cognatio Vesp. he is given as Anlac and Anlach, 
the son of Coronac ; in Cognatio Dom. as Aulach, the 
son of Gornuc ; and in Jesus College (Oxon.) MS. 20 
(first half of the fifteenth century), as Chormuc, the 
son of Eurbre the Goidel. The later genealogists 
generally have fallen into two mistakes as regards 
Brychan's fathers name. One is to give his grand- 
fathers name as that of his father,* and the other to 

1 " Banbadlwedd, daughter of Banhadle of Banhadla in Powys," 
Peniarth MS. 127 (circay 1510), Myv. Arch., p. 421. 

2 In Cognatio Dom. he is said to have been bnried " in Mjnav in 
valle qne dicitur vail Brchan" {nic), 

3 Figured in Westwood, Lapidarium WallicBj p. 70. 

* Korvmawo (Peniarth MS. 74), Korvniawc (Peniarth MS. 75), 
Korinwj (Peniarth MS. 137), all three of sixteenth centurj; 
Korinawg (Cambro-British Saints, p. 270). 


treat his grandfather s name as a mere epithet of his 
father, meaning '* crowned" or " tonsured."^ They 
describe him as " King of Ireland," and ** King in 

Several theories have been proposed for the location 
of Anlach — 

1. That Anlach or Aulach stands for Hua Lagh, sons 
of Lugh, a Leinster family. 

2. That Anlach is CaellDadh, who had a son Braccan, 
and was King of Ulster . for one year, and was slain 
in 358. 

3. That Anlach stands for Amalgaidh (now pro- 
nounced Awley). 

Amalgaidh was son of Fiachra of the Flowing Locks, 
brother of Dathi, who succeeded Niall of the Nine 
Hostages as King of Ireland in 405, whereupon Dathi 
surrendered to Amalgaidh the crown of Con naught 
He reigned till 449, and had at the least three wives, 
and twenty-one sons are attributed to him besides 

4. That the *'Chormuc, son of Eurbre the Goidel, of 
Ireland," whose son Brychan is said to have been, in 
the Jesus College MS., is Cormac Caoch, son of 
Cairbre, younger son of Niall of the Nine Hostages, 
son of Eochaidh by Carthan Casduff, daughter of the 
King of Britain. 

Cormac's wife, Marchell, was sole daughter of Tewdrig 
by an Irishwoman, a daughter of Eochaidh Muigh- 
medhuin. This is the identification proposed by 
Mr. Henry F. J. Vaughan in Y Cymmrodor} 

Shearman, in his Z(?caPa^ric{ana(Geneal. Table VHl), 
gives a pedigree of Brychan from Caelbadh, King of 
Ulster. He makes Caelbadh father of Braccan, who is 
father of Braccanoc, the husband of Marchell, daughter 

1 Anllech corvnawc {Peniarth MS. 127, circa 1510); Anllech 
Goronawc {lolo MSS., pp. 118, 140; Myv. Arch., p. 418); Aflech 
Goronawg {lolo MSS., p. 78) ; Enllech Goronawc {Mo MSS., p. Ill) ; 
Afallach ap Corinwc {Peniarth MS. 132); Enllech ab Hjdwn 
{lolo MSS., p. 109) ; Anlach, son of Urbf ( Vita S. Cadoci). 

2 Vol. X, p. 86. 



of Tewdyr ap Tudwall ; and Braccanoc and Marchell 
are parents of Brychan, who marries Dwynwas or Dina, 
daughter of the King of Powys. As his authority he 
refers to the Naemsenchas, Leabhar Breac. The Bol- 
landists, relying on Shearman, have adopted this pedi- 
gree. But the Naemsenchas in the Leabhar Breac 
gives no such pedigree, which seems to have been 
entirely drawn out of Mr. Shearman's imagination. 
Nor does Duald MacFirbiss, in his great work on 
genealogies, the Leabhar Genealach, give any coun- 
tenance to this derivation of Brychan. It must be 
dismissed into the limbo of fantastic pedigrees. 

The conjecture of Mr. Vaughan is unsupported by 
Irish authorities. The pedigree was as follows : — 

Eochaidh Muighmedhuin = Mongfinn and Carina (a Saxon). 
358-378 (or 356-366). 

Brian (by M.). 


Duach Teanghamba, Eochaidh 
King of Counaught ; Tirmcharna. 
d. 504. 

Niall of the Nine 
Hostages (by C), 


(by M.). 

(by M.). 

Dathi,^ Amalgaidh, King of 
405-428. Connaught, 438-449. 

Laogbaire, Cairbre. Amalghaid. Maine. 
428-458. I 

Lnghaide, Cormac Caoch. 
479-503. I 

Tuathal Maelgarbh, 533-544. 

Conall Cremthan, Enua. Conall Gul- 
died 475. ban, d. 464. 

Dermot, 644-558. 

Eochaid, d. 


Murtogh MacErca, 503-527. 

Duald MacFirbiss says, in his Leabhar Genealach,^ 
"Cairbre, son of Nial, left 10 sons: — Cormac Caoch 

(the blind) This Cormac Caoch had two sons, 

viz. : Ainmire and Tuathal Maolgarbh, King of Eire.'' 

The first of the proposed identifications is the most 

1 Dathi was father of Oiliol Molt, 459-478. 
« P. 167. 


satisfactory. Marchell crossed from Porthmawr to 
Leinster ; and it is precisely in Leinster that several of 
the children of Brychan have left their names as 

That a migration should take place from Ulster or 
from Connaught to South Wales is improbable. The 
set from Ulster was to Alba, and in Connaught the 
Milesians obtained as much land as they required, by 
exterminating or expelling the native Tuatha De 

The name of Brychan, or Braccan, is somewhat 
suspicious, signifying the "Speckled" or "Tartan- 
clothed ;" and it looks much as though he to whom it 
was applied was an eponym for that clan of the Irish 
Goidels who certainly did invade and occupy Car- 
marthen, Pembroke, and Brecknock. We know that 
these invasions and colonisations were frequent, and 
that for a time Britain was subject to the Irish Goidels, 
and obliged to pay tax to them. It was after the 
reign of Dathi, who died in 428, that the Irish hold 
upon Britain came to an end, or was gradually relaxed. 

Rees conjectured^ that Brychan's father was captain 
of one of these Irish invading bands, a supposition that 
is supported by a passage in the lolo MSS.,^ wherein 
three invasions {gormesion) of Wales by the Irish are 
mentioned, one of which " was that of Aflech Goronawg, 
who took possession of Garth Mathrin by invasion; 
but, having married Marchell, the daughter of Tewdrig, 
King of that country, he won the good will of the 
inhabitants, and obtained it as his dominion in virtue 
of the marriage ; and there his tribe still remains, 
intermixed with the Welsh." 

Garthmadryn, according to the lolo MSS.,^ had at 
one time been part of the district called Morganwg, 
but was severed in Brychan's time. His grandfather, 
''Tewdrig the Blessed," is there described as being 
" King of Morganwg, Gwent, and Garthmadryn.'** 

1 Welsh Saints, p. 112. ^ P. 78. 

3 P. 111. * P. 118 ; cf. pp. 140, 147. 


Old Brycheiniog was commensurate with the present 
county of Brecknock, less the Hundred of Buallt or 
Builth.^ The name Garthmadryn gave way to one 
derived from its new regulus, who was called Brychan 
Brycheiniog, with which compare Rhufon Rhufoniog 
and other similar formations. In the Book ofLlandav 
the district is called regio Brachani, and the people 

The Goidel invasion came probably from one of the 
harbours of Pembrokeshire or Carmarthenshire, and 
the Irish niade their way up the valley of the Towy. 
Perhaps to them may be attributed the stone camp 
at Garn Goch, on an isolated rock commanding the 
river. Beneath it lies Llys Brychan. Then, push- 
ing up to Llandovery, where the old Roman town 
of Loventium lay in ruins, they struck the Roman 
paved road, the Via Julia, that led over the pass 
of Mynydd Myddfai, above the River Gwydderig, to 
the Roman camp of the Pigwn ; and so tramping on 
upon the road straight as a bow-line, looked down 
on the broad, richly- wooded basin of the Usk. Cross- 
ing the little stream Nant Bran, they halted in the 
walled city of Bannium, with its stone gateways still 
standing, among the ruins of Roman villas and baths, 
and made that their headquarters. Here it was that 
Brychan was bom ; and a little further down the Usk, 
at Llanspyddid, before the doorway of the church, 
Anlach was buried. 

These Irish invaders had entered on a fair land, well 
watered, the rocks of old red sandstone, crumbling 
down into the richest soil conceivable ; and here they 
were well content to settle, and to bring into subjection 

^ In the beginning of the ninth century, Baallt and Gwrthejrnion 
(in modern Radnorshire) formed a kingdom by themselves (see 
Owen's Pembrokeshire, p. 203). 

2 Pp. 219, 256. In a Bonedd y Saint (which contains a list of his 
children) in the late eighteenth-century MS. known as Y Piser Hir^ 
pp. 294-296, in the Swansea Public Library, Bryohan, we are told, 
was " Lord of Brecknock, Earl of Chester, and J^ron of Stafford !'' 


the natives, who probably offered little resistaoce. To 
the South shot up the purple Brecknock Beacons; away 
to the East the range of the Black Mountiiins, abniptly 
dying down, and forming a mighty portal through 
which, many centuries later, the Normans would pour 
and make Brecon their own. 

To the North were only wooded hills, stretching 
away to the Epynt range : a fair enclosed land, some 
twelve miles across, a happy valley as that of Rasselas, 
to all appearance, but one to be battled for from gene- 
ration to generation : so rich, so lovely, that it was 
coveted by all who looked upon it. 

That Anlach was a Christian we must suppose, but 
of a rude quality. His wife was one, certainly, and 
his son Brychan was brought up in the Christian 

Within the walls of Bannium, now Y Guer, on a hot 
summer, the grass burns up over the foundations of 
a villa, and reveals the plan, with atrium and senii- 
circular tablinum opening out of it, and chambers to 
which access was obtained from the atrium. It was 
the most notable building in Bannium — perhaps in the 
fifth century not wholly ruinous. And in it Anlach 
may well have dwelt ; and in one of those chambers 
now under the sod, Brychan, who was to give his 
name to all that country, may well also have been 

Of the life of Brychan we know nothing, save only 
what has been already related : how he was instructed 
by the Christian sage Drichan, and how he was sent 
hostage to the King of Powys. 

The following represent the principal printed Welsh 
lists of Brychan's children. There are, needless to say, 
more still in various MSS. 

1. The Cognatio of Cott., Vesp. A., xiv (late twelfth or 

early thirteenth century) : eleven sons and twenty-five 

2. The Cognatio of Cott., Dom. i {drca 1650): thirteen sods 

and twenty-four daughters. 


3. Jesus College, Oxford, MS. 20, known as Llyfr Llewelyn 

Offeiriad (first half of the fifteenth century) : eleven 
sons and twenty- four daughters. 

4. The Achau compiled by Lewis Dwnn, a Welsh herald, 

tem'p. Queen Elizabeth, printed in the Heraldic Visita- 
tions of Wales, vol. ii, p. 14, 1846, edited by Sir S. li. 
Meyrick : fourteen sons and twenty-two daughters. 

5. Myvyrian Archceology, p. 419, from an Anglesey MS., 

written in 1579: twenty-three sons and twenty-five 

6. lolo MSS.y p. Ill, from a Coychurch MS., written circa 

1670 : twenty-four sons and twenty-six daughters. 

7. lolo MSS.y pp. 119-121, from a Llansannor MS.: twenty- 

five sons and twenty-six daughters. 

8. lolo MSS.y p. 140, from a Cardiff MS. : twenty-five sons 

and twenty-eight daughters. 

To these must be added : — 

9. The list given by Nicolas Eoscarrock, the friend of 

Camden, in his MS. Lives of the SaintSy now in the 
University Library, Cambridge. He was assisted by 
Edward Powell, a Welsh priest, who had in his 
possession a number of Welsh pedigrees and calendars. 
Thirty-two sons and thirty-one daughters — sixty-three 
in all — the most liberal allowance given him, we 
believe, in any list extant 

10. The list in the tract on " the Mothers of the Saints" in 

Ireland, attributed to Oengus the Culdee : twelve sons 
in all. 

11. The list given by William of Worcester : twenty-four 


12. The list given by Leland : also twenty-four children. 

Giraldus Cambrensis, who speaks of Brychan as *' a 
powerful and noble personage," says that **the British 
nistories testified that he had four - and - twenty 
daughters, all of whom, dedicated from their youth to 
religious observances, happily ended their lives in 
sanctity.^ No doubt Fuller had this passage before 
him when he wrote, in his Worthies^ of Brychan : — 

^ Itin. Kamh.j Bk. i, chap. ii. 


'* This King had four-and-twenty daughters, a jolly 
number ; and all of them asaints, a greater happiness/*^ 
He had, of course, no other conception of saintship 
than that of the Latin Church. 

Caw, the founder of one of the Three Saintly Clans, 
is also credited with having been the father of a nume- 
rous family — twenty-six sons and five daughter ; but 
some of his sons followed a warlike life. 

The following is an alphabetical list of Brychan's 
children, as given in the Cognatio of Cott., Vesp. A,xiv, 
by much our earliest authority, with identifications 
from the later lists : — 


1. Arthen. 

2. Berwin (Berwyn, Gerwyn). 

3. Clytguin (Cledwyn). 

4. Chybliuer (Cyflefyr or Cyflewyr) ; son of Dingad in the 

Jesus MS. 

5. Kynauc (Cynog). 

6. Kynon (Cynon) ; son of Arthen in Cogti. Dom. 

7. Dynigat (Dingad). 

8. Papay (Pabiali). 

9. Paschen (Pasgen) ; son of Dingad in CogtL Dom., and the 

Jesus MS. 

10. Rein (Rhun or Rhun Dremrudd). 

11. Rydoch or ludoc (Cadog). 

Married daughters : 

1. Aran wen (Arian wen), wife of lorwerth Hirflawd, King of 


2. Kehingayr (Rhiengar), mother of St. Cynidr. 

3. Gladis (Gwladus), wife of Gwynllyw Filwr, and mother of 

St. Catwg or Cadog. 

4. Guaur (Gwawr), wife of Elidr Lydanwyn, and mother 

of Llywarch Hen. 

5. Gurycon Godheu (Gwrgon). wife of Cadrod Calchfynydd. 

6. Hunyd (Nefydd), wife of Tudwal Befr. 

7. Luan (Lleian), wife of Gafran, and mother of Aidan or 

Aeddan Fradog. 

8. Marchel (Mechell), wife of Gwrin Farfdrwch of Meirionydd. 

I Vol. iii, p 5L4, ed. 1840. 


9. Meleri (Eleri), wife of Ceredig, and grandmother of St. 

10. Nyuein (Nefyn), wife of Cynfarch Gul, and mother of 

Urien Eheged. 

11. Tutglid (in quite the later lists Tudful and Tanglwst ai*e 

confounded with her), wife of Cyngen, and mother 
of Brochwel Ysgythrog. 

Daughters not mentioned as being married : 

12. Bclyau (possibly Felis of the Jesus MS., and Tydieu of the 

other lists). 

13. Bethan (unidentified). 

14. Kein (Ceinwen). 

15. Keneython (Cyneiddon). 

1 6. Kerdych (Ceindrych). 

17. Clydei (Clydai). 

18. Duyn (Dwynwen). 

19. Eiliueth (Eluned). 

20. Goleu (Goleuddydd). 

21. Guen(Gwen). 

22. Ilud (the Llud of the Jesus MS.). 

23. Tibyei (Tybie). 
24 Tudeuel (Tudfil). 

25. Tudhistil (Tangwystl, otherwise called Tanglwst). 

We now give them as they occur in the various later 
lists : — 


1. Arthen. Attlien in the Jesus MS. 

2. Cadog. He is the Eydoch or ludoc in Cogn. Vesp. ; Ridoc 

in Cogn, Dom. ; Reidoc in the Jesus MS. ; Eadoc in 
the Achau (No. 4). 

3. Cai. 

4 Cledwyn or Clydwyn. 

5. Clydog or Cledog. The son of Clydwyn according to the 


6. Cyflefyr or Cyflewyr. 

7. Oynbryd. 

8. Cynfran. 

9. Cynin. No doubt Cunin Cof, the son of Brychan*s 

daughter Huuyd (Nefydd), by Tudwal Befr. 


10. Cynog. By Banadlined, daughter of a King of Powys. 

11. Cynon, in the Jesus MS. Gogn. Vesp., has "Kynon qui 

sanctus est in occidentali parte predicte Manuie;" Cog%. 
Dom., " Eun ipse sanctus ycallet {sic) in Manan ;" the 
Jesus MS., " Eunan yssyd yny (He) a elwir Manaw." 

12. Dingad. 

13. Dogfan, Dogwan, or Doewan. 

14. Dyftian. Probably the Dustnon of Achau, 

15. Dyfrig. By Eurbrawst (Tolo MSS., p. 119). He must not 

be taken for the well-known Dubricius or Dyfrig, 
who as we know from his Vita was the son of Efrddyl 
or Eurddil, the daughter of Pepiau or Peipiau, King of 
Erging, but his father's name is not mentioned. 

16. Gerwyn or Berwyn. 

17. Hychan. 

18. Llecheu. 

19. Mathaiam. Marthaerun in Cogn. Dom. ; Marcharairjun or 

Marcharanhun in the Jesus MS. ; and Matheym in 

20. Nefydd. 

21. Neffei. Possibly the Dedyu or Dettu, given in the Gognaiio 

as son of Clydwyn. In lolo MSS., p. 119, he is said 
to have been a son by Proistri, his Spanish wife. 

22. Pabiali. Papai in the Jesus MS. Son by Proistri 

(lolo MSS., p. 119). 

23. Pasgen. Son probably by Proistri (lolo M8S., p. 119). 

24. Ehaint or Ehain. 

25. Ehawin. 

26. Ehun or Ehun Dremrudd. Drem Dremrud in the 

Jesus MS. ; Ehevn in Achau. Succeeded his father as 
King, according to Cogn. Dom. 

27. Syredigon. In Achau only. 

28. a Valath (sic). In Achau only. 

Daughters : 

1. Anna. lolo MSS., p. 140, only. 

2. Arianwen. The Wrgrgen of the Jesus MS. is a misscript 

for this saint's name. 

3. Bechan. Cogn, Dom. ; the Bethan of Cogn, Vesp. ; in none 

of the other lists. 

4. Ceindrych. Kerdech in Cogn, Dom. and the Jesus MS. 

5. Ceinwen. 

6. Cenedlon. 

7. Clydai. 

8. Cymorth or Corth. 


9. Cyneiddon. Only in Cogn. Dom. as Koneidon, and the 
Jesus MS. as Byneidon. 

10. Dwynwen. 

11. Eleri (properly Meleri, unrubrlcated). Meleri in Cogn, 

Dom. and the Jesus MS; Elen in Achuu. Daughter 
by Eurbrawst (Lends Damn, vol. ii, p. 64). 

12. Eluned, Elined, or Elyned. As Eliweet in Achau. The 

Almedha of Giraldus Gambrensis. 

13. Enfail. Of Merthyr Enfail. Her name has probably been 

evolved out of the Merthir Euineil of Gogn. Vesp., 
a misscript for Tutuul, z.e., the Tudful of Merthyr 

14. Goleu. Only in Gogn, Dom. as Gloy v, and Achau as Gole. 

The same as Goleuddydd. 

15. Goleuddydd. 

16. Gwawr. 

17. Gwawrddydi 

18. Gwen. 

19. Gwenddydd. 

20. Gwenfrewi. Only in lolo HfSS., p. 140, and Achau. 

21. Gwladus. 

22. Gwrgon. Grucon Guedu in Gogn. Dom., and Grugon in 

the Jesus MS. 

23. HawystL 

24. Lleian. 

25. Lludd. In the Jesus MS. only. 

26. Mechell. As Marchell in Gogn, Dom., the Jesus MS., and 


27. Kefydd. In My v. Arch., p. 419 ; Hunyd in Gogn, Vesp. ; 

Nunidis in Gogn. Dom. ; Goleuddydd in the Jesus 

28. Nefyn. The Nyuen of Gogn. Dom. 

29. Khiengar or Rhiengan. Keyngair in Gogn, Dom., Kingar 

in the Jesus MS., and Kyngar in Achau. 

30. Tanglwst or Tangwystl. Taghwystyl in the Jesus MS. ; 

probably the Tutbistyl of Gogn. Dom. 

31. TudfyL The Tuglit of ^Gogn. Dom., and Gutuyl of the 

Jesus MS. 

32. Tybleu or Tybie. 

33. l^di®!! or Tydeu. 

Nicolas Roscarrock, in his MS. Lives of the Saints, 
on the authority of MSS. possessed by Edward Powell, 
priest, gives another list as follows : — 

Oth sbb., T0&. xn. 26 



1. Cenawcus, Martyr. The Cynog of the Cognatio, 

2. Gladwin, and (3) Cledwin, " whoe conquered South 

Wales, and had a great saint to his son, named 
Clydocus." He duplicates Cledwyn, the Clytguiii of 
Cogn, Vesp. 
4 Cifliver. The Chybliuer or Cyflewyr of the other lists. 

5. Berwin. This is Berwyn or Gerwyn. the son of Brynach 

Wyddel and grandson of Brychan. 

6. Maethiam. Occurs in Cogn. Dom. A saint of Cardigan- 


7. Cinan. The Cynon of Cogn, Vesp., and sou of Artben in 

Cogn, Dom. 

8. Kembrit. The Cynbryd of the later lists. A martyr at 

Bwlch Cynbryd, Llauddulas. 

9. Cimfram. In the later lists Cynfran, founder of Llysfaen, 


10. Hichan. In the later lists. The saint of Uanychan in the 

Vale of Clwyd. 

11. Dififrig. In the later lists. 

12. Cain, a Martyr. This is the Cai of the lolo MSS. pedi- 


13. Allecheu. The Uecheu of the later lists. Of Llanllecheu 

in Ewyas. 

14. Dingad. Cogn. Vesp. He vfas father of Pasgen according 

to Cogn, Dom. 

15. Cadocus, the Rydoch of Cogn. Vesp. 

16. Eawn or Rohun. The Rein of Cogn. Vesp., otherwise 

called Rhun Dremrudd. Succeeded his father as 
King. See also 25. 

17. Arthen. (Cogn. Vesp.). Father of Cynon. 

18. Difnan. In the later lists. Founder of Llanddyfnan in 


19. Anewi. Possibly Neffei. 

20. Paball. In Cogn. Vesp. and Dom. Papay ; in the later 

lists Pabiali. 

21. Ridorch, and (22) Rodorch, the same duplicated, the 

Rydoch of Cogn. Vesp. 
2-^. Caradocus. This is Caradog Freichfras, great-grandson 
of Brychan, by his granddaughter Gwen of Tal- 

24. Helim, the Helye or Helic of Leland and William of 


25. Run. The same as Rawn, No. 16. 

26. Japan. Not recorded elsewhere. 


27. Doguan. The Dogfan of the later lists. A martyr at 

Merthyr Dogfan, in Pembrokeshire ; founder of Llan- 
rhaiadr yn Mochnant. 

28. Auallach. A mistake of Roscarrock, who has inserted the 

father of Brychan among his sons. 

29. Lhoiau. Possibly the Lleclieu of the later lists. 

30. Pashen. Paschen in Cogn. Vesp. Son of Dingad, accord- 

mg to Cogn. Dom. 

31. Idia. Not found elsewhere. 

32. lo. The lona or loannes of Leland and William of 


Datbghters : 

1. Gladus, i.e,, Gwladys, in all lists. Wife of Gwynllyw and 

mother of Catwg. 

2. Gwawr. In all lists. Wife of Elidr Lydanwyn and 

mother of Llywarch Hen. 

3. Eleri. The Moleri of Cogn., but Eleri in later lists ; wife 

of Ceredig. 

4. Arianwen. In all lists. 

5. Triduael. The Tudeuel of Cogn, Vesp. Martyr at Merthyr 


6. Winifred, " called in some coppies Gurgon." The Gwen- 

frewi of one list of Brychan's daughters, in which 
Gwrgon also occurs (lolo MSS., p. 140). 

7. Gindreth, " of some Mechel," ie., Marchell or Mechell, wife 

of Gwrin Farfdrwch (Cogn. Vesp.). Her name, how- 
ever, matches Ceindrych of the later lists. 

8. Newin, i.e., Nyuein or Nefyn, wife of Cyiifarch Gul, and 

mother of Urien Rheged. 

9. Neuidh, the Hunyd or Nunidis of Cogn., wife of Tudwal 

Befr, and mother of Cynin. 
10. Gleian, i.e., Luan or Lleian, wife of Gafran, and mother of 

Aeddan Fradog. 
11 Macella. See 7. 

12. Roscarrock omits this name; was probably unable to 

read it 

13. Gweadhydh, ** in some coppies Gwawardhydh, the mother 

of Kenedir." The Gwenddydd of the later list. The 
mother of Cynidr was Cein<^air (Rhiengar). 

14. Goliudhed. The Goleu or Goleuddydd ot the other lists. 

15. Meldrada, "mother of Cinfinn," not identified. 

16. Keingir, " mother of St. Kenedar." The Ceingair (Rhien- 

gar) of the other lists. 



17. Gwen, " mother of Sannan, the wife of Malgo Venedoti- 

cus." Gwen of Talgarth was granddaughter of Bry- 
chan, and wife of Llyr Merini Goffn. Vesp. gives 
Sanan as daughter of Tudglid, wife of Cyngen. 

18. Cenelin. The Cyneiddon or Cenedlon of the lists. 

19. Clodfaith, probably Clydai Clotfaith occurs once in the 

Welsh lists {Myv. Arck,, p. 426), where she is confused 
with Gwen of Talgarth. 

20. Hawistle, and (30) Hudwistle, reduplications of HawysU 

or Tangwystl and Tutbistyl (Gogn. Dom.). 

21. Towen. A blunder for Gwen. 

22. Tibies, i.e., Tybieu. Martyr at Llandebie. 

23. Enuael. The Enfail of the later lists. Probably a mistake 

for Tudful (Tydfil). 

24. Elinedh, " whom Giraldus calleth Almedha." 

25. Elida, the Ilud of Cogn. Vesp. and Llud of the Jesus MS, 

She is called Juliana by Leland and William of Wor- 

26. Tideu. The Tydeu or Tydieu of the later lists. 

27. Diganwen, and (28) Dwinwen, "July 13," are Dwynwen. 

January 25tii is Festival of St. Dwynwen ; July 13th, 
of St. Dogfan or Doewan. 

29. Conoin, no other than Geinwen, or Cain, the celebrated 

S. Keyne. 

30. See 20. 

31. Malken. Probably Mechell or MarchelL 

There is a " Life of St. Ninnocha," or Gwengastle, a 
saint of Brittany, contained in the Cartulary of 
QuimperlSf that states she was a daughter of Brychan, 
and that her mother's name was Meneduc : — 

" Quidam vir nobilis f uit in Combronensia r^one, Brochan 
nomine, ex genere Gurthiemi, rex honorabilis valde in totam 
Britanniam . . . Ipse Brochanus accepit uxorem ex genere Scot- 
torum, filiam Constantini regis, ex stirpe Juliani Gaesaris, 
Meneduc nomine." 

The " Life" was written in 1130, but is of little value. 
It teems with blunders. The regio Combronensia is 
probably Cambria, and not Cumbria or Cumberland, as 
Mr. Egerton Phillimore supposes.^ The Gurthiem to 
whom Brochan is akin is described in the *' Life** of 
that saint, in the same Cartulary^ as son of Bonus, 

1 T GymmrodoTf vol xi, p. 100. 


son of Glou (Gly wys), and traced it back to Outham 
(Eudaf ?), son of Maximian (Macsen Wledigj. 

The wife from the Scots, or Irish, is a aaughter of 
Constantino. The writer of the ** Life" lived in the 
twelfth century, when it was forgotten that Scot signified 
Irish : and, as he knew that there had been a Con- 
stantino of Scotland, he made Brychan marry a 
daughter of the King of Alba of that name. In the 
" Life," St. Patrick sends Germanus to the court of 
Brochan, but he is also visited by St. Columcill from 
Hy. The Germanus who did go to Wales died Bishop 
of Man in 474 (not he of Auxerre, who died 448), and 
St. Columcill in 598. Brychan can hardly have lived 
later than 500 ; consequently, we have here a pretty 
confusion. Brychan's wife Meneduc, and his daughter 
Gwengastle, or Ninnocha, are unknown to the Welsh. 

These various lists by no means exhaust the number 
of children attributed to Brychan by the Welsh,, 
in the Calendar printed in Y Greal^ four more are 
mentioned : two sons, Gwynan and Gwynws ; and two 
daughters, Callwen and Gwenfyl.* 

Brychan is said to have had three wives. In Cogn. 
Vesp. their names are given as Prawst,* Rhibrawst, 
and Proistri ; and in Cogn. Dom. as Eurbrawst, Rhy- 
brawst, and Proestri. The last-named is elsewhere 
given as Peresgri and Prosori/ It is stated in the 
lolo MSS.f^ that Rhybrawst, his first wife, was his 
cousin, being the daughter of Meurig ab Tewdrig. 
Eurbrawst was " a daughter of a prince of Cornwall" 

* P. 288 (1806). There are several copies of it, differing slightly. 
^ Among other names and forms occurring in Peniarth MSS, 

74iy 75, and 178, are the following : Sons — Avallach, Kaian, Kain, 
Heilin, Lloyan, Llonio, Pabal, Rydderch ; Daughters — Keindec, 
Glodfaith, Oolenvedd, Gwenllian, Tudwystl. In the Calendars in 
Peniarth MS, 187 and Llyftr Plygain^ 1618, against November 2nd, 
we have another daughter, Gwenrhiw. 

* Another Prawst was wife of Einion Yrth, the son of Cunedda. 
Another compound, Onbrawst, occurs. 

* Myv. Arch., p. 418 ; lolo MSS., pp. 118, 119. 

^ P. 147 ; on p. 119 she is said to have been Eorbrawsti 


by " an emperor of Rome."* Proistri, his third wife, 
was a Spaniard.* 

According to Welsh hagiology, Brychan s family forms 
one of the Three Saintly Clans of Britain, the other 
two being those of Cunedda and Caw. The most 
powerful and influential of the three was Cuneddas, 
and Brychan s next. His was the most Goidelic. One 
of the Triads credits him with having " given his 
children and grandchildren a liberal education, so that 
they might be able to show the Faith in Christ to the 
Nation of the Welsh, wherever they were without the 
Faith."* This IViad has been adduced to show how 
the names of some of the grandchildren have crept into 
the lists. '* The sons of Brychan were Saints in the 
C6rau of Garmon and Illtyd ; and they afterwards 
formed a C6r with Bishop Dyfrig in the Wig on the 
Wye,"* that is, Hentland, in Herefordshire, the founda- 
tion of which is ascribed to Brychan.* Brynach the 
Goidel, who married his daughter Cymorth, or Corth, 
is said to have come over with him to this Island, and 
to have been his confessor (periglavrr).^ 

Welsh tradition does not strictly confine Brychan 's 
children to Wales. We are told that Neffei, Pabiali, 
and Pasgen, his sons by his Spanish wife, went to 
Spain. Cadog was buried in France, an(l Dyfnan in 
Ireland. Berwyn, or Gerwyn, founded a church in 
Cornwall. Nefydd was a Bishop in the North, and 
Cynon went to Manaw. 

Mr. Copeland Borlase is too sweeping when he says 
that the children of Brych^m were merely natives of the 
country over which Brychan once ruled, and that they 
might be regarded in much the same way as when we 
speak of the Children of Israel f and we believe the 
Cognatio de Brychan to be too early and trustworthy 

^ Dwnn, Heraldic Visitations^ vol. ii, p. (>4. 

2 loloMSS., p. 119. 

» Myv. Arch., p. 402. * lolo MSS., p. 120. 

^ Ibid., p. 121. « Ibid., pp. 121, 140. 

'^ Age of the Saints, p. 147. 


a document to enable us to quite dismiss the whole 
family as a " mythical progeny."^ Drayton, whilst not 
denying the existence of twenty-four daughters to 
Brychan, says that they all underwent metamorphosis 
by becoming so many rivers. He is very probably 
incorporating some tradition, now lost. He says : — 

** For Brecan was a Prioce once fortunate and great 
(Who, dying, lent his name to that his nobler seafc) 
Witli twice twelue daughters blest, by one and onely wife : 
Who for their beauties rare, and sanctitie of life. 
To Riuers were transformed ; whose pureness doth declare 
How excellent they were, by beeing what they are : 
Who dying virgins nil, and Riners now by Fate, 
To tell their former lone to the vnmaried state. 
To Senerne shape their course, which now their forme doth 

beare ; 
Ere shee was made a flood, a virgiue as they were. 
And from the Irish seas with feare they still doe flie : 
So much thoy yet delight in mayden companie."^ 

It cannot be believed that the reputed children of 
Brychan were all really his. Welsh hagiology, as in 
the case of Cunedda and Caw, designates them his 
gwelygwdd^ a term which means in the Welsh Laws 
a tribe derived from one common ancestor ; and in the 
Welsh Tribal System the gwely was the family-group, 
embracing sons, grandsons, and great-grandsons. Some 
of those reputed to be sons of Brychan are known to 
have been grandchildren ; and allowance must also be 
made for duplications, of which there are clearly some, 
as also for blunders on the part of copyists. This will 
considerably reduce the number of his progeny, as they 
appear in, especially, the later lists. 

In any enumeration, however, of the children of 
Brychan, it must be borne in mind that there were 
several pernons of the name known to Celtic hagiology. 
A King Brychan, with many children, who all, or nearly 
all, became saints, figures in Cornish, Breton, and Irish, 
as well as Welsh, hagiology. Mr. Egerton Phillimore 

1 Prof. Hugh Williams, Gildaa, p. 27. 
« Polyolbion, Second Part, p. 57, ed. 1622. 


has endeavoured to show^ that the best authenticated 
children in the Welsh lists are pretty clearly the 
children of at least two distinct Brychans : one belong- 
ing to Breconshire, the other to what is now Southern 
Scotland. The Breton Brychan he traces to Scotland,* 
and thinks that he admits of being plausibly identified 
with one of the Brychans who together made up the 
composite Brychan of Welsh hagiology. The names of 
his children are mostly not preserv^f to us ; but Mr. 
Phillimore assigns to him the children who are in the 
Cognatio said to be connected with Cumbria or its neigh- 
bourhood. These are (l) his sons Cynon, Rhun, and 
Arthen, and his daughter Bethan, or Bechan, all said 
to be commemorated or buried in Mannia or Manaw 
(no doubt Manaw Gododin, stretching all along both 
sides of the Forth below Stirling) ; and (2) his four 
daughters who are said to have married Northern 
princes, viz., Gwrygon, Gwawr, Nyfain, and Lluan. The 
statement respecting Brychan 's burial, he thinks, must 
needs also refer to a Northern, not to a strictly Welsh, 
Brychan. To this it might be added that there is 
some evidence of a Brycheiniog also in, apparently, 
Southern Scotland.' 

The tract on the " Mothers of the Saints" in Ireland, 
attributed to Oengus the Culdee, but actually by 
MacFirbiss, says of Cynog, whom it calls Canoe : " Dina 
was his mother, daughter of a Saxon King. She was 
the mother of ten sons of Bracan, King of Britain, son 
of Bracha Meoc : to wit, St. Mogor6c of Struthuir ; 
St. Mochon6c the Pilgrim of Cill-Mucraisse and of 
Gelinnia, in the region of Delbhna E^thra ; Dirad of 
Edardruim ; Duban of Rinn-dubhain alithir ; Carennia 
of Cill-Chairinne ; Cairpre the Pilgrim of Cill-Cairpre, 

^ Y Cymmrodor, vol. xi, pp. 100, 101, 125. The Brychan ab 
Gwyngon mentioned in the note in Camhro-British Saints, p. 606, is 
a misreading for Bricon, son of Guincon {Book of Llandav, p. 203). 

2 The only authority for this is the Vita Sice I^innochce ; but it 
does not state this, and is a most unreliable document. See what 
baa already been said thereon. 

* Skene, Four Ancient Books, vol. ii, p. 150. 


Isiol Farannan ; lust in Slemnach Albaniae ; EUoc of 
Cill-Moelloc juxta Loch Garman ; Planus of Cill-Phian 
in Ossory; Coeman the Pilgrim in Cill-Coemain in 
regione Gesille and elsewhere. And she was also the 
mother of Mobeoc of Gleann Geirf ; for he also was the 
son of Brachan, son of Bracha Meoc.'*^ 

We will now give the list of the sons and daughters 
of Brychan who were reputed to have settled in East 

William of Worcester, in 1478, visited Cornwall, and 
extracted the following from the "Acts of St. Nectan," 
in a MS. he saw on St. Michaers Mount. It has been 
printed by Nasmith, but not correctly. We have been 
able to collate it with the original MS. preserved in 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, and we give the 
revised extract : — ^ 

" Brokanus in partibus Walliariim regulus, fide et morum &c. 
per Glade wysam uxorem ejus genuit 24 filios et filias, et hiis 
nominibus vocabantur: (1) Nectanus, (2) Johannes, (3) Endeli- 
ent, (4) Menefrede, (5) Uelyan, (6) Tetha, (7) Maben, (8) Wentu, 
(9) Wensent, (10) Marwenna, (11) Wenna, (12) Juliana, (13) 
Yse, (14) Morwenna, (15) Wynip, (16) Kerhuder, (17) Cleder, 
(18) Kery, (19) Joua, (20) Helye, (21) Canauc, (22) Kenheuder, 
(23) Adwen, (24) Tamalanc. Ouines isti filii et filise postea 
fuerunt Sancti et Martires vel Confessores, et in Devonia, vel 
Comubia, heremeticam vitam ducentes ; sicut enim inter omnes 
quorum vitse mentis et virtutum rairaculis Cornubiensis vel 
Devoniensis irradiatus ecclesia, beatus Nectanus primo genitus 

1 Colgan, Acta SS, Hib., vol. i, p. 311. Of these the Martyrology 
of Donegal gives " Dnbhau, son of Brachan, King of Britain, by 
Din, daughter of the King of Saxon-land," and " Moghorog, son of 
Brachan, King of Britain, son of Brachaineoc by Dina, who was 
also mother of nine other saints.'' Shearman got his Brachaineoc 
from this. Bat the martyrologist misunderstood the title Brychan 
Brycheiniog for Brychan, son of Brycheiuiog, instead of Prince of 
that territory. 

2 William of Worcester wrote a most atrocious hand, and scribbled 
in his note-book as lie saw anything that struck him. He probably 
intended to have made a fair copy, but never did this. Nicolas 
Roscarrock had a transcript sent him from the MS. of such portions 
as concerned the Cornish Saints, and we are able to check off our 
reading of the names by the reading sent to him. 


fuit, ita cseteris ODjriibus honeatate vitae major fuit, et prodi- 
giorum choruscitate excelleutior extitit. 

" Fuit in ultimis Walliarum partibus vir dignitate regulus, 
fide et morum hpnestate praeclarus, nomine Brokannus, a quo 
provincia ipsa noraen sortita nuncupatur Brokannok usque in 
praesentem diem ; hie itaque Brokannus, antequam ex uxoresufi, 
Gladewysa filium vel tiliara genuisset, in Hiberniam profectus 
est, uxorem suam et omnia sua relinquens ; timuerat enim ne si 
cum uxore suA remaneret, generacionem ex ek procrearet, qu4 
impediretur ne libere Domino servire potuisset. Mansit igitur 
in HiberniA 24 annis, bonis operibus intendens ; postea autem 
visitare patriam suam volens, rediit in Walliam, ubi uxorem 
suam adhuc viventem invenit. Post aliquantulum autem 
temporis sicut Deus preordinaverat, licet ipse homo non propo- 
suisset, uxorem suam cognovit, ex qu& postea 24 filios et filias 
genuit. Vidcns Dei virtutero cui nemo resistere potest, ait, 
' Jam Deus in me vindicavit quod contra disposicionem volun- 
tatis ejus venire frustra disposui ; quia enim 24 annis ab uxore 
me& ne sobolem procrearem illicite effiigi,deditmihiproquolibet 
anno illicitae continentiae sobolem unam quia jam 24 filios et 
filias post 24 annos ab e&dem uxore suscepi.' Pnedicti autem 
24 filii et filiae, quos praedictus Brokanus ex uxore Gladewysa 
genuit his nominibus vocabantur, Nectanrs et caetera," 

Gwladys was not the name of any wife ascribed to 
Brychan in the Welsh accounts, but she was his 
daughter, and the most eminent of all. She became 
the wife of Gwynlly w Filwr, and mother of St. Catwg. 
The account given by William of Worcester supplies an 
omission in the Welsh Cognatio. It shows us that 
Brychan did visit Ireland, though probably for a very 
different reason from that assigned by the monkish 
writer. He went either to assert his rights in Ireland, 
or to collect more Irishmen to surround him, and to 
extend his kingdom in Wales. 

Leland, in his Collectanea (vol. iv, p. 153), gives a 
list of the children of Brychan from a legend of St. 
Nectan, which he found at Hartland. His list is this : 
(1) Nectan, (2) Joannes, (3) Endelient, (4) Menfre, 
(5) Dilic, (6) Tedda, (7) Maben, (8) Weneu, (9) Wen- 
sent, (10) Merewenna, (11) Wenna, (12) Juliana, (13) 
Yse, (1 4) Morwenna, (15) Wymp, (16) Wenheder, (17) 
Cleder, (18) Keri, (19) Jona, (20) Kanauc, (21) Ker- 


bender (Kenheuder), (22) Ad wen, (23) Helic, (24) 

We will now concern ourselves only with those 
children or grandchildren of Brychan who are named 
in the lists of William of Worcester and Leland, both 
of which we have quoted. 

We will take the latter list as our basis : — 

1. Nectan is the Saint of Hartlaud. He is not included in 

the Welsh lists. 

2. Joannes and (19) Jona are clearly the same. This is'the 

Ive of St. Ive ; his settlement there is in connection 
with those of his cousins, St. Cleer (Clether) and 
St. Keyne. 

3. Endelieut. This is misprinted or miswritten by Nasmith 

in his William of Worcester list as Sudbrent. She is 
Cenedlon in the Welsh lists. Her foundation is 
St Endelion. 

4. Menfre or Menefrida, the foundress of St. Minver, is pro- 

bably Mwynfriw, and may be Mwynen, the daughter 
of Brynach the Goidel, and Cymorth or Corth, the 
daughter of Brychan. 

5. Dilic is given by William of Worcester as Delyan, and is 

possibly the same as (3) Endelion. 

6. Tedda in William of Worcester. Tetha is St. Teath, pro- 

nounced Teth. She is actually St. Itha, but may be 

7. Maben is St. Mabenna of St. Mabyn, also unknown to. the 


8. Weneu or Wentu is the same as (11) Wenna. This is 

Gwen. Gwen of Talgarth was a daughter or grand- 
daughter of Brychan, who married Llyr Merini, and 
was the mother of Caradog Freichfras, who certainly 
was in Cornwall, in the Callington district. 

9. Wensent cannot now be traced ; probably same as (8) and 

(11) ; Wen-sant, or St. Wenn. 

10. Merewenua and (14) Morwenna are doubtless the same, 

patroness of Marhamchurch and of Morwenstow. Not 
known to the Welsh. 

11. (See 8 and 9). 

12. Juliana is the Juliot of North Cornwall ; her name probably 

occurs as Ilud in the Cognatio, 


13. Yse, clearly the patron of St. Issey. This is no doubt a 

mistake of the legend writer. The Episcopal Kegisters 
gave St. Itha as patroness of St. Issey, and she was an 
Irish saint. Her cult may have been introduced by 
the Brychan family. 

14. (See 10). 

15. Wymp is St. Wenappa, the Gwenabwy or Gwenaf wy of the 

Welsh lists, a daughter of Caw. Patroness of Gwennap 
(see 16). 

16. Wenhederis the same as Wenappa (see 15). 

17. Cleder is possibly Clydog, who was grandson of Brychan 

and son of Clydwyn. He is St. Clether in Cornwall, 
probably also St Cleer. 

18. Keri is clearly intended for Curig, patron of Egloskerry. 

His ancestry is unknown, but as he settled in 
the Brecon colony he was reckoned as a son of 

19. (See 2). 

20. Kanauc. By this Leland means Cynog. HewasBrychan's 

illegitimate sou by the daughter of the Prince of 
Powys. He was killed at Merthyr Cynog, in Breck- 
nockshire. Probably patron of St. Pinnock. 

21. Kerhender in William of Worcester is Kasmith's mis- 

reading for Kenheuder, i.e., Cynidr, St. Enoder, who 
was the son of one of Brychan*s daughters. 

22. Adwen or St. Athewenna is probably Dwyn or Dwynwen, 

a virgin, daughter of Brychan. 

23. Helic or Helye. The patron of Egloshayle is intended. 

24. Tamlanc is given by William of Worcester as Tamalanc 

The patroness of Talland is St Elen. This may be 
the Elined or Almedha of the Welsh lists, and the 
MSS. may have had "Elena cujus ecclesia in Tamlanc," 
and both transcribers may have committed the same 
careless blunder of taking the name of the place for 
that of the patron. Talland = (Sain)tEline(d), as 
Awdry became Tawdry. 

We have accordingly been able to account for about 
seventeen persons out of the twenty-four names. 

Nicolas Roscarrock gives April 6th as the day of 
St. Brychan. The saint is represented in fifteenth- 
century glass, with a lap full of children, at St. Neot, 



St. Brychan, from Stained Qlaas Window in Church of St. Neot, Cornwall. 


In the lolo MSS} he is said to have founded the 
church of Gwenfo or Wenvoe, now dedicated to 
St. Mary, in Glamorganshire. 

There is a place called Llys Brychan (his Court), near 
the site of the ruined church of Llangunnock, or Llan- 
gynog, near Llansoy, Monmouthshire, and also another 
under Garn Goch, in Carmarthenshire, as already 

Dafydd ab Gwilym, the contemporary of Chaucer, in 
his well-known poem addressed to St. Dwynwen, im- 
plores her to grant him his request " for the sake of 
the soul of Brychan Yrth with the mighty arma'** 

We fear that we have been able to throw but little 
light on a peculiarly obscure topic, but it may be of 
some avail to have collected together all that is recorded 
relative to this most shadowy but prolific father of a 
saintly family. 

1 P. 221. 

2 Poems, Ed. 1789, p. 156. The epithet Oyrth fieems to mean 
" toached" or "stricken"; cf. Einion Yrth, son of Canedda, whose 
name oocnrs as Enniaun Girt in the very early pedigrees in 
Uarleian MS. 3859. 


9rcf)aeologiral il^otes ann (Bntvitsi. 

PoRTMADOC Meeting. 
To the Editor of the '^ Archceologia Cambrenaia," 

Sib, — May I offer a sD^gesfcion for the consideration of those who 
organise expeditions for the Association in fatare P 

At Portroadoc the nnmbor of members was nnnsnally large. The 
carriages were unastially small and numerous. The first contained 
the officials of the Association ; it stopped when it reached a point 
of interest to be visited, and the occupants descended, and began 
their survey on the spot. No. 2 drove ap shortly, and its occupants 
quickly followed those of No. 1, having but a very little distance to 
walk. But when it came to No. 10, and to No. 15, each one being 
a little later than the one in front, and the passengers in it having a 
little farther to walk, the time lost before the vehicle stopped, and 
in walking to the object to be seen, was not inconsiderable. So it 
happened that the whistle sounded almost as soon as the last had 
reached the place they wanted to see. There was soreness on the 
part of those who felt themselves unduly hurried, on the part of our 
excellent conductor, and on the part of our no less excellent officials ; 
who, having seen all there was to see with a minimum of labour 
and a maximum of comfort, and ensconced themselves again in 
vehicle No. I, close at hand, cried out : " Why won't those people 
get in to their seats ? *' 

I beg to suggest that in future the officials get into the middle 
carriage, not the first; that it shall stop as soon as it reaches the 
place to be visited, those in front going on a little farther, so that 
those behind may get somewhat nearer ; and that thus the delay 
consequent on leaving the last a long way behind may be obviated. 

Chwaren tefr \ bawb. 

Yours truly, 

Charles Henry Glascodine. 

Cae Pare, Swansea, 6th October, 1903. 

Life of the Late Richard Fenton, K.C., F.A.S. — Messrs. Edwin 
Dayies and Co., publishers, Brecon, have in the press a life of the 
late Richard Fenton, K.C., F.A.S., by his grandson, Ferrar Fenton, 
F.R.A.S., to precede a new edition of Fenton*s Historical Tour 
through Pembrokeshire, the well-known County History. To this 
work will bo made important additions from the papers left for that 


pnrpose by Riohard Fenton and his son John Fenton, and which 
are being edited by Ferrar Fenton for the new issne. The added 
drawings include ogam and other lithic monuments, plans of addi- 
tional explorations of prehistoric camps and tnmnli, as well as 
church monuments, by the pencil of J. Fenton. Mr. B. Quaritch, of 
Piccadilly, is the London publisher. 

Pembbokishirb Ancient Monumbnts. — ^A meeting of the com 
mittee of the Pembrokeshire Association for the Preservation of 
Ancient Monuments was held at the Temperance Hall, Haverford- 
west, on Saturday afternoon. Mr. Edward Laws presided^ there 
being also present : The Yen. Archdeacon Williams, Dr. Henry 
Owen, Mr. 1\ L. James (Mayor of Haverfordwest), Mr. James 
Thomas (Rock Hoose), Mr. H. W. Williams (Solva), and the Hon. 
Sec. (Mr. J. W. Phillips). 

On the reading of the minutes, a question was asked as to the 
ownership of the Cam Fawr Gamp, and the Secretary said he had 
been unable to ascertain who was the owner. 

Mr. James Thomas seemed to think that the Ecclesiastical Com- 
missioners were the ground landlords, and it was understood that he 
would make enquiries. 


Llawhaden Castle, — Since the last report was issued your com- 
mittee have again endeavoured to obtain permission from the tenant 
to cut the trees which are causing such damage to the walls, and to 
do the urgently-needed repairs to the octagonal tower ; bat per- 
mission has been persistently refused, although we undertook to make 
good any damage which the tenant might have sustained. At 
Michaelmas the Association will become tenants of the Castle and 
moat, and it is our intention to proceed with the repairs, etc^ at 

Jlaverjordtcest Castle. — It would greatly add to the appearance of 
this building if the northern curtain were opened out ; it would also 
be of great interest to excavate the central courtyard, where under- 
ground passages and at least three dungeons are known to exist. 

Eoch Castle. — This Castle is still under restoration, the roof has 
been put on, and the tower made weatherproof. The work so far 
reflects great credit upon those concerned in it. The additional 
building has been adapted to its surroundings with much skilL 

St. Mary's Church, Tenby. — In the chancel of this church are five 
plain flat-headed clerestory windows, which were closed, in the last 
decade of the fifteenth century by Dr. John Smith, Archdeacon of 
St. David's and Hector of Tenby, when he put up the very handsome 
carved-oak ceiling. This was an extraordinary proceeding *on his 
part, as now that they have been reopened (without in any way in- 


terfering with the carved work), thej reader visibfe this fine ^eih'ng, 
which formerly was quite obseored. 

Teviby Castle.— The little keep of Tenby Castle hill has for many 
years been in the hands of the Admiralty, and was in a sadly dilapi- 
dated and degraded condition. The Corporation of Tenby have of 
late reaeqaired possession of this interesting turret, probably one 6f 
the oldest bits of masonry in the county of Pembroke ; and that body 
are to be congratulaeed in that they immediately took steps to repair 
the building, and then handed it over to the managers of the local 
Museum, who carried out such further repairs as they deemed 
necessary for the security of the structure. It is now open to the 

Destruction of an Old Building at Tenby, — Visitors to Tenby may 
remember a little buildins^ nearly opposite to the south-west gateway, 
used of late as a bleicksmith's shop, in which were some curious 
arches, and one of those huge stone chimneys formerly attributed to 
the Flemish colonists. This building was known of late years as the 
''Leper House," though there is no reason for believing that it was 
ever used as a hospital ; we know that it did serve as an outwork in 
the Civil Wars, and was probably erected for that purpose. It is 
much to be regretted that the owner has destroyed the features of 
this building, by pulling out the doorway and substituting a shop 
window. This arched doorway has been secured, and is to be placed 
in the tower on Black Rock, Penally, and this is perhaps making 
the best of a bad job. The Black Bock Tower mentioned in Fenton 
(page 445) seems to have lost its door-arch in his time ; and now, 
probably owing to the percussion of the constant explosions in an 
adjoining quarry, shows signs of movement, so that it has become 
absolutely necessary to replace the arch in order to preserve the 
building. As the Tenby doorway is composed of two arched pieces 
of limestone, it represents no period, and will not be out of place in 
the little tower, which is without any architectural detail. 

Llcmumwr Cross. — This cross has been removed from the passage 
where it was found, and will shortly be fixed in a safe position in 
front of the house, the lessee, Mr. W. B. Thomas, having kindly 
undertaken to have this done. 

St, Man' if s Churchy Haverfordwest, — Your committee has much 
pleasure in reporting that the much-needed restoration of this church 
is being pushed forward as rapidly as possible. The work of 
restoring the first bay of the nave roof has been placed in the hands 
of Messrs. Cornish and Quimler, of London, a firm of great experi- 
ence in church restoration, and we believe the work will be strictly 
carried out in accordance with the original design. A large amount 
of deal work has unfortunately been inserted in the carved ceiling, 
which will all have to be replaced by oak ; this work is necsssarily 
very expensive, and money is much needed. The tender for the 
restoration of the tower has been let, and the work will be com- 
menced at once. 

6th sbb., VOL. in. 27 



ErraUe Block of PieriU near St DavicTs^ — The ironwork proteoi- 
ing this block has been well painted, and the stone is now si^e from 
further damage. 

Cam Faun' Camp, — Great damage has been done to this camp, the 
road contractor having remored the better part of abont 70 yards of 
the third line of walla from the east side. Strong representations 
hare been made to the Haverfordwest Rnral District Conncil on the 
matter, and the surveyors have been warned against removing any 
more stone from the spot. 

We wonld again appeal to members to find oat and note the 
antiquities which exist m their own immediate neighbonrhood, and 
to inform the Hon. Sec. at once of any damage being done or in 

Account of Bccdpts and Payment* to September 26^, 1908. 



£, <. d. 

By Balance from last Ac- 
count ... ... 63 8 8 

,, further Subscriptions 

July 1st, 1902 ... 11 1 

n Subscriptions due July 

Ist, 1908 14 11 

je89 8 
Balance brought down JBSd 15 10 

£ $, d. 
To Mr. T. J. Morris for 

Printing ... ... 7 6 

„ Mr. H. W. T^lliams 

for Printing ... 12 

„ Mr. J. W. Phillips for 

Postages, etc. ... 15 4 

Balanoe at Bank ... 86 15 10 

£89 8 

Will op Sib John db la Boohb. — In Arch. Comb., 2nd Ser., 
vol. iii, p. 266, there is given what parports to be a transcript of the 
original will of Sir John de la Roche, of Roch Castle, in the connty 
of Pembroke, in which there is a beqnest of a bpok called the SirculuSy 
which has perplexed me. 

The original will has recently come into my possession from the 
Middlehill Library. The words of the beqnest are : ille liber riih- 
m4xrum qui vacatur Firenbras, 

This wonld seem to mean the poem of Syr FerumbrcUy the old 
English version of FierabraSy the most popular of all the chamom 
of the Charlemagne cycle. 

As the will is dated 17th May, 1314, the notice of the poem is 
early and interesting. 

Poyston. Hbhbt Owbh. 




Aber Ganolwyn, 26 
Abersooh, Castell, 252 
Aberystwith, 30 

" Aberystwith, its Court Leet," 
1690-1900, GeorgeE. Evans," 
reviewed, 271 
Aberystwith Castle, burnt by 
Gruffiidd ap Meredudd, 277 ; 
delivered up by Colonel 
Whiteley, 277 ; proposed Ex- 
cavations, 272-278 
Job Sheldon, Mayor, 271 
Mint, 277 
Abone (0. Irish Abaun), 36 
Accounts, Statement of, 1901-1902, 

Adar Rhiannon, 24 
Address, Lord Glanusk's, 67 
Advocarii (Vowrye men), 63 
Airella, sister of Samson, 330 
Allen, J. Bomilly, Pre-Norman 
Cross Base, Llangefelach, 
Glamorganshire, 181-188 
Perforated Stone Hammer 
found in Pembrokeshire, 
Alud (S. Almedha), Legend of, 215 
Alud's Chapel (Emied, Alice, Ay- 
lett, Eylet, Haellide, Tallad), 
214, 219 
Alyn, Edward Lhuyd's Description 

of Bridges over, 201 
Ainbons, Their Use, 88 
Amon, father of Samson, 324, 329 
Amulets, Stone Celts as, 238 
Ancient Monuments, Pembroke- 
shire, 372 
Ancient Pottery, 9, 11 
Animal Life, Monks' Regard for, 

Anlach (Anlac, AulachX 346, 347 ; 
Theories, 348 ; buried at 
Llanspyddid, 351 
Anwylf Professor, Early Settlers of 
Brecon, 16-38 

Apostles' Screen, Constantinople, 86 

Archaeological Notes and Queries, 
82-84, 177-180, 272-290, 371 

Army, Roman, Divisions, 13 

Arrow-head, Flint, 9, 26 

Arthur, Bwrdd, 2 

Atkins, Edward, Mayor of Car- 
marthen, 312 

Auferrean Sea, 335 

Augusta Legion (Second), 174 

*' Auxiliaries " garrisoning Military 
Station, 14 

Avem, 132 


Axe, Cult of the, widely spread, 
235 ; Ceremonial Use in 
Pacific Islands, 238; Owl- 
headed Deity with, 237 

Axe-heads, Stone, on Dolmens in 
Brittany, 236 ; Llanrhian, 
224-226 ; List of Perforated 
Stone Hammers and Axes 
found in Barrows in Great 
Britain, 231-234 ; Sir William 
Wilde's Classification, 231 

Banadlinet (Banhadlwedd), 347 
Bannium (Gaer), 12, 174, 351, 352 
Baring-Gould, Rev. S., Explora- 
tion of Clegyr-Voia, 1-11 ; 
St. Brychan, King, Con- 
fessor, 345-370 
Barrows, Long, wkulls found, Doli- 

cho-cephalic, 18 
Bateman, William, Mayor of Haver- 
fordwest, 318 
Batho, Elnor, 309 ; John, last Prior 
of Augustinians of Haver- 
fordwest, 309 
Battle Abbey, John de Bello de- 
signed Eleanor Crosses, 207 
Battle Maenhir, 173 
Beacon Tumulus, 227, 228 
** BeU House," 313 ; " Order of the 
Bells," 315, 316 

27 « 



Bell, Corpse, 271 

Benadel (Banhadle), 347 

Beneger, Ralph, Rector of PwU- 
crochan, 286 

Benni Chapel, 213 

Boya, a Gwyddel Chief, 3 

Bernard, Biahop of St. David's, 

Bettws (near Clun) Screen, 94 

BettwsQwerfyl Croch, Rood Images, 

Bible, Bishop Morgan's Welsh 
Translation, 270 

Bickny, 230 

Bidan, Pre-Celtic River-name, 29 

Biliteral and Bilingual Inscriptions 
(Trallwng), 175 

"Black-Coat Charity," founded by 
William Vawer, of Bristol, 

Blaen Gkmolwyn, 26 

Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, 198 

Bodean, Cam, 257 

Bodyst, 31 

Books, Reviews and Notices of, 

Boteler, Robert, 342 

Bowen, William, Mayor of Haver- 
fordwest, 318 

Braboniacum = **Ravonia," 12 

Brachy-cephalic Skulls in Central 
Europe, 19 

•* Bran Coyn " (Bryn Gwyn), 346 

Brecan, 363 

Bicecon, William Vaughan, Bailiff 
of, 212 ; Vicars of : Morgan 
ap Rhys, 211 ; Thomas ap 
Uoell, 212 ; Edward Games, 
213; Priors: John, 211; 
Ralph, 219; Robert Sadler, 
last, 213 ; Priory, a Cell of 
Battle Abbey, 207 ; Regi- 
nald, Prior of, elected Abbot 
of Battle, 207 ; John Wesley 
at, 208 ; Vanished Crosses 
of, 206-210; Lost Chapels, 
210 ; Ogams in, 37 

Brecon, Chapels in St. John's, 
Gwenllian E. Morgan, 210 

Brecon Meeting, Report, 65-81, 

Brecon, Early Settlers of, by Pro- 
fessor Anwyl, 16-38; their 
Language, 21-23 

Breconshire, Stone Monuments not 
all recorded in Ordnance 
Survey, 25 
Military Antiquities, 68-69 
Roman Roads, 69, 70 
Paleolithic Man, no Trace, 17 
Bronze Implements, Few, 31 
Herald, Hugh Thomas, 159, 
163, 215 

Breos, Sir William de. Grant, 143, 

Briamail, Cross-Slab of, Uande- 
faelog-fach, 176 

British Hill-fort (Crtkg), 173 

Britons, Tacitus on Physical Char- 
acteristics, 35' 

Brocagni, 346 

Brochwel Ysgythrog, 112 

Bromfield Lordship, divided into 
two Rhaglotries, 191 

Bronze Age in Great Britain, Per- 
forated Stone Hammers, 
Characteristic of, 234 

Bronze Implements in Breconshire, 
Few, 31 
Introduction of, 31, 32 
Spear-head found at Tregaron, 

Brychan, Saint, Eong, Confessor, S. 
Baring-Gould and J. Fisher, 
345-370; = "Speckled or 
Tartan-dothed," 360; His 
Story, 346-347; Pedigree, 
348; Wives, 361; My^dcal 
Progeny, 362; Children, 362, 
363 ; Alphabetical List, 
with Identifications, 354-360 ; 
Children Settled in £. Com- 
waU, 365, 366; Fifteenth- 
Century Stained Glass, ' with 
Lap fiJl of Children," 368; 
Other Brychans, 363, 364; 
Brychan Yrth, 370; Cross, 

Brycheiniog defined, 351 

Brynach, 362 

Brynllys Keep, 176 

Brythonic, the Dominant Celtic 
Language, 37 ; Welsh Lan- 
guage, 33, 37 

Buallt, Buellt, Buell, 26 

Bugeildy Screen, 94 

Burial in Church Porches, 315 

" Burials, Order of," 314 



Barrows, Penard, mentioned 1317, 

Burton Manor, Welsh Names, 1620, 

Bushell, Rev. W. D., Early Life of 

S. Samson of Dol, 319-338 
Bultington Screen, 92 
Bwrdd Arthur, 2 
Byfre, 31 

Cadoc Doeth, Abbot of Llancarvan, 

Oaerboia's Castle, 6 

Cairn, Chambered, Ty Iltyd, used 
as Hermit's Cell, 173 

Camerarius, William, grants to 
Margam Abbey Hermitage 
of S. Milburga, 139 

'* Camps, Ancient British, in 
Lleyn," transcribed by E. 
Owen, 251-262; Value of 
Study of, 37 ; MS. Descrip- 
tion by J. G. Williams, Pen- 
llyn, 251 ; Roooan, 71 

Camp, Danish, 5 ; Llys din isa, 256 ; 
Penllan, 5; Porthdinllaen, 
254 ; Tregeare, 11 ; Y Foel, 

Caer Engan, 255 

Cancelli, 85 

Cannon Ball and Sword found, 
Rhyd Lydan, Radnorshire, 

Cantelo, John de, Abbot of Mar- 
gam, 152 

Capitals, Sculptured, S. Mary's, 
Haverfordwest, 290 

Caradoc, Uerbeis, 148 

Caradog visits Hermit Elgar, 138 ; 
a Brython, 36 

Carew Church Tiles, 179 

Carmarthen, Edward Atkins, Mayor 
of, 312; Plague at, 1604, 
1606, 1611, 1651, 311 

Cam Bodran, 257 ; Gafallt (Cabal), 
26; Madryn, 257 ; Pentyrch, 

Camau, Neolithic, 26 ; on high 
^ouud, Why, 25 

Came Quarterings, 342 

Castell Abersoch, 252 ; Caeron (oval 
British), 252; Cilan, 252; 
Gwgan, 254 ; Gwrbheym, 
255 ; Llanengan, 252 ; March, 
253 ; Odo, 251 ; Rhos Bottw- 

nog, 255 ; Yscuborhin (with 

moat), 252 
Castle, Aberystwith, 277 ; Haver- 
fordwest, 39, 40 ; Holt, 191 
Castles, Norman, 72 ; of Tenth 

Century, 71 
Catherine's (St.) Chapel, 212, 214 
Cathlott (Cartlett), Thomas, 309 
Caw, one of " Three Saintly Clans 

of Britain," 362 
Cefn Grog (Gungrog), 119 
CeU y bedd, 109 
Celt, 8 

Celts, Stone, used as Amulets, 238 
Celtic Art, Stafford Knot Pattern 

common in, 184 ; Late Celtic 

collar, 35 ; Articles, 35 
Celtic Colonisation of Ireland, 33 
Celtic Invaders, Language of first, 

Celtic Language, Brythonic the 

dominant, 37 
Cemmaes Screen, 93 
Cerrig gwynion. Gold Ornaments, 35 
Chancel, Derivation of, 85 
Chanceries (Chensaries), 48, 53 
Chespuic = Sesswick, 193 
'* Chester, Rood of," 89 
Chirbury Priory, 106 
Chorchchey, John de, 152 
Chormuc (Korvmawc, Korvniawc, 

Korinwy), 347 
Chwefri, 26 

Cilieni, Pre-Celtic River-name, 29 
Clairvaux, Lands given to Monks 

of, 122 
Clans of Britain, Three Saintly 

(Cunedda, Brychan, Caw), 

Cleder (Clydog, St. Clether, St. 

aeer), 368 
Clegyr Stones, 229 
Clegyr Voia, Exploration of, 1-11 ; 

Stone Arrows, 17 
Clydach (Cleudach), 31 
Cnewr, 30 

Cocks Bridge (Pont Allingcon), 201 
Coh, or Goch, Hermit, 149 
Cokey Grange (Cuckoo Grove), 307 
Cokey Street, Haverfordwest, 307 
CoUwng, 30 

Compton, S. Nicholas, 86 
Conbelin Wheel Cross, 187 
Constantine in S. Wales, 15 
Oonstantius Chlorus in S. Wales, 15 



Conventual Body of Hermits, 139 

Corpse Bell, 271 ; seized for debt, 

Corrections, 289 

Cradoc, Sir Matthew, 343 

Cradock, Jennet, 343 

Crannog, Llangorse, 173 

Crew, 31 

Criccieth, Dinas, 256 

Cro-Magnon Skull, 19 

Cromlaech, 261 

Cromlech, or Maenhir, Association 
of with Sacred Tree in Neo- 
lithic Period, 24 

Cromlech, Longhouse, 230; Glan- 
usk, 27 ; Croeslechau, 29 ; 
Table of Cromlechs, 60 

Cromwell's Horse, Footprints of, 

Cr^, British Hill-fort, 173 

Cross, Brychan Brycheiniog, 307 ; 
Derwen, 119 ; Ebisar, 187 ; 
Iltyd (Removal), 56 - 64 ; 
Irbic, 187 ; St. Ismael's 
(Pre-Norman), 279; Samp- 
son's, 338 

Cross - base, Llangefelach (Fhre- 
Norman), 181-188 ; Penmon, 

Cross-bases in Wales, List of, 186- 

Cross-shaft, Samson, 57 

Cross -slab of Briamail, Llande- 
faelog-Fach, 176 

Cross of Houelt, Llantwit Major, 
Triangular Key-pattern, 184 

Cross (Wheel), Conbelin, 187 

Crosses of Brecon, The Vanished, 

Crosses, Butter, 207 ; High, 209 ; 
Market, 207 ; with Socket- 
stones, rule in Ireland, 186 

Curig, Giraldus' Story of Staff, 241 ; 
Second Legend (Tarsus), 242 

Curig Lwyd, Legend of, 239, 240 

Curse for touching Church property, 

Curtains for Screen, 86 

Custumary of Haverfordwest Lord- 
ship, 41 

Cynog (Canoe), 347, 364 

Cyttiau Gwersyllt, 121, 257 

Dafydd ap Dafydd ap Morgan 
Sutton, 199 

Dafydd ap Ghnlym, poem to St. 

Dwynwen, 370 
David's, St., Bernard, Bishop of, 

David Fitzgerald, Bishop of, 

John Morgan, Bishop of, 178, 

Cathedral, Encaustic Tiles, 177- 

179 ; Subterranean Passage 

to, 4 
"Davies, Bishop." '* Life and Work, 

by Archdeacon Thomas." 

Reviewed, 263-270 
Davies, David, Vicar of Eenarth, 

179, 180 
Davy, Robert, 39 

Denmark and Britain Stone Ham- 
mers, Reason for difference, 

Derwen Cross, 119 ; Rood-loft, 120 
Descent of Salesburys from Adam 

de Saltzburg, 269 
Devereux, Sir Richard, 249 
Devynock Inscribed Pillar-Stone, 

Dinas ddu, 257 ; Dinlle, 255 ; Em- 

15^ 257 ; Sylwy, 2 
Dochor^)ocunni)= ?lJandoagh, 335 
Docwin, 335 

Dolbenmaen Tomen, 258 
Dolicho-cephalic Skull, characteria- 

tic of Northern, West, and 

Southern Europe and North 

Africa, 19 ; in long barrows^ 

Drayton's " Polyolbion" quoted, 

Drew, Rev. J. P., 103 
Drum (y) ddu, 26 
Dubricius, S., 330, 331 
Dumnoniorum, Isca = Scadoniorum, 

Dnnawd (Dinothus), 3» 343 ; Ffyn- 

non, 4 

Early Chnstian Remains num^oas 

in Usk Valley, 175 
Early Life of Samson of DoL Rev. 

W. D. Bushell, 319-338 
Early Settlers of Brecon. Professor 

Anwyl, 16-38 
Ebbw (EbbwyX 30 
Ebisar Cross, 187 



Edmund, brother of Edward I, at 
Llanbadarii, 277 

Edward VI, Injunctions about 
Images, 91 

Edwards, David, of Rhyd-y-gors 
(Deputy to Clarencieuz), and 
the **Gk)lden Grove Book," 
156,156; Pedigree, 168, 169; 
John, Rector of Newtown, 

Egel, 31 

Eglwys newyd(Egloo8e Nimny), 133 

Emion Llys, 254 ; Captain (Gover- 
nor of Harlech Castle), 254 

Eisteddfa Gurig, 240 

Eithrin, 31 

Eleanor Crosses, designed by John 
de Bello (Battle Abbey), 207 

Elidan, St., 244 ; EUan, St., 222 

Elyned's Chapel, 222 

Encaustic Tiles, St. David's Cathe- 
dral, 177179 

English Names of Townships in 
Gresford, 197 

Epitaph on Tombstone, Llanfihangel 
Tref-helygen, 179 

Erw Eunydd, 199 

Essex, Robert, Earl of, 249 

Evans, George Eyre, '^Aberystwith, 
its Court Leet, 1690-1900," 
Evan, leuan Brydydd Hir, 163 

Eunydd, Ithel ap, 198 ; Erw, 199 

Eurbrawst (Prawst), 361 

Euroh's Life of S. Samson, 320 

Excavations at Aberystwith Castle, 

Exploration of Clegyr-Voia, Rev. 
S. Barine-Gould, 1-11 

Eynon, John, Vicar of St. Mary's, 
Haverfordwest, 301 

Famdon = ?Radenoure, Redynore, 

Fenton, Richard, Life of, 371 

Ff ynnon Dunawd, 4 

Fifiae, Philip, 152 

Fisher, Rev. J. , and Rev. S. Baring- 
Gould, '* St. Brychan, King, 
Confessor," 345-370 

Fitzgerald, David, Bishop of St. 
David's, 219 

Fitz-Hamcm, Sir Robert, 134, 136 

Flint Arrowhead, 9, 26 ; imple- 
ments, 29 ; knife, 30 

Forgotten Sanctuaries and Vanished 

Crosses, Thoughts on, 205 
Frankwell, 241 

Gaer, near Brecon, 13 

Games, Edward, 213 

Gamrhiw (y), 26 

Gam Goch, 351 

Garrisons, Roman, in hill-country 

and exposed frontiers, 14 
in S. Wales, reduced by a.d. 

110, 15 
Garthmadryn, 350 
Gelli Duchlittre, 31 ; Fowy, 31 
G^llygaer, Roman fort, occupied 

A.D. 70-120, 14 
Geoflfrey Sturmi (cf , Stormy, PyleX 

Geographer, Trustworthiness of 

Ravenna, 12 
Germanus, Bishop of Man, 361 
GUes, Matthew, 342 
Gileston Church, 339-344 ; Unique 

S. Door, 339 
Coats of Arms, 341 
Giraldus' Story of Curig's Staff, 241 
Glamorgan, Meurig, Kmg of, 324 
Glanusk (Lord), Address, 67 
Glanusk Park, Bihteral and Bilin- 
gual Inscription, 175 
Glovare, Henry le, 152 
Gloucester, Richard, Earl of, 141 ; 

William, Earl, 121, 140, 145 
Gobannium, 12 
Goffe, Stephen, 302, 310 
Goidel invasion. Cause of, 351 
Gold ornaments, Cerrig-gwynion, 

35 ; Dolau-cothi, 35 
* * Golden Grove Book of Pedigrees, " 

Edward Owen, 154-169, 279 
David Edwards of Rhyd-y- 

Gors, 155, 156 
Graig y Dinas, 254, 256 
GranaviUa, Family of, 134 
Grandvilla, Sir Richard de, 133 
Grangia de Melis, 132 
Gray, Thomas, Hermitage of Theo- 

doric and the Site of Pendar, 

Gresford, History of Old Parish of, 

A. N. Palmer, 189-204 ; Welsh 

Conquest from English, 197; 

Anglicised after Civil War, 

196 ; English names in 

Townships, 197 j Theret, 



Lord of Manor, 193 ; Walls, 

Grufiudd ap Meredudd ap Dafydd, 

'Tr Grog o Gaer," 90; bums 
Aberystwith town and castle, 

Gailsfield, screen and stairway, 92 
118, 119 

Gwal Saeson, 132 

Gwdi, Pre-Celtic Riyer-name, 29 

Gwenfo (Wenvoe) Church, 369 

Gwengastle (St. Ninnocha of Brit- 
tany), 360 

Gwerelech, 31 

Gwlenwynwyn, Prince, 246 

Gwladys, daughter of Brychan, 366 

Gwrangon, 31 

Gwrthrynion, 26 

Gwyddyl, Wig of, 271 

Gwynne, Morrice, Mayor of Haver- 
fordwest, 60 

Gwynog, St., Painted Glass, 97 

Gyfylchi = **Kewelthi" (Norman 
spelling), 133 

*♦ H" pronounced or not ? 28 

Haberte, John, 39 

Haffes, 31 

Halliday, G. E., Gileston Church, 

Glamorgan, 399-344 
Removal of Cross of Iltyd at 

Llantwit Major, 66-64 
Hammer of Thor, 238 
Hammers, Stone, in Scandinavia, 

of Stone Age, 234 (see under 

Hamo Dentatus, 134 
Hare8= " Wyn Melangell," 109 
Harlech Castle, Captain Einion, 

Governor of, 264 
Haverfield, F., Roman Forts in S. 

Wales, 12-16 
Haverfordwest, Survey of Lordship 

of, in 1677 ; Henry Owen, 

St. Mary's, Sculptured Capi- 
tals, 290 ; Restoration, 284 ; 

Vicars : John Eynon, 301 ; 

William Ormond, 302 ; Adam 

Hawkin (Puritan), 302 
last Prior of Augustinians, 

John Batho, 309 
Sir Ed. Mansell, Seneschall, 

39 ; Mayors : Wm. Bateman, 

318; Wm. Bowen, 318; 

W. Morrice Gwynne, 50; 
John Pryn, 318 ; Rice 
Yaughan, 318 ; Ethelred 
Wogan, 317; Wm. Williams, 
318; Castle, 39, 40; Cus- 
tumary of Lordship, 41 ; 
Great Fair, 47 

Hawkin, Adam, Puritan Vicar of 
St. Mary's, Haverfordwest, 

Hepete (Hepstone), 31 

Herbert, George, 108 

Hermitage of Theodoric and Site^f 
Pendar, Thos. Gray, 121-163; 
290; situation, 140, 141; 
overwhelmed by sand-storm, 
1300-1898, 142 

Hermitage of St. Milborga, granted 
by Wm. Camerarius to Mar- 
gam Abbey, 139 

Hermits : Theodoric, Meiler, Coh 
or Coch, 136, 149; Con- 
ventual body, 139; EJgar 
visited by Caradog, 138 ; Ty 
nityd (Chambered Cairn), 
used as cell, 173 

Historical Value of Welsh Pedi- 
grees, 200 

History of Mounds as Places of 
Judicatiure, 269 

History of Old Parish of Gresford, 
A. N. Pahner, 189-204 

Holt Castle, 191 

Honddu, Pre-Celtic River-name, 29 

Hoseley(Odeslei), 196 

^^ Hospitall of St. Jones of Jerusa- 
lem," 49 

** House of Recoverie," 307, 308 

Howarth, Sir Humphrey, 214 

Howel ap leuaf, 2& 

Hunkley, 189 

Huntsmen's Bridge (Pont y Kynyd- 
dion), 201 

Hut Circles, 263, 267 

Huw Cae Llwyd quoted, 241 

Huw Arwystli quoted, 241 

**Icori" Stone, 288 

Dtyd Farchog (the Knight), great- 
nephew of Germanus, 322 ; 
Pupils, 323 

Dtyd, St., Church, proposed repa- 
ration, 289 ; Cross Shaft, 67 

Image, Virgin's miraculous, at 
Pttorys, 90 



Images, Edward YI's Injunctions, 
91 ; Mochdre, 96 ; Rood- 
loft, 94 

Incised Cross Stone, Ystafell Faoh, 
and Tradition of an Ancient 
Town, W. T. GranviUeLewis, 

" Inmates," 53 

Inscribed Stone, Devynnock, 175 ; 
Uantwit Major (Samson), 
272 ; Llanfihangel Cwm Dii, 
176 ; Lljrsdinffwyn, 288 

Inscriptions, Biliteral and Bilingual, 
Glanusk Park, 176; four- 
teenth century, PwUcrochan, 
286, 287 ; Welsh, Llangatoc 
Feibion Afel, 279, 280 

Irbic Cross, 187 

Isca (Exe, Isch), 28 

Isca Dumnoniorum = Soadoniorum, 

Ismael's, St., Pembrokeshire, Pre- 
Norman Cross, 279 

Ithel ap Eunydd, 198 

Ivor, Griffin ap, gift to Margam 
Abbey, 140 

Jenken Vawer, 312 
John le Rede, 152 
Jones, Inigo, Staircase, 344 
Julitta, mother of Curig, 242 

Kenarth, David Davies, Vicar of, 

179, 180 
Kenfig, St. James's Church, covered 

by sand, 144 
Kerry Screen, 91 
Knapwood Road, 39 
Kynyddiou, Pont y (Huntsmen's 

Bridge), 201 

Lamp Stone, 8 

Language of first Celtic Invaders, 
32 ; Barly Settlers in Brecon, 
21-23 ; Brythonic= dominant 
Celtic, 33, 37 

Lectures at Annual Meeting, Popu- 
lar, 180 

Legend, St. Melangell and Hare, 
92, 109 ; St. Samson, 325 ; 
Monks of Margam, 140 n. 

Leissan, 132 

Lewis, W. T. Granville, Incised 
Cross Stone, Ystafell Each, 

Lewis, Wm., of Llwynderw, 166, 

Lhuyd's, Edward, Description of 
Bridges over the Alyn, 201 

Lindley, Sir Henry, 219 

Llai, 189 

Llanatino, Rood-loft, 93 

Llanbadam, Edmund, brother of 
Edward's, at, 277 

Llanbadam Fynydd Screen, 94 

Llanbrynmair Screen, 93 

Llaucarvan, Cadoc Doeth, Abbot 
of, 322 

Llandaff, Bishop of, Nicholas, 132 

Llandefaelog-fach, Cross Slab of 
Briamael, 176 

Landough=Dochor (Docunni), 335 

Llandyssil Screen, 91 

Llanerfyl, Screen and Rood-loft, 92 

Llanfihangel, Screen, 92 

Cwm du Inscribed Stone, 176 
Trefhelygen, Epitaph on Tomb- 
stone, 179 

Llangatoc Feibion Afel, Welsh in- 
scription, 279, 280 

Llangedwyn, Rood-loft, 92 

Llangefelach, Pre-Norman Cross- 
base, J. Romilly Allen, 181- 

Llangorse Crannog, 173 

Llangurig Church, Ven. Arch- 
deacon Thomas, 239-250 ; 
Li^t of Vicars, 250 ; Screen 
and Loft, 92, 93, 114, 115, 
246 ; appropriated to Strata 
Florida, 248 

Llangynidr MaenHir, 27 

Llangynyw, Screen, 92, 116-118 

Llamdloes, Screen, 93 

Llanllugan, Rood-beam, 92 

Llarmierewig, Screen, 91 

Llanrhaiadr, Screen, 92 

Llanrhian, Axe-hammer, 224-226 

Llantwit Major described, 321, 322 ; 
Inscribed Pillar of Samson, 

Llanvillo, Rood-screen, 176 

Llanwddyn, Screen, 92 

Llanwnog, Screen and Rood-loft, 
93, 97, 101 

Llanwrin, Screen, 93 

Llanyblodwel, Screen, 93, 114 

** Lledwigan Thresher," 280, 281 

Llia, 31 ; Maen Llia, 30 

Llychwr, 31 



Llys Brychan, 351, 370 ; *' Einion," 

254 ; Patric, 261 
Llysdingwyn, Inscribed Stone, 288 
Lock and Key, ancient, 339 
Long, Evan, Mayor of Carmarthen, 


Mabilia, daughter of Sir Robert 
Fitz Hamon, 136 

Madoc Danwr, 243, 245 

Maelgwn Gwynedd, 242 

Maen Cam, 26 

Maen Hir, Battle, 27, 173 ; Cradoc, 
27; Cwrt y Gk)Uen, 27; 
Gileston, 27 ; Llangynidr, ' 
27 ; Penybont, 261 ; Pbs du, 
261 ; Tretower, 27 

Maen Mawr, 30 

Maen y Momjmion, 174 

Maen y pyr, 328 

Mailer = a Diviner, 146 

Malvern, Tile Manufactory, 178 

Manafon, Screen, 92 

Mansell, Sir Edward, Seneschal of 
Haverfordwest, 39 

Manufactory of Tiles, Malvern, 178 

Maurice, St., 244 ; Canon, 39 

Marchell's marriage. Story of, 346 

Marcrof t, Roger, 45 

Margam Abbiy Charter, 121 ; once 
called Pendar, 145; Griffin 
ap Ivor's gift to, 140 ; Her- 
mitage of St. Milburga 
granted to, 139 ; Legends of 
Monks, 140 n. 

Marsli, daughter of Howel ap David 
Llwyd, 199 

Mediaeval Remains, Brecon, 176 

Meetings, Lectures, 180 ; Port- 
madoc, 290 

Meilir, 245; Meilir, Brother, (1) 
the Hermit ; (2) Awenet, 146 

Meif od Screen, 92 

Meini Hirion, 261 

Meirinedd, daughter of Grufiydd ap 
Cynan, Sib 

Melangell, S., and Hare Legend, 
92, 109 ; Southey's reference 
to, 111 ; see Monacella. 

*'Meol8"and **Mely8," sweet, 132 

Merford, Rhaglotry of, 191 

Mesolithic Period, 18 

Meurig, King of Glamorgan, 324 

Milburga, S., Hermitage granted to 
Margam Abbey, 1^ 

Military Antiquities, Brecon, 68, 68 
Mint at Aberystwith, 277 
Minuscules mixed with Capitals, 175 
Mochdre Images, 96 
Monacella, S. (Melangell), Shrine, 

109 ; Southey's referenoe to 

Legend, 111 
Monks of Margam, Legends of, 140 
Montgomeryshire Screens and 

Rood-lofts, Yen. Archdeacon 

Thomas, 85.120 
Montgomery Rood-loft and Screen, 

93, 105-108 
Monuments, Ancient, Questions 

and Answers on, 261, 262 
Morgan,*Bishop, Welsh Translation 

of Bible, 270 
Morgan, Gwenllian E. F., Chapel 

in St. John's, Brecon, 210 
Morris.Lewis, of Penboyr(Llewelyn 

Ddu o FonX 271 
Mounds, A History of, as Places oi 

Judicature, 259 
Muriau'r Dre (Tre'r Gwydelod), 282 
Mynydd Farteg, 30 ; Trecast^ 27, 

30 : Tstum, 251 

Names of Rivers, suffixes -wy, -on, 
-i, -ach, -e, -on, -an, ^ 
Phonetic Spelling of Welsh, 

Pre-Celtio^ 29 
Nant Cymrun, 26 
Neath Abbey, founder of, 133 
Nedd, 31 

Neolithic Remains, Three ZcHies, 26 
Nevin, Tomen, 258 
Newtown Screen, 91. 101, 102-105 

Rector, John Edwards, 108 
Ninnocha, S. (Gwengastle), of Brit- 
tany, 360 
Norman Cfhurch, 86, 339 

Scribes, Phonetic Spelling of 
Welsh Names, 133 
Notes and Queries (ArchseologicalX 
82-84, 177-180, 272-290, 371 

Ogam, Pentrepoeth, 176; Rare 
Letter X for Latin P, 175 
in Breconshire, 37 

Oldest Parish Registers in Pem- 
brokeshire, Kev. J. Phillips, 

" OU Synwyr Pwi," 266, 267 

Onneu, Pre-Celtic River-name 29 



Origin of Screens and Rood-lofts, 86 
Ormond, William, V. St. Mary's, 

Haverfordwest, 302 
Owen, Edward, "The Golden Grove 
Pedigrees," 154-169 
** Ancient British Gamps in 
Lleyn," transcribed by, 251- 
Glyndwr, 277 

Henry, Survey of Lordship of 
Haverfordwest, 1577, 39-55 
Maurice, Rector of Mont- 
gomery, 66 


Padam, 240 

Padest, 31 

Pakeolithic Man, no Traces in 

Breconshire, 17 
Palmer, A. Neobard, History of Old 

Parish of Gresford, 189-204 
Pancant, Son of Liski, 3 
Parish Registers, Oldest in Pem- 
brokeshire, Rev. J. Phillips, 

Parish of Gresford, 189-204 
Parker, Rev. John, Drawings, 93, 

94, 97, 102, 115, 246 
Pasgen, Son of Urien, 26 
Patricio Church, 88 
Pol de Leon, St., 323 
Pedigree, Edwards, Rhyd y Gors, 

168, 169 
Pedigrees, "Gk)lden Grove Book," 

154-169; Historical Value of 

Welsh, 200 
Pembrokeshire Ancient Monu- 
ments, 372 
Pembrokeshire, Oldest Parish 

Registers in, 298-318 
Penard Burrows mentioned, 1317, 

Pendar = Cefn Pennar, 147 ; Site 

of, 121-153, 144 
Pendorlan, Tomen, 254 
Penmark, Thos. de, 152 
Pen Milan, 30 
Penmon Cross-base, 187 
Pennant Melangell, Screen and 

Rood-loft, 92, 109-113 
Penoyr, Roman Sepulchral Liscrip- 

tion, 174 
Penrhys, Virgin's Miraculous 

Image, 90 
Pentrepoedi Ogam, 176 

Pen y Gaer, 252, 255 

Pepian (Peipian), 187, 356 

Phillips, Rev. J., Oldest Parish 
Registers in Pembrokeshire, 

Peterchurch Rood Altar, 88 

Piscina, 126, 129 

** Riser Hiry," 351 

Plague at Carmarthen, 1604, 1606, 
1611, 1651, 311 

Pont Pulf ord, 201 ; Resford (Gres- 
ford), 201; Rhyd Ithel, 
201 ; Vradley, 201 ; Wersyllt 
(Gwersyllt), 201; Y Capel 
hen, 201 ; Y Kynyddion, 
201; Yr Orsedd (Rosset), 

Portmadoc Meeting, 220 

Pottery, Ancient, 9, 11 

Prawst (Eurbrawst), 361 

Prayer Book and Welsh Testament 
locked up by order of Vestry, 

Pre-Celtic River-names, 29 ; Words 
siurviving in Names of Moun- 
tains and Rivers, 23 

Pre-historic Remains, Breconshire, 

Pre-Norman Cross-base, Uange- 
felach, J. Romilly Allen, 
Cross, St. Ishmael's, Pem- 
brokeshire, 279 

Primer of 1546, Welsh, 268 

Prisoners' Chapel, 210 

Proestri (Proistri, Peresgri, Pro- 
sori), 361 

Prothero MSS., 155 

Piyn, John, Mayor of Haverford- 
west, 318 

Pwllcrochan, Fourteenth - century 
Inscription, 286, 287 

Pyro, 327-329 ; his death, 332 

I^t (y) yr Alyn, 201 

Queen's Arbour, a walk, 40 

Ravenna Geographer, Trustworthi- 
ness of, 12 

Registers in Pembrokeshire, Oldest 
Parish, 293-318 

Reviews and Notices of Books, 

Rhaglotry of Wrexham, 191 

Rhibrawst, 361 ; Rhigos, 31 



Rhoeon Oommot, 1 

Rhyd Helyg ar Wy, 26 

Rhys ap Maelgwn, 277 ; Sais, 200 ; 
y Cigwr, 212 

River-names, suffixes of 28 ; the 
most anoient, 16 ; Pro-Celtic, 

Roads, Roman, in Breconshire, 69, 
70 ; Via Julia, 351 

Robert of Caen, 121, 140 

Roche, Sir John de la, Will of, 

*^Rode in Po wiles" and elsewhere 
pulled down, 91 

Rood Altar, Peterchurch, 88 ; of 
Chester, 89 ; Images, Gwerfil 
Goch, Mochdre, 96; Bet- 
tws, 94 

Roods in Wales, 35, 87 ; Super- 
stitious use, 89 ; Staircase, 

Rood-beam, Llanllugan, 92 

Rood-loft, Derwen, 120 ; Llananno, 
93 ; Llangedwyn, 92 ; Llan- 
wnog, 93 ; Montgomery, 
93, 105-108; Pennant Mel- 
angell, 109-113; Whitting- 
ton, 93 

Rood-lofts and Screens, Mont- 
gomeryshire, Ven. Arch- 
deacon Thomas, 86-120 
Form and Use, 87 ; origin of, 
86 ; Visitation inquiries, 91 

Romano- British Remains, 174 

Roman Forts in S. Wales, F. 
Haverfield, 12-15 
Roads, Bioconshire, 69-70 ; 

TUes, 15, 174 
Sepulchral Inscription (Pen- 
oyr), 174 

Rymi (Rhymney), 30 

Sadler, Robert, Prior, 213 

Saith Maen, 26 

**Salesbury, William, Life and 

Work," by Ven. Archdeacon 

Thomas, Reviewed, 263-270 
Salesburys, Descent of, from Adam 

de Saltzburg, 2()9 
Saltzburg, Adam do, 269 
Sampson's Bridge, 338 ; Cross, 338 ; 

Farm, 333 
Samson, St., of Dol, Early Life, 

Rev. W. D. BusheU, 319- 


Samson, St., of Dol, Eurch's Life, 
320 ; Cave, identification, 
337, 338 ; L^ends, 325 
and Sparrows in the Barley 
Field, 325 ; in Brittany, 325; 
Inscribed Pillar, 272 

Sanctuaries, Forgotten, 205 

Sand covers Sc. James, Eenfig, 

Sanddef Hardd, 199 

ScadoDiorum = Isca Damnooio- 
rum, 12 

Sculptured Capitals in St Mary's, 
Haverfordwest, 290 

Screens and Rood-lofts, Mont- 
gomeryshire, Ven. Arch- 
deacon Thomas, 85 • 120 ; 
Origin of, 85 ; Remains of, 

91 ; Use, 87 ; Curtains for, 
86 ; Earliest Wooden, 86 

Screen, Bettws, near Clun, 94; 
Bugeildy, 94; Buttington, 

92 ; Cemmaes, 93 ; Goils- 
field (and Stairway), 92 ; 
Kerry, 91 ; Llanbadarn Fyn- 
ydd, 94 ; Llanbrynmair, 93 ; 
Llandyssil, 91 ; Uanerfyl 
(and Loft), 92 ; lianfihangel, 
92 ; Llangurig, 93, 114, 116, 
246; Llangyuyw, 92, 116-118 ; 
Llanidloes, 93 ; Llanmere- 
wig, 91 ; Llanrhaiadr, 92 ; 
Llanvillo, 176; Uanwddyn, 
92 ; Llanwnog (and LoftX 
97, 101 ; Ltonwrin, 93 ; 
Llanyblodwel, 93, 114 ; 
Manafon, 92 ; Meifod, 92 ; 
Montgomery (and Loft), 93, 
105- 108; Newtown, 91, 101, 
102-105 ; Pennant Melangell 
(and Loft), 92, 109-113; 
Selattyn, 93 ; Thurcaston 
(thirteenth century), 86 ; 
Trelystan, 93; Welshpool, 92 

Screens, Modem, Guilsfield, Uan- 
santfl^id, Manafon, Llan- 
fechain, 118, 119 

Selattyu, Screen, 93 

Senni, Pre-Celtic River-name, 29 

Sepulchral Inscription, Roman, 174 

Seri, 30 

Sgio, Pre-Celtic River- name, 29 

Sheldon, Job, Mayor of Aberyst- 
with, 271 

Shrine of St. Monaoella 109 



Sigar (HermitX 325 

Silures, 35, 36 

Sirhowy, 30 

Skull, Brachy-cephalio, in Central 

Europe, 19 ; Cro-Magnon, 

19 ; Dolicho-cephalic, chiEiiac- 

teristic of N., W. and S. 

Europe and K. Africa, 19 ; 

Dolicho-cephalic in Long 

Barrows, 18 
Sling-stones, 11 
Slanse, 43 
SouiJiey 8 reference to Monacella's 

Legend, 111 ; Letters, 110 
Spindle-whorl, 10 
Spital Bar, 214 
Stafford-Knot pattern, common in 

Celtic Art, 184 
Stained Glass of St. Brychan 

(Bfteenth century), 368 
Standing Stones, 26, 30 (see "Maen 

Statutum WaUice of 1284, and 

Changes in Welsh Laws, 268 
Stepney, Alban, 45 
Stocks, 209 
Stone Arrows, Clegyr Voia, 17 

Axes and Hammers found in 

Barrows in Great Britain, 

Sir W. Wilde's Classification 

of Stone Axes and Hammers, 

Circle, Mynydd Trecastell, 27, 

Inscribed, LlanOhangcl Cwm- 

dd, 175; Llysdingwyn, 288; 

Lamp, 8 
Monuments in Breconshirp, 23 ; 

not all recorded in Ordnance 

Survey, 25 
Stone Hammer, Perforated, found 

in Pembrokeshire, J. Romilly 

Allen, 224-238 
Stone Hammers, 26 ; Sir W.Wilde's 

Classification, 231 ; list of, 

found in Barrows, 231-234 ; 

Characteristic of Bronze Age 

in Great Britain, 234 ; Dis- 
tinction between Denmark 

and Britain, 235 
Stones, Sling, 11 ; Method of using 

Defective, Ancient v. Mo- 
dem, 186 
Stoup, 126, 129, 344 

Strata Florida, Wooden Figure 
found, 284 ; Llangurig Church 
appropriated to, 248 
Strath, connected with Ystrad, 82 
Strat-Vaga=?Ystrad Vargoed, 140 
Subterranean Passage to St. David's 

Cathedral, 4 
Survey of Lordship of Haverford- 
west in 1577, Henry Owen, 
Symonds, Captain Kichard, 209 

Tacitus on Physical Characteristics 

of Britons, 35 
Talbot, Theodore, 138 
Tallaud= St. EUned, 368 
Tarthwyni, 30 

Tedda (S. Teath, S. Itha), 367 
Tepekerman, 86 
Tewdrig, Kiug, 345 
Theodoric, Hermitage of, and Site 

of Pendar, Thos. Gray, 121- 

Hermitage, 290 
Theodoricus, 133, 134 
Thomas, Ven. Archdeacon, Mont- 

fomeryshire Screen and 
tood-lofts, 85-120 
Llangwrig Church, 239-250 
**Life and Work of Bishop 
Davies and Wm. Salesbury, 
reviewed, 263-270 
Thomas ap leuan, 213 

Hugh, Breconshire Herald, 

159, 163, 215 
Sir Rhys ap, 179 
Thoret, Owner of Gresford Manor, 

** Three Saintly Clans of Britain," 

"Thresher, The Lledwigan," 280, 

Thumbscraper, 10 
Thurcaston Screen, Thirteenth- 
Century, 86 
Tiles, Carew Church, 179 ; En- 
caustic, St. David's Cathe- 
dral, 177-179 ; manufactory, 
Malvern, 178; Roman, 15, 
Tillery (Teleri), 30 
Tomen Dolbenmaen, 258 ; Fawr, 
253 ; Gwindu, 255 ; Nevin, 
258; Pendorlan, 254; Y 
Mur, 258 ; Camp, 258 



Trahaiam ap Caradawo, 244 
Tr€^UN)ii, Bronze Spear-head found, 

Trelystan Screen, 93 
Tretower Keep (fortified manaion), 

176 ; Maen hir, 27 
Tre*r Ceiri, 267 
Tre'r Gwyddelod (MuriauV Dre), 

Tumulus, Beacon, 227-229 
Ty ntyd (chambered cairn), used as 

hermit'fi cell, 173 
Tynwald Mound, 259 
T^swg, 30 

Umbrafel, uncle of Samson, 333 
Umfreyille, Lords of Penmark, 342 
U8k=Wy8g, Uisc, Huisc, Husc, 28 
Usk, Early Christian Remains 
numerous in Valley of, 174 

Vanished Crosses of Brecon, their 
variety and beauty, 206-210 

Vaughan, Rice, Mayor of Haver- 
fordwest, 318 
William, Bailiff of Brecon, 212 

Vawer, William, of Bristol, founded 
*' Black-coat Charity, ".312 

Via Julia, 361 

Vourye men (** Advocarii "), 63 

Wallace, Thomas de, 162 

Walter, Lucy, 62 

Ware hooks, 201 

Warren, Edward, 302 

Welsh, Elizabeth, 342 

Welsh Names in Burton Manor, 

1620, 196 
Phonetic Spelling by Norman 

Scribes, 133 

Welth and Lrish Names compared, 

Welshpool Screen, 92 

Wesley, John, at Brecon, 206 

Westhaverforde, 66 

Whiteley, Colonel, Aberystwith 
Castle delivered up by, 277 


Williams, J. G., Penllyn, Pwllheli, 
author of MS. Description of 
British Camps, 261 ; Richard 
of Llywel, 161 ; William, 
Mayor of Haverfordwest, 318 

Winnian, 335 

Wogan, Ethelred, Mayor of Haver- 
fordwest, 317 

Wood, H. J. T., Value of Welsh 
Pedigrees, 157, 158 

Wrexham Rhaglotry, 191 

Wyn Melangell = Hares, 109 

Ynys y pyr, 323 

Ysdr, a Pre-Celtic River-name, 29 

Tstafell Each, Loscribed Cross 

Stone, W. T. Granville Lewis, 

Ystalyf era, 31 

Ystrad connected with Strath, 82 
Ystradfellte Cairn, Flint Instm- 

Lnplements, 29 
Ystrad Vargoed = Strat-vaga, 140 
Ystrad Yw, its original aitoation, 

Ystum, Mynydd, 261 

Zones of Neolithic Remains, Three 

Zousche, Lord William la, 162 



Surrey of Clegyr Voia Bock • 

Removal of the Cross of Htyd, Llantwit Major : 
Shored-up for Removal • 
In process of Removal 
Being taken out of the Ground • 
Old Western Church where Cross now stands 
Section, showing Cross before Removal . 
Plan, showing Human Remains beneath the Cross 
View of Cist beneath the Cross . 
View of Hole where the Cross stood 

Montgomeryshire Screens and Rood-Lofts 

The Hermitage of Theodorio : 

Map of Lands given to the Monks of Clairvaux 

Ridge and Flat Green-Glazed Tiles 

Elevation and Plan 

Roof-Tiles of Pennant Stone 

Base of Pillar and Key found in the Ruins 

The Holy- Water Stoup . 

The Chapel of Cryke (Crugwallt) 

East and West Windows of the Chapel of Cryki 

wallt) .... 

Interior of the Chapel of Cryke (Crugwallt) 

Erect Cross-Slab of Moridic at Llanhamlach . 









Erect Cross-Slab of Briamail at Llandefailog-fach . . 175 

Objects of interest seen during Brecon Meeting (15 Plates) 176, 1 77 
Encaustic Tile Pavement in St. David's Cathedral 177-179 

Pr^Norman Cross-Base at Llangefelacht Plan and Sections 182-187 



Crogs-Base at Llangefelach (Two Plates) . . 184, 186 

Perforated Stone Axe-Hammers and Tims foand in Pemb- 

brokeshire ..... 224-236 

Stone Axe-Hammers found in Denmark (Two Plates) 234, 235 

Ground Plan of Llan^jrurig Church (Plate) . .240 

Llangurig Church, Montgomeryshire (Two Plates) . 242, 246 

Plan of Aberystwith Castle . . . .274 

Bronze Spear-Head found at Tregaron, Cardiganshire 278 

Pre-Norman Cross-Slab at St Israael's, Pembrokeshire . 278 

Plan of MuriauV dre in Nant Gwynen . . .283 

Wooden Figures found at Strata Florida, Cardiganshire . 285 

Inscription in Pwllcrochan Church, Pembrokeshire . 286, 287 

Inscribed Stone at Llysdingwyn, Carnarvonshire (Plate) . 288 

Old Sword and Cannon-Ball found at Rhyd Llydan, Radnor- 
shire (Plate) . . . . . .288 

Sculptured Capitals in St. Mary's Church, Haverfordwest 

(Four Plates) ...... 290 

Stone with Incised Cro^ at Ystafell-Pach, Brecknockshire 294 

Gileston Church : South Door (Plate) . . 340, 342 

GHleston Church : Coats of Arms on South Door . .341 

St. Brychan, fiom Stained- Glass Window in Church of St. Neot, 

Cornwall ...... 369 








[being the eleventh issue of the series and completing thk 

INDEX FOR 'the PERIOD 1891-1901] 

Compiled by 








Butler & Tanner, 

The Sblwood Printing Works, 

Frome, and London. 


[ITioM Transetctiom marked with an aaterisk* are for the first time included 
in the indeXf the others are continuations from the indexes of 1891-98. 
Transactions included for the first time are indeoces from 1891 onvoards.] 

Anthropological Institute, Journal, N.S. vol. iii. pt. 2 ; iv. pts. 1 and 2. 

Antiquaries, London, Proceedings of the Society, 2nd S. vol. xviii. pt. 2. 

Antiquaries, Ireland, Proceedings of Boyal Society of, 5th S. vol. xi. pts. 1-3. 

Antiquaries, Scotland, Proceedings of the Society, vol. xxxv. 

Archseologia, voL Ivii pt. 2. 

Archffiologia Cantiana, voL xxv. 

Archffiologia ^liana, vol. xxiii. pt. 1. 

Arcbseologia Gambrensis, 6th ser. vol. i. 

Archseologica] Journal, vol. Iviii. 

Associated Architectural Societies, Transactions, vol. xxv. pt. 2. 

Berks, Bucks, and Oxfordshire Archeaological Journal, vol. vL pt. 4, and vii. 

pts. 1, 2, 8. 
Biblical Archfieology, Society of, Transactions, vol. xxiii. 
Bristol and Gloucestershire Archadological Society, Transactions, vol. xxiii. 
British Archseological Association, Journal, N.S., vol. vii. 
Buckinghamshire, Becords of, vol. viii. pt. 4. 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society, Transactions, vol. x. pts. 1, 2. 
Cornwall, Boyal Institute of, Proceedings, vol. xiv. pt. 2. 
Cumberland and Westmoreland, Archaeological Society, Transactions, N.S. 

vol. L 
Devonshire Association, Transactions, vol. xxxiii. 
East Herts Archaeological Society, Transactions, vol. L pt. 8. 
East Biding Antiquarian Society, Transactions, vol. viii. 
Essex Aroh»ological Society, Transactions, N.S. vol. viii. pts. 2 and 8. 



Folklore, Proceedings of the Folklore Society, toI. xii. 

Gaelic Society of Inverness, voL xx. xxi. xxiL 

Glasgow Arch»ologioal Society, Transactions, NJ3., voL iv. pt. 2. 

Hampetead Antiquarian and Historical Society, 1900. 

Hellenic Studies, Journal of, vol. zx. and xxi. 

Huguenot Society, Transactions, vol. vi. pt. 8. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, Transactions, voL xvL 

Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society, Transactions, 4th ser. vol. xvi. 

Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological Society, Transactions, vol. 

ix. pt. 2. 
Monumental Brass Society, Transactions, vol. iv. pts. 8 and 4. 
Numismatic Chronicle, 4th ser. vol. L 
Boyal Historical Society, Transactions, N.S. vol. xv. 
Boyal Irish Academy, Transactions, 8rd ser. vol. vi. pts. 2, 8. 
Boyal Society of Literature, Transactions, vol. xxiL and xxiii pt. 1. 
St. Paul's EcclesiologicaJ Society, Transactions, vol. v. pt 1. 
Shropshire Archseological and Natural History Society, Transactions, 2nd 

S. vol. xii. pt. 8 ; 8rd ser. vol. i. pts. 1, 2, 8. 
Somersetshire Archaeological and Natiiral History Society, Transactions, vol. 

Suffolk Archaeological Institute, vol. xi. pt. 1. 
Surrey Archaeological Society, Collections, vol. xvi. 
Sussex Archaeological Collections, vol. xliiL and xliv. 
Thoresby Society, vol. x. pt. 8, and xi. pt. L 
Wiltshire Archaeological Journal, voL xxxL pts. 8 and 4. 
Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Journal, voL xvi pt. 8. 


This Index was began under the auspices of the Congress of Archseological 
Societies in union with the Society of Antiquaries. Its success being assured 
the Congress have placed it in the hands of the publishers to continue 

The value of the Index to aroheeologists is now recognised. Every effort 
is made to keep its contents up to date and continuous, but it is obvious that 
the difficulties are great unless the assistance of the societies is obtained. If 
for any reason the papers of a society are not indexed in the year to which 
they properly belong, the plan is to include them in the following year ; and 
whenever the papers of societies are brought into the Index for the first time 
they are then indexed from the year 1891. 

By this plan it will be seen that the year 1891 is treated as the commenc- 
ing year for the Index, and that all transactions published in and since 
that year will find their place in the series. 

To make this work complete an index of the transactions from the begin- 
ning of archaeological societies down to the year 1890 is needed. This work 
is now going through the press. 

Societies will greatly oblige by communicating any omissions or sugges- 
tions to the editor, Laubbncb Gommb, F.S.A., 24, Dorset Square, London, N.W. 

Single copies of the yearly Index from 1891 may be obtained. The 
subscription list for the complete Index up to 1891 is still open, and intending 
subscribers should apply at once to Messrs. Abchibald Cohstablb & Co. Many 
of the Societies in union with the Society of Antiquaries take a sufficient 
number of copies of the yearly Index to issue with their transactions to 
each of their members. The more this plan is extended the less will be the 
cost of the Index to each society. 


Abbrcrombt (Hon. John). Notice of the discovery of urns, at the 

Hill of Colsh, New Deer, Aberdeenshire. 80c. Antiq, Scot xxxv. 

Adams (Maxwell). An index to the printed literature relating to 

the antiquities, history, and topography of Exeter. Dev. Assoc, 

xxxiii. 270-308. 
Adamson (Horatio A.). Tynemouth priory to the dissolution in 1539 

with notes of Tynemouth castle. Arch, .^iana, xxiii. 22-42. 
Addy (S. 0.). Head of a corpse between the thighs. Folklore^ xii 

The mill of the twelve apostles. Folklore^ xii. 218. 

Garland day at Castleton. Folklore^ xii. 394-428. 

Alford (Rev. D. P.). Alfred at Athielny. Somersetshire Arch, 

Soc. xlvii. 71-79. 
Allen (J. Romilly). Two Kelto-Roman finds in Wales. Arch, 
Comb. 6th S. i. 20-44. 

Some carved wooden spoons made in Wales. Arch, Carrib, 

6th S. i. 166-172. 

The early Christian monuments of Zona ; with some sug- 

gestions for their better preservation. Soc Antiq, Scot, xxxv. 

The early Christian monuments of the Glasgow district. 

Glasgow Arch, Soc, N.S. iv. 394-406. 
Ameby (P. F. S.). Eighteenth report of the committee on Devonshire 

folklore. Dev. Assoc, xxxiii. 123-128. 
Anderson (Joseph). Notices of nine brochs along the Caithness 

coast from Keiss Bay to Skirza Head, excavated by Sir Francis 

Tress Barry, Bart., of Keiss Castle, Caithness. Soc, Antiq, Scot, 

xxxv. 112-148. 
Notice of a hoard of bronze implements, and ornaments, 

and buttons of jet found at Migdale, on the estate of Skibo, 



Sutherland, exhibited to the society by Mr. Andrew Carnegie of 
Skibo. 8oc, Antiq, Scot xxxv. 266-275. 

Anderson (Joseph). Notice of the pottery, bronze, and other objects 
found at the Roman station of Camelon, near Falkirk, Stirling- 
shire, excavated by the society in 1900. Soc. Antiq. Scot. xxxv. 

Anderson (J. G. C). Pontica. Hellenic StvdieSj xx. 151-158. 

A new Hittite inscription. Hellenic Studies, xxi. 322- 


Andrew (Samuel). The Roman camp at Gastleshaw and the 

antiquities of the Saddleworth district. Lane, and Chesh. 

Antiq. Soc. xvi. 83-101. 
Andrew (W. J.). A numismatic history of the reign of Henry I. 

Num. Chron. 4th S. i. 1-515. 
Andrews (R. T.). Ancient buildings at Ware. East Herts Arch. 

Soc. i. 265-272. 
Andrews (R. T.) and W. B. Gerish. The leper hospital, Hoddes- 

don. East Herts Arch. Soc. i. 299-303. 
ANDRfi (J. Lewis). Female head-dresses exemplified by Surrey 

brasses. Surrey Arch. Soc. xvi. 35-54. 

Chapel attached to an inn. Surrey Arch. Soc. xvi. 250. 

Two farm houses at Wamham. Sussex Arch. Coll. xliiL 


Halnaker house. Sussex Arch. Coll. xliiL 201-213. 

Fonts in Sussex churches. Sussex Arch. CoU. xliv. 28- 

44, 211. 
Arnold (Rev. F. H.). Extracts from the churchwardens' accounts 

of St. Peter's the Less, Chichester. Sussex Arch. CoU. xliv. 

AsHBY (Thomas) and A. T. Martin. Excavations at Caerwent, 

Monmouthshire, on the site of the Roman city of Venta Silurum, 

in 1899 and 1900. Arch. Ivii. 295-310. 
AsHTON ( W. G.). The Japanese Gohei and Ainu Inaa Anthrop. Inst. 

N.S. iv. 131-136. 
AsTLEY (Rev. H. J. Dukinfield). Medi»val Colchester; town, 

castle and abbey, from MSS. in the British museum. Essex 

Arch. Soc. N.S. viU. 117-138. 
Two Norfolk villages. Brit. Arch. Assoc. N.S. vii 

Some resemblances between the religious and magical 

ideas of modern savage peoples and those of the pre-historic 


non-Celtic races of Europe. Brit. Arch, Assoc, N.S. vii. 227-257. 
Atchley (E. G. Cuthbert). Some doonments relating to the parish 
church of All Saints, Bristol. Arch, Journ. Iviii. 147-181. 

Some notes on harvest thanksgivings and certain other 

votive offices. 8t PauVs Eccles, Soc, v. 68-76. 

Atkinson (T. D.). The seals of the commonalty and of the mayor 

of Cambridge. Cambridge Antiq, Soc, x. 12S-128. 
Attree (Lieut.-Col. F. W. T.). Notes on the family of Chaloner of 

Cuckfield. Sussex Arch, CoU. xliv. 116-139. 
AuDEN (H. M.). Dedications to Celtic saints. Shropshire Arch, Soc, 

3rd S. i. 284r-286. 
AuDEN (Miss) and W. K. Boyd. Inventories of the church goods of 

Shropshire temp, Edward VI. Shropshire Arch, Soc, 2nd S. xii. 

AuDEN (Rev. T.). The rebellion of Eobert de Belesme. Shropshire 

Arch, Soc. 3rd S. i. 107-118. 

Where was Fethanleag. Shropshire Arch, Soc, 3rd S. i. 

147-149, 282. 

Austin (Stanley). St. Lawrence's church, Wormley. E(Mt Herts 
Arch, Soc, i. 317-320. 

AwDRY (H.). A new historical aspect of the Pylos and Sphacteria 
incidents. Hellenic Studies j xx. 14-19. 

Axon (William E. A.). Etienne Dolet, the martyr of the renais- 
sance. Roy, Soc, Liter, xxii. 211-229. 

The machinery of the " Bape of the Lock " : Pope, Villars 

and Borri. Roy, Soc, Liter, xxii. 231-238. 

Baddeley (St. Clair). A brief account of the stained and painted 

16th and 17th century glass at Toddington house. Bristol and 

Olouc, Arch. Soc, xxiii. 162-192. 
The holy blood of Hayles. Bristol and Olouc, Arch, Soc, 

xxiii. 276-284. 
Baildon (W. Paley). The family of Leathley or Lelay. Thoresby 

Soc. xi. 1-36. 
Ball (Francis Elrington). Loughlinstown and its history. Roy, 

Soc, Antiq, Ireland, 5th S. xi. 68-84. 
The Castle of Carrickmines and its history. Roy, Soc, 

Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. xi. 195-203. 
Ball (T. Stanley). Church plate in Manchester Cathedral and the 

parish churches of Preston and Lymm. Lane, and Chesh. Hist, 

Soc. N.S. xvi. 93-110. 


BARiNG-Gk)ULD (Rev. S.). A catalogue of saints connected with 
Cornwall, with an epitome of their lives and list of chorcheB and 
chapels dedicated to them. Boy. Inst, ComtcaU, xiv. 260-313. 

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Kirby Muxloe castle. Brit. Arch, Assoc, N.S. vii. 149- 

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Great Easton mount. Essex Arch. Soc, N.S. viii. 324- 


Stukeley's "temple" at Navestock. Essex Arch. Soc. 

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Latton Hill mound, Harlow. Essex Arch. Soc, N.S. viii. 

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Grainger (Francis). The Chambers family of Raby Cote. Cumb. 

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Measurements of Papuan skulls. Anthrop. Inst. N.S. iv. 

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Chronological value of Egyptian words found in the Bible. 

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The Fraser scarabs. Soc. Bibl. Arch, xxiii. 137^139. 

A sale of land in the reign of Philopator. Soc. Bibl. Arch. 

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Grove (Florence). Horses' heads. Folklore^ xii. 348-349. 

Haddon (A. C). A classification of the stone clubs of British New 

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Hall (Hamilton). Gundrada de Warenne: a legend. Yorks 

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Stigund, Bishop of Chichester, a note of the date at which 

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Habtland (E. Sydney). Husband and wife story. Folklore^ xii. 

Hartopp (Henry). The parish registers of Ratby, co. Leicester, 

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The parish registers of Hough ton-on- the-Hill, co. Leicester, 

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Some unpublished documents relating to Noseley, co. Lei- 
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Leicestershire wills and administrations. Ijcicesters. 

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Report of the Cumberland excavation committee. Cunib, 

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Hill (Rev. A. D.). Some ancient carved stones in Calverton 

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Hogarth (D. G.) and F. B. Welch. Primitive painted pottery in 

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HoLLis (A. C). Notes on the history of Vumha, East Africa. 

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Hope-Edwardes (E. C). Sequestration papers of Sir Thomas 

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Excavations at St. Austin's abbey, Canterbury : the 

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Boxgrove church and monastery. Sussex Arch. Coll. xliii. 

The arms of Colchester and Nottingham. Arch. Journ. 

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The Gilbertine priory of Watton in the East Biding of 

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Note on a discovery of bronze implements at Coombe 

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Hudson (Rev. William). The manor of Eastbourne, its early his- 
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Hughes (Harold), Ynys Seiriol. Arch. Catnb. 6th S. i. 85-108. 
The architectural history of the cathedral church of St. 

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On a tumulus in Buckenham fields, Norfolk, explored 

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Note on an early map of Atherington manor with some 

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Some unpublished Gaelic ballads from the Maclagan MSS. 

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Poems from the Maclagan MSS. Gaelic Soc. Inverness, 

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King (H. W.) and Col. Frank Landon. Brentwood chapel. Essex 

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Stirrups used by Duke of Schomberg at the battle of the 

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Identification of places named in Tirechan's collections. 

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Wycliflfe. Brit. Arch. Assoc. N.S. vii. 219-226. 

Chaucer, as illustrating English mediseval life. Brit . 

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Testamenta Leodiensia, extracted from the probate registry 

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Some (Jaelic words and etymologies. Gaelic Soc, Inver- 

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Martin (A. T.) and Thomas Ashby. Excavations at Caerwent, 
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A. list of travels, tours, journeys, voyages, cruises, excur- 
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Gleanings from Mysia. Hellenic Studies, xxi. 229- 

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— Notice of an ancient kitchen-midden near Largs Bay, Fife, 

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Myers (C. S.). Stories from upper Egypt. Folklore, xiL 329- 

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Notes on some examples of Senams in Algeria. Proc. Soc. 

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' Husband and wife story. Folklore^ xii. 101. 

Cropping animals' ears. Folklore^ xii. 208-209. 

Rain charm in Asia Minor. Folklore^ xiL 210. 

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Supernatural changes of sites. Folklore, xii. 464-466. 

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Francis Throgmorton, a prisoner in Shrewsbury, anno 

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Phillips (William). The fire at Shifnal and the Earl of Shrews- 
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The demolition of Fitz trunulus. Shropshire Arch, Soc. 

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Salop house of correction and provision of the poor, anno 

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A chapter in the history of the chapel of St. James, in the 

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A hitherto nndescribed gigantic cross on the Abbot's way^ 

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■ Presentment of the churchwardens of Woollavington, 1681, 

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The colour^vision of the natives of upper Egypt. Anthrop. 

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The peculiarities of Gaelic as spoken in the writer's dis- 
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Topography and traditions of Eigg. Gaelic Soc, Inver- 

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An early Essex will. Essex Arch. Soc. N.S. viiL 227. 

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A charter of Alice of Essex. Essex Arch. Soc. N.S. viii. 


Tregoz of Tolleshunt Tregoz. Essex Arch. Soc. N.S. viii. 


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Early Huguenot friendly societies. Huffxietwt Soc. 

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Some Egyptian weights in Prof. Petrie's collection. Soc. 

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xxiii. 257-258. 
Wiedemann (A.). Egyptian notes. Soc. Bill. Arch, xxiii. 248- 

Bronze circles and purification vessels in Egyptian temples. 

Soc. BibJ. Arch, xxiii. 203-274. 
WiLLETT (Edgar). On a collection of palaeolithic implements from 

Savemake. Anthrop. Inst. N.S. iv. 310-315. 
WiLKiNs (Charles). Llancaiach house. Arch. Camb. 6tli S. L 


Gwladys, sister of Tydvil. Arch. Camb. 6th S. i. 151-153. 

Williams (Richard). Dolforwyn castle and its lords. Arch. Cantb. 

6th S. i. 299-317. 
WiLi^iAMs t^ Stephen W.). Mediaeval domestic mortars used as holy 

water stoups in churches. Arch. Canib. 6th S. i. 153-155. 
WiMBERLEY (Capt. D.). Selections from the family papers of the 

Mackays of Bighouse, consisting mainly of letters addressed to 

John Campbell of Barcaldine, sometime one of the government 

factors on the forfeited estates after the '45. Gaelic Soc. Inver^ 

nesSj xxi. 120-171. 
Selections from the family papers of the Mackajrs of Big- 
house. Gaelic Soc. Inverness, xxii. 74-117. 
WiNCKLEY (Rev. S. Thorold). Royalist papers relating to the 

sequestration of the estates of Sir Lewis Watson, knight and 

baronet, afterwards first Baron Rockingham, of Rockingham 


castle, during the civil wars in England. Archit 8oc, xxv* 

WiNDEATT (Edward). Totnes: its mayors and mayoralties. Dev, 

Assoc, xxxiii. 535-561. 
WiNDLE (Prof.). A tentative list of objects of prehistoric and early 

historic interest in the counties of Berks, Bucks and Oxford. 

Berks, Bucks, and Oxon, Arch, Journ, N.S. vii. 43-47. 
Woodruff (Cumberlaxd H.). Romano-British interments at Lower 

Walmer. Arch, Cant, xxv. 1-10. 
Thirteenth century wall painting at Upchurch. Arch, 

Cant xxv. 88-96. 
Woodruff (Rev. C. E.). Dent-de-lion gatehouse, Margate, with a 

pedigree of the family of Pettit. Arch, Cant, xxv. 57-63. 

Church plate in Kent. Arch, Cant, xxv. 113-197. 

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Arch, Assoc, N.S. vii. 143-148. 
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xiv. 365-369. 
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Yeatman (John Pym). Welsh records. Arch, Cainb, 6th S. i. 126- 

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Oxon, Arch, Journ. N.S. vi. 107-118 ; vii. 5-17. 
Two notes on Sophocles. Hellenic Studies, xxi. 45-51. 


Abbeys : Compfon^ Fletcher^ Hope, 

Moentj Phelpt, Sots, RovUedge, 

Aberdeenshire : Abercromhy. 
Accounts (parish) : Norman. 
Accounts (private) : Bruihjield. 
Africa: HoUis. Myres^ JRoBcoe, 

Shruhsall, mUe. 
Alfred the Great : Afford, 
Almond bury : Brooke, 
Amber: Hughes, 
American Indians : Bogle, Hawtrey, 

Im Thurn, 
Antrim : J^uick. 
Apprenticeship : Erskine-Risk, 
Armada : Box, 
Arran : SomervilU, 
Arthuret : Bower, 
Assyriology: Boissier, DelaUre, 

Atherington : Johnston, 
Aust Cliff: Ellis. 

Bangor: Hughes, 

Bard well : Warren. 

Bath : Taylor. 

Battles : Bcuc, Knovoles. 

Bells (church) : O'ReUlg, Walters. 

Bel voir : Carrington. 

Bemfleet (South^ : Beaunionlj Later. 

Bennington : Mills. 

Berkshire : Cope, Shertoood, Windle, 
See " Cookham," " Bench worth," 
" Farringdon," " Mortimer." 

Biddulph : Senaud, 

Binderton : Rice. 

Bleasdale : Hughes. 

Blythburgh : Oowers, 

Boxgrove : Hope, 

Brasses : See " Monuments." 

Brentwood : King, 

Bristol : AtcMey, Barker^ Price, 

Bromley: Minchin, 

Bronze period, remains : Hutekesom, 

collar : Barker. 

implements : Anderson^ Ckffejf 
Coleman, Hudd, Morgan, 

objects : JDawson, Ellis, GeHdmey^ 
Read, Robaris. 

urns : Huteheson, 

sword : Gray, 
Brouffhton : Saye and Sele, 
Broxburne : Salwey, 
Buckenham : Hughes. 
Bucks : Bourke, Buckinghamshire^ 

Foster, Windle, See "Fenny 

Stratford," « Turville." 
Bornby : Lendman. 

Caerwent : Ashhy, Hudd. 

Caithness : Anderson, 

Calendars : Ptunket, 

Calverton : Hill^ 

Cambridge : Atkinson, 

Cambridgeshire : Cambridgeshire^ 

Cam^, mounds, entrenchments : 
nrooke, Christison, Cowper, JsSUioL, 
Oould, Laver, Lloyd, MacRitM^, 
March, Morgan, Read, Rmek, 

Canterbury : Ooldney, Hope, Romt- 
ledge. Sands, 

Cardiff: Ward. 

Cardiganshire : Barker, 

Carlisle : CoUingwood, 

Carshalton : Potter, 

Castles : Adctmson^ Ball, Carrington^ 
CorheU, F/rench, Ootch, Qould^ 
Crreen, James, Laver, Laytsrd, 
Maiden, Saye and Sele, Ward, 

Castleton : Addy, 

Celtic history and antiquities : 
Auden, Barker, MacBean, 

Chaldea : PlunkeL 

Chalfield (Great) : Davies, 

Cheshire : See " Lymm," ^ Wirral.'' 




Chichester : Arnold ^ Boger, Cooper ^ 
Hall, Bice, 

Chinese : PlunkeL 

Christian (early) monuments : Allen, 

Churches : Andri, Austin^ Beaumont^ 
BrereUm, BrunskUl^ Cooke, Cotton, 
Cox, Davies, Forsyth, Fox, Framp- 
ion, Olynne, Oowere, Qreen, HUl, 
Hodgson, Hope, Jewers, Johnston, 
Keyser, Leadman, Lotf, Lucas, 
Lynam, Lyons, Mealand, Millard, 
MUls, Mittchin, Oliver, O^BeUly, 
Peers, Peter, Ponting, Prickman, 
Benaud, Bice, Bobertson, Boutledge, 
Sutton, Sympson, Tuck, WUliams, 

Church plate : Ball, Bates, Cooper, 

Churchwardens' accounts : Arnold, 
Fletcher, Warren, 

Cicero : Purser, 

Cinque Ports: Daioson, 

Clare : Weatropp, 

Clifton : Latinier, 

Clocks: Brook, 

Closeburn : Bichardson, 

Cluny: MacPherson. 

Colchester : Antley, Hope, Howard, 

Colne Engaine : Bound. 

Colytou : Jewers, 

Comer Hall : Cowper, 

Connau^^ht : Knox, 

Connemara: Browne, 

Cookham : Young. 

Cornwall : Baring - Oould, Brent, 
Lewis, Bundle, Worth, See 

Coronation : Dawson, F, 

Coroners: Thomas, 

Corston : Ponting. 

Costume: AndrA, Brydall, 

Crosses : Collingwood,O^BeillyJF^rowse, 
Bice, Taylor, Tydeman, Westropp, 

Cuckfield : Attree, Breach, Cooper. 

Cumberland : Haverjield, See " Art- 
huret," "Carlisle," " Glassonby," 
" Matterdale," "Orton (Great)," 
" Penrith." 

Cup and ring marks : Somerville. 

Cyprus : JEvans. 

Darien ; Story, 

Dartmoor : Baring-Gould, Prowse, 
Denchworth : Hyde, 
"Derbyshire : See " Castleton." 
Devonshire : Amery, Brooking- 
Bowe, QresweU, Beidiel, WhtUe, 

Worth. See " Colyton," "Dart- 
moor," "Exeter," "FenOttery," 
" Ford," " Kenton," " Kings- 
bridge," "Okehampton," "Shule," 
" Stockleigh English," " Totnes." 

Dialect : Drinkwater, Kennedy, MaC" 
hain, Bobertson. 

Diaries : Barrow-in-Furness, Brush' 
field, Linn, Lumb, 

Domesday survey : Farrer, Lumby, 
Beichel, Bound, 

Dorsetshire : March. 

Dover : Statham, 

Dublin : Berry, Cosgrave, Drew, 
Falkiner, O'Beilly, Wardell, 

Darrington : Buddie, 

Eastbourne : Haverfield, Hudson. 

Ecclesiology : Brown, Legg, Robinson. 

Egypt : Breasted, Butler, Clarke, 
Griffith, Myers, Nanh, Petrie, 
Rivers, Sayce, Ward, Weigall, 
Weld, Whyte, Wiedemann. 

Eig^ : Bobertson, 

Elgin : Stuart, 

Elsted : Rice. 

Elie: Traquair, 

Essex : Christy^ Gouhl, Round, Waller, 
See " Bemfleet (South)," " Brent- 
wood," " Bromley," " Colchester," 
" Colne Engaine," " Hallingbury 
Great," " Harlow," " Helions 
Bumpstead," " High Ongar," 
" Langenhoe," "Lawford," " Lit- 
tie Laver," " Loughton," " Nave- 
stock," "Nevenden," "Pleshey," 
"Plesingho," " Roy don," "Stan- 
ford Rivers," "Stansted Mont- 
fichet," "Tiptrie," " Tolleshunt 
Tregoz," "Waltham," " Waltham 
(Little)," " Wethersfield." 

Exeter : Adams, Brushfield, Troup, 

Faringdon : DitcJtfield, 

Feat hen leag : Auden, 

Fen Ottery : Dickinson. 

Fenny Stratfonl : Bradbrook, 

Field names : Waller, 

Fifeshire : Hutcheson, 

Fishguard : Wade-Evans. 

Fitz: Phillips, 

Flamborough : Berries, 

Folklore : Addy, Amery, Astley, Atch' 
ley, Auden, Soger, Boissier, Boyle, 
Braitmaier, Bume, Cameron, 
Carey^ Carson, Chervin, Cheshire, 
Coleridge, Conybeare, Cooke, Drum" 
mond, Dutt, Emslie, Evans, Farrer, 
Fergusson, Frazer^ Gaster, Oerish, 



Goodrich-Freerj Gomme^ Groves j 
Sarlland, Hig{fin$^ Hodgson ^ 
Hiillj Janvier, Jewitt, Johnsfcn, 
Jones, Keary, Kennedy, Kidson, 
Lang, Lanyley. Lemke, Legge, 
Lighthall, Lovett, MacDonald {A.), 
MacDonald (Z>. J.^, MacDonald 
(J.), Mackenzie, MacHitckie, March, 
Merrick, Milne, Mitchell, Myers, 
Sutt, Palon, Peacock (E.), Peacock 
(M.), Poison, Powell, rresLage, Ray, 
Pead, Rivers, Rnlertson, Rouse, 
Sitf^lair, Sintott, Sjfeakman, Sykes, 
Thomas, Thoriiley, Tregear, Ven- 
katamcami. Weeks, Weld, YVeston, 

Font8 : Andr^, Pfh^r, Rice, 

Ford (Devon) : Cotton, 

Ford (Sussex) : Johnston. 

France : Duncan, 

Galway: Kelly, 

Genealogy and family history : 
Attree, Daildon, Cooper, Cust, 
Fraze r - Mackintosh , Grainger, 
Grai/, Irvine, Lega- Weekes^Parker, 
Phillips, Piatt, Poole, Radford, 
Round, Vaughon, Waller, Watson, 
Westropp, Wilkins, Wimherley^ 

Giraldus Cambrensis : Campbell, 

Glasgow : Allen, 

(ilassonby ; Barnes, Collingtcood, 

Gloucester : Medlond, 

Gloucestershii-e : Davis, Martin. See 
"Aust Cliff," "Bristol," "Clif- 
ton," " Gloucester," " Tewkes- 
bury," "Toddington," "West- 

Goodnestone : Wells. 

Grammar schools ; Breach, 

Great Clifton : Collingtcood, 

Great Munden : Tuck, 

Greatham : Rice, 

Greek antiquities : Anderson, Ancdry, 
Bevan, Bosawiuet, Brooks, Brovm, 
Cook, Crowfoot, Pdnwnds, Foot, 
Fwiwangler, Gardner {E.), Gard' 
ner (P,), Harrisoti, Hogarth, 
Kabbadiasy Munro, Milne, Myres, 
Nilsson,Paton, Roberts, Rouse, Tarn, 
Verrall, Walclstein, Young, 

Groby : Gould. 

Guildford : Maiden. 

Gundrada de Warenne : Hall, 

Gwendale magna : Leadman. 

Hale : Irvine, 

Hallingbury (Great) : Gould. 

Hampshire: See " Meonstoke," "Bom- 
sey," " Silchest^." 

Hard bam : Johnston, Rice, 

Hardwick Hall : Gotch, 

Harlow : Gould. 

Hastings : Datoson, 

Haughmond : Fletcher, 

Hayles Abbey : Brakspear, 

Helion's Bumpstead : Romnd, 

Henry I. : Andrew. 

Heraldry : Bradbrook, Hawkciiburyy 
Oliver, Paul, Were. 

Herefordshire : Frazer, 

Hertford : Caldecctt, 

Hertfordshire : Gerish, See " Ben- 
nington," " Brox bourne,'" "Great 
Munden,"" Hertford," '-Hitchin," 
" Hoddesdon," " Little Munden," 
" Standon," «* Ware," " Welwyn,*^ 
" Wormley." 

High Ongar : Round. 

Hitchin : Lucas, Millard, 

Hittite remains : Andersc-n^ Sayce. 

Hoddesdon : Andrews, Gerish, 

Houses : Andrf, Baddeley, Gotch, Gould ^ 

Houghton- on-the-Hill : Hartopp, 

Hunstanton : Hughes, Le Strange. 

Ickham : Frampfon, 

Ickworth: Hervey, 

Inchiquin : Macnamara. 

India : Dutt, Hodsvn, 

Inns : Andr4, 

Inscriptions : Ffrench, Hicci, Wade- 
Greek : Milne, 
Hittite : Andersen, 
Ogam : Buick, Rhys. 

Inventories : Auden^ Southam, Sussex. 

lona : Allen. 

Ireland: Chamhrier, Cojffey, Faley, 
Ffrench, Hull, Knoules, Knox^ 
Latimer, Wright, See " Antrim," 
« Clare," "Connaugbt," "Con- 
nemara," "Dublin," "Galway,^ 
"Inchiquin," " New Boss." 

Japan : Ashicn, 

Kempsey : Purton, 

Kent : Payne, Woodruff, See 
"Goodnestone," "Ickham," 
" Leeds," " Maidstone," " Mar- 
gate," "Minstey," " Stcckburv,'" 
" Upchurch," " Walmer." 

Kent mere: Covo%er, Cropper, Curvem^ 



Kenton : Bingham. 
Kilnwick Percy : Leadman, 
Kingsbridge : Daoies. 
Kingston-on-Thames : Pen/old, 
Kintyre : Iliac Donald, 
Kirbv Muxloe : Ghdch, 
Kirkham : Hawkesbury. 
Kirklees : Chadwick. 
Kirkoswald : CoUingtoood, ThornUy, 
Kirkwall : Robertson. 
Knights Hospitallers : Broum. 

Lancashire: Iroine, Lumby^ Taylor. 
See " Bleasdale," " Hale," " Liver- 
pool," "Manchester," "Middle- 
ton," " Preston." " Vale Royal." 

Langenhoe: Round. 

Langford Badville : Elworthy. 

Largs: Lyons. 

Lawford: Green, 

Leatherhead: Smith, 

Leeds (Kent): James. 

Leeds ( Yorlw) : Ford. Lumb. 

Leicester : Compion. Lynam, Oliver. 

Leicestershire : Bellairsy Hartopp. 
See " Groby," " Houghton on the 
Hill," "Kirby Muxloe," "Leices- 
ter," "Lutterworth," " Noseley," 
" Batby," " Ul vescroft." 

Leper-hospitals: Andrews, 

Lewes: Boyson. 

Lincoln: James. 

Lincolnshire: jPVwter. -Sm " Lincoln," 
"Scunthorpe," " Tattershall." 

Libraries: Churchy Clarky Close, 
Cooper, Johnston, Latolor, 

Literary history: Axon, BoUon, 
Browning, Davey, Howorth, Lack' 
Szyrma, Neilson, Fheni. 

Little Laver: Round, 

Little Munden : Sworder, 

Liverpool: Shato. 

Llandaff: Halliday. 

Llantrissant : Corbett. 

London: Oarnett, Hardy, Lach- Szyr- 
ma, Maurice, Munich, Norman, 
Prevost, Urwich, Waller, Werge. 

Loughlinstown : Ball. 

Loughton: Waller. 

Lun6ville, peace of : Roberts, 

Lutterworth: Patrick, 

Lych gates : ffcUliday, 

Lymm: Ball. 

Mabe : Peter. 
Maidstone : Robertson. 
Malmesbnry: James. 
Malvern (Great): Paul. 

Man^Isleof): Howorth. 

Mancnester: Ball. 

Manor courts: Kdly, Kirby, Mad' 

Maori: Roth. 

Margate : Cotton, Woodruff. 

Maryculter : Eilwards. 

Matterdale : Whiteside. 

Meonstoke: Kirby, 

Metallurgy : Gowland, Rosenhain. 

Mexico : Comer. 

Middleton; Dean, 

Military history: Firth, Oould, 
Knowles, Linn, Ruck. 

Millington: Leadman. 

Minster: Frampton. 

Monmouthshire: See "Caerwent." 

Monuments, inscriptions, brasses, 
etc.: Andri, Bower, Browne, 
Brydall, Buckinghamshire, Cam- 
bridgeshire, Christy, Cocks, Daois, 
Fallow, Hartiihorn, Jewers, Rice, 
Sfsphenson, Weils, 

Mortimer: Cameron. 

Municipal antiquities : Atkinson, 
Berry, Caldecott, Drinkwater, 
Hope, Morris, Statham, Vigors, 

Names : Mac Bain, 

Navestock: Gould. 

Net her a von : Ponting. 

Nevenden: Beaumont. 

New Guinea: Haddon. 

New Boss : Manning, Vigors. 

Norfolk: Astley. See "Buckenham," 

Norse invasion : Mackay. 
Northamptonshire : Brereton, Cox. 
Northumoerland : Haverfield. See 

" Tynemouth." 
Noseley: Hartopp. 
Nottingham : Green, Hope. 
Nottinghamshire: See "Calverton," 

" Nottingham." 
Numismatics: Brooking-Rowe, Rich- 

Elizabeth : Gerish. 

Henry I : Andrew, 

Justinian I. : Searle. 

Manx: Howorth. 

Koman : Caldecott, Christy, Clark, 
Nunburnholm : Leadman. 

Okehamption: Prickman. 
Oldbury : Southam. 
Ormesby: Fallow. 



Ormshed: BrutukUL 
Orton (Great): Parker. 
Oxfordshire: Windle. See "Brongh- 
ton/' " Wittenham (LittleX* 

Paisley: Bo$9. 

Parish registers : Dickivson^ Hartopp, 

Patrington: Maddock, 
Peles : Cowper. 
Penrith : IVatson. 
Phillippines: MacKinUi/, 
Pitney Moor: Gray. 
Place-names : Bomrke, Mackay^ Poster, 
Pleshey : Bound, 
Plesingho: Bound, 
Poor, provision for : Phillipe, 
Pottery: PrevoeL 

Prehistoric remains: Knotoletj Wes- 
tropp, Willettj Windfe. 

Brochs: Anderson, 

Grannogs: Munro. 

Cave: IJatckins, 

Earth houses : Kay. 

Graves: Primroee. 

Implements : Brent^ Gatty^ Hughes^ 
Mackensie^ Moir, Stope*^ Wtdier. 

Quadrangular structures: Co%cper. 

Kitchen midden: Munro, Traquair. 

Stone circles : Colee, Letcie. 

Urns: Abercromby. 

Tillage: Martindale. 
Presbyterian church history : Lati- 
mer, Pen/old. 
Preston : Ball. 
Priories : Adamson, Boy eon, Chadtcick, 

Hope, James, Patrick. 
Prisoners in England : Phillips, Prick- 
Pulborough : Harley, Bice, 

Raby Cote : Grainger, Hodgson, 
Katby: Bartopp. 

Richard (St.) of Chichester : Cooper. 
Roadways : Bellairs, Kempthome, 

Napper, Salkuid, 
Robert of Belesme : Auden, 
Roman remains : Allen, Fry, Gantang^ 
Geriah, Goldney, Sparke, 

Caerwent: Ashby, Martin. 

Camps: Andrew, Chrisiison. 

Cardiff Castle: Ward. 

Cornwall : Worth. 

Germany (South) : Lewis, 

Hadrian's wall : Foster, 

Hardknott: Dymond. 

Interments : Woodruff. 

Law : Clark, 

Medicine: Barnes, 

Pulborough : Bice. 

Pyrenees: Whitetcay. 

Roads : Bdlairs, Bulloek-Hall, Cow- 
per, Croft, Martin. 

Rome: Forbes. 

Sarcophagi : Bobert 

Silchester : Fox, Hope, Beid. 

Stations : Anderson, Buchanan, 

Urns and lamp : Thompson, 

Villas: Barker, 

Wilderspool : May. 

Wittenham (Little): Cozens, 
See " Numismatics.^* 
Romsey : Moens, Peers. 
Roy den : Gerish. 

Ruyton-of-the-eleven-towns : Kenyom. 
Ryland : Ffrench. 

Saddleworth : Andrew. 

St. Mylor : Peter. 

St. Patrick^ Purgatory : MacBUehie. 

Saints : Auden, Baring-Gomld. 

Sarawak : Hose, Shel/ord. 

Savemake: WWetL 

Saxon antiquities : Goldney, Hughes, 

Scotland : BrydaU. Campbell, Coles, 
Lewis, Maekay, MacBitchie^ 
Mitchell, Munro. See "Aberdeen- 
shire,'' "Arran," « Caithneae.'^ 
"*iigg»" "ElgiDr'' "Pifeshiie," 
"Glasgow," "Laraw," '^Paisley;* 
" Stirlingshire," ** Sutherland^ 

Scunthorpe: GaUy. 

Seaford : Bice. 

Seals: Atkinson, Warren. 

Send and Ripley : Johnston, 

Shakespeare: Sayle. 

Sherston: PosUing, 

Shifnal : thillips, 

Shrewsbury : Drinkwaier, Fleicher. 
Morris, Phillipe, 

Shropshire : Auden, DrinkwaUr, 
Fletcher, Hope-Edwards, Phillips, 
Shropshire. See " FitE," " Haugh- 
mond," "Oldbury," "Ruyton,** 
" Shrewsbury," " Shifnal,'' " Uff- 
ington," "Whitchurch;' " Wil- 

Shute: Jewers. 

Silchester : Fox, Hofe, Beid. 

Somerford (^GreatJ : Manley. 

Somersetshire : Bates, Fry, Morgmm. 
i5««"Batb,'' "LangfordBudviller 
" PitneyMoor," " Wells,'" What- 
ley," " Winsbam." 



Spain : Dcdton. 

Spoons (wooden) : Allen, 

Staffordshire: 5««"Biddulph." 

Standon : Broun, Crofton, 

Stanford Rivers : Round. 

Stansted Montfichet : Later. 

Stirlingshire : Andersen. 

Stockbury : Cooke. 

Stockleigh English ; Erskine-Rxsk, 

Stone implenlents : /?««" Prehistoric.'' 

Strickland: Whiteeide. 

Suffolk: Suffi^k. See " Bard well,'* 
** Blythburgh," " Ickworth.'' 

Sundials : Evans. 

Surrey : Andri^ Bax^ Cooper , Xapper^ 
Roharte. See ** Carshalton," 
" Guildford," " Kingston - on - 
Thames," " Leatherhead," "Send 
and Ripley," " Woodmansterne." 

Sussex : Andri Datcson, HcUl, Haver- 
fields Johnston, Bead, Rice, Round, 
Sussex. See " Atherington," " Bin- 
derton," "Boxgrove," "Chiches- 
ter," " Cuckfield," "Eastbourne,-' 
"Elsted," "Ford," "Hardham," 
" Hastings," "Lewes," " Pul - 
borough,"' " Seaford," " Trey ford," 
"Warnham," "West Dean," 
" Willingdon," "Woollaving- 

Sutherland : Anderson Mackat,', 

Tasmania: Moir, 

Tattershall: Sympson. 

Templepatrick : Latimer. 

TewkesDury: Way^en. 

Tiptree: F. 

Tooacco pipes : Price. 

Toddington : Baddeley. 

Tolleshunt Tregoz: Round. 

Tong: Calvert. 

Totnes: Windeatt. 

Trephining : Crump. 

Treyford : Rice, 

Tumuli, Barrows : Barnes, ColJivg- 

wood, Hughes, Worth, 
Turville : Cocks, Forsyth. 
Tynemouth: Adamson. 

Uffington: Fletcher. 
Ulvescroft: Patrick. 
tfpchurch: Woodruff. 
Uphall: Primrose. 

Vale Royal : Phelps. 

Wakefield : Peacock. 

Wales: Allen, Laves, Yeatman, Ste 

"Cardiff," "Cardiganshire," 

"Fishguard," "Llandaff," 

Walmer: Fry, Woodruff. 
Waltham: Tydeman. 
Walthani (Little) : Christy. 
Ware : Andrews. 
Warnham : Andr^. 
Warter: Hope. 
Watton : Hope, 
Wells : Church, Coleman. 
W>lwyn : Calderott,GeHsh. 
West Dean : Rice. 
Westbury-upon-Trym : Hudd. 
Westmorland: <Sce "Comer Hall," 

"Kentmere," "Strickland,' 

" Witherslack." 
Wethersfield : Round. 
What ley: Hartshome. 
Whitchurch: Thompson, Vane. 
Wilderspool : May. 
Willey : Phillips. 
Willingdon: Rice, 
Wills: Calvert, Round, Sherwood, 

Wiltshire: Powell. See " Chalfield 

(Great)" "Corston," "Durring- 

ton," " Malmesbury," " Nether- 

avon," " Savernake,'" " Sherston,' 

« Somerford (Great)." 
Winsham : Lott. 
Wirral: Pool. 
Witherslack : Hutton. 
Witten ham (Little): Cozens. 
Wollaton : Ootch, 
Wolsey (Cardinal): Evans. 
Woodmansteme : Lambert. 
Woollavington : Rice. 
Worcester: James. 
Worcestershire: Walters. «Se«"Kemi>- 

sey," "Malvern (Great)/' 
Wormley: Austin, 
Wrexham: Palmer. 

Yarbur^h : Fowler. 

Yorkshire : Lay, See " Bumby," 
" Flamborough," "Gwendale 
Magna," "Kilnwick Percy," 
"Kirkham,"" Kirklees," "Leeds," 
" Millington," " Nunbumholme," 
" Ormesby," " Patrington," " Sad- 
dleworth," " Wakefield," " War- 
ter," " Watton." 

Duller & Tanner, The Selwood Printing Works, Frome, and London. 




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The Right Hon. Lord Swansea 

The Right Hon. Lord Glanusk (President, 1902) 

The Right Hon. Lord Glanusk 

R. H. Wood, Esq., F.S.A., F.R.G.S. 

H. R. Hughes, Esq., Lord Lieutenant of Flintshire 
Sir John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.8., V.P.S.A. 
Sir C. E. G. Philipps, Bart. (President, 1880 and 1883) 
R. H. Wood, Esq., F.S.A., F.R.G.S. 
His Hon. Jndge Wyhhe Ffoulkes, M.A. 
Sir John Talbot Dillwyn Llewelyn, Bart., M.A^ M.P^ F.L.S. 

(President, 1886) 
Lient.-GoL C. S. Mainwaring (President, 1887) 


M. le Dr. de Closmadeuc (President^ 1889), Pr^ident de la Soci^t^ 

Poljmathiqne dn Morbihan 
John Rhys, Esq., M.A., LL.D. (President, 1891), Profesflor of Celtic, 

and PiiDcipal of Jeans College, Oxford 
The Rev. Chancellor D. Silvan Evans, B.D. 
W. Boyd Dawkins, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., Professor of Geology, 

Owens College, Mancheater 
The Rev. A. H. Sayce, M.A., LL.D., Professor of Assyriology, Oxford 
The Rev. Hugh Prichabd, M.A. 
The Yen. Archdeacon Thomas, M.A., F.S.A. 
Sir Jambs Williams Drummond, Bart. (Presidenty 1892) 
Sir Owen H. P. Scourfiild, Bart. (Presidenty 1897) 
Edward Laws, Esq., F.S.A. 
The Rev. Canon Rupert Morris, D.D., F.S.A. 
J. W. Willis-Bund, Esq., F.S.A. 
Henry Owen, D.C.L., F.S.A. 
The' Rev. Prebendary Garnons-Wiluams, M.A. 
Col. Prycb-Jones, M.P. {President, 1901) 
The Rev. 8. Baring-Gould, M.A. 

The President, with all those who have held that office ; the Vice-Presi- 
dents ; the Treasurer ; the General and Local Secretaries ; and the 
Editorial Snb-Committee, with the following : 

Ven. Archdeacon Thomas, M.A., F.S.A., Chairman, 

rtyd NichoU, Esq., F.S.A. 
H. Harold Huffhe9,Esq., A.R.LB.A. 
J. RomiUv Allen, Esq., F.S.A. 
J. Ward, Esq., F.S.A. 
J. W. Willis-Bnnd, Esq., F.S.A. 

Mrs. Allen i Rev. John Fisher. 

Rev. E. J. Newell. 

W. H. Banks, Esq. 

Edward Owen, Esq. 

Richard Williams, Esq., F.RHist.S. 

A. N. Palmer, Esq. 

Thos. Mansel Franklen, Esq. 

J. Romilly Allen, Esq., F.S.A., 28, Great Ormond Street, W.C. 

^littoTtal J^ub^Committee. 
The Rev. Chancellor D. Silvan Evans, B.D. 
Professor Rhys, M. A., LL.D. 
The Rev. Canon R. Trevor Owen, M.A., F.S.A. 

Worthington G. Smith, Esq., F.L.S. 

Col. W. L. Morgan, R.E., Brynbriallu, Swansea. 

R. H.Wood, Esq., F.S.A. 
W. R. M Wynne. Esq. 
Colonel W. Gwynne- Hughes 



Rev. Canon R Trevor Owen, M.A., F.S.A., Bodelwyddan Vicarage, 

Rhuddlan (Flintshire), R.S.O. 
Rev. Charles Chidlow, M. A., Llawhaden Vicarage, Narberth 

(ETorredponDing ^tttttavUfi. 

France — Mons. Charles HettieTj F.S.A., Caen 

Brittany — M. de Keranflec'h Kernezne, Chateau de Qa^l^nec, Mar de 
Bretagne, Cdtes du Nord, France [burgh 

Scotland — Joseph Anderson, Esq., LL.D., Museum of Antiquities, Edin- 
Ireland—R. Cochrane, Esq., F.S. A., 17, Highfield Road, Rathgar, Dublin 
Cornwall — Edwyn Parkyn, Esq., Royal Institute, Truro 

Rev. S. Baring-Gould, Lew Trenchard Rectory, N. Devon 

illonorari? iBembeni. 

M. Alexandre de Bertrand, Paris 

Mons. Charles Hettier, F.S.A., Caen, France 

Anglesey . 








Pembrokeshire . 

Radnorshire . . 
Monmouthshire . 
The Marches 

J. E. Griffith, Esq., F.R.C.S., F.L.S., Bryn Dinas, 

Upper Bangor 
Ed w. Roberts, Esq., M.A., H.M.I.S., Carnarvon 
H. Harold Hughes, Esq., A.R.I.B.A., Bangor 
Rev. David JoneF, M.A., The Vicarage, Abergele 
A. Foulkes-Roberts, Esq., 34, Vale Street, Denbigh 
Rev. W. LI. Nicholas, M.A., Rectory, Flint 
L. J. Roberts, Esq., H.M.LS., Rhyl 
Rev. J. E. Da vies, M.A., The Rectory, Llwyngwril 
Thomas Price, Esq., Pentreheylin, Llanymynech 
Lieut. -Col. R. D. Grarnons- Williams, Ty Mawr, 

Prof. Anwyl, M.A., University College of Wales, 

Rev. D. D. Bvans, B.D., Llandyfriog Vicarage, 

Newcastle Emlyn 
Alan Stepney-GuUton, Esq., Derwydd, Llandebie 
Rev. D. H. Davies, Cenarth Vicarage, Llandyssil 
D. Lleufer Thomas, Esq., Bryn Maen, Llandeilo 
Thos. Powel,Esq., M.A., University College, Cardiff 
C.WUkins,Esq.,F.G.S.,Sprinfi:field, Merthyr Tydfil 
C. H. Glascodine, Esq., Cae Pare, Swansea 
Herbert J. Allen, Esq., Norton, Tenby 
H. W. Williams, Esq., F.G.S., Solva 
Rev. James Phillips, Haverfordwest 
Rev. L. H. Evans, M.A., Vicarage, Rhayader 
A. E. Bo wen, Esq., Town Hall, Pontypool 
James Davies, Esq., Gwynfa, Brooray Hill, Hereford 
Rev. C. H. Drinkwater, M.A., St. George's Vicarage, 

Henry Taylor, Esq., F.S.A., Curzon Park, Chester 




His Majssty ths Kino . 
Swansea, The Rt. Hon. Lord 
Allen, Mrs. Thomas . 
Allen, W. Bird, Esq., M.A. 
Allen, J. Romilly, Esq., F.S.A. 
Allen, Rev. W. Osborn, M.A, . 
Asher, Messrs., and Co. 
Baring-Gould, Rev. S., M.A. . 

Behrens, George, Esq. 
Bumard, R., Bsq., F.S.A. . 
Biblioth^ae Nationale 

Birmingham Free Library . 
Blnndell, Joseph Hight, Esq. 
Bond, F. Bligh, Esq. 
Bridger, E. K., Esq. 
♦Chambers, Rev. G. C. . 
Chetham Library 
Cochrane, R. H., Esq., F.S.A., 

Hon. Sec. Royal Sclciety of 

Antiqoaries, Ireland 
Colmnbia University . 
Conlif^e, Major J. Williams 
Cunnington, B. Howard, Esq., 


Dawkins, W. Boyd, Esq., M.A., 

F.R.S., F.S.A. 
D'Arbois de Jnbainville, M. 
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. Buckingham Palace, S.W. 

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New York, U.S. A. 

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tagne, Cdtes du Nord, France 
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Ebblewhite, Ernest A., Esq., 1, Paper Buildings, Temple, London, 

E.C. ; and Tintem, Christchurch 
Road, Crouch End, N. 
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Evans, Sir John, F.R.8., K.C.B. 

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rodorion) .... 

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64, Chancery Lane, W.C. 

13, Eaton Crescent, Clifton, Brisiol 

* Members admitted since the Anniial Meeting, 1902, have an asteriak prefixed to 
their namea. 


Foulkes, Isaac, Esq. . 
Green, Francis, Esq. . 
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Guildhall Library, E.G. 
Hall, Rev. G. Scott . 
Harford, Miss 
Hartland, Ernest, Esq., 

F.S.A. . 
Hartland, E. Sidney, Esq., 
Harvard College Library 

Hereford Free Library 
Jackson, J., Esq. 
James, Mrs. F. 
Jesus College Library 
*Jone6, E. Alfred, Esq. 


Jones, Rev. G. Hart well, M.A. . 
Jones, Lawrence, Esq. 
♦Jones, Robert, M.D., F.R.C.S. 
Joseph- Watkin, T. M., Esq. . 

King*s Inns' Library 
Lewis, William F., Esq. . 
Liverpool Free Public Library . 
Lloyd, Alfred, Esq.,F.C.S.,F.E.S. 
London Library 
Manchester Free Library . 
Melbourne Public Library 

Morris, The Rev. Canon Rupert 

H., D.D., F.S.A. . . 
Morris, T. E., Esq., LL.M. 
McClure, Rev. Edmund, M.A. . 
New York Library 

Norman, George, Esq., M.D. 
Owen, Edward, Esq. . 
Pennsylvania Historical Society 

Peter, Thurstan C, Esq. . 
PrsBtorius, C. J., Esq., F.S.A. 
Price, Hamlyn, Esq. . 

8, Paradise Street, Liverpool 
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Kegan Paul, Trfibner & Co., 
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Street, N.W. 
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4, Trafalgar Square, Charing Cross, 

Redruth, Cornwall 

111, New King's Road, London, S.W. 
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Prichard, Rev. R. W., M.A. 

Prichard-Morgan, W., Esq. 

RenneB, Biblioth^que Universi- 

Rhys, John, Esq., M.A., LL.D., 
Professor of Celtic and Princi- 
pal of Jesus College 

Sayce, Rev. A. H., LL.D., Prot 
of Assyriology 

Smith, Worthington G., Esq., 

Stechert, G. E., Esq. . 

Sydney Free Public Library 

Taylor, W. F. Kyffin, Esq., K.C. 
Thomas, Miss .... 
Thomas, Rev. W. Mathew, M.A. 
Toronto Publie Library 

Yaughan, H. F. J., Esq. . 

Willis-Bund, J. W., Esq., F.S. A. 

Williams, Miss M. C. L. . 

* Williams, W. Llewelyn, Esq., 


Wyatt, J. W., Esq. . 

Stoke Vicarage, Chester 

1, Queen Victoria Street, B.C. 

Rennes, Mame, France 

Jesus College, Oxford 

Queen's College, Oxford 

121. High Street North, Dunstable 
Star Yard, Carey Street, Chancery 

Lane, W.C. 
Cc/o Mr. Young J. Pentland, 38, West 

Smithfield, E.C.) 
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and Humphreston Hall, Salop. 
15, Old Square, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 
6, Sloane Gardens, S.W. 

Lamb's Buildings, Temple, E.C. 
East Coast, Wells, Somerset 

ttSt OF MEMBEtlS. 



Reade, Lady 

Bolkeley, Sir Richard 

Williams, Bart. 
Mejrrick, Sir George, Bart. 
Verney, Sir Edmond, Bart. 

Adeane, Miss 
Evans, Rev. Evan 

Griffith, Rev. Ellis Hughes 

Jones, Professor J. Morris 
Prichard, Rev. Hugh, M.A. 
Prichard, Thomas, Esq. 
Williams-Mason, Mrs. 


Carreg-lwyd, The Yalley, R.S.O. 

Baron Hill, Beaumaris, R.S.O. 
Bodorgan, Llangefni, R.S.O. 
Claydon House, Winslow, Bucks ; and 

Rhianva, Menai Bridge 
Plas Llanfawr, Holyhead 
Llansadwm Rectory, Menai Bridge, 

Llangadwaladr Vicarage, Llangefni, 

Tycoch, Llanfair, P.G., R.S.O. 
Dinam, Gaerwen, R.S.O. [R.S.O. 

Llwydiarth Esgob, Llanerchymedd, 
Plas Bodafon, Llanerchymedd, R.S.O. 


Mostyn, The Lady Aug us la 
Penrhyn, Rt. Hon. Lord . 
Turner, Sir Llewelyn 
Arnold, Professor E. V., M.A. . 
Davids, Miss Rose 

Davies, John Issard, Esq., M.A. 
Davies, J. R., Esq. 
Dodson, William M., Esq. . 
Evans, Colonel O. LI. G. . 
♦Foster, W. A., Esq. 
Griffith, J. E., Esq., F.R.A.S., 


Hughes. H. Harold, Esq., 


Jones, C. A., Esq. 

Jones, L. D., Esq. . 

Jones, Rev. Canon, M.A. . 

Lloyd-Jones, Miss 

Lloyd, John Edward, Esq., M.A. . 

Owpn, E. H., Esq., F.R.A. 

Gloddaeth, Llandudno 
Penrhyn Castle, Bangor 
Parciau, Carnarvon 
Bryn Seiriol, Bangor 
Greenhall, High Blantyre, N.B. 

Plas Llanwnda, Carnarvon 
Llysmeirion, Carnarvon 
Ceris, Bangor 
Bettws-y-coed, R.S.O. 
Broom Hall, Chwilog, R.S.O. 
Glyn Menai, Bangor 

Bryn Dinas, Upper Bangor 

Arvonia Buildings, Bangor 


3, Edge HUl, Garth, Bangor 

The Yicarage, Llandegai, Bangor 

Penrallt, Penmaenmawr, R.S.O. 

T.inllwyn, Bangor. 

Tv Coch, Carnarvon 



LtST Of ^rtMBKRS. 

Parry, R. Ivor, Esq. 
Roberts, E.,E8q., H.M.I.S.,M.A. 
University College Library 
Watts-Jones, Mrs. H. 
Williams, W. P., Esq. 
Williams, J. A. A., Esq. . 

Pwllheli, R.8.0. 

Plas Maesincla, Camanron 


Glyn, Dwygyfylchi, Conway 

Cae'r Onnen, Bangor 

Aberglaslyn, Beddgelert, CamarYon 

Williams- Wynn. Dowager Lady 
Williams -Wynn, Sir Watkin, 

Bart., C.B., Lord Lieut, of 

Canliffe, Sir Robert A., Bart. . 
McLaren, Sir Chas. B. B., Bart., 

KC, M.P 


Llangedwyn, Oswestry 

Wynnstay, Rhnabon 
Acton Park, Wrexham 

Badnant, Eglwysfach, R.S.O. 

Barnes, Mrs The Quinta, Chirk, Rhnabon 

Berkeley, A. E. M., Esq. 
Blew, Mrs. 

Darlington, James, Esq. 
Davies, D. S., Esq. . 
Fisher, Rev. John, B.D. 
Fletcher, Canon W. H., M.A. 
Fonlkes-Roberts, A., Esq. 
*Halhead, Wm. B., Esq. 
Haghes, Edward, Esq. 
Hughes, J. O., Esq. 
Hughes, Rev. Meredith J 
Jones, A. Seymour, Esq 
Jones, Rev. D., M.A. 
Jones-Bateman, Rev. B., M.A. 
Kyrke, R. V., Esq. . 
Lynch, Francis, Esq. 
Main waring, Lieut.- Col. 
♦Morris, E., Esq., M.A. 
Morris, John, Esq. 
Palmer, A. N., Esq. . 
Roberts, J. Herbert, 

M.P. . 
Roberts, Rev. C. F., M.A. 
Sandbach, Colonel 
Trevor - Parkins, The 

Williams, Thomas, Esq. 
Williams, William, Esq. 


Gredington, Whitchurch, Salop 

Hafod, Trefnant, R.S.O. 

Bkck Park, Rhnabon 

Castle House, Denbigh 

Cefn Rectory, St. Asaph 

The Vicarage, Wrexham 

34, Vale Street, Denbigh 

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Glyndwr, Bersham Road, Wrexham 

Estate Office, Llangedwyn, Oswestry 

Brynymaen Vicarage, Colwyn Bay 

Pendwr, Wrexham 

The Vicarage, Abergele, R.S.O. 

Pentre Mawr, Abergele 

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Bryngwenallt, Abergele, RS.O., 

Llanddolas Rectory, Abergele, R.&O. 
Hafodnnos, Abergele, RS.O. 

Glaafryn, Gresford, Wrexham 
Llywesog, Denbigh 

Wynne, Mrs. F. ... Ystrad Cottage, Denbigh 

Wynne-Finch, Colonel . . Voelas, Bettws-y-coed, R.S.O. 



Hughes, Hugh R., Esq., Lord 

Lieutenant of Flintshire . Kinmel Park, Abergele, R.S.O. (Den- 
Kenyon, Right Hon. Lord . Gredington, Whitchurch, Salop 

Mostyn, Lady .... Talacre, Rhyl 
Mostyn, Right Hon. Lord . Mostyn Hall, Mostyn 

St. Asaph, Very Rev. the 

Dean of Deanery, St. Asaph 

St. Deiniors Library, . . Hawarden, Chester 
♦Davies, Rev. W. J., B.A. . Bath Street, Rhyl 
Davies-Cooke, P. B., Esq., M. A. Gwysaney, Mold ; and Owston, Don- 
caster, Yorkshire 
County School, Rhyl 
Cilcain Vicarage, Mold 
Iscoed Park, Whitchurch, Salop 
County School, Rhyl 
Vicarage, Rhyl 
Pontruffydd, Tref nant R.S.O. {Denbigh- 

♦Edwards, J. M., Esq., M.A. . 

Felix, Rev. J 

Godsal, Philip T., Esq. . 
♦Lewis, W. A., Esq., M.A. 
Lloyd, Rev. Thomas, M.A. 
Mesham, Colonel 
Nicholas, Rev. W. LI., M.A. . 
Owen, Rev. Canon R. Trevor, 
M.A., F.S.A 

The Rectory, Flint [shire) 

Bodelwyddan Vicarage, Rhuddlan, 

Pennant, Philip P., Esq., M.A. 

Poole-Hughes, Rev. J. P. 

Roberts, L. J., Esq., H.M.LS. 

Tayleur, C. Richard, Esq. 

Temple, Miss .... 

St. Beuno's College Library 

VaughanJones, Rev. W., M.A. Mostyn Vicarage 

Williams, Rev, R. O., M.A. . The Vicarage, Holywell 


Wynne, W. R. M., Esq., Lord 
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Nantllys, St. Asaph 

The Vicarage, Mold 

Tegfan, Russell Road, Rhyl 

Maesgwilym Cottage, Rhyl 

The Warren, Broughton, Chester 

St. Asaph 

Davies, Rev. J. E., M.A. . 
Griffith, Edward, Esq. 
Griffith, Miss Lucy . 
Leigh-Taylor, John, Esq. . 
Oakley, William E., Esq. . 

Owen, Rev. William 
Vaughan, Rev. T. H., B.A., . 
Wynn Williams, If or O., Esq. . 
Wood, R. H., Esq., F.S.A., 

The Rectory, Llwyngwril, R.S.O. 

Springfield, Dolgelly 

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Plas Tan - y - bwlch, Tan - y - bwlch, 

Llanelltyd Vicarage, Dolgelly 
Glyndyfrdwy Vicarage, Llangollen 
Bronwylfa, Llanderfel 

Belmont, Sidmouth, S. Devon ; and 
Pant-glas, Trawsfynydd 



Powifl Castle, Welshpool 
Dolerw, Newtown, Mont. 
Llwyn, Llanfyllin, Oswestry 


■ Lord Lieutenant of Shro{>8hire 
Ptyoe-Jones, Lady . 
Dngdale, J. Marshall, Esq., M. A. 
Evans, Rev. ChanceUor D. S., 

B.D Lknwrin Rectory, Machynlleth, B.S.O. 

Jones, Plryoe Wilson, Esq. Gwynfa, Newtown, Mont. 

Jones, R. E., Esq. . Cefn Bryntalch, Abermnle, R.S.O. 

Leslie, Mrs. .... Bryntanat, Llanaantfraid, Oswestry 

Lewis, Hugh, Esq. Glan Hafren, Newtown, Mont. 

Lloyd Yemey, Mrs. . Clochfaen, Llangorig, Llanidloes 

Lomax, J., Esq. Bodfaoh, Llanfyllin, Oswestry 

Mytton, Captain 
Powell, Bvaoi, Esq. . 
Pryoe, Thomas, Esq. 
Pughe, Mrs. Arthur 
Pnghe, W. A., Esq. . 

Rest, Dr 

Thomas, Yen. Archdeacon, M.A 


Tomer, E. R. Horsfall, Esq. . 
Yigars, J. EL, Esq. . 

WillaDfl, J. Bancroft, Esq. 
Williams, R., Esq., F.R.Hist.S. . 

Garth, Welshpool 
Talardy, St. Asaph, R.S.O., N. Wales 
Pentreheylin, Llanymynech, Oswestry 
Gwyndy, Llanfyllin, Oswestry 
The Hall, Llanfyllin, Oswestry 

aersws, R.S.O., Mont. 
Llandrinio Rectory, Llanymynech, Os- 
westry; and The Canonry, St. Asaph 
Llys Efrog, Llanidloes, R.S.O. 
Nat. Prov. Bank of England, Newtown^ 

Dolforgan, Kerry, Newtown, Mont. 
Celynog, Newtown, Mont. 




Glanusk, The Rt. Hon. Lord, 
Lord Lieutenant of Breck- 
nockshire .... Glanusk Park, Crickhowell 
Best, 0. W., Esq. . . . Penbryn, Brecon 

Bradley, Mrs Cefn Pare, Brecon 

Dawson, Mrs Hartlington, Bumsall, Yorkshire ; and 

Hay Castle, Hay, R.S.O. 

Evans, David, Esq. . . Ffrwdgrech, Brecon 

Gktmons- Williams, Lt.-CoL R.D. Tymawr, Brecon 

G Wynne, Howel, Esq. . . Llanelwedd Hall, Builth 

Jebb, J. A., Esq. . . . Watton Mount, Brecon 

Jenkins, Rev. J. E. . . . Vaynor Rectory, Merthyr Tydfil 

♦Miers, A. H., Esq. . . Gileston, Talybont-on-Usk, Brecon- 

Morgan, Miss Philip . . . Buckingham House, Brecon 
Powel, Hugh Powel, Esq. . . Castle Madoc, Brecon 
Price, Rev. John, M.A. . . Llanfeigan Rectory, Brecon 
Watkins, Hadley, Esq. . . 33, The Watton, Brecon 
Williams, Rev. Preb. G., M.A. Abercamlais, Brecon 
♦Williams, Miss . . Penpont, Brecon 

Wood, Thomas, Esq. . . Gwemyfed Park, Three Cocks Junc- 

tion, R.S.O. 

Davies-Evans, Lieut.-Col. H., 

Lord Lieut, of Cardiganshire Highmead, Llanybyther, R.S.O. 

Anwyl, Professor, M.A. . . Univ. Coll. of Wales, Aberystwyth 

Bebb, Rev. J. M. LI., M.A. . St. David's College, Lampeter 

Da vies, Rev. D. H. . . . Cenarth Vicarage, Llandyssul 

Davies, J. H., Esq., M.A. . . Cwrtmawr, Aberystwyth 

Evans, Rev. D. D., B.D. . . Llandyfriog Vicarage, Newcastle Emlyn 

♦Evans, Rev. George Eyre . Tanybryn, Llanbadam Road, 


♦Footman, Rev. W. LL, M.A. . The College School, Lampeter 

Francis, J., Esq. . . Wallog, Borth, R.S.O. 

Hughes, Joshua, Esq. . Rhosygadair Newydd, Cardigan 

Jones, Mrs. Basil . . . Gwynfryn, Taliesin, R.S.O. 

Lloyd, Charles, Esq., M.A. . Waunifor, Maes y Crugiau, R.S.O. 
Roberts, T. F., Esq., M.A., Prin- 

eipal of Univ. CoU. of Wales . Aberystwyth 

Rogers, J. E., Esq. . . Abermeurig, Talsam, R.S.O. 

St. David's Coll. , The Librarian of Lampeter 

Waddingham, T. J., Esq. . . Havod, Devil's Bridge, R.S.O. 

Williams, Ven. A rchdeaoon, M. A. Aberystwyth 




WilUams-Drummond, Sir J. , Bart. 
Lord Lieut, of Carmartheoshire 
Lord Bishop of St. David's, The 
Dynevor, The Eight Hon. Lord 
Stepney, Sir Arthur C, Bart. . 
Williams, Sir John, Bart., M.D. 


Barker, T. W., Esq. . 
"^Bishop, His Honour Judge 
Buckley, J. F., Esq. . 
Evans, Mrs. Colby 
Gwynne-Hughes, Colonel W. 
Hughes, John, Esq. . 
Jones, J., Esq., M.A. 

Edwinsford, Llandeilo B.S.O. 

The Palace, Abergwilly 

Dynevor Castle, Llandeilo, R.S.O. 

The Dell, Llanelly 

63, Brook Street, Grosvenor Sq., W. 

and Plas Llanstephan 
Diocesan Registry, Carmarthen 
Dolygarr^, Llandovery 
Bryncaerau Castle, LlaneUy 
Guildhall Square, Carmarthen 
Glancothy, Nantgaredig, RS.O. 
Belle Yue, Llandeilo 
Penrock, Llandovery 

Johnes, Mrs Dolaucothy, Llanwrda, R.S.O. 

Iiewis, Shipley, Esq., Solicitor 
Lloyd, H. Menric, Esq., M.A. . 
Morgan, J. B., Esq. . 
Morris. Rev. J., M.A. 
♦Poole-Hughes, Rev. W. W., M.A. 
Rees, Dr. Howel 
Richardson, J. C, Esq. 
Rocke, J. Denis, Esq. 
Spurrell, Walter, Esq. 
Stepney-Gulston, Alan J., Esq. 
Thomas, D. Lleuf er, Esq. . 

Thomas, Rev. John, M.A. . 
Williams, Rev. J. A. . 
♦Williams, Rev. R., M.A. . 


Glanranell Park, Llanwrda, R.S.O. 

50, New Road, Llanelly 

Vicarage, Llanybyther, RS.O. 

The Collie, Llandovery 

Glan Gamant, R.S.O., South Wales 

Glanbrydan, Llandeilo, R.S.O. 

Trimsam, Kidwelly 


Derwydd, Llandebie, R.S.O. 

4, Cleveland Terrace, Swansea ; and 

Bryn Maen, Llandeilo 
Langhame Yicarage, St. Clears, R.S.O. 
Llangathen Vicarage, Golden Grove, 
Vicarage, Llandeilo [R.S.O. 


Windsor, The Right Hon. Lord, 
Lord Lieut, of Glamorganshire 

Llandaff, The Lord Bishop of . 

Aberdare,The Right Hon. Lord . 

Llewelyn, Sir John Talbot 
Dillwyn, Bart., M.A. . 

Lewis, Sir W. T., Bart. . 

LlftpHiifP, Very Rev. the Dean of 

Allen, W. K Romilly, Esq. 

BenthaU, Ernest, Esq. 

BloMe, E. F. Lynch, Esq. 

Cardiff Free Library . 

St. Pagan's Castle, Cardiff 
Bishop's Court, Llandaff 
Dyffryn, Aberdare 

Penllergare, Swansea 
Mardy, Aberdare 
Deanery, Llandaff 
Fairwdl, Llandaff 
Glantwrch, Ystalyfera, R.S.O. 
Coytrehen, Aberkenfig, RS.O. 



Cathedral Idbrary 
University College Library 
Clark, Godfrey L., Esq. 
Clarke, W., Esq. 
Corbett, E. W. M., Esq. . 
Corbett, J. Stuart, Esq. . 
Daviea, Rev. David, M.A. 

Davies, Dr 

Davies, Mrs 

Davies, Rev. H. C, M.A. 
Edwards, W.,E8q.,M.A.,H.M.I.S. 
Edmondes, Yen. Arcb., M.A. . 

Edmondes, Mrs 

Edwards, Mrs. 
♦Evans, Rev. A. F., M.A. 
Evans, Rev. W. F., M.A. 
Evans, W. H., Esq. . 

Evanson, Rev. Morgan, B.Sc. . 
Franklen, Thos. Mansel, Esq. . 
Glascodine, C. H., Esq. 
Gray, Thomas, Esq. . 
Griffiths, W., Esq. . 
Halliday,G.E.,E8q., F.R.I.B.A. 
Hybart, F. W., Esq. . 
James, C. H., Esq. . 
James, C. R., Esq, . 

James, Frank T., Esq. 

Jones, D. W., Esq., Solicitor . 

Jones, Dr. W. W. . 

Jones, Edmund, Esq. 

Jones, Evan, Esq. 

Jones, Miss Ada 

Jones, Oliver Henry, Esq., M.A. 

Jones, Edgar, Esq., M.A. . 

Jones, Rev. M. H. . 

Jones, W. E. Tyldesley, Esq. . 

Kirkhouse, Herbert, Esq. 
Kirkhoase, Rev. Howel, M.A. 
Knight, R. L., Esq. . 
Lawrence, Arthur, Esq. 
Leigh, Dr. 

Lewis, Rev. Precentor 
Lewis, Arthur, Esq. . 
Lewis, Rev. Daniel . 



Talygarn,Llantrisant, Glam., R.S.O. 


Pwll-y-pant, Cardiff 

Bute Estate Office, Cardiff 

Canton Rectory, Cardiff 

Bryn Golwg, Aberdare 

Bryntirion, Merthyr Tydfil 

St. Hilary Rectory, Cowbridge 

Courtland Terrace, Merthyr Tydfil 

Fitzbamon Court, Bridgend 

Old Hall, Cowbridge 

Vedwhir, Aberdare 

Vicarage, Neath 

The School, Cowbridge 

Llanmaes House, Llantwit Major, 

Merthyr Mawr Yicarage, Bridgend 
St. Hilary, Cowbridge 
Cae Pare, Swansea 
Underbill, Port Talbot, Gkm. 
Pencaemawr, Merthyr Tydfil 
14, High Street, Cardiff 
Conway Road, Canton, Cardiff 
64, Park Place, Cardiff 

5, Raymond's Buildings, Gray*s Inn, 
W.C. ; and Brynteg, Merthyr Tydfil 

Penydarren House, Merthyr Tydfil 
Merthyr Ty^^fil 

Wellington Street, Merthyr Tydfil 
The Forest, Glyn Neath, Glam. 
Ty-mawr, Aberdare 
Maindy, Ynyshir, Pontypridd 
Fonmon Castle, Cardiff 
County School, Barry 

6, Martin Terrace, Abercynon, Glam. 
Doufflas Mansions, Cromwell Road, 

S. W. ; Lyndhurst, Mumbles 
Brynbedw, Tylorstown, Pontypridd 
Cyfarthfa Yicarage, Merthyr Tydfil 
Tythegston Court, Bridgend, Glam. 
Lavemock House, Penarth, Glam. 
Glynbargoed, Treharris, Glam. 
Ystrad Yicarage, Pontypridd 
Tynewydd, Tilandaff 
Rectory, Merthyr Tydfil 


tISt OF MEMtoBftS. 

Lewis, Lieat.-Golonel D. R. 
Linton, H. P., Esq. . 
Llewellyn, R. W., Esq. . 
Martin, Edw. P., Esq. 
Matthews, John Hobson, Esq. . 
Metford, Miss .... 
Moore, G. W., Esq. 
Moore-Gwyn, J., Esq. 
Morgan, Colonel W. L., R.E. . 
Morgan, J. Llewellyn, Esq. 
Morgan, Taliesin, Esq. 
Morgan, Mrs. Wayne 
NichoU, lUtyd, Esq., F.8.A. 
Nicholl, J. L D., Esq. 
Powel, Thomas, Esq., M.A. 
Powell, Edward, Esq., Solicitor 
Prosser, Rev. D. L., M.A. . 
Rees, T. Aneuryn, Esq. 
Rees, J. Rogers, Esq. 
Reynolds, Llywarch, Esq., M.A. 
Richards, J. C, Esq., Journalist 
RUey, W., Esq. 
Roberts, John, Esq. 
Royal Institution of S. Wales . 
Ryland, C. J., Esq. . 

Seaborne, Greorge, Esq. 
Stockwood, S. H., Esq., Solicitor 
Swansea Free Library 
Talbot, Miss . . . . 
Thomas, Rev. J. L., M.A. 
Thomas, Trevor F., Esq. . 
Thompson, Herbert M. 
Traheme, Capt. G. G. 
Traheme, L. E., Esq. 
Turberville, Colonel . 
Yachell, C. T., Esq., M.D. 
Ward, John, Esq., F.S.A. . 
Wheatley, J. L., Esq. 
Williams, J. Ignatius, Esq., M.A. 
Wilkins, Charles, Esq., F.G.S. . 

Penydarren Honse, Merthyr Tydfil 
Tilandaif Place, Iilandaff 
Baglan Cottage, Briton Ferry 

Town Hall, Cardiff 
Glasfryn, Dinas-Fowys, Cardiff 
Pen nityd, Palace Road, Llandaff 
DyffiTn, Neath 
BrynbriaUu, Swansea 
Bryn Teilo, Llandaff 
Llantrisant, Glam. 
Maesycoed, Pontypridd 
The Ham, Cowbridge 
Merthyr Mawr, Bridgend, Glam. 
University College, Cardiff 
Water Street, Neath 
30, Trafalgar Terrace, Swansea 
11, Courtland Terrace, Merthyr Tydfil 
Wilts and Dorset Bank, Cardiff 
48, Glebeland, Street, Merthyr Tydfil 

Newcastle House, Bridgend 
28, Fisher Street, Swansea 
Cardwell Chambers, Marsh Street, 

Bristol; and Clifton House, 

Brynheulog, Hengoed, Cardiff 
Bridgend, Glam. 

Margam Park, Taibaoh 
Aberpergwm, Glyn Neath, Qhmu 
Llandaff Place, Llandaff 
Whitley Batch, Lkndaff 
Coedriglan Park, Cardiff 
Coedriglan Park, Cardiff 
Ewenny Priory, Bridgend 
11, Park Place, Cardiff 
Public Museum, Cardiff 
174, Newport Road, Cardiff 
Plasynllan, Wbitechurch, Cardiff 
Springfield, Merthyr Tydfil 




Cawdor, The Right Hon. the Earl 
of, Lord Lieutenant of Pem- 
brokeshire .... 

Lloyd, The Right Rev. John, 
D.D., Bishop Suffragan of 
Swansea .... 

Philipps, Sir C. E. G., Bart. 


Alien, Miss Mary 

Allen, Herbert, Esq. 

Bancroft, J. J., Esq., H.M.I.S. . 
Bo wen, Rev. David . 
Cathedral Library 
Chidlow, Rev. C, M.A. . 
De Winton, W. S., Esq. . 

Fenton, Ferrar, Esq. 

Hilbers, Ven. Archdeacon, M.A. 
Laws, Edward, Esq., F.8.A. 
Leach, A. L., Esq. . 

Mortimer, Rev. T. G., M.A. . 
Owen, G. L., Esq. . 

Phillips, Rev. James 
Phillips, J. W., Esq., Solicitor 
Samson, Louis, Esq., F.S.A. 
Thomas, A. H., Esq., AR.LB.A. 

Thomas, Miss .... 
Thomas, Mrs. James 
Wade-Evans, Rev. A. W. . 

Williams, H. W., Esq., F.G.S. . 
Wright, A. J., Esq. 

Stackpole Court, Pembroke 

Jeffreyston Rectory, Begelly, S. Wales 
Picton Castle, Haverfordwest 
Williamston, Neyland 
c/o C. F. Egerton Allen, Esq., Hill 

Cottage, Tenby 
Keston, Watford, Herts. ; and Norton 

Somerset House, Tenby 
Hamilton House, Pembroke 
St, David's, Pembroke 
Llawhaden Vicarage, Narberth 
4, Palace Yard, Gloucester ; and 

Haroldston, Haverfordwest 
8, King's Road, Mitcham, S.E. ; and 

Fishguard, Pembrokeshire 
St. Thomas Rectory, Haverfordwest 
Brython Place, Tenby 
10, Nithdale Road, Plumstead, S.E. ; 
(Tenby and Co., News Office, Tenby) 
The Court, Fishguard, R.S.O. 
Withybush, Haverfordwest 
44, Oxford Terrace, Hyde Park, W.; 

and Poyston, Pembroke 
Scotch well, Haverfordwest 
County Surveyor's Office, Haverford- 
Cathedral Close, St. David's. 
Rock House, Haverfordwest 
c/o St. Matthew's Vicarage, Oakley 
Square, N.W. ; Fishguard, Pembroke 
Solva, Pembroke 
Normanhurst, Haverfordwest 



Evans, Bev. L. H., M.A. . Vicarage, Rhayader 

Griffiths, George, Esq. Standard Office, Llandrindod 

Jones, John, Esq. . . . Ash Villa, Rhajrader 
♦Morgan, Rev. David . Llanstephan Vicarage, Llyswen, 

R.S.O., Radnor 

Sladen, Mrs Rhydoldog, Rhayader 

Venables-Lle welyn, Charles, Esq. Uysdinam, Newbridge-on-Wye 
Williams, Mrs. . Penralley, Rhayader 

♦Williams, Rev. Preb. T., M.A. Llowes Rectory, Radnor 


Tredegar, The Right Hon. Lord, 
Lord Lieut, of Monmouthshire 
Llangattock, The Rt. Hon. Lord 
Jackson, Sir H. M., Bart. . 
Bowen, A. E., Esq. . 
Evans, Miss Charlotte M. 
Evans, Pepyat W., Esq. . 
Hanbury, J. Capel, Esq. 
Rickards, R., Esq. 
Williams, Albert A., Esq. 

Tredegar Park, Newport 
The Hendre, Monmouth 
Llantilio Court, Abergavenny 
The Town Hall, Pontypool 
Nantyderry, Abergavenny 
Llwynarthan, Castleton, Cardiff 
Pontypool Park, Mon. 
The Priory, Usk 
Penyparc, Llangibby, Newport, Mon. 

Harlech, The Right Hon. Lord . Brogyntyn, Oswestry 

Banks, W. H., Esq., B.A. . 
Bax, Pearce B. Ironside, Esq. . 
Balkeley-O wen,Rev. T. M., M.A. 
Corrie, A. Wynne, Esq. . . 
Davies, James, Esq. . 
Dovaston, J. F. E., Esq. . 
Drinkwater, Rev. C. H., M.A. . 
Gleadowe, T. S., Esq., H.M.LS. 
Grey-Edwards, Rev. A. H. 
Lloyd, Edward, Esq. 

Hergest Croft, Elington, Herefordshire 

6, Stanley Place, Chester 

Tedsmore HaU, West Felton, R.S.O. 

Park Hall, Oswestry 

Gwynva, Broomy Hill, Hereford 

West Felton, Oswestry 

St. George's Vicarage, Shrewsbury 

Alderley, Cheshire 

Lidstone, Abergavenny 

Meillionen, Hoole, Chester 

Longley, Mrs Dinham House, Ludlow [timer, Salop 

Newell, Rev. E. J., M.A. 
Nicholson. A. C, Esq. 
Owen, John, Esq. 
Parry- Jones, J., Esq. 
Partington, S. W., Esq. . 
Pilley, Walter, Esq. . 
Sitwell, F. Hurst, Esq. . 
Summers, H. H. C, Esq. . 
Taylor, Henry, Esq., F.S.A. 
Woodall, Edward, Esq. 

Neen Solars Vicarage, Cleobury Mor- 

Victoria Parade, Oswestiy 

Tawelan, Newton Lane, Chester 

Beechfield, Oswestry 

Garthlyn, Kilmorey Park, Chester 

The Barton, Hereford 

Ferney Hall, Craven Arms, Shropshire 

Picton Villa, Oswestry 

12, Curzon Park, Chester 

Wingthorpe, Oswestry 



The Society of Antiquaries, Burlington House, London (c/o W. H. 

St. John Hope, Esq.) 
The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Queen Stieet Museum, Edin- 
burgh (c/o Joseph Anderson, Esq., LL.D.) 
The Royal Society of Antiquaries, Ii^land (c/o R. H. Cochrane, Esq., 

F.S.A., 6, St. Stephen's Green, Dublin) 
The British Archsaological Association, 32, Sackville Street, W. (c/o S. 

Ray son, Esq.) 
The Archsaological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 20, Hanover 

Square, W. (c/o The Secretary) 
The Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries, Copenhagen 
The Royal Institution of Cornwall, Truro (c/o Major T. Parky n) 
The Cambridge Antiquarian Society, Cambridge 
The Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society (The Society's 

Library, Eastgate, Gloucester) 
The Chester Archaeological and Historical Society (c/o I. E. Ewen, Esq., 

Grosvenor Museum, Chester) 
The Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society (c/o F. 

Goyne, Esq., Shrewsbury) 
The Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian Society, Kendal 
Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne (R. Blair, Esq., F.S.A.) 
La Soci^t4 d'Arch^ologie de Bruxelles, Rue Ravenstein 11, Bruxelles 
The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C, U.S.A. 
The Library, Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 
KoDgl. Yitterhets Historic och Antiquitets Akademien, Stockholm 

(c/o Dr. Anton Blomberg, Librarian). 
The University of Toulouse (c/o The Librarian, 2, Rue de I'Universit^, 


All Members residing in South Wales and Monmouthshire are 
requested to forward their subscriptions to the Rev. Charles Chidlow, 
M.A., Llawhaden Vicarage, Narberth. All other Members to the Rev. 
Canon R. Trevor Owen, F.S.A., Bodelwyddan Vicarage, RhuddUn, 
Flintehire, R.S.O. 

As it is not impossible that omissions or errors may exist in the above 
list, corrections will be thankfully received by the General Secretaries. 

The Annual Subscription is One Guinea, payable in advance on the first 
day of the year. 

Members wishing to retire must give six months^ notice previous to the 
first day of the following year, at the same time paying all arrears. 

All oommunications with regard to the Archctdogia Oambrensis should 
be addressed to the Editor, J. Romelly Allen, F.S. A., 28, Great Ormond 
Street, London, W.C. 

18 LAWS. 



Cambrian 9rcI)aeologtcal Sgsoctatton. 

Established 1846, 

In order to Examine, Preserve, cmd Ultistrate the Ancient Monuments and 

Remains of the History , Language, Manners, Customs, 

and Arts of Wales and the Marches. 


1. The AsBooiation shall consist of Subscribing, Corresponding, and Hono- 

rary Members, of whom the Honorary Members most not be British 


2. New members may be enrolled by the Chairman of the Committee, or by 

either of the General Secretaries ; but their election is not complete 
until it shall have been confirmed by a General Meeting of the Associa- 


3. The Government of the Association is vested in a Committee consisting 

of a President, Vice-Presidents, a Treasurer, a Chairman of Committee, 
the General and Local Secretaries, and not less than twelve, nor more 
than fifteen, ordinary subscribing members, three of whom shall retire 
annually according to seniority. 


4. The Vice-Presidents shall be chosen for life, or as long as they remain 

members of the Association. The President and all other officers shall 
be chosen for one year, but shall be re-eli^ble. The officers and new 
members of Committee shall be elected at the Annual General Meet- 
ing. The Committee shall recommend candidates; but it shall be 
open to any subscribing member to propose other candidates, and to 
demand a poll. All officers and members of the Committee shall be 
chosen from the subscribing members. 


5. At all meetings of the Committee the chair shall be taken by the Presi- 

dent, or, in his absence, by the Chairman of the Committee. 


6. The Chairman of the Committee phall superintend the business of the 

Association during the intervals between the Annual Meetings ; and 
he shall have power, with the concurrence of one of the General Secre- 
taries, to authorise proceedings not specially provided for by the laws . 
A report of his proceedings shall be laid before the Committee for their 
approval at the Annual General Meeting. 

LAWS. 19 


7. There shall be an Editorial Snb-Committee, oonsisting of at least three 

members, who sliall superintend the publications of the Association, and 
shall report their proceedings annually to tbe Committee. 


8. Ail Subscribing Members shall pay one guinea in advance, on the 1st of 

January in each year, to the Treasurer or his banker (or to either of 
the General Secretaries). 


9. Members wishing to withdraw from the Association must give six 

months' notice to one of the General Secretaries, and must pay all 
arrears of subscriptions. 


10. All Subscribing and Honorary Members shall be entitled to receive all 

the publications of the Association issued after their election (except 
any special publication issued under its auspices), together with a 
Idcket giving free admission to the Annual Meeting. 


11. The Secretaries shall forward, once a month, all subscriptions received 

by them to the Treasurer. 


12. The accounts of the Treasurer shall be made up annually, to December 

31st; and as soon afterwards as may be oonvenient, they shall be 
audited by two subscribing members of the Association, to be appointed 
at the Annual General Meeting. A balance-sheet of the said accounts, 
certified by the Auditors, shall be printed and issued to the members. 


13. The funds of the Association shall be deposited in a bank in the name 

of the Treasurer of the Association for the time being ; and all bills 
due from the Association shall be countersigned by one of the General 
Secretaries, or by the Chairman of the Committee, before they are paid 
by the Treasurer. 


14. The Committee shall meet at least once a year for the purpose of nomi- 

nating officers, framing rules for the government of the Association, 
and transacting any ot^er business that may be brought before it. 


15. A General Meeting shall be held annually for the transaction of the 

business of the Association, of which due notice shall be given to the 
members by one of the General Secretaries. 


16. The Chairman of the Committee, with the concurrence of one of the 

General Secretaries, shall have power to call a Special Meeting, of 
which at least three weeks' notice shall be given to each member by 
one of the General Secretaries. 


1 7. At all meetings of the Committee five shall form a quorum. 

20 LAWS. 


18. At the Annual Meeting' the President, or, in his absence, one of tha 

Vice-Presidents, or the Chairman of the Committee, shall take the 
chair ; or, in their absence, the Committee may appoint a chairman. 


19. At all meetings of the Association or its Committee, the Chairman shall 

have an independent as well as a casting rote. 


20. The Treasurer and other officers shall report their proceedings to the 

G^eneral Committee for approval, and the General Committee shall 
report to the Annual General Meeting of Subscribing Members. 


21. At the Annual Meeting, tickets admitting to excursionfl, exhibitions, 

and evening meetings, shall be issued to Subscribing and Honorary 
Members gratuitously, and to corresponding Members at such rates aa 
may be fixed by the officers. 


22. The superintendence of the arrangements for the Annual Meeting sbaii 

be under the direction of one of the General Secretaries in conjunctiozi 
with one of the Local Secretaries of the Association for the distdct, 
and a Local Committee to be approved of by such G^eneral Secretary. 


23. All funds subscribed towards the local expenses of an Annual Meeting 

shall be paid to the Joint account of the General Secretary acting for 
that Meeting and a Local Secretary ; and the Association shall not be 
liable for any expense incurred without the sanction of such Ckneral 


24. The accounts of each Annual Meeting shall be audited by the Chairman 

of the Local Committee, and the balance of receipts and expenses on 
each occasion be received, or paid, by tiie Treasurer of the Association, 
such audited accounts being sent to him as soon after the meeting as 


25. Any Subscribing Member may propose alterations in the Bules of the 

AASociation ; but such alteration must be notified to one of the Gaieral 
Secretaries at least one month before the Annual Meeting, and he shall 
lay it before the Committee ; and if approved by the Committee, it 
shall be submitted for confirmation at the next Meeting. 

(Signed) C. C. Babington, 

August 17th, 1«76. Chairman of the Committee. 






Book Slip-SOnt S,*ft6(GG530s4U&8 



N° 460368 

Archaealogia Cambrensis. A6