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Latb Tkehmi ft Fields, ams Fields, Osgoodi ft Co. 


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Solend Moording to Act of Gongrefls, in the year ISW, hf 


ia tbe 01erk*s Office of the District Court of the District of Hutachoeefeti. 


Univbssity Press : Welch, Bigelow, & Ca, 

409795 i^^^^l 

JUL 2 1934 




ddfo Worlt is Snutttbtti 



Tetb author of this volume contributed to the edition of Web- 
ster's Quarto Dictionary published in 1864 a "Vocabulary 
of the Names of Noted Fictitious Persons and Places ; " but 
the present work, though based on that Vocabulary, embraces 
a wider range of subjects, contains nearly seventeen hundred 
new articles, besides important modifications of many of the 
others, and is furnished with an orthoepical Introduction, and 
an Index of tiie real names of persons, places, &c., whose nick- 
names, pseudonyms, or popular appellations, are given in tiie 
body of the book. Notwithstanding the great pains that has 
been taken to secure fullness and minute accuracy, tiiere are 
undoubtedly some errors and numerous omissions ; but no more 
of either, it is hoped, than are inseparable from a work of such 
multiplicity. And although a casual examination or closer 
scrutiny may bring to light defects of both kinds, it may still be 
affirmed, that, with respect to a very large class of names, there 
can nowhere else be found in a collective form an equal amount 
and variety of information. 

The main design of the work is to explain, as far as practi- 
cable, the allusions which occur in modem standard literature 
to noted fictitious persons and places, whether mythological 
or not For this reason, the plan is almost entirely restricted 
to proper names, or such as designate individual persons, 
places, or things. The introduction of appellative or generic 
names, such as alhot of unreason^ lord of misrtile, kobold, &c., 
as well as the explanation of celebrated customs and phrases, 
such as flap-dragon, nine-men^s-morrice, p/iilosophy of the Porch, 
to send to Coventry, to carry coals to Newcastle, &c., would open 


too vast a field of inquiry ; and, besides, there are copious 
special treatises on these subjects already before the public, as 
those of Brand, Hone, PuUeyn, Timbs, and others. The author 
has been urged to extend his plan so as to include the titles of 
famous poems, essays, novels, and other literary works, and the 
names of celebrated statues, paintings, palaces, country-seats, 
chiu'ches, ships, streets, clubs, and the like ; inasmuch as such 
names are of very common occurrence in books and newspa- 
pers, and, for the most part, are not alphabetically entered and 
explained in Encyclopaedias, Dictionaries, or Gazetteers. That 
a dictionary which should furnish succinct information upon 
such matters would supply a want which is daily felt by readers 
of every class is not to be doubted ; but it should constitute an 
independent work. A manual of this description the author 
has for some time had in preparation ; and he hopes to publish 
it, at no distant day, as a companion to the present volume. 

The names from the Greek, Roman, Norse, and Hindu My- 
thologies that are here given,- are concisely treated, mainly, with 
a view to explain frequent allusions in the poets and other popu- 
lar writers, and for the benefit of mere English readers, rather 
than for that of professed scholars. From the Rabbinical and 
Mohammedan Mythologies have been taken some names, which 
are occasionally made the subject of reference, and concern- 
ing which information is not readily obtainable. Prominence 
has been given to the departments of Angelology, Demon- 
ology. Fairy Mythology, and Popular Superstitions, which afford 
many of the most important names in Fiction. Parables, Al- 
legories, Proverbs, and Mediaeval Legends have also furnished 
a considerable number. Ecclesiastical History contributes the 
names of several pseudo-saints, and other imaginary personages. 
In the Drama, and in Poetry — including the various kinds, 
Epic, Romantic, Narrative, Comic, &c., — the intention has 
been to give the names of all such characters as are familiarly 
referred to by writers and speakers at the present day ; and, 
though there may be accidental omissions, it is hoped that under 
this head the Dictionary will be found reasonably complete. 


The principal deficiency is most likely to exist in the depart- 
ment of Prose Romance ; for, though there is very little that is 
fictitious in ancient literature which is not included in ancient 
Mythology, yet the field of research continually widens as we 
come down to modem times, until it seems to be almost bound- 
less. In fixing the limits of the work, the consideration which 
has determined the admission or rejection of names has not 
been the intrinsic merit of a book, or the reputation of its writer, 
but the hold which his characters have taken upon the popular 
mind. There are many authors of acknowledged genius, and 
hundreds of clever and prolific writers, who yet have not pro- 
duced a single character that has so fallen in with the humor, or 
hit the fancy, of the time, as to have become the subject of fre- 
quent alliision. The English romancers and novelists whose 
creations are most familiarly known and most firmly established 
are Bunyan, De Foe, Swift, Bichardson, Fielding, Smollett, 
Sterne, Groldsmith, Scott, Dickens, and Thackeray. Many of 
the portraitures of these writers may be safely presumed to be 
of more than temporary interest and importance. In regard to 
other and minor characters, from whatever source derived, it is 
to be borne in mind that a dictionary is chiefly designed for 
the use of the existing generation. To what extent names of 
secondary importance should be included was a question diffi- 
cult to determine. . Opinions from scholars entitled to the high- 
est consideration were about equally divided upon this point 
Some favored a selected list of the most important names only : 
others, and the greater number, recommended a much wider 
scope. A middle course is the one that has been actually fol- 
lowed. It is evident that many articles which may seem to one 
person of very questionable importance, if not wholly unworthy 
of insertion, will be held by another to be of special value, as 
throwing light upon passages which to him wbidd otherwise be 
perplexii^ or obscure. 

This Dictionary is, of course, chiefly designed to elucidate 
the works of British and American writers ; but names occur- 
ring in the literatures of other modern nations have been in- 

viii PREFACE. 

troduced whenever they have become well known to the public 
through the medium of translations, or when they seemed, for 
other reasons, to be worthy of insertion. 

In accordance with the plan of the work as indicated in the 
title, such English, French, German, and other Pseudonyms 
as are frequently met with in books and newspapers have been 
given for the benefit of the general reader. No pretense, how- 
ever, is made to completeness, or even to fullness, in this re- 
spect The bibliographer will find here little or nothing that 
is new to him ; and he must still have recourse to his Barbier, 
Qu^rard, Weller, and other writers of the same class. Names 
like ErasmuSj Mehnchthon, Mercator, (Ecolampadiits, &c., as- 
sumed by learned men after the revival of classical literature, 
being, in general, merely the Latin or Greek equivalents of 
their real names, and being also the only names by which they 
are now known in history, are excluded as not pertinent to the 
work. For a similar reason, no notice is taken of such names 
as Massena, Metastasio, Philidor^ Psalmanazary Voltaire, &c. 

Many eminent characters in political and literary history are 
often known and referred to by the surnames and sobriquets, or 
nicknames, which they have borne ; as, the Master of Sentences, 
the Scourge of God, the Stagirite, the Wizard of the North, the 
Little Corporal, &c. "Nicknames," said Napoleon, "should 
never be despised : it is by such means mankind are governed." 
The Dictionary embraces the more important of these ; but 
names like Caligula, Guercino, Tintoretto, &c., which have en- 
tirely superseded the real names of the persons designated 
by them, have not been regarded as properly coming within 
the purview of the present undertaking. Nor has it, as a rule, 
been thought advisable to admit simple epithets, such as the 
Bold, the Good, the Great, the Unready, the Courtier, &c., the 
omission of which can hardly be considered a defect, since 
their signification and the reason of their imposition are usually 
too obvious to excite inquiry. This rule, however, has not 
been uniformly observed. Here, as elsewhere in the work, 
that discretionary power has been freely exercised, to which 


every author of a dictionary or glossary is fairly entitled, and 
which he is often compelled to use. 

A considerable space has been allotted to £uniliar names of 
Parties and Sects, of Laws, and of Batties ; to poetical and pop* 
ular names of Seas, Countries, States, Cities, &c. ; ^ ancient 
geographical names which have become interesting from their 
revival in poetry or otherwise ; and to certain long-established 
and important Personifications. In general, nicknames of 
Parties and Sects, such as Chouans^ GhiheUineSj Gueux, Method^ 
ists^ Shakers, &c., which have been adopted by those to whom 
they were at first derisively applied, or which have passed into 
history and common use as their peculiar and appropriate 
names, and are to be found in any good Encyclopaedia or Man- 
ual of Dates; are designedly not included. Most of the his* 
torical by-names inserted, such as Da^ of Dupes, Evil May-dayy 
Wonderful Parliament, Omnibus BiU, Western Reserve, &c,, are 
those which are not to be found under the proper heads in 
Encyclopaedias and other books of reference. Popular designa- 
tions connected with History and Gleography have been freely 
given in all cases where they seemed to be well settled, and to be 
fitted to illustrate past or contemporary events or characters. 

A slight departure from the strict limits of the plan has 
been thought allowable in the case of a few quasi-historical, 
or real but obscure, persons, places, and things, such as Owle* 
glass, John O Groat, Mrs. Glasse, the Minerva Press, &c., which 
are often referred to in literature or conversation, and of most 
of which no account can be obtained except through an amount 
of research and toil hardly possible to a majority of readers. 

Illustrative citations have been copiously given from no 
small variety of authors ; and, as many of them are gems of 
thought or expression, it is believed that they will be deemed 
greatly to enhance the value and interest of the work. Some 
of them, however, have purposely been taken from newspapers 
and magazines rather than from the classics of the language, in 
order to show, by such familiar examples, the popularity of the 
characters or other creations of fiction to which they allude. 


There are also some quotations which serve no other purpose 
than that of justifying the insertion of names whose claim to 
admission might be thought doubtful, if it were not made to ap- 
pear that they are referred to by authors "known and read of 
all men." It will probably be observed that Sir Walter Scott is 
more frequently cited than any other single writer ; the reason, 
however, is not that his works have been examined with more 
care or to a greater extent than those of some other writers, but 
merely that he abounds more than most others in allusions, — 
often remote or recondite, but almost always apt and suggest- 
ive, — which his unusually tenacious memory enabled him to 
draw from the stores of a vast and most multifarious reading. 

In the explanation of names, statements borrowed in great 
part from one author have been diligently collated with other 
statements derived from independent and often widely sepa- 
rated sources ; and they have been freely enlarged, abridged, 
or otherwise modified, according to the necessity of the case, or 
as would best subserve the purpose of the work. But where 
the information required has been found already stated in the 
best way, no hesitation has been felt in making use of the exact 
language of the writer ; and, beyond this general explanation, 
no acknowledgment of indebtedness seems necessary. 

To determine the pronunciation of proper names is unques- 
tionably the most difficult requirement of orthoepy ; and little 
or no attention has hitherto been paid to the pronunciation of 
such as are peculiar to the literature of fiction. In the absence, 
not merely of a trustworthy guide, but of any printed guide at 
all, the author may sometimes have gone astray ; but he has 
been careful to avail himself of all the information he could 
obtain. In particular, he has made a thorough examination of 
such of our vernacular poets as are esteemed classics, and has 
occasionally adduced passages from their writings to show the 
accentuation adopted by these " best judges of pronunciation,*" 
as Walker styles them ; or, more rarely, to show the sound they 
assign to particular letters or syllables. If the decisions or 
opinions he has given prove, in general, to be well grounded, 


the credit will not be whdlly due to him, since he has often 
profited by the advice and assistance of gentlemen whose 
superior opportunities of becoming acquainted with the best 
usage both at home and abroad, and whose critical taste and fa- 
miliarity with all that pertains to the subject of orthoepy, afiR)rd 
the assiu-ance that they " speak scholarly and wisely." To indi- 
cate with absolute accuracy the peculiar sounds of the principal 
languages of modem Europe, including the English, would ne- 
cessarily require an extensive and elaborate system of arbitrary 
phonic signs ; and such a system would be hard to understand, 
and still harder to remember. It has, therefore, been deemed 
important not to introduce into this work unnecessary and per- 
plexing discriminations of sounds nearly identical, or to em- 
barrass the inquirer with needless intimations of a pronunciation 
obvious or already familiar to him. Hence, diacritical marks 
are sparingly employed, except in the case of unaccented vowels, 
— which, in our language, are often of doubtful or variable 
value, — and except also in the case of foreign sounds which 
have no equivalent in English. Although the system of nota- 
tion made use of is easy to be understood, so far as it applies to 
most English names, it has been thought desirable to prefix to 
the work observations on some^ points of English pronunciation 
not familiar to the generality of readers, or concerning which 
professed orthoepists differ. In regard to the sounds occurring 
in the work that are peculiar to foreign languages, an explana- 
tion is given, in the Introduction, of the mode of their organic 
formation, or of their position and relations in a scientific clas- 
sification of spoken sounds. These observations and explana- 
tions are contained in distinct paragraphs or sections, consecu- 
tively numbered, and are often referred to from the words in 
the Dictionary. 

The Index at the end of the volume forms the counterpart 
of the Dictionary proper, and will, it is hoped, prove service- 
able by enabling an inquirer to ascertain at once the distin- 
guishing epithet or epithets borne by a particular person or 
place of which only the real name may be known to him. 


In the preparation of this Dictionary, the wide field of gen- 
eral literature has been extensively and carefully searched. 
Moreover, use has been made of a large number of works 
specially devoted to the various branches of literary history; 
and valuable assistance has been derived from the principal 
Reviews, and the published writings of the best essaybts. Not 
a few noteworthy names and facts, incidentally mentioned in the 
body of the articles of Encyclopaedias, Biographical Dictiona- 
ries, Gazetteers, and other works of reference, but not treated 
in alphabetical order, have been carefully gleaned from such 
works, which have been systematically searched for this pur- 
pose. These sources of information are altogether too numer- 
ous to be particularized in this place, while to specify a few and 
make no mention of others of equal importance would be as 
ui^ust as it would be unsatisfactory. 

The author would return his sincere thanks to the many 
friends who have contributed in different ways to the complete- 
ness and accuracy of his work. Some of them, whose kind 
assistance he would gladly acknowledge, he regrets that he is 
not permitted to name ; but it affords him unfeigned pleasure 
to be able to mention his great and varied obligations to Dr. 
Kobley Dunglison and Dr. R. Shelton Mackenzie of Philadel- 
phia, Mr. Charles Folsom of Cambridge, Mr. Samuel Porter 
of Hartford, Mr. Arthur W. Wright of New Haven, and Mr. 
Loomis J. Campbell of Boston. 

Believing that the successful accomplishment of a task like 
the present, in its fullest extent, is hardly to be expected of 
any individual, die author, in conclusion, would ask a candid 
criticism of his labors ; and if corrections or suggestions from 
any quarter — especially suggestions of additional names, ac- 
companied with explanations, references, or citations — be sent 
to him through his publishers, they will be gratefiilly received, 
and used in the preparation of a &ture edition. 

KoxBURY, Massachusbtts, OctobcT 30, 1865. 




AND LATIN WORDS, xxi to xxiii 

Vowels, xzii 

Consonants, xzii 

Accent, xxiii 

OF CONTINENTAL EUROPE, . . . xxiii to xxxU 

Vowels, xxiii 

Diphthongs and Vowel Combinations, . xxt 

Consonants, xxri 

Combined Consonants, xxix 

Accent, xxxi 



OF FICTION, ETC., • . . • 1 to 398 





A» &• long^ as in Ale, fate, great, pray, range, taste. [See § 1.] 

A, ft, short, as iB Add, fftt, nftrrow, r&illery. 

A, &, as in Aerial, Isr&el, ohftotic, inortmftiii. 

A, ft, like e, as in Air, fftre, peftr, prftyer, softrce. [See § 3.] 

A, 4, like o, as in All, broftd, hftul, w&lk, 

JL, &, like d, as in W&n, sw&llow, quiUlrant. 

A, ft, as in Arm, ftunt, gr&ss, [Fr.] pftte (pftt). [See § 2.] 

A, ft, as in [Ger.] maim (man), [Fr.] pas (pa). 

A, ^, as in Beggar, coming, met^, scholar. 

£, e, long, as in £ve, mete, beam,' ceil, piece, people. 

£, 3, short, as in find, mdt, li3ad, heifer, leopard. 

£j, 6, as in !^ect, appetite, serenity, strophd. 

£), 6, like d, as in ^re, bSar, li@ir, whdre. [See § 3.] 

£i, S, like t, as in Err, term, servant, defSr. [See § 4.] 

£, 5, like a, as in Sight, invSigh, pr§y. 

iB, e, as in Brier, general, robber, suffer. 

I, i, long, as in Ivy, ice, pine, child, aisle, height, tie. 

1, 1, short, as in tu, Inn, pin, IBy, guilt, sieve. 

t, t, as in tdea, dtumal, triumphant. 

1, i, like e, as in Marine, pique, police, ravine. 

i, 1, like e, as in irksome, fir, girl, virtuous. [See § 4.] 

^, i, as in Mixir, nadir, tapir. 

0, 6, long, as in Old, tone, foe, sn5w, soul, yeoman. [See § 5.] 

0, 6, short, as in 6dd, 6n, c6t, kndwledge, mftral. 

6, 6, as in 6bey, borrdw, [Fr.] homme (6m). [See § 5.] , 

O, o, like d, as in Orb, order, gedrgio, bought. 

O, d, like 00, as in Mdve, prdve, sh6e, sdup. 

6, 6, like fi, as in C6me, ddes, d6ne, bldod, t6uch. 

5, 6, as in [Ger.] bose (bo'zft), [Fr.] jeu(2hb). [See§§ 48, 46.] 

O, 9, as in Authpr, carol, ran89m, C9nnect. 

tJ", tl, long, as in Cse, cube, tune, liite, feiidal. [See § 6.] 

0", ii, short, as in tJs, ctlb, tttn, hiirry. 

tit, tl, as in 'O'nite, agfle, oflpidlty, gLobttle. 

6", a, like <5&, as in Triie, rildn, erftdite, virQlent. [See § 6.] 


•?, ^ like d6, as in P^ p^, pftah, ooQld. 

'&, H, as in t^m, fur, fOrry, inour, p&rple. [See $ 4.] 

IT, u, as in [Ger.] grun, [Fr.] vue (vii). [See §§ 34, 51.] 

n, 1^, as in Bnlphi^, glorioi^ 

Y, y, Jong^ as in Type, fly, s^le, buy, pye. 

"fi", f, shorty as in Njhnph, ljh:io, mfthic, sj^boL 

'$', j^, as in T^lioon» hydraulic, l^oeuzn. 

Y, y, like e, as in Myrrli, myrtle, syrt. [See § 4.] 

Y, y, as in Martyr, zeph^. 

JR, SB, like «, as in Caesar {iong)^ ^sohylus (short). 

CB, oe, like «, as in Croesiu (long), CEdipus (short), 

XS'W, ew, like v, as in . . . Ewe, dew, few, new (=u), orew (^6b)^ 

OI, oi, as in Oil, foible, foist, join, loiter, poignant. 

OT, oy, as in Oyster, boy, employ, joyous, royal. 

OO, do, as in Food, noon; mood, doze. 

C^, db, as in Fdbt, gdbd, stdbd, wd&Uy. 

6t^ 6il, as in dflnce, bdttnd, hdtUe, pdiit. 

OW, d^, as in 6^1, n6^, t6#er, vd#eL 


9» 9> as in 9®nt, ^ity, 9yst, a9id, flao9id, suof ess. 

9, Q, as in 9^^» soal, gnre, fla^oid, sugcess. 

9H, 9I1, as in 9^iaiBe, 9liampagne, ma9hine. 

9H, sb., as in Q^iasm, ghaos, gharacter, egho. 

CH, oh, as in Chance, cheer, church, teacher. [See § 8.] 

6-, g, as in det, give, ti§er, foggy. 

G-, g, as in (jhem, gender, giant, elegy. 

]^, ^, as in [Sp.] Jorge (feor'Jia), hijo (ee'Jio). [See § 60.] 

:^^,asin [Ger.] ach (ft^), buch (bdo|^). • [See § 71.] 

p, k, as in [Ger.] ich (ik), dnrch (ddbrk). [See § 71.] 

L, I, as in [Sp.] llano, (ft'no), [It] gU (Tee). [See § 82.] 

ifr, n, as in [Fr.] rdgne (ran), [Sp.] nono. [See §§ 62, 78.] 

w,a,asin [Fr.] vin (v&n), [Port.] vim (vee»). [See§62.] 

Sr, &, like ng, as ia I&k, uficle, a&ger, afisdety, laryiiz. 

pG' t ng» as in Singing, hanger, prolong, young. 

FH, ph, as in Phantom, philosophy, seraphic. 

Q>n, qu, as in Quantity, queen, quince, banquet. 

B, r, as in [Fr.] mer (m6f ), [Sp.] rata (fi't*). [See § 64.] 

B, 9, like £, as in Advige, preside, ro§e, digmal, spafm. 

TB., tll,asin Father, then, this, therefore, smooth. 

'^»^f as in [Ger.] schwan (sh^an), [Sp.] cubo (koo'^o). [See 

WH, wh, asin WTien, which, while. [See § 11.] § 68.] 

?f ^ like ^2, as in Example, exemplary, uxorious. 

2EH, zh, as in Azure (a'zhoor), usual (Q^zhoo-al), vision (vizh^an). 


*«* In addition to what appears in the Key, the following explanationfl willbe 
needed for understanding the notation made use of in this Dictionary : — 

Diacritical marks have been dispensed with, in the case of English names, 
wherever it seemed that the accentuation and the division into syllables would 
be sufficient to indicate the true pronunciation to any one familiar with the more 
general and conmionly-understood principles of English orthoepy; but, in all 
exceptional, doubtful, or difficult cases, the appropriate marks are used. Most 
of the names from modem foreign languages are respelt. 

In combinations of vowels, where one letter is marked, it is to be taken as 
representing the sound of the combination, and the letter or letters which are 
not marked are to be regarded as silent; as in grain^ dealf teize^ fie, dW, gr^up^ 
journey, fldio^ &c. 

The combined letters ce, ci, set, se, W, or ti, occurring before a vowel in a syl- 
lable immediately preceded by an accented syllable, are generally equivalent 
to tk; as in o'cean, sapona'ceous, coer'cton, magi'cian, an'oent, gra'cious, 
onmi'<cience^ nau'^eous, tran'Ment, pa'^nce, yex&'tiouB, proba'^n, &c. But if 
the combination n, when thus situated, is at the same time preceded by a vowel, 
it has the sound represented by the digraph 2A ; as in eli''«ion, explo'^ion, suffu'- 
<ion, &c. Such syllables are not usually respelt, as, in general, they will naturally 
be pronounced correctly by an English speaker. . 

In respelllng for pronunciation, aw and ee are often used instead of a and e 

In the notation of M and ^ (as in ounce, owl), the mark over the o \^^] is 
intended to suggest the first element of the diphthong, namely, a as in arm 
(marked a), and the circumflex [^] over the u and the w, to indicate the second 
element, namely, tf as in true (marked H). 

The sounds represented by tf, i, % d, 6, p, are essentially the same in quality 
as the proper long sounds of thes^ vowels, but differ in quantity, being less pro- 
tracted in utterance. In respelling foreign names for pronunciation, a, « (or e), 
and 0, are generally used instead of d, e, and 6, unless a full accent fells upon 
the vowel. 

The marked letters a, «, f, 0, «, y, representthesoundof "the neutral vowel," 
or t* as in fM, urn. They occur only in unaccented syllables. Diacritical signs 
placed above these letters are intended to indicate their normal or theoretical 
value. Thus, salad, cjfmbai, altar, hillock, Uon, sailor, ballot, confess, would 
regularly be pronounced sai^dd, cym^m, ajfttr, hWl66k, U'6n, saU'or^ hal'ldt, 
cdn-fess^, but in fluent, and particularly in colloquial, utterance, the unaccented 
vowel is apt to suffer a corruption or change of its distinctive quality, fallmg 
into the easier sound of the neutral vowel, so that the actual or customary pro- 
nunciation of the words in question is sal^ud, cym'bul, al'tur, hil'hick, U'un, 
saWur, baiflut, cun-fess'. They may, therefore, be printed thus: — sal'dd, ofrnf- 
W, al'tur, hU'l^ck, U'4n, sail'^, hal'Ut, c^fess'. 

The letter s is doubled, in the orthoepical respelling, to mdicate the "sharp" 
or hissing sound of this member of the alphabet, in cases where a single a 
would be liable to be pronounced like z; as expense (eks-penssO- 

In a word having more than one accent, the primary or principal accent is 


denoted by a heavy mark; the secondary, or SQbordmate,by a lighter mark; as 
in Ad'anuu'tor, In the diTision of words into syUables, these marks, besides 
performing their proper office, supply the place of the hyphen. 

An apostrophe [ ' ] is used in the respelling of certain French words to show 
that an imaccented e is either entirely mute, or is pronounced with the briefest 
possible sound of e in her. It is also used after y, in some cases, to denote that 
this letter is to be pronounced with its consonant sound, as in yard, yet^ &c. 

A tie [^] placed over two or more vowels .denotes that they must be pro- 
nounced without an obvious separation into distinct syllables; as, Hatty (ft'll^'). 

The figures which follow some of the names in the Vocabulary refer to cor- 
responding sections in the following ^'Bemarks *' and ** Boles." 

remakes on some points of english orthoepy. 


§ 1. The sound of a in alej/iUe (commonly called ** long a "), though regarded 
by many writers as a simple element, is in most cases diphthongal, beginning 
with a sound closely resembling that of the first e in there, but slightly less 
open, and ending with a brief sound of e in me. (See § 3.) This final e sound 
is usually omitted in unaccented syllables, and in the correct pronunciation of 
the common foreign equivalent of d; namely, e as in [Fr.] bite, net, [Ger.] 
emg, &c. (See § 31«) 

A (as in hoQi, dance, &c.). 

§ 2. There is a considerable' class of words (chiefly monosyllables) ending 
in aff, aft, cUk, asp, asi, att, with a few ending in once, and, and ant (as staf, 
graft, fncuk, raq>, glass, last, lance, command, pant), to which must be added 
castle, advantage, half, and some other words, in the pronunciation of which, 
usage, both in England and America, is fiir from being uniform, some speakers 
giving to the vowel the full, open sound of a in far (d), and some the abrupt, 
flat sound of a in man {&), while others, seeking for a compromise between these 
two extremes, either slightly shorten the H, or dwell upon the d. Of these 
varieties, the first and second (A and d) are much the most common. The 
drawled d was never more than a temporary and local fashion, which — ac- 
cording to Smart — has been general^ laid aside in Engl^id, and which seems to 
be going out of use in America, in those parts where it has hitherto prevailed. 
The brief ft, — improperly styled "intermediate," — though recommended by 
Worcester, Goodrich, and some other orthoepists, diflers so slightly from the 
fuller form of this vowel, that the distinction attempted to be set up is practically 
a nugatory one. . Words belonging to the class nnder consideration are in this 
Dictionary marked as having the full sonnd of a in far ; but the reader is, in 
every- instance, referred to this section, and can decide for himself which of the 
sounds here described he will adopt in his own practice. 



§ 3. The sound of a heard in fare, lair, Sac., and of e in there, heir, &c., when 
these words are correctly pronounced, is a lengthened form of the e in met, or of 
the initial element in long a (a as in mate), sounds which are closely allied, and 
are, hy some writers, regarded as identical. Instead of this, however, many 
speakers substitute a prolongation of the a in mat, — a mode of utterance which, 
notwithstanding its frequency and its equal gracefulness, is opposed by the ma- 
jority of cultivated speakers, including most of the orthoepists. 

£, 1, tf, "S". 

§ 4. The vowel ti before r, in such words as urn, fur, furry, incur, incurring, 
&c. (sometimes called the ^^ neutral vowel," from its peculiarly dull and indiscrete 
character), is veiy common in English, and has a uniform and well-known sound. 
According to the common practice, both in England and America, and according 
to most writers upon the subject, the vowels e, i, and y, and the digraph ea, when 
similarly situated, have precisely the same sound. But some speakers, particu- 
larly among the more refined and aristocratic classes of English society, give 
them a different and peculiar sound, which is best described as intermediate 
between that of u in urn, and that of e in met, being less guttural than the 
former, and less palatal than the latter. This " delicacy " of pronunciation, 
as it has been termed, is not observed in unaccented syllables, or in "very 
common words," even by those who are tenacious of its observance in other 
cases. In this work, all these vowels are marked in the %ame way {i, t, U, y), 
but the reference-figure appended to words in the Dictionary in which they 
occur, will direct the reader to this section, that he may not be left in ignorance 
of the fact that there is a diversity of usage in their pronunciation. 

0.6. • 

§ 5. The sound of o in old, note, &c. (commonly called 'Hong a"), though by 
some writers regarded as a simple soimd, is in reality diphthongal, ending in a 
slight sound of oo in food, or in foot. The initial element is the normal o, 
intermediate in quality between aw (as in saw) and do. The terminal oo 
sound is usually omitted in tmaccented syllables. 

In some parts of America, particularly in New England, it is very conmion 
to shorten the sound of long o in certain monosyllables, and in the accented 
syllable of some other words, by dropping the brief final element which properly 
belongs to the vowel, and at the same time making the initial element slightly 
more open in quality ; but the practice is an unauthorized provincialism. This 
shortened form of long o is heard in the words home, stone, wholly, &c. It also 
occurs in some foreign languages. As it diifers but little from the sound of un- 
accented (in car' go, ech'o, &c.), it is, in this Dictionary, represented by the 
same diacritical sign (o). 


§ 6. The sound of u in wdt, cube, mute, &c. (commonly called " long «"), is 
a compound soimd formed of consonant y as the initial element, and the oo in 


food as the final element The sound of consonant y is distinctlj heard when 
« (or any of its equivalent digraphs) makes or begins an initial syllable (as in 
imife, ttte) ; when it is preceded by any one of the labial or palatal sounds j9, 6, 
i», y, r, i, g (as in putridj bugle, music, fusion, view (= vu), cubic, gules) ; and when 
it is preceded by any one of the dental sounds d, t, I, n, th, provided the preced- 
ing vowel is short and under the accent (as in id'ucate, rU'ual, s&l'uiary, m5n'u- 
fnent, ^pdiih'vlcUe). But when it is preceded, in the same syllabic, by any one of 
the consonants d, t, I, n, s, ih, it is difficult to introduce the sound of y, and hence 
careless speakers omit it altogether, saying chok, toob, loot, nood, soot, erUhoosiasm, 
instead of duke, tube, lute, nude, suit, enthusiasm. The reason is, that, after 
forming these dental consonants, the organs are in a position to pass directly and 
easily to the labial oo ; but to insert the palatal y before the oo, is to go back 
from a medial to a posterior position of the organs before proceeding to an 
anterior position. Although the tendency to get rid of the y, in such cases, is a 
natural and legitimate one, it is only so far yielded to by the best speakers as to 
substitute for the y the closely related element short {, made as brief as possible, 
and pronounced in the same i^llable as the oo. If, in similar situations, the u is 
preceded by the sound of r, sh, or zh, it takes the simple sound of oo in food; as, 
rule (rool), true (troo), virulent (vlr'oo-lent), sure (shoor), cusure (a^zhoor). 
When preceded by ch or j, the practice of different speakers varies, some 
sounding the « as oo, others as i-oo. 


§ 7. The sound of A in hand, heart, &c., is a pure aspiration produced by an 
emission of breath through whatever configuration of the vocal channel maybe 
requisite for uttering a succeeding vowel or semivowel, the organs being always 
adjusted to the position of the next following sound before the h is pronounced. 
Yet h is palpably not a whisper of the following sound. If it were so, a whispered 
he would be nothing more than a prolonged whispered e, whereas the difierence 
between the two elements is very marked, and is felt not only by the speaker, 
but by the hearer as well. Physiologically considered, h is formed by an expul- 
sion of unvocalized breath through the glottis, which is opened wide through its 
whole extent. In simple whispering of the vowels, on the contraiy, the vocal 
chords are brought together, — approximated, though not stretched, or but 
sli^tly so, — and the breath, in passing through, is thus not only rendered audi- 
ble, but acquires a peculiar and distinctive quality, which approaches in a 
greater or less degree to actual sonancy. 

OH, J. 

§ 8, The digraph ch (as in church) is regarded by some writers as repre- 
senting a simple sound; but most orthoepists consider that it is compounded 
of t and sh. Neither view is quite right, nor is either wholly wrong. In forming 
ch, there is an attempt at blendmg t and sh in a single sound, the result of 
which is to modify the former of these elements by causing it to be produced^ 
not in the ordmary way with the tip of the tongue against the gum of the 


upper front teeth, but with the flat surface of the tongae, near the tip, applied 
within the dome of the palate at the point where a slight relaxation of the 
contact, accompanied with an emission of breath, gives rise to the sound of sh. 
Considering the brevity of the two elements, and the peculiar closeness with 
which they are combined, we may regard ch as 9, consonant diphthong, or, as 
Miiller expresses it, "only one whole consonant" consisting of "a half t and 
a half sh:' 

The sound of J — which is merely a vocal ch — is composed in like manner 
of a modified d followed by zh, 


§ 9. According to many English orthoepists, the letter r has two distinct though 
related sounds, — the one a dental or lingual consonant, formed by a contact of 
the margin of the fore part of the tongue with the inner surface of the upper 
side teeth, the tip of the tongue touching, or nearly touching, the gum of the front 
teeth with a slight quivering or tremulous motion as the stream of intonated 
breath flows over it, heard (1.) when this letter is not preceded by a vowel, as in 
rose, dream^proffj strike ; and (2.) when it is placed between two vowels of which 
the former is short, as in drid, pSrily spirit, cdral, lyric, sdrry (=sory), MrTy 
(— hiiry ) ; the other a guttural sound, nearly resembling a vowel, formed by a 
flight vibration of the root of the tongue and the uvula, heard when the let- 
ter r occurs before any consonant, or is itself the final consonant in a word, as 
In part, verse, mirth, torn, surf, far, nor, slv/r. In the first case, r is sometimes 
.strongly trilled or rolled by a violent emission of the vocal current; but, in 
ordinaiy pronunciation, the sound is peculiarly smooth and liquid, and any de- 
cided vibration of the tongue is laborious, pedantic, and altogether un-English. 

If r follows any one of the vowels d, e, I, 6, u, (5b, &&, a slight sound of the 
neutral vowel (u in urn) is inserted before the r, forming a diphthong with the 
preceding vowel, or, in the case of t, u, and H, a triphthong. Thus, care, dear, 
loire, more, lure, boor, soivr, are pronounced c^Tia, de^, wi^, mo^, liPur, 
bdo^, s6S7ur. In English usage, the r is thus joined to the preceding vowel in 
ail cases in which this vowel is in an accented syllable; and if, at the same time, 
a vowel follows, the r has, according to some orthoepists, both its guttural and its 
lingual sound; as in vary (v&r'y, or v&r'iy), era (Sr'a, or er'ra), iory (tor'y, <yr 
tor'ry), Jmrin (bOr'in, or bur'rin), AomH (hSdrl, or hSftr'rl), &c. In the United 
States, this mode of pronunciation is, for the most part, confined to words ending 
with r or re preceded by one of the above-mentioned vowels, and to the deriva- 
tives of such words. Thus, dearest (from dear) is pronounced dear'est, or 
dear'rest; boorish (from ioor)," boor'ish, or boor'rish; sower (from sow), sour'er, 
or sour'rer, &c. ; but vaa^ is va'ry ; era, e'ra; tory, to'ry, &c. The Scotch, on the 
contrary, preserve the vowel pure even in derivatives, saying dea'rest, boo'rish, 
fiou'rer, &c., as well as v8.'ry, e'ra, to'ry, &c. 

It must be observed that some very acute and eminent phonologists utterly 
deny the existence of the alleged double pronunciation of r, maintaining that 
the letter has, in English at least, one unvaried sound in all situations, produced 
between the tip of the tongue and the upper gum. Others allow that when 


r is preceded by a long or full vowel, a slight guttural vibration aooompanies the 
lingual articulation; but they do not regard this modification of the sound as 
affording sufficient ground for its discrimination into two distinct and ind^ 
pendent elements. It is not hnprobable that the disagreement of authorities 
in regard to the precise nature of the " guttural r " is owing, in some measure, to 
actual difierenoe of utterance. 

It is further to be observed, that, in the best style of pronunciation, r is 
never silent; but that, when it occurs after a vowel, it is commonly suppressed 
by careless or uneducated speakers. 

W, Y. 

§ 10. The sounds signified by w and y, when these letters occur at the be- 
ginning of a word or syllable, as in looOy ye, &c., are considered by some writers 
to be identical with the vowels oo and e respectively ; they are, however, formed 
by a closer approximation of the articulative organs, which destroys the pure 
vocality of the vowel sounds, and gives them a consonantal or semi - conso- 
nantal character. They are not, however, perfect consonants; for it is impossible 
to prolong them, and tiie attempt to do so results only in the production of the 
vowels oo and e. 

§ U. The digraph wh is regarded by many modem orthoepists as repre- 
senting a simple elementary sound, which is the surd or whispered correspondent 
of w. Of those who take this view, some say that the sound of 10A is followed 
by that of «; as in when (wh-w-e-n): others assert that the voice is not heard 
untn the following vowel is conmienced, idien, for example, being pronounced 
wh-e-n ; but such persons wrongly analyze their own pronunciation. The com- 
mon opinion is, that both letters of the digraph are pronounced with their usual 
sounds, only in the reverse order, — hw, — according to the original Anglo-Saxon 
orthograi^y. But h-w does not differ from 1OA-40, h being an emission of un- 
vocalized breath through the position taken by the organs of speech in forming 
the next following element, as is explained in § 7. 



§ 12. The established English pronunciation of Latin words and of Latinized 
forms of Greek words is conformed to the general laws and tendencies of the 
English language. Hence, the proper position of the accent and the syl- 
labication having been determined, each syllable is to be pronounced according 
to the usual powers or sounds of the letters in English, except in cases specially 
provided for in. the following rules. 



§ 13. (1.) Any vowel at the end of an accented syllable, and e, o, and u at the 
end of an unaccented syllable, have the long English sound ; as, Ca^to, Ce'res, 
MVdaSf Sd^loriy Nu^ma, Pe-U'des, Hinne'rus^ iM-ca^nus, 

§ 14. (2.) If a syllable ends with a consonant, the vowel has its short English 
sound; as, BdVhus^ MSm'non, Mds'chus, Pvb'livs. 

ExcEFi'ioir. — jE, in final c«, has its long sound; as in Achilles (ar-kil'lez). 

§ 15. (3.) A, ending an unaccented syllable, is sounded like a in comma; as, 
Cre-u'sa, A-ri'on, 

§ 16. (4.) £ final is always sounded; aa in He^be, Pe-nd'o-pe. 
' § 17. (5.) The diphthongs ob and as are pronounced as e would be in the same 
situation ; as, Cossar (se'zar), CEnont (e-no'ne), -Dcedalus (ded^a-lus), (Edipu* 

§ 18. (6.) /, ending a final syllable, has its long English sound; as, E-pig^o-fa. 
Ending an initial unaccented syllable, it has in some cases its long sound, as in 
Bt-a'nor, t-u'lus ; and in some its short sound, as in O-Uc'i-a, I-4a'li-a. In all 
other cases, ending an unaccented syllable, it has its short sound ; as, Fd'lirJus. 

§ 19. (7.) Y is pronounced as i would be in the same situation. 

§ 20. (8.) When ai, ei, oi, and yi^ not initial, are followed by another vowel, 
and take the accent on the a, e, o, or 2^, the % assimies the sound of consonant y, 
and the vowel before it has its long sound; as in Maia (ma^ya), Hygda (hi-j6^ya), 
Pompeius (pom-pS'yus), Latoia (la-to'ya), Harpyia (har-pl'ya). 


§ 21. (9.) The consonants c and g have their " sofb " sound, like 8 and j, be- 
fore e, ij y, cBj and os; before a, 0, and u, or a consonant, they have their 
"hard" sound; as in cot, go. 

Exception. — When g^ having the sound of/, is preceded <)y another 17, the 
former of the two is suppressed, or may be said to coalesce in sound with the 
second; as, Ag genua (a-je'nus). 

§ 22. (10.) The combination ch is pronounced like ib; as, Charon (ka'ron). 

§ 23. (11.) Each of the three consonants c, <, and t, when preceded im- 
mediately by the accent, or itself ending an accented syllable, and followed by 
ta, ie, M, io, or t«, commonly has the sound of sA ; as in Por'cia (por'shi-a), 
Cly'tie (klish'i-e), Hora'tii (ho-ra'shi-i), Pho^cion (fo'shi-on), Cas'sim (kash'i- 
us). C has also the same sound, when following an accented vowel, and stand- 
ing before eu and yo ; as, Mena'ceus (me-ne'she-us), Si'cyon (sish'i-on). 

Exception. — When ai, immediately preceded by an accented vowel, is fol- 
lowed by a vowel, the s takes the sound of zh ; as in He'siod (he'zhi-od). 
~ Though not properly an exception to the rule, it may be stated that zi similar^ 
situated is pronounced in the same manner ; as in Aly'zia (a-lizh'i-a). — !r, 
when preceded by another <, and commonly in the termination ^on, has its 

E roper sound (heard in fcjp, iImI, &c.); as in Brut'ti-i, Me'ti-on: when preceded 
y s or a;, it has, according to some authorities, the same sound ; according to 
others, the sound of ch in church ; as in Sallus'tius (sal-lus'ti-us, or saUus'chi-us), 
Sex'iius (seks'ti-us, or seks'chi-us), &c. 

§ 24. (12.) 8y when final, if preceded by e, has the sound of 2; as in Per^ 

idea (pSr'i-kl^z). 

• •• 


§ 25. (13.) X, ending an accented syllable, and standing before t followed hy 
another vowel, has the sound of X»A ; as, Cinx'ia (singk^shi-a). 

§ 26. (14.) Combinations of initial consonants which are foreign to the nature 
and habits of our language, drop the sound of their fii^ letter or digraph; 
as in Cneius (pronounced ne'3ms), Ctesiphon (tes'i-fon), Grtatho (na'tho), Jlfnemo*- 
yne (ne-mos^i-ne), Pnytagoraa (nt-tag'o-ras), Psyche (si'ke), PtoUmy (tol'e-me), 
Phthas (thas). 

§ 27. (15.) The terminations atu and ow are always to be pronoonoed in 
two syllables; as, Archela'us, Aldn'o^ua, 

§ 28. (16.) The termination eu8, in proper names which in Greek end in 
cvf, as Orpheus, Prometheus, &c., should be pronounced in one syllable, the 
eu being a diphthong with the sound of ^Mongu.** 


§ 29. (17.) Words of two syllables invariably have the accent on the first 

syllable. In words of more than two syllables, if the penult is long in quantity, 

it takes the accent; but, if short, the accent is on the antepenult. When the 

penult is common, or doubts, the accent is on the antepenuU;. 

49* Bj quantity, in Greek and Latin, is meant the relative time occnpied in 
pronouncmg a sylhiole, when those languages were spoken tongues. A syllable 
containing a short vowel m&j be lengthened by accompanying consonants ; but 
the ancients seem to have relt the effect of these only when final, and to have 
made no account of initial consonants — probably because they pronounced them 
with extreme brevity — in estimating the duration of a syllable. The general 
rules in relation to quantity are as follows : — 1. Before y, x, z, or anv two 
consonants excei>t a mute followed by / or r, the vowel of the penult -is long by 
posUion, [This is the langui^e of the grammarians : the vowd, in such cases, 
was probably short or stopped; but the syllable was lon^, being made so by the 
following consonant or consonants.] The digraphs ch, ph, rh, and tA, which rep*-, 
resent simple sounds, are reckoned as single consonants. 3. A vowel before a 
mute and < or r is common ; that is, either long or short. 3. Diphthongs are long. 
4. A vowel before another vowel or h is short. In otiier cases, the Quantity must 
be determined by etymology, metrical usage, or the ortiiography or the word in 
Greek ; but every vowel which cannot oe proved to be lonff, is arbitrarily 
assumed to be short. — The division of words mto syllables — wnich depends in 
part upon the position of the accent, and this, in turn, upon quantity — must be 
understood before words can be correctly pronounced. The rules in regard to 
this subject may be found in any good Latin grammar. 





§ 30. (1. ) In the languages of the Continent of Europe, the vowel a, when long, 
has usually the sound of the English a in far, father; when short, nearly ^at 


of a in fai^ man; never that of a in fa^. A, in French, has a sound resembling 
that of a mfar, but deeper and less distinct, verging toward that of a in all: its 
peculiar quality is due to the retraction of the tongue and the soft palate. A 
brieiter variety of the same sound is heard in the Fr. /mu, 6er. mann. In Hun- 
garian, a is like o in not; d, like a in far. A, in Swedish, has a sound intermediate 
between that of a in off, and that of o in note. For the soimds of a, a, <f, see 
§§ 37, 62. 

§ 31. (2.) £ generally has a sound similar to that of ** long a" in /ate, but 
oi^en like that of ^ short e '* in met, or like the latter when protracted. (See § 1. ) 
j^, in French, has the sound of e in then, or that of the initial element in mate 
(see § 1); ^ and S have the sound of the first e in there; e (unaccented) is, in 
most cases, either entirely silent, or has a very brief sound of the neutral vowel 
(tt in up, urn), £, in Swedish, when long, has a sound somewhat like that of 
short i (in pin), but more prolonged; when short, it is like e in met. In Hun- 
garian and Polish, e (unaccented) sounds like e in met; e nearly like a in mate. 
For the sounds of #, ^, see § 62. 

§82. (3.) / has usu^y the sound of » in marine, which is the same as the 
"long.e*' in me, the, &c. It is often shortened in quantity, like the e in bemoan^ 
but the quality of the sound remams the samej and should not be suffered to 
degenerate into that of % in ill. This latter sound, however, is heard in Dutch, 
and sometimes in Grerman. In Hungarian, i and i differ only in length, the 
accented vowel being more protracted than the unaccented. 

§^33. (4.) has, for the most part, the same, or nearly the same, sounds 
that it has in English in the words note, not, north, (See § 5.) It some- 
times — as in the It. «o^e — has a sound intermediate between that of o in 
note and that of oo in food. This is called, in Italian, ^o chiuao," The ^*o 
qperto" of the same language is a sound intermediate between the o of note 
and that of north. In Swedish and Norwegian, at the end of a syllable, o has 
the sound of <K) or of 6b. d, in French, has always the fiill sound of " long o " 
in English. In Hungarian, o is nearly like long o in English ; 6 has a ftiUer 
and deeper sound. In Polish, o sounds like o in note; 6, like oo in food, or 
in foot. For the sound of o, see § 46. 

§ 34. (8.) U, in most of these languages, has, when long, the sound of « in 
true (equivalent to the d9 in food) ; when short, that of u in fvM (equivalent to 
the Tsb in foot). In French, — and also in Dutch, when at the end of a syUable, — 
it has a sound intermediate between 66 and e, formed by attempting to pronounce 
these sounds simultaneously, the lips being placed in the position for uttermg do, 
and the tongue in that for e. The sound is sometimes long and sometimes short, 
but the difference is merely one of quantity. In Dutch, u, when short or stopped, 
is flounded as in nut, U, in Swedish, is intermediate between { and 6b, but is a 
pinched and veiy peculiar soimd, differing considerably in its effect upon tiie ear 
from that of the French u, the lips being rounded instead of pouted. The near- 
est equivalent in English is do. In Hungarian, u (unaccented) has the sound 
of do; u, a longer and fuller soimd of the same general quality. For the sound 
of ti, see § 51. 

§ 35. (0.) Y, for the most part, has the same sound that % has; that is, it is 


like "long e " in English. (See § 32.) In Dutch, it has the sound of the Eng- 
lish "longt** {i in pine) ; bnt in the modem Dutch orthography it is replaced by 
y. In Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish, it is like the French and Dutch «, or 
the German u. (See § 34.) 

Biphihoiifirs and Vowel Ck>inbiiiatioxui. 

§ 36. (7.) AOy in most languages, has the same sound as single a, — that is, 
'the sound of a in. far, — but is more prolonged. In Danish, it sounds nearly 
as a in ally but v^ges towards the sound of o in note. 

§ 37. (8.) Ae, or a, when long, is usually sounded like a in Jatej or the first e 
in there; when short, like e in met. (See § 1.) In Dutch, it is like a in far; 
but the reformed Dutch orthography substitutes aa for oe. 

§ 38. (9.) AeUy or 021, in German, has the sound of ot in toU, but is differ- 
ently pronounced in different parts of Crermany. 

§ 39. (10.) At and ay are generally sounded like the English adverb ay (yes) ; 
but in French they have nearly the sound of a in fate, or e in there. (See § 1.) 

§ 40. (11.) £au, in French, has the same sound as the French au; that is, 
of the English " long 0." 

§41. (12.) Ee has a prolonged sound of the foreign e, which is nearly 
equivalent to the English a in fate. (See § 31.) 

§ 42. (13.) £i and ey are generally like ay in day, when this word is pro- 
nounced with the foil diphthongal sound of the vowel. In French, they have a 
more open sound, resembling that of e in met^ or that of a in mate with the ter- 
minal element of the a omitted. (See § 1.) In German and Danish, they are like 
the English adverb ay (yes) ; that is, they unite the sounds of a in far and i in 
m, and hence nearly resemble our ** long t.** 

§ 43. (14.) Eu, in French and Dutch, has — with some variations of quantity, 
and some slight difierences of quality — a sound similar to that of u in um, but 
more accurately described as intermediate between the a in mate and the in 
note, and formed by an attempt to pronounce these vowels simultaneously. (See 
§ 46.) £u, in German and Danish, sounds like oi in toU. In Italian, Spanish, 
and Portuguese, it is equivalent to (f^, 

§44. (15.) /e usually sounds like e in me, but, in German, it sometimes 
makes two syUables, and, in French, before r final, forms a diphthong which 
is pronounced e^ 

§ 46. (16.) li is equivalent to i — that is, to the En^ish ** long e," as in 
me — prol<mged. 

§ 46. (17.) Oe^'or d (in Dan. 0), in the Germanic languages, is essentially the 
same as e« in French (see § 43), though most authorities recognize a slight 
difiference of quali^ between the two sounds, d inclining more to the sound 
of d, and having the lips more pursed up for its utterance, than eu. The u in 
um is the nearest English approximation to both. In Hungarian, i^ or ^ is 
merely a longer Tariety of d. 

§47. (18.) (Eu, in French, is like eu in the same language. (See § 43.) 

§ 48. (19.) Oi, in French, sounds, in most words, neariy like wa in was. In 
some words, it formerly had the soimd now given to ai, by which it is replaced 


in the modem French spelling. Oi, in Danish, is like min English; 0i is 
6^, with the o short, or brief. 

§ 49. (20.) Oo, has the sound of oo in door^ or o in note, somewhat prolonged, 
and without the final element of this sound in English. 

§ 60. (21.) Ouj in French, when long, is like oo in food; when short, like 
00 in Jbot. In Dutch and Norwegian, it has the sound of ou in the English 
word oui. In Portuguese, it is usually pronounced like the English " long o." 

§ 61. (22.) Ue, or U, in the Germanic languages, is soimded like the French «. 
(See § 34.) In Hungarian, i(( or ^ is merely a longer variety of H. 

§ 52. (23.) Ui and uy, in Dutch, resemble oi in English. 

§ 63. (24.) Uu is like oo in food, but longer. 


§ 54. (25.) B, in German and Danish, at the end of a word, sounds like p. 
In Spanish, between two vowels, its sound is intermediate between those of the 
English b and to, and may be described as a v made without the aid of the 
teeth, but with the lips alone, which are pouted and brought flatly and feebly 
into contact. 

§ 55. (26.) C, in Italian, before e and t, sounds like ch in church; in Spanish, 
in the same position, like th in thin (though in Catalonia and in Spanish 
America it has the sound of «). In German and Danish, before e, i, y,a,6[0),u, 
or a diphthong commencing with any one of these letters, and in Polish in all 
positions, it is pronounced like is, C, in Polish, blends the sounds of ts and con- 
sonant y. (Compare § 74.) f!, in French and Portuguese, sounds like 8, before 
a, o, and u. 

§ 66. (27.) D, in German, Dutch, and Swedish, at the end of a word, sounds 
like t; ia Spanish and Danish, when occurring between two vowels, or at the 
end of a word, like th in this, but it is veiy gently pronounced, so as some- 
times scarcely to be audible. 

§ 67. (28.) F, in Swedish, at the end of a word or syllable, sounds as v 
does in English. 

§ 58. (29.) G is always "hard" before a, o, u, as it is in the English words 
gain, gold, gust. In Polish, it is hard in all situations; so also in Hungarian, 
unless followed by j or y. ( See §§ 76, 79. ) In French, Spanish, and Portuguese, 
before e, %, and y, it is like the j of these languages. (See § 60.) In Italian, in 
the same position, it is like the English j, that is, like g in gem. (See § 8.) In 
German, the standard and best pronunciation makes g "hard" in every case 
when it is followed by a vowel in the same word ; but when preceded and not fol- 
lowed by a vowel, it has the sound of the German ch, (See § 71.) In Dutch, g, 
in all positions, has a harsh guttural sound, which is the sonant or vocalized cor- 
respondent of the Grerman guttural ch. (See § 71.) In Swedish, before e, i, y, a, 
and d, and when preceded by any other consonant than n, it sounds like the 
English consonant y; in Danish, at the end of a word, its sound is very soft, 
somewhat resembling that of A. — Gu, in French, Spanish, and Portuguese, 
before e and i, sounds like gu in gtiest, guile, the u being inserted to keep the g 
in its hard sound before these vowels. 


§59. (30.) H^ in French, Italian, Spanish, and Portugnese, is either wholly 
rate, or is veiy feebly aspirated. In the remaining languages of Continental 
Europe, it sounds as in English, ^n all of them, it is mute when it follows a Towel 
in the same syllable, its office being merely to show that the vowel has its long 
sound. In Polish, h is very harshly aspirated, resembling h, or the German 
guttural ch, (See § 71.) 

§ 60. (31.) «/, in German, Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Polish, and 
Hungarian, has the sound of the English y consonant. In Italian, it has rather 
the sound of " long e." In French and Portuguese, it has the sound orthoepically 
represented by zh ; that is, of « in treature, or z in azure. In Spanish, it has a 
veiy peculiar sound, somewhat resembling that of a strongly aspirated A, and 
this is substituted for it in Spanish America. ** To pronounce it," says Ellis, 
"the back of the mouth must be stopped by doubling up the back of the 
tongue, and making an effort as if to hawk up phlegm, the scrape being in the 
pakEle, and not in the pharynx." It is most nearly allied to the German palatal 
cA, but must not be confounded with it, nor with <^, A, or the guttural ch. 

$ 61. (32.) X, in French, in the terminations bU, rde, pie, &c. (as in tdNe^ 
branU, nmple), is colloquially whispered, but in serious or careful discourse, it 
has its usual vocal sound, and is followed by a faint sound of the neutral vowel 
(tt in tjp, urn), £, in Polish, has a peculiar, thick sound, formed by placing the 
under side of the tip of th^ tongue firmly against the back of the upper front 
teeth, or the upper gum. 

§ 62. (33.) M and n, in French and Portuguese, when final in a word or 
syllable, and also when not doubled or not followed by a vowel, have no 
sound of their own, but are mere diacritical letters, or signs, serving to show 
that the preceding vowel is nasal, that is, pronounced by opening the back 
nostrils and allowing the voice to enter the nose simultaneously with its passage 
through th^ mouth. The nasal vowels in French are as follows : — 

1. 2. 3. 4. 

am, an) «a im, in,(o)in] <Mn»onJ^*n mn, un ) -^ 

em, en) lum, ain .^^^ aun ) earn, eon) 

eim, ein 

In pronouncing these sounds, there must be no contact of the tongue and th^ 
soft palate, as in forming the sound of ng in English. By some phonetists, 
the first of these nasal vowels is regarded as corresponding to the pure oral 
vowel in far; by others, to that in fK^; but these two sounds are closely re- 
lated, the brief open oof not {6) being intermediate between the a of far (d) and 
the o of for (o, &, or oto), and hence differing but little from a shortened form of 
the open d. There is disagreement, also, as to the quality of the third nasal 
vowel, some referring it to the o in note, or to its briefer form as heard in the 
New England pronunciation of tchole, only, &c. (as is done in this work); while 
others think that it corresponds to the o in form, north, &c. In Portuguese, 
the nasality of a vowel is sometimes indicated by the sign *^ (originally a 
superposed m) placed over it. The combinations representing nasal vowels are 
S, So, am, an (pron. 4*"); em, en (pron. a**); im (pron. J"); o,om,on (pron. 
t**)', um, un (pron. off^). Nasal diphthongs are ae, Hi, do, oe. The terminations 

• •• 


(Us, 5es, were formerly written aem, oens. The nasal vowels &^ and <S» occur in 
Polish, in which language thej are written tf, e, — If , in conversationai French, 
is whispered, and not vocalized, in such words as sckistne ; hut, in formal 
deliveiy, it has its usual vocal sound, followed hy an indistinct murmur of the 
mute e. — JV before g, in Italian, usually preserves its pure sound; in the o&er 
Continental European languages, or in most of them, it takes the sound of the 
English n in dnk. — iV, in Spanish, is a variety of n, formed by an attempt to 
pronounce n and consonant y simultaneously. The same is true of the Polish «i. 
The effect is very similar to that produced by the insertion of y after n; as in 
mifdon (min'^yun). (Compare § 74.) 

§ 63. (34.) Quj in Spanish and Portuguese, when followed by e or i, has the 
sound of ib ; in other situations, that of loSb» In French, the combination has 
the sound of h before every vowel. In German and Dutch, it is sounded as ho 
would be in those languages. (See § 68.) In most other languages, its sound 
18 essentially the same as in English. 

§ 04. (35.) R, at the end of a word or syllable, is sounded more distinctly, 
and in other positions is apt to be more strongly trilled, than in English. By 
us, this letter is usually pronounced with the under surface of the tip of the 
tongue applied within the dome of the palate, in which position the utterance 
is naturally very smooth and easy. By foreign nations, r is ordinarily produced 
by applying the upper surface of the tongue*s tip to the upper gum at a point 
quite near the teeth, which occasions a peculiar harshness of sound, and most 
generally a decided vibration, or trill. In French, in such words as sabre, eidre, 
<q)dtre, ceuvre, it is usually pronounced as a whisper, but is sometimes vocalized, 
particularly in serious discourse, forming a syllable with the obscure e. It 
never admits the interposition of the neutral vowel (u in vp, urn) between it and 
a preceding vowel, as is often the case in English. Thus, the French cKre is 
pronounced d^f or de'rn, whereas the English dear is pronounced de^. 

§ 66. (36.) 8, between two vowels, has usually the sound of 2 in zeal. In 
German, it often has this sound given to it at the beginning of a syllable, but is 
commonly pronounced like tz, a hiss gliding instantaneously and almost imper- 
ceptibly into a buzz. In Hungarian, it sounds Uke sh in English, a, in Polish, 
blends in a single utterance the sounds of a and consonant y. ((Uompare § 74.) 

§ 66. (37.) T has often a more dental sound than in English, the tip of the 
tongue being placed against the cutting edge of the upper front teeth, and not 
against the upper gum, as with us. Thia is particularly observable in Spanish. 

§ 67. (38.) V, in Grerman, sounds like /. In Danish, it is usually like v in 
English, but sometimes has the sound of 00; as in hami (h£^n, or h6iln); 
when followed by t, it has the sound of /. 

§ 68. (39.) W, in Grerman and Dutch, is intermediate between the English b 
and to, on the one hand, and v, on the other, the inner sur&ces of the lips being 
brought flat against each other, whereas in (Eng.) w they are rounded, in b the 
edges are compressed, and in v the lower lip comes in contact with the upper 
teeth. (See § 54.) By some writers, this peculiar utterance of w is said to be 
provincial and dialectical, in German, except in words in which to is preceded 
by a consonant, as, sdwan. In Polish, 10, when it precedes a whispered or mute 


consonant, is pronounced w f; in other utuations, it has the sound of the 
German w, 

§ 69. (40.) X, in French, has often the sound of «, and occasionallj that of 2, 
but more generaUy that of H or of gz^ as in English. In Spanish, it is equivalent 
to they of that language. (See § 60.) In Portuguese, it is pronounced like 
sA in ^mU. 

§ 70. (41.) Z, in Grermau and Swedish, has the sound of to ; in Spanish, that 
of (A in ihivk ; in Italian, usually that of dz. In Polish, z has the sound of this 
letter in the English word zmH; z, the sound of 2^, as in azure (&'zhoor); 
i, nearly that of rzh. 

Ck>mbixied Ck>xi8onants. 

§ 71. (42.) Ch, in Spanish (except in the Catalan dialect, where it sounds as 
i), is pronounced like the same combination in English in the word church. In 
Italian and Hungarian, it has the sound of k; in French and Portuguese, of «A, 
the exceptions being confined to words in which it occurs before / or r, and to 
a few words from the Greek, where it sounds like k. In Grerraan, Dutch, and 
Polish, when preceded in the same syllable by any one of the vowels a, o, or «, 
it has a harsh, guttural sound somewhat resembling a strongly aspirated A ; as in 
ooft, dochf buck: it is produced by bringing the uvula into contact with the base 
of the tongue, and forcing unintonated breath through the barrier thus formed, 
the podtion taken by the organs remaining in other respects unchanged. When 
preceded by e, », d, 0, fl, ei, du, eu, 7, a, or r, the sound is palatal, and approxi- 
mates closely to that of the first two elements in the word hue (l^yoo), the 
tongue being considerably raised in the mouth ; as in edit, ichj mdchlig, wdchentr- 
Uckj bucher, rMij euch, ndlc^y manck, durch. 

4^ Ch, in German and Dutch, before 8 radical, has the sound of X;; as in 
Sachsen (sz&k^sn). 

§ 72. (43.) Csj in Hungarian, has the sound of ch in chur<^, 

§ 73. (44.) Czj in Hungarian, sounds like ts ; in Polish, like ch in church. 

§ 74. (45.) I>i and dy, in Hungarian, is a peculiar sound, organically formed 
by placing the tip of the tongue in the position for uttering d, and simultaneously 
raising the back part into the position for sounding consonant ^, before speaking. 
It closely resembles the sound of d and consonant y produced in immediate 
succession, as in verdure (verd^yoor), and hence approximates the kindred sound 

§ 76. (46.) Gh, in Italian, is like gh in the English words gherkin, ghost ; that 
is, like g in gei, begin, &c. 

§ 76. (47.) Gj, in Hungarian, is equivalent to dj or dy in the same language. 
(See § 74.) 

§ 77. (48.) (?? before », not followed by a consonant, in Italian, is a peculiar 
liquid sound formed from / in precisely the same way that the Hungarian dy is 
fonned from d. Examples are gli, marsigU, &c. (See § 74.) The i is mute, if a 
vowel follows it; as in battagUa, nUglio, &c. 

§ 78. (49.) Gn, in French and Italian, represents a peculiar liquid sound 
which is identical with n in Spanish. (See § 62, and compare § 74.) 


§ 79. (60.) Gt/j in Hnngarian, is like dy in that language. (See § 74.) 

§ 80. (51.) Kj\ in Swedish, sounds like ch in church, 

§ 81. (52.) Lhj in Portuguese, is the same in sound with gl in French and 
Italian, and ff in Spanish. (See §§ 77, 82.) 

§ 82. (53.) Llj in Spanish, blends the sounds of f and consonant y in a single, 
though compound utterance, by an attempt to pronounce them simultaneously, 
the back part of the tongue being placed in the position for forming y^ and the 
tip at the same time in that for forming L The effect produced is veiy nearly 
the same as in the English words ^Ual (fiPyal), mUlion (miPyun), &c., where 
the y follows the 2, instead of being amalgamated with it. (Compare § 74.) — In 
French, the sound here described is, by some speakers, given to tt, when preceded 
by »', and followed by a vowel ; but, according to the modem popular style of 
pronunciation, the sound of the / is dropped, while that of y is often whispered. 
Thus, papUlon is pronounced pft'pel'yd^^', or pi'pe'y6»'; ^fle, fSl, or fe'y'; 
mouUlef mooPyft', or moo'yft'. It is to be observed that the i preceding U is 
silent, if itself preceded by a vowel. 

§ 83. (54.) Xy, in Hungarian, is pronounced like U in Spanish. (See § 82.) 

§ 84. (55.) Ngj in German and Swedish, has the same sound as in the English 
words sing J singer, 

§ 85. (56.) Nhf in Portuguese, corresponds to the Spanish n. Ny, in Hun- 
garian, has the same sound. (See § 62.) 

§ 86. (57.) PA, in all the languages of Continental Europe in which it occurs, 
has the same sound, that of f. 

§ 87. (58.) Rh is pronounced like simple r. 

§ 88. (59.) i2z, in Polish, is a peculiar sound, said to be uttered by placing the 
tongue in the position for «A, and trilling the tip, which is at liberty ; in other 
words, it is a simultaneous pronunciation of r and zh. 

§ 89. (60.) Scj in Italian, before e and t, is sounded like sh in shaM; in 
other positions, like sk, 6cj in Polish, unites the sounds of i and 6. (See §§ 
66, 56.) 

§ 90. (61.) Sch, in German, sounds like sh in shall; in Italian, before e and 
«, like sch in school^ or sk in skill ; in Dutch and Polish, before all the vowels, it 
resembles sk, but is harsher, the ch having the guttural or palatal sound de- 
scribed in § 71. 

§ 91. (62.) 8s, in the Germanic languages, has the same sharp and hissing 
sound that it usually has in English. 

§ 92. (63.) Sz, in German and Hungarian, sounds like s in sun; in Polish, 
like sA in t^iaJU, 

§ 93. (64.) Szcz, in Polish, is pronounced as shch would be in English. 

§ 94. (66.) TA, in all the languages of Continental Europe, except the Modem 
Greek (in which i9, the graphic equivalent of ^, has the same sound that this 
digraph usually has in English), is pronounced like 1h in thymcj Thonuxs, that is, 
like simple U 

§ 95. (66.) 7)* and ty, in Hungarian, blend the sounds of t and consonant y in 
the same manner that dj and dy, in the same language, blend the sounds of d 
and y, (See § 74.) The nearest Engliah equivalent is the combination of t 


and y in the pronimciation sometmies given to the words nature (nftt'jooT/, 
virtue (vert'joo), &c., though the ch in church is a yery nmilar soondi. 

§ 96. (67.) Ta, in Hungarian, is like ch in churchy being the same as the 
Hungarian ct, (See § 72.) 

§ 97. (68.) 7>cA, in Giennan, sounds veiy nearly aa th in. church. (See $§ 
8, 90.) 

§ 98. (69.) Zb, in Hungarian, is like eh in English, as heard in the pronun- 
ciation of azure (a^zhoor), confusion (kon-fu'zhun), &c. 

§ 99. (70.) Zachj in German, has very nearly the sound of e& in church; 
thus Ztchokke is pronounced ahnost like chok'lift. (See §$ 8, 70, and 90.) 

§ 100. (71.) 2^ in Italian, usually has the sound of te. 

§ 101. (72.) The letters i xadp have the same sound as in English. 

§ 102. (73.) Double consonants, in some foreign languages, are dwelt upon 
in a marked manner, producing the effect of double articulation, though there 
is but one contact of the organs of speech. This is particulariy observable in 
Italian words; as, e. g,, Aanno, pronounced ftn^no, and not ft^no, the two n's 
being pronounced as distinctly as in the English word unnerve. But if the 
double letters are cc or gg, and the second c or g has the power of c& (in 
diurch) or of j, in consequence of being followed by any one of the vowels 
e, «, and y, the first c or ^ has the sound of t or d; thus ucctfo is pronounced 
dbtp-che^zo, not d6-che^zo nor d6ch-e^zo; oggi is od^jee,not d^jeeyuor oj'ee. In 
like manner, tz is equivalent to ^-te, sometimes to d-dz. 

Final consonants in French — with jthe exception of e, y| l, r, in most 
cases — are not generally pronounced, unless immediately followed, in the 
same sentence, by a word beginning with a vowel. But final consonants, 
in classical and foreign names adopted in French, are almost always articn- 


§ 103. (74.) The French language, — a$ qnykenj — unlike the English, has no 
decided accent, all the syllables of a word being uttered with a nearly equal 
stress of voice, except those in which the mute or obscure e occurs, and those in 
which t, «, or ou, precedes a syllable commencing with a vowel. To an English 
ear, however, the French seem to accent the last syllable of a word, because the 
general tendency of our own language is to throw the accent back toward the 
beginning of the word. Hence, it is the usual practice in English books, in 
respelling French ^words for pronunciation, to mark the last syUable as having 
the accent; at the same time, secondary accents may be placed on the other 
syllables, to prevent them firom being slurred over, or too hurriedly and indis- 
tinctly pronounced, as is often the case in the enunciation of unaccented syl- 
lables in English. It may be observed, that, in French words derived horn the 
Latin, the final spoken syllable alwa3r8 represents the accented syllable of the 
Lstin; it therefore has a right to, and, in point of fiurt, receives, whatever accent 

The Hungarian language, like the French, has no accent, the syUables of a 


word being distinguiahed from each other solely bj quantifT', as in Greek and 
Latin. (See§ 29.) Bat in this work, as in others, an accent is placed on the 
long syllable, in conformity with the principle observed in the accentuation of 
Greek and Latin words. 

In the Germanic fami^ of languages, the principal accent falls npon the radi- 
cal syllable ; but, in consequence of the vast proportion of compound words, 
secondarily accented syllables abound, so that two, and sometimes even three 
or four, accents of nearly equal force may occur in the same word. It is 
evident, that, to those who are familiar with the meaning and composition of 
words in these languages, the accentuation must be easy ; but no general 
rules can be given. 

Italian words are mostly accented on the penultimate syllable ; the same is true 
of Spanish and Portuguese words ending in a vowel, while those ending in a 
.consonant, in these two languages, are generally accented on the last syllable. 
But the exceptions — especially in Italian — are bo numerous that the rule is 
not, perhaps, of much practical utility. 

Polish words are invariably accented on the penultimate syllable; while Um 
seat of the accent in Bussian words is almost always the last syllable. 


Ar,, or Arab,f 







CdL, Celtic. 

cent., .... centmy. 
ChaleLf Chaldsean. 

oo2L, or coZfog., . . colloquiallj. 

Cbffip., - . ... Compare. 
Cyc.^ .... Cjclopsedia. 


D., . 
Don., . 





... Dutch. 

. Edinbnigh. 

. . . Egyptian. 


. feminine. 
Fr., French. 




Heb,, .... Hebrew. 

Higt., History. 

Hung.y .... Hungarian. 

/c«/., . 
/r., . . 
Itj or ItaL, 




. Italian. 


Mag.j .... Magazine. 
Myth,, . Mythology. 

Norw., .... Norwegian. 

Per., Persian. 

Pol., Polish. 

Port., .... Portuguese. 
Pr., .... Proven9al. 
pron., . pronounced, pronunciation. 
Prov., .... ProvindaL 

Qu., . . 

q. V. {quod fide), 

which see. 

Reo., . ..... Review. 

Bom., .... Boman. 

8amk., .... Sanskrit. 

8C., scene. 

Scand., . . . Scandinavian. 
Scot., .... Scottish. 
Shak., , Shakespeare. 
8p., . . . , . Spanish. 
3w., Swedish. 

4^ Spaced letters are used to distinguish forms of spelling which are 
•not 80 common or so well authorized as those adopted in the vocabulary. 

KATION." — Dx QunroxT. 





4--bad'ddn. [Heb., from dbad, to be 
' ruined, j The Hebrew name of the 
evil spirit or destroying angel, called 
ApoUyon in Greek. {Rev. ix. 11.) 
Some of the mediseval demonogra- 
phers regarded him as the chief of the 
demons of the seventh hierarchy, and 
as the causer of wars, combustions, 
and uproars. ELlopstock has made 
use of him in his *' Messiah,^' under 
the name of Abadonna, representing 
him as a fallen angel, stul bearing 
traces of his former dignity amid the 
disfigurements caused oy sin. 

Ab'$-xi8. [Gr. 'AjSaptg] A hyper- 
borean priest of Apollo, whose history 
is entirely mythical. He is said to 
have been endowed with the gift of 
pronhe<7 ; to have taken no earthly 
»>oa; and to have ridden through the 
air on an arrow, the gift of Apollo. 

The dftrt of Abcaris, which carried the phi- 
losopher whercsoeyer he deaired it, pratifiea 
later enthusiastB in trayel as the cap of For- 
tnnatus and the gpace-compelline Doots oi 
the nursezy hexo [Jack the Giani-kiner]. 


Ab'di-el. [Heb., servant of God.] The 
name of an angel mentioned by the 
Jewish Cabalists. He is represented, 
in Milton's " Paradise Lost," as one 
of the seraphim, who, when Satan 
tried to stir up a revolt among the 
angels subordinate to his authority, 
alone and boldly withstood his trai- 
torous designs. 

So spake the senph AbdieLMibM. ibimd 
Among the foithless; fidthfhl only he; 
Among innumerable lEUse, unmoved. 
Unshaken, unseduced, un terrified, 
His loyalty he kept, his love, his zeaL 

Far. Logty Bk. V. 

You shall invoke the Muse, — and certainly 

she ought to be propittous to an author, who, 

in an apostatizing ajge, adheres with tiie fkith 

cfJibdtel to the ancient £Drm of adoration. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Ab-lior'soii (-sn). An executioner in 
Shakespeare's ^^ Measure for Meas- 

Aa>6u Has's^n. The hero of one of 
the stories in the " Arabian Nights' 
Entertainments," — a young man of 
Bagdad, who, by a stratagem of Ha- 
roun-Al-Raschid, was twice made to 
believe himself caliph, and who af- 
terward became in reality the ca- 
liph's chief favorite and companion. 

Ah I were I caliph for a day, as honest Abou 
Hassan wished to be, I would scouise me 
these jugglers out of the commonwealth with 
rods of scorpions. Sir Jr. Scott. 

Addington TSecretary of the Treasury], on 
the other hand, was by no means inclined to 
descend from his high position. He was, in- 
deed, under a delusion much resembling that 
o£Abou Hassan in the Arabian tale. His brain 
was turned by his short and unreal caliphate. 


Abraham - Cupid. An expression 
occurring in Shakespeare's " Romeo 
and Juliet" (a. ii., sc. 1), conject- 
ured by Upton to be a mistake for 
Adam vvpid, and to allude to Adam 
Bell, the celebrated archer. In Hal- 
liwell's opinion, «" the conjecture is 

For the ** Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanationa, 
and for the Bemarka and Bules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxzii. 




very pUoBible, as proi>er names are 
freaaently abbreviated in early MSS., 
ana it saits the sense and meter." 
Bat Dyce thinks that Abraham is 
merely a corruption of auburn, and 
supports his view by citing several 
passages from old books where the 
corruption is unquestionable. Mr. R. 
G. white remarks, in confirmation 
of Dyce's conjecture, that " Cupid is 
always represented by the old paint- 
ers as auburn-haired.'* 
Abraham Newland. SeeNEWLAin>, 

Ab's^l^zn. A name given by Dry- 
den, in his poem entitled ** Absalom 
and Achitopbel," to the Duke of 
Monmouth, a natural son of Charles 
II. Like Absalom, the son of David, 
Monmouth was remarkable for his 
persona] beauty, his popularity, and 
nis undutifulne'ss to his father. 

Absolute, Captain. A character in 
Sheridan's comedy of" The Rivals ; " 
distinguished for his gallant, deter- 
mined spirit, adroit address, and dry 

The author will do well to profit by Captain 
AhtohUe'B advice to hia eervant, aud never 
tell him more lies than are indispensably 
necessary. Sir W. Scott. 

Absolute, Sir An'tho-ny (-to-). A 
character in Sheridan's comedy of 
" The Rivals ; " represented as testy, 
positive, impatient, and overbearing, 
Dut yet of a warm and generous dis- 

4^ " Sir Anthony is an evident copy 

Bf^T SmoUett's kind-hearted, hi^-spir- 

ited Matthew Bramble.^' Hazliu. 

I will no longer avail myself of such weak 
ministers as yout— I will discard yon; — I 
will unbeget you, as Sir Axlhowy AbsohUe 
■ays. •» ' ' g^j^ gcoa. 

Ab-sShr'tus. [Gr. 'kyjJvpTo^J] (Gr. 
4" Rom. Myth.) A brother of Medea, 
and her companion in her flight from 
Colchis. Finding that she was nearly 
overtaken by her father, she killei^ 
Absyrtus, and cut his body into 
pieces, wnich she scattered along the 
way, that her father might thus be 
detained by gathering up the re- 
mains of his murdered son. See 
Argonauts and Medea. 

$.-bu'd|h. A wealthy merchant of 
Bagdad who figui^s in the " Tales of 

the Genii," by H. Ridlev. He meets 
with various remarkable adventures 
in his quest for the talisman of Oro- 
manes, which he is driven to seek by 
the threats of a little old hag who 
haunts him nightly, and makes his 
life miserable. He finds at last that 
the inestimable talisman is — to obey 
God and to love his commandments ; 
and he finds also that all his wonder- 
ful experiences have been but the 
baseless fabric of a dream. 

like Abudah^ in the Arabian stonr, he Is 
always looking out for the Fuiy, and knows 
that the night will come, and the inevitable 
hag with it. Thaclxraff. 

And there, too, was Abudah^ the merchant, 
with the teirible little old woman hobbling 
out ofthe box in his bedroom. Dtchem, 

A-oa'di-$. [Fr. Acadie, said to be de- 
* rived from Shvbenacadie, the name 
of one of the principal rivers of Nova 
Scotia ; in old grants called DAcadie. 
and La Cadie.] The orimnal, and 
now the poetic, name of Nova Sco- 
tia, or rather of a tract extending 
from the fortieth to the forty-sixtn 
degree of north latitude, which was 
granted, Nov. 8, 1603, to De Monts, 
by Henry IV. of France. The present 

Srovince of Nova Scotia extends 
•om lat. 4d9 26' to 45° 55' N. In 
1621, Acadia was granted by charter 
to Sir William Alexander, and its 
name changed to Nova ScoHa. 

4^ In the numerous disputes between 
the English and French colonists previous 
to 1763, this territory changed masters 
ten or a dozen times, and the boundaries 
were widened or narrowed according to 
the respective views of the opposing par- 
ties. In 1755, the French inhabitants 
were seized, forcibly removed, and dis- 
persed among the English colonists on 
the Atlantic coast. Longfellow has made 
this event the suttject of his poem of 

4--oe8't$§. [Gr. 'AKsarrfcA (Gr- 4' 
Rom. Myth.) A son of the Sicilian 
river-god Crimisus and of a Trojan 
woman of the name of Egesta or 
Se^sta. JSneas^ on his airival in 
Sicily, was hospitably received by 
him, and, on revisiting the island, 
celebrated the anniversary of An- 
chises's death by various games and 
feats at arms. At a trial of skill in 
archeiy, Acestes took part, and dls- 

For tbe **Key to the Scheme of Fronunciatibn,** with the accompanying Explanations, 


charged his arrow into the air with 
such force that it took fire, and 
marked out a pathway of flame, until 
it was wholly consumed and disap- 
peared from sight. 

Thy destiny remains untold; 
For, like Acestes' shaft of old. 
The swift thought kindles as it flies, 
And bums to ashes in the skies. 


A-cha'tS§. [Gr. 'Axd-nj^.-] {Gr, cf 

Eom. Myth.) A companion and 

iriend of JEneas. His fidelity was 

so exemplary that " fidus Achates," 

£uthAil Achates, became a proverb. 

OW enough, perhaps, but scarce wise 
«mough, if he has chosen this feUow for liis 
** fidus Aehatea.** Sir W. Scott. 

Ash'e-r$n. [Gr. *kxepmf ; as if 6 
uxea (teuv, the stream of woe, or from 
« privative and ;ta£pe<v, to rejoice, 
the joyless stream.] (Gr. ^ Rwn. 
Myth.) A son of Sol and Terra, 
changed into a river in hell ; some- 
times used in a general sense to 
designate hell itself. 

Abhorrdd Styx, the flood of deadly hate. 
Sad Acheron^ of sorrow black and deep. 


A-ohillSf. [GT.'kxa:^cA {Gr.^ 
Rom. Myth.) The. principal hero of 
Homer's " Iliad," the son of Peleus, 
king of the M^jninidons, in Thessaly, 
and of Thetis, a Nereid. He was 
distinguished above all the rest of 
the Greeks in the Trojan war by his 
8ti%n^, beauty, and bravery. At 
his birth, he was dipped by his mother 
in the river Styx, and was thus made 
invulnerable except in the right heel, 
r-or, as some say, the ankles,-^ by 
which she held him; but he was at 
length killed by Paris, or, according 
to some accounts, by Apollo. See 

An unfortunate country [Hanover], if the 

Enehsh would but think ; liable to be stran- 

^rriJ!^ '^J ^™^ ^^ England's quarrels; the 

A<Aule$-keel to inyulnerable England. 

^ Carlple. 

A-§hill5f of Germany. A tide 

fven, on account of his braveiy, to 
Ibert, Margrave of Brandenburg 
and Culmbach (1414-1486), "a tall, 
fiery, tou^h old gentleman," says 
Carlj'le, "in his day, ... a very 
blazmg, far -seen character, dim as 
. he has now grown." 

8 ACR 

A-ghit'o-phel, A nickname given to 
the Earl of Shaftesbury (1621-1683) 
by his contemporaries, and made use 
of by Dryden in his poem of "Ab- 
salom and Achitophel," a masterly 
satire, springing from the political 
commotions of the times, and de- 
signed as a defense of Charles H. 
against the Whig party. There is a 
striking resemblance between the 
character and career of Shaftesbury 
and those of Achitophel, or Ahitho- 
phel, the treacherous friend and coun- 
selor of David, and the fellow-con- 
spirator of Absalom. 

Of this denial and this apol<^t7f ▼« Bhall 



Sir W. Scott. 

A'ois. [Gr. *A«f.] (Gr. f JRom. 
Myth.) A Sicilian shepherd, beloved 
by the nymph Galatea, and crushed 
under a huge rock by Polyphemus, 
the Cvclops, who was jealous of him. 
His blood gushing forth from under 
the rock was changed by the nymph 
into a river, the Acis, or Acinius, at 
the foot of Mount ^tna. 

Thus eouipped. he would manAilly sally 
forth, with pipe in mouth, to besiege some 
fkir damsel's obdurate heart, — net such a 
pipe, good reader, as that which Ada did 
Bweeti^ tune in praise of his Galatea, but 
one oftrue Delft manufacture, an^ ftirnished 
with a charge of fragrant tobacco. 

tr. Jbving. 

l.-\cra'8i-$ ($-kra'zhI-$). [From Gr. 
uKpaaia, want of self-control or mod- 
eration, intemperance, from a priva- 
tive and Kparoc, strength, power.^ 
A witch in Spenser's " Faery Queen,'* 
represented as a lovely and charming 
woman, whose dwelling is the Bower 
of Bliss, situated on an island floating 
in a lake or gulf, and adorned with 
every thing in nature that could de- 
light the senses. Acrasia typifies 
the vice of Intemperance, and Sir 
Guyon, who illustrates the opposite 
virtue, is commissioned by the fairy 
queen to bring her into subjection, 
and to destroy ner residence. 

A'ores, Bob (a'k^rz). A character 
in Sheridan's comedy of " The Ri- 
vals;" celebrated for his cowardice, 
and his system of referential or alle- 
gorical swearing. 

and for the Bemarka and Bnles to which the numbeta after certain words refor,Me pp. ziy-zzzi|^ 



As ihioiwb hte ptimMBcbAereif Tilor oosed, 
80 Joan's yirtue ebbed, I know not how. 


Besides, tem>r, as Bob Acres mj» of its 
eonnterpart, courage, will come and go; and 
few people can afibrd timidity enough for the 
writer's purpose who is determined on "■ hor> 
fity\ng '^them through three thicic volumes. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Ao-t»'$n. [Gr. 'Ajctoiuv.] {Gr. # 
Bom. Myth.) A famous hunter, who, 
having surprised Diana while she 
was bathing, was changed by her 
into a stag, and, in that form, was 
torn to pieces by his own hounds. 

He [Byron], as I guess. 
Had gazed on Nature's naked loveliness, 
^cfeeon-like, and now he fled astray , 
With feeble steps o'er the world's wilderness; 
And his own thoughts, along that rugged 

Porsued, like raging boonds, their fiither and 

their prey. Shelley. 

Adam. 1. Formerly a jocular name 
for a sergeant or bailiff. 

Not that Adam that kept the pazadlse, but 
that Adam that keeps the prison. Shak. 

2. An aged servant to Oliver, in 
Shakespeare's "As You Like It'^ 

49- *^ The serring-man Adam, humbly 
bom and coarsely nurtured, is no iusigaif- 
icant personage in the drama ; and we 
&id in the healthy tone of his mind, and 
in his generous heart, which, under re- 
rerses and wrongs, still preserves its 
charitable trust in his fellows, as well as 
in his kindly, though frosty, age, a de- 
lightful and iostructiTe contrast to the 
character of Jaques, which could hardly 
hare been accidental." K. G. White. 

Adania8tor(&d^&-ni&s'tor; Port.pron. 
4-d4-mis-t6f ', 6*4). Tie Spirit of the 
Stormy Cape, — i. e., the Cape of 
Good Hope, — a hideous phantom 
described oy Camoens, in the fifth 
canto of the "Lusiad," as appearing 
hy night to the fleet of vasco da 
Gama, and predicting the woes which 
would befall subsequent expeditions 
to India. Mickle supposes that by 
Adamastor the genius of Moham- 
medanism is intended. According to 
Barreto, he was one of the Giants 
who made an attack on heaven, and 
were killed by the gods or buried 
under various mountains. 

Were Adamastor to appear to him [the 
•* ganun " of Parte], he would shout out, " Hal- 
lo there, old Bug-arboo I *» V. Hugo^ Tram. 

Adam Kad'm5n. In the Cabalistic 
doctrine, the name given to the first 

emanation from the Eternal Foun- 
tain. It signifies the First Man, or 
the first production of divine energy, 
or the Son of God; and to it the other 
and inferior emanations are subor- 
Adam, Master. Sec Masteb Adam. 

Adams, Parson Abraham. A coun- 
try curate in Fielding's novel of 
"Joseph Andrews;" distinguished 
for his goodness of heart, poverty, 
learning, and ignorance of the world, 
combined with courage, modesty, and 
a thousand oddities. 

4^ "As to Parson Adams, and his 
fist, and his good heart, and his .Sschylus 
which he couldn't see to read, and his 
rcgoicing at being deliyered from a ride 
in the carriage with Mr. Peter Pounce, 
whom he had erroneously complimented 
on the smallness of tiis parochial means, 
let every body r^ice that there has been 
a man in the world called Henry Fielding 
to think of such a character, and thou- 
sands of good people sprinkled about 
that world to answer for the truth of 
it ; for had there not been, what would 
have been its value ? . . «. He is one of 
the simplest, but at the same time man- 
hest of men ; is anxious to read a man 
of the world his sermon on * vanity ; ' 
preaches patience under affliction, and 
Is ready to lose his senses on the death 
of his little boy ; in short, has * every 
virtue under heaven,' except that of 
superiority to the common fhilings of 
humanity, or of being able to resist 
knocking a raacal down when he insults 
the innocent. He is very poor ; and, 
agreeably to the notions of refinement in 
those days, is treated by the rich as if 
he were littlo better than a servant him- 
s^f. Even their stewards think it a con- 
descension to treat him on equal terms." 

Leigh Hunt. 

"The humanity, benevolence, and 
goodness of heart so conspicuous in Mr. 
Adams, his unswerving integrity, his 
zeal in the cause of the oppressed, his 
unafifocted nature, independent of his 
talent and learning, win our esteem and 
respect, even while his virtuous simplic- 
ity provokes our smiles; and the little 
predicaments into which he fidls, owing 
to his absence of mind, are such as excite 
our mirth without a shadow of derision 
or malevolence." Tkonuis Roscoe. 

As to his [Huso von Trimberg's] inward 
man, we can still be sure that ne was no 
mere bookworm, or simple Parson Adams. 


For tht " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation,** with the accompanying Explanations, 



Ad'cH-son of the North (adMi-sn). 
A Bomaine sometimes given to Henry 
Mackenzie (1746-1831), the Scottish 
novelist, whose style, like Addison's, 
is distinguished for its refinement and 

Addle, CT Addled, Parliament. 
{Eng. Hist.) A name given to the 
English Parliament which assembled 
at London, April 6, 1614, and was 
dissolved on the 7th of the following 
Jnne. It was so called because it 
remonstrated with the King on his 
levying "benevolences," and passed 
no acts. 

Ad-me'tus. [Gr.'Ad/^^rof.l {Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) A king of rherse, in 
Thessaly, husband of Alcestis, famous 
for his misfortunes and piety. Apollo 
entered his service as a shepherd, 
having been condemned by Jupiter 
to become the servant of a mortal for 
one year as a punishment for slay- 
ing the Cyclops. Lowell has made 
this incident the subject of a short 
poem entitled, "The Shepherd of 
King Admetus." See Alcestis. 

Admirable Criohton. See Crich- 
TON, The Admirable. 

•Admirable Doctor. [Lat. Doctor 
Mirabilk.'] A title bestowed upon 
Roger Bacon (1214-1292), an English 
monk, who, by the power of his 
- genius and the extent of his learning, 
raised himself above his time, made 
many astonishing discoveries in sci- 
ence, ana contributed 'much to the 
extension of real knowledge. 

Ad'o-na'ls. A poetical name given 
bv Shelley to the poet Keats (1796- 
lo21), on whose untimely death he 
wrote a monodv bearing this name 
for its title. The name tras coined 
by Shelley probably to hint an anal- 
ogy between Keats's fate and that 
. of Adonis. 

i-do'nis. [Gr. 'AcJwv^c.] {Gr. ^ 
Rom. Mvtn.) A beautiful youth, 
beloved oy Venus and Proserpine, 
who quarreled about the possession 
of him. The dispute was settled by 
Jupiter, who decided that he should 
spend eight months in* the upper 
world with Venus, and four in the 
lower with Proserpine. Adonis died 

of a wound received from a wild boar 
during the chase, and was turned 
into an anemone by Venus, who 
yearly bewailed him on the anni- 
versary of his death. The myths 
connected with Adonis are of Orient- 
al origin, and his worship was widely 
spread among the countries border- 
ing on the eastern portion of the 
Mediterranean. The story of Venus's 
love for him was made the subject 
of a long descriptive poem by Shake- 
speare, and is often alluded to by 
other poets. 

Beds of hyacinths and roses 

Where youn? AdoniB oft reposes, 

Waxing wellof his deep wound 

In siumbersoft. JRUoh. 

A-dras'tiis. TGr. "AdpcujTog,'] {Gr. 
^ Rom. Myth.) A king of Aigos, 
and the institutor of the Nemean 
games. He was one of the heroes 
who engaged in the war of die 
"Seven against Thebes." 

A'dri-a'n^ (or ad^ri^anlk). Wife of 
Antipholus of Ephesus, in Shake- 
speare's " Comedy of Errors." 

Adversity Hume. A nickname given 
to Joseph Hume (1777-1855), in the 
time of "Prosperity Robinson," and 
in contradistinction to him, owing to 
his constant presages of ruin and dis- 
aster to befall the people of Great 
Britain. See Prosperity Robinson. 

.ffl'ft-cua. [Gr,'A«a«(5f.] (Gr.^Rom. 
Myth. ) A son of Jupiter and ^^na, 
renowned for his justice and piety. 
After his death he was made one, of 
the three judges in Hades. 

iE-gad'5n. [Gr. *Aiycu(,w.] ( Gr. f 
Rom. 'Myth.) A huge monster wim 
a hundred arms and fifty heads, who, 
with his brothers Cottus and Gyges, 
conquered the Titans by hurling at 
them three hundred rocks at once. 
By some he is reckoned as a marine 
god living under the jiEgean Sea; 
Virgil numbers him among the ^ods 
who stormed Olympus ; and Callima- 
chus, regarding him in the same 
light, pl^es him under Mount ^tna. 

-^-ge'6n. A merchant of Syracuse, in 
Shakespeare's " Comedy of Errors." 

^geria. See Egeria. 

-ffiS'getla. [Gr. A/yevf.] {Gr.^-Rwn. 


•nd for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refbr, see pp. ziv -xzxiL 



MyOi.) A king of Athens Arom whom 
the i£gean Sea received its name. 
His son Theseus went to Crete to 
deliver Athens from the tribute it 
had to pay to Minos, promising that, 
on his return, he would hoist white 
sails as a signal of his safety. This 
he forgot to do, and iEgeus, who was 
watchmg for him on a rock on the 
sea-coast, on perceiving a black sail, 
thought that his son had perished, 
and threw himself into the sea. 

^-gi'xi$. {Gr. 4' Bom, Mifth.) A 
daughter of the river-god Asopus, 
and a favorite of Jupiter. 

^'gis. [Gr. Alyk.] {Or. f Rom. 
Mvth.) 1. The shield of Jove, 
fasuioned by Vulcan, and described 
as striking terror and amazement 
into the beholders. 

2. A sort of short cloak, worn bv 
Minerva, which was covered -with 
scales, set with the Gorgon's head, 
and mnged With snakes. 

-ffl-gis'thua. [Gr. Aiyiadoc.) (Gr. 
<f Rom. Myth. ) A son of Thyestes, 
and the paramour of Clytemnestra, 
whose husband, Agamemnon, he 
treacherously murdered at a repast. 
He was subsequently killed by Ores- 
tes, a son of Agamemnon, who thus 
avenged his father's death. See 

JBgae (eg'le). [Gr. Atyhj.-] {Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) 1. One of the Hes- 

2. The most beautiful of the Na- 
iads, and the mother of the Graces. 

JES-gyp'tus. [Gr. Alyvirroc.'] { Gr. <f 
Rom. Myth.) A son of Belus, and 
twin brother of Danaus. He had by 
several wives fifty sons, who were 
married to their fifty cousins, the 
daughters of Danaus, and all but one 
of whom were murdered by their 
wives on the bridal night. 

M^'i Ii8Bai-$ Cris'pis. The un- 
known subject of a very celebrated 
enigmatical inscription, preserved in 
Bologna, which has puzzled the heads 
of many learned men who have at' 
tempted to explain it. It is as fol- 

lows • ""^ 

«ec vir, nee mulier, nee androgynat 
x«ec puella, nee juvenis, nee anus; 

Nee m«retrix, nee pudics{ 
Sed omnia: 
Sublata neque fitme, nee ftno, neque Tenenoj 

Sed omnibus: 
Nee c»lo, nee aquis, nee terris; 
Sed ubique jacet. 
Lucius Agatho Priscns, 
Nee maritus, nee amator, nee necesiarius; 
Neque moerens, neque gaudens, neque flens; 

Sed omnia; - 
Hanc neque molem, neque pyramidem, ne- 
que sepulchrum, 
Scit et neseit quid posuerii. 
Hoc est, sepulehrum intus eadarer non 

Hoc est, cadaver, sepulchrum, extri non, , 
Sed cadayer idem est, et sepulchrum 

JElia L«lia Crispis, neither man, nor wom- 
an, nor hermaphrodite; neither eirl, nor boy, 
nor old woman; neither harlot nor virgin; 
but all of these: destroyed neither by hunger, 
nor sword, nor poison; but by all of them: 
lies neither in heaven, nor in the water, nor 
in the i^und, but everywhere. Lucius Aga- 
tho I'nscus, neither her husband, nor her 
lover, nor her kinsman; neither sad, glad, nor 
weepmg, but all at once; knows and knows 
not what he has built, which is neither a 
Ainend-pile, nor a pyramid, nor a tomb; that 
is, a tomb without a corpse, a corpse without 
a tomb; for corpse and tomb are one and the 

Tarious explanationB of the mean- 
ing of this curious epitaph hare, from, 
time to time, been put forward ; but 
there is much reason for doubting 
whether it hna any. Some have thought 
the true Interpretation to be rain-water ; 
some, the so-called *' materia prima ; '* 
some, the reasoning fiiculty; some, the 
philosopher's stone ; some, love ; some, a 
dissected person ; some, a shadow ; some, 
hemp ; some, an embxyo. Professor 
Schwarti, (tf Coburg, explained it of the 
Christian Church, leferring, in support 
of his (pinion, to GcUcUiana ili. 28,— 
" There is neither Jew nor Greek, there 
is neittier bond nor free, there is neither 
male nor female; for ye are all one in 
Christ Jesus." Spondanus, in his *' Voy- 
age d'ltalie," afSrms that tiie inscription 
is only a copy, and that it is not known 
what has become of the original. He 
denies its ^antiquity, regarding it as the 
lu«iicrou8 taxxcj of a modem author, 
who, he insists, was ignorant of the prin- 
ciples of Latin fiunOy nomenclature. 
But Franckenstein says that this asser- 
tion has been conftited by Misson, in the 
appendix to.his *' Travels." 

I might add what attracted considerable 
notice at the time, — and that Is my paper in 
the ** Gentleman's Magazine" upon the in- 
scription ^lia LoeliOt which I subscribed 
(Edipus. Sir W. Scott. 

Bacon's system is, in its own terms, an idol 
of the theater. It would scarcely guide a 
man to a solution of the riddle uEUa Lcelia 
CritmU, or to that of the charade of Sir Hilary 
[by Praed]. J. W. Draper. 

For the ** Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 



J9E<-inil'i-$. Wife of JSgeon, and an 
abbess at Ephesus, in snakespeare^s 
" Comedy of Errors." 

.SS-ne'^. [Gr. 'Aiveiac.] {Gr, ^ 
Rom. Myth.) A Trojan prince, the 
hero of Virgil's "^neid." He was 
the son of Anchises and Venus, and 
was distinguished for his pious care 
of his father. Having survived the 
fall of Troy, he sailed to Italy, and 
settled in Latium, where he married 
Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus, 
whom he succeeded in his kingdom. 
See Creusa. 

^SS'o-lus. [Gr. AloAof.] ( Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth.) The ruler and god of the 
winds, who resided in tiie islands .in 
the Tyrrhenian sea, which were called 
firom nim the iEolian Islmids. 

ifes'^-ous. [Gr. Alffflueof.l (Gr. 4' 
Rom. Myth.) A son of Priam, who 
was enamored of the nymph Hes- 
peria, and, on her death, threw him- 
self into the sea, and was changed by 
Thetis into a cormorant. 

.iE38^cu-lal>i-us. [Gr. 'kaiOainub^A 
{Gr. <f R(m. Myth.) The son of 
Apollo, and the god of the medical 
art. He was killed with a flash of 
lightning by Jupiter, because he had 
restored several persons to life. 

.SJ'sdn. [Gr. klauv.'\ {Gr. <f Rom. 
Myih.) The father or Jason. He was 
restored to youth by Medea. 

Af^rio. A poetical contraction of Af- 

Where Afric^s sunn v fbuntalns 
Boll down their golden sand. 


As'^mem'n^n. [Gr. 'Aya/Mf/Mvow.] 
{Gr. 4- Rom. Myth.) King of My- 
cenae, brother of Menelaus, and com- 
mander-in-chief of the Grecian 
forces in the Trojan war. See 


Ag^ft-nip^e. [Gr. 'AynwTTTn?.] {Gr. 
^ Rom. Myth.) A foimtain at the 
foot of Mount Helicon, in Boeotia, 
consecrated to Apollo and the Muses, 
and believed to have the power of 
inspiring those who drank of it. 
The Muses are sometimes called 

Agapida, Fray Antonio (frl in- . 
to'ne-o S-gi-pe'thi). The imaginary 

chronicler of the " Concj^uest of Gra- 
nada,' ' written by Washington Irving. 

A-ga've. [Gr. 'Ayawy.l {Gr.^Rom, 
Myth.) A daughter of Cadmus, and 
the mother of rentheus, whom, in a 
fit of frenzy, she tore to pieces on 
Mount Cithseron, believing nim to be 
a wild beast. 

L^SLh, The third Calendar in the 
story of " The Three Calendars," in 
the ' " Arabian Nights' Entertain- 

Agitator, The Irish. See Irish Ag- 

Ag-la'i4 (20). [Gr. *AyAaii7.] {Gr. 
4 Rom. Myth.) One of the three 

Ag'nds {Fr. pron. ftn'y6s')« 1. A 
young girl in Moli^re's " L'ficole des 
Femmes," who is, or affects to be, 
remarkably simple and ingenuous. 
The name has passed into popular 
use, and is a{>plied to any ^roung 
woman unsophisticated in affairs or 
the heart. 

4S^ Agnes is the original ftom which 
Wycherlej took his Mrs. Pinchwife, ia 
the "Country Wife," subsequently al- 
tered by Qarrick into the "Country 

2. A character in Dickens's novel 
of " David Copperfield." See Wick- 
field, Agnes. 

Ag'ni. [Sansk., fire.] {Hindu Myth.) 
The god of lightning and the sun's 

Agramante (&-gr&-mftn't&), or Ag'r^ 
mant. King of the Moors, in Bo- 
jardo's poem of ** Orlando Inna- 
morato,' ' and in Ariosto's ** Orlando 

Ag'r^-v&ine, Sir. A knight of the 
Round Table, celebrated m the old 
romances of chivalry. He was aur- 
named '' V OrgudUeiix;' or "The 

A-Oreen, (George. See George 

Agricane (ft-gre-ki'ni), or Ag'n-oftn. 
A fabulous king of Tartary, in Bo- 
iardo's "Orlando Innamorato," who 
besieges Angelica in the castle of 
Albracca, and is killed by Orlando 
in single contest. In his dying mo- 
ments, he requests baptism at the 

•nd for the Remark* and Bules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xir -xxxiL 




hand of his conqueror, who, with 
great tenderness, bestows it. He is 
represented as bringing into the field 
no fewer than two million two hun- 
dred thousand tf oops. 

Bach forces met not, nor bo wide a camp. 
When Agrican^ witn all his northern powers, 
Besieged Albracca, as romancers telL 


A^rue-cheek, Sir Andrew. A de- 
li^tful simpleton in Shakespeare's 
"Twelfth Night." See Slender. 

49- <( To thin Btraig^t-haired country 
, squire, life conBists only in eating and 
drinking ; eating beef, he himself fears, 
has done harm to his wit ; in fitct, he is 
stupid even to silliness, totally deprived 
of all fiishion, and thus of all self-loye or 
self-conceit." Crtrviwus^ Trans. 

I suppose I mnst say of Jeffnj as iSu* Aj^ 
drew Ague-cheek saitht *' An I had known he 
was so cunning of ftnce, I liad seen him 
damned ere I had fought him." Byron, 

J^-hAS'u-e'nu (i-hazh'oo-e'rus, 10). 
See Jew, The tVANDEBiNO. 

Ahmed, Frinoe. See Prince Ah- 

Ali'ri-m^n, or Ah'ri-ma'nds. [Per., 
firom Sansk. on, foe J (Myth.) A 
deity of the ancient Persians, being 
a personification of the principle of 
evil. To his a^ncy were ascribed 
all the evils existing in the world. 
Ormuzd, or Oromasdes, the principle 
of good, is eternal, but Ahriman is 
created, and will one day perish. 
See Ormuzd. 

I reeognixe the evil spirit, Sir, and do 
honor to Ahrimanes in taking off my hat to 
this young man. Thackeray. 

Ai'denn. An Anglicized and dis- 
guised spelling of me Arabic form of 
the word Eden; used as a synonym 
for the celestial paradise. 

Tell this soul, with sorrow laden, if, within 

the distant Aiderm, 
It shall clasp a sainted maiden, whom the 

angels name Lenore. Poe. 

AimweU. A gentleman of broken 
fortunes, master to Archer, in Far- 
quhar's comedy, " The Beaux* Strat- 

i'jix. [Gr. AiCf.] {Gr, ^ Mom, 
Myth.) 1. A son of Telamon, king 
of Salamis. Next to Achilles, he was 
the most distinguished, the bravest, 
and the most beautiful, of all the 
Greeks before Troy. Accounts differ 
as to the cause and manner of his 

death. A tradition mentioned by 

Pausanias states, that from his blood 

there sprang up a purple flower, 

which bore the letters at on its leaves^ 

which were at once the initials of 

his name and a sigh. 

Oad I she shoots her glances as sharply ftom 
behind the old pile yonder, as Teucer ftom 
behind Ajax TekanotCs shield. Sir W. Scott. 

2. A son of Olleus, king of the 
Locrians. He was one of the great 
heroes among the Greeks in the Tro- 
jan war, but inferior to the son of 
Telamon, whence he is called the 
lesser Ajax. 

His shafts, like fho(M of the lesser Ajax^ 
were dischaiged more readily that the archer 
was inaccessible to criticism, personally 
speaking, as the Grecian archer under lus 
brother's serenfold shield. Sir W. ScotL 

A-lad'din. A character in the ^' Ara- 
bian Nights' Entertainments," who 
becomes possessed of a wonderful 
lamp, and an equally wonderful ring, 
on rubbing which two frightful genii 
appear, who are respectively the slave 
of the lamp and the slave of the ring, 
and who execute the bidding of any 
one who may have these talismans, 
in his keeping. 

By means of 'the lamp and ring, 
Aladdin is enabled to marry a daughter 
of the sultan of China, and builds in a 
single night a magnificent palace con- 
taining a large hall with four-and-twenty 
windows in it decorated with jewels of 
every description and of untold ^ue, one 
window only being excepted, which is 
left quite plain that the sultan may 
have the glory of finishing the apartment. 
But all the treasures of his empire and all 
the skill of his Jewelers and goldsmiths are 
not sufilcient to ornament even one side 
of the window ; whereupon Aladdin, after 
haying the materials which have been 
used removed and returned to the sultan, 
directs the genie to complete the window, 
which is immediately done. At length, 
a malignant magician ficaudulently ob- 
tains the miraculous lamp, during the 
temporary absence of the owner, and in- 
stantaneously transports the palace to 
Africa. But the ring still remains to 
Aladdin, and enables him to pursue and 
circumvent the thief, and to recover the 
lamp and restore the palace to its former 

The ephemeral kingdom of Westphalia, the 
appanage of Jerome Bonaparte^ composed out 
or the Rpoils of these principalities, vanished 
into air, like the palace of Aladditi, in the 
Arabian tale. Sir W. Scott. 

For the "Key to the Scheme of Fronnndatfon," with the accompanying Explanations, 



It was absoltitely impossible that a fiunilyt 
holdinz a document which gave them nn- 
limitea access to the patronage of the most 

powerful nobleman in Scotland, should have 
suffered it to remain unemplojed. like Akul- 
din's rusty lamp, while they strugKled through 
three generations in poverty and disappoint- 



Ah I who shall lift that wand of magic power, 

And the lost clew r^ain ? 
The unfinished window in Aladdin's tower 

Unfinished must remain. LonofeUow, 

Alario Oottin (ft'U'rek' kot'ta^i ')• A 
nickname given bjr Voltaire to Fred- 
erick the Great, king of Prussia, "who 
was distinguished tor his military 

genius, and was also known as a dab- 
ler in literature, and a writer of bad 
French verses. The first name refers 
to the famous Yisigothic king and 
warrior, while the second probably 
refers to the Abb6 Cotin, a mediocre 
poet of the seventeenth century, who 
was severelv satirized by Boileau, 
Molifere, and other writers of his time. 
See Trissotix. 
iL-las'n&m. The hero of a story in 
* the "Arabian Nights' Entertain- 
ments" entitled "The History of 
Prince Zeyn Alasnam and the Sultan 
of the Genii," which relates how he 
came into the possession of immense 
wealth, includmg eight statues of 
solid gold ; how ne was led to seek 
for a ninth statue more precious still, 
to place on an empty pnedestal ; and 
how he found it at last in the person 
of the most beautiful and purest wom- 
an in the worid, who became his wife. 

In tliis brilliant comedy [Conjrreve's 
"Love ft)r liOveH, there is plenfy of bright 
and sparkling characters, nch as wit and 
insannation can make them ; but there is 
wanting one pure and perfect model of sim- 
ple nature, and that one, wherever it is to be 
found, is, like AlasnanCa lady, .... worth 
them alL Sir W. Scott. 

J&.-las't5r. [Gr. 'AXcurrop, from u 
privative, and ^^e?v, to forget.] In 
classical mythology, a surname of 
Zeus or Jupiter; also, in general, a 
punitive deity^, a house-demon, the 
never -forgetting, revengeful spirit, 
who, in consequence of some crime 
perpetrated, persecutes a family from 
generation to generation. Plutarch 
relates that Cicero, in his hatred of 
Augustus, meditated killing himself 
by the fireside of this prince in order 
to become his Alastor. In the Zo- 
Toastrian system, Alastor is called the 

Executioner or Tormentor. Origen 
says he is the same as Azazel. 
Others confound him with the Ex- 
terminating Angel. By Wierus and 
other mediaeval demonographers, 
Alastor is described as a devil m the 
infernal court, and the chief execu- 
tive officer in great undertakings. 
Shelley, in his poem entitled " Alas- 
tor," makes him the " Sphit of Soli- 

Al-ba'ni-$, ) A name given to Scotland, 
Al^bft-ny. or the Scottish High- 
lands, in the old romances and his- 
tories. It is said to have been derived 
from a certain fabulous Albanady who 
received this portion of the island of 
Albion, or Britain, from his fa^er 
Brutus. See Albyn. 

Ainb^-n^ Begency. A name popu- 
larly given in the United States to a 
junto of astute Democratic politicians, 
having their head-quarters at Albany, 
who controlled the action of the 
Democratic party for many jyears, 
and hence had great weight in na- 
tional politics. The effort to elect 
William H. Crawford president, in- 
stead of John Quincy Adams, was 
their first great struggle. 

Al'bi-dn. An ancient name of Britain, 
said to have been given to it on ac- 
count of the lofty white cliffs (LaL 
albus^ white) on the southern coast. 
Others trace the word to the Celtic 
alby alpj high. 

j^^ In the fkbulous history of Eng- 
land, it is related that the first inhab- 
itants were subdued by Albion^ a giant 
and a son of Neptune, who called the 
island after his own name, and ruled it 
forty-four years. Another legend derives 
the name firom a certain Albina^ the 
eldest of fifty daughters of ^^ a strange 
IMoclesian king of Syria,*' who, having 
murdered their husbands on their mar- 
riage-night, one only excepted, whom his 
wife's loyalty saved, were by him, at the 
suit of his wife, their sister, not put to 
death, but turned out to sea in a ship 
unmanned, and who, as the tale goes, 
were driven on this island, wheife they 
had issue by the inhabitants, — none but 
devils, as some write, or, as others assert, 
a lawless crew, without head or governor. 
Milton characterizes these stories as ^^ too 
absurd and too unconscionably gross" 
for credence ; but he remarks, " Sure 

■«d for the BemaricB and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. ziv-xodi. 




«noogh w» ai« that Britain hath been 

anciently tenned Albion^ both by the 

Greeks and Romans." 

Not ret enslaved, not wholly Tile, 

O Atbiony O my mother isle I Coleridge, 

Al'bi-^n, "New. A name formerly 
given to an extensive tract of land 
on the north-west coast of North 
America. It was originally applied 
by Sir Francis Drake, in 1578, to the 
whole of what was tnen called Cali- 
fornia ; but it was afterward confined 
to that part of the coast which ex- 
tends from 43° to 48° N. lat., and is 
now included within the Statle of 
Oregon and Washington Territory. 

AlBorak (ftl b5r'&k). [Ar., the light- 
ning.] An imaginary animal of won- 
dertul form ana qualities, on which 
Mohammed pretended to have per- 
formed a nocturnal journey from the 
temple of Mecca to Jerusalem, and 
thence to the seventh heaven, under 
the conduct of the angel Grabriel. 
This marvelous steed was a female, 
of a milk-white color, and of in- 
credible swiftness. At every step, she 
took a leap as far as the longest sight 
could reacn. She had a human face, 
but the cheeks of a horse ; her eyes 
were as jacinths, and radiant as stars. 
She had eagle's wings, all glittering 
with rays of light; and her whole 
form was resplendent with gems and 
precious stones. 

Albraooa (&l-br&k'kft, 102). A castle 
of Cathay to which Angelica, in Bo- 
jardo's "Drlando Innamorato,*' re- 
tires in ^ef at being scorned and 
shunned oy Rinaldo, with whom she 
is deeply m love. Here she is be- 
sieged by Agricane, king of Tartaiy, 
who resolves to win her, notwith- 
standing her rejection of his suit. 

lYhyn (M'bin). The ancient Celtic 
name of Scotland, and, until Caesar's 
time, the appellation of the whole 
island of Great Britain. It is said to 
be derived from the Celtic afy or atb^ 
meaning high^ and 4n», an island. 
The Scottish Celts denominate them- 
selves Gael Albinn, or AU>innick^ in 
distinction from the Irish, whom they 
call Gael Eirinnich; and the Irish 
themselves call the Scottish Gael 
Albannaichj while their writers, so 

late as the twelfth century, call the 
country of the Scottish Gael AU>an. 
[Written also A 1 b i n and A 1 b i n n.] 

The Celtic people of Erin and AtbyH had, 
in short, a style of poetry properly called 
national, though Macpherson was rather an 
excellent poet wan a fiaithfal editor and trans- 
lator. Sir W. Scott. 

The pw« Cuidees 
Were Albffn*$ earhest priests of God, 

Ere yet an island ozher seas 
By foot of Saxon monk was trod. 

But woe to his kindred and woe to his cause. 
When ABnn her claymore indignantly draws. 


Alceste (ftl'sest')* The hero of Mo- 
liere's comedy, " Le Misanthrope.'* 

'^ Alceste is an upright and manly 
chanicter, but rude, and impatient even 
of the ordinary ciTilitlea of life, and the 
harmleas hypocrisies of oomplaisance, by 
which the ugliness of human nature (s 
in some degree dif^guised." Sir W. Scott. 
" Molidre exhibited, in his ' Blisanthrope,* 
a pure and noble mind which had been 
sorely vexed by the sight of perfidy and 
maleTolence disguised under the forms of 
politeness. He adopts a standard of good 
and oTil directly opposed to that of the so- 
ciety which surrounded him. Courtesy 
seems to him a vice, and those stem vir- 
tues which are neglected by the fops and 
coquettes of Paris become too exclusively 
the objects of his veneration. He is often 
to blame, he is often ridiculous, but he 
is always a good man." Macaulay. 

Al-oes'tis, or AI-oes't6. [Gr. 'AXktj- 

OTtiQ, or 'A^Kearrj.'] {Gr. 4" -^O"** 

Myth.) A daughter of Pelias, and 

the wife of Admetus. To save her 

husband's life, she died in his stead, 

but was brought back to the upper 

world by Hercules. 

Methought I saw my late esponsM uint 

Brought to we like Alcems fh>m the grave. 

Whom Jove's great son to her glad husband 


Rescued fh>m death by fbrce, though pale 

and ftint IliUon. 

AI-ci'd65. [Gr. 'AlKuStjc.] {Gr. 4' 
Rom. Myth.) A patronymic or title 
of Hercules, the grandson of Alcseus. 
See Hercules. 

Aloina (ftl-che'nft). A fairy in Bo- 
jardo's "Orlando Innamorato," where 
she is represented as carrying off As- 
tolfo. She re-appears in great splen- 
dor in Ariosto's " Orlando Furioso.'* 

The scene, though pleadng, was not quite 
• • ■ >f^fctfio. ■ — 

equal to the gardens ot 

Sir W.Scott. 

For tiie " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




Al-oin'o-u8. [Gr. 'APjctvoof.] (Gr. 
(f Bom, Myth.) A king of Drepane, 
or, as some say, of Phaeacia, who en- 
tertained the Argonauts on their re- 
turn from Colchis, and Ulysses when 
he was shipwrecked. 

JU'ci-phr^n. [Gr. 'Ahucjtpov, from 
oAa^^ strength, spirit, and ^P7*^> 
heart, breast.] 

1. A freethinking interlocutor in 
Bishop Berkeley's work of the same 
name^— otherwise called the "Mi- 
ntite Philosopher," — a work "writ- 
ten with an mtention to expose the 
weakness of infidelity." 

2. The hero of Thomas Moore's 
romance, " The Epicurean," and also 
the title of a poem by the same au- 

We long to see one good lolid rock or tree, 
cm which to fiwten our attention; but there is 
none. like Alciphron we swing in air and 
darkness, and know not whither ttie wind 
blows ns. Putnani*a Mag. 

Alo-me'ii^. [Gr. ^AXxfo^vrf.] ( Gr. <f 
, Rom. Mifh.) The wife of Amphit- 

5 iron, ana the mother of Hercules by 
upiter, who visited her in the dis- 
gmse of her husband. See Amphit- 

AlooMbas Nasier (ftPko'fre'bft' nft'- 
sc^', 44). An anagrammatic pseu- 
donym of Franpois Rabelais (1483- 
1553), the celebrated French ro- 

Al-cy'o-ne. [Gr. *AA«t;6i^.] ( Gr. cf 
R(m, Myth.) A daughter of JBoIus, 
and the wife of Ce^x. On hearing 
of her husband's death by shipwreck, 
she threw herself into the sea, and 
was changed by the gods into a 
kingfisher. [Written aUo Haley- 

AI'da (ftl'dft), <yr Al-da-belOa (ftl-dft- 
bel'lft, 102). The name given to the 
wife of Orlando, and sister of Oliver, 
in the romantic poems of Italy. 

1. A character in Henry Carey's play 
of " Chrononhotonthologos." 

I fUt aa if my understanding were no 
longer my own, but waa altema«ely under 
the dommion of AldiborxmtapihogcophorniOf 
and that of liis fheeUoos friend Bigdnm Fnn- 
nidoa. ^ W. Seott. 

2. A nickname given by Sir Wal- 
ter Scott to his schoolnnate, printer. 

Jartner, and confidential friend, 
ames Ballantyne, on account of his 
solemn and rather pompous manner. 
See RiODUM Funnidos. 

Al'din-g^, Sir. A character in an 
ancient legend, and the title of a 
celebrated ballad, preserved in Per- 
cy's "Reliques," which relates how 
the honor of Queen Eleanor, wife of 
Henry II. of England, impeached by 
Sir AJdingar, her steward, was sub- 
mitted to the chance of a duel, and 
how an angel, in The form of a little 
child, appeared as her champion, and 
establisned her innocence. 

A-lec'to. [Gr. 'AAj;«r«.] {Gr. ^ 

' Bom. Myth.) One of the three Furies. 

Alexander of the North. A- sur- 
name conferred upon Charles XII. of 
Sweden (1682-1718), whose military 
genius and success bore some re- 
semblance to those of the Macedonian 

JL-lez'ta. A youth of great beauty, of 
whom the shepherd Corydon, in Vir- 
gil's second Eclogue, was enamored. 

Al£Mlur (il'f&'dobf ). [That is, All- 
Father.] {Scand. M^.) A name 
given to the Supreme Being, the un- 
created, s eternal, and omnipresent 
Deity, whose nature and attributes 
were unknown. The name was also 
used as a title of Odin. See Odin. 

Aiaei^4-Dale. The hero of an old 
ballad* which relates how his mar- 
riage to his true love — who was on 
the point of being forcibly wedded 
to an old knight — was brought about 
by Robin Hood. AUen-a-Dale is de- 
scribed as "a brave young man,'* 
gayly dressed, who 

" did frisk it over the plain. 
And chanted a roundelay ." 

Where is AUen-a-Dale^ to clironicle me In a 
ballad, or if it were bnt a lay? Sir W. Scott, 

AlHanoe, Gkrand. See Grand Ai> 
liance; and for Holy Alliance, 
Quadruple Alliance, Triple 
Alliance, see the respective a^eo- 
tives Holy, Quadruple, &c 

AIl-the-Talents AdminiBtration. 
An administration, formed by Lord 
Grenville on the death of Mr. Pitt 
(June 23, 1806). The friends of this 
ministry gave it the appellation of 

id Ibr th« Benuuto and Bales to which tho numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




"All-the-Taknts," which, being ech- 
oed in derision by the Opposition, be- 
came fixed upon it ever after. The 
death of Mr. Fox, one of the mem- 
bers, Sept 13. 1806, led to various 
changes, and tnis ministry was finally 
dissolved in March, 1807. 

49- The members oomposing it were 
as follows : — 

Lord GrenTille, First Lord of the Treas- 

Earl FitsEwilUam, Lord President. 

Yisoount Sidmouth (Henry Adding- 
ton), Privy Seal. • 

Rt. Hon. Charles James Fox, Foreign 

Earl Spencer, Home Secretary. 

WilUam Windham, Colonial Secretary. 

Lord Brskine, Lord Chancellor. 

Sir Charles Grey (afterwards Yisconnt 
Howick, and Earl Grey), Admiralty. 

Lord Minto, Board of Control. 

Lord Auckland, Board of Trade. 

Lord Moira, Master - General of the 

Mr. Sheridan, Treasurer of the Navy. 

Rt. Hon. Richard Fitspatrick. . 

Lord EUenborough (Lord Chief Justice) 
had a seat in the (^binet. 

Allworthy, Mr. A character in 
Fielding's novel of "Tom Jones," 
distinguished for his worth and 
benevolence. This chai^^cter was 
drawn for Fielding's private friend, 
Ralph Allen, of whom rope said, — 

** Let hamble Allen, with an awkward shame. 

Do good by stealth, and bluah to find it 

The Btiurdy rectitude, the large charity, the 
good natare, the modesty, the independent 
spirit, the ardent philanthropy, the unaffected 
IndiHerence to money and to fkme, make up 
a character, which, while it has nothing un- 
natural, seems to us to approach nearer to 
perfection than any of the Grandisons and 
AUworthys of fiction. Maccaday. 

Al-main'. [Low Lat. AUmanrda^ Fr. 
AUermgne^ Sp. Alemania ; from Ah- 
manni^ the collective name of several 
ancient German tribes in the vicinity 
of the Lower and Middle Main; 
from Celt. aUman, a stranger, for- 
eigner, frx)m a//, another, man^ place.] 
An old English name for Germany. 

I have seen AlmaiiCa proud champions 

prance I 
Have seen the gallant knights of France; . . . 
Have seen the sons of England true 
Wield the brown bill and bend the yew. 
Search France the fair, and England ft-ee. 
But bonny Blue-cap still for me I Old Song. 

Al-man'zor. A prominent character 

in Dryden's tragedy of " The Con- 
quest of Granada." 

After all, I say with AlnumzoTf — 
" Know that I alone am king of me.** 

Sir W. SeotL 

AlBoietLty Dollar. A personification 
of the supposed object of American 
idolatry, mtended as a satire npon 
the prevailing passion for gain. The 
expression ongmated with Washing- 
ton Irving. 

The Abniqhty Dollar^ that great object of 
universal devotion throughout our land, 
seems to have no genuine aevotees in these 
peculiar Tillages. 

W. Irving^ The Creole VtOage. 

Alp. The hero of Byron's " Siege of 

Alph. A river mentioned bv Coleridge 
in his poem entitled " Kubla Khan," 
composed during a dream, imme- 
diately after a perusal of Ftirchas's 
"Pilgrimage," and written down 
from memory. This name is not 
found in Purchas, but was invented 
by Coleridge, and was probably sug- 
gested by the Alpheus of classical 

** In Xanadu did Kubla Khan 

A stately pleasure-dome decree. 
Where Alph^ the sacred river, ran 
Through caverns measureless to man, 
Down to a sunless sea." 

Alquife (&l-ke'f%). A personage who 
figures in almost all the books of the 
lineage of Amadis as a potent wizard. 

Then . . . thou hadst not, as now, . . . con- 
verted, in thy vain imagination, honest Gri^ 
fiths, citizen and broker, . . . into some . . . 
sage Alquife, the mystical and magical pro- 
tector or tny peerless destiny. 

Sir W. SeotL 

Al'Bakim (ftr Hk-keemO> [Ar., from 
rdkam^ to write, rakimeh^ something 
written or sent.] A fabulous dog 
connected with the legend of the 
Seven Sleepers. The Mohammedans 
have given him a place in Paradise, 
where he has the care of all letters 
and correspondence. See Seven 

Al-8a'ti-$ (al-fia'8hI-&). A popular 
name formerly given to Whiteniars, 
a precinct in London, without the 
Temple, and west of Blackfriars. It 
was for a lon^ time an asylum or 
sanctuary for insolvent debtors and 
persons who had offended against 
the laws. The scene of Shadwell's 

I83r For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




comedy of the "Squire of Alsatia" 
is laid in this place ; and Scott has 
rendered it familiar to all readers by 
his "Fortmies of Nigel." 

j|^ " It is not unlikely that the 
Land^rayiate of Alsace [Ger. I^ass^ Lat. 
AlstUia] — now the frontier province of 
France, on the left hank of the Rhine, 
long a cause of contention, often the seat 
of war, and familiarly known to many 
British soldiers — suggested the applies^* 
tion of the name Alsatia to the precinct 
of Whitefiiars. This priyil^ed spot stood 
in the same relation to the Temple as 
Alsace did to France and the central 
powers of Ihuope. In the Temple, stu- 
dents were stndying to observe the law ; 
and in Alsatia, ai^oining, debtors to avoid 
and violate it. The Alsatians were troub- 
lesome neighbors to the Traaplars, and 
the Templars as troublesome neighbors 
to the Alsatians." Cunningham. 

The flirionfl German comes, with his clarions 

and his drums. 
His bravoes of Alaatia^ and pages of White- 

halL Macauiay. 

Al Sirat (&s se-ritO. [Aj., the path.] 
A bridge extending from this world 
to the next, over the abyss of hell, 
which must be passed by every one 
who would enter the Mohammedan 
paradise. It is very narrow, the 
breadth being less than the thread 
of a &mished spider, according to 
some writers; otners compare it to 
the edge- of a sword, or of a razor. 
The deceased cross with a rapidity 
proportioned to their virtue. Some, 
it is said, pass with the swiftness of 
lightning, others with the speed of a 
horse at full gallop, others like a 
horse at a slow pace, others still 
slower, on account of the weight of 
their sins, and many fall down from it, 
and are precipitated into hell. 

Ain'$-dis de QtikVl, [Sp. Amcbdis de 
GatUa.] The hero of an ancient 
and celebrated romance of chivalry, 
originally the work of a Portuguese, 
Vasco de Lobeira, who died, as Tick- 
nor conjectures, in 1403. It was 
translated into Spanish by Montalvo, 
between 1492 and 1504. The Por- 
tuguese original is no longer extant. 
A French version was made by Her- 
beray, and was printed, in 1555, under 
the mistranslated title of "Amadis 
des Gaules," meaning France. In 
the original romance, Gaula is Wales ; 

and the subject, characters, and lo- 
calities are British. The other Am- 
adises that figure in romance are 
represented as descendants, more or 
less remote, of Amadis de Gaul. He 
himself was a love-child of a fabulous 
King Perion of Wales, and of Elisena, 
a British princess. 
jL-mai'm^n, or .^-xnay'mftn. An 
' imaginary king of the East, one of 
the principal devils who might be 
bound or restrained from doing hurt 
from the third hour till noon, and 
from the ninth hour till evening. 
He is alluded to in Shakespeare's 
"1 Henry IV." (a. ii., sc. 4), and 
"Merry Wives of Windsor" (a. ii., 
sc. 2). According to Holme, he was 
" the chief whose dominion is on the 
north part of the infernal gulf; " but 
Mr. Christmas says he ruled over the 
easternmost of the four provinces 
into which the world of devils was 
thought to be divided. Asinodeus 
was his lieutenant. 

Am'ftl^thsB'ft. [Gr. *A[jtaX^Eia.1 (Gr. 
^* Jkom, Myth,) The name of a goat 
with whose milk the infant Jupiter 
was fed, and one of whose horns he 
is said to have broken off, and given 
to the daughters of Melisseus, a 
Cretan king. This he endowed with 
such powers, that, whenever the pos- 
sessor wished, it would instantane- 
ouslv become filled with whatever 
might be desired : hence it was called 
the comuccpia^ or horn of plenty. 
According to other accounts, Amal- 
thaea was the name of a nymph by 
whom Jupiter was nurse^ m nis in- 

The Britannic Founfaun . . . flowed like an 
Amalihaa^s horn for seven ye^rs to come, re- 
fi^shing Austria and all thirsty Pra^atic 
Nations, to defend the Key-stone of this Uni- 
verse. Carlyle. 

Am^ft-ryllis. The name of a country- 
girl in the Idyls of Theocritus and m 
the Eclogues of Virgil, adopted into 
modem pastoral poetry as the name 
of amistress or sweetheart. 

To sport vith AmarpUis in the shade. 


A2n^$-zo'ni-&. A name given by 

Francisco Orellana, in 1580, to the 

country on either side of the river 

Maranon, from the companies of 

and for the Bemarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-zzziL 




women in anns whom he obserred 
on its banks. He also gave the name 
Amazon to the river, and it has since 
been generally known under this 

jL-meai-$ {or ft-meel'yft). 1. The 
* title of one of i'ielding's novels, and 
the name of its heroine, who is dis- 
tinguished for her conjugal tender- 
ness and affection. The character 
of Amelia is said to have been drawn 
for Fielding's wife, even down to an 
accident which disfigured her beauty. 

._ "To have invented that character 
is not only a triumph of art, but it is a 
good action." Thackeray. 

2. A young woman killed in her 
lover's arms by a stroke of lightning, 
who forms the subject of a weU- 
known episode in the poem of *''' Sum- 
mer," in Thomson's "Seasons." 

American Fa'bi-us. An appellation 
often given to General Washington 
(1732-1799), whose military policy 
resembled that of the Roman general 
Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus, 
who conducted operations against 
Hannibal by declining to risk a bat- 
tle in the open field, harassing him by 
marches, counter-marches, and am- 

jjL-mSne'. A character in the " Ara- 
bian Nights' Fntertainments " who 
leads her three sisters by her side 
as a leash of hounds. 

▲minte {t'm^V, 62). The assumed 
name of a female character in Mo- 
li^re's celebrated comedy, "Les 
Pr<§cieuses Ridicules." Her real 
name is CaihoSj which she has dis- 
carded for a more sentimental one, 
in accordance with the prevailing 
fashion. She dismisses her admirer 
for proposing to marry her, scolds 
her uncle (see Gorgibus) for not 
possessing the air of a gentleman, 
and is taken in by a valet whom she 
believes to be a nobleman, and who 
easily imitates the foppery and sen- 
timentalism which she so much ad- 

Amlet, Biohard. The name of a 
gamester in Vanbrugh's " Confed- 

Richard Amlet^ Eaq., In the play, is a nota- 

ble instance of the disadvantagefl to irhicli 
this chimerical notion of affinity constituting 
a claim to acquaintance may supiect the spiiii 
of a gentleman. CKarlea Lamb. 

Am'mdn. [Gr. "k^fiuv."] {Gr, 4' 
Mam,' Mytfi.) The name of an 
Ethiopian or Libyan divini^, iden- 
tified by the Greeks and Romans 
with Jupiter. He was represented in 
the form of a ram, or as a human 

* being with the head of a ram, or 
sometimes witii only the horns. 
[Written also Hammon.] 

Am'o-ret. The name of a lady mar- 
ried to Sir Scudamore, in Spenser's 
" Faery Queen." She expresses the 
affectionate devotedness of a loving 
and tender wife. 

Am-phi'§n. [Gr. 'A/i^tuv.] {Gr. 
4" Horn, Myth.) A son of Jupiter 
and Antiope, who built a wall round 
the city or Thebes by the music of 
his lyre. It is said, that, when he 
played, the stones moved of their 
own accord, and fitted themselves to- 
gether so as to form the wall. 

'' It was like a sudden pause in one of Am^ 
phion'a conntrr-dances, when the huts whicli 
were to form the fixture Thebes werejiKing 
it to his lute. Sir W.^otf. 

Am'phl-tri'te. [Gr. 'A/f^trpiny.J 
{Gr, 4 Bom, Myth.) The wife of 
Neptune, goddess of the sea, and 
mother of Triton. 

Am-phit'ry-^n. [Gr. 'A^^trpvcjv.] 
{Gr. 4 Bom, Myth.) A son of Al- 
cseus and Hippomene. He was king 
of Thebes, and husband of Alcmena, 
who bore at the same time Iphicles, 
his son, and Hercules, the son of Ju- 
piter. See Alcmena. [Written also 

Am^rt. See Father op Equity. 

Amrita (&m-re'tft). {Hindu Myth,) 
A beverage of immortality, churned 
from the sea by the gods, who were 
mortal until they discovered this po- 
tent elixir. 

A'xnysandJtL-myl'i-dn. Two faith- 
ful and sorely tried friends, — the 
Pylades and Orestes of the feudal 
ages, — whose adventures are th» 
subject of a very ancient romance 
bearing these names for its title. An 
abstract of the story is given in El- 
lis's " Specimens of Early English 
Metrical Romances." 

For the **Key to the Scheme of' Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 

ANA 15 

An'$-ghar'8is C15otz (klots). A 
name assumed hy Baron Jean Bap- 
tiste Clootz, who was born at Cleves, 
in 1755. He conceived the idea of 
reforming the human race, and trav- 
eled through England, Grermany, 
Italy, &c., denouncing all kings, 
princes, arid rulers, and even the De- 
ity. Bfe called himself AnacharsiSy 
in allusion to the Scythian philos- 
opher of this name, who flourislied 
aJE>out six centuries before the Chris- 
tian era, and who traveled to Greece 
and other countries for the purpose 
of gaining knowledge in order to im- 

^ prove the people of his own country. 

4>-nac're-5n Moore. A name some- 
times mven to Thomas Moore, the 
poet, who, in 1801, published a trans- 
lation of the Odes of Anacreon. 

. , ^Jl^»**.^thin«« pretty a bower 
A0 e'er hela noun in that heathenish heaven 
JDcscribed by Mahomet and Aiiacreon Moore. 


A-xiao're-$n of Painters. A name 
given to Francesco Albani (1578- 
1660), a distinguished painter of It- 
aly. He was so called on account of 
the softness of his style, and his avoid- 
ance of subjects which require spir- 
ited and energetic treatment. 

J-nac're-dn of Persia. A title 
sometimes given to Hafiz (d. 1388), 
the Persian poet, whose odes and 
Ivric compositions, like those of 
Anacreon, celebrate the pleasures of 
love and wine. 

A-nao're-^n of the Ouillotiiie. A 
name given by the French to Ber- 
trand Bar6re (or Barr^re) de Vieuzac 
(1755-1841), president of the Nation- 
al Convention in 1792, on account of 
the flowery and poetical language in 
which he spoke upon all the meas- 
ures of the reign of terror. See 
Witling of Terror. 

An'fts-ta'si-us (an'fis-ta'zM-us). The 
hero and title of a novel by Thomas 
Hope (1770-1831), —a work purport- 
ing to be the autobiography of a 
Greek, who, to escape the conse- 
quences of his own crimes and vil- 
lainies of every kind, becomes a ren- 
egade, and passes through a long 
series of the most extraordinary and 
lomantfc vicissitudes. 


Anastasius Opun. See GRtJ», Anas- 


An-C89'us. [Or. 'Ay/KQiof.] {Gr. ^ 
Horn. Myth.) A son of Neptune 
who, havmg left a cup of wine un- 
tasted to pursue a wild boar, was 
killed by it. which gave rise to the 
proverb, " There 's many a slip be- 
tween the cup and the lip," 

An-ehi'sSfi. [Gr. 'Ayxiavcl (Gr- ^ 
Mom. Myth.) A son of Capys and 
Themis, and the father of ^neas by 
Venus. He survived the capture of 
Troy, and was carried by ^eas on 
his shoulders from the burning city. 

Ancient Mariner. The hero of Cole- 
ridge's poem of the same name, 
who, for the crime of having shot an 
albatross, a bird of good omen to 
voyagers, suffers dreadful penalties, 
together with his companions, who 
have made themselves accomplices in 
his crime. These penalties are at last 
remitted in consequence of his re- 
pentance. He reaches land, where 
ne encounters a hermit, to whom he 
relates his story; 

** Since then, at an uncertain hour. 
The agony returns," 

and drives him on, like the "Wander- 
ing Jew, from land to land, compelled 
to relate the tale of his suffering and 
crime as a warning to others, and as 
a lesson of love and charity towards 
all God's creatures. 

4^ The conception of this poem and 
the mystical imagery of the skeleton-sliip 
are said by Dyce to have been borrowed 
by Coleridge from a friend who had ex- 
perienced a strange dream. But De 
Quincey asserts that the germ of the story 
is contahied in a passage of Shelvocke, 
one of the classical drcumnavigators of 
the earth, who states that his second cap- 
tain, being a melancholy man, was pos- 
sessed by a &ncy that some long season 
of foul weather was owing to an allMitross 
which had steadily pursued the ship, 
upon which he shot the bird, but with- 
out mending their condition. 

Andrews, Joseph. The title of a 
novel by Fielding, and the name of 
its hero, a footman who marries a 
maid -servant. To ridicule Rich- 
ardson's "Pamela," Fielding made 
Joseph Andrews a brother of that 
renowned lady, and, by way of con- 

•nd ibr the Bemarks and Boles to which the numbers after certain words refer, see'pp. xiv-xxxU. 




trast to Richardson's hero, repre- 
sented him as a model of virtue and 

4^ '' The accounts of Joseph's brav- 
ely and good qualities, his voice too musi- 
cal to halloo to the dogs, his bravery in 
riding races for the gentlemen of the 
county, and his constancy in refusing 
bribes and temptation, have something 
refreshing in their na'iveti and freshness, 
and prepossess one in &vor of that hand- 
some young hero." Thackeray, 

Axi-droin'&-Qhe. [Gr. *Avdpofmxv] 
{Gr. ^ Rom. Myth.) A daughter 
of Eetion, and the fond wife of Hec- 
tor, by whom she had Astyanax. 
She is one of the noblest and loveli- 
est female characters in Homer's ^^ Il- 

An-drom'e-df. [Gr. 'AvSpofiidri.] 
{Gr. ^ Bom. Myth.) A daughter 
of Cephens, kin^ of Ethiopia, and 
of Cassiopeia. Her mother having 
boasted that her beauty surpassed 
that of the Nereids, Andromeda 
was exposed to a sea-monster, but 
was found, saved, and marriea by 

Au-gel^-o$. An infidel princess of 
exquisite beauty and consummate 
coquetry, in Bojardo's " Orlando In- 
namorato." She is represented to 
have come all the way from farthest 
'Asia to sow dissension among the 
Christians in Paris, who were be- 
sieged by two hosts of infidels, one 
from Spain, and another, which had 
landed m the south of France, from 
Africa. Among many others, Or- 
lando falls desperately in love with 
her, forgetting, for her sake, his wife, 
his sovereign, his country, his glory, 
in short, every thing except his relig- 
ion. She, however, cares nothing 
for him, having fallen madly in love 
with Rinaldo, in . consequence of 
drinking at an enchanted fountain. 
On the other hand, Rinaldo, from 
drinking at a neighboring fountain 
of exactly the opposite quality, can- 
not abide her. Various adventures 
arise out of these circumstances ; and 
the fountains are again drunk, with 
a mutual reversal of their effects. 
Ariosto, in his "Orlando Furioso," 
took up the thread of Angelica's 

story where Bojardo had left it, and 
making the jilt fall in love herself 
with Medoro, an obscure youthful 
squire, he represents Orlando as 
driven mad by jealousy and indig- 
nation. Angelica is celebrated for 
the possession of a magic ring, which, 
placed on the finger, defended the 
wearer from all spells, and, concealed 
in the mouth, rendered the person in- 
visible. See Agricane. 

^'Angelica, noted in romance as 
the fidthless lady for whose sake Orluido 
lost his heart and his senses, was a gra- 
tuitous invention of Bojardo and Ariosto ; 
for Spanish ballads and earlier Italian 
poets make him the fidthful husband of 
Alda or Belinda." Yonge. 

The fitiiest of her lex, AngeUcat 
. . . Bought by many prowest knights. 
Both pamim and the peers of Charlemain. 


Angelio Dootor. [Lat. Doctor An- 
geHcus.'] Thomas Aquinas (1227- 
1274), the most famous of the medi- 
aeval schoolmen and divines. 

jfS^ Aquinas was extravagantly ad- 
mired by his followers. One of his com- 
mentators endeavors to prove that he 
wrote with a special infusion of the Spirit 
of God ; that he received many things by 
direct revelation, and that Christ had 
given anticipatory testimony to his writ- 
iags. Peter Labb§ says, that, as he 
learned some things from the angels, so 
he taught the angels some things ; that 
he had said what St. Paul was not per- 
mitted to utter ; and that he speaks of 
Qod as if he had seen him, and of Christ 
as if he had been his voice. 

We extol Bacon, and sneer at Aquinas. 
But, if the situations had been changed, 
Bacon might have been the Angelic Doctor. 


Ans^Uque (on'zhft'i^k', 62). 1. The 
heroine of Moli^re's comedy, "Le 
Malade Ima^naire.'' 

2. The WHO of George Dandin, in 
Moli^re's comedy of this name. See 
Dandin, George. 

An'se-lo. 1. The deputy of Vincen- 
tio, in Shakespeare's "Measure for 
Measure." At first he exercises his 
delegated power with rigor and seem- 
ing conscientiousness, but only to 
enable him the more safely to gratify 
his base passion for Isabella, tne sis- 
ter of a young nobleman named 
Claudio. His design, however, is 
thwarted, and his hypocrisy un- 

Q^ For the '* Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Ej^lanations, 




masked, by a counteracting intrigue 
of Vincentio's, which, aided and far- 
vored by chance, rescues Isabella, 
and punishes Angelo by compelling 
him to many Mariana, a woman 
whom he had a long time before se- 
duced and abandoned. 

2. A goldsmith in Shakespeare's 
" Comedy of Errors." 

Angel of tlie Schools. A title given 
to Thomas Aquinas, the most cele- 
brated metaphysician of the Middle 
Ages. See Angelic Doctor. 

Ai]Lgurvardel(Sng'go&f-vftf'dd). [Icel. 
a stream of anguish.] The sword of 
Frithiof. The blade was inscribed 
with runic letters, which shone dimly 
in peace, but gleamed with a won- 
drous ruddy hght in time of war. 
See Frithiof. [Written also An- 

Olorioiuly known was the sword, the fintof 
all swords in the Northland. 

Bp. Tegnir, Trans. 

Anne, Sister. See Sister Anne. 

An-ttB'us. [Gr. 'Avraiof,] {Gr. 4" 
Rom. Myth. ) A son of Neptune and 
Terra, a famous Libyan giant and 
wrestler, whose strength was invinci- 
ble so long as he remained in contact 
with his mother earth. Hercules dis- 
covered the source of his might, lifted 
him up from the earth, and crushed 
him in the air. 
As when Earth's son AtOoem (to compare 

Small things with greateet) In Irassa sbroye 
With Jove^ Alcides, and, oft foiled, still rose, 
Beceivingfrom his mother earth new strength 
■ Fresh ftom his feXL and fiercer grapple joined; 
Throttled at length in air, expired and fell: 
So, after many a foil, the temjpter proud, 
Renewing firesh assaults amidst his pride. 
Fell whence he stood to see his victor fitll. 


Ant'e-rds. [Gr. 'Avrepwf.] {Gr. 4" 
Rom. Mj/th.) A deitv opposed to 
Eros, or Love, and fighting against 
him ; usually, however, regarded as a 
god who avenged slighted love. He 
18 sometimes represented as the sym- 
bol of reciprocal afiection. 

An'tit-Qhnst. Literally, the opponent 
of the anointed, or of the Messiah. 
The name of Antichrist was given by 
the Jews and Christians to me great 
enemy of true religion, who shall, ac- 
cording to the Holy Scriptures, ap- 
pear before the commg of tne Messiah 

in his gloT^. The name occurs in 
the Bible in the following places 
only: — 1 John ii. 18, 22; iv. -3; 2 
John 7. The "man of sin," whose 
• coming is foretold by St. Paul, 2 
Thess. ii.j is supposed to be the same 
with Antichrist. Emblematic descrip- 
tions of him occur in the 12th and 
13th chapters of the Revelatum. The- 
ological writers have indulged in, 
many and the most diverse and fan- 
ciful speculations respecting this great 
adversary of Christianity; but the 

Srevalent opinion among Protestant 
ivines has always connected him 
with the Roman Catholic church. At 
the Council of Gap, in 1603, the re- 
formed ministers there assembled in- 
serted an article in their Confession 
of Faith, in which the' Pope is pro- 
nounced Antichrist. Grotius and 
most Roman Catholic divines con- 
sider Antichrist as symbolical of Par- 
gan Rome and her persecutions; Le- 
clerc, Lightfoot, and others^ of the 
Jewish Sanhedrim, or of particular 
Jewish impostors. Many are of opin- 
ion that the kingdom of Antichrist 
comprehends all who are opposed to 
Chnst, openly or secretly. 

An-tifl/o-ne. [Gr. 'AvnyovTj.'] (Gr. 
4 Rom. Myth. ) A daughter of CEdi- 
pus by his mother Jocasta. She was 
Hunous for her filial piety. 

An-tin'o-Tis. [Gr. 'Avnvoof .] A page 
of the Emperor Hadrian, celebrated 
for his extraordinary beauts, and for 
Hadrian's extravagant affection for 
him. After his death by drowning 
in the Nile, — about a. d. 122, — he 
was enrolled among the gods, tem- 
ples were erected to him in Egypt 
and Greece, and statues set up in al- 
most every part of the world. 

An-ti'o-pe. [Gr. 'AvrwTny.] ( Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) A favorite of Jupiten 
by whom she became the mother ot 
Amphion and Zethus. See Lycus. 

An-tiph'o-lusofEph'e-sus. 1 Twin 
An-tdph'o-lus of Str'ft-cuse.) broth- 
ers, sons to ^geon and iEmilia, in 
Shakespeare's " Comedy of Errors,'* 


" the one so like the other 
As could not he distinguished but by names.** 

•Ad for the Bemarks and Rules to which the numbers after certun words refer, see pp.xiv-zzxlL 





Their attendants were Dromio of £ph- 
esus and Dromio of Syracuse, also 
twins, and both alike in their per- 
sonal appearance. 

An-to'ni-o. 1. The usurping Duke 
of Milan, and brother to Prospero, 
in Shakespeare^s ^ Tempest." See 

2. The father of Protens, in Shake- 
speare's " Two Gentlemen of Vero- 



3. A minor character in Shake- 
speare's " Much Ado about Nothing." 

4. The " Merchant of Venice," in 
Shakespeare's play of that name. 
See Portia. 

6. A sea-captain, friend to Sebas- 
tian, in Shakespeare's " Twelfth 

A-nu'bis. [Gr. "Avov^tjQ.] {Egypt. 
Myth.) A divinity, a son of Osiris, 
worshiped in the form of a dog, or of 
a human being with a dog's head. 
He accompanied the ghosts of the 
dead to the under-world. 

Ap'e-man'tus. A churlish philoso- 
pher, in Shakespeare's play, " Timon 
of Athens." 

Their affected melancholy shoired like the 
cynicism of Jpemantu* contrasted with the 
real misanthropy of Timon. Sir W. Scott. 

Aph'ro-di'te. [Gr. 'A^podtn?.] {Gr. 
Myth.) The Greek name of Ventts, 
the goddess of love, beauty, and de- 
sire. See Venus. 

A'pis. [Gr. ^Ant(.] {Egypt. Myth.) 
The chief deity of the Egyptians, 
worshiped under the form of a bull. 
He is sometimes identified with Osi- 

^ ris and Serapis. 

4-Pono. [Gr. 'ArrSnuv.] {Gr. 4' 
Mom. Myth. ) The son of Jupiter and 
Latona, and the brother of Diana, 
portrayed with flowing hair as being 
ever young. He was the god of song, 
music, prophecy, and archery, the 
punisher and destroyer of the wicked 
and overbearing, the protector of 
flocks and cattle, the averter of evil, 
the afforder of help, and the god who 
delighted in the foundation of towns 
and the establishment of civil consti- 
tutions. By the later Greeks he was 
identified with the sun. His favor- 
ite residence was at Mount Parnas- 

sus, and he had oracles at Delphi and 

A-polly-Jn, or A-poll'y6n. [Gr. 
'ATroAXrcjv, from dnoXXvvcu, to de- 
stroy utterly, to ruin.] In the Jew- 
ish demonology, an evil spirit, called 
in Hebrew Abaddon^ ana described 
in Reo. ix. 11, as *^ a king, tiie an- 
^el of the bottomless pit." He is 
introduced by Bunyan in his allegor- 
ical romance of the " Pilgrim's Prog- 

Apostle of Ardennes <afMen', 64). 
A title given to St. Hubert (d. 727), 
Bishop of Maestrecht and Liege, and 
son ot Bertrand, Duke of Aquitaine. 
He was so called from his zeal in de- 
stroying remnants of idolatry. 

Apostle of Germany. A title given 
to St. Boniface (680-755), who, for 
more than thirty years of hid life, 
labored in the work of converting 
and civilizing the rude heathen na- 
tions of Germany. 

Apostle of Infidelity. A name 
sometimes given to Voltaire (1694- 
1778), a bigoted and intolerant deist, 
who avowed a design of destroying 
the Christian religion, and was un- 
ceasing in his attacks upon it and 
upon its defenders. 

Apostle of Ireland. St. Patrick, 
bom near the end of the fourth cen- 
tuT}', died in 483 or 493. He was 
moved by virions, as he relates in 
his confessions, to undertake the con* 
version of tiie Irish to Christianity. 
He established many churches and 
schools, and made many converts. 

Apostle of Temperance. An hon- 
orary appellation given to the Rev. 
Theobald Mathew (1790-1856), a dis- 
tinguished temperance reformer in 
Ireland and England. 

4^ " However, as Protestants, we may 
question the claim of departed saints, 
here is a living minister, if he may be 
judged from one work, who deseires to 
be canonized, and whose name should be 
placed in the calendar not for below the 
apostles. '1 Dr. Channingj 1841. 

Apostle of the Englisli. St. Augus- 
tine, or Austin, who lived during the 
latter part of the sixth century. He 
was sent with forty monks, by Pope 

For the ** Key to the Bcheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




Gregory I., to cany Christianity into 
En^and. Such was his success that 
he is said to liave baptized 10,000 
persons in a single day. He has the 
merit of having allowed no coercive 
measures in the propagation of the 
Apostle of the French. A name 

given to St. Denis, the first bishop of 
aris, in the third century, He was 
sent from Rome, about A. d. 250, to 
revive the drooping churches in Gaul, 
and proceeded as rar as Lutetia (Par- 
is), where he made many converts. 
He became the patron saint of the 
kingdom, and his name served, for 
many ages, as a rallying cry in bat- 
tle, — MorUjoie St. Denu ! 

Apostle of the Prisians. An ap- 
pellation commonly given to Samt 
Wilbrord, or WiUibrod (657-738), a 
native of the Saxon kingdom of 
Northumbria, who spent forty-eight 
years of his life in Friesland in preach- 
ing Christianity, and endeavoring to 
convert the people from paganism to 
the true faith. 

Apostle of the GFauls. St. Irenseus, 

Eresbyter, and afterward bishop, of 
yons, near the close of the second 

<( Hie immortal Apoetle of the 
Gaols, niho, in his earliest youth, had 
sat at the feet of Polycarp, at Smyrna, 
started from the school of Asia Minor. It 
yna dorinff a great crisis that Proyidence 
brought wis gem of Asia into the West. 
IrensBUS possessed the apostolical pa- 
tience, as well as the flery seal, of Poly- 
carp. He learned Celtic, in order to 
preach the gospel to the barbarians in 
ttieir own language, and r^oiced in be- 
holding the progress of the good work in 
which he was engaged in the parts of 
Qermany bordering on Gaul." Bunsen. 

Apostle of the Gentiles. A title 
assumed by St. Paul, who, in con- 
junction with Barnabas, was divinely 
« appointed to the work of preaching 
the gospel to all mankind, without 
distinction of race or nation. His 
labors lasted through many years, 
and reached over a vast extent of 
country. See Acts xiii., Bom. xi. 13, 
and 2 Tim. i. 11. 

Apostle of the Hifi^hlanders. A 
name given to St. Columba (521-597), 

one of the earliest teachers of Chris- 
tianity in Scotland. He established 
himself in the island of lona, and is 
believed to have been the founder of 
the Culdees, who had their head-quar- 
ters there. 

Apostle of the Indians. An appel- 
lation given to the Rev. John Eliot 
(1603-1690), a celebrated missionary 
' among the Indians in the Colony of 
Massachusetts Bay, many of whom 
he converted to Christianity. 

" The Apostle, —and truly I know 
not who, since Peter and Paul, better 
deserves that name." E. Everett. 

Apostle of the North. 1. A titie be- 
stowed upon Anschar, Anscharius, or 

• Ansgar (801-864), because he intro- 
duced Christianity into Denmark, 
Sweden, and Northern Germany. 
At the instigation of the Emperor, 
Louis le D^bonnaire, he went to Den- 
mark, and, after many disappoint- 
ments and persecutions, converted 
the king and the greater part of the 
nation. The Cauiolic cnurch has 
placed him among the saints. 

"He [Anschar] was the Colum- 
bus and the Cortes of that unknown 
world whither he penetrated with no 
other weapon than his dauntless fidth 
and the name of Rome." 

Michelety Trans. 

2. A titie conferred upon Bernard 
Gilpin (1517-1583), an English re- 
former, and the first who undertook 
to preach the Protestant doctrines to 
the inhabitants of the Scottish Bor- 
der land. 

Apostle of the Peak. A title given 
to William Bagshaw (1628-1702), a 
non-conforming divine, distinguished 
for his zeal and usefulness in the cause 
of religion in the northern parts of 
Derbyshire, England. 

Apostle of the Ficts. A name given 
to St. Ninian, a British bishop of the 
latter half of the fourth and the be- 
ginning of the fifth centuries, on ac- 
count of his labors for the conver- 
sion of the Teutonic inhabitants of 

Apostle of the Scottish Beform»- 
tion. A title given to John Knox 
(1505-1572), the most active agent 

■ad tar the Remarks and Rules to which tb» numbers after certain worda refer, see pp. xiv-xxxiL 




X in the overthrow of the Roman Cath- 
olic religion, and the establishment 
of the Reformed kirk, in Scotland. 

Apostle of the Slaves. A title given 
to St. Cyril (ninth centurv), who con- 
verted to Christianity the Chasars, 
dwelling by the Caspian Sea, labored 
in the same cause among the heathens 
of Bulgaria, Moravia, and Bohemia, 
and, with the assistance of some of 
his pupils and his brother, made a 
translation of the Holv Scriptures, 
which is still used by all Greek-Cath- 
olic Christians. 

Apostle to the Indies. A title often 
given to St. Francis Xavier, a distin- 
guished Roman Catholic missionary 
of the sixteenth century, who spent 
more than ten years in laborious ef- 
forts to introduce Christianity into 
the East. 

Apostolic Kins. A title given by 
the Holy See to the kings of Hun- 
gary, on account of the extensive 
propagation of Christianity by Ste- 
phen I., the founder of the royal line. 

Ap'po-li'no. [The same as ApoUo^ 
the sun.] An imaginary deity, sup- 
posed by the people of Western Eu- 
rope, during the Middle Ages, to be 
worshiped by the Mohammedans. 
See Termagant. 

Aq'ni-lo. {Rom. Myth.) A personifi- 
cation of the north wind ; the same 
as Birreas. See Boreas. 

Arabian Tailor. See Learned Tai- 

Ar'$-bj^. A poetical form of Arabia. 

Farewell, — fkrewell to thee, Araby*» daugh- 
ter. T. Moore. 

Jt-raQh'ne. [Gr. *Apa;n^.] (Gr. 4' 
Rom. Myth.) A Lydian maiden, so 
proud of her skill as a weaver that 
she challenged Minerva to compete 
with her. She was successful in the 
contest, but, being insulted by the 
goddess, hung herself in despair, 
and was changed into a spider. 

Shall we tremhle before cloth-webs and cob- 
webs, whether woven in Arkwright looms, or 
by the silent Arachnes that weave unrestingly 
in our imagination ? Qxrlyle. 

Ar'cft-dj^. A poetical form of Arcadia, 
a pastoral district of the Peloponne- 
sus (Morea) in Greece. 

Archer. Servant to Aimwell, in Far- 
quhar's "Beaux' Stratagem." 

Ar^Qhl-ma'gOy or Ar'Qhl-m&ge. 
[From Gr. upxc, chief, in composi- 
tion, and (idyo^y magician.] An en- 
chanter in Spenser's " Faeiy Queen." 
He is a type of H3rpocrisj, or Fraud, 
and, as opposed to Christian Holiness 
embodied in the Red-cross Knight, 
may also represent Satan, the incar- 
nate principle of evil. He wins the 
confiaence of the knight in the dis- 
guise of a reverend hermit, and by 
me help of Duessa, or Deceit, sepa- 
rates hun from Una, or Truth. 

By his mighty science he could take 
Aa many forms ana shapes in seeming wise 
As ever jProteus to himself could make : 
Sometime a fowl, sometime a fish in lake. 
Now like a fox, now like a dragon fell; 
That of himself he oft for fear would quake, 
And oft would fly away. Oh, who can teU 
The hidden power or herbs, and might of 

magic spell? Faery Qveen. 

Him followed his companion, dark and sage, 
Ab he, my Master, sung the dangerous Ar^ 

chimage. Sir W. Scot*. 

Whatever momentaiy benefit may result 
from satire, it is clear that its influence, in the 
long run, is injurious to literature. The sat- 
irist, Uke a malignant Archimaffo, creates a 
" I, tnrc 

images, that it is almost out of the question 
to see them correctly.' Atlantic Monthly. 

Ar'olte. A character in the ^^ Knight's 
Tale," in Chaucer's " Canterbury 
Tales." See Palamon. 

Ar'den, Enoch. The hero of Tenny- 
son's poem of the same name, a sea- 
man who is wrecked on an uninhab- 
ited and rarely visited tropical island, 
where he spends many years, and 
who returns home at last only to find 
that his wife, believing him to be 
dead, has married again, and is pros- 

Eerous and happy. In a spirit of 
eroic self - sacriffce, he determines 

not to undeceive her, and soon dies 

of a broken heart. 
Ardennes, "Wild Boar of. See 

Wild Boar of Ardennes. 
A'rSg. [Gr.'Apnc.] {Gr. Myth.) The 

god of war; the same as Mars. See 

Ar'e-thu'sft. [Gr.* A pe&ovaa.] (Gr.<f' 

Rom. Myth.) One of the Nereids, 

and an attendant upon Diana. She 

presided over a famous fountain of 

For the " Key to the Schedse of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Ezplanations, 




the same name, close by the mai;^ 
of the sea in the island of Ortygia, 
near Syracuse. According to Ovid, 
the river-god Alpheus became enam- 
ored of ner while bathing in his 
stream in Arcadia. Diana, however, 
took pity on her, and changed her 
into a well, which flowed under the 
Adriatic to Ortygia. But Alpheus 
still pursued her, and, passing by 
the same under-ground channel from 
Greece to Sicily, re-appeared in the 
fountain, and mingled his waters 
with those of the nymph. [Written 
also, poetically, Arethuse.] 

That renownM flood, ao often sung, 
Divine Alpheus, who, by secret sluice. 
Stole under seas to meet his Jrethtue. 


Aretino, The Only (&-rft-te'no). [It. 
V Unico AreUno.} An honorary ap- 

S illation given by his admirers to 
emardo Accolti, an Italian poet of 
the sixteenth centuiy, celebrated for 
his wonderful powers of improvisation. 
The designation seems to have been 
intended to express his superiority to 
his uncle, Francesco Accolti (d. 1^3), 
sumamed AretinuSj who was also a, 
poet, and to Pietro Aretino, a distin- 
guished contemporary satirist. 

Argalia (ar-^Me'&). A brother to 
Angelica, m Bojardo^s romantic 

g»em, the ^^ Orlando Innamorato." 
e is celebrated as the possessor of 
an enchanted lance which threw 
whomsoever it touched. Ferrau 
eventually killed him, and Astolfo 
obtained the lance. 

Ar'sft-lus. An unfortunate lover in 
Sh-'Philip Sidney's "Arcadia." See 

Argan (afgonV^S). The hero of Mo- 
liere^s comedy, "Le Malade Imagi- 
naire," an hypochondriac patient, 
whose love of medicine is accompa- 
nied by a spirit of parsimony which 
leads him to take every mode that 
may diminish the expense of his 
supposed indisposition. 

4SP> ''*■ Argan ... is discoyered tax- 
ing his apothecary's bill, at once delight- 
ing his ear with the flowery language of 
the Pharmacopoeia, and gratifyii^ his 
firogal dispodtion by clipping off some 
Items and reducing others, and arriving 
at the double conolusion, first, that, if 

his apottiecary does not become more 
reasonable, he cannot afibrd to be a sick 
man any longer ; and, secondly, that, aa 
he has swallowed fewer drugs by one 
third this month than he liad done the 
last, it was no wonder he was not so well. 
. . . [He] is at last persuaded that the 
surest and cheapest way of securing him- 
self against the variety of maladies by 
which he is beset, will be to become a 
doctor in his own proper person. He 
modestly represents his want of pre- 
liminary study, and of the necessary 
knowledge even of the Latin language ; 
but he is assured that by merely putting 
on the robe and cap of a physician he 
wUl find himself endowed with all the 
knowledge necessary for exercising the 
profession. . . . This leads to the inter- 
lude which concludes the piece, being 
the mock ceremonial of receiring a 
physician into the .^Ssculapian college, 
couched in macaronic Latinity." 

Sir W. Scott. 

Arfi^ante (af'gSnt', 62). A character 
in Moli^re's comedy, "Les Fourberies 
de Scapin." 

Ar-ean'te. A terrible giantess in Spen- 
ser's " Faery Queen; " a very mon- 
ster and miracle of licentiousness. 

Argantes (af-g&n^tess). The bravest 
of the infidel heroes in Tasso's epic 
poem, "Jerusalem Delivered." 

Bonaparte, in these dii^ointed yet signifi- 
cant threats, stood before the deputies like 
the Argcmies of Italy's heroic poet, and gave 
them the choice or peace and war with the 
air of a superior being, capable at once to dic- 
tate then- &te. Sir W. Scott, 

Ar-gier'. An old form of Algiers^ 
found in Shakespeare's "Tempest." 

Ar'go. [Gr. 'kpydy from apyof , swift.] 
{Gr. f Rom. Mvth.) A fifty-oared 
ship in which Jason and his com- 
panions made their voyage to Colchis 
in search of the golden fleece. See 

Harder beset 
And more endangered, than when Atqo 

Through Bosporus betwixt the justUngrocks. 

Ar'go-n^uts. [Lat. ArgoTuattoB; Gr. 
'Apyovavrai.] (Gr. 4' ^<^« Mtfth.) 
The heroes and demigods who, ac- 
cording to the traditions of the Greeks, 
imdertook an expedition to Colchis, 
a far-distant country on the coast of 
the Euxine, for the purpose of ob- 
taining a golden fleece, which was 

aad Ar Ibe Bemarks sad Boles to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. zIt-xxxU. 




guarded by a sleepless and terrible 

A body of Bastille heroes, tolerably com- 
plete, dia get tof?«ther ;— comparable to the 
Argonauts ; hoping to endure like them. 


Ax'goB, [Gr. 'Apyog.] (Gr. ^ i2w». 
Myth.) A fabulous being of enor- 
mous strength, who had a hundred 
eyes, of which only two were asleep 
ayt once, whence he was named Panr- 
optes, or the All -seeing. Juno ap- 
pointed him to watch over lo (see lo), 
but Mercurv killed him, and Juno 
transferred his eyes to the tail of the 
peacock, her favorite bird. 

Spangled with eyes more numerous than 

OtArguSy and more wakefUl than to drowse. 
Charmed with Arcadian pipe, the pastoral 

Of Hermes, or his op|ate rod. Jfiitton. 

A'ri-ad'ne (9). [Gr. 'Apiddvj?.] (Gr. ^ 
Horn. Myth,) A daughter of Minos, 
king of Crete, who, from the love 
she Dore to Theseus, gave him a clew 
of thread, which guided him out of - 
the Cretan labvrmth. Theseus in 
return promised to marry her, and 
she accordingly left the island witiii 
him, but was slain bv Diana in Naxos. 
According to another tradition, she 
was mamed to Bacchus, who, after 
her death, gave her s. place among 
the gods, and placed her wedding 
crown as a constellation in the sky. 

A'ri-el (9). 1. In the demonology of 
the Cabala, a water-spirit; in the fa- 
bles of the Middle Ages, a spirit of 
the air, — the guardian angel of inno- 
cence; in Shakespeare's "Tempest," 
an wry and tricksy spirit, represented 
as having been a servant to Sycorax, 
a foul witch, by whom, for some acts 
of disobedience, he was imprisoned 
within the rift of a cloven pme-tree, 
where he remained for twelve years, 
until released by Prospero. In grat- 
itude for his deliverance, he became 
the willing messenger of Prospero, 
assuming any shape, or rendering 
himself invisible, in order to execute 
the commands of his master. 

9"* the hearth the lighted logs are glowing, 
And, uke Ariel in the cloven pine^ree, 

For its freedom 
Qroans and sighs the air imprisoned in them. 


2. The name of a sylph in Pope*8 
" Rape of the Lock." 

4G$* ** Pope's fiiiry region, compared 
' with Shakespeare's, was what a drawing- 
room is to the universe. To give, there- 
fore, to the sprite of the ' Rape of the 
Lock' the name of the spirit in the 
* Tempest ' was a bold christening. Pros- 
pero's Ariel could have puffed iiim out 
like a taper. Or he would have snuffed 
him up as an essence, by way of jest, and 
fbund him fiat. But, tested by less potent 
senses, the sylph species is an exquisite 
creation. He is an abstract of the spirit ^ 
of fine life ; a suggester of foshions ; an 
inspirer of airs ; would be cut to pieces 
rather than see his will contradicted; 
takes his station with dignity on a pict- 
ure-cord ; and is so nice an adjuster of 
claims that he ranks hearts with neck- 
laces. . . . The punishments infiicted on 
him when disobedient have a like fitness. 
He is to be kept holering over the fumes 
of the chocolate ; to be transfixed with 
pins, clogged with pomatums, and wedged 
in the eyes of bodkins." JLeigh Hunt, 

Ariodantes {It.pron. i-re-o-dftn^tess). 
The lover of Ginevra, in Ariosto's 
" Orlando Furioso." 

Jj.-ri'6n. [Gr. 'Ap/wv.] {Gr, cf Rom, 
Myth.) An ancient Greek bard and 
musician of the isle of Lesbos. On 
his return to Corinth from Italy, on 
one occasion, the mariners formed a 
plot to murder him for his riches ; but 
Deing forewarned of their intention, 
he jMayed upon his lute, and, by the 
charms of his music, brought a num^ 
ber of dolphins around the vessel, 
when he threw himself into the sea, 
and was carried on the back of one 
of them to the promontory of Tsena- 
rus in the Peloponnesus. 

Ar^is-tsd'xis. [Gr. 'Apwrrotof .] (Gr. (f 
Rom. Myth,) An ancient Greek di- 
vinity, worshiped as the protector 
of vine and olive plantations, and of 
hunters and herdsmen. He was also 
thought to have instructed men in the 
management of bees. According to 
the common tradition, he was a son of 
Apollo and the water-nymph Cyrene. 

In such a palace AritUetts found 
Cyrene, wnen he bore the plaintive tale ' 
Of his lost bees to her maternal ear. 
Coutper (on the Ice-palace ttfAnne qf Rumia.} 

i-riB'te-fts. [Gr. 'Apwjreaf.] ((7r. ^ 
Rom, Myth,) A fabulous being, who 

For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanatioiu. 




has been styled the "Wandering 
Jew " of popular tradition in ancient 
Greece. He appears first as a teacher 
of Homer, and re-appears in different 
ages and places in very different 
characters. Herodotus and Suidas 
assert that he was a magician, whose 
soul could leave and re-enter its body 
at pleasure. 

Aristophanes, The Modem. See 
Modern Abistophai^es. 

Arlecohino (ar-lek-ke^no, 102). See 

Armada, The Invincible. {Eng, 4" 
Sp. Hist.) A famous naval arma- 
ment, or expedition, sent by Philip 
U. of Spain against England, in the 
year 1588. It consisted of 130 ves- 
sels, 2430 great guns, 4575 quintals 
of powder, nearly 20,000 soldiers, 
above 8000 sailors, and more than 
2000 volunteers. It arrived in the 
Channel on the 19th of July, and was 
defeated the next day by Admiral 
Howard, who was seconded by Drake, 
Hawkins, and Frobisher. Eight fire- 
ships having been sent into the Span- 
ish fleet, they bore off in great dis- 
order. Profiting by the panic, the 
English fell upon them, and captured 
or destroyed a number of their ships, 
and Admiral Howard maintainea a 
running fight from the 21st of July to 
the 27tn, with such effect, that the 
Spanish commander, despairing of 
success, resolved to return nome, and, 
as escape through the English Chan- 
nel was prevented by contrary winds, 
he undertook to sail around the Ork- 
neys ; but the vessels which still re- 
mained to him were dispersed by 
storms, or shipwrecked among the 
rocks and 8halu>ws, on different parts 
of the Scottish and Irish coast, and 
vpwMds of 5000 men were drowned, 
killed, or taken prisoners. Of the 
whole Armada, 53 ships only returned 
to Spain, and these in a wretched con- 
dition. The English lost but one ship. 
Armado. See Dos Adriano de Ar- 


Anned Soldier of Democracy. A 

name given to Napoleon Bonaparte. 

Armida (af-me^d&, 64). One of the 
most prominent female characters 

in Tasao^s "Jerusalem Delivered." 
The story of Armida is founded upon 
a tradition related by Pierre Delancre. 
4G$* The p6et tells ub, that, when the 
Crusaders anived at the Holy City, Satan 
held a council to deyise some means of 
disturbing the plans of the Christisa 
warriors, and Armida, a very beautiful 
sorceress, was employed to seduce Ri- 
naldo and othor Crusaders. JEUnaldo was 
conducted by Armida to a remote island, 
where, in her splendid palace, surround- 
ed by delightful gardens and plea8un>- 
grounds, he utterly forgot his tows and 
the great ol^t to which he had devoted 
his life. To liberate him from his volup- 
tuous bondage, two messengers firom the 
Christian army, Carlo and Ubaldo, came 
to the island, bringing a talisman so pow- 
erful that the witchery of Armida was 
destroyed. Rinaldo escaped, bat was fol- 
lowed by the sorceress, who, in battle, in- 
cited several warriors to attack the hero, 
and at last herself rushed into the fight. 
She was defeated by Rinaldo, who then 
confessed his love to her, persuaded her 
to become a Christian, and vowed to be 
her fiiithful knight. The story of Armi- 
da has been made the subject of an opera 
by both Gluck and Roeshai. 

*T was but a doubt ; but ne'er magician's 

Wrought change with all Armida^s fUzr art 
Uke what this light touch left on jHian's 

heart Byron. 

The stage (eren as it then was), after the 
recluseness and austerity of a college life, must 
hare appeared like Armida*t enchanted pal- 
ace. HasuiU, 

The grand mansions you anive at in this 
waste, howling solitude prove sometimes es- 
sentially robber -towers; and there va»,y be 
Armida palaces and divine-looking ArmidaSy 
where yotu ultimate fkte is still worse. 

Amolphe (af'nolf). A selfish^ and 
morose cynic in Moli^re's " L'Ecole 
des Femmes," whose pretended ha- 
tred of the world springs from an ab- 
sorbing regard to his own gratification. 

Ar'oun-dlght (-dtt). The sword of 
Lancelot of the Lake. 

It is the sword of a good knight. 
Though homespun was his maiU 
What matter if it be not named 
Joyeuse, Colada, Durindale, 
Excalibar, or Aroundight t Longfellow. 

Ar-sin'o-e. A prude in Moli^re's 
comedy, " Le Misantfirope." 

Ar'te-gftl. 1. A mythic king of Britain 

mentioned in the Chronicle of Greof- 

frey of Monmouth, and in Milton's 

Historyof Britain. See Elidure. 

2. [W'ritten also Art egall, Ar- 

and for the Bemarka and Rules to which the niunbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxzU. 




thegal,and Artegale.] Achar- 
acter in Spenser's "Faery Queen," 
representative of Justice, and also of 
"the poet's friend and patron. Lord 
Grey. His main object is to rescue 
Irena from the tyranny of Grantorto ; 
but, like a chivalrous* knight-errant, 
be is ready to turn aside and subdue 
the spirit of mischief and vi^Jence 
wherever it may be encountered. 

Every obligation, according to the maxim 
of the Civil Law. is made void in the same 
manner in which it is rendered binding; ; 
aa ArthegaU the emblematic champion of 
Justice in Spenser's allegory, decrees as law, 
that what the sea haa brought the sea may 
resume. Sir W. Scott. 

Ar'te-mis. [Gr. 'Aprcjtac.] i^r. 
Myth.) One of the great divinities of 
the ancient Greeks ; the same as Di- 
ana. See Diana. 

Artful Dodger. A sobriquet of one 
of the characters in Dickens's " Oli- 
ver Twist." He is a young thief, 
and an adept in villainy. 

Arthur. See King Arthur. 

Ar'un-del. The steed of Bevis of 
Southampton. See Bevis of South- 
ampton, Sir. 

Ar-vXr'i-gus. A son of Cymbeline, 
in Shakespeare's play of this name, 
passing under the assumed name of 
Cadw^j and supposed to be a son of 
Belarius. SccBelarius. 

As-cal'$-phus. [Gr. 'Affx^iAa^oc.] 
( Gr. cf Rom. Myth.) A son of Ache- 
ron^ who, having declared that Pros- 
erpme — whom Pluto had given per- 
mission to return to earth, provided 
she had not eaten any thing while in 
the imder-world — had tasted of a 
pomegranate, was turned by Ceres 
mto an owl, for his mischief-making. 

As-oa'ni-us. [Gr. 'A<T/cdv«>f.] {Gr, 
^ Rom. Myth.) A son of ^neas 
and Creusa. He accompanied his 
father to Italy, succeeded him in the 
kingdom of Latinus, and built the 
city of Alba Longa. [Called also 
Jmu8.'\ See ^Eneas. 

The former belong to that class who, like 

the young Ascanius, are ever beating about in 

quest of a tawny lion, though they are much 

• more successful in now and then starting a 

great bore. Sir W. Scoit. 

As'c$-part. The name of a giant 
whom Bevis of Southampton con- 

quered, according to the old romance. 
His ^^^ may be seen on the city^ 
gates of Southampton. He is said to 
have been thirty feet high, and to have 
carried Sir Bevis, his wife, and horse, 
under his arm. Allusions to him 
occur in Shakespeare, Drayton, and 
other Elizabethan writers. Accord- 
ing to Warton, he is a character in 
very old French romances. 

Each man an Aacapart, of strength to toss 
For quoits both Temple-bar and Charingi 
cross. Pope. 

He was a man whose huge stature, thews, 
sinews, and bulk in propoiiion, would have 
enabled him to enact Colbrand, Ascapart^ or 
any other giant of romance, without raising 
himself nearer to heaveu even by the altitude 
of achopin. Sir W. ScotU 

As-orsB'&n Sage. [Lat. Ascrceua «e- 
nex.] A name given by Virgil, in 
his sixth Eclogue, to Uesiod, who 
was bom in the eighth century, b. c. 
at Ascra, a village of BoeoUa, in 

Asgard ( is'gaf d ) . [Old Norse, yard, oi 
abode, of me Asir, or gods.] {Scand. 
Myth.) A celestial city or territory, 
the dwelling of the gods, situated in 
the ctoter of the universe, and acces- 
sible only by the bridge Bifrost (the 
rainbow). Here each of the princi- 
pal deities had a residence apart from 
the rest. [Written also Asagard.] 

Asli'ford, Isaac. A peasant in 
CralJbe's "Parish Kegister," de- 
scribed as 
" A wise good man, contented to be poor." 

A8h't$-roth. {Myth.) The name 
given in the Bible to Astarte, an 
ancient Syrian deity, who was adored 
as the goddess of the moon ; hence 
Jeremia^h calls her "the queen of 
heaven." Solomon built her a tem- 
ple on the Mount of Olives (2 Kings 
xxiii. 13), but her chief temples we're 
at Tyre and Sidon. Her worship, 
according to ancient accounts, was of 
a licentious character. See Astarte. 
[Written also Astaroth and 

Moon^ AjBihtaroihf 
Heaven's queen and mother both. MUUm. 

Asli'tdn, Lucy. The heroine of Sir 
Walter Scott's novel, " The Bride of 
Lammermoor; " daughter of Sir Wil- 
liam Ashton, and betrothed to Edgar 

For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 

ASH ' 

Ash^n, Sir "Williain. The Lord 
Keeper of Scotland; a prominent 
character in Scott's " Bride of Lam- 

25 ASS 


Aair (ft'ser). {Scand, Myth.) The 
most powerful, though not the oldest, 
of the deities: usually reckoned as 
twelve gods and twelve goddesses. 
The gods are — Odin, Thor.Baldur, 
Niord, Fr^, Tyr, Bragi, Heimdall, 
Yidar, Yah, Ullur, ana Forseti; the 
best-known of the goddesses — Fri^- 
ga,Freyja,Iduna, and Sag^ [Wnt- 
teu also Aser, Asar, and iSlsir.] 

As'mo-dftL The same as Atmodeus. 
See AsMODEus and Belial. 

As'mo-de'us. [Heb. AAmedai, the 
. destroyer.] In the Jewish demonol- 
ogy, an evil spirit, the demon of 
vanity, or dress, called in the Tal- 
mud "king of uie devils," whence 
some assume him to be identical wiUi 
Beelzebub, and others with Azrael. 
In modem times, he has been jocu- 
larly spoken of as the destroying de- 
mon of matrimonial happiness. 

In the Apocryphal book of Tobity 
he is represented as loTing Sara, the 
daughter of Ragael, and causing the 
death of leven husbands, who married 
her in soooesiioQ, on the bridri nigjiit, 
Tobias, instmcted by Baphael, bums on 
'* the ashes of perftune " the heart and 
Uver of the fish whidli he caught hi the 
Tigris ; ** the which smell when the eyil 
spirit had smelled, he fled into the utmost 
iwrts of ]B|gypt, and tbe Migel bound 
him." Those demonographen of the 
Kiddle Ages who reekoiMd nine kinds of 
eril spirits, placed Asmodeus at the head 
of the Iburth rank, which consisted of 
malicious, revenging devils. According 
to other authorities, he is the lieutenant 
of Amainum. Wierus, in his description 
of the infernal court, makes him superln- 
tendeni of nmbUoig-honses^ Le Bags 
has made lam the companion of Don 
GleoAs, in " Le Diable Boiteux," or *' The 
Beril on Two Sticks," in which occurs 
the celebrated adTenture known as As- 
modetis's flteht. By direction of the 
demon, Don Cleo&s takes hold of Asmo- 
deus*s eloak, and is immediately borne 
through the air like an arrow,and perched 
vytm the steeple of St. Salvador. Ar- 
nred at this spot, the demon stzetches 
out his right arm, and at once, by his 
^Uabolieal power, the rooft of the houses 
an taken Oli, and, notirtthstanding the 

darkness of the night, the faiteriors are 
made ylsible. The scholar beholds, as at 
noonday, the Inside of al4 the houses, as 
one might view the inside of a pie fton 
which me crust had been removed. 

49* "It is impossible to conceive a 
being more fitted to comment upon tiM 
vices, and to ridicule the follies, of hu- 
manity, than an esprit foUet like Asmo- 
deus [in ' Le Diable Boitenz '], who is as 
much a decided creation of genius, in his 
way, as Ariel or Caliban. Without pos- 
seMing tlie darker powers and propen- 
sities of a fidlen angel, he presides over 
the vices and fitlUes, rather than ttie 
crimes, of mankind ; is maJidons r»t} ¥fT 
than malignant; and his delist is to 
gibe, and to scoff, and to teaie, rather 
than to torture ; — one of Satan^s li^t- 
Infantry, in short, whose business is to 
goad, perplex, and disturb the <ndinary 
train of soeie^, rather than to break in 
upon and overtluow it. This chaneter 
is maintained in all Asmodeus says and 
does, with so much spirit, wit, acuteness, 
and playful malice, that we never t>rget 
the fiend, even in tiiose moments wlien 
he is vray near becoming amiable as well 
as entertaining." Sir W. Seott. 

Could the iMder take mn Amiode¥9r0hf^ 
and, waying open all rooA and Driracies, look 
down from^ the roof of Notra-Dame, idiat a 
Flans were iti Oorl^ 

irBO^TM. [6r. •Aowflrtf.} ( Gr. f Bom. 
Mffih,) A son of Ooeaaiu and Te- 
thys, changed into a river for rebel- 
ling against Jupiter. 

A8-p&'ai-$ (as-pa'zhl-l). A female 
character in Beaumont and Fletcher's 
pUy, '' The Maid's iSwgedy." 

Jl^ " Her sorrows axe so deep, so 
pure, so unmerited; she sustains the 
breach of plighted fUth in Amyntor, and 
the taunts of vicious women, with «o 
much resignation, so little of that t(a> 
magant resentment these poets are apt to 
Infbse into their hwoines ; tib« poetry of 
her speeches is so exquisite^ fani^^tive, 
that, of those dramatic persons who ape 
not prominent in the development of a 
story, scarce any, even in Shakespeare, 
are more interesting." HdOam* 

Aasasainatioii Plot {Eng. MsL) The 
name given to a conspiracy formed 
in 1696^ by the Earl of Avlesbunr 
and others, to assassinate King Wil- 
liam in., near Richmond, as he re- 
turned from the ch^se. It was dis- 
covered Feb. 15, the day before that 
fixed upon for the execution of tha 

•■4 lir fltf Semarits and J(n)cs to whicl( i^t mun^t^xt aHer oerlsia words leftar, see pp. ziT-xsdI. 




At'Bi-en^to. [Sp., seat, contract, 
agreement.] A treaty or convention ; 
Bpecifically (8p. Hi$t.), a convention 
between the king of Spain and some 
foreign power for the supply of ne- 
groes for the Spanish American colo- 
nies. The first Asaiento was conclud- 
ed with the Flemings by Charles I. 
of Spain. In 1713, it was transferred 
to England by the treaty of Utrecht, 
and vberward made over for thirty 
years by the English government to 
the South-Sea Company, which, how- 
ever, in 1760, relinquished its rights 
to Spain, upon the payment of j£100,- 
000, ana tne concession of certain 
commercial advantages. [Written 
alsOj though rarely in English books, 
A s 1 e n 1 0, which is the proper Span- 
ish orthography.] 

At-tar'te. {Mrdh.) The Punic name 
of the Syrian deity named Aahtaroth. 


Wifh these in troops 
Came Astoreth, whom the PhaaicisiiR called 
AriarUy queen of heaven, with crescent horns ; 
To whoee brisht imase nightly by the moon 
Sidonian vir^ns paia their vows and songs { 
In Sion also not unsung, where stood 
Her temple on the o&nsive mountain, built 
By that uxorious king, whose heart, though 


Bqniled by fldr idolatresses, fcll 
To idols Ibul. 


As'to-lat. The name given to Guil- 
ford, in Surrey, in the old romances 
of the Arthurian cycle. 

Aa-tol'fo, or As-tol'pho. A celebrat- 
ed character in the romantic tales 
and poems founded upon the sup- 
posea adventures of Charlemagne 
and his paladins. Astolfo is repre- 
sented as^ the English cousin of Or- 
lando, being equidly descended with 
him from Charles Martel. He is a 
boaster, and is perpetually imder- 
taking great feats, which he is imable 
to perform ; but he is generous, and 
brave to fool - hardiness, courteous, 

£y, and singularly luuidsome. In 
iosto's "Orlando Furioso," he is 
made to cure Orlando's madness by 
bringing home his lost wits in a phial 
from the moon, imd is noted for his 
masic horn, that routed armies with 
a blast. 

In the hands of Antony Van Corlear, this 
windy instrument [the trumpet] appealed to 

him aa potent aafhe horn of the paladin AMtoU 
phOf or even the more classic horn of Alecto. 

A8-tr»'$. 1. [Gr. 'A arpala.'] {Gr.^ 
Rom. Myth. ) The goddess ofjustice, 
a daughter of Jupiter and Themis, 
or, according to others, of AstrsBus 
and Aurora. She was tne last of all 
the deities who left the earth when 
the golden age had passed away ; 
and, when she departed, shocked dv 
the impiety of mankind, she took 
her place in heaven among the stars, 
as the constellation " Virgo," in the 

2. A poetical nam'% assumed by 
Mrs. Aphara, or Anhra, Behn^ a 
dramatist and miscellaneous writer, 
of the seventeenth centuiy, notorious 
for the license of her life and writ- 

The stage how loosely does Attroea tread I 


As'tro-phel. [A sort of metagram- 
matic translation of PhiL Sm.j an 
abbreviation of PkiKp Si^netfi — Sid, 
being taken as a contraction of the 
Latin siduSy a star, in Gr. dorrpov, and 
PhiL standing for (j>l^y a friend. 
Hence, AstrophUy star-friend, or friend 
of the star [Stella], changed to Astro- 
jahdy which is the name of a flower- 
ing plant called also starwort.] A 
name given by Sir Philip Sidney to 
himself in a series of poems entitled 
" Astrophel and Stella," in which he 
celebrated the praises of Penelope 
Devereux, to wnom he was at one 
time betrothed. Spenser embalmed 
the mutual friendship of Sidney and 
himself in a pastoral ode entitled 
"Astrophel." See Stella, 1. 

The long-winded strophes of the divine 
AstropheL Sir W. ScoU. 

Aa-ty-'ft-niKZ. [Gr. 'karvava^.'] ( Gr. 
4" Rom. Myth.) The only son of 
Hector and Andromache. After the 
capture of Troy, the Greeks hurled 
him down from tiie walls of the city 
to prevent the fulfillment of a decree 
of rate, according to which he was to 
restore the kingdom of Troy. 

At'$.Ian't&. [Gr. 'Ara;idvr»7.] {Gr. 
4" Rom. Myth.) A princess of Scy- 
ros, or. according to others, of Arca- 
dia, who was famed for her beauty. 

For the **Key to the Scheme of Fhmnneiation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




She consented to marnr tluit one of 
her numerous suitors wno should out- 
ran her; but he was to die who lost 
the prize. After man^ had perished, 
Hippomenes offered himself; and, by 
dropping at intervals three golden 
apples from the garden of the Hes- 
perides, which Atalanta stopped to 
pick up, arrived first at the goal, and 
thus obtained her hand. 
i'te. [Gr. 'Ait?.] {Gr, f Mom. 
Myth,) A daughter of Jupiter, and 
the goddess of discord. Tne tragic 
writers describe her as the goddess of 

Atli'el-st&ne. A prominent character 
in Sir Walter Scott's novel of " Ivan- 
hoe." He is thane of Coningsburgh, 
and is sumamed "' The Unr^idy." 

A-the'ne. [Gr. 'A^j?.] {Myth.) 
One of the great female divinities of 
the Greeks; the same as the Minerva 
of the Bomans. See Minbbva. 
[Written also Athena.] 

Athenian Bee. A title bestowed 
upon Plato (b. g. 42^-^348), who was 
a native of Athens, in allusion to the 
sweetness and beauty of his style. 

Athens of America. A name 
sometimes given to Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. See MoDEBN Athsits, 2. 

Athena of Ireland. A popular des- 
i^adon of the city . of Cork, fhe 
birthplace or residence of very many 
of the most cultivated and eminent 
Irishmen of the present day. 

Athena of the North. See North- 
BBN Athens. 

At-lan't^ {lUpron, ftt-lftn'tess). A 
famous enchanter, who figures in 
Bojardo*s " Orlando Innamorato,*' 
and Aiio6to*s *^ Orlando Furioso,'* as 
the tutor of Bogero. 

"Hum mayit Iragb, . . . but it [the diadow 
of a hone with two riden] reminded me of 
the mesidan AUcaUu on nlB hippogriff witii 
a kniglu tmued np behind him. 


A^lXn'tia. [Gr. 'ArAavrtr.] Avast 
island supposed by the ancient Greeks 
and Bomans to have been situated in 
the western ocean, beyond the Pil- 
lars of Hercules. It was first men- 
tioned by Plato, who tells us that he 
obtained his information fix>m the 

I>riests of Egypt. He |;ive8 a beau- 
tiful picture of the intenor of this im- 
afidnary land, and enriches it with a 
fabulous histoiy. He says, that, nine 
thousand years before his time, the 
island suddenly sank into the sea, 
rendering it innavigable ever since 
by reason of the sho^s of mud caused 
by the submersion of so great an ex- 
tent of land. 

At-lftn'tia, The New. The title of 
an allegorical fiction bv Lord Bacon, 
and the name of an island described 
in it as being situated, like the At- 
lantis of the ancients, in the middle 
of the Atlantic Ocean. Bacon rep- 
resents himself as having been 
wrecked on this island, and as find- 
ing there an association for the cul- 
tivation of natural science and the 
promotion of improvements in flke 

Ata$B. [Gr. 'ArAof.] {Gr, f Rom, 
Myth.) One of tiie Titans^ son of 
lapetus and Clymene. Bemg con- 
quered by Jupiter, he was condemn^ 
to the labor of bearing on his head 
and hands the heaven he had at- 
tempted to destroy. Another ac- 
count makes him a man metamor- 
phosed into a mountain by Perseus. 

Atlas, Witoh of. See Witch of 

jL-t08'8$. [From Aiossa^ the daughter 
* of Cyrus, queen of Cambyses, and 
afterward of Darius Hystaspis. by 
whom she had Xerxes. Herodotus 
speaks of her as a follower of Sap- 
jj^o.] A poetical name ^ven by 
Pope to Sarah, Duchess of Marlbor- 
ough, a great friend of Lady Mary 
Woruey Montagu, whom Pope calls 
Sappho in his *"Moral Essays,*' £p. 

- n. 

But what tie fheae to greet Atoaaaea mind f 
Sceree once henelf, by tams all womankind. 


A'tretls. [Gr. 'Arpevf .] {Gr.^Rom, 
Myih.) A son of PelojM and Hippo- 
damia, grandson of Tantalus, and 
father oiAgamemnon and Menelaus. 

J$.-tri'dd9. [Gr. 'ATpei%.] {Gr. f 
Rom. Myth.) A patronymic used to 
designate Agamemnon, the son of 

«Dd tat the BemmilBi and Bnlet to which the numben after certain worda refer, aee pp. xlv-xxxii. 




Af ro-p&i. [Gr 'Arpoirof the inflex- 
ible, ftom & privative, ana Tpeireiv, to 
change.] (Orr. ^iScwa. ifvM.) On» 
of the three Paicse, or Fates; the 
one that cut the thread of life. 

Attic Bee. An appellation conferred 
by the ancients upon Plato (428-347, 
B. c), the famous philosopher of 
AUiens, on account or the purity of 
his style, and the unrivalea beauty 
and sweetness of his productions. 

Attio Muse. A title bestowed by the 
Greeks upon Xenophon (b. o. 450), 
the celebrated historian, on account 
of the merit of his style, which was 
regarded as a model or simplicity 
and elegance. He is sometimes 
called T%e Mute of Greece, 
At'ti-ous. 1. A poetical name given 
^y Pope to Addison in the " Epistle 
to Dr. Arbutbnot" which forms the 
'* Prologue to the Satires." AUictts 
was an epithet applied by the Ro- 
mans to a person distinguished for 
his learning or eloquence. 

S. A name given to Georse Faulk- 
ner (d. 1776), to whom Lord Chester- 
field addressed, under this tide, a 
series of ironical letters, which at- 
tained great celebrity. 

3. A name given to Richard He- 
ber (1773-1833), a famous English 
book-hunter, in Dibdin's '* Biblio- 

Attomey-Gtoneral to the Iiantem. 
[Fr. Procuretw-General de la Lan- 
feme.] A title adopted by Camille 
Desmoulins (1762-1794), one of the 
earliest instigators of the French 
Revolution, in reference to the sum- 
mary executions in the streets, when 
the mob took the law into theur own 
hands, and hanged tiiose whom they 
considered their opponents^ by means 
of the long ropes to which the lamps 
were suspended. 

A'tTS* [Gr. 'Arvf.] {Or. f Bom, 
Myth.) A beautiful Phrygian shep- 
herd, beloved by Cybele, who made 
him her priest on condition of per- 
I)etual chastity; but he broke his 
vow, became insane, unmanned him- 
self and was changed into a fir-tree. 
[Written also Attys, Attis, At- 
tes, Attin.] 

AtidlLtunbla (d^d-hd6m'blft). {Scand, 
Myth.) The name of a wonderful 
cow formed by the fiat of Alfadur, at 
the creation of the universe. She 
fostered the giant Ymir, and, by lick- 
ing the salt rocks in Ginnunga-gap 
(from which she obtained her own 
nourishment), she occasioned the birth 
of Buri, tiie progenitor of the gods. 
Audhumbla represents the power of 
nature acting upon chaos. [Written 
also Andnmbla and Audhum- 

Aadley, Jolm. A name used by 
tiieatrical performers, in the phrase, 
** We will John Audley it," when they 
intend to ahricU^ an act or a play. 
[Written also .Tohn Orderley.J 

tef *' In the year 1749, Shnter was 
master of a droll at Bartholomew Fair, 
and it was his mode to lengthen the ex- 
hibition until a sufficient number of per- 
sons were gattiered at the door to fill the 
house. This event was signified hy a 
fellow popping his head in at the galleiy- 
door, and bellowing out, * Mtn Audley y^ 
as if in act at inquiry, thou{^ the inten- 
tion was to let Shuter know that a fresh 
audience were in hig^ expectation below. 
' The conseqoenoe of this notification was, 
tluit the entertadnments were immediately 
ooDoIuded, and the gates of the booth 
thrown open for a new auditory." 


Au'drey. A country wench, in Shake- 
speare's ^ As Tou Like It." 

49* " Audrey is the most peifeet ape- 
eimen of a wondering she -gawky. . . . 
She thanks the g^ods she is foul, and, if 
to bo poetical Is not to be honest, she 
thanks the gods also ttiat she is not 
poetical." Cowden CUarke, 

She floorlBhed the iwitch she held in her 
hand, dropped a oomteay as low as a lady at 
a biruini^t introduetlon, recorerad henelf 
■eemingly according to Touehstone'a direc- 
tions to Judrevt ana opened ttie conTersation 
without waiting tUl any ^oestions were asked. 

air W. Soott, 

AxL'ie-iM. [Gr. A^yEOf.] {Gr. ^ 

JHom. Myih.) A king of felis, one of 

the Argonauts. It was the fifth of 

the twelve labors of Hercules to 

cleanse his stables in one day of the 

filth which had been produced in 

them by 3000 head of cattle during 

thirty years. This he accomplished 

by leading the waters of the Alpheus 

and the Peneus through them. The 

fable of the Augean stables is often 

For Am **K«y lo^tiM Sohomo of Froiraneiation," wltfa the aoeompanylng Sacplanations, 




afluded to in declamations on politi- 
cal comiptionB end the like. [Writ- 
ten also Aug las.] ' _ 

Anld Ane. [That is, the Old One.] 
A vulgar name for the Devil in Scot- 
land and the North, of England. The 
epithet **old," prefixed to so many 
or the titles of the Devil^ seems to 
indicate the common opimon that he 
can only appear in the shape of an 
old man. 

Aiild Clootie. A Scottish name for 
the Devil, supposed to allude to his 
cloven feet. 

Aiild Hangie. A name popularly- 
given in Scotland to the Devil. 

Anld Homie. Among the Scotch, a 

fiimiliar name for the DevU, who is 

often described and represented with 


O thou! -whuterer tifle tiiH thee, 

AiUd Homie, Sfttan, Nick, or Clootie, . . . 

Hear me, Aald Hankie, for • iree, 

And let poor damnid bodies be. Bunu. 

Anld Be^kie. A designation given 
to Edinbuigh on account or its 
smoky appearance, as seen from a dis- 
tance; or, accordmg to others, on ac- 
count of the uncleanliness of its pub- 
lic streets. 

JV ** This designation [Anld Beekie] 
remizMla one, that the quarter of 
to which it particuUrly refiara, presents, 
eTeatothisday, the spectacleof the most 
flagrant violation of the most elementary 
rules fyt the preserration of public 
health and the mainteoaace of domestio 
deceney." London Beview. 

Heeh, strs, but ye *ve i^otten a nasty, canld, 
wet day for coming into^uU J2eeX»«, as yon 
kintra folks ca* Embro. Jf. jAnMoy. 

When my mind was quite made up to make 
Anld Reekte my head-ouartera, I began to ex- 
plore, in good earnest, for the purpose of dis- 
eorering a suitaUe habitation. /8&- W. Scott. 

JLa-ro'li^ (9). [6r. 'Avpcof c5pa, the 
golden hour.] {Bom. Myth,) The 

goddess of the morning, or of the 
awn; sometimes described as the 
eoddess of day. She had a passion 
ror mortal youths, and earned off 
GUtus, Orion, and Tithonus. 

Aus'tSr. (Rom. Myth.) A personifi- 
cation of the south wind. 

AnatriazL Hyena. An appellation 
given to Julius Jakob von Havnau 
(1786-1853), an Austrian general dis- 
tinguished for his sinister appearance, 

and notorious fbr his mthless craelty 
to the prisonejis — particularly the 
female political prisoners — captured 
by the forces under his command, in 
the wars against Charles Albert of 
Sardinia and the Hungarians under 
Kossuth and Gorgey. 

Authentio Doctor. [Lat. Doctor Ait- 
1heniicw,'\ An honorary iwpellation 
conferred upon Gregory of^ Rimini 
(d. 1367 ), a celebrated scholar of the 
Middle Ages. 

Au-tol'jf--oii8. 1. [Gr. AiTo^wjf.] 

( Gr. 4- Rom. Myth.) One of the Aigo- 

nauts, a son of Mercury and Chione. 

He is very famous in ancient story 

as a successful robber, who had the 

power of metamorphosing both the 

stolen goods and himself. 

2. A witty rogue in Shakespeaoe^s 

" Winter's Tale." 

A lively, bustling arch ftllow, whose Back 
and oaken ell-wand, studded duly with onaa 
Doints, denoted him to be of Avtoiifcu^t pro- 
Rssion, oecn^ed a good deal of the attenaon, 
and lUmisliea much of the amusement, of the 
evening. Sir W. Scott, 

Av^ldn. In Middle-Age romance, 
the name of an ocean island, and or 
a castle of loadstone upon it, *^ not 
far on this side of the terrestrial par- 
adise; " represented as the abode of 
Arthur and Oberon and* Moigaine 
la F^. It is most fully described in 
the old French Romance of *^ Ogier 
le Danois." 

** Avalon was perhaps the Island 
of the Blest of the Geltf o mythology, and 
then the abode of the Fees, through the 
Breton Korrigan. Writers, howerer, 
seem to be unanimous in regarding it and 
Glastonbury as the same place, — called 
an isUj it is stated, as being made nearly 
such by the * river's embraoement.* It 
was named Avalon^ we are told, from the 
British word atfoly an apple, as it 
abounded with orchards ; and Ynys 
ginytirinj Saxon Glastn-ey^ glasi^ isle, 
(Ijuan CrlasUmiaf) from the green hue of 
the water surrounding it." KtighiUy. 

Avenel, "Wliite Iiady of. See Whitb 
Lady of Avenel. 

A-v8r'nu8 (4). [Gr. "Aopvof.] {Rom, 
Myth.) properly, a small, deep lake 
in Campania, occupying the crater 
of an extinct volcano, and almost 
completely shut in by steep and 
wooded b'sights. From its gloomy 

and for flie Bemarks and Bales to which the numbers after certain words reflsr, see pp. idv-xxzii. 




- and awiiil aspect, it waa described by 
the Latin poets as the entrance to the 
lower worm; but the name was often 
used to designate the lower world it- 
self. Avemus was also regarded as 
a divine being. 

JHy 'xn^r. Prior. A j ovial Benedictine 
monk, prior of Jorvaulx Abbey, in 
Sir Walter Scott's " Ivanhoe." 

JLy'm^n. {Fr,pnm, A'mia', 62.) A 
semi-mythical character who figures 
in the romances and romantic poems 
of the Carolian series. He is repre- 
sented as Duke of Dordona (Dor- 
dogne), and father of four sons, Ri- 
nudo, Guicciardo, Alardo, and Ric- 
dardetto (or Renand, Gniscard, Alard, 
and Richard), whose adventures are 
the subject ot an old French romance, 
entitled **Les Quatre-Filz-Aymon," 
by Huon de Villeneuve, a French 
poet of the age of Philip U. (1165- 

dJL-TO'Bel. Among the ancient Jews, 
the name inscribed upon one of tiie 
lots cast by the high priest, on the 
day of atonement, to determine which 
of the two goats selected as a sin-ot- 
ferinff should be the scape-goat, and 
whi(£ should be sacrificed to Jeho- 
vah. (See Leo, xvi.) There has been 
much discussion among biblical in- 
terpreters as to the meaning of the 
word Azazd, Some regard it as a 
designation of the ^oat itself; some 
as the name of the place to which he 
was sent; and others as the name of 
a personal being to whom he was 
sent Tholuck and other critics ren- 
der the word " for complete sending 
away.*' Ewald considers Azazel to 
have been a demon belonging to the 
pre-Mosaic religion. Another opin- 
ion identifies hmi with Satan, or the 

Devil. Milton makes him Satan's 

That pnrad honor olainied 

Axaxel as his right, a cherub tall; 

Who forthwith fiom his glittering staff ua- 

The imperial ensign, which, ftill high ad- 

Shone like a meteor streaming to the wind. 

Witii eems and golden luster rich emblazed. 

Seraphic arms and trophies. Par. Lott^ JB!fc7£ 

jL'zd. The name given by Byron to 
the Prince of £ste, in his poem of 
"Parisina." The poem is founded 
on fact, and the real name of the 
prince was Nicholas; but Lord Byron 
substituted Azo as being metrically 
preferable. See Pabisina. 

Az'rft-el. [Heb., help of God.] In 
the Jewish and the Mohammedan 
mvthology, the name of an angel 
who watches over the dyine, and 
separates the soul from the body. 

4Sr " The Mohunmedan doetom . . . 
say that Asrael . . . waa oommiaaioned 
to inflict the penalty of death on all 
mankind, and that, nntU the time of 
Mahomet, he visibly struck down before 
the eyes of the livhig those whose time 
for death was oome ; and although not 
iuTaziably seen by by-standers, yet he 
waa supposed to be always Tisible, in the 
rery act of inflicting the mortal blow, to 
those whose souls he was summoned to 
take away. Mahomet, struck by the ter- 
rific effect which this produ(»d upon 
men, entreated that the angel of death 
should take away the souls of men with- 
out this visible appearance ; and, in con- 
sequence of the prayers of the prophet, 
it was no longer permitted, but men^s 
souls were taken without their b^olding 
the angelic form which ranoved them." 

Henry Christmas. 

Even Azrtui^ from his deadly quiver 
When flies tiiat shaft and fly it must, 

That parts all else, shall doom for erer 
Our hearts to undivided dust. Bifron. 

Madness . . . invirible,impalpable,andyet 
no black AzraeL with wings spread over half 
a continent, with sword sweeping fiwm tea to 
sea, could be a truer reality. CarkfU. 

For the " K^ to tiie Scheme of Fronuaciation," with the aocompaayiag ^twpi«.^Bflffn,^ 





Ba^ [Heb., lord, master.] {Myth.) 
A general appeUation of oonor used 
— sometimes in the plural form, Ba- 
alim — to designate many different 
gods among tbe ancient nations of 
the East; but specificallj implied to 
the principal male deity of the Phoe- 
nicians, who was also worshiped in 
Assyria, Egypt, Carthage, and other 
countries. He was the god of the 
sun. See 1 Kin^s xviii. 

Jl^ " The word Baal is fipeqnentty found 
coupled with some epithet, and seems, m 
such cases, to have denoted a different 
deitj, or perhaps tiie same deity regaxded 
as ezercMng a different fanction. Thus, 
we have Ba3Ll>B«eth, "the Coreoant 
IiOTd," worshiped by uie people of She- 
ehem ; Baill-Peor, the Priapus of the Mo- 
abites and Blidiamtes : and Beelzebub, or 
Baail-aebnb, — the " Fly-god," — the idol 
of the Philistines at iScron. 

Baba, All (i'le' bft'b^). A character 
in the "Arabian Nights* Entertain- 
ments,'* which relates the stor^ of 
his adventures with the Forty Thieves 
(^. v.), whom he discovers from his 
hiding-place in a tree, and whose 
cave he enters by the use of a magic 
pass-word, " Sesame," which he has 
accidentally overheard. 

Baba, Cassim (kis'sim bft'bi). A 
character in the *^ Arabian Nights* 
Entertainment^;** the brother of All 
Baba. See Fobty Thieves. 

The spell Ioms its poweri^Mid he whoehonld 
then hope to eoniure with it would find him- 
■elf as much mistaken as Ccmim . . . when 
he stood c^insf, "Open, Wheat," "Open, 
Barley," to the door which obeyed no sound 
but '* Open, Sesame." MacauHay. 

B^a, Hi^i(hid'jee bft^bft). The hero 
of a novel of the same name, by James 
Morier (1780-1849); a sort of Persian 
picaroon, on the Gil-Bias model. 

Babes in the 'Wood. See Chil- 


Babes of the "Wood. {Iri^ Bttt.) 
Insurrectionary hordes who infested 
the mountains of Wicklow and the 
woods near Enniscarthy, toward the 
end of the eighteenth century, and 
who were guilty of the greatest 

Baboon» Ziewis. Louis XTV. of 
France; — so called in Arbuthnofs 
"Histoiy of John Bull.** 

Baboon, Philip. A nickname givAi, 
in Arbuthnofs "History of John 
Bull," to PhiUp, Duke of Anjou, 
grandson of Louis XIY . of Fiance. 

Bac'shos. [Gr. Boxxo^t ^® noisy or 
riotous god.] {Gr, ^ Rom. Mtfii.^ 
The son of Jupiter and Semele, ana 
the god of wine; represented as a 
beautiful bat effeminate youth. 

Bachelor of Salamanoa. See Don 

Baokbite, Sir Bex^amin. A censo- 
rious character in Sheiidan*8 " School 
for Scandal.'* 

But could thia sad, thonghtftal eountenaaes 
he the same racant fltce of folly . . . that 
looked out so formally flat in Foppington, so 
ftothily pert in Tattle, so impotently busy in 
Bactt/Uet ChcalesLamb. 

Bac'tri-^ Sage. An epithet given 
to Zoroaster, the founder of the Ma- 

§ian religion, and a native of Bactria, 
le modem Balkh. 

Badebec (b&d^bek')- The wifi^ of 
Gargantua, and mother of Pantag- 
ruel, whose birth was the cause of 
her death; wliich is not to be won- 
dered at, since he came into the 
world accompanied by eighty -one 
sellers of sal^ each leading a mule 
by a halter; nine dromedaries, lad- 
en with ham and smoked tongues; 
seven camels, laden with eels; be- 
sides twenty -five wagons full of 
leeks, garlic, onions, and shallots. 

Bad£:er State. A name popularly 
given to the State of Wisconsm. 

Badincniet (bft^d&n/gft', 62). A nick- 
name eiven in France to the em- 
peror Kapoleon IIL 

Ba'don, Mount (ba^dn). The scene 
of a battle which is said to have been 
fought by King Arthur against the 
Saxons who invaded his kingdom, 
and in which the latter were sifmally 
defeated. By some writers, Badon 
has Been identified with Bath, by 
others with Berkshire. 

Bag'stook, Joe. A wooden-featured, 

and for the Bemarks and Rules to which the numhets sfter certain words leftr, see pp. ziv-xxxiL 




BIQ'mt-wliftp'ple (-pi). A stupidly 
obstinate Scottish Uird who figures 
in Scott's novel of " Waverley.'* 

Bftlnmng (bdl'md&ng). A sword of 
great potency, belonging to Siegfried 
in the Grerman epos, the ^* Nibelun- 
gen Lied." Von der Hagen seems 
to think it merely the sword Mimung 
under another name. See Mimumo 
and WiELAin>. 

Yonne hearts, cencratlmi after generation, 
will think with themflelves, O worthy niwor' 
ship, thou king-deflcendea, jrod-descended, 
and poor iLrter-woman [the Princeds de Lam- 
ballejl why was not I there [at her execu- 
tion]} and lome Sword Batmimg, or Thor*« 
Hammer Ih my handf CbHIirle. 

BfiL'ni-barHjL A land occupied by 
projectors, visited bv Gidliver in his 
famous imaginaiy '^Travels." See 


Bal-thaB'ar. 1. A merchant in Shake- 
speare's " Comedy of Errors." 

2. A servant to Don Pedro, in 
"Much Ado about Nothing." 

3. A name assumed by Fortia, in 
Shakespeare's *' Merchant of Yen- 
ice." See Portia. 

4. One of the ^* Kings of Cologne,*' 
— the three magi who came from the 
East to worship the infant Saviour. 

Balwery, Great Witoh of. See 
Great Witch of Balwebt. 

BSl'whid-der, The Bev. Mioah 
(b&l'hwlfli>nr). A Scottish Presby- 
terian pastor in Gait's *^ Annals of 
the Parish," hnbued with all old- 
fashioned national feeling and prej- 
udices, but thoroughly smcere, kind- 
hearted, and pious. He is easy, 
garrulouSj (bnd of a quiet joke, and 
perfectly ignorant of the world; dUi- 
gentj blameless, loyal, and exemplaiy 
m his life, but without the fieiy zetu 
and'** kirk-filling eloquence" of tfie 
supporters of the Covenant. 

Ban, King. The ikther of Lancelot 
du Lac, and a famous knight of the 
Round Table. He was a king of 
Brittany, and a faithftd ally of King 

Banou, Feri. See Pabibasou. 

Ba&'qno (bangk'wo). A Scottish 
thane and warrior of the eleventh 
century, and progenitor of the royal 
House of Stuart, immortalized in 

For the **K»j to tbc Scheme of Fronnneiatton," with the accompanying Explanationa, 

blue-faced major in Dickens's "Dom- 
bey and Son," self-absorbed, and for 
ever talking of ** J. B.," "old J. B.," 
"Joey B.,'^&c. 

Baillie Nlool Jarvie. See Jarvib, 
Baillib Kicol. 

Baieer de Iiamonrette, lie. See 
Lamourette's Kiss. 

Bajardo (bftre-aPdo). See Batard. 

BU'der-st^ne, Caleb. In Sur Wal- 
ter Scott's " Bride of Lammermoor," 
the faithful old butler of the Master 
of Ravenswood. He struggles most 
virtuously, without food, fruniture, or 
comfort, to maintain an appearance 
of. affluence, and is idways ready 
with some ladicrous shift to uphold 
the fidlen dignify of his patron. 

Jl^ " Of all onr author's fbols and 
boTBO, he is the most pwtlnacious, the 
most introslTe, and, from the natun of 
his one moaotoaoas note, the least par- 
donable in his intrurion His silly 
bnflbonery is always marring, with gross 
absurdities and abrading associaoons, 
some scene of tenderness or dignity.",^ 


The QaIHe fbray wai even more terrible 
and ntal ttian Roman Tanitr choee to arow. 
It was like CSxIeb ^alder«tone^ thunderstorm, 
OT Edward the First's destruction of chartersi 
ftir it utteily rained ewrljr Roman history. 


BalduT (bW'ddbr). [Old Norse, bril- 
liant, beautiful, poweriiill (Scand, 
Muth.) The second son of Odin and 
Fngga; the god of the summer sun; 
represented as the noblest, gentlest, 
and wisest of all the gods, and so fair 
that a brilliant white light streamed 
from his person. In consequence of 
the machinations of Loki, he was 
slain by his twin brother, Hodur, the 
blind god of war. His death tjrpiaes 
the disappearance of the sun fVom 
the horizon during the winter months 
in the North. [Written also Bal- 
der and Balldr.] 

Balisardo (bft-Ie-saf'do). [Itl The 
name of a sword which, acooroing to 
Ariosto, m his "Qriando Furioso," 
would cut even enchanted substences, 
and was made by a potent sorceress, 
named Falerina, to kill Orlando with. 
It became the property of Ruggiero. 

Ballengeisb, Ooodman of. See 
Goodman pp Badlengeigh. 




Shakettieaie's tragedy of "Mac- 

Like BoMqwt^i maxderert ifa«re wm blood 
on his ikce, as ireO as apon the rowels of his 
•puis, and the ddes of his over-ridden hone. 

Sir W, Seott. 

Ban'shee. In the popular supeisti- 
tions of the Irish, a sort of tutelary 
female demon, called the wife of the 
fairies, who is thought to give warn- 
ing of an approachmg deam by wail- 
ings and shrieks which she utters. 
[Vr ritten also Benshie.] 

Baph'o-xnet. A mysterious idol, or 
^rather symbol, which was in use 
among the Templars. It was a small 
human figure, cut out of stone, and 
covered with emblems of unknown 
signification. It had two heads, one 
male and the other female, with the 
rest of the body purely feminine 
Specimens are to be found In some 
cr the museums of Continental dties. 

The word Baphomet is supposed 
to be a comiptioii — arising from the 
negUgenee of some trauscrimr — of the 
name Mahomet^ oocurring in the dep08&> 
tionsof witnesses against the onilnrtanate 
Templars, who were acoased of baTJng 
a leaning to the fiiith of the Arabian 

Biq^Mirte, Jean (zhd^ bft't^t', 02). A 
sobriquet given to the French Cana- 
dians, these being vecy common 
Christian names among them. 

Baanitttris (bft-rft-tft're-&). [Sp., from 
barato, cheap J Sancho Pan2a*s isl- 
and-city, in Cervantes*s romance of 
"Don Quixote." ** Sancho then, 
with all his attendants, arrived at a 
town containing about a thousand 
inhabitants. They gave him to un- 
derstand that it was caDed the island 
of Barataria, either because Barata- 
ria was really the name of the place, 
or because he obtained the govern- 
ment of it at so cheap a rate. On 
his arrival near the gates of the 
town, the municipal officers came out 
to receive him. Presently after, with 
certain ridiculons ceremonies, they 
presented him with the keys of the 
town, and constituted him perpetual 
governor of the island of Barataria." 

Saaeho Ffenza, tn his island of Barataria^ 
neither administered jnstiee more wisely, nor 
was tntermpted more proroUngty in his i 
wnal indalgemeea. SJm 

I don't eat side-dishes; and as for the raasl 
beef of Old Ensland, wliy, the meat waa jput 
on the table and whisked-away like Sancfio's 
inauguration feast tABarataria. Thackeraif. 

Bar^^aoii (-sn). The name of a 
fiend mentioned by Shakespeare, 
"Merry Wives of Windsor," a. u., 
sc. 2, and " Hemy V.," a. ii., sc. 1. 

Barber Foet^ A Jiame sometimes 
given to Jacqnes Jasmin (1798-1864), 
a popular poet of Gascony, and a 
barber or hair-dlresser by occupation. 

Ba]sdell% Krs. A widow landlady m 
Dickens's " Pickwick Paper8,"'cele- 
brated for the suit which sue brought 
against Mr. I^ckwick for an alleged 
breach of |BX>mi6e to many her. 

Bard of A'^^n. A surname often ap- 
plied to Shakespeare, who was bom 
and buried in Snratfora-upon-Avon. 

Bard of Ayratajre. A name often 
given to Robert Bums, the great 
peasant-poet of Scotland, who was a 
native and resident of the county of 

Bard of Hope. A title sometimes 

fiven to Thomas Campbell (1777*- 
844), author of "The Pleasures of 
Hope," one cf the most beautiful di- 
dactic poems in the language. 

Bard of Memory. A name used to 
designate the poet Bogers (1763- 
1855), author of " The Measures of 

The Bard <^ Mtmort slnmbered on his 
laurels, and he of Hope had scarce hegan to 
attract hla share of pnbBe attention. 

8irW. Soon, 

Bard of Olney. An appellation 
sometimes conforred upon the poet 
Cowper, who resided for many years 
at Olney, in Buckinghamshire. 

Bard of Rydal Motmt. A surname 
sometimes applied to the poet Words- 
worth (1770-1860). who resided from 
1813 until his death at Rydal, a chap- 
elryof England, in the county of West- 
moreland. His dwelling commanded 
a beautiful view of thelake of Rydal 
and of a part of Windermere. 

Bard of Twiok'en-li^. A name 
often given to the poet Pope (1688- 
1744), who resided at Twickenham 
for the last thirty years of his life. 

Of all the aUect and despieable drirellnfc. 
ever driveled by clerk or U^man, is all thas 

aadtethe Bemarks and Bales to which the numbers after certain worAt refer, see pp. zir- 





late diirellxur about fhe etenuil prindplet of 
poetry, andihe genios of the Beard qf Turick- 
emkam. Blackwoodr$ Mag. 

Bar'dQipli. A follower of Falstaff, a 
bravo, and a humorist, in Shake- 
speare's " Merry Wives of Windsor," 
and in the two parts of ** King Henry 

We are mneh of fhe mind of FalstalFli tailor. 
We miut hare better aaranuice for Sir John 
than Bardo^'B. We like not the Mcuii^. 


Thought like Bardo^pk^ I haye nottiing, 
and cannoik eren coin mr noee for guineas, or 
my blood for draehmaa, it i« not the lets flat- 
tering to a man's minor vanities to receive a 
bc^guig letter. Sola. 

Bareni>dne'9 Farliament. {Eng. 
Hist.) A nickname conferred upon 
the Parliament convened by Crom- 
well, July 4, 1653. It was composed 
of 139 persons, who resigned their 
authority Dec. 12, 1653; and it was' 
80 called from a fanatical leather- 
seller named Praise-Grod Barebone, 
who was one of the principal mem- 
bers, and was notorious for his long 
prayers and sermons. [Called also 
lAUte Parliament.] 

Bar'ffuest. {Fairy Myth.) A fright- 
^ goblin, armed with teeth and 
claws, which is an object of terror in 
the North of England. According 
to Bitson (" Fairy Tales," p. 58), the 
Barguest, besides its many other 

S ranks, would sometimes, in the 
ead of night, in passing through 
the different streets, set up the most 
horrid and continuous shneks, in or- 
der to scare the poor girls who might 
happen to be out m bed. It was 
generally believed that the faculty 
of seeing this goblin was peculiar to 
certain individuals, but that the gift 
could be imparted to anotiher, at the 
time of the ghost's appearance, by 
the mere act of touching. 

BarldB. A carrier in Dickens's novel 
of " David Copperfield," in love with 
a servant-girl named Peggotty, whom 
he solicits in marriage by writing and 
displaying before her eyes a proposal 
umquely worded, " Barkis is wilun'." 

Barleyoom, Sir John. In England 
and Scotland, a jocular name for ale 
or beer, which is made of barley. 
Sir John is the subject of a famous 
old ballad of the same name. In a 

whimsical English tract of andent 
date, entitled *^ The Arraigning and 
Indicting of Sir John Barleycorn, 
Knt.." he is described as of ** noble 
blooa, well beloved in England, a 
great supporter of the crown, and a 
maintainer of both rich and poor." 
The following list of the jury is curi- 
ous: — 

Timothy ToM-pot. 
Beigamin Bumper. 
Oitos Lick-spigot. 
Bamaby Full-pot. 
Lancelot Toper. 
John Six-go-<lown8. 

Bichaid Standflwt. 
Small Stout. 
John Never-Bober. 
Obadiah Thirsty. 
Nicholas Spend-thrift. 
Edmund Empty-puiae. 

Sir John is tried in regular form, the 
j ury returning a verdict of Not Guilty. 

Inspiring bold John Barleycomt 

What dangers thou canst makfc ns seom I 

Wi* tippenny we fear nae evil; 

Wr nsquebae we 11 fiMse the derill Bwnu. 

Good John BarUvoomy also, who alwaja 
heightens and exaggerates the prevailing ] 

sions, be they angiy or kindly, was not want- 
ing upon tluB ocMsion. Sir W. Scott, 

John Barieveom has riven his veiy heart to 
fliis liquor [the **Arehdeacon^: it is a su- 
perior Idnd of ale, the Prince of Ales, with a 
richer flavor and a mlriitier spirit than you 
can And elsewhere in tms weaiy world. 


Bar'zne-<dde, The. A prince of the 
illustrious familv of the same name, 
which flourished at Bagdad contem- 
poraneouslv with the C^iph Haroun- 
Al-Raschid and his predecessors ; rep- 
resented in the "Arabian Nights* 
Entertainments" as ordering rich 
viands for a £Eumshed beggar named 
Shacabac, and, before they could be' 
brought, calling upon him to help 
himself to the different dishes, — 
naming them one after another. The 
beggar humored the joke, pretend- 
ing to eat, and praismg the enter- 
tamment, and>even protesting that 
he could eat no more. In the end, 
the eccentric host, pleased with the 
patient complaisance of his guest, 
ordered a real and sumptuous enter- 
tainment for him, in place of that of 
whidi he had previously partaken 
only in imagination. 

It is, to be sure, something Uke fhe ftast 
which the Barmecide served up to Alnaachar 
[Shacabac]; and we cannot expect to get flit 
upon such diet ' Sir W. Scott, 

The Bcujnecide'M dinner to Shacabac was 
only one degree removed fh>m these solemn 
banquets. TTuMckera^. 

For the ** Key to tlie Scheme of Pronunciation,** with the accompanying Explanations, 




Am ibr Kwl Albert, he bed hii new pleuant 
dream of aoTereignty at Ptag: Titular of Up- 
per Austria, and now (tf Bttlunen as well, and 
eigoyed hia Feast of the Barmecide^ and glo- 
rious repose in the captured metropoUs uter 
difficult overcome. Carlyle. 

Bar'xi&-bf , 'Widow. The title of a 
novel \iy Mrs. Trollope, and the 
name of its heroine, wno is cUstin- 
guished for her husband -hunting 
schemes, her pretension, vulgar afr- 
surance, and want of principle. 

Bamaby Bad^. See Budob, Bab- 


Bar'nf-dlne. A dissolute and reck- 
less character, " fearless of what 's 
past, present, and to come," who fig- 
ures in Shakespeare^s *^ Measure for 

Bam-bumeni. 1. Lawless individ- 
uals who secretl V set fire to the bams 
of the ^reat landed proprietors in the^ 
State of New York, in the first half 
of the nineteenth century. 

2. A nickname formerly given to 
the more radical and progpre^ive sec- 
tion of the Democratic party in the 
United States, who aimed at remov- 
ing the abuses connected with banks 
and conwrations, in allusion to the 
story of an old Dutchman who re- 
lieved himself of rats by burning his 
bams, which they infested. 

Bam'well, Qeorge. The hero of 
Lillo's tragedy of the ^ame name, 
founded on an old ballad. Barnwell 
is a London apprentice hurried on to 
ruin and murder by an infamous wo- 
man, who at last delivers him up to 
justice and to an ignominious death. 

Barons, "War of the. See War of 
THE Barons. 

Barrel-Mirabeau (mXr'|-bo). [Fr. 
Mirabeau- TonneauJj X nickname^ 

Siven to Boniface Biquetti, Viscount 
e Mirabeau (1754-1'^2), brother to 
the great tribune. He was so ciJled 
irqm his bulk, and the quantity of 
drink he usually held. 

B&r^rett^ Clerk, "Walter. A pseudo- 
nym of Jose^ A. Scoville (d. 1864), 
author of "The Old Merchants of 
New York." 

Barriers, Battle of the. See Bat- 
tle OF THE Barriers. 

Bartholo (baf'to'lo')- A doctor wb» 
pla^s a prominent part in Beaumar- 
chais' comedies, "Le Mariage de 
Figaro " and " Le Barbier de Seville." 

Bar'thol'o-mew'f Day, St. [Fr. 
La SL-Barthelemy ; Ger. Bartholo- 
mdumachty Bartholomew's Night, or 
BluUiockzeitj Blood-wedding.] {Fr, 
Bist.") The appellation given, hi 
Engbsh books, to a dreadftd massa- 
cre of French Protestants, commenced 
in Paris on the eve of the festival of 
St Bartholomew, August 24, 157S. 
The massacre was secretly ordered 
bj^ the king, Charles IX., at the in- 
stigation of his mother, the <]^ueen- 
dowager, Catharine de' Medici, and 
was attended by circumstances of 
the most fiendish crueltr^. It is esti- 
mated that in all 30,000 (some au- 
thorities say 70,000) persons were 
murdered. jjCalled also The Barthol- 
omew, and The Massacre of 8U Bar- 

Baaile (b&^zeP)- A character in Beau- 
marchais' comedies, ** Le Mariage de 
Figaro" and "Le Barbier de Se- 
ville ; " a calumniator, a bigot, and a 
niggard. The name is used gener- 
icaUv in French, to designate any 
similar character. 

Bas^i-lia'co. A foolish and boastftd 
knight in an old play called " Soli- 
man and Perseda," so popular that 
his name became proverbial. 

Bas-s&'xii-o. The lover of Portia, m 
Shakespeare's " Merchant of Venice.'* 
See Portia. \ 

Bastard of Orle-&ii§. |^Fr. Bdtard 
cf Orleans.'] An appellation applied 
to Jean Dunois (1403-1468), a natu- 
ral son of Louis, Duke of Orleans, 
brother of Charles YI. He was one 
of the most brilliant soldiers that 
France ever produced. 

Bj^ta'vi-^ The ancient Latin name 
of Holland, — often used in modem 

Lo I where, through flat Bataoia'i wWowj 

Or by the Ibzj Seine, the exile roves. 


Batemaxiyliord. See Lord Beicran. 
Bath, Maid of. See Maid of Bath. 
B&th, Major (2). The name of a 

•ad Itar the Bemeriu and Bulea to which the nnmben after certain words reliBr, see pp. ziT-xX3dL 




character in Flelding^s noyel of 
'* Amelia;" a poor and pompous, 
but noble-minded gentleman^ who 
•wears, **by the honor and dignity 
of man," and is caught cookinj^ some 
ffruel in a saucepan for his ailmg sis- 
Bath, 'Wife of. See Wife of Bath. 

Sat/rt-sho^my-o-ma'shi-f- See 

Battle of the Fboos ai«d Mice. 
Battle, The Tearless. [Gr. 'Adoxpvc 
f'^XV'} {Gr. SitL) An engagement 
between the Lacedsemonians, under 
Aichidamus II., and the Arcadians 
and Argives (b. c. 367), in which 
the latt^ were defeated with great 
slaughter, while not one Spartan fell. 
Hence, says Plutarch, it was " known 
by the name of the Tearless Battle." 
[Called also The Tearieta Victory.] 

Battle of Spnzv. J[Fr. Joumee des 
fyerons,] {Fr, Biti.) 1. A name 

fiven to the battle of Courtray (July 
1, 1302), the tirst great enffagement 
between the nobles and the Dur^hers. 
which, with the subsequent batUes ot 
Bannockbum, Crecy, and Poictiers, 
decided the fate of feudalism. In 
this encounter, the knights' and gen- 
tlemen of France were entirely oyer- 
thrown by the citizens of a (Memish 
manufacturing town. The French 
nobility rushed forward with loose 
bridles, and fell headlong, one after 
another, into an enormous ditch, 
which Lay between them and tibeir 
enemies. The whole army was anni- 
hilated; and when the spoils were 
gathered, there were found 4000 
ffolden spurs to mark the extent of 
the knightly slaughter, and giye a 
name to the engagement. 

X beheld fhe FtemUh ireeTerSr with Namiir 

and Julien bold* 
Marching homewud from the bloody AiKle 

qfthe i^pmt ot Gold. LoigfdUno. 

2. A name giyen to an affair 
at Guinegate, near Calais (August 
18, 1513), m which the English 
tanoopa under Heniy YIII. defeated 
the French forces. The allusion is 
said to be to the imusual enerjgy of 
the beaten party in riding off the 

Battle of the Barriers. {Fr. Mitt.) 

The name of a battle fought under 
the walls of Paris, on the 30th of 
March, 1814, between the forces un- 
der Napoleon and the anfiies of the 
allied sovereigns. The latter, after 
an obstinate contest, gained the yic- 
torjr, which led to the capitulation of 
Paris, and the abdication of Napo« 

Battle of the Books. The subject 
of a satirical composition by Swift, 
entitled " The Battle . . . between 
the Ancient and Modem Books in 
St. James's Library," alluding to a 
celebrated controversy among the 
literary men of his day regarding the 
respective merits of anciendb and mod- 
em learning. 

Battle of the Frogs and Mice. [Gr. 
Parpaxouvouaxia, Lat Batrachomy- 
omachia^ The subject of a mock- 
heroic poem, ascribed to Homer, but 
evidenUv of a much later origin, and 
apparently designed to travesty the 
" jfliad " and " Odyssey." 

Battle of the Giants. {Fr. HkL) A 
name gpiven to the celebrated battle 
of Marignano (Melegnano), Sept. 13, 
1515, in which Francis L of France 
fouffht against the Swiss, who were 
led by the Duke of Milan. Francis 
lost, upon this occasion, 8000 of his 
best troops, but displayed extraordi- 
naiy generalship, and acquired ex- 
tensive fame. 

Battle of the Herrings. {Eng. BuL) 
A name given by historians to an 
engagement which took place Feb. 
12, 1429, in which Sir John Fastolfe, 
an Engliah ^n^ral, at the head of 
1500 men, gamed a victory over 6000 
Frenchmen near Orleans, and brought 
a convoy of stores in siafety to the 
English camp before that place. The 
stores comprised a large quantity of 

Battle of the Kegs. The subject 
and title of a mock-heroic poem by 
Francis Hopkinson (173^-1791). This 
ballad, very famous in the dme of 
the American Revolution, was occa- 
sioned by a real incident. 

PST " Oertain machines fai fhe form 
of kegs, ohacged with gunpowder, were 
sent down the river to annoy the British 

For fhe "Key to the Scheme ©f Fnmuneiatioii,** with the Meompaaylng ^^T^hnfitlftM, 




vhipping ihMi at Philadelphia. The 
daii^per of these machines being dis- 
eoTered, the British manned the wharft 
and shipping, and discharged tiieir small- 
aims and oaonons a4 ererj tUtag thej 
saw floating in the zim during the ebb- 
tide." Autkor'a Note. 

Battle of the Zi'atioiifl. A name 
sometimes given to the battle of 
Leipsic (1813), one of the greatest 
and most sangfoinaiy battles en mod- 
em times, on aoconnt of the various 
nationalities, French, Austrian, Rus- 
sian, Prussian, &c, which were there 

Battle of the Poets. The subject 
and title of a poem (1725) bj John 
Sheffield, Duke of Buckingfaiam, in 
which he brinss all the versifiers of 
the time into toe field. 

Battle of the St«nd«rd. {Eng. BUi.) 
A name given to an engagement be- 
tween tie Knglish and Scotch at 
NorthaHertoii, Yorkshire, Aug. 22, 
1188, resulting in the defeat of the 
latter. It was so called on accoimt 
of a high crucifix borne by the Eng- 
lish upon a wagon as a mHitaiy en- 

Batfle of the Thirty- D^. Combat 
dea IVente.] {Eng. rf Fr. Sitt,) A 
name ^en to a celebrated engage- 
ment which took place at a spot 
known as Midway Oak, half-way 
between the castles of Josseiin and 
Ploermel, in Fiance, March 27, 1861. 
The French General Beaumanoir, 
commanding the former post, being 
enraged at tne depredations commit- 
ted DY Bemborough, the English 
f^tmenkj occupying toe latter posi- 
tion, challenged lum to fi^ht. Upon 
this, it was agreed tiiat tturty kni^ts 
of each party should meet and de- 
cide the contest. The two chieft 
presented themselves at the head of 
meir best soldiers, and the battie be- 

rin earnest. At the first onset, 
Efiglifth were successful; but 
Bemborougfa having been killed, the 
French renewed the struggle with 
redoubled courage, and finally won 
the victory. 

$^ This -was. one of the most hereto 
ezplotts of the age, and gained sucli 
popoluitjr, that, more than a hondred 

jmn later, when spealdog of a havd eon- 
test, it was nsnal to say. '* Thers was 
nerer such hard fighting sinoe the Battle 
cf the Thirty.'* 

B4a'o|s. [6r. Bae«ir.] {Gr,^Bonu 
Mffth,) An aged Phiysian woman, 
who, with her husband, Philemon, 
hospitaUy received Jupiter and Mer- 
cunr, after every one else in the place 
had refused to entertain them. The 
gods visited the country with an in- 
undation, but saved Baucis and Phi- 
lemon, and converted their humble 
dwelling into a magnificent temple^ 
of which this pious couple becune 
the priests. Having expressed a 
wish to die together, when the time 
of their departure snould oome, Ju- 
piter granted their request bj ohimg- 
mg them simultaneous^ into two 
trees before the temple. 

Bayieoa (bft-ve-a'kft). The name of a 
famous steed of the Cid. He sur- 
vived bis master two years and a 
half, durhig which time no one was 

Sirmitted to mount him. When he 
ed, hewas buried before the gate 
of the moaasteiy at Valencia, in the 
public place, and two elms were 

Slanted upon the grave, the one at 
is head, tiie other at his feet. 

Bay'trd {Fr,pr<m. bPafM. 1. A fiu 
mous horse, of incredible swiftness, 
belonging to tiie four sons of Aymon. 
(See Aymon.) He was of the ordi- 
narv size when only one of them 
wished to ride, but, when all four 
were to be carried, he had the power 
of elongating his body till it was 
of the requisite dimensions. Many 
wonderfiil things are related of him. 
It is said that one of his foot^^iints 
is to be seen in the forest of Soignes 
in Brabant, and another on a rock 
near Dinant. 

S. The same name is given in the 
old romances and romantic poems to 
Rinaldo's famous steed, a wonderful 
animal of a bright bay color, which 
had fi>rmerly belonged to Amadis de 
Gaul. He was found by Malagigi, 
the wizard knight and cousin to Ki- 
naldo, in a grotto, together with a 
suit of arms and the sword Fusberta, 
under the wateh of a dragon whom 

■adfbr the Bemarks and BoleB to whieh the nmnboa after eextynwotds reftr, ■«• pp. ziT-zazil. 




he chaimed. Having obtained the 

Erize, he bestowed it upon Rinaldo. 
a. the French romances, he is repre- 
sented to be yet alive in some of the 
forests of France ; but runs off on be- 
holding any one ; on which account 
all hope of siecuring him is vain. 
BayeQ. The name of the principal 
character in ** The Rehearsal," a witty 

as a satire upon the heroic or rhym- 
ing plays of his time. It was first 
brought out in the vear 1671. In its 
original form, the character of Bayes 
was meant for the Hon. Edward 
Howard (for whom Sir William 
Davenant was afterwards substitut- 
ed); but, in its present form, the hero 
of the satire is Dryden, who had 
stood forth not only as a practicer, 
but as the champion, of this peculiar 
species of the drama. He is repre- 
sented as greedy for applause; impa- 
tient of censure or cnticism; inomi- 
nately vain, yet meanly obsequious 
to those who, he hopes, will^ gratify 
him by returning his flattery in kind ; 
and, finally, as anxiously and dis- 
tressingly mindful of the minute 
parts of what, even in the whole, is 
scarce worthy of attention. 

In Bhortf rir, 70U are of opinion with Atye*, 
— ** What the devil does the plot BignifV. ex- 
cept to bring in fine tilings ? "^ SirlV, Scott. 

Bayou State. A name sometimes 
given to the State of Mississippi, 
which abounds in bayous, or creeks. 

Bay State. A popular name of Mas-, 
sachusetts, which, before the adop- 
tion of the Federal Constitution, was 
called the Colony of Massachusetts 

lift ag^n the stately emblem on the JBajf 

SKate'f meted shield. 
GiTO to Northern winds the pine-tree on our 

banner's tattered field I WMttier. 

When first the Pilgrims landed on the Bcty 

State's iron shore. 
The word went forth that sUveiy should one 

day be no more. LoweU, 

Bean Iiian, Don'^ld. A Highland 
robber -chief in Sir Walter Scott's 
novel of " Waverley." 

B6amai8, lie (lu bi'af'nft')- A sur- 
name given to' Henry IV., king of 

France and Navarre (1653-1508), 
from his native province, Le B^am. 
He was so called in especial by the 
Leaguers (see League, The)^, who 
refused to recognise him as king of 
France, or even as king of Navarre. 

Bear State. A name by which the 
State of Arkansas is sometimes des- 
ignated, on account of the number 
<H bears that infest its forests. 

Be'$-trioe {It. pron, b&-&4re'ch&). 
1. The Christian name of a young 
Florentine lady of the illustrious 
family of Portinari, for whom the 
poet Dante conceived a strong but 
purely Platonic affection, and whom 
ne represents, in the ** Divina Corn- 
media," as his guide through para- 

2. The heroine of Shakespeare's 
" Much Ado about Nothing." 

ji^- "The extraordinaTy success of 
this play in Shakespeture's own day, and 
eyer since, in England, is to be ascribed 
more particularly to the parts of Bene- 
dick and Beatrice, two hmnorsome be* 
ings, who incessantly attack each other 
with all the resources of railleiy. Avowed 
rebels to love, they are both entangled in 
Its net by a merry plot of their friends to 
make them belieye that each is the obtject 
of the secret passion of the other." Sade- 
gel, IVans. — "In Beatrice, high intellect 
and high animal spirits meet, and excite 
each other like fire and air. In her wit 
(which is brilliant without being imagina- 
tive) there is a touch of insolence, not in- 
flreqnent in w<»nen when the wit {oedom- 
inates over reflection and imagination. 
Jn her temper, too, there is a slight in- 
ftision of the termagant : and. her satiri- 
cal hum<nr plays wiUi such an unrespeci- 
ive levity over all sulijects alike, that it 
required a profbund knowledge of wom^i 
to bring such a character within the pale 
of our sympathy. But Beatrice, though 
wiUfol, is not wayward ; she is volatile, 
not unfeeling. She has not only an 
exuberance of wit and gayety, but of 
heart, and soul, and energy of spirit." 

HiSrs. Jameson. 

3. See Beautipul Parricide. 

Beatrix. See Castlewood, Bea- 

Beau'claro (bo'-). [Fr., fine scholar.] 
A surname of Henry I. of England, 
who received a more literary educa- 
tion than was usually given, in his 

For the "Key to the Sdkeme of Fnmunclation," with tiie aecomiNuiyiag Sxplanatloni, 




time, either to the sons of kings, or 
to laymen of any rank. 

Beau Tibbg. A prominent character 
in Goldsmith's '* Citizen of the 
World;" said by HazUtt to he 
"the best comic sketch since the 
time of Addison; unrivaled in his 
finery, his yanity, and liis poverty." 

Beautifta Coiisande (ko're'zdnd', 
62). [Fr. La £eUe Coriaande,] A 
sobriquet given to Diane d'Andou- 
ins (1554-1620), Countess of Guiche 
and Grammont, and widow of Philip 
de Grammoift. 

Beaatiftil (hardener. [Fr. La BeUe 
Jardiniere^ A sobriquet given to a 
mistress of Ueniy lY. of ^ance. 

Beautiftil Fanioide. A name given 
to Beatrice Cenci (d. 1599), who is 
alleged to have mmrdered her father, 
a wealthy Roman nobleman, on ac- 
count of the revolting and incestu- 
ous brutality with wmch he treated 
her. For this crime, she was con- 
demned and put to death. Some 
historians maintain that die had no 
{tart in the murder, but was the vic- 
tim of an infernal plot hatched by 
two robbers, or by miknown persons 
whose agents they were. The story 
of Beatnce has been made Uie sub- 
ject of a powerful tragedy by the 
poet Shelley. 

Beautifiil Bopemaker. See Rope- 
MAKKR, Thb Beautiful. 

Boanty and the Beaat. [Ft, La Belle 
et la Bete."] The hero and herome of 
a celebrated fairy tale — written in 
French by Mme. V illeneuve — which 
relates how a young and lovely wom- 
an saved the fife other father by put- 
ting herself in the power of a fright- 
ful, but kind-hearted monster, whose 
respectful affection and deep melan- 
diol;^ finally overcame her aversion 
to ms hideousness, and induced her 
to consent to many him, whereupon 
he was freed from the enchantment 
of which he had been a victim, and 
iq>peared to her in his proper form 
and character of a handsome and 
graceful young prince. 

So she [Caroline of Anspach. •fterwaid 
queen of Oeoige II. of England} UTed at Ber- 
Un, brilliant tnoiifl^ nnportloned, wifli the 
loi^h cub Fxiedricn Wllhebn much following 

her iifcont, nd pMsionatelv loyal to her. aa 
the JBeast was to Beauty; whom she did noi 
mind except as a cub loyal to her, beine fire 
years older than he. cSr^U. 

Beauty of But'tSr-mdre. A cele- 
brated and lovely English girl, named 
Mary Robinson, who was married, by 
means of the most odious deceit, to 
John Hatfield, a heartless impostor, 
who was executed for forgery, at 
Carlisle, Sept. 3, 1803. 

Bade, Ctith'b^rt A pseudonym a- 
dopted by the Rev. Edward Bradley, 
a popular English humorist of the 
present day. 

Bode, The Venerable. A famous 
English monk of the eighth centuir, 
whose surname was given him m 
honor of his emment talents, virtues, 
and learning. ' 

49*^ There is an old story that a monk 
hi vain attempted to write an epitaph 
upon Bede, and iSsll asleep, lea^i^ it 
thus : ** Hfte snnt in fossft Bedao . . . 
oesa;" and that, when he awoke, he 
fbnnd, to Ids grwtt surprise and satislhe- 
tion, the long-eonght epithet supplied hy 
an angelk hand, — the whole line stand- 
ing thus: 
*' Hie sunt in finnA Bedae venenOntis osaa.** 

Bedl-vere, Sir. Kmg Arthur's but- 
ler. He was a knight of the Round 
Table, and a prominent figure in 
many of the old romances of <mivalry. 
[Written also Bedver.] 

Bed'red-din' Haa'8|bi. A charac- 
ter in the story of " Noureddin and 
his Son, and Shemseddin and his 
Daughter," in the "Arabian Nights' 

She [Effle Deans] amused herself with tIs- 
iting the daii7,in which she had so long been 
assMtant^and was so near discovering herself 
to Bfay Hetley« by betraying her acquaint- 
ance with the celebrated receipt for l)unlop 
cheese, that she compared herself to Bedred- 
dm JSTosKin, whom the vizier, his fitther-in- 
law, dtscovered by his superlatiTe skill in 
composing cream-tarts with pepper in them. 
^^ Sir W. Scott, 

Beefing-tdn, Mi-lor'. A character 
in " The kovers, or The Double Ar- 
rangement," in the poetry of the 
"Anti-Jacobin." He is an English 
nobleman in exile by the tyranny of 
King John, previous to the signature 
of Magna Charta. 

** Will without power," said the sagacious 
Casimir to JftZor Be^finffUm^ " is like children 
playing at soldiers." Maocmlay. 

sad fixr the Bemarks and Boles to which the numbers after certain words lefiNr, see pp. ziv-xxzii. 




Be-el'se-bub. [Heb. batU^ lord, and 
«'ftfi6, fly.] (3fy«fe.) The title of a 
heathen deity, to whom the Jews 
ascribed the sovereignty of the evil 
spirits. Milton, in his *^ Paradise 
I>ost,** makes him second in rank to 
Satan ; bat Wieros, the celebrated de- 
monographer of the sixteenth century, 
says, mat Satan is no longer the sov- 
ereign of hell, but that Beelzebub 
reigns in his place. Other mediaeval 
writers, who reckon nine ranks or 
orders of demons, place Beelzebub at 
the head of the first rank, which 
consists of the false gods of tne Gren- 

Which when Beebubtib pereetved, fhm whom, 
Satan except, none Mnier sat, with grare 
iUp€ct he rose, and faThiB rising seemed 
A pillar of state: deep on his front engraven 
Deliberation sat and pnblic care; 
And princely counsel in his ftce yet shone* 
Jfajestie thougli in ruin: sage he stood, 
With Atlantean shoulders fit to bear 
The weight of mightiest monarchies. 


Be&na, Xia (1ft bft-fft'nft). [It., a cor- 
ruption of Gr. ^"Einu^vuLf me Epiph- 
any.] In Italy, a conmion personi- 
fication of the Epiphany^ or Festival 
of the Manifestation of Christ to the 
Gentiles, — variously represented as 
a saint and as a fairy. According to 
other accounts, she is the Italian bug- 
bear of naughty children. 

The Epiphany (Jan. 6) is the day 
fat the presentation of Christmas gifts in 
Italy, and there is a pleasant fiction that 
LaSefitna goes about at night like St. 
Nicholas, carrying presents to children. 
Whether from thus personifying the 
season, or from whatever other cause, 
a flguie, called La Be&na, is suspended 
outside the doom of houses at the bc^^- 
ning of Lent. 

Beiohan, Xiord. See Lord Beichak. 

Bel. (Ckaid, My(h.) The same as 
Bdus and BaaL See Baal, Belus. 

Be-Ia'rl-U8 (9). The name of one 
of the characters in Shakespeare's 

Belch, Sip ToHby. Uncle to Olivia, 
in Shakespeare's "Twelfth Night." 
He is a t\'pe of the reckless, jolly 
roisterer of the Elizabethan period. 

Balmawhapple was young, stout, and ac- 
ttve r but the Baron, infinitely more master 

S' ^"«^^5°?l ^ouM. like -SSr Toby Belch, 
have ticlded his opponents other gates than 

he did, had he not been under the inflnenee 
of " Ursa Miyor " [a drinkiog^up so called]. 

Sir W.SooU, 

Berfttrd. A fnend and correspond'- 
ent ' of Lovelace, in Richardson's 
novel, " The History of Clarissa Har- 

It is well for thee, that, IiOveIaee-and-.Bel- 
fordn\Sk»y we came under a convention to 
pardon every species of liberty wliich we 
may take with each other. Str W. Scott. 

Beai-91. [Heb. h% not, and ja'ai, 
useful.] A Hebrew word meaning 
toorthl^snesSj and hence rechUsmiess^ 
lawlessness. The translators of the 
Bible have frequently treated the 
word as a proper name, thoi^h there 
can be no question that in the Old 
Testament it is a mere appellative. 
In the New Testament, the apostle 
Paul, in order to indicate in the 
strongest terms the high degree of 
virtue after which the Christian 
should strive, j^ces Christ in direct 
opposition to Belial. "What con- 
cord hath Christ with Belial?" (2 
Cor. vi. 16.) The term as here used 
is generally understood as an appel- 
lative of Satan, as the personification 
of all that was bad; tnough Bengel 
explains it of Antichrist, as more 
strictly the opposite of Christ. Mil- 
ton in his " Paradise Lost " expressly 
distin^shes Belial from Satan, and 
he assigns him a prominent place in 
Pandemonium. Those mediaeval de- 
monographers who reckoned nine 
ranks of evil spirits, placed Belial at 
the head of the ^third rank, which 
consisted of inventors of mischief 
and vessels of anger. According to 
Wierus, who, following old authori- 
ties, establishes a complete infranal 
court, Belial is its ambassador in 

Belial came Hast, tium whom a eiMt more 

Fell not from heaven, Or more groes to love 
Vice for itself. 

A fhirer person lost not heaven; he seemed 
For dignity composed and high expl<Ht: 
But an was ISdse and hollow; though hia 

Dropped manna, and could make the worse 

The better reason, to peiplex and dash 
Haturest counsels; fbr his thoughts were low. 

Belied, flie dissolutest spirit that fell. 
The sensualest, and, after Asmodai, 
The fleshliest Incubus. 


For the *«Key to tiie Sehameof Fnmuneiatiim,'* with the aooompeaying ExplaaationSv 




But, eoold lie make an eflbetiul titnf/^ 
1m migiit depend npon the aid of the servile 
Baarire, a aoit of £eliai In the Conyention, 
the meanest, ret not the least able, among 
those lUlen spirits, who, with great adrtdtness 
and ingenuify, as well as wit and eloquence, 
caught opponunities as they arose, and was 
eminentiy dexterous in being alwKrs strong 
iipon the strongest, and salb upon the safest, 
■ne. Sit W. Scott, 

Belianis. See Don Belianis of 

L'd$. 1. The poetical name of 
the heroine of Pope's ^ Rape of the 
Lock," whose real name was Arabella 
Fermor. A frolic of ^Bllantxr in 
which Lord Petre cut off a lock of 
this lady's hair — a frolic so much 
xesented that the intercourse of the 
two families, before yeiy friendly, 
was interrupted — was the occasion 
of the poem, which was written with 
the design of bringing the parties to 
a better temper, and effecting a rec- 

2. The heroine of Miss EdgewcNTth's 
novel of the same name. 

BeU, Ao't5n. A pseudonym of Anne 
Bronte (d. 1849), an Enghsh novelist, 
author of ''Agnes Grey" and " The 
Tenant of Wildfeld HaU." 

Bell, Adam. The hero of a famous 
old ballad having this name for its 
title; a wild, north -country outlaw, 
celebrated for his skill in archery. 

Bell, Bessy. A character in a ballad 
by Allan Ramsay, founded on fact, 
and entitled ** Bessy Bell and Mary 
Gray." These were daughters of 
two country gmtlemen in me neigh- 
boriiood of^Perth. When the plague 
of 1866 broke out, they built them- 
eelves a bower in a very retired and 
romantic spot called Bum Braes, 
where they were supplied with food 
and other necessaries by a young 
gentleman who was in love wim both 
of them. After a time he himself 
caught the disease, and, having un- 
wittmfii^Iy communicated it to mem, 
they ul three sickened and died. 

lbs. lie Blanc, a young woman fldr to look 
npon, with her young infknt, has to live in 
creenwood, like a beautiftil Beatif Beu of song, 
Ear bower thatched with rushes }—eatchiiw 
premature riteumatiflm. Garble. 

Bell, Ctir'r^r. A pseudonym adopted 
by Mrs. NichoQs (Charlotte Bronte, 
>-1816-1855« — sister of Anne and 

Emily Bront^). wife of the Bev. Ar* 
thur Bell Nicholls, and a distin- 
guished English novelist, author of 
^ Jane Eyie," "Shirley," and " VU- 
Bell, Xaiis. A pseudonym of Emily 
Bronte (d. 1848), sister of Anne anil 
Charlotte Bronte, and author of 
" Wuthering Heights." 

4^ " ATene to personal publicity, 
we ydled our namM under thoae of 
Gurrer, Acton, and Ellis, Bell. — the am- 
bignous choice behig dictatea by a sort 
of conscientious scruple at Mwnmin g 
Christian names poflitivelT masculine, 
while we did not like to declare ourselTes 
women, because — without at that time 
susiiectfaig ttiat our mode of writing and 
thinking was not what is called * fcml- 
nine * — we had a ▼ague impression that 
authoresses toe Ukefj to be looked on 
with pr^udice ; we bad noticed how 
critics sometimes use for their chastise- 
ment the weapon of personality, and for 
their reward a flattuT^ which is not true 
praise." . C. Bronte, 

Bell, Peter. The subject of Words- 
worth's poem entitled ** Peter Bell, a 
Tale in Verse." A parody on this 
I>oem appeared soon sifter its publica- 
tion, and Shelley wrote a burlesque, 
entitled "Peter Bell the Third," in- 
tended to ridicule the ludicrous pu- 
erility of language and sentiment 
which Wordsworth often affected in 
the championship of the poetical 
system he had adopted. 

Bell98-t^» Iiady. A profligate 

character in Fielding*s novel, "The 

History of Tom Jones, a Foundling." 

Suppose we were to describe the doings of 
such a person as Mr. Lovelace, or my ijodu 
BeUaMon . . . ? How the pure and outraged 
Nineteenth Century would blush, scream, 
run out of the room, call away the younr 
ladies, and order Mr. Mudie nerer to send 
one of that odious auttor's books SjQdn 1 


Belle France, Iia (1ft bel frd^ss, 62). 

[Fr., beautiflil France.] A popular 

name applied to France, correspond' 

ing to the epithet " Merry England," 

as applied to England. 

Biddy Fudge, though del^hted to And her- 
self in^' La petU •FVemce," was yet somewhat 
disappointed: at the unplcturesqueness of tfas 
eountty betwixt Calids and Amiens. 

Brit, tf For. Rer. 

Bellen-den, Iiady Margaret (bel'- 
len-dn). An old Tory lady, mistress 
of the Tower of Tilmtudlem, in Sir 

and for the Resuurka and Roles to whioh the nonbexa after oolida words raftr, see pp. ziv-xzxtt. 




Walter Scott's novel of **01d Mor- 
Bel-lSr'o-pli^n. [Gr. BeXXepwpCw.'] 
( Gr, 4" -^* J^y^') A beautiful son 
of the Corinthian King Glaucus, and 
a grandson of Sisyphus. With the 
help of the winged steed Pegasus, he 
killed the Chimsera. He uterward 
attempted to rise with Pegasus into 
heaven; but Jupiter sent a gad-fly, 
which stun^ the horse so uat he 
threw the nder, who became lame 
and blind in consequence, and wan- 
^' dered lonelv throi^h the Al^Ian field, 
consumed by grief, and avoiding the 
paths of men. 

% Upled by thee [Urania], 

Into the hearen of heavens I have presumed. 
An earthly guest. ...With like safety guided 

Betum me to my native element; 
Lest from this flying steed unreined (as once 
BeUerophon. though from a lower sphere). 
Dismounted on the Aleian field I fiill. 
Erroneous there to wander and forlorn. 


Bel-le'ros (9). {Myth,) The name 
of a Cornish giant. 

Sleep'st by the fable ofBeUena old. 
Where tiie great vision of the guarded mount 
Looks toward Namancos and JSayona's hold. 


BeMo'n$. (Rom. Myth.) The god- 
dess of war ; the companion and 
sister or wife of Mars. She prepared 
the chariot of Mars when he was 
going to war; and she appeared on 
the battle-field with di9heveled hair, 
a torch in her hand, and a whip to 
animate the combatants. 

Her features, late so exquisitely lovely in 
their paleness, [were] now mflamed with the 
friry of frenzy, resembling those of a Bel- 
lona. Sir W. Scott. 

Imminent blood-thirsty B^ments camped 
on the Champ de Mars; dispersed National 
Assembly; red-hot cannon-balls (to bum 
Paris); — the mad War -god and Bellona*s' 
sounding thongs. Carlyle. 

Bell-the-Gat. A by-name given to 
Archibald Douglas (d. 1514), a Scot- 
tish nobleman, from an incident that 
occurred at Lauder, where the great 
barons of the realm had assembled 
at the call of the king, James III., 
to resist a threatened invasion of the 
country by Edward IV. of England. 
They were, however, less disposed to 
advance against the English than to 
correct the abuses of King Jameses 
administration, which were chiefly to 

be ascribed to the influence exerted 
over him by mean and unworthy 
favorites, particularly one Cochran, 
an architect, but termed a mason by 
the haughty barons. 

49* '^ Many of the nobility and barons 
held a secret council in the church of 
Lauder, where they enlarged upon the 
evils which Scotland sustained through 
the insolenoe and corruption of Oochraa 
and his associates. While they were thus 
declaiming, Lord Gray requested their 
attention to a &ble. * The mice,' he said, 
* being much annoyed by the persecution 
of tiie cat, resolved that a bell should be 
hung about puss's neck, to give notice 
when she was coming. But, though the 
measure was agreed to in full council, it 
could not be carried into effect, because 
no mouse had courage enough to tie the 
bell to the neck of the formidable ene- 
my.' This was as much as to intimate 
his opinion, that, though the discontented 
nobles might make bold resolutions 
against the king's ministers, yet it would 
be difficult to find any one courageous 
enough to act upon them. Archibald, 
Barl of Angus, a mui of gigantic strength 
and intrepid courage, and head of that 
second &mily of Douglas whom I before 
mentioned, started up when Gray had 
done speaking. ' I am he,' he said, ^ who 
will bell the cat ; ' firom which expression 
he was distinguished by the name of 
BeU'the- OK to his dying day." 

Sir W. Scott. 

He was equally worthy of blazon with him 
perpetuated in Scottish song and stonr by tiie 
fiwmasne o£ BeU-the-QU. Jr. Irving, 

Beloved Disciple. An appellation 
often given to John the evangelist 
and apostle, who enjoys the memo- 
rable distinction of having been the 
chosen and favored friend of our 
Lord. See John xiii. 23; xix. 26, 
27; XX. 2; xxi. 7,20. 

Beloved Merchant. A title bestowed 
by Edward III. of England - upon 
Michael de la Pole, an eminent Lon- 
don merchant, who in the following 
reign became lord chancellor, and 
was raised to the peerage as Earl of 

Beloved Fhysioian. An appellation 
sometimes used to designate St. Luke. 
It was first conferred upon him by 
the apostle Paul ( Cd. iv. 14). 

Bel'phe-gor. (Myth.) A Canaanitish 
divinity, worshiped particularly by 
the Moabites. Wieru^ calls him the 

For tbe "Key to the Scheme of Fronundatton,** with the accompanying Explanations, 




ambassador in France from tlie in- 
fernal oomrt of Beelzebub. According 
to Puld, he was a MiAometan deity; 
accoiding to Maochiavelli, an arch- 
fiend who had been an archangel. 
Bel-pliOBni>e. [Fr. belle, beautiful, and 
Phoebe, Diana.]^ A huntress in Spen- 
ser^s ^^Faeiy Queen;" intended as 
a likeness of Queen Elizabeth, the 
woman, as contradistinguished from 
the queen, who is imaged in Glori- 

" Flattery more highly seasoned 
may ha^e been oflered her [Queen Elisa- 
beth], but none more deUoate and grace- 
ftd than that contained in the flnished 
portrait of Belphoebe. She repreeeota 
that pore uid high-epiiited maidenhood 
which the ancients embodied in Diana ; 
and, like her, the forest is her dwellings 
I^Uice, and the chase her IkTOrite pastime. 
The breeaes have imparted to her their 
own fleetness, and the swaying foliage its 
Kraoeful moTement. . . . She is passioo- 
Mas and pure, self - sustained and self- 
dependent, ' in maiden meditation fkncy 
free,' and shines with a cold lunar light, 
and not the warm glow of day. The 
anttuHT has mingled tiie elements of her 
nature so skilUUlly that the result is 
nothing harsh, unnatural, or nnfemi* 
nine ; and has so combined the lofty and 
the ideal with the gr a ee ft il and attractiTe, 
that we behold in her a creature . . . 

* Too tail for wonhip, too diyine for lore * ** 

Qeo. S. HOlard. 

Belted "WilL A title bestowed upon 
Lord William Howard (1663-1610), 
warden of the western matches. 

Wb Bflboa blade, by Marehmen ftlt. 
Hong in a broad and itndded belti 
Hence, in rude phrase, the Borderers sttll 
CaUed noble Howard, Betted WUL 

Sir W. Scott. 
It Is within the menunr of eren middle- 
ased persons that the south-westem portion 
ot our country was in as lawless a state as 
ever were the borders of England and Scot- 
land, and with no Belted Will to hang up 
mffiims to swing in tiie wind. 

Atlantie liorOhly. 

BeltenebroA (bel-tft-nft-brdsO. [Sp., 
the darkly beantifril, or fair forlorn; 
frt>m heUo, beautiful, and tenefyroso, 
dark, gloomy.! A name assumed by 
Amadis de Gaul on retiring to a 
hermitage, after receiving a cruel 
letter fit>m his mistress, Onana. 

Belus. rCr. Bi^Ao?.] {MyOt.) The 
ancestral hero and national divinity 
of several Eastern nations, especiidly 

the Chaldaeans and Ajsyriana. He 
is the same as BaSL See Baal. 
[Called also BeL\ 
Bel'vi-de'^ (9). The herome of 
Otway*s tragedv of "Venice Pre- 
served ; " remarkable fbr her beauty, 
conjugal tenderness, spotless purity, 
and agonizing sufferings. See Jaf- 


More tears hare been shed, probably, fbr 
the sorrows of Bebridera and Monimia than 
16r those of JnUetand Dcademona. 

iSir FFl 9ooit% 

Bendy, Old. See Old Bendt. 

Ben'e-diok. A youn^ lotd of Padna, 
in Shakespeare's " Much Ado about 
Nothing," who combines the chanc- 
ters of a wit, humorist, gentleman, and 
soldier. He marries Beatrice (though 
at first he does not love her) after a 
courtship which is a contest of wit 
and raillery. The name is often used 
as a synonym for a newly-married 
man, and is sometimes written Bene^ 
diet, though this is not Shakespeare's 
orthograpny. See Bbatbicb. 

ah these, like BenedicfM brushing his hat 
of a morning, were signs that the sweet youth 
was in loye. Sir W. Scott, 

In the first-named place, Henry fbund his 
dear Benedick^ the married man, who ap- 
peared to be rather out of humor with ma 
matrimonial chain. T^odteroy. 

Ben'en-ftelt, Old Ham'et [Sp. Cide 
Hameie Benengeli,the'diL ft-m&'t& bft- 
nen-l^'leel. An imaginaiy Moorish 
chronicler m>m whom Cervantes pro- 
fesses to have derived his account of 
the adventures of Don Quixote. 

49» " The Spanish commentators . . . 
have discoTered that Cid Hornet Benen' 

fell is, after all, no more than tax Ara- 
ian version of the name of Gerrantes 
himself. CHd, as all the world knows, 
means lord or signlor. JHamet is a com- 
mon Moorish prefix. BenengeU signifies 
the son of a stag, which, being expressed 
in Spanish, is hijo del ciervo, eerval, <» 
eervanteno.^* Lockkart. 

I TOW and protest, fliat, of the two bad 
cassocks I am worth in tiie world. I would 
have giren tiie latter of them, as £k«ely as ever 
(M Hamet offered his, only to have stood by 
and heard my Uncle Toby y accompaniment. 


But Aou, at least, mine own especial pen I — 
Once laid aside, but now assumed again, — 
Our task complete, like Hanne^Bf shalt be 
free. .Syron. 

Be-nl'oi-ft Boy. A sobriquet given 
to John C. Heenan, a noted American 

and fbr the Benuurksaad Boles to wlddi ttie numbers after eettsin words refer, see pp.xiy-zxzU. 



44 B£S 

pQgfllst, who retided flyr « time at 
Benkia, in California. In 1860, he 
had a famous fight with Tom Savers, 
the "" champion prize-fighter of JSng- 
land," which Usted for more than two 
hours, and was then stopped by the 
interference o( the police. 

Ben-nMlcfr. A wealth^r merchant 

and magician of Delhi, in Ridler's 

"Tales of the Genu." 

Like the jeweler of Delhi, in the hoiiMof 
the manciaii BemuMkar, I, u length, reached 
a Taolted nMnn dedicated to lecrecy and 
■Uence. 8br W. Soa*L 

Ben'net, Mn. A demure, shy, in- 
triguing, equivocal character in Field- 
ing's novel of "Amelia." 

Benahie. See Banshee. 

Ben-voli-o. A fHend to Romeo, and 
nephew to Montague, in Snake- 
speare's tragedy of "Romeo and 

Berohta. See Bertha, Frau. 

Berkeley, Old Woman ot The 
title and subject of a ballad by 

BSr-lin' Decree. {Fr. But.) A de- 
cree issued at Berlin, on the 21st of 
November, 1806. by the Emperor 
Napoleon I., declaring the whole of 
the British islands to be in a state 
of blockade, and all vessels trading 
to them to be liable to capture by 
French ships. It also shut out all 
British vessels and produce both ftom 
France, and from all the other coun- 
tries which gave obedience to the 

B^r-moo'Qi^s. An old form of Ber- 
mudasy and the Spanish pronuncia- 
tion of the name of the first dis- 
coverer of these islands, BemmdeZj 
who sighted them in 1527. 

In the deep nook, where onee 
Thon ealledstme np at midniffht to Mach dew 
From the BtiU-yexed JSermooOua, there she 'b 
hid. ShaJb. 

B$r-znn'dft9. A cant term formerly 
applied to certain obscure and intn- 
cate alleys in London, in which per- 
sons lodged who had occasion to live 
cheaply or be concealed. They are 
supposed to have been the narrow 
passages north of the Strand, near 
Covent Garden. 

Bdr-nar'do. The name of an officer 

in Shakespeare's tragedy of " Ham- 

Bernardo del Carpio. See Cabpio, 
Bernardo del. 

Berserker (b6f-s6f 'ker). [Old Norse 
bery bare, naked, and sarke, a shirt 
of mail.] {Scand. Myth.) A re- 
' doubtable warrior who went into bat-^ 
tie unharnessed, his strength and 
fhiy serving him instead ^ armor, 
which he despised. He had twelve 
sons^ who inherited his name as well 
as his warlike ferocity. 

Bertha, Frau (fr6^bef'tft). [O.Ger. 
PeractOy shining, white: from the 
same root as the £ng. brightA In 
Germany, an impersonation of the 
Epiphany, corresi)onding to the 
Italian ^e/lma, variously represented 
as a gentie white lady who steals 
softly to neglected crames. and rocks 
them in the absence of careless nurses, 
and also as the terror of naughty 
children. She has, besides, the over- 
sight of spinners. She is represented 
as having an immensely laree^foot 
and a long iron nose. The legend 
concerning her is mainly of Christian 
origin, but with some admixture of 
heaven elements. [Written also 
Frau Berchta ' and Fran 

B8rth$ with the Great Foot [Fr. 
Berthe au Grand Pied."] The moth- 
er of Charlemagne, by King Pepin, 
and the mat- grand -dau^ter or 
Charles Martel; — said to have been 
so named because die had one foot 
larger than the other. 

BSr'trlm. Count of Rousillon, a char- 
acter* in Shakespeare*s **A11 *s Well 
that Ends Well.'^ 

Bess, GK>od Queen. A sobiiguet by 
which Queen Elizabeth of England 
is often familiarly referred to. Her 
reign, take it all in all, was a happy 
as well as a glorious one for England, 
and the contrast it offers to that or 
her predecessor is very striking. 

Bes'sua. The name of a cowardly 
captain in Beaumont and Fletcher's 
play, "A King and No King." 

The story which Clarendon tells of that af- 
ftir [the panic of the royal troops at Naseby] 

For the **K^ to the Schema of PrannneiafloB,'' with the aeconip«nying EzphuaatUnM, 




reminds nt of the excnaet by which Stmu 
■ad BoIwmMI explain thdr endgtfnf*. 


Bettiiia (bet'te'nft). [A diminutiye of 
Elizabeth.] The name under which 
Elizabeth Brentano (b. 1785), after- 
ward the wife of Ludwig Achim yon 
Amim, corresponded with Goethe. 
This correspondence, under the title 
of ^' Goethe's Letters to a Child," was 
pnblished in 1835, and was translated 
Dy Bettina into English. 

Beulah. See Land of Bsulah. 

Beuves d'Aygrexnont (bov d^'r'- 
mifi^', 43, 62). The father of Mala- 

S'gi, or Maugis, and uncle of Rinaldo. 
e was treacherously slain by Gano. 

Be'via of Soafh-amp'tAn, Sir. A 

fiunous knight of romance, whose 

maxvelotts exploits are related in the 

second book of Drayton's ^' Poly- 

olbion." Heylin claims him as a 

real Eail of Southampton. He is 

the Beuvet de ffantone of the French, 

the Buovo <f Aniona of the Italians. 

[Called also Bevi$ of HampUm,'] 

Ttene^B oaks — b«n««th whow shade 
Their theme tiie meny minstreLi made 
Of Aacapait and Beoia bold, abr W. Soott. 

Be-B5n'!i^ (-yan). A name given by 
Pistol to Shallow in Shakespeare's 
" King Henry IV." (Part II., a. v., sc. 
8). It comes from the Italian word, ^ 
togno (need, want), and is frequently 
used by the old dramatists as a term 
of reproach, meaning hefgoTy low 
feUow, or tooundreL Stnctlj, it is 
not a proper name, but it is com- 
monly thought to be such in the in- 
stance referred to. 

Bl-an'o$. 1. A dancfater to Baptista, 
in Shakespeare's ''Taming <» the 

2. Mistress to Cassio, in the tragedy 
of "Otheflo." 

Bibulua, CkmsnL See Consul Bib- 


Bidk'er-stftff, Isaac, Esq., Astrolo- 
ger (2). The assumed .name under 
whidi the ** Tatler " was edited. 

49^ " laaae Btckerstaff, Esquire, As- 
trologer, was an imaginary person, ftlmoet 
S8 nell known in that i^ [Addison's] as 
Hv. Pavl Pry «r Kr. Piokwiok in ours. 
SwHt had usnmed the name of Bicker- 
staff in a satirical pamphlet against Par- 
tildge, the almanac -maker. Partridge 

had been Ibol enoufl^ to publish a ta- 
fioxa reply. Bickerstaff had r^)<4nied in 
a second pamphlet, BtUl more diTerting 
than the first. All the wits had combined 
to keep np the joke, and the town was 
kmg in couTulsions of laas^ter. Steele 
determined to employ the name which 
this controyerqr hiCd made popular ; and. 
in April, 1709, it was announced that > 
Isaac Biekersteff, Ssquire, Astrologer, 
was about to publish a paper called th« 
* Tatter.* " BSaeaulay. 

49* " Swift ki said to have taken the 
name of Bichenk^ from a smith's sUpi, 
and added that of Isaae^ as a Christ&n 
appellation of uncommon occurrence. 
Tet it was said a ttTine person was act- 
ually found who owned both names." 

Sir W, Seott, 

Bioome. See Chicheyache. 

Bid'den-den Maids (bid'dn-dn). A 
name given to two unmarried sisters, 
named Maiy and Elizabeth Chulk- 
hurst, bom at Biddenden, in 1100, 
and joined together, as tradition 
states, by the shoulders and hips. 
They lived for thirty -four years, 
when one died, and the other, persist- 
ing in a refusal to be separated from 
the corpse of her sister, succumbed 
six hours after. They are said to 
have left twen^ acres of land, called 
"Bread and Cheese Land," where, 
on the afternoon of Easter Simday, 
six hundred rolls are distributed to 
straneers, and two hundred and sev- 
' enbr loaves, weighing three pounds 
and a half each, with cheese m pro-* 
portion, are given to the poor of the 
|)arish, — the expense being defhiyed 
by the rental of the land. Halstead, 
in his '* History of Kent," rejects this 
story as" fabulous, so fiur as it relates 
to the Chulkhurst sisters, and asserts 
that the " Bread and Cheese Land ** 
was left by two maiden ladies by the 
name of Preston. 

Bifraat(bif^ro8t,46). [Old Norse &»ya, 
to move, and rM, space.] {Scancu 
Myth,) The name of the bridge 
between heaven and earth, ^vpified 
by the rainbow, and supposed to be 
constructed of stones of various col- 
ors. It was extremely solid, and 
built with great art 

Biff-endiana, The. The name of a 
religious party in the imaginary em- 
pire of LiUiput, who made it a matter 

aid te fheBemaika and Boles to which the nomben alter eertrin words rete, see iv. xlT-xxziL 




of duty and conscience to break their 
eggs at the large end. They were 
regarded as heretics .by the law, 
which required all persons to break 
the smaller end of their eggs, under 

Sain of heavy penalties in case of 
isobedlence. Under this name the 
Roman Catholics of England are 
satirized, and under that of Litil&- 
endians, the English Protestants are 
ridicul^. See Lilliput. 

The Tatieon ii greati yet poor to CJhim- 
bonuo or the Peak of Teneriflb; its dome is 
but a foolish Bw-endian or little-endian chip 
of an egK-shell compared with that star- 
ftetted Dome irhere Arcturus and Orion 
gluice for erer. CotrlyJe, 

Si^dw, Mr. Hosea. The feigned 
author of a series of humorous satiri- 
cal poems, in the Yankee dialect, 
really written by James Russell Low- 
ell, and directed mainly against slav- 
ery, the war between the United 
States and Mexico, and the late Re- 
bellion of the Southern States. 

Bixnixii (be'me-nee). A fabulous isl- 
and said to belong to the Bahama 
group, but lying far out in the ocean, 
where, according to a tradition cur- 
rent among the natives of Puerto 
Rico, was a marvelous fountain pos- 
sessing the power of restoring youth. 
This was an object of eager and 
long-continued quest to the celebrat- 
ed Spanish navigator, Juan Ponce 
de Leon. 

Bt'on-dello. A servant to Lucentlo, 
in Shakespeare^s "Taming of the 

BirolL, Har'vey. A celebrated char- 
acter in Cooper's novel of "The 

Bireno (be-i^^no). In Ariosto's "Or- 
lando Furioso," the lover and husband 
of Olimpia, whom he abandons. 

Bipon (be-rftn')' A " merry mad-cap 
lord" attending on the king of Na- 
varre, in Shakespeare's " Love's La- 
bor 's Lost." 

Bishop, Madame. The name given 
to a mixture of port, sugar, and nut- 

Bishop Bun'y&n. A sobriquet ^ven 
to John Bun^^an (1628-1688), because 
he visited ms religions brethren in 
various parts of Englai^d, exhorting 

them to good works and holineas o^ 

Bishop of Hip'ipo. A title by which 
St. Augustine (364-430) is often re- 
ferred to, he having held the office 
for many years. / 

Black'i-cre, "Widow (-ft-kfr). A per- 
verse, bustling, masculine, pettifo^- 
sangy and litigious character m 
Wycherley's comedy of " The Plain 

"The Widow Blackaere, beyond 

comparison Wycherley's best comiechar. 
acter, is the Countess in Bacine's * Plai- 
deurs,' talking the jargon of English in- 
stead of French chicane." Maeaulay. 

Blaok Act, The. A name given in 
England to an act passed in 1722 (9 
Geo. I., c. 22). It was so called be- 
cause it was occasioned by, and was 
designed to put an end to, the wan- 
ton destruction of deer, game, plan- 
tations, &c., by persons calling them- 
selves BlackSj and having their faces 
blackened or otherwise disguised. It 
was repealed June 21, 1827, by 7 and 
8 of Geo. IV., c. 27. 

49* The acts of the Scottish Parlia- 
ment from James I. of Scotland to 1586 
or 1587 were called JBIacA; AetSj because 
printed in black or Saxon characters. 

Black Assize, The. A common des- 
ignation of ^e sitting of the courts 
held at Oxford in 1577, during which 
judges, jurymen, and counsel were 
swept away by a violent epidemic 
The term is also used to denote the 

Black Captain, The. [Fr. Le Cc^ 
taine NoirJ] A name given by the 
French to Lt.-Ool. Dennis Davidoff, 
an officer in the Russian army, in the 
time of the French invasion. 

Black Death, The. A name given 
to the celebrated Oriental plague 
that devastated Asia, Europe, and 
Africa, during the fourteenth centuiy. 
It took this name from the black 
spots, symptomatic of putrid decom- 
position, wnich, at one of its stages, 
appeared upon the skin. 

Black Dick. A sobriquet of Richard, 
Earl Howe (1725-1799), the English 
admiral who was sent with a squad- 
ron to operate against D'Estaing, 

For fhe *' K»j to fha Scheme of Fronnndafion," with the accompaaying Explaaationky 





whtf commanded the French forces 
on the coast of America during the 
war of the Beyolntion. 

Black Hole of Calcutta. A name 
commonly ^ven to a certain small 
and close dungeon in Fort William, 
Calcutta, the scene of one of the most 
tragic events in the history of British 
Inma. On the capture of Calcutta, 
hy Snrajah Dowlah, June 18, 1756. 
me British garrison, consisting of 
146 men, being made prisoners, were 
locked up at night m this room, 
which was only 20 foet square, and 
poorly ventilated, never having been 
intended to hold more than two or 
three prisoners at a time. In the 
morning, of the 146 who were impris- 
oned, only 23 were found to have 
survived the excruciating agony of 
pressure, heat, thirst, and want of 
air. In the ** Annual Register " for 
1758, is a narrative of the sufierin^^ 
of those imprisoned, written by we, 
Holwell, one of the number. The 
Plack Hole is now used as a ware- 

Black Knight, The. See Faineant, 
Le Noib. 

Black Man, The. A common desig- 
nation for the Devil in the time of the 
New England witchcraft. It is a 
popular Mlief that the Devil is black. 
In the ** Golden Le^nd " there is a 
stoiy representing mm as appearing 
in the guise of a man clad m black, 
of great height, and mounted on a 
superb horse. 

These wild doctors [the Indian medicine- 
m«n1 were sappoMd to draw their pharmar 
eentic knowledge fh>m no Kracioas aouree. 
the Black Man himaelf beine the i^incipal 
p rofe M or in flieir medical Mhool. 


Black Monday. {Eng, Eist.) A 
memorable £i»ter Monday in 1351, 
▼erv dark and misty. A great deal 
of hail fell, and the cold was so ex- 
treme that many died from its effects. 
The name afterward came to be ap- 
plied to the Monday after Easter of 
each year. 

Uj note ftll ^-bleeding on Black Mondtv 

Black Prince, The. Edward, Prince 
of Wales, the son of Edward ni. of 

England ; — so called from the color 

of nis armor. 

To portraj a Roman of the age of Camfl] 
or Cuiius as auperior to national antipatiiies, 
as treating conquered enemies with the deli- 
cacy of the Black Prmoet would be to violate 
all dramatib propriety. MdccnUaif. 

Black BepubUcans. See Republi- 
cans, Black. 

Black Saturday. A name given, in 
* Scotland, to the 4th of August, 1621. 
On this day, the Parliament sitting 
at Edinburgh ratified certain articles 
introducing Episcopalian fashions in- 
to the church, — a proceeding highly 
repugnant to the religious feehngs 
and convictions of the Scotti^ peo- 
ple. A violent storm which occurred 
at the same time, and was accompa- 
nied by thunder and lightning and 
** heavy darkness," was thought to 
be a manifest token of the displeas- 
ure of Heaven. 

She was to remind a neighbor of some par- 
ticular which she was to recall to his memoir 
by the token, that Thome Reid and he ^id 
set out together to go to'the battle which took 
place on the Black Satyrday. Sir W. SeoU, 

Bla'dud. A legendary king of Eng- 
land, who is said to have built the 
cit^of.Bath, and dedicated the me- 
dicinal springs to Minerva. 

Winifi«d Jenkins and Tabltha Bramble 
must keep Engrllshmen on the grin finr ages 
yet to come: and in their letters and the stoir 
of their loves there is a perpetoal fount of 
sparklinK laughter as inexhaustible as Bla^ 
cAKffl weu. Thacheirav. 

Bl^nohe'fleflr. [It. Bla'nmfioTt,'\ A 
lady beloved by Flores. Their ad- 
ventures make the principal subject 
of Boccaccio's " Phiiopoco," but mey 
had been famous for a long time 
previously, as Boccaccio himself in- 
forms us. They are mentioned as 
illustrious lovers by Matfres Eymen- 
^au de Bezers, a Languedocian poet, 
m his " Breviari d' Amor," dated in 
the year 1288. Boccaccio repeated 
in the " Decameron " (Day 10, novel 
5) the story of Flores and Blanche- 
fleur, but cnanged the names of the 
lovers to Ansaldo and Dianora. 
Chaucer took it as the foundation of 
Ihe Frankelein's tale in the *^ Can- 
terbury Tales,'* though he professes 
to have derived it from "a British 
lay." Boccaccio's novel is unoues- 
tionably the origin of the episoae of 

■nd fbr ttM Bamarka «ad Bales to which the niunben after eertain wrads refer, see pp.Kiv^zxsiL 




Iroldo, Pnsildo, and Tisbiiui, in 

Bojardo*8 ** Orlando Innamorato." 

There is also an old English romance 

entitled " Flo'res and Blancheflenr," 

said to have been originally written 

in French. See Pbasildo. 

The chronicles of Charlemacne, 
Of Merlin and the Mort d'Anhure, 
Mingled together in Ma brain 
Yfm. tales of Floiee and Bkmeh^/lew, 


Bias, Oil. See Gil Blas. 

Blatant Beast, The. A bellowing 
monster, in Spenser's " Faery Queen," 
lypical of slander or calumny; or it 
is an impersonation of what we now 
call " Vox Populi," or the Voice of 
the People. 

Ble-fiis'oa. The name of an island 
mentioned in the imaginaiy ** Trav- 
els " of Lemuel Gulliver, written by 
Swift. It is described as being ^* sit- 
uated to the north-east side of LiUi- 
put, fix)m whence it is parted only by 
a channel of eight hundred yards 
wide," and as being ruled over by an 
emperor. The inhabitants^ like ^e 
Lilliputians, were all pygmies. 

" Bleftiflcu is France, and the in- 
gratitude of the lilliputian court, which 
finrces OuIUtw to take shelter there 
rather than have his eyes put out, is an 
indirect reproach upon that of England, 
and a yindicatioa of tlie flight of Ormond 
and Bolingbroke to Paris. " airW. Scott. 

Bli'fil. A noted character who figures 
in Fielding's novel entitled '^The 
History of Tom Jones, a Foundling." 

Blim'bSr, Miss Oomelia. A char^ 
acter m Dickens's novel of " Dombey 
and Son; " a daughter of Dr. Blim- 
ber, the head of a first-class educa- 
tional establishment conducted on 
the forcing or cramming principle. 
She is a veiy learned, grave, and 
precise young lady, with " no light 
nonsense about her^" who has become 
** dry and sandy with working in the 
graves of deceased languages." 

thought. In the opinum of those whose ap- 
proval she moflt cares fi>r, she might as well 
assume AR»8 BUmber'i spectacles as shine in 
any one of them. 

EtBayBfirom Ae Satwrdav Mevisw. 

Blind Harry. A name commonly 

given to Henry the Minstrel, a wan- 

dering Scottish poet of the fifteenth 
century, of whom nothing else is 
known except that he was blind firom 
infancy, and composed a romantic 

Soem entitled " The Life of that No- 
le Champion of Scotland, Sir Wil- 
liam Wallace, Knight," which has 
been handed down to the present 

Blind Preacher. A popular sobri- 
quet given to William Henry Mil- 
bum (b. 1823), a blind American 
clergyman and lecturer, noted for 
his aoility and eloquence. 

Blind Traveler. A name given to 
James Holman (d. 1857), a lieutenant 
in the English navy, and author of 
various boHoks of travels. In 1812, 
a disease contracted in the discharge 
of his duty destroyed his eyesight. 

Bloody Assizes. A common desig- 
nation of the horrid judicial massacre 
perpetrated, in 1685, by George Jeff- 
reys, Lord Chief Justice of the Khig's 
Bench, while on a circuit through uia 
western counties of England. About 
three hundred persons were executed 
after short trials; veiy many were 
whipped, imprisoned, and finea; and 
nearly one thousand were sent ai 
slaves to the American plantations. 

Bloody Bill. A name given to the 
statute of the ^^ Articles" (31 Henry 
VIII., c. 14), by which han^g oi 
burning was denounced agamst all 
who should deny the doctrine of 

Bloody-bones. The name of a hob* 

foblin fiend, formerly much feared 
y children. The " Wyll of the Dev- 
yll " is said to be " written by our 
faithful secretaiyes hobgoblin, raw- 
hedj and bloodyoone, in the snitefiil 
audience of all the court of hell." 

Made children with your tones to ran ft>r Y 
Am had as Bhody^Kmiu or I<vnaftnd. 


Bloody Butcher, A sobriquet given 
to the Duke of Cumberland, second 
son of Geor^ 11., on account of his 
barbarities m the suppression of the 
rebellion excited by Charles Edward 
Stuart, the Younger Pretender. 

Bloody Mary. A name commonly 
given to Mary, a Roman Catholic 

For the "Key to'.fbe Sebmne of Tranoneiattoii,*' wifli tba aoeompanyiiic B^lttuitloni, 




aneen of England, whose rei^ is 
distinguished for the sanguinary 

Sirsecutions of the adherents of the 
hurch of England, no fewer than 
two hundred persons having been 
burnt at the stake within the space 
of four years, for their attachment 
to the reformed doctrines. 

Bld'^'^lin'd^. A conntry girl in 
Gay's pastoral poem, " The Shep- 
herd's Week," which depicts rural 
life in its character of poverty and 
rudeness, rather than as clothed in 
the colors of romance. 

We, fSfdr, Une ladles, who park <mt our liyes 
From common sheep-fiatiis, cannot help the 

IVom flying over; we *re as natural atill 
Ab BJotoaaSnda. Mn, JB. B, Birmmmg, 

Blue-beardL [Fr. La Barbe BleueA 
The hero of a well-known story of 
the same name, originally written in 
French by Chailes Perrault. He is 
represented as having a blue beard, 
from which he gets his designation, 

' and as marrying a beautiful young 
woman, who has all the keys of a 
magnificent castle intrusted to h^, 
with injunctions not to open a certain 
apartment. She gratifies her curios- 
ify during the absence of her lord, 
and is horrified to find the remains 
of his former wives, the victims of 
his boundless lust and cruelty. Her 
disobedience is discovered by means 
of an indelible stain produced on 
tiie ke^ which opened the door of the 
interdicted room, and she is told to 

Erepare for death, but obtains the 
Ivor of a littie delay, and is happily 
rescued by the timely arriviu of 
friends, who instantly dispatch her 
brutal hnsband. 

It is f»id tbat the Qrfginal Blue- 
beard -was Giles de Laval, Lord of Bidz, 
who ma made Marshal of France ia 1429. 
He was distinguished for his military 
genius and intrepidity, and was poesesMd 
of princely xemeanes, but rendered him- 
■elf inflonoas by the murder of his wives, 
and his extraordinary impiety and de- 
baucheries. M^aeray says that he en- 
oonraged and maintained sorcerers to 
discover hidden treasures, uid corrupted 
young persons of both sexes that he 
might attach them to him, and after- 
ward killed them for the sake of their 
blood for his charms and incantations. 

At length, for some state crime against 
the Doke of Brittany, he was sentenced 
to be burned alive in a field at Nantes, in 
1440. Uolinshed notices another Blue- 
beard, in the reign of Henry VI., anno 
1450. Speaking of the committal of the 
Duke of Saffolk to the Tower, he says, 
" This doing so much displeased the peo> 
pie, that, if politic provision had not 
been made, great mischief had imme- 
diately ensued. For the commons, in 
sundry places of the realm, assembled 
together in great companies, and chose 
to them a captain, whom tiiey called 
Blue-beard ; but ere they had attempted 
any enterprise thefar leaders were ap- 
prehended, and so the matter pacified 
without any hurt committed." Blue- 
beard is ato o the name by wliich. King 
Henry Yin. lives in the popular super- 
stitions of England. The Gennan poet 
Tieok, in Us " Phantasus," has a tragedy 
which is grounded upon the common 
nursery tale. Dunlop notices the sti&- 
ing resemblance between the story of 
Blue-beard and tiiat of the third calen- 
dar in the " Arabian Ni^ts' Entertain- 

A darit tragedy of Sophie's thJs; theiilMe- 
beard chamber of her mind, into which no 
eye but her own must ever look. OBoriyte. 

Blue-ooat Sehool. A name popu- 
larly given to Christ's Hospital. Lon- 
don, — a charitable institution ror the 
education of orphans and foundlings, 
— on account of the blue coats or 
gowns worn by the boys. Their cos- 
tume has contmued unchanged ever 
since the foundation of the school in 
the reign of Edward VI. 

Blue Hen. A cant or popular name 
for the State of Delaware. This so- 
briquet is said to have had its ori- 
gin in a certain Captain Caldwell's 
fondness for the amusement of cock- 
fighting. Caldwell was for a time 
an ofi&cer of the First Delaware Reg- 
iment in the war of the Revolution, 
and was greatiy distinguished for his 
daring and undaunted spirit. He 
was exceedingly popular in the rejs^- 
ment, and its nigh state of disciplme 
was generally conceded to be due to 
his exertions; so that when officers 
were sent on recruiting service to en- 
list new men in order to fill vacancies 
caused by death or otherwise, it was 
a saying, that they had gone home 
for more of Caldwell's game-cocks; 

and Ibr the Bemarks and Rales to which the numbers after certain irordi refer, lee pp. ziv-: 




Intt. as OaldweU insisted that no cock 
could be truly game unless the mother 
was a blue hen, the expression " Blue 
iBLen's chickens" was substituted for 
" same-cocks." 
Delaware State Journal, July^ 1860. 

31ue XiawB. A nickname given to 
the quaint and seyere regulations of 
ihe earl^ government of New Haven 
Plantation, when the public authori- 
ties kept a sharp watoi over the de- 
jwrtment of the people of the colony, 
and punished -all breaches of good 
manners and good morals, often with 
'ludicrous formality. Some account 
<)f these laws is given in a small work 
published in 1825 (Hartford, by Silas 
•Andrus), entitled " The Code of 1650, 
jtieing a CoinpUation of the earliest 
Xiaws and Orders of the General 
Court of Connecticut," &c. The 
jmcient xecords <^ the New Haven 
colony bear witness to the stem and 
aomber religious spirit common to all 
the first settlers. The chapter of 
"Capitall Lawes," in the code of 
1650, is almost verbally copied from 
ihe Mosaic law. 

" After the restocation of Oharleg 
H., the Puritans beeaine the subject of 
every Und of xeproaeh and cootamely. 
The epithet blue -was applied to any one 
who looked -with disapprobation upon 
the lieentiougness of the time. The 
Fresbyteriaos, under which name all 
dissenters were often included, were more 
particularly de^nated by this tenn. 
fbus Butler : — 

* For his religion. It was lit 
To match fiis leamingr and his wit, — 
T was Fresbytetian true bhieJ 


That this epithet of deririon should find 
its way to the colonies was a matter of 
oourse. It was here applied not only to 
persons, but to customs, institutions, 
and laws (tf the Puritans, by those who 
wished to render the prevailing system 
ridiculous. Hence, probably, a belief 
with some that a distinct system of laws, 
known as the *blue laws,' must have 
■omewhere a local habitation.*' 


-Blue-IToBe. A nickname popidarly 
f^en to an inhabitant of Nova Sco- 
tia or New Brunswick. The appel- 
lation is supposed to have been orig- 
inally applied from the efi^t upon 
the more prominent parts of the fece 

of the raw easterly winds and long- 
continued fogs which prevail in these 
provinces. Others say that it was 
first applied to a particular kind of 
potatoes which were extensivelv pro- 
duced by the inhabitants, and that 
it was afterward transferred to the 
inhabitants themselves. Olhers still 
assert that its use is accounted for by 
the custom among certain tribes of 
the aborigines of painting the nose 
blue as a punishment for a crime 
against diaati^. 

Blueakin. A nickname given to 
Joseph Blake, an English burglar, 
on account of his daric complexion. 
He was executed Nov. 11, 1723. 

Blue-Skins. A nickname applied to 
the Presbyterians, from thdr alleged 
grave deportment 

Bluestring^Bobin. See Bobin Blue- 

Bluff, Captain Ifl'oll. A swaggering 
coward in Congreve's comedy of 
" The Old Bachelor." 

Those ancients, as Noll Bli#might say. 
Were pretty f<iUows in their day. 

Sir W. Seoti, 

Bluff Oity. A descriptive name pop- 
ularly given to the cily of Hanmbsd, 

Bluff Hal, or BArry. The sobriquet 
by which King Heniy VIII. of lEng- 
land is commonly Icuown. [Called 
also Burly King Juarry.} 

Ere yet in soom of Peter's pence. 
And numbered bead and shim, 

BtMjf Barry broke into the spence. 
And tamed the cowls adrm. 


Bo1$-ner'gd9. [Gr. Beaxepy^, from 
Heb. hene^egei^ the Aramaic pro- 
nunciation of which was hoane-reaes,'] 
A name signifying ^* sons of thun- 
der," given by our Lord (Mark iii. 
17) to the t\i;p sons of Zebedee, James 
and John, rrobably the name had 
respect to the fiery zeal of the broth- 
ers, signs of whkh may be seen in 
Luke IX. 54, Mark ix. 38. 

Boar of Ardennes, TVild. See Wild 
Boar of Abdennbs. 

Boast of Bngl and. See Tom-a-lin. 

Bob^dil, Captain. A beggarly and 
cowardly adventurer, in Ben Jonson*s 
comedy, "Every Man in his Hu- 

For fli« " K«7 to the Scheme of Fronundation," with the aoeompaoying Ezplanattona, 

BtoTj" yAo passes himself off irith 
•joaag Mtd NDiplB people for a vftliant 
soldier. He says (a. iv., sc. 7); " I 
-tronld select nineteen more to Divself i 
. . . gentlemen they ^ould be^ of good 
ijHrit^troiig and able constitution. 
. . . We twenty would come into the 
field the tenth of March, w there- 
-abonts, and -we would challenge 
twenty of the enemy : Uiey could not 
in tbair hoixv refttie ns. Well, we 
wo^ kill than: ohallei^ twenty 
note; kill themi twenCT more; kill 
them: twen^ more; MU them too. 
And thoB we would kill evuy man 
his twenty a rilay, — that 's twen^ 
.score: twenty score, that 'g two hiin- 
died ; two hundred ,a day, five days, 
a thousand : for^ thousand — fOTty 

hundred days kills ihftTp all up by 

la- " BobadD, with Uil bto ■«< 
his Uttla htait, with Us mrd ai 
oath, — ' Br the f»t at Phaiaob I ' 
IngSaetdribaantwUn. He b 
the whek the bst faneBtkio or t 
fiur, aud u voftluto aunh hi Ihi 
i«faiHDt with Bwoa and ¥Mti 
Panllas and ibtSvw' Oulahi." 


BoBof, Vront de. Sir BCKliiald 
(friy df bof, tS). {Fr. ox-face, ox- 
head.] A gigmCio and farooloas per- 
■onaga who fisnres in Sir Walter 
Scott's naval of " Irsnlioe " -as a fol- 
lowar o! Prluoa John. 

BocT- See Ou> Boot. 


I of tiioee parts of Loudon it 

...Ibyr '-"■ ■ ■ 

loosely " 

B(dianl«n Tortw. Perfaain a gj^ay ; 
or a mere wild appellatioD dasigned ■ 
to ridicule the appearance of Simple 
in Sbakeapeaie's " Heny Wives of 
Windsor," a. iy., sc. 5. 

BdtiiSrt, Sir, w Sisx- A knieht of 
the Rouod Table, celetvaled m the 
old nHnances of chivalry. He was 
the brother of Sing Bwi, and imcle 
to Lancelot da Lac. fWRtten also 
Bors, Sort.] 

Bol>-ChiiB>«rt, Sriao da (tefHa'dn 
bwiVgJl'bar'). A brave but entd 
and TOluptoaaB Pieoeptor of the 
Kni^its Templan, in Sir WaUet 
Scott's " Ivanboe." 

pla; tai Italf, a .Und of priNon'i-bua, 
or ^lat DMd bmwrlr lo be eslM, In 
Bn^and, * King iyj your liare ; ^ imd 
th«e was pfotablr an altosioo to this 
--'-- ■- -Ha nicknunei aiipeelaUf as 

Fia fond of plavlng the Ung, 
pre^lHtloB fH eUldldi 

beilds, and Ar plajlng f* 

paalbne hi N 

wit, 'Spate my mlsgiiUedpMple! Make 
prlaooen ; do Dot kill ; make prlBOnerfl ! ' 
, . . TbeWkeotltled'HapIeaandKiiig 
Ferdluand ' ivpeati the eharge, hawevsr. 
kepteq^Di- ' ..^.^— .. 


^tih thorn ! » adding, in a note, what was 
stated to be the parttoular expression, 
♦ Bombardare : ' and hence, says the au- 
thor, ' arose his weU-known sobriqiwt of 
Somba.''* Letgh Hunt. 

jl^ " Xhe name Bomba is often mis- 
interpreted as having some aUusion to 
bombardments. It is not so. In Italy, 
when you tell a man a thing which he 
knows to be fclse, or when he wishes to 
convey to you the ideaof the utter worth- 
lassness of any thing or person, he pufb 
out his oheelt like a bagpiper^s in fuU 
blow, smites it with Ws forefinger, and 
allows the pent breath to explode, with 
the exclamation , ' Bomb-a.' I have wit- 
nessed the gesture, and heard the sound. 
Hence, after 1849, when regiU oaths in 
the name of the Most Holy Trinity were 
found to be as worthless as a beggar's in 
the name of Bacchus or the Madonna, 
when Ferdinand was perceived to be a 
worthless liar, his quick-witted people 
whispered his name. He was caUed King 
Bomba, King Puff cheek. King Liar, King 
Knave. The name and his character were 
then so much in harmony that it spread 
widely ; and they have been so much in 
harmony ever since, that he lias retained 
it till now, and will retain it, I suppose, 
till he is bundled into his unhonored 
grave.'* DtOiin Evening Gazette. 

After Palermo's fatal ri^e, 
Acroea the western seas he fled 
In good King JBomba'M happy rdgn. 

Bom-bSa'td9 FtL-ri-0'90. The hero 
and title of a burlesque tragic opera 
by Thomas Barnes Rhodes, which 
was intended to ridicule the bombast 
of modem tragedies. 

Falling on one knee, [he] put both hands on 
his heart, and rolled up his eyes much after 
the manner of Bombastes Furuuo making 
love to DistaflBna. ^pea Sargetd. 

Bo'x4 De'$. [Lat., the good god- 
dess.] {MyOi,) A Roman divinity, 
otherwise called Famia, or Fatua, 
and described as the sister, wife, or 
daughter of Faunus. Her worship 
was so exclusively confined to wom- 
en, that men were not even allowed 
to Know her name. 

So-nas'SUS. [Gr. Bdi^Mruf , B^voo-o-o?. 

a wild ox.] An imaginair wild 
beast, with which the " Ettrick Shep- 
herd " (James Hogg), in the " Noctes 
Ambrosianw " (No. XLVHI. April, 
1830), is represented as having had a 
most remancable adventure. A huge 
animal of the genus Biwn — Bison 

52 BON 

honasstts — h&d been exhibited in 

London and other parts of Great 

Britain a few years before. 

I must have been the Bonasnu himself to 
have mistaken myself for a genius. 

Str W. Scott. 

Bon Chevalier, sans Peur et saAS 
Beproobe, lie (lu \)6*^ shvMe-a' 
sda pof ft sfin ru-prCsh'). See Good 
KmGHT, &c. 

Bo^ey. A corruption or diminutive 
of BancgMxrte, often used by English 
writers and speakers in the first part 
of the present oentuiy. 
No monks can be had now ibr love or for 

(All owing, ftaiM aay*! to that infidel I^ney}. 

Boii(}4ul'tI-Sr. A pseudonym adopted 
by Professor William Edmonstoune 
Aytoun and Theodore Martin, under 
which they published a popular boolt 
of balladsj and contributed to a num- 
ber of periodicals. 

Bonhomme, Jacques (zhak bo'- 
nom'). [Fr., Jack or James Good- 
man]. A derisive name given by ' 
the French barons of the fourteenth 
•century to the peasants of the coun- 
try. The insurrection known as the 
Jacquerie — which derived its name 
from this epithet — was a terrible up- 
rising of this class against the nobles, 
in 1358. 

Jacquea Sonhomme had a longer memoty 
than his representative on tMs side of the 
water [England]; and while the descendanta 
of Wat Tyler's followers were comfortoble 
church-and-king men, when the gPM,t trial 
came, in 179S, the men of the Jacquerie were 
boiHng witii revenge for centuries of wrong. 
«nd poured forth the concentrated wrath of 
generation, on cleigy. "^oWejgad^ow^^ 

Bon'i-i&oe. The name of a landlord 
in Farquhar's comedy. " The Beaux' 
Stratagem," — one 01 the best rep- 
resentatives of the English innkeeper 
in the language; hence, a landlord 
in general. 

** Oh I I bMf your pardon," repHed the 
Yankee Boni/Sce ; " I meant no offense." 

Putnam's Mag, 

Bono Johnny. The sobriquet by 
which, in the East, the Engfish are 
commonly designated. 

Bontemps, Boger (ro'zhft' bdn'tfin', 
62). A popular personification, in 
France, of a state of leisure, and free- 

IVw tlie "Key to the Scheme of Fionuneiation,'* with the acoompaDylng Ezplanationa, 




dom from care. The equivalent, 
among the French jpeasantir, for ti^e 
English proverb, " There 'a a good 
time coming," is " Roger Bontempe.** 
This character is the subject of one 
of B^ranger's most celebrated songs, 
written in 1814 : — 

To show our hypochondriacs. 
In days tiie most forlotn, 
A pattern set bdbre their eyes. 
Soger Bontempt was Iwm. 
To tire obscurely at his wiH, 
To keep aloof fiom strift, — 
Hurrah fbr flit .fioffer Bokteamt! 
This is his rule oruib. 

Ye envious poor \ ye ridrwho deem 
Wealth still your Chongfats deserving | 
Te who in search of pleasant tracks 
Tet find your cap is swerving; 
Te who the titles that ye boast 
May lose by some disaster, — 
"Bxaxtii fx fax Roger BoKtemptl 
Go, take him fiw your master. 


Booby, Irfidy. A female character 
of fhul morals. In Fielding's novel 
of "Joseph Andrews," who is unable 
to conquer the virtue of her footman. 
She was designed as a caricature of 
Bichardson's"* Pamela," and is rep- 
resented as a vulgar upstart, whom 
the parson is compelled to reprove 
for laughing in chuoK^. 

Bo-otd;. [Gr. Bowni«, the ox-driver.] 
(Gr. f Som, Myth.) A son of Ceres, 
and Uie inventor of the plow. He 
was translated to heaven, and made 
a constellation. According to another 
account, he was a son of Lvcaon and 
Callisto, and was sliun b^ his father, 
who set him before Jupiter for a re- 
past, to try the omniscience of the 
god. Jupiter restored him to life, 
and placed him among the stars. 

Boolih. The husband of Amelia, in 
Fielding's novel of that name. His 
frailties are said to have shadowed 
forth some of the author's own back- 
slidlngs and experiences. 

Bo-rft'ohl-o. A follower of John 
(bastard brother of Don Pedro, 
Prince of Arragon), in Shakespeare's 
" Much Ado about Nothing." 

Borak, Al. See Al Borak. 

Border, The. In histoiy and in po])u- 
larphraseologv, the common frontier 
of England and Scotland, which, until 
comparatively modem times, shifted 

to the north or to the south, accord- 
ing to the surging tide of war or di- 
plomacy. From the eleventii centuiy 
to about the beginning of the ei^t- 
eenth century, ruthless wars between 
the two countries, and feuds and 
forays of clans and families, caused 
almost constant disturbance on the 
border. Strenuous efforts were made 
during the reigns of Elizabeth and 
James YI. to preser\'e peace; but it 
was not until the l^dative union of 
1707 took place, that the long course 
of misrule was finally brongnt to a 

Border Minstrel. A title often given 
to Sir Walter Scott, who traced his 
descent ih>m the great border &mily 
now represented by the dukes of 
Buccleuch; resided at Abbotsfordon 
the Tweed; edited, in eariy Ufe, a col- 
lection of old ballads under ^e title 
of " The Minstrelsy of the Scottish 
Border;" and afterward wrote " The 
Lay of the Last Minstrel," and other 
original poems upon bonier subjects. 

When last along its banks I wandered, 

Throueh groves that had begun to sheA 
Their golden leaves upon the pathways. 

My steps the Border JOisCrcJ led. 

Wordsworthy Yarrow SevitUed. 

Border States. Pre1(ious to the 
Rebellion, a common designation of 
those Slave States, in the American 
Union, which bordered upon the line 
of the Free States ; namely, Delaware. 
Maryland, Yirginia, Kentucky^ ana 
Missouri. Wim the abolition of slav- 
eiy throughout the United States, 
the name will soon pass out of cur- 
rent use. 

Border^thief Bohool. A name for- 
merly given, to some extent, to Sir 
Walter Scott and his poetical imita- 
tors, who celebrated tne adventures 
of various predatory chiefs of the 
Scottish border. 

with your Lake Schools, and Border-ihitf 
Schools, and Cockney and Satanic Schools, 
there has been enough to do. Ckarlyle, 

Bo're-as (9). [Gr. Bo^as.] {Gr, ^ 
Jiom, Myth.) The north wind, a son 
of AstrsBus and Aurora. He is fabled 
to have carried off Orithyia, the 
daughter of Erechtheus, and by her 
to have had Zetes and Calais, winged 

and for flie Bemarks and Rules to which the numbers after certidn words reflsr, see pp. xiv-xx^di. 




warriorSfWho accompanied the Ar- 
gonautic ejcpedition. 

Bora, or Bort» King. See BoAobt, 

Boston Bard. A pseudonym as- 
sumed* by Robert S. Coffin (1797- 
1827 ), an American versifier who lived 
for some yean in Boston, Massachu- 

Boston' Massacre^ {Amer, Bitt.) 
A name popularly given to a disturb- 
ance which occurred in the streets of 
Boston on the evening of March 5, 
1770j when a seigeant^s (piard be- 
longmg to the British eamson fiicd 
upon a crowd of peo|^e who were 
surrounding them' and peltine them 
with snow-balls, and killed three 
ihen, besides wounding several oth- 
ers. The leader of the towns-people 
was a black man named Crispus At- 
tucks. The affair is of historical im- 
portance, as it prepared the minds of 
men for the revolutionary struggle 
which followed. 

Boston TeiH^arty. A name popu- 
larly ^ven to the famous assemolage 
of citizens in Boston, Dec 16^ 1773, 
who met to carry out the non-impor- 
tation resolves of the colony, and 
who, disguised as Indians, went on 
board three English ships which bad 
just airived in the harbor, and de- 
stroyed several hundred chests of 
tea. The British parliament retali- 
ated by closing the port of Boston. 

BottliB, Oracle of the Holy. See 
Holt Bottle, Oracle of the. 

Bottle Biot. A disturbance which 
took place at the theater in Dublin, 
Dec. 14, 1822, in consequence of the 
nnpopularity of the Marquees Welles- 
ley (Kiohard Colby, the younger). 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland; so called 
fh)m the circumstance of a bottle 
beingthrown into his box. [GiUled 
alaoThe B(>tUe Conipiraey.'] 

Bottom, Niok. An Athenian weaver, 
who is the principal actor in the in- 
terlude of " JPyramus and Thisbe," in 
Shakespeare^s ** Midsummer-Night's 
Dream." Oberon, the fairy king, 
desiring to punish Titania, his queen, 
commissioned Puck to watch her 
till die fell asleep, and then to anoint 

her evelids with the juice of a plant 
called love-in-idleness, the efkct of 
which, when she' awoke, waff to make 
her dote upon Bottom, upon whom 
Puck had nxed an ass's h^id. 

" Bottom ... is a compound of 
prolbaiid ignorsnoe and omidVorons con- 
ceit; but tbese at« tempered by good- 
nature, deolBion of character, and bodm 
mother-wit. That which i^ves him his 
indiTiduaUty does not depend npon his 
want of education, his poeitioil, or his 
calling. All the eciiools of Athens could 
not hate Masoned it out of him ; i^daU 
the gold of Crossns would have made 
him but a gilded Bottom after all. . . . 
His detcendante have not unfrequently 
appeared among the gifted inteUects of 
the world. When Goldsmith, Jealous of 
the attention which a' dancing monkejr 
attracted in a cOfltee-honse, said, * I can 
do that as well,' and was about to at- 
tempt It, he was but playing Bottom.** 

A. G. White. 

Indeed, the cwcflaM which thia iwrtlaUty 
leads him Jlirilton] to bestow on ** Sad Eleo- 
tm^ poet,'''Botnetimes remind us of the beau- 
tiful ^neen of- fiiiisr-land Idaainstbe long 

ears of Bottom. 


Vlty poor' BobinMa [Sir Thomas Bobhison], 
O English reader, if you can, fl»r indIjrn«tion 
at the business he is In. Saving the liberties 
of Europe I thinks Bobinson confidently : 
Fbundinli tUe EnrUsfa National Debt; an- 
swers Facti and wAd* Bottom the fTeatwr, 
with long ears, in we miserablest Fickle- 
hetHng tragedy that ever Wtat Oarl^k!: 

BoontUal, Iiady. See Ladt Boun- 

Bouatrapa (boo'strft'pft')* ^ sobri- 
ouet ^en to the Emperor Napoleon 
nl., m allusion to his unsuccessful 
attempts at a c(mp d'etat at jSoulogne 
(in 1840) and iS^rosbourg (in im), 
and his successM attempt at Paxia 
(in 1851), while President of tho 
French Republic. 

Bower of BUSS. 1. A garden belongv 
ing to the beautifiil enchantress Ar- 
nlida, in Tasso^s '^Jerusalem De- 
lirered." It is described as lovely 
beyond description, every thing in the 
place contributing to harmony and 
sweetness, and breathing forth the 
fullness or bliss. Here Kinaldo and 
Armida, in love with each other, pass 
their time; but at last two knights 
come and release Rinaldo from his 
enervating and dishonorable servi- 
tude. See Armida. 
2. The dwelling of the witch 

Tci aie'"K^ to the Scheme of Frontmciatlon,*' with the accompanying Exphmattona, 




Acrasia, in Spenser's " FaeiyQueen," 
Bk. II., c. 12. Acrasia is represented 
as a beantiiiil and fascinating^ woman, 
and her residence, which is situated 
ui>on a floating island, is described 
as being embellished with every 
thing calcnlated to charm the senses 
and wrap the sonl in oblivious indul- 
Sowlingf Tom. The name of a cel- 
ebrated naval character in Smollett's 
novel of " Boderick Random." 

jt^ " The dhanuster of Tom BowUng, 
in *■ Roderick Random,' . . . vdU be re- 
garded hi all ages as a happy exhibition 
of those naval heroes to vhom Britain is 
indebted for so mnch of her happiness 
and glory." Diwfop. 

Box and Oox. The title of a *' dra- 
matic romance of real life," by John 
M. Morton, and the names of its 
principal* characters. 

Boy^-bishxv, Theu An appellation 
conferred upon St. Nicholas (fourth 
centuiy), on account of his early con- 
formity to the observances of the 
Roman Catholic church, of which 
the old legends relate marvelous in- 

Boy-et'. A lord attending on the 
princess of France^ in Shakespeare's 
" Love's Labor 's Lost." 

Bdz {by tome pron, b5z). A pseudo- 
nym under which Charles Dickens 
contributed a series of *^ Sketches of 
Life and Character " to the " London 
Morning Chronicle." Of this nom de 
plume he has given the following ac- 
count: — 

j|69-'*'Boz,my8lgnatniein the 'Morn- 
ing Chronicle,* . . . -wastheidclmameof 
» pet child, a young;er brother, whom I 
had dabbed Mofles. in honor of the *■ Vicar 
of Wakefield,* which, being fiusetioiuly 
pTononnced through the nose, became 
Bo3es^ and being shortened, Boz. Box 
was a Tery fiuniliar household ^nnd to me 
long before I was an author, and so I 
came to adopt it." 

. Thoogh a pledge I had to shiTer, 
Ana the longest ever was, 
Ere his vessel {eaves our river 
I would drink a health to J3o«. Eood. 

Bos'sy. A familiar diminutive of the 
surname of James Boswell (1740- 
1822), the friend and biographer of 

Dr. Samuel Johnson, by whom fhe 
nickname was coined. 

Br^-ban'ti-o (br$-ban'shI-o). A ab- 
ator of Venice, in Shakespeaie*s 
play of " Othello." 

Brad'a-mftnt, or Bradamante (brft- 
dlUmftn'tft). A Christian Amazon, 
sister to Kinaldo, and mistress of 
Ruggiero, in Bojardo's *' Orlando 
Innamorato" and Ariosto^s **0r^ 
lando Furioso." She possessed an 
irresistible spear, which unhorsed 
every antagonist whom it touched. 
See KuooiEBO. [Written also Br an- 

^' I do not think Bndamante or 
Brandamante is ever mentioned in old 
romances, and I greatly suspect her to 
be Bcgardo's own invention." PamizxL 

Brad^wifbrHUne, Baron. A bravo 
and gallant2but pedantic, character 
in Scott's " Waverley." 

Brad^7]^dXne, Bose. The herolna 
of Sir Waiter Scott's novel of "Wa- 
verley;" the daughter of Baron 
Bradwardine, and me lover of Wa- 
verley, whom she finally marries. 

Bracr» Jtek. The hero of a novel of 
the same name by Theod<»e Hook 
(1789-1841), a spirited embodunent 
of the arts employed by a vulgar 
pretender to creep into aristocratic 

In Teaffitr, however, he was a sort of Itter- 
azy Jack Brag. As that amusing ereaaon . . . 
mastered himself with sporting gentlemen 
through his command over the teehnicajinM 
or slang of the kennel and the turf, so did 
Haslewood sit at the board with scholars and 
aristocratic book-collectors throughja free use 
oftheirtechnicalphraaeology. j.JELBwrian. 

Brag, Sir Jack. A sobriquet of Gen- 
eral John Burgoyne (d. 1792), who 
figures in an old ballad entitied "• Sir 
Jack Brag." 

Bragi (brit'gee). [Old Norse hragga^ 
to adorn, embellish. Comp. £ng. 
hrag.^ {Scand, Myth.) The son of 
Odin and Frigga, the husband of 
Iduna, and the god of poetiy and 
eloquence; represented as an old 
man with a long, flowing beard, and 
a brow mild and unwrinkled. [Writ- 
ten also Bragur, Braga.] 

Braemardo, Janotua de (j$-no'tus 

and for the Bemarki and Boles to which the numbers after certain words refbr, see pp.xiT-xzxil. 




de brag'mar-do; Fr, pron, zhft'no'- 
tu88' av brag'maf'do', 102). The 
name of a Bophister in Rabelais' sa- 
tirical romance of" Gar^antua,*' sent 
bj the citizens of Pans to remon- 
strate with Gargantua for having 
carried off the bells of the church ot 
Notre-Dame, which he bad taken to 
suspend at the neck of his mare. 

Brah'mt. {Hindu Mytk.) The su- 
preme, self-existent god of the Hin- 
dus, usually represented with four 
heads and four arms. He is regarded 
as the creator of the universe, and 
forms, with Vishnu, the nreserver, 
and Siva, the destroyer, the divine 
Trimwiiy or triad, consisting of the 
three principal gods of the Brahmin- 
ical futh. It is said that he has de- 
scended upon the earth nine times, 
in various forms, and is yet to appear 
a tenth time, in the figure of a war- 
rior upon a white horse, to visit retri- 
bution upon idl incorrigible offend- 
ers. [Written also Br am a, and 
sometimes B r u h m a.] 

Brainworxn. A curious, trickv char- 
acter in Ben Jonson's pUy of "Every 
Man in his Humor." 

Bramble, Matthew. A well-known 
character in Smollett's novel, " The 
Expedition of Humphry Clinker;" 
described as "an odd kind of humor- 
ist," afflicted with the gout, and " al- 
ways on the fret," but full of gener- 
osity and benevolence. 

To have all literature swum away before u« 
in watery extempore, and a Bpiritual time of 
Noah supervene, — that, surely, Is an awftil 
reflection, worthy of dyspeptic Matthew Brttm- 
Ne in a London fog. Carlyle. 

Bramble, Miss Tabitha. An un- 
married sister of Matthew Bramble, 
in Smollett's " Expedition of Hum- 
phry Clinker." She is character- 
ized as " a maiden of forty-five, ex- 
ceeding starched, vain, and ridicu- 
lous," soured by her unsuccessful 
endeavors to get married, proud, im- 
perious, prjdng, malicious, greedy, 
and uncharitable. She finally suc- 
ceeds in disposing of herself to Cap- 
tain Lismanago, who is content to 
take her on account of her snug little 
fortune of je4000. Her personal ap- 
pearance is thus described : — 

46^ " She is tall, law-boned, awkward, 
flatHshested, and stooping ; her complex- 
ion is sallow and iiecUed ; her eyes are 
not gray, but greenish, like those of a 
cat, and generally inflamed ; her hair is 
of a sanii^, or, rather, dasty, hue ; her 
forehead low ; her nose long, sharp, and, 
toward the extremity, always red in cool 
weather ; her lips skinny; her mouth ex- 
tensive ; her teeth straggling and loose, 
of yark)us colors and conformation ; and 
her long neck shriveled into a thousand 

Br$-mlne% The. A name given by 
Sterne (17ia-1768) to Mrs. EUzabeth 
Draper, a young woman of English 
parentage, bom in India, for whom 
ne conceived a most violent and in- 
judicious affection. In calling her 
'^The Bramine," he obviously in- 
tended a reference to the counliy of 
her birth. For himself he provided 
a corresponding name, — " The Bra- 
min," — suggested apparently bvhis 
profession of a clergyman. In 1775, 
ten letters of Sterne to Mrs. Draper 
were published under the title of 
" Letters to Eliza." 

Bran. The name of Fingal's dog. 
See FiNGAL. 

4^ "Our His^ilaaders have a pro- 
verbial saying, founded on the traditional 
renown of Fing^'s dog. * If it is not 
Bran,* they say, * it is Bran's brother.' 
Now this is always taken as a compli- 
ment of the first class, whether applied 
to an actual cur, or, parabolicidly, to a 
biped." Sbr W. Scott. 

In proeeM of time, the noble dog slept witfi 
Bran, Luarth, and the celebrated hounds of 
antiquity. Sir W. Scott. 

Brandon, Island of St. See Island 
OF St. Brandan. 

Bran'di-mart. pt., swords-lover.] A 
character in Bojarao*s " Orlando In- 
namorato," and in Ariosto's "Or- 
lando Furioso,'' king of the Distant 

Brandy Nan. A nickname given to 
Queen Anne, in her lifetime, by the 
populace, in allusion to her fondness 
for brandy. 

Brang't6n9, The. Characters in the 
novel oir " Evelina," by Miss BumOT". 
Their name became a synonym ror 
vulgarity, malice, and jealousy. 

Brass, Sally. Sister to Sampson 

For the **Key to tiie Scheme of Pronanolation," witti the accompanying Explanations, 




Brass, whom she surpasses in vil- 
lainy. See infra. 

Brass, Sampson. A knavish attor- 
ney in Dickens's " Old Curiosity 
Shop/' distinguished for his servility, 
dishonesty, and affected sentimental- 

Bravest of fhe Brave. [Fr. Le 
Brave des BravesJ] A title conferred 
upon the celebrated Marshal If ey 
(1769-1815) by the French troops at 
Friedland (1^7), on account or his 
fearless bravery. He was in com- 
mand of the right wing, which bore 
the brunt of the battle, and stormed 
the town. Kapoleon, as he watched 
him i)assin£' unterrified through a 
shower of calls, exclaimed, "That 
mui is a lion ; " and henceforth the 
army styled him the Bravest of the 

Sray, The Vloar ot See Vicar of 

Braaen A^e. [Lat. ^nea cetasJ] ( Gr, 
^ Rom. Myth,) One of the four ages 
or eras into which the ancient poets 
divided the histoiy of the hum»i 
race. It was a period of wild war- 
fare and violence, presided over by 
Neptune. The silver age preceded 
it, and the iron age followed it. See 
Iron Age, Silver Age. 

Bread and Cheese Xiand. See Bid- 
DENDEN Maids. 

Breeches Bibles. A name given to 
editions of the so-called Genevan 
Bible (first printed at Geneva, by 
Rowland Hail, 1560, in 4to), from 
the peculiar rendering of Gen, iii. 7. 

Breeohes Beview. A name formerly 
given, among booksellers, to the 
"Westminster Review," from a Mr. 
Francis Place, a great authori^ with 
the " Westminster." This Place was 
at one lame a leather-breeches maker 
and tailor at Charing-cross, London. 

Bren'd$. Daughter of Magnus Troil, 
and sister to Minna, in Sir Walter 
Scott's "Pirate." 

Bren£:^wftin. The confidante of Isolde, 
and a prominent character in the ro- 
mances which treat of the love of 
Isolde and Sir Tristram. [Written 

also Bringwain, Brengein, 
Brangwaine, Brangwayne.] 

Brent'fdrd, The Tvro Kings of. 

Two characters in " The Rehearsal," 
a celebrated farce, written by George 
VillierSjDuke of Buckingham (1627- 
1688), with the assistance of Butler, 
Sprat, and others, in order to correct 
the public taste by holding up the 
heroic or rhyming tragedies to ridi- 

49* The two kings are repxetented as 
iralking hand in hand, as dancing to- 
• gether, as shiging hi concert, and, gen- 
erally, as liTmg on temui of we greatest 
intimacy and aflEection. There seems to 
have been no particular reason Ibr mak- 
ing them kii^ of Brentford rather tlian 
of any other place. Bayes says (a. i., 
sc. 1), ''Look yon, sirs, the chief hinga 
of this play ... is, that I suppose two 
kings oi the same place, as, for example, 
at Brentford; for I love to write fiumil- 
iarfy." Colonel Henry Howard, son of 
Thomas, Earl of Berkshire,' wrote a play 
called ''The ITnited Kingdoms," which 
began with a funeral, and had also two 
kings in it. It has been supposed that 
this was the occasion of Buckingham's 
setting up two kings in Brentford, though 
some are of opinion that he intended 
them for the two royal brothers, Charles 
II. and the Duke of York, afterward 
James 11. Others say that they represent 
Boabdelin and Abdalla, contending kings 
of Granada. But it is altogether mrae 
probable that they were designed to bur- 
lesque the two kings contending for one 
and the same crown introduced by Diy- 
den — the Bayes of the piece — into sev- 
eral of his serious plays. Persons who 
have been known to hate each other 
heartily for a long time, and who irfter- 
ward profess to ^ve become reconciled, 
and to be warm firiends, are often likened 
to the Tufo Kings ofBrtntford. 

ThiB piece of generosity reminds ns of the 
liberal!^ of the ESsngn </ Brtniford to their 
KnightBbridge forces. Sir W. Seott. 

Brewer of Ghent. A descripttye 
title bestowed upon Jacob Arteveld, 
a brewer of metheglin in Ghent, who 
became a great popular leader in the 
early part of the rourteenth centuzy, 
drove Louis I., Count of Flanders, 
into France, ruled that province, ana 
supported Edward III. of England. 

Brt-a're-us (9). [Gr. Bpu£pe««.l (Gr. 
^ Ram. Myth,) A son of Coelus and 

and for the Bemarks and Bales to which the nnmbers after certain words refer, see pp. xir-xxziL 




Temu a g^ant with a hundred anns 
and mky heads. According to He-* 
aiod, he defended Jnpiter against the 
Titans; bat other ptpets say that he 
assisted the giants in their attempt 
to storm Olympos, and was buried 
alive under Mount JBtna as a punish- 
ment. [Called also JSgeonJ] 

Briok, Mr. Jerf^r-aon (-sn). A 

fiery American politician, who figures 

in Dickens's norel of '* Martin Choz- 


Jefferson .BKdt, fhe American edUer, twit- 
ted me with the malti&rious patented anom- 
alies of ovtTgTO-wn^ wortfaless DnkeB. Bisliops 
f€ Durham, Aec, which poor EngliBh society 
•I present lab<»« under, and is made a sole- 
ciam by. CarlyU. 

Bride of the Etoa. A poetical name 
of Venice, having its origin in the 
ancient ceremony of the espousal of 
the Adriatic, during which the doge, 
in the presence of his courtiers, and 
amid circumstances of great splendor, 
threw a ring into the sea, uttering 
the words, ^^De^xmsamus te, mcrre, 
in siffnitm vert perpeUdqae dominii,^* 
We wed thee. sea, in si^ of a true 
and perpetual dominion. 

Bridge'north, Mi^or Balph. A 
Roundhead who figures conspicuously 
in Scott's " Pevenl of the Peak." 

Bridge of ABses. See Pons Asmo- 


Bridge of Sighs. [It. PonU dd Sos- 
jriri.] The name popularly ^ven to 
the covered passage-way which con- 
nects the doge's palace in Venice 
THth the state prisons, from the cir- 
cumstance that the condemned pris- 
oners were transported over this 
bridge from the hall of judgment to 
the place of execution. Hood has 
used the name as the title of one of 
his poems. 

Bridget* MiTa. The name of a char- 
acter in Sterne's celebrated novel, 
" The Life and Opmions of Tristram 
Shandy, Gent." 

Bridlegooae, Judge. [Fr. Juge Brir 
«%e.] ^ The nataie of a character in 
Rabelais' famous satirical romance 
of ** Pantagruel," who decided causes 
by the chance of dice. 

Brid'oiaon (bre'dwo^z^n', 62). A 

stupid jnd|^ in BeaumairchaiB' " Ma^ 

riage de Figaro." 

BrigheUa (bre-geH&). p:t, firom 
hriga, trouble, restlessness.] A 
masked character, in the Italian pop- 
ular comedy, repres^ting a proud, 
bold, and crafty plebeian of Brescia. 

Brigliadoro (br^-yft-do'ro). [It., bri- 
dle of gold.] The name of Orlando's 
steed, one of the most famous cours* 
ers in romai^ce, and second only to 

Brl-se'is. [Gr. Bpc<ni£?.] {Gr. f 
Bom. Myih.) The daughter of Bri- 
seus, a priest at Lvmessus. She fell 
into the hands of Achilles, but was 
afterward forced from him by Aga- 
menmon. [Called also Eijapoclamkt,'] 

BritUb ix'is-tl'dds. An epithet ft«- 
quently applied to Andrew Marvell 
(1620-1678), an influential member 
of tiie House of Commons during the 
reign of Charles II., and a firm op- 
ponent of the king. His int^rify 
was such that he refused every offer 
of promotion and a direct bribe ten- 
dered him by the lord treasurer, and 
died in poverty, being buried at the 
expense of his constituents. 

British Jeremiah. A title ^ven by 

Gibbon to Gildad, a British historian, 

who is said to have flourished in the 

first half of the sixth centuiy. Wright 

considers him a fabulous person. 

The Briti$h Jeremiah ... Is so pleased to 
find, or so determined to invent, topics ^r 
declamatory lamentation or praisCf that It is 
difficult to distinguish the basis of truth from 
the fiintastic superstructure of exaggeration 
and falseliood with Which he has prerloaded 



British P&u-s&'ni-&8. A name 
conferred upon William Camden 
(1551-1623), one of the most dis- 
tinguished scholars and learned anti- 
quaries of his age. 

Brif o-mar'tis, or Brit'o-mart. [Gr. 
BpcTo/utoprtv, from the Cretan words 
/Sptrvf, sweet, and ftaprts, maid.] 1. 
(Gr, f Rom, Myth.) A Cretan 
nymph, daughter of Jupiter and 
Cfarme; a Cretan epithet of Diana, 
who loved herj assumed her name, 
and was worshiped under it. 

2. "A lady knight," representing 
Chastity^ whose adventuivs are re- 

For Che **Ke7 to fhe Scheme of Fronuneiatfon," with the aeeompaajriiig Explanations, 




lated in Spenser's **Faer^ Queen.*'* 

She is represented as being armed 

with a magic spear, which nothing 

could resist 

She eluurmed at once, and teined flie heart, 
InoompMmble Britomart/ Sir W. Scott, 

Brlttaziy, Easle of. * See Eagle of 

Broad Bottom Ministry. {Eng. 
Hist,) A name derisively given to 
an administration comprising nine 
dnkes and a grand coalition of all 
parties of weight and influence in the 
• state, formed m Nov. 1744, and dis- 
solved by the death of Mr. Pelham, 
March 6, 1755. 

The names of the oxig^bial uembeES 
were, — 

The Rt. Hon. Hanxy Pelham, First lArd 
ci the Treaaoiy, and Chancellor of the 

Doke of Dorset, Preddent of the Ooon- 

Barl Gower, Lord Priry Seat 

Duke of Newcastle, ) Secretaries of 

JBarl of Harrington, j State. 

Duke of Monti^, Master of the Ord- 

Duke of Bedfbrd, First Lord of the Ad- 

Duke of Grafton, Lord Chamberlain. 

Duke of Bichmond, Master of the 

Duke of Argyll, Keeper of ttie Great 
Seal of Scotland. 

Marquees of Tweeddale, Seoretaiy of 
State for Scotland. 

Lord Hardwlcke, Lord Chancellor. 

From this administration, the particu- 
lar adherents of Pulten^ (newly cre- 
ated Sari of Bath) and Lord Carteret 
Wore eaxeftilly excluded. 

Brob'dins-naff. Animaginaiy coun- 
try described in Swift's celebrated 
romance entitled *' Gulliver's Trav- 
els." The inhabitants are repre- 
sented as giants, about " as tall as an 
ordinary spire-steeple." Every thing 
else is on the same enormous scale. 
[Written also Brobdignag, an 
orthog^phy which, though not that 
of S^nft, has acquired a prescriptive 
title to be considered well authorized.] 

QraatneM witii Timon dwell* in nioh a 

Am brings dl BralbdigMg\itSom your thought. 


When Sir ThoniM Lawrence paints a hond- 
sooDne peereae, he does not contemplate her 
through a powetltal microscope, and transfier 

to the eeavas the pores of the skin, the Uood> 
TCMels of the eye, and all the other beaaties 
which GuUiTcr dlseoTered in the BrabdiQ- 
magtfitm maids of honor. Macatia^ 

Bron'zo-mar'te. The name of Sir 
Launcelot Greaves's steed, in Smol- 
lett's ^ Adventures " of that celebrat- 
ed hero; represented to be ** a fine 
mettlesome sorrel who had got blood 
in him." 

Brook, Master. A name assumed 
hv Ford, in Shakespeare's "Meny 
Wives of Windsor." with a design 
to dupe Sir John Falstaff. who is m 
love with Ford's wife. Tne amorous 
knight duly reports to Master Brook 
the progress of his suit to Mrs. Ford, 
and the various contrivances by 
which he escapes the search of her 
jealous husband, one of which was 
that of being carried out of the house 
concealed in a heap of foul linen. 

Brother Jonathan. A' sportive col- 
lective name for the people of the 
United States. 

49* When General Washiu^rton, after 
being appointed ooounander of tlie anny 
of the Revolutionary war, went to fifasaar 
chusetts to organise it, and make prep- 
arations fi>r the defrnse of the country, 
be found a great want of ammunition 
and other means necessary to meet the 
powerfhl foe he had to contend with, and 
great diffloulty in obtaining them. If 
attacked in such a condition, the causa 
might at once be lost. On one occa8ion| 
at that anxious period, a consultation of 
the otAeen and others was had, when it 
seemed no way could be devised to make 
such preparation as was necessary. Jon- 
athan Trumbull, the elder, was thea 
governor of Oonnecttcnt, and, as Wash- 
ington placed the g r e a test reliance on Us 
judgment and aid. he remarlted, ** We 
must consult Brotner Jonathan on the 
sutject." He did so, and the govemor 
was sucoessttil in supplying many of the 
wants of the army. When dlfllcnlties 
afterward arose, and the army was spread 
over the oountiy, it became a by -word. 
" We must consult Brother Jonathan." 
The ori^n of the expression being soon 
lost sight of; the name Brother Jonathan 
came to be regarded as the national sobri- 

Snet. The fbregoing account is flrom Vb» 
Norwich (Connecticut) Courier ; " bu^ 
it has more reoentlv been suggested that 
the expression originally had reference to 
Captain Jonathan Carver (1782-1780), an 
early American traveler among the In- 
dians, firom whom he received iaiige grants 

aad te the Bsnarks and Soles to which the numbemaftercertaui words refer, see pp. ziv^xzziL 




of lands, In the deediicoiiTvyiDg which h« 
is repeatedly styled *'our dear brother 
Jonathaa." Carrer pablished in London, 
in 1778, an octaTO Tolume entitled, '' Tray- 
els through the Interior Parts of North 
America, m the years 1706, '67, and *68." 
As the work was eztensirely read, the 
author became a sort of lepresentatiTe 
man of his conntrymen ; and it is not 
difficult to see how the odd designation 
giren him by the Indians might be caught 
up and applied to all Americans. The 
following citation, however, Irom an old 
pmnphlet, satirising the Puritan innova- 
tions in the arrangranent and ftiniiturd 
of churches, would seem to imply that 
the name originated at a much earlier 
day, and that it was at first applied to 
the Roundheads, or parliamentai^ psrty 
In the time of Charles I.: — 

** Queen Elizabeth's monument was put up 

ny chaise when the regal government had 

lUrer credit among ut than now, and her 

at my chaise when the regal government had 
lUrer credit among ut than now, and her 
epitaph was one of my Brother Jonatkan'M 
beat poems, before he aDijared the Univenity, 
or had a thought of New England." 
I%e RaTormadopreciaely charactered &y a 

tranuormed C«urchwarden at a Vubryy 

London^ 1648. 

If you knock my old fHend John Bull on 
the head, I mean to take up with Brother 
J<math€m^ — who, after all, u a veiy decent 

B if ■ 

acquaintance. Jfoctes Amhrogianm. 

Brown the Tounser, Thomas. 
A pseudonym under which Thomas 
Moore, in 1813, published the *' Two- 
penny Post-bag," a series of witty, 
playral, and yery popular satires, 
directed against the prince regent 
and his ministers. 

BrCL'in. [D. bndn, brown.] In the 
Grerman epic poem of " Reinecke the 
Fox," the bear is called by this 
name ; hence, a bear in general. 

Branehild (broo'nft-hiltO, or Bron- 
hilde (broon-hil'dft). [O. H. Ger. 
hrunddltj from 6rwm, brunja^ coat of 
mail, and ffiUi, goddess of war, fh>m 
hiU, battle, contest.] A proud war- 
rior-yirgin in the German epic, the 
"Nibelungen Lied," who promised 
to be the bride of the man who could 
conquer her in three trials, in hurling 
the lance, in throwing the stone, and 
in leaping after the stone when 
thrown. By the arts and brayery of 
Siegfried, she was deluded into mar- 
rying Gtinther, king of Burgundy; 
but, discoyering the trick that had 

been put upon her, she planned and 
accomplished the destruction of Sieg- 
fried, and the humiliation of Chriem- 
hild, his wife, who was her riyal. 
The story of Bmnehild forms a large 
part of the cycle of ancient German 
romance. See Chriemhild. [Writ- 
ten also Brunhilt, Brynhilda, 
and Brynhild.] 

BrCL-nello. A thieyish dwarf in Bo- 
jardo's ^^ Orlando Inmunorato," who, 
oesides other exploits, steals Angel- 
ica's magic ring, and, by means of 
it, releases Rogero from a castle in 
which he is imprisoned. 

Brute, Sir John. A character in 
Yanbrugh's play, "The Proyoked 
Wife," distinguished for his absurdi- 
ties and coarse, pot-house yalor. 

Bubble, Xiaw's. See Law's Bubble. 

Bubble, South-Sea. See South-Sea 

Bubble Act. {Eng. ffisL) The name 
popularly given to an act (6 Geo. I., 
c. 18) passed in 1719, and designed 
to punish unprincipled adyenturers 
who proposed schemes — popularly 
called Bubbles — merely as baits to 
extract money from the ignorant or 
thoughtless. It was repealed July 6, 

Bu-oeph^lus. [Gr. /3ovK«^aAaf , Ma- 
cedonian, ^ovJee^aAaf, bull -headed, 
from /Sovf , bullock, and K«^aA^, head.l 
The name of a celebrated horse or 
Alexander the Great, who was the 
first to break him in, and who thus 
fulfilled the condition stated by an 
oracle as necessary for gaining the 
crown of Macedon. 

Buckeye State. The State of Ohio ; 
popularly so called from the buck- 
eye-tree {jEscuUu ftava), which 
abounds there. 

Buddha (bd6d'&). [Sansk., wise, sage, 
from buddy to' know.] One of the 
beings worshiped or yenerated by the 
Buddhists, a sect of religionists in- 
cluding more than one uiird of the 
human race, and spreading oyer the 
greater part of Central and Eastern 
Asia, and the Indian islands. The 
term is used to designate either the 
historical founder of Buddhism, — a 

For the ** Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation,'' with fhr Mf^smpaaylng EzplMwdonai, 




Hindu sage named Gautama, who is 
thought to have lived in the sixth 
centuiy, b. c, — or one of his fab- 
ulous prototypes or successors, of 
whom there are many, of difierent 
classes. [Written also Budha, 
Boodh, Shood, Budh, and in 
many other ways. Hardy, in his 
" Manual of Buddhism," ^ves a list 
of more than fifty varieties which 
had fallen under his notice.] 

Bull, John. A well-known coDective 
name of the English nation, first 
used in Arbuthnot's satire. ^The 
History of John Bull," usually pub- 
lished in Swift's works. l!n this 
satire, the French are designated as 
Lewis Baboon, the Dutch as Nicholas 
Frog, &c. The "History of John 
Bull " was designed to ridicule the 
Duke of Marlborough. 

"There is no spedes of hxunor hi 
whkh the English more excel than that 
which ooiisists hi caricaturhig and giving 
Indicroos appellations or nicknames. In 
this way, they have whimsically desig- 
nated, not mwely individuals, but na- 
tions ; and, in their fondness fbr pushing 
a joke, they have not spared even them- 
selves. One would think, that, in per- 
sonifyii^ itself, a nation would be apt to 
picture something gnuid, heroic, and im- 
posing; but it is characteristio of the 
peeufiar humor of the English, and of 
their love for what is blunt, comic, and 
ftmiliar, that they have embodied their 
national oddities in the figure of a sturdy, 
corpulent old follow, with a three-cornered 
hat, red waistcoat, leather breeches, and 
stout oaken cudgel. Thus they have 
taken a singular delight in exhibiting 
their most priTate foibles in a laughable 
point of view, and have been so suooess- 
Ital in tiieir delineation, that there is 
scarcely a being in actual existence more 
absolutely jnesent to the public mind 
than that eooentrie personage, John 
Bull." ^. hving. 

Staler of Bnuenose. A name given 
m Wilson's "Noctes Ambrosianse" 
to John Hughes (of Oriel College, — 
not Brazenose, — Oxford), author of 
an " Itinerary of the Rhone," and of 
other works. 

Bully Dawson. See Dawson, Bullt. 

Bnm'ble, Mr. A mean and cowardlv 
beadle in Dickens's ** Oliver Twist," 
puffed up with the insolence of office. 

Bunoh, Mother. See Motbe^ 

Bun'ole, John (bungk^). The hero 
of a fantastic book entitled ^^The 
Life of John Bunde^ Esq. ; contain- 
ing various Observations and Reflec- 
tions made in several parts of the 
World, and many Extraordinary Re- 
lations." He is said to be the repre- 
sentative of his author, Thomas Am- 
oiy (1691-1789), an eccentric person 
of whose histoiy little is known. See 
English Rabelais, 3. 

49* "John is a kind of innocent 
' Henry the Eighth of private life,' with. 

and at a tmkey and chine. He breaks 
with the Trinitarians as oonfldently and 
witii as much soorn as Henry did with 
the Pope ; and he nuurries seven wives, 
whom he disposes of by the lawftil pro- 
cess of fever and small-pox. His book is 
made up of natural history, mathematics 
(literally), songs, polemics, landscapes, 
eating and drinking, and characters of 
singular men, all bound together by his 
in^oductions to, and marriages with, 
these seven suooessive ladies, every one 
of whom is a charmer, a Unitarian, and 
cut off in the flower of ner youth. JBun- 
de does not know how to endure lier 
loss ; he shuts his eyes *lbr three days : * 
is stupefied ; is in despair ; tiU suddenly 
he recollects that Heaven does not like 
such conduct; that it is a mourner's 
bud ness to bow to its decrees ; to be de- 
vout ; to be philosophic ; — in short, to 
be Jolly, and lo<A out for another dear, 
bewitiming partner. * on Christian prin- 
ciples.* Tins is, liCerally, a feir aoeoont 
of his book." Leigh HtnU. 

Oh ferthe penof JiiAti Ameis, to oomeenita 
%petU Kuvenir to fheir memoiy [Lamb's 
Wedneaday-erenlng parttes]! BaaXtt. 

BufL^odmbe (bungk'um). A cant or 
popular name^ in the United States, 
for a body of constituents, or for an 
oratorical display intended to win 
popular applause. [Written also 

According to the Hon. WnUam 
Darlington, the phrase " speaking for 
Buncombe " originated near the dose of 
the debate on the fkmous *^ Missouri 
Question," in the sixteenth Congress. It 
was then used by Felix Walter, a na'ive 
old mountaineer, who resided at Waynes- 
ville, in Haywood, the most western 

•ad tot the Remaika and Bales to which the numbers sfler certain words refer, see pp. ziv-xxxii. 




eotmty of North Carolina, near fhe bor- 
der of the a<|jacent county of Buncombe, 
which fbnned part of his district. The 
old man rose to speak, while the Houee 
waa impatiently calling for the " ques- 
tion," and several members gathered 
roand him, begging him to denst. He 
pe r severed, however, ibr a while, deelar- 
mg that the people of his district expected 
it, and that he was bound to ^* make a 
speech for Buncombe." 

Btmdsoboli (b^nt'shob). [Ger., a 
kind of huge shoe which went over 
the ankle and was tied up.] {Ger. 
HUt.) A name given to the insur- 
rection of the peasants in the first 
half of the sixteenth centniT', be- 
cause the insurants carried a clouted 
shoe as ah ensign upon a pole, and 
even upon their banners. 

Buns'by, Jack. A commander of a 
ship in Dickens's "Dombey and 
Son," looked up to as an oracle and 
philosopher by his friend Captain 
CutUe. He is described as wearing 
a *' rapt and imperturbable manner," 
and seeming to be " always on the 
lookout for something in the extrem- 
est distance." 

Bunyan, Bishop. See Bishop Bun- 

BuoTo d' Agramonte (boo^vo diU 
grft-mon'tft). See Beuves d*At- 


Btir'ohdll, Mr. A prominent character 
in Goldsmith's '* V ioar of Wakefield," 
who passes himself ofif as a iK>or 
man, out is really a baronet in dis- 
guisejhis true name being Sir Wil- 
uam Thornhill. He is noted for his 
habit of cryinff out "Fudge!" by 
^ay of eicpressmg his strong dissent 
from, and contempt for, the opinions 
of others, or bis (usbelief of their as- 

Burd Helen, [-^^^^i according to 
Jamieson, is a Scottish form of oird, 
used as a term of endearment. But 
see infraJX A heroine of Scottish 
ballad and tradition, renowned for 

her resolute constancy. She is borne 
awajrto Elfiand by the fairies, and 
imprisoned in a castle, from which 
she is rescued by her brother, the 
Childe Rowland. .See Bowland, 

** Bwrd is the Scottish feminine of 
the French preux or pnuPhomme. The 
preux ehetaUer was brave and wise, the 
Burd of Scottish song was discreet." 


Buri (boo'recj). [Old Norse, producer.] 
(Scand. Muth,) The progenitor or 
the gods. See AuDHUMBLA. [Writ- 
ten also B u r e.] 

Burleiffli, Iiord. See Lobi> Bub^ 


Burly B[llis 

Harrjr. See Bluff 

BtimbiU. A name giyen to Heniy 
de Londres, Archbiwop of DubUn 
and Lord Jtistice of b^dand, in the 
reign of Heniy HI. He is said to 
have fraudulently procured and 
burnt all the instruments by which 
the tenants of the archiepiscopal es- 
tates held their lands. 

Bd-Si'ris (9). [Or. BovVipt?.] (3f^) 
An Egyptian king, son of Neptune. 
He was a monstrous giant, wno fed 
his horses on human flesh. He was 
finally slain by Hercules. 

Buttermere, Beauty oL See Beau- 
ty OF Buttebmebb. 

Btu'ftiB, Sergeant. A character In 
Dickens^B " Pickwick Papere." 

BybOia. [Gr. Bv^XtV] {Gr.fJRom, 
Myth.) A daughter of Miletus, who 
wept herself into a fbuntain ttom a 
hopeless passion for her brother Cau- 

Byoome. dee Chichevachb. 

By'rdn, Uim HarHet <9). A beau- 
mm and accomplished wonian, de- 
votedly attached, and finally married, 
to Sir Charles Grandison, in Bichard- 
son's novel of this name. See Gban- 


For the **Key to fhe Scheme of FroauuMialion,** with the MooapeaTtaic £z^]aiiatioii% 





OaBal, The. (Enff, BuL) A name 
nren to a fiunous cabinet cotmcil 
rormed m 1^70, and (MMnpoeed of five 
unpopular ministers of Charles II.; 
namely, Lords Clifford, Addey. Buck- 
ingham, Arlington, and Lauderdale. 
The word '^ cabal '* — at that time in 
common use to denote aiunUy^ or ui 
6fiMn imitedJbrpolUicai purposes — 
having been popiuariy applied to this 
ministry as a term of reproach, it 
was soon discovered to be a sort of 
anagram made up of the initials of 
the names of the several members. 

Gttbfillevo, Feman (fSf-nftn^ kft-b&l- 
jti^Wj 82). A nom de pkune of Dona 
Ceciha Arrom, one of the most popu- 
lar living writers of Spain, one is 
the author of various tales^ which 
prosent truthiul and livdy pictures 
of Andalnsian manners. 

G^bril(9). [6r. K<£0€(pot.] {M'^.) 
Mystic divinities anciently worshiped 
in Egypt, Phoenieia, Asia BGnor, and 
Greece. The^ we're regarded as in- 
ferior in dignitr to the great gods, 
and were i^baUy representatives or 
the powers of nature. [Written also 

Oft'oair. {Rom, . Ifffth,) An Italian 
shepherd, usually called a son of Vul- 
can, and descrirod by Ovid M a ftar- 
ftd giant. He was a most notorious 
robber, and was slain by Hercules for 
stealing his oxen. 

There yon will And the Lord BInaldo of 
Montelbeii, irifh hia Mends and compuiioni, 
ill off ttiem greater thieres than Caeut. 

OervmUeSt TVotw. 

On; hero, fteUnc his enriositj eonsiderably 
excited 1^ the idea of risiting fhe den of a 
Highland Oaeut. took, howerer, the precan- 
flontoinqniie iffais goide might be trosied. 

^^Sif W. Scott. 

Oaddee. See League of God's 

O^Kie^Ufl. A name under which 
Swift describes himself in his poem 
of ^* Cadenus and Vanessa." vad&- 
nus is the Latin word decanus (dean), 
by transposition of letters. See Va- 

CbdemM^ indeed, beHere him whoirfl],hae 

he himself preserved the limits which were 
vmhAppU^ franagressed by the unfcrtanate 

Yanessa/his more impassioned pupiL 

Sir W.Seott, 

Oad'xntui. [6r. K«UiM«.] {Gr.^'Bom, 
Myth,) A son of Acenor, king of 
Phoemcia, and a brother of Europa. 
He is the reputed founder of the city 
of Thebes, in B<feotia; and he is said 
to have invented, or at least to have 
brought from Phoenicia, the old Greek 
alphabet of sixteen letters, namely, 
a^y5c(jeXfivoirp<rrv. These 
are called Cadmean letters. They 
were afterward increased by the ad- 
dition of ei^ht more, named lonie 
letters, name^, sn^t^x^**' 

Gt-da'oe-tui. [Lat., from Gr. mipC- 
ccu>r, a herald's wand, ^olic copv- 
«cu»r (r being changed into its cog- 
nate, d), from Kifpw$, a herald.] ( Gr. 
^ Bom. Myth.) A winged staff or 
rod, with two serpents entwined 
about it; an attribute of Mercury. 

Oad'wim. A feigned name assumed 
by Arviragos in Shakespeare^s ** Cym* 
beline." See Abyiraous. 

OflBO^i-lu8. (Rom. Myth. ) A son of 
Vulcan, a robber, and the reputed 
founder of Prseneste. 

Oaeliostro, CkMmt de (kftl-^os^tro). 
The assumed name of Josepn Balsa- 
mo (1743-1795), one of the most im- 
pudent and sucoessftd impostors of 
modem times. 

Ca'ius, Br. A French physician, in 
Shakespeare^s **Meny Wives of 

Bad in themselves [eertidn portions of Bos- 
wnil's "Ufe of Johnson *T ther are good 
dnunaticany, like . . . the cllppea English of 
Dr. CaiM. MaeatOav. 

OalandzlliO (kik-l&n-dre'no). The 
subject of a story in Boccaccio's " De- 
cameron" (Day 8, Tale 9). His 
mishaps, as Macaulay states, **have 
made all Europe meny for more than 
four centuries." 

Oal'9h&i. [Gr. KdEAxa?.] {Gr. ^ 
Rom,' Myth.) A famous soothsayer 

and fer the Bemarks and Bnles to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. zir-xxxiL 




who accompanied the Greeks to 
Cal'e-d^n. A poetical contraction of 
Caledonia. See Caledonia. 

Not thus, in ancient days of Qjledon^ 
Was ttiy voice mate amid the festal crowd. 

Sir W. Scoit. 

Cal'e-do'ni-t* '^^^ ancient Latin 
name of Scotland, often used as a 
synonym of Scotland in modem poe- 

O OaedotMLj etem and wil^ 
Jleet none for a poetic child i 

^ W, Seott. 

Calendars, The Three. See Thbee 
Calendars, The. 

Cal'^L-b&n. [A metathesis of cantttM.] 
A savage and deformed slave oi 
Prospero, in Shakespeare's "Tem- 
pest." He is represented as being 
the "freckled whelp" of Sycorax, a 
foul hag, who was banished from Ar- 
gier (or Algiers) to the desert island 
afterward inhabited by Prospero. 

49- " Caliban ... is all earth, all 
oondensed and gross in feelings and im- 
ages: he has ti&e dawnings of under- 
standing, without reason or the moral 
sense ; and in him, as in some brute an- 
imids, this advance to the intellectual 
Iheulties, without the moral sense, Is 
mailed by the appearance of vice." 


The quantity of AiilonB abuse poured out 
against the Bourbons might have authorised 
the authors to use the words of Oczlt&an,.- 

** You taught me language, and my profit 
Is — I know how to curse.** Sir W. ScoU. 

Cal'I-bum. See Excaubub. 

Call-dore. [Gr., beautifully gift»d.] 

A knight in Spenser's " Faery 

Queen," typical of courtesy, and 

supposed to DO intended as a portrait 

of Sir Philip Sidney. 

In reality, he [Sir Oawain] was the CaUdore 
of the Bound Table. Southey, 

C|-Up'o-Ufl. A character in "The 
Batde of Alcazar" (1594), an mflat- 
ed play attributed by Dyce to Greorge 
Peele, a dramatist of the Elizabethan 
age ; — referred to by Pistol, in Shake- 
speare's " 2 Henry IV.," a. ii., sc. 4. 

of Rowe's " Fair Penitent," charac- 
terized as 

** haughty, insolent, 

And fierce with high disdain." 

be more pleasure in the carving, even save 
thyself the hibor. sir W. Scott, 

C^lis't^. The name of the heroine 

No high CSoZtatothat ever issued from stoiy- 
teller's brain will impress us more deeply than 
tills meanest of the mean, and for a good 
reason,— tliat she issued firom the malcer of 
men. Ccarlyle, 

Cal-li'o-pe. [Gr. KaAAioini, the beau- 
tiful-voiced.] {Gr, ^ Bom. Myth.) 
One of the nine Muses. She pre- 
sided over eloquence and epic poetry, 
or poetry in eeneral, and was tha 
mother of Or^meus and Linus. She 
was usually represented with a style 
and waxen tablets. 

Cal-lis'to. [Gr. KoXXum*.] {Gr. f 
Rom. Myth.) An Arcadian nymph, 
and a favorite of Jupiter, who meta- 
morphosed her into a she-bear, that 
tiieir intimacy might not become 
known to Juno. Her son Areas 
having met her in the chase, one 
day, was on the point of killing her, 
but Jupiter prevented him by placing 
botii of them in the heavens as the 
Great Bear and the Littie Bear. 

Cal'jf'-dSxi. A forest supposed to have 
occupied the northern portion of 
Great Britain; very celebrated in 
the romances relating to King Arthur 
and Merlin. 

C|-l7P'so. [Gr. K«Xv!^«.] {Gr, f 
Rom. Myth.) A daughter of Atia^ 
She was one of the Oceanides, and 
reigned in the island of Ogygia, 
whose situation and even existence 
are doubted. Here she received 
Ulysses, on his way home from 
Trojr, entertaining him with great 
hospitality, and promising him im- 
mortality if he would rcdnain with 
her as a husband. Ulysses refused, 
and, after seven years' delay, he was 
permitted to depart by order of Mer- 
cury, the messenger of Jupiter. 

A solitary rover, in such a voyage, with 
such nauoeal tactics, will meet with adven- 
tures. Nay ; as we forthwith discover, a cer- 
tain CkxlypaoAAaxiii. detains him at the veiy 
outset, and, as it were, falsifies ..and oversets 
his whole reckoning. Oir^ie. 

Camaoho (kft-mft'cho.) A character 
in an episode in Cervantes's "Don 
Quixote," who gets cheated out of 
his bride after having made great 
preparations for their wedding. 

For tlie i* Key to the Scheme of Ftonuneiation,** with the accompanying Ezplanationa, 




CamaralBanum, ^rinoe. See 
Prince Camabalzaman. 

Cam^bft-lu. In the "Vojrages" of 
Marco Polo, the chief city of the 
province of Cathay. It is now iden- 
tified with Pekin. 

Cam^bii-^. The ancient Latin name 

of Wales, often used by modem 

poets. It is derived from Camber, 

the son of Brutus, a legendary kin^ 

of Britain. Brutus at nis death left 

the isle to his three sons, one of 

whom. Camber, received the western 


When itan fhroogli iTpraM-bon^^ are 
And flre-fliee wander bright and flree. 
Still of thy harps, thy mountaini diMuning, 
Ky thongfatB^wild aBn&rta,dweUwith&e. 


Cam^buB-oan, or Cam-bna'c^. A 
king of Tartaiy, in Chaucer^s 
^^ Siguier's Tale," to whom, upon the 
anniversary of his birthday, the king 
of Araby and Ind sends as presents 
a brazen horse capable of transport- 
ing his rider into the most distant 
region of the world in the space of 
twenty-four hours; a mirror of glass 
endued with the power of discover- 
ing the most hiaden machinations 
of treason, and of showfaig any dis- 
asters which might threaten to befall 
fhe possessor; a naked sword which 
could pierce armor deemed impene- 
trable; and a ring ->- intended for 
Canace, Cambuscan's daughter — 
which would enable the owner to 
understand the language of every 
species of birds, and the virtues of 
every plant. Tne poem ends abrupt- 
ly, the conclusion of the story havmg 
either been lost, or never written. 

Kf " I ihink that it is not unlikely 
that Ohaueer had seen '• The Tntveli of 
Marco Polo,' and that Cambuaeaii, or 
Cambu's Can, is a contraction of Cam- 
balu Can. We may obserre that the 
name of one of his sons is CambaUo. Of 
Algarsif, the ottier son, I can give no ac- 
count. The name of his dau^ter, Can- 
ace, is Greek. KeighUey. 

MGf " It is strange that Milton should 
have pronounced the word Caminis'ean ; 
nor is it pleasant, when his robust line 
must be resounding in the ear of every 
one to whom the story is called to mind, 
to be foroed to obey even the greater dic- 
tation of the original, and throw tiie 

aeeent, as undoubtedly it ought to be 
thrown, on the first and last syUahle. On 
no theory, as reepects Chaucer's venl- 
flcation, does it appear intelligible how 
Milton could have thrown the accent on 
the second qrUabk, when the other read- 
ing stares us in the fiaoe throughout 
Chaucer's poem." Leigh Hmni, 

This noble king, this Tartre OombuaeaR, 
Hadde two sones by Elfleta, his wif. 
Of which the eldest sone highte Alipursif, 
That other was yelepM CambaUo. 


Or call up htan that left half told 
The story of CctniimBcan bold. 
Of Camball and of Algarsift. 
And who had Canace to wire. 
That owned the virtuous ring and ^asst 
. And of the wondrous horse of brass 
On which the Tartar Ung did ride. JKHfoii 

I hare still by me the beginnings of severa* 
stories, . . . wnieh, after in rahi endearorin^ 
to mold them into shape, I threw adde, Uk# 
the tale of Cbmbicscaa, 'Meft half told." 

r. Jfoore. 

CambyseSy Kins. See Kino CaMn 


Cam'de-o. [^Bifidu Myth,) The god 
of love. See KIma. 

The tenth Avatar comes I at Heaven's com- 
Shan Seriswattee wave her hallowed wand. 
And Oaundeo bright and Ganesa sublime 
Shall Mess with joy their own propitious 
dime! Ckut^gbdU 

Cam'e-ldt. A parish in Somerset- 
shire, England (now called Queen's 
Camel), where King Arthur is said 
to have held his court, and where the 
vast intrenchments of an ancient 
town or station — called by the in- 
habitants '' King Arthur's Palace " 
— are stiU to be seen. It is some- 
times erroneously identified with 
Winchester. Shakespeare alludes to 
Camdot as being flsunous for a breed 
of geese. 

Goose, if once I had fhee npon Sanxm plain, 
I 'd drive thee cackling home to Camdot. 


Ca-me'lne. {Bom, Mvfii.) Prophetic 
nymphs, of whom Egeria was the 
most celebrated. The Roman poets 
often apply the name to the Mnses. 
[Written also, but improperly, C a- 
m oe n se.] 

Cft-miiri$. A virgin queen of the 
V olscians, famous for her fleetness 
of foot and her grace. She assisted 
Tumus in his war against ^neas, 
and signalized herself oy undaunted 
braveiy. ^ 

tad for fhe Bemarlcs and Bnlea to which ttie numbers-after certain words reibr, see pp. ziv-xxxil. 





"The lint ftnule warrior ia the 
. GmdUU of ViiffU.** Dr. Johiuon. 

When i^az atriTM tome roek't rut ireigfat 

to throw. 
The line, too, labon, and the words move 

Not 80 when ewlft CtenflUa acoiin the plain, 
Flies o'er the unbending com, or sldma along 

the nudn. i'ope. 

Cmdide (kdn^dM', 62). The heio of 
Voltaire's celebrated novel of the 
same name, in which he collects to- 
geUier the most dreadfhl misfortunes, 
and heaps them upon the head of a 
single individual, with the' intention, 
probably, of inculcating a philosoph- 
ical indifference to the dirasters and 
disappointmenti» and sorrows which 
inevitabiy beset human life. 

The boy-attthor (Beekfoidl appears ahvadr 
to have rubbed all the bloom off his heatti 
and, in the midst of his dazzling genius, one 
trembles to Uiink titat a strinling of yean so 
tender' should have attained the cool cynicism 
of a Candide. LoMd. gu. Bev. 

Candor, Mrs. A noted slanderer in 
Sheridan's '* School for Scandal.'* 

tSf *^ The name of * Bin. Candor* has 
become one of those formidable by-words 
which Yam more poirer in- putting Iblly 
and ill>natare out of ooontenance thiun 
whole Tolomee of the wisest remonstrance 
and reasoning." T. Moore. 

His [dteme'sl friends, . . . wrote to him of 
the rumor [ttiat he had accepted a bribe]««nd 
of how the Yorkshire Mr». Condon were cir- 
enhitlng that he had fturnished all the details 
of that complacent sketch. Percy FUggerald. 

G^nid'i-f. A sorceress often men- 
tioned by Horace. She used wax 
figures in working her spells and en- 
chantments, and, by her conjurations, 
she made the moon descend from 
the heavens. 

The saror Is sweet, but It halfa been eooked 
by a Canidia or an Erichtho. Sir IF. Scott. 

Oan-nuoks'. A nickname applied to 
Canadians by people in the United 
States. [Written also Cunnucks.] 

C^no'pua. [6r. KivtamK.'] (Gr. ^ 
'jtom. Myth. ) The pilot of Menelaus, 
killed in Egypt by the bite of a 
poisonous serpent, when returning 
from Troy. He was buried by Men- 
elaus on the site of the town of 
Canopus, which derived its name 
irom him. According to some ac- 
counts, Canopus was worriiiped in 
Egypt as a divine being, and was 
represented in the shape oi a jar with 
small feet, a thin neck, a swollen 

body, and a round back. [Written 
also Canobus.] 

Capability Brown. Launcelot Brown, 
a famous English gardener of the 
last century; — so called from his 
constant use of the word ^* capabil- 
ity," as well as on account of his 
genius fbr m a ki ng sterile or naked 
grounds fruitM and beautiful. 
There is a Teiyhoge artificial Uke [atBlen- 

•fi^J*** *?«? **»* he scooped ibr it, ju3 
M tf Nature had poured these broad watera 
into one or mx own TaUeys. Botwthomu 

Oapt-nefbi. [Gr. Kawoi^cv'f.] {Gr, 
Myth,) One of the seven heroes 
who marched- from Argos against 
Thebes. He was killed with a thun- 
der-bolt by Jupiter for impiously say- 
ing that not even the fire of Jupiter 
should prevent him from scaling tiie- 
walls of the ci^y. See Evadns. 

Cape of Storms. See Stormy Cape. 

Capitan (ldL*pe^t^% 62). A boastful, 
swaggering, cowardly fellow, who 
figured in almost all the Fr^ich 
fluces and comedies previous to the 
time of Moli^re. 

Caps and Hats. See Hats and 

Captain, Tbe Black. See Black 
Captain, The. 

Captain Iioys; [Fr. Le (kpUaime 
Loys.] A sobriquet given, by her 
contemporaries, toXouise Lab^ ( 1526- 
1566), who, in eariy Ufe, embraced 
the pA>fession of ar^s, and gave re- 
peated proofs of the greatest valor. 

Captain Bight. A fictitious com- 
mander — like the Captain Rock of 
more recent times — whom the peas- 
ants in the south of Ireland, in the 
last century, were sworn to ooey. 

Captain Book. The fictitfons name 
of a leader of Irish insurgents about 
the year 1822, who appeared contin- 
ually in large masses, among the hills 
and valleys, and might, at almost 
any time of night, be met with in 
ti^e highways. They were said to be 
under the command of a Captain, or 
General, Rock, and all the lawless 
notices they issued were signed in 
his name. The term is supposed to 
have been a common imaginary title 

For the ** Key to Hm Scheme of Fronunoialion,'* with the accompanying Exphmationa, 

CAP ( 

adopted by (he cbief confederates, — 
whose Identity wm never established. 

Cap'u-let. The head of a noble house 
of Verona, in ShakeBpeare'e tragedy 
of "Romeo »nd Juliet," — hostile to 
the bonse of Montague. He is rep- 
resented as a jovial, tea^ old man, 
Bdt-wllled, violent, and tyrannicaL 

G&p'n-lst, lAdf. Wilb of Capulet, 
in SbakespeaN's tragedy of " Booteo 
and Juliet." 

advCnoM flmnei imap- 
tnln irfnin*, bar bUck 

ieOH-ideal at s rrOM IMUaa a 

TflMlt ilann lii_ ..__ .__ ,__ 
aatariiUo inlt of tlw age and o 

■"-•-^ loves hsriUiighlflr; itr' 

ttfl ninntrT «tnir^tnnl 

Olr^b^s, BCarquifl of. rPr. Jfor- 
mat de Oarabcu, maf ke' di; kJkl4'' 
dA'I. a &nciful dtJe emploj^ to 
designate a man iffio poeaesses, or 
makes a boast of poeBesaing, large 
estates; aAudalloraj or,ingeneraJ, 
any nompoos and purse - pmud in- 
dividoaL The name occurs in the 
iiiinery tak, "Puss in Boots," and 
B^ianger has adopted it as the tjtle 
of oos of Ids most popular lyiies. 
See PcBs iH Boots. 

l£ai nenrasiii ■ Um. 
'nwnoH* lonli) HiRiM on. 

Tj Ml [Dhrsdlhi] yjtrnmmiti 

mft-doo. A knight of the Bound 
Table, distingmshed Ibr his valor, 
bat ^ more as the hnsband of a 
chaste and nHutant lady, the only 
dame in Queen Gulnever's tram 
who could wear a ceHaJn mude d»- 
^ned to prove matrimonial fidelity. 
Ht was sumajned Britf-Brat, or 
" Shmnken-Arm," a fTorman conup- 
tion otFrieAFrai, or "StroDg-Ann." 
To eiplain the reason of the tbrmer 
epithet, the later lomaDcers fbigned 

SenMot tu iuvkh vu vjamuuu b luni, 

and suck his flesh and blood, and 
that no human power was able to as- 
suage his pain, or remove the reptile. 
Caradoc is the hero of an old ballad 
CDtitied " The B<^ and the Mantle." 

Olr^OtiM. The mother of theCaliph 
Vathek, in Becktbrd's tale of this 
name; i^presenled as an adept m 
judicial astrology and magic. 

Oardenio (Sp.pnm. kar-dl'ne-o}. A 
distracted lover — the dupe of a per- 
fldious &iend — whose adventures 
form an eiusode in the history of 
"Don Quixote." 

CWda-el (S). A name given, in the 
old romances about ArUmr and his 
knights, to the city of Cariisle. 

Oar^r, Hr. A plaoglble villain in 
Dickens's " Dombey and Son." 

Oatao Khan. A nickname f^ven to 
Charles Jomce Fox (174B-1B0B), on 
account of a bill which he brought 
into Pailiament, in 1783, fbr a new 
regulation of the East' Indies, fhtm 
the suppo^on that he aimed to 
establish a dictatorship in his own 




Oarlyle, Jupiter. See Juptteb Car- 


Carmilhan. See Klabotebmank. 

Car^i-o, Ber-nar'do del. A very 
ancient mythical, or semi-mythical, 
hero of Christian Spain, who signal- 
ized himself, chiefly in the Moorish 
army, by his chivalrous deeds. He 
is said to have been an illegitimate 
son of Don Sancho, Count of Sal- 
daiia, and of Dofia Ximena, a sister 
of King Alfonso, sumamed The 
Chaste. He is a favorite hero in the 
old Spanish romances and ballads, in 
which the honor is claimed for him 
of slaying the famous Orlando, or 
Roland, on the fatal field of Bonces- 

Car-rfts'oo, Samson. [Sp. Sanson 

Carrasco, sftn-s^^n' kaf-ras'ko.] A 

waggish bachelor of Salamanca who 

figures in Cervantes's romance, "Don 


He may perhaps boast of aneBting the gen- 
eral attention, in the same manner as the 
bachelor Samson Carratco. of fixing the 
weather-cock La Glralda of Seville fbr weeks, 
months, or years, that is, for as long as the 
wind shall unifonnly blow firom one quarter. 

Sir W. Scott, 

Car-taph'i-los. See Jew, Thb Wan- 
dering. . 

Casella (k&-zel'lft). The name of a 
musician and old friend of Dante, 
immortalized by him in his poem 
entitled "La Divina Commedia." 
Dante, on his arrival in Pur^tory, 
sees a vessel approaching fi%ighted 
with souls, imder tibie conduct of an 
angel, to be cleansed from their 
sins, and made fit for Paradise. 
When they are disembarked, the 
poet recognizes in the crowd his old 
friend Casella. In the course of an 
afiectionate interview, the poet re- 
(]|^aests a soothing air, and Casella 
sings, with enchanting sweetness, 
Dante's second canzone. 

Dante shall give fiune leave to set thee higher 
Than his CaaeUa, whom he wooed to sing, 
Met in the milder shades of Furgatoiy. 


Cas'i-xnere. A Polish emigrant in 
"The Rovers, or The Double Ar- 
rangement," in the poetry of the 
** Anti-Jacobin." See Beefington, 


Cas-san^dr^. [6r. Kcuro-avSpa.] {Gr. 
^ Rom. Myth.) A beautiful daugh- 
ter of Priam and Hecuba. Accord* 
ing to the poets, she possessed the 
gift of prophecy, but none believed 
her predictions. 

Cassim Babs. See Baba, Cassim. 

Cas'si-o (kash^-o). Lieutenant of 
Othello, and a tool of lago, in Shake- 
speare's tragedy of " Otneilo." 

Indeed, I hare so poor a brain myself^ when 


honest Ommo, a veiy yagoe recollecoon of 

I impose upon it the least burden beyond my 
ai thi * ... - — 

usual three glasses, that I have onlv, like 
honest Ommo, a veiy vague recollecoon of 
the conftuion of last nighC Sir W. Scott. 

Cas-si'o-pe, or Ca8^8i-o-pe'i-$ (20). 

rOr. Kcur<ru6in}f Kao'crudrcta.] ( Gr. <f 
Itom. Myth.) The wife or Cephens, 
and the momer of Andromache. She 
was an Ethiopian by birth, and was 
so proud of her beauty that she evea 
exalted it above that of the sea- 
nymphs, and thus incurred their en- 
mity. After death she was placed 
among the stars, forming the constel- 
lation popularly- known as " The 
Lady in her Chair." [Written also 

That starred Ethiop queen Uiat strove 
To set her beauty's pnuse above 
The sea-nymphs, and their powers oflfended. 


Cas'tft-lj^* A poetical form of CastaUa, 
the name of a spring at the foot of 
Mt. Parnassus, sacred to Apollo and 
the Muses. The poets feigned that 
its waters filled the mind of those 
who drank of it with poetic inspira- 

Cas-ta'rJL [Probably fi:om Lat. casUij 
fem. of castus, chaste ; perhaps catta 
ara, sacred altar/] A poetical name 
under which William Habington 
(1605-1654) celebrated the praises 
of Lucia, dai^hter of the first Lord 
Powis, the lady whom he married. 

Castle, Doubtinff. See Doubting 

Castle of Indolence. The title of a 
poem by Thomson, and the name of 
a castle described in it as situated in 
a pleasing land of drowsiness, where 
every sense was steeped in tilie most 
luxurious and enervating delights. 
The owner of this castle was a pow- 
erful enchanter, who sought by the 

For the ** Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




exercise of magical arts to entice un- 
wary passers-bywithin the gate, that 
he might deprive them of their 
manly strength, take away all their 
high hopes and aims, and engage 
them in a constant round of sensual 

The effect of the elimate, the air, the se- 
renity and sweetness of the place, is almost as 
aednctiTe as that of tiie Came qf Indolence. 


CastLes in Spain. See CbIteaux 


Castlewood, Beatrix. The heroine 
of Thackeray's novel of " Esmond; " 
" perhaps the finest picture of splen- 
did, lustrous physical beauty ever 
given to the world." 

Caa'tor. [Gr. Kiwrrop.! ( Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth.) A son of Leda, and a brother 
of 'Pollux, or Poly deuces. According 
to some writers, they were twins, and 
Jupiter was their father; others as- 
sert that they were the sons of Tyn- 
dareus, king of Lacedaemon ; others, 
again, say mat Pollux was the son or 
Jupiter, and Castor of Tyndareus. 
Hence Pollux was inunortal, while 
Castor was subject to old age and 
death, like other men. But such was 
the mutual affection of the two 
brothers, that Jupiter granted the 
prayer of PoUux, and consented that 
thejyr diould share each other's lot, by 
living, alternately, one day in the un- 
der-world, and me next in heaven. 
According to a different form of the 
story, he rewarded their mutual at- 
tachment by placing them among the 
stars as Gemini, or ** The Twins/' the 
third constellation of the zodiac. 
[Castor and Pollux are sometimes 
called the Dioscuri, or " Sons of Jove," 
and TvttdaridXy or " Sons of Tynda- 

Cathay'. An old name for China, 
said to have been introduced into 
Europe by Marco Polo, the celebrat- 
ed Venetian traveler. It is corrupted 
from the Tartar appellation Knitai 
(ke-tl'), that is, the country of the 
EJiitans, who occupied the northern 
portions of the empire at the period 
of the Mongol invasion. The hero- 
ine of Bojardo^s ** Orlando Innamo- 

rato," the beautiful Angelica, was a 
princess of Cathay. 

Through the shadow of the f(lobe we sweep 

into the younjcer day t 
Better fifty years of Europe than • cycle of 

CatAay. Tennyson. 

OathoUo Mi^esty. A title first given 
in 739 by Gregory HI. to Alfonso 
I. of Spam, who was thereu{)on sur- 
named The Catholic. The title was 
also given to Ferdinand V., in 1474. 
It was bestowed upon Ferdinand and 
his queen by Innocent YIII., on ac- 
count of their zeal for the Roman 
Catholic religion, and their establish- 
ment of the Inquisition in Spain. 

Ca'to-Street Gonspiraoy. {Eng. 
Hist.) A plot of a gang of low and 
desperate politicians to murder the 
ministers of the crown at a cabinet- 
dinner at Lord Harrowby's, with the 
view of raising an insurrection in 
London, and overthrowing the gov- 
ernment. The conspirators were ar- 
rested m Cato Street, Feb. 23, 1820, 
and Thistlewood — one of the ring- 
leaders — and four of his chief as- 
sociates, having been convicted of 
treason, were executed May 1. 

Caudle, Mm. Margaret. Thefei^ed 
author of a series of ^* Curtain Lec- 
tures" delivered in the course of 
thirty years, between eleven at night 
and seven in the morning, to her 
husband, Mr. Job Caudle, **one of 
the few men whom Nature, in her 
casual bounty to women, sends into 
the world as patient listeners." The 
real author of these humorous and 
fJBunous lectures was Douglas Jerrold. 

Violante was indeed a bewitching child, — 
a child to whom I defy J6v. Caudle herself 
(immortal J6v. Caudle f) to have been a harsh 
step-motiber. Sir E. Bulwer Lytion. 

C^ullne, Sir. The hero of an an- 
cient English ballad of the same 
name, preserved in Percy's "Re- 

C^u^ua. [Gr. KaOvos.] See Btb- 


CauBtio, ChriBtopher. A pseudo- 
nym adopted by Thomas Green Fes- 
senden (1771-1837) in his Hudibras- 
tic poem called ^* Terrible Tractora- 

Caustio, Colonel. A prominent char- 

aad for the Bemarki and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xir-xxzlL 




acter in " The Lonnger," sketched 
by Heniy Mackenzie. He is "a fine 
gentleman of the last age, somewhat 
severe in his remarks upon the pres- 

,Oai^tionaiT Towns. {Eng, Bist.) ^ A 
name given to the towns of Bxiel, 
Flushing, Ranmiekins, and Wal- 
cheren, which were placed, in 1585, 
in Queen Elizabeth's possession as 
security for the payment of troops 
fiimished bv her to the Netherlands. 
Onlv one third of the simi was re- 
ifunded; but the Cautionary Towns 
were, notwithstanding, delivered up, 
Julj^ 14, 1616, a treatv for this purpose 
having been signed AEay 22. 

.0»ye of Marn'm^n. The abode of 
the god of riches, described in the 
seventh canto of the second book of 
Spenser's *^ Faeiy Queen." 

' <' By what subtle art of tmoing the 

■mental prooeaaes It ki eflEected, weave not 

philoBophexB «iou^ to explain ; bat in 

that wonderful episode of .the Cave of 

I Mammon, in which the Money Qod ap- 

rus first in the lowest form of a miser, 
then a worker of metals, and becomes 
the god of all the treasuses of the worId^ 
and has a daughter. Ambition, before 
whom all tiie world kneels for flivors, — 
with the Hesperian firuit, the waters of 
Tantalus, with Pilate waflhing his huids 
vainly, but not impertinently, in the 
same stream. — that we should be at one 
moment in tne oave of an old hoarder of 
trsasnres. at the next at the forge of the 
.Cyclops, m a psiaoe and yet in heU, all 
at onoe, with the shifting mutations of 
the most rambling dream, and our judg- 
ment^yet all the Ume awake, and ndther 
able nor wilUng to detect the ihllaey, is 
a proof of that hidden sanity which still 
guides the poet in the wUdast seeming 
aberrations.'' Charles Lamb. 

Gave of Monlesinoa. Sae Moste- 


Oe'orops. [Gr. K^pu^.] (Gr, Mtfth.) 
The first king of Attacft, described as 
an autochthon, the upper pact of 
whose body was human, while the 
lower part was that of a aragon. He 
is said to have institated marria^, 
altars, and aacrificee, and to have m- 
troduced agriculture, navigation, and 

OM'rlo. A Saxon thane, 4>f Bother- 

wood, In Sir Walter Scott's novel of 

Oel'a«d$n. 1. The hero of an epi- 
sode in the poem of " Summer," in 
Thomson's "Seasons; " in love with 
Amelia, who is described as having 
been killed in his aims by a stroke 
of lightning. 

2. A poetical name for any swain, 
or rustic lover. 

Had we been the CUadon and Chloe of a 
eountky village, he coald not baTe regarded 
na as men equal, ao fiur as the world went 


Ce-l8B^o. [Gr. Kt\a*vwJ]{Gr, ^ Bom. 
Myth.) One of the Harpies. See 

Celeatial City. In Bunyan's ''PQ. 
grim's Progress," the city toward 
which Christian makes his pilgrim^ 
Age; — the heavenly Jerusalem, 
whose splendors are portrayed in the 

Oelestial Empire. A name often 
used, in £urope and America, as a 
popular designation of China. It is 
derived^ according to Williams, from 
the Chmese words Tien CAan, that 
is^ Heavenly Dynasty, meaning the 
kmgdom ruled over Dy the dynasty ' 
appointed by Heaven. 

CMiA. 1. Daughter of Frederidc. the 
usurping duke, in Shakespeare's ^ As 
Ten Like It" 

2. The name given by Thomas 
Carew, an English poet aS the sev- 
enteenth oentuiyj to his ladytSove, 
whose real name is unknown. 

OdUmdneCsft'le^mftn' 31.103). 1. A 
misanthrope in Moliere's ^'Les 
Pr^ieuses Ridicules." 

2. A coquette in MoK^'s " Misan- 
thrope," — an admirable portrait. 

Oen'!t4iir8* [Lat. Ceatawri. Gr. 
Kcvravpot, bulI-killers.] ( Gr. q' Bom, 
Mj^.) According to-the earliest ao^ 
counts, a rude and savage people 
of Thessaly, afterward described as 
monsters half man and half horse, 
and particulariy celebrated for their 
contest with the Lapithse. See 

Ottntary White. A sobriquet ^ven 
to John White (1500-1645), a bar' 

For tbe **Ke7 to tiie Seheme of FMmmielatlon,'* wltii the aecompaaying Erplanatione 




risterand political -writer of &e time 
of Uie English Commonwealth, from 
his principal publication, ^* The First 
Centmy of Scandalous Malignant 
Priests, Made and Admitted into 
Benefices hy tiie Prelates," &c. 

Ceph't-lus. [Gr. Ke^oAof..] {Gr, ^ 
Rom, Mffth,) The husband of Pio- 
cris. See Pbocbis. 

CelphettU (28). [Gr. K^^ci^.] {Gr, ^ 
Rom. MffA.) 1. One of tiie Aigo- 

2. King of Ethiopia, husband of 
Cassiopeia, and fiither oi Andromeda. 

0Svn>e-ni8 (4). [Gr. K^i^cpof.] ( Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) A dog with three heads, 
a serpent*s tail, and a snaky mane, 
who goarded the portal of Hades, 
into which he admitted the shades, 
-l)at from which he never let them out 
again. Hercules overcame him, and 
brought him away. 

Genres (9). {Gr. ^ Rom. Myih.) The 
daughter of Satom and Ope, sister of 
JupUer, Pluto, Neptune, Juno, and 
Vesta, mother of Proserpine, and 
goddess of com, harvest, and flowers. 
She is usnallv represented as riding 
hi a chariot drawn by dragons ; with 
a torch or a basket in her nand, and 
crowned with poppies or ears of com. 

OSr^^m^fin. A lord of l^pheeus, in 
ShidLeepeaie's ** Pericles." 

Ce'yx. [Gr. K^.] {Gr. ^ Ram. 
Myth.) See Alctokx. 

GhadLntend, The Bev. Mr. A char- 
acter in IMckens*8 "Bleak House;** 
a type of hypocritical piety. 

(p4taicaat^. Oneof the dramatis p^r- 
mmoB in Qtwi^^s txigedy of "The 

Wfty, Hwrm low jou I Ivoold «a . 
Invito a flre-bnaa Into my ttaek-jvid,— he'4 
an Aiimmww, • Ck am o ta . Sk' W. Soott, 

Chaxiipion of tlie Virgin. A title 

SVen to St. Cyril of Alexandria. See 

Qfair^-tdf. [Gr. x<£pi.r««.] {Gr.fRom. 
Myth.) The Graoos. See Gracss. 

Charliea. A sobriquet given to the 
night-watchmen of London before the 
oiganixation of the p<^oe fhroe by Sir 

Bobert Peel in 1899. Thmr were so 
called from Eong Charles L, who, in 
1640, extended and improved the 
police system of the metropolis. 

Char^mi-^n. A kind-hearted but 
simple-minded female attendant on 
Cleopatra, in Shakespeare's play of 
*^ Antony and Cleopatra.'* 

Qha'rAn. [xipi*if.] {Gr. ^ Rom. 
Mym. ) A god of Hades, son of Ere- 
bus and Nox. He was an aged and 
dirhr ferrv-man, who conducted the 
souls of the buried dead across the 
river Styx. See Sttz. 

gh^ryb'dis. [Gr. x<iAv/Mtc.] {Gr. 

^ Rom. Myth,) A ravenous woman, 

turned by Jupiter into a dangerous 

gulf or whirlpool on the coast of 

Sicily, opposite to Scylla, on the coast 

of Italy. See Scylla. 

And ohJd her barkinff wavw into attention, 

AndlbU.CKarybtiw miunuured soft amiauee. 


OliAteaax en Eapacne (shi'toz'dn 
nes'pftn', 62, 78). [Ft., casties in 
Spam.] Grom^dless or visionaiy 
projects ; a French phrase sometimes 
used in English. In the fifteenth 
century, thev said, in the same sense, 
*^faire au c M U au x en AtU^ ' to build 
casties in Ada. 

Ghauvin (sho'v&n', 62). The princi- 
pal character in Scribe's *^ Soldat La- 
Doureur;" represented as a veteran 
soldier <v the time of the first Empire, 
having an unbounded admiration of 
Napoleon, and a bhnd idolatiy of all 
tiutt pertMns to him. 

Ohembim, Don. See Dok Cbbbu- 


GhaviBUsr do 6t. G«orge. See St. 
Gbokob, Chbvalxer ds. 

Gher'y Ohaae. The subject and the 
titie of a famous old EngUsh ballad. 
The event which is commemorated 
is probably the battie of Otterbum, 
which happened in August, 1388, 
and is declared by Froissart to have 
been the bravest and most chivalrous 
which was fought in his day; but it 
is impossible to reconcile the inci- 
dents of the iK>em with history. 

fSf ^ Aoeording to the bftUad, Pflrcy 
I vowed that he would enter Scotland, and 

and Ibr tibe Benuoki and Roles to which the numben after oeitaln w<»di reftr, lee pp. ziv-xzxU. 




take his pleasure for three days in the 
'woods of his rlTBl. and slay the deer there- 
in at will. DouglBs, when he heard the 
Taunt, exclaimed : ' Tell him he will find 
one day more than enough. ' Accordingly, 
at the time of the hay-harrest, Percy, 
with stag -hounds and archers^ passed 
into the domains of his foe, and slew a 
* hundred &llow-deer and harts of grice.^ 
When the English had hastily cooked 
tiieir game, and were about to retire, 
Earl I>ongIas, clad in armor and heading 
his Sootuish peers, came on the scene. 
Haughty challenge and defiance passed 
tMtween the potentates, and the battle 
joined. In the center of the firay the two 
leaders met. * Tield thee, Percy ! * cried 
Douglas. * I will yield to no Scot that 
was ever bom of woman ! * cried Percy. 
During this colloquy, an English arrow 
struck Douglas to the heart. * Fight on, 
my merry men ! ' cried he, as he died. 
Percy, with all the chiTalrous feeling of 
his race, took the dead man by the hand, 
and Towed that he would haye giyen all 
his lands to save him, for a braver knight 
neyer fell by such a chance. Sir Hugh 
Montgomery, haTlng seen the ikll of 
Douglas, clapped spun to his horse, 
dashed on Percy, and struck his spear 
through his body a long cloth-yard and 
more. Although the leaders on both 
sides had &Uen, the battle, which bad 
begun at break of day, continued till the 
ringing of the curfew -bell. When the 
battle ended, representatlTes of every no- 
ble fiunily on either side of the border 
lay on the bloody greensward." 


49* " I never heard the old song of 
Percy and Douglas, that I found not my 
heart moyed more tlian with a trumpet." 

Sir Jmiip Sidney. 

tradesman in Racine^s comedy, ^Les 

Ohicard(8he'kaf',64). [From the orig- 
inator, a M. Chicard.l The Harlequm 
of the modem French carnival. His 
costume is composed of the most 
various and incongruous articles, but 
^eneraUj includes a helmet, a pos- 
tilion's wig, a flumel shirt, and 
cavalry trouserd. His arms are half 
bare, and are thrust into buff gloves 
with large cufb. 

Chiohevaohe (sh^h'vftsh'). [Fr., 
said to signify literally, ^* melancholy, 
or sour visage/'] [Written also 
Chichefache and Chinch- 

vac he.] A fabulous monster. 
Chaucer alludes to it near the close of 
"The Clerkes Tale." The following 
b Tyrwhitt's note on the place : — 

" This ezoellent reading is restored 
upon the authority of the bwt MSS. in- 
stead of the common one, Ouchivaehe. 
The allusion is to the subject of an old 
ballad, which is still preserved In MS. 
Harl. 2261, fol. 270, b. It is a kind of 
pageant, in which two beasts are intro- 
duced, called Bycome and Chichevache. 
The first is supposed to feed upon obe* 
dient husbands, and the other upon pa- 
tient wives ; and the humor of tiie piece 
consists in representing Bycome as pam- 
pered with a superfluity of food, and 
Chichevache as half starved." 

Childe Harold. See Habold, 

Childe Bowland. See Bowlakd, 


Child of Hale. A name often given 
to John Middleton, a famous English 
giant, who was bom at Hale, in Lan-^ 
cashire, in 1578. His height was 
nine feet and three inches, ^ wanting 
but six inchesj" says Dr. Plott, *^ of 
the size of Goliath." 

Children in the Wood. Two char- 
acters in an ancient and well-knowp 
ballad entitled '' The Children m th.) 
Wood, or The Norfolk GentVs Lasl 
Will and Testament," which U 
thought by some to be a disguised 
recital of the alleged murder of his 
nephews by Richiud IH. It is cer^ 
tarn that the ballad corresponds es- 
sentially with the narrative of the 
chroniclers. Addison saprs of the 
ballad referred to, that it is *^one 
of the darling songs of the common 
people, and the delight of most £ng^ 
Bshmen at some part of their age." 
See the ''Spectator," Nos. 85 and 

ghl-me'r|(9). [6r. xf^uupo.! {Gr. 
f Rom, Myth,) A strange, fire-breath- 
mg monster of Lycia, killed by Bel' 
lerophon. See Bellerophovt. 

Chinaman, John. A cant or popular 
name for the Chinese. The earliest 
known instance of its use is in *' A 
Letter to the Committee of Manage- 
ment of Druiy-Lane Theater, London, 
1819," p. 64. 

For the •• Key to the Scheme of Fronunoiation,*' with the aoeompanyinc Xxplanatfons, 




ghi^^n (9). [Gr. Xc£p«v.] (Gr. ^ 
Rom. Mifth.) The wisest and most 
famous of all the Centaurs; noted 
for his skill in music, medicine, and 
hunting. He was the instructor of 
Achilles, and many other heroes of 
Grecian story. Jupiter placed him 
among the stars, as the constellation 
Saffiitaritu, or " The Archer.'* 

Qhlo'e. Formerly a veiy common 
name, in pastoral poetry, for a mis- 
tress or sweetheart, but of late gen- 
erally appropriated to negresses and 

ghlo'riB (9). [Gr. XAw/hV] (Gr, 
Myth.) The wife of Zephyros, and 
the goddess of flowers; the same 
with the Roman Flora. See Flora. 

Chxiemhild (kreem'hilt), or Chriexn- 
hflde (kreem-hiPdft). The heroine 
of the German epic poem, the " Nibe- 
Inngen Lied," represented as a wom- 
an of the rarest grace and beauty, 
and rich beyond conception. By the 
treacherous murder of her husband, 
she becomes changed from a gentle 
and loving woman into a perfect fury 
of revenge. See Brunehild, Hagen, 
Siegfried. [Written also Kri em- 

gbTiB'ti-heL 1. The herome of the 
old romance of ^^ Sir Eglamour of 

2. A lady in the ancient ballad of 
" Sir Caulme," the daughter of a 
^ bonnye kin^e ** in Ireland. 

3. A lady m Coleridge's poem of 
the same name. 

Christiaii. The hero of Bunyan's 
spiritual romance, *^The Pilgrim's 
Progress." This celebrated allegory 
describes the awakening of Chris- 
tian's spiritual fears; his resolution 
to depart from the City of Destruc- 
tion, where he had resided ; his inef- 
fectual attempts to induce his wife and 
family and neighbors to accompany 
him; his departure; and all the in- 
cidents, whewer of a discouraging or 
a comforting nature, which befall 
him on his journey, imtil he arrives 
at the Celestial City ; the whole being 
designed to represent the various ex- 
periences, internal and external, in 
the life or a real Christian. 

We leem to hare lUIen unonf the a»> 
(^uaintuices of our old friend Chritttan : lOiiie- 
times we meet MiBtrust and Timorous, aome- 
times Mr. Hategood and Mr. Lovelust, and 
then again Fnu&nce, Piety, and Charity. 

ghris'ti-an'^ (kristM-an'ft). The 
wife of Christian, in Bunyan's ** Pil- 
grim's Progress," who sets out with 
her children to rejoin her husband in 
the Celestial City, under the guidance 
of Mr. Great-heart. 

One, Uke the white robea leen by C/ariatiana 
on the Delectable Mountains, b protected 
from impurity by an inherent yirtne t tl)e 
other, like a virKin forfercM, it secured axainst 
aMauIt by its forbidding fiwwn and its terrible 
powers of resistance. JJ. G. WhUe. 

Christian Oi9'e-ro. A name con- 
ferred upon Lucius Ccelius Lactantius, 
an eminent Christian author of the 
early part of the fourth century, on 
account of the remarkable purity and 
eloquence of his style. 

Christian 8en'e-o$. A title some- 
times given to Josep^h Hall (1574- 
1656), Bishop of Norwich, an eminent 
divine, highly esteemed as a moralist. 

Christian Vir'gil. A title given to 
Marco Gux>lamo Vida (1490-1566). 
one of the most learned scholars and 
most el^ant Latin writers of his 
time. Ua was the author of a Latin 
poem in six books, on the life of 
Christ, the " Christias," which is as 
close an imitation of the ^^ .£neid *' 
as the great difference in the nature 
of the subject would permit. 

ghris'tte of the Clint Hill. A char- 
acter in Scott's novel of " The Mon- 
astery;" one of Juhan Avenel's re- 

Christopher, St. See St. Chbisto- 


Chroniolers, The Bhirminfi:. A 
series of writers who arose in England 
about the end of the thirteenth centu- 
ry, and related in verse the fabulous 
and the authentic history of that coun- 
try.' The most celebrated of them 
were Layamon, Robert of Gloucester, 
and Robert de JBrunne. 

ghro-nonOxo-ton-thoFo-soB. 1. A 
pompous diaracter in a burlesque 
tragedy of the same name by Heniy 

and for the Bemarks and Bales to which the numben after certain words refbr, tee pp. ^v-:«¥idl.. 




2. A nickname given to General 
John Burgoyne (d. 1792), on account 
of an inflated address which he de- 
livered to the American Indians 
during the war of the Revolution. 

Ohiysalde (kre'sald'). A character 
in Moli^re's " L'ficole des Femmes j '* 
a friend of Amolphe. 

Qhry8«le (kre's&lO* An honest, sim- 
ple-minded, henrpecked tradesman, 
in Moli^re's comedy, ** I^es Femmes 

Ohrys'ft-or. [Gr. X/wo-awp.] ( Gr, ^ 
Rom, Myth.) A son of Neptune and 
Medusa, and the father of Creiyon hy 

Chrytaor, liBlng out of flie Ma, 
Showed thus glorioug and thus emuIooB, 

Ijeaving the arms of CalUrrhoe, 
For ever tender, soft, and tremulous. 


Qbr^>8e'iB. [Gr. Xpw<njis.] {Gr, 4' 
Bom. Myth.) Daughter of Chryses, 
a priest of Apollo. She was famed 
for her beaufy, and for her skill in 
embroidery. In the course of the 
Trojan war, she was taken prisoner, 
and given to Agamemnon, -who, 
however, was obliged to restore her 
to her father, in order to stop aplague 
which Apollo sent into the Grecian 
camp in answer to the prayer of 

Ch.n2'zle-wit, Jonas. A character 
in Dickens's novel of ^* Martin Chuz- 
zlewit;'* distinguished for his mean 
brutality and small tyranny. 

OhuB^sle-wit, Martin. The hero of 
Dickens's novel of the same name. 

Cio'e-ro of Germany. [Lat. Cicero 
lr&rmarwB.'\ A title given to John 
in., margrave and elector of Bran- 
denburg (1456-1499). 

" Nothii^ struck a discerning pub- 
lic like the talent he had for 8pe^ung : 
■poke * four hours at a streteh In Kaiser 
Max's Diets, in elegantly flowing Latin,' 
with a Hdr share of meaning too, and had 
bursts of parliamentary eloquence in him 
that were astonishing to hear. . . . His 
bunts of parliamentary eloquence, once 
glpripus as the day, procured him the 
name of ^ Jofaimnes Cicero,' and that is 
what remains of them, for they are sunk 
now, irretrierable he and they, into the 
beUy of eternal Night, the final Testing- 

place, I do pereetve. of much Ciceronian 
ware in this world.'^ CoaiyU. 

Ci9'e-ro of the Senate. A title 
popularly given to George Canning 
(1770-1827), a distinguidied British 
statesman, and a very eloquent 

Cio'e-ro's Mouth. [Fr. La Bouche 
ae Ciceron.'] A surname given, for 
his eloquence, to Philippe Pot (1^8— 
1494), prime minister or Louis XI. 

Oid, The. [Sp.^ lord, from Arab. 
setd."] A tide given to Don Rodrigo 
Laynez. a Spanish nobleman of the 
eleventn centurv,by flve Moorish gen- 
erals whom he had vanquished. The 
tiUe was confirmed by his king. He 
was also knoym by the abbreviated 
name of Bu^ Diaz (t. e., Rodrigo, 
the son of Diego), and was Count of 
Bivar. In 1065, he was placed b^ 
Kin^ Sancho at the head of all his 
armies, whence he acquired the ap- 
pellation of Campeador, i. e., warrior, 
champion. He is said to have died 
at Valencia, in 1100, in the seventy- 
fourth year of his age. The details of 
his history are lost in a cloud of ro- 
mantic Action. He is regarded as tlie 
model of the heroic virtues of his age, 
and the flower of Spanish chivalry. 

Cid Hamet Benengeli. See Ben- 
icNGELi, Cid Hamet. 

Cini-nie'ri-&n| (9). [Lat. Cimmerii, 
Gr. Ki^^eptoi.] {Gr. 4" -Rom. Myth.) 
In the poems of Homer, a people 
dwelling " beyond the ocean-stream," 
in a land where the sun never shines, 
and where perpetual darkness reigns. 
Later writers placed them in Italy, 
near Lake Avemus, and described 
them as living in dark caverns, ex- 
ploring metfds, and never coming 
into the light of day. 

Cin'd^-el'4, [That is, little ciiM^er- 
girl: Fr. CendrUlon, Ger. Aschen- 
ordael, Aschenpuitel.^ The heroine 
of a well-known fsiry tale^ repre- 
sented as the daughter of a king or a 
rich man, and condemned by a cruel 
step-moUier to act the part of a 
household drudge, sitting in the ashes, 
while her more favored sister* are 
dressed in finery and live in splendor. 

FflT the "Key to the Pchen^e of F)rpxfUI}cUtip^^ with the socompaayhig Explanaiions, 




The stoiy lecoimts how, by a faiir's 
help, Cinderella presents nerself be- 
fore a young prince, and gains his 
love, to the cnagrin of her sisters, 
who had sought to win his favor, and 
how, when he would pursue her, he 
loses sight of her, and, at last, by 
means of a glass slipper, or, as some 
saj, a golden shoe, (the ^ft of the 
ianT,) which she had dropped in her 
flight, and which would nt no other 
foot ^ but h^rs, he discovers her, and 
then marries her. 

The story is very iride-sprad, and 
is told with TurUtions in diffiorent lan- 
guages. It is of gieat antiquity, And 
probably deriyed fircnn the East. Among 
the Qetmans, the story is mentioned as 
early as the sbctemtti century, in RoUen- 
hagen's *^ Froechmauseler." In France, 
Penaalt and Madame D'Aunoy have in- 
eluded it in their ^^Vaiiy Tales." A 
similar story, of Grecian or I^ptian ori- 
gin, is told of Rhodopis and Paammiti- 
chus in Elgypt. 

Ci-p8zi'eo. A marvelous island, de- 
scribed in the " Voyages *' of Marco 
Polo, the Venetian traveler. It is 
represented as lying in the eastern 
seas, some 1500 miles from land, and 

. of its beauty and wealth many stories 

are related. The island of Cipango 

was an object of diligent search with 

Columbus and the early navigators. 

It is supposed by some to be the same 

as Japan. [Written also Zi pang i 

and ^ipangri.] 

Nor will I bestow any more aMe&tton or 
credit to the idea tliat America is the fliiiy 
r^on otZipcmgrif described by that dream- 
in% tmreler, Muco Polo, the venetiaii. 


G!r'oe(4). [6r. Ki^m}.] {Gr,<fB(m, 
JfyA.) A daughter of Sol and the 
ooeanid Perse, and a noted sorceress. 
She lived in tne island of .£«a, sur- 
rounded with numbers of human 
beings, whom she had changed by 
lier Exuoi and incantations into the 
shape <H wolves and lions. When 
Ulysses, in his wanderings, came to 
this islandj she turned two-and- 
twenty q£ his companions into swine ; 
but UlvMes himself, haviuj^ obtained 
from Mercuiy a sprig or the herb 
moly, — of wonderful power to resist 
sorceries, — went boldly to the palace 
of the enchantress, remained unin- 

jured by her drugs, and induced her 

to disenchant his comrades. 

Who knows not Clree^ 
The daughter of the Sun, whose charmed ei^p 
Whoever tasted lost his upright shape. 
And downward fell into a grovelins swine f 

Oiroomlooution Office. A desifl<- 
nation made use of by Dickens m 
•* Little Dorrit," in ridicule of <^cial 
delays and indirectness. The Cir- 
cumlocution Office is described as 
the chief of " public departments in 
the art of perceiving how not to do U.^* 
The name has come into popular use 
as a sjnionym for governmental rou- 
tine, or " red tape," 6r a roundabout 
way of transactmg public busmess. 

JI9" ^^ The AdministntiTe Reform Aa- 
sociatlon might haye worked for ten 
years without producing half of the 
efifect which Mr. Dickens has produced 
in the same direction, by flinging out the 
phrase, * The Circumlocution Ofltee.* " 


Cironsillio of Thraoe (the-r6n-h^P- 
ye-o). The hero of an old romance 
of chivalry by Bernardo de Vargas. 

GitieB of the Plain. The name often 
given to Sodom and Gomorrah, the 
chief of the five cities which were 
destroyed bv fire from heaven ( Gen, 
xix.), and t&eir sites covered by the 
Dead Sea. 

Citizen King. A surname popularly 

fiven to Louis Philippe, who, in 
830, was placed on tne throne of 
France as. the elective king of a 
constitutional monarchy. 

City of Brotherly Iiove. [Gr. 
^iXa£4X4ttui. brotherly lovej rhil- 
adeljthia, the metropolis of Irennsyl- 
vania, is sometimes so called, with 
reference to the signification of Uie 
name in Greek. 

City of Churohes. A name popu- 
larly given to the city of Brooklyn, 
New ^ork, from the unusually large 
number of churches which it con- 

City of David. A name given to 
Jerusalem by King David, who 
wrested it from the (Janaanites, b. c. 

City of Destraotion. In Bunyan^s 
" Pilgrim's Progress," the imagmaiy 

■ad for the Bemaiks and Boles to which the nnmben after certiin words refor, tee pp. zIt-xxzU. 


city, typifying the world, from which 
Christian started on hia pilgrimage 
to the Celestial City. 

City of Mzxis. A familiar denomi- 
nation of New Haven, Connecticut, 
many of the streets of which are 
thickly shaded with lofty elii^s. 

When happier days shall retam, and the 
Bouthf awakening from her suicidal delusion, 
■hall remember who it was that sowed her 
sunny fields with the seeds of those golden 
crops with which she thinks to rule the world, 
■he will cast a veil of oblivion over the mem- 
ory of the ambitious men who have goaded 
her to her present madness, and will rear a 
monument of her gratitude in the beautiflil 
CUif of EUnSf over the ashea of her greatest 
benefiactor, — Ell Whitney. , ^ ^^^ 

Edward Everett aSGl). 

Oityof EnohantmentB. A magical 
city described in the story of Beder, 
Pnnce of Persia, in the " Arabian 
Nights' Entertainments.'* 

Oity of God. The subject and title 
of St. Augustine's celebrated work 
("De Civitate Dei"), written after 
the sack of Rome by Alaric, to an- 
swer Uie assertion of the pagans that 
the disasters to their country were a 
consequence of the desertion of the 
national deities by the Christians. 
The City of God comprehends the 
body of Christian believers, in dis- 
tinction from the City of the World, 
which comprises tiiose who do not 
belong to the Church. The work 
treats of both cities, but it takes its 
name from the former only. 

The City of the World, whose ori^ and 
▼icissitudes Augustine had traced, appeared 
to him under very dismal aspects, and it was 
toward the CUy qr Qod^ of which he was also 
the Catholic Homer, that all his hopes were 
turned. Pot/^otUatf 2Va»s< 

Oity of Iiantems. An imaginary 
cloud - city spoken of in the " Verae 
Historic " of Lucian. a romance writ- 
ten with a satirical purpose. The 
voyagers, whose adventures are the 
subject of the work, sail through the 
Pillars of Hercules, and are wrecked 
upon an enchanted island. They 
next travel through the Zodiac, and 
arrive at the City of Lanterns. Af- 
ter further adventures, the vovage 
terminates at the Islands of the Blest 
Babelais probably borrowed his con- 
ception of the Island of Lanterns (see 
Island op Lanterns) from this 

76 CiT 

source, which also undoubtedly fiir- 
nished hints to Le Sage and to Swift. 

City of MaRnifioent Diatanoes. A 
popular designation given to the city 
of Washington, the capital of the 
United States, which is laid out on 
a very large scale, being intended to 
cover a space of four miles and a half 
long, and two miles and a half broad, 
or eleven square miles. The entire 
site is traversed by two sets of streets 
from 70 to 100 feet wide, at right 
angles to one another, the whole 
again intersected obliquely by fifteen 
avenues from 130 to 160 feet wide. 

City of Masts. A name often be- 
stowed upon London, in allusion to 
the magmtude of its commerce. 

Oity of Notions. In the United 
States, a popular name for the city of 
Boston, Massachusetts, the metropo- 
lis of Yankeedom. 

City of Palaces. 1. An appellation 
frequently ^ven to Calcutta, the cap- 
ital of British India. The southern 
portion of the city comprises the 
principal European residences, many 
of which are very elegant and even 
palatial edifices. 

49* The City of Palaces really deaerves 
that appellation. Nothing can be more 
imi)osing than the splendid houses of 
Ghowringhee, viewed from ihe Ck>arse, 
which is a brood carriage-road on the es- 
planade of Fort William, adjoining the 
raoe-coorse, from which, I presume, it 
derives its name. Euukwood's Mag. 

2. A title sometimes given to Ed- 
inburgh, but with no great propriety. 

City of Feaoe. A name sometimes 
given to Jerusalem, which was an- 
ciently called Sakm, a word mean- 
ing "peace." 

City of Bocks. A descriptive name 
popularly given, in the United States, 
to the city of Nftshville, Tennessee. 

City of Spindles. A name popularly 
given to the city of Lowell, Massa- 
chusetts, the largest cotton-manufac- 
turing town in me United States. 

City of the Great Kins. A name 
sometimes given to Jerusalem, which 
is so called in Paalm xlviii. 2, and in 
Mail. V. 35. 

For the *' Key to the Scheme of Fn>nunciation,** with the accompanying Explanations, 


77 CLA 

City of the Prophet. [Arab. ifoS- 
nai al Nabi,'] A name given to 
Medina, in Arabia, because here Ma- 
homet was protected when he fled 
from Mecca, Julj 16, 622, — a flight 
known in histoiy as the Hegira^ and 
forming an important epoch in chro- 

Ci^ of the Straits. A name popa- 
larlv given to Detroit, which is situ- 
ated on the west bank of the river or 
strait connecting Lake St. Clair with 
Lake Erie. Detroit is a fVench word, 
meaning " strait** 

Citr of the Sun. 1. A translation 
of BaaibeCy or Balbec, a ruined town 
of Syria, once of great size, magnifi- 
cence, and importance. Its Greek 
name, HeHopoUs, has the same signif- 

2. [Lat. Omtas SoHs, Fr. Citd du 
Si^eiC] A city placed by Thomas 
Campanella (1568-1639) in the ideal 
repuolic which he constructed after 
the manner of Plato, and in which 
he depicts a perfect society organized 
somewhat like a convent, and estab- 
lished upon the principles of a theo- 
cratic communism. 

City of the IMbes. A name given 
to Galway, in Ireland, as having been 
the residence of thirteen " trib^," or 
chief families, who setded here about 
the year 1235, and whose names 
were Burke, Blake. Budkin, Martin, 
Athy, Browne, D*Arcv, Joyce, Kir- 
wan, Lynch, Morris, Ffont, Skerrett 

Cily of the Violated Treaty. A 
name given to the city of Limerick, 
in Ireland, on account of the repeat- 
ed violations of a treaty signed Oct 
1691, the first article of which was, 
that the Roman Catholics should en- 
joy such privileges in the exercise of 
their religion as they enjoyed in the 
reign of Charles II. 

" Years of uojast and Tibdictive 
penal laws, which are now, happily, 
swept away, show that this name was 
well founded." Knight. 

City of the Violet Crown. A desig- 
nation sometimes given to Athens. 
The ancient Greeks were accustomed 
to wear garlands of flowers at their 
liestive entertainments; and the violet 

(Gr. lov) was the favorite flower of 
the Athenians. It thus became the 
symbol of the city, to which, as well 
as to its inhabitants, the epithet io- 
(TTc^ai'ov, violet-crowned, is applied by 
the poets. In the opinion of some, 
the name involves a punning allu- 
sion to the fact that Athens was the 
chief city in Europe of the ionian 

He Cpttl lored Enriand m an Atheniail 
kxred the CUyqfthe Violet Omen. 

^^ Macaulaif- 

City of the "West. A name gener- 
ally given in Scothmd to Glasgow, 
the^ largest city, and the manufac- 
turing and commercial metropolis, of 
the kmgdom. It is situated^ on the 
Clyde, the principal river on the 
west coast, and nir surpassing, in 
navigable importance, all the other 
Scottish rivers. 

City of Victory. Cairo, the capital 
city of Egypt; — sometimes so cioled 
with reference to the signification of 
its Arabic name. El Kahira^ or " The 

darchen (kigf'ken). A female char- 
acter in Goethe^s "Egmont;" cele- 
brated for her constancy and devotion. 

CUrlce {Tt pron, klft-re'chce). Wife 
of Rinaldo, and sister of Huon of 
Bordeaux, frequently mentioned in 
the romances and romantic poems of 
France and Italy. 

Clarissa. See Harlows, Clarissa. 
d&u'di-o. 1. A young gentleman in 

love with Juliet, in Snakespeare^s 

" Measure for Measure." 
2. A young lord of Florence, in 

Shakespeare's '^Much Ado about 


d&u'di-us. A usurping king of Den- 
mark, in Shakespeare's " Hamlet" 

But Tom Tusher, to take the place of the 
noble Costlewood — »ugh 1 1 was as monstrous 
as King Hamlet's widow taking off her weeda 
for Claudnu. 2%aefceray. 

Clsus, Feter. See Klaus, Pbter. 

Claus, Santa. See St. Nicholas. 

dav'er-house (klav'er-us). The 
name under which the imrelenting 
Jacobite partisan and persecutor, 
John Graham, Viscount Dundee (d. 
1689), eldest son of Sir William Gra- 
ham, of Claverhouse, was generally 

•nd for the Bemarks md Rules to which Che numbers alter certain words refer, see pp. xir-zxxii. 




known in the time of James II., and 
is still known in history. 

davileno, Ali^rero (klk-ve-lan'yo t- 
le^^TG, 58, 62). [Sp., wooden-pin 
wing-bearer.] A celebrated steed 
which enabled Don Quixote and his 
faidiful squire to achieve the deliver- 
ance of the Dolorida Duefia and her 
companions in misfortune fix>m their 

Gl^Mite (klft'51't', 62). 1. A charac- 
ter in Moli^re's celebrated comedy, 
'^ Le Tartufie,'' distinguished for ius 
sound and genuine piety. 

2. A character m the '^Malade 
Imaginaire *' of the same author. 

dean the Causeway Blot. (Scot, 
Bist.) The name popularly given to 
a skirmish or encounter in Edin- 
bui^h, in the year 1515, between the 
rival nictions of the Earl of Angus— 
chief of the Douglases — ana the 
Earl of Arran — the head of the 
great family of the Hamiltons. In 
this contest, the partisans of An^s 
were worsted, and fled from the city 
in great connision, being, as it were, 
swept from the streets. 

deishbotham, Jedediali (kleesh'- 
bdth-fim ). An imaginary editor of the 
" Tales of Mv Landlord," written by 
Sir Walter l^tt, but represented as 
the com])osition of a certain Mr. Pe- 
ter Pattieson, assistant teacher at 
Gandercleuch. See Pattieson. 

Richter tried aU Leipsic with his MS. in 
▼ain; to a man. with that total contempt of 
Riammar which Jedediah CkiM>otham also 
complains of, they ** declined the article.** 


OlSlie (klft'le'). A principal charac- 
ter in a romance — " Cl^lie, Histoire 
Romaine " — written by Mme. Scu- 
dery, though the first volumes were 
originally published under the name 
of ner brother, George de Scudery. 
The action of the story is placed m 
the early ages of Roman histon'-, and 
the heroine is that Oloella who es- 
ca^d from the power of Porsena by 
swimming across the Tiber. 

High-flown compliments, profound bows, 
sighs, and ogles, in the manner of the CMie 
romances. 2%adberay. 

CLem'en-tt'n$, The Iiady. An ami- 
able, beautiful, and accomplished 
woman, deeply in love with Sir 

Charles Grandison, in Richardson's 
novel of this name. Sir Charles fi- 
nally marries Harriet Byron, though 
he is represented as having little or 
no partiality for her. 

I shall be no Zadu demeniine^ to be the 
wonder and pity of the sining of St Bonaa's, 
— no Ophelia, neither, — though I will saj 
with her. ** Good-night, ladies ; good-nigfal^ 
sweet ladieal " iSrW. Soott. 

Oleotaa. See Don Clsofas. 

Gle-oml>ro-ta8. [Gr. KAct^^^poro?.] 
An Academic philosopher of Ambra- 
cia, who is said to have been so en- 
raptured by the perusal of Plato's 
"PhsBdon**^ that he threw himself 
down from a high wall, or, according 
to some accounts, jumped into the 
sea, in order to exchange diis Ufe for 

- others came singlei ... he who, to eigoj 
Plato's xaysfumTieaped into the sea, 
Cleombrohu; and many more too long. 

dift^rd, Paul. The title of a novel 
by Sir Edward Lytton Bulwer (now 
Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton), and die 
name of its hero, a romantic high- 
wayman, familiar with the haunts of 
low vice and dissipation, but after- 
ward reformed and elevated by die 
power of love. 

dim of the dough. [That is, Clem- 
ent of the Glen.] A north-country 
archer, celebrated in the legendary 
literatiure of England. 

dinker, Humphry. The hero of 
Smollett's novel entitled, ^^ The Ex- 
pedition of Humphry Clinker.'' He 
IS introduced as a destitute and shab- 
by fellow, who had been brought up 
in the work-house, put out by the par- 
ish as apprentice to a blacksmith, and 
afterward employed as an hostler's 
assistant and extra postilion. Hav- 
ing been dismissed m>m the stable, 
and reduced to mat want, he at 
length attracts the notice of Bfr. 
Bramble, who takes him into his 
family as a servant. He becomes 
the accepted lover of Winifred Jen- 
kins, and at length turns out to be a 
natural son of Mr. Bramble. 

'< Humphry CImker " is, I do be- 
liefve, the most laughable stoiy that has 
eyer been written since the goodly art of 
norel-writing b^;an. TViackemy. 

For the **Key to the Scheme of Ftonnnciation,** with the accompanyfaig Explanations, 




Cli'o. [Gr. KAcM, the proclaimer.] 
( Gr, d Horn. Myth.) 1. One of the 
nine Moses. She presided over his- 
tory, and was represented as bearing 
a half-opened roU of a book. 

2. A name formed from the four 
letters used by Addison as his signa- 
ture in the " Spectator.*' His most 
admired papers were marked by one 
or other of mese letters, signed con- 
secntiYely. But it is not probable 
that he meant to adopt the name of 
one of the Muses. With greater 
likelihood, the letters are supposed to 
refer to the places where the essays 
were composed; namely, Chelsea, 
London, Islington, and the Office. 
The contnuy opinion, however, has 
generally prevailed; and Addison 
was often adled " CUo " bv his con- 
temporaries, as well as by later writ- 

When panting rirtae her Iwt efforts made. 
Yon brooj^ht your CUo to the yiigin's aid. 


doaoina. See Cluagina. 

do-an'thns. One of the companions 
of ^neas in his voyage to Italv, and 
the reputed ancestor of the Cinentii 
family at Rome. 

The ttronf Oyas and the strong Cloanthtu 
are less diatuieoished by flie poet than the 
strong Percival, the strong John, Bichard, 
and Wilfred Osbaldistones (characters in 
** Bob B<Mr "] were by outward appearance. • 

J^W. Scott. 

CIoe1i-$. See Cl^ue. 

Clootie, or doots. See Auld Cloo- 

dorinda (klo-rSn^di). The heroine 
of the infidel army in Tasso^s epic 
poem, ** Jerusalem Delivered." She 
IS an Amazon, and is represented as 
inspiring the most tender afiection in 
others, especially in the Christian 
cUef Tancred; yet she is herself 
susceptible of no passion but the love 
of military £une. See Sofronia. 

dd'ten. A rejected lover of Imogen, 
in Shakespeare's pla;f of "Cymbe- 
line ; " a compouna of the booby and 
the villain ; an " irregulous devil.'' 

49" MiHS Seward, hi one of her letters, 
assures U8, that, siuygnlar as the character 
of Gloten may appear, it is the exact pro- 
totype of a person whom she once knew. 
" The amneaniiig frown of the oounte- 

naooe ; the shuflUog gait ; the burst of 
▼oioe ; the bustUng fairignWcanpe ; the 
feyer«nd-ague fits c^Taknr ; the frowaid 
tetchiness ; the unprincipled malioe ; 
and — what Is most carious — those oc- 
casional gleams of good sense, amidst the 
floating clouds of folly which generally 
darkened and confhsed the man's brain, 
and which, in the character of Oloten, we . 
are apt to impute to a Tiolatlon of uni^ 
in character ; but, in the sometime Cmp- 

tain C n, I saw the portEait of Oloten ' 

was not out of nature. " 

Justice may eren sometimes class him 

G Pope] with those moral assassins who wear, 
ke C^Cea, their dagger in their moutlis. 

E.P. WMppU. 

dothier of IBngland. See Jack 
OF Newbubt. 

do'fho. [Gr. KAm«m. spinster.] ( Gr. 
4" Bom. Mifii.) One of the three 
ParcsB, or Fates; the one who pre- 
sides over birth, and holds the distaff 
from which the thread of life is spun. 

Mean criminals go to the gallows for a 
purse cut ; and this chief criminal, guilty of a 
France cot, of a France slashed asunder with 
C^fAo-scissors and civil war, . . . he, such 
chief criminal, shall not cren come to the 
bar ? Carltfle. 

doudeslie, 'William of. See Wil- 
liam OF Cloudeblie. 

dout, Ckd'in. The subject of a scur- 
rilous satire by John Skelton (d. 
1529), but better known as a name 
applied by Spenser to himself in the 
"Faery Queen" and the "Shep- 
herd's Calendar." Colin Clout fig- 
ures also in Gay's "Pastorals." 

du^^oi'x4* [From Lat duere, to 
purify.] {Rom. Myth.) A surname 
of Venus, who was so called because, 
when the Romans and Sabines were 
reconciled, they purified themselves 
with sacred myrtle-branches, in the 
vicinity of a statue of the goddess, 
and afterward erected a temple there 
in honor of her. [Often written 
C 1 a c i n a, from a mistaken notion 
that she presided over the docuxB^ or 

dub, Tne. 1. {Eng. Siti.) A knot 
of disappomted Whigs, of whom Sir 
James Mon^omery, the Earl ofAn- 
nandale, and Lord Ross were the most 
conspicuous, formed themselves, in 
Edinburgh, mto a society, called " The 
Club," in WilHam the Third's time, 
liiey were, according to Macaulay, 

and for the Bemaiks and Boles to which the nnmbws after eertain words refer, see pp. ziT-zxaii. 



dishonest malcontents, whose object 
was merely to annoy the govern- 
ment and get places. They formed 
a coalition with the Jacobites ; gave 
great trouble to William and Mary; 
and broke up in disgrace, the chiefs 
betraying each other. 

2. Under the name of " The 
Club," — at Garrick's funeral, in 
1779, entitled the " Literary Club," 
— flourished a celebrated association, 
proposed first by Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds, and acceded to by Dr. John- 
son ; of which the original members 
were Sir Joshua, Dr. Johnson, Mr. 
Edmund Burke, Dr. Nugent, Mr. 
Beauclerk, Mr. Langton, Dr, Gold- 
smith, Mr. Chamier, and Sir John 
Hawkins. It has reckoned amon^t 
its members some of the most distm- 
guished literary and scientific char- 

Gliimsy, Sir TonHiel-ly. A charac- 
ter in Vanbrugh's " Relapse." 

Cla'rI-o4une. (Fairy Myth,) A fa- 
mous Irish elf, of evil disposition, 
who usually appears as a wrinkled 
old man, and has a knowledge of 
hidden treasure. 

dut't^r-buok. Captain Cuth'bSrt. 
A sort of pseudonym of Sir Walter 
Scott, it bemg the name of an imi^- 
inary editor of his " Fortunes of Ni- 
gel," and of an equally imaginary 
patron to whom he aedicated his 
** Abbot." 

01y1/em-ne8'tp$. [Gr. kkvtoiiiv^ 
arpa,] {Gr, ^ Rom, Myth,) The 
faithless wife of Agamemnon, killed 
by her son Orestes for her crimes. 
See -ffioisTHus, Orestes. 

Olyt'i-e(klish^-e). [Gr. KAvna.] (Gr, 
4" Rom, Myth,) A water-nymph 
who fell in love with Apollo, or tne 
Sun-god. Meeting with no recipro- 
cation of her passion, she became 
changed into a sunflower, and still 
keeps her face constantly turned 
towards him throughout his daily 

I will not hare the mad Clytie^ 
Whose head is turned by tlie sun i 

The tulip IB a courtly auean. 
Whom therefore I wul shun. Hood. 

Coalition Ministry. {Eng. Hist,) 1. 
A designation given to tlie adminis- 

80 COC 

tiation of Lord North and Mr. Charles 
James Fox, as being an extraordi- 
nary political union of statesmen 
who had previously always displayed 
a strong^rsonal dislike towani each 
other. It was formed April 5, 1783, 
and dissolved Dec. 19, in the same 

49^ " Not three quarters of a year had 
elapsed since Fox and Burke had threat- 
ened North with impeachment, and had 
described him, night after night, as the 
most arbitraiy, the most oormpt, the 
most incapable of miniBters. They now- 
allied themselves with him for the pur- 
pose of driTing from office a statesman 
[Shelbame] with whom they cannot be 
said to have diflbred as to any important 
question." Maeaulay. 

2. The same appellation was civen 
to the "Broad Bottom Administra- 
tion " {q, «.), and to the Aberdeen 
Administration (formed Dec. ^, 1852, 
resigned Jan. 30, 1855). 

Cookade City. A title popularly 
given to the city of Petersburg, in 

Cockagne (kok-AnO* [Fr. {tAaopayt 
de cocagne) ; Old Fr. cocaigne, Sp. cu- 
cana, It. cticagna, cuccagna, cuqga- 
gna, from It. cucca, sweetmeats, cuun- 
ties, Prov. Fr. couque, Catalan coco, 
cake, from Latin coawre^ to cook, be- 
cause it was fancied that tiie houses 
in Cockagne were covered with 
cakes.] An imaginaiy country of 
idleness and luxury ; hence, in*bur- 
lesaue, London and its suburbs. It 
is the subject of a celebrated satirical 
poem of me same name, which War- 
ton holds to have been "evidently 
written soon after the Conquest," but 
which is probably not older than the 
year 1300. Boileau applies the name 
to the French capital. The mat tU 
Cocagne (or greased pole) is one of 
the amusements of the Champs £ly- 
sees, in Paris. The Neapolitans have 
a festival which they call Cbcagna. 
In Germany, Hans Sachs has made 
the " Land of Cockagne " the sub- 
ject of a humorous poem under Uie 
name of SchlaraffeiUand, See Lub- 
UERLAND. [Written also Cocaign, 
Cockaigne, and anciently C o k- 

For the •' Key to the Scheme of Fronimcifttion,*' with the ■ccompanying Ezplanationi, 




*'■ * Cokaygne ' aeenu to hare been 
a sort of medisBTal Utopia. Perhaps the 
earliest specimen of EhgUsh poetry which 
we possess ... is the humorous descrip- 
tion of it, beginning, — 

' Fur in tee. bv-west Spaygne, 
Is a load ihole Cockaygne.* 

WhateTer may be the origin of the word, 
it is CTldently connected with the much- 
debated cockney^ which probably implied 
an undue regued for luxury and refine- 
ment in the persons to whom it was ap- 
plied — geoeimlly to Londoners as con- 
trasted with * persons msticall.' " 


Even the Grand Elector himself was liable 
to this ilite of ** absorption,** as it was called, 
although he held his crown of CockoffHe in 
the common case for life. Sir W. Scott. 

It was for the reader not the El Dora4o only, 
bnt a beatific land of Codeaiane (and paradise 
of Do-nothings). Carlyle* 

Ckxdc-Iiane Qhost. The name giv- 
en to the imagined cause of certain 
strange phenomena which took place 
in the year 1762 about the bed of a 
young girl by the name of Parsons, 
at house No. 33 Cock Lane, West 
Smithfield, London, and were the 
cause of much excitement. The rec- 
tor of the parish, with ** a number of 
gentlemen of rank and character,*' 
of whom Dr. Johnson was one, un- 
dertook to solve the mystery. Their 
examination satisfied them that the 
whole was an imposture originating 
in a malignant conspiracy, and the 
IMurents of the girl were condemned 
to tile pillofy and to imprisonment. 
The supposed presence of the ghost 
was indicated W certain mysterious 
scratchings and knocking produced 
on a piece of board which the girl 
concealed about her person. Dr. 
Johnson wrote a statement of the 
afiair, which was published in the 
*' Gentleman's Magazine." See vol. 
xxxii., pp. 43 and 81. 

Cockney School. A name formerly 
given by some of the English critics 
to a literary coterie whose produc- 
tions were said "to consist of the 
most incongruous ideas in the most 
uncouth language." Li this sect 
were included I^igh Hunt, Hazlitt, 
Shelley, Keats, and others; and the 
" Quarterlv Review " (April, 1818) 
chawd the first with aspiring to be 
the "hierophant*' of it. 

. " While the whole eritleal world 
is occupied with balancing the merits, 
i^ether in theory or execution, of what ' 
is commonly called the Lake School, it is 
strange tiiat no one seems to think it at 
all necessary to say a single word aboat 
another new school of poetry which has 
of late sprung npamong ns. This school 
has no^ I beliere, as yet receiTed any 
name; but, if I may be permitted to 
have the honor of christening it, it may 
henceforth be referred to by the designa- 
tion of the Cockney School. Its chief 
Doctor and Professor is Mr. Leigh Hunt, 
a man certainly of some talents, of 
extraordinary pretensions both in poe- 
try and politics, and withal of exqol- 
sitely bad taste and extremely vu^pur 
modes of thinking and manners in all 
respects. ... He is the ideal of a Cock- 
ney poet. He raves perpetually about 

* green flelds,' ^jaunty streams,* and 

* overarching leaflness,' exactly as a 
Cheapeide shopkeeper does about the 
beauties of his box on the Camberwell 

Z. (1. e. /. G. Lockhart)^ in BUiekwood's 
Mag., Oct. 1817. 

Cook of the North. A sobriquet 

S'iven to the late and last Duke of 
ordon (d. 1836). He is so called on 
a monument erected in his honor at 
Fochabers, in Aberdeenshire, Scot- 

Ck)'old9, Ho-rati-118. [Lat, Hora- 
tius the one-eyed.] A hero of the 
old Roman lays, who defended a 
bridge against the whole Etruscan 
army imder Porsena, until his coun- 
trymen had broken down the end of 
it which was behind him, when he 
plunged into the stream, and swam, 
amia the arrows of the enemy, to a 
place of safet}\ 

Co-cy'tus. [6r. KttKvrAi, lamenta- 
tion.] ( Gr, 4' Bom, Myth,) One of 
the nvers that washed the shores of 
hell, and prevented imprisoned souls 
from returning to earth. It was a 
branch of the Styx. 

Cbc;/fi», named of lamentations loud 
Heard on the ruefVil stream. MUton. 

CkslebQ. [Lat., a bachelor.! The 
hero of a novel by Hannah More 
(1744-1833), entitled " Coelebs in 
Search of a Wife." 

Beady command of money, he fteb, will be 
extremely desirable in a wife, — desirable and 
almost indispensable in present straitened 

and fitfthe Benuurks and Bules to which the numbers after certain words reftr, see pp. zir-sEzzIi. 



82 COL 

eirenmilnteet. TheMwtfhenotiontofttiis 
iU-«ltiutod OoeUbs. Coark/U. 

OcbIus. {Rom, M^) Son of ^ther 
(air) and Dies (cby), and one of the 
most ancient of the gods ; the same 
as Uranu$, See Uraivus. 

OcBur de Idon (kiir de ]I'5n; Fr, 
Dron.k6fdvle'5n',47,62). [Fr., lion- 
hearted.] A surname given to Rich- 
ard I. of England, on account of his 
dauntless courage, about a. d. 1192. 
This surname was also conferred on 
Louis ym. of France, who signal- 
ized himself in the Crusades and in 
his wars against England, about 1223, 
and on Bmeslas I., king of Poland. 

Ooflln, Tom. See Long Tom Cof- 

Col-lA. A Latin or Latinized name 

of Kyle, a district of Scotland, 

coun^ of Ayr, celebrated in the 

lyric poetry of Bums. According to 

tradition, it is derived from Coihu, a 

Pictish monarch. Bums also uses 

the name as a poetical synonym for 


Farewell, old Coiken hills and daleiL 
Her heathy moon, and winding vales. 


Ck>lada {Sp.pron, ko-lft'fhA, 56). The 
name of one of the Cid^s two swords, 
which were of dazzling brightness, 
and had hilts of solid gold. 

GdldHinuid. A Danish giant van- 
quished and slain in an encounter 
with Guy of Warwick. See Guy, 
Sir, Earl of Warwick. [Writ- 
ten also Colbran, Colbrand.] 

«*It Is fUsef* said OregoiT} ** CoHxrtmd fhe 
Dane was a dwaif to hhn.** Sir W. Seott. 

Coldstream, Sir Charles. The name 
of a character in Charles Mathews^s 
play entitled "Used Up;" distin- 
guished for his utter*€nnta, his men- 
tal inanity, and his apparent physical 

Colin Tampon (ko'l&n^ tfin'pfin', 62). 

A reproa(£ftil sobriquet said to have 

been anciently given to the Swiss, 

and to represent the sound of their 

. dmms. 

Cdl-l§an', May. The heroine of a 
Scottish ballad, which relates how a 
" fause Sir John " carried her to a 
rock by the sea for the purpose of 

drownii^ her, and how she outwitted 
him, and subjected him to the same 
fate he had intended for her. 

Colloquy of Foissy (pwS'se'). [Fr. 
Colloque de Poitsy,] {Fr, Hist,) The 
name commonly given to a national 
synod of Cathohcs and Calvinistsheld 
atPoissy, in 1561, to settle the relig- 
ious controversies by which France 
was then agitated. The conference, 
however, was mutually unsatisfactory, 
and was brought to a premature con- 
clusion. Bot£ parties became more 
embittered against each other than 
ever, and the desolating wars of 
religion soon followed. 

Cologne, The Three Kinss of. 
A name given to the three magi 
who visit^ the infant Saviour, and 
whose bodies are said to have been 
brought by the Empress Helena 
i^m the East to Constantinople, 
whence they were transferred to Mi- 
lan. Afterward, in 1164, on Milan 
being taken by the Emperor Fred- 
erick, they were presented by him 
to the Archbishop of Cologne, who 
placed them in the principal church 
of the city, where, says Cressy, 
" they are to this day celeorated with 
great voieration." Their names are 
commonly said to be Jaspar, Mel- 
chior, and Balthazar; but one tradi- 
tion gives them as Apellius, Amerus, 
Damascus; another as Magalath, 
Galgalath, Sarasin; and still another 
as Ator, Sator, Peratoras. See Maoi, 
The Three. 

Colonel Caustic. See Caustic, 

Cd-lum^bi-f. A name often given to 
the New Worid, ftom a feeling of po- 
etic justice to its discoverer. The 
application of the term is usually re- 
stncted to the United States. It has 
not been found in any writer before 
Dr. Timothy Dwi^ht (1752-1818); 
and it probably origmated with him. 
He wrote a song, rormerly very pop- 
ular, which began, — 

** ColnmMa, Golnmbla, to frlmr aris«. 
The queen of the worid and the child of the 

49» The ballad " Hail, Columbia, hap- 
P7 land," was written by Joseph Hop- 

For 0ie *«]Ugr to «he Scheme of Fkonvndalion,'' with the aoeonipaiTiag ExplanafleiUb 




Idnson (1770-1842), for the benefit of an 
actor named Fox, and to an air entitled 
" The President's March," composed in 
1789, by a German named Teyles, on the 
occasion of Qeneral Washington's first 
Tidt to a theater in New York. 

Col'um-blne. [It. ColumbifM, pretty 
little dove, — used as a diminutive 
term of endearment.] The name of 
a female mask in pantomimes, with 
whom Harlequin is represented as in 
love. Their marriage usually forms 
the d!mocimen<of the play. In the old 
Italian comedy, she appeared as a 
maid-serrant, and a perfect coquette. 

Commander of the Faithftil. [Ar. 
JEmir-al-Mumemn^'] A title assumed 
by Omar I. (d. 644), and retained by 
his successors in the caliphate. 

Company, John. A popular nick- 
name, among the native £^t-Indians, 
for the East India Company, the 
abstract idea involved in the name 
being above their comprehension. 
[Called abo Mother Company.^ 

I hare gone to the leewsrd of John Conmanif$ 
fiiTor. C, Reaae. 

G&muB. [From Gr. kw/uio«, a revel, 
from jcwfii), a country town, whence 
also comedy. "] {Myth.) In the later 
age of Rome, a god of festive joy 
and mirth, m Milton's poem enti- 
tled *^ Comus: a Masque," he is rep- 
resented as a base enchanter, wno 
endeavors, but in vain, to beguile 
and entrap the innocent by means of 
his " brewed enchantments." 

Con-cor'di-&. {Rom, Myth.) The 
goddess of concord, or harmony. 

Conqueror, The. A title given to 

William, Duke of Normandy, who, 

by the battle of Hastings, m 1066, 

became the sovereign of England. 

Talk of **coming over with the Omguer- 
or!^ The Ant Browns came over with Hen- 
gM and Hona. Lower. 

Con'rftde. A follower of John (bas- 
tard brother of Don Pedro, Prince of 
Arragon), in Shakespeare*s ^^Much 
Ado about Nothing." 

Constable de Bourbon. [Fr. Con- 
netable de Bourbon.1: {Fr. Hist.) A 
name given to Charles, Due du 
Bourbonnais (1489-1527), a brilliant 
militaiy leader, famous for his aus- 
tere morality and his misfortunes. 

Con'stanf . A legendary king of 
Britain, celebrated in the old ro- 
mances of chivaliy. He was the 
grandfather of Arthur. 

Oonsuelo (kda/gii^'lo', 34, 62). The 
heroine of George Sand's (Mme. 
Dudevant's) novel of the same name, 
an impersonation of noble purity 
sustained amidst great temptaions. 

Consul Bib'u-lus. (Rom. ffist.) A 
colleague of Julius Caesar in the con- 
sulship in the vear 59 b. c. He was 
a man of small ability and little in- 
fluence. After an ineffectual attempt 
to oppose an agrarian law brought 
forward by Caesar, he shut himselfpp 
in his own house, and neither apr 
peared in public nor took part in the 
affairs of state during the remainder 
of his consulship ; whence it was sakl 
in ioke that it was the consulship of 
Julius and Caesar. The name of Bib- 
ulus is used proverbially to designate 
any person who fills a high office, 
and yet is a mere cipher in the con- 
duct of affairs. 

Continental System. {Fr. Bitt.) 
The name given to a plan by which 
Napoleon L endeavored to shut Eng- 
land out from all connection with the 
continent of Europe. See Berlin 
Decree, Decree of Fontaine- 
BLEAU, Milan Decree. 

Conversation Sharpe. A sobriquet 
bestowed upon Richard Sharpe, 
(1759-1835), well known by this 
name in London society. 

Conway Cabal. {Amer. BisL) A 
name given to a faction organized in 
1777, ror the purpose of pliusiag Qen- 
eral Gates at the head of the Conti- 
nental army. 

Cd-phet'u-^* An imaginary African 
king, of whom a legendaiy ballad 
tola that he fell in love with the 
daughter of a beggar, and married 
her. The piece is extant in Percy's 
" Reliques,*' and is several times al- 
luded to by Shakespeare and others. 
A modernized version of the stoiy is 
given by Tennyson in his poem en- 
titled "The Beggar Maid.'' 

7oung Adam Cnpid, he thatihot no trim 
When King Oophetua loved the beggar-makU 


mad fbr tihe Bcnuurlai tad Boles to which the numbers after certain worja xefer, see pp. :dT>zxzQ. 




May not ft monarch love a maid of low de- 
gree f Ii not King Cophetua and the beggar- 
maid a case in point ? Sir W. Scott. 

How it would sound In >onc) that a great 
monarch had declined his afGections upon the 
daughter of a beggar I Yet. do we feel the 
Imagination at all violated when we read the 
**true ballad ** where King CbpAetiia wooes 
the beggar-maid ? Charlu Lcand). 

Co't>i-^ {Rem, Myth,) The goddess 
of plenty. 

Copper Captain. Michael Perez, a 
celebrated character in Beaumont 
and Fletcher's comedy, " Rule a Wife 
and Have a Wife." 

To this Copper Captain [General Van FOf- 
ftnburgh], therefore, was confided the com- 
mand of the troops destined to protect the 
southern frontier. W. trving. 

Cop'per-fleld, David. The hero of 
Dickens's novel of the same name. 

Oopperheada. A popular nickname 
ori^atin^ in the time of the great 
civil war m the United States^ and 
api)lied to a faction in the North. 
¥^ch was very generally considerea 
to be in secret sympathy with the Re- 
bellion, and to give it aid and com- 
fort by attempting to thwart the 
measures of the government. The 
name is derived from a poisonous 
serpent called the copperhead ( Trig- 
cnocqphcUui contortrix)j whose bite is 
considered as deadly as that of the 
rattlesnake, and whose geographical 
range extends from 45^ N. to Florida. 
The copperhead, unlike the rattle- 
snake, gives no warning of its attack, 
and is, therefore, the type of a con- 
cealed foe. 

Oordelia. The youn^st and favor- 
ite daughter of Lear, m Shakespeare's 
tragedy of this name. See Leab. 

Oordidre, Tja Belle. See Rope- 
maker, The Beautiful. 

Oor^flam'bo. [That is, heart of flame.] 
A character in Spenser's "Faery 
Queen," representmg sensual pas- 
sion. See TiMiAs. 

Oorinne (ko'r^n'). The heroine of 
Mme. de StaePs novel of the same 
name, a young maiden whose lover 
proves false, and who, in consequence, 
lives miserably a few years, and then 
closes her eyes for ever on a world 
grown dark and solitary. 

Oonnoran, Giant. See Giast 


Com-oraoker, The. A popular nick- 
name or desi^ation for the State of 
Kentucky. The inhabitants of the 
State are often called Corn-crackers, 

Corn-law Rhymer, The. Ebenezer 
Elliott, an English writer ( 1781-1849), 
who, in a volume of poems entitled 
"Com-Uw Rhymes," set forth the 
mischief which he bdieved the com 
laws were actually producing, and 
the greater dangers which they were 
threatening. These rhyming philip- 
pics materially assisted in proaucing 
that revolt of the manufacturing pop- 
ulation of the British islands against 
the com laws which led to their final 
abolition in 1846. 

Is not the Ciom-ZatoJKAyiner already a king, 
though a bdligerent one. — king of nis own 
mind and fluniuy? and what man in the long 
run 1b king of more ? Oor^le. 

Com^ir4ll, BSr'^. An unperfectly 
anaminmatic nam deplume adopted 
by Bryan Waller Procter, a distin- 
guished English poet of the present 

Ck)-ro'ni8. [6r. KopwWf .] (Gr. 4" Rom. 
MtfOi.) A daughter of Phoroneus, 
king of Phocis. She was metamor- 
phosed by Minerva into a crow, 
naving implored her protection on 
one occasion when pursued by Nep- 

Corporal, The Iiittle. See Little 

Cknrporal IfTin. See Ntm, Cor- 

Ck>rporal Trim. See Trim, Cor- 

Corporal Violet. See Violet, Cor- 

Corrector, Alexander the. A name 
assumed by Alexander Cruden ( 1701- 
1770), the author of the well-known 
"Concordance to the Bible," who 
found employment for some years as 
corrector of the press, in London. 
He believed himself divinely com- 
missioned to reform the manners of 
the world, and petitioned Parliament 
to constitute him by act the " Cor- 
rector of the People," hoping by this 

For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation,** with Che accompanying Ezplanations, 


OoTTousA (koF-rocg'). Tho sword 
of Sir Otnel; — BO called in the ro- 
mancea of chiraliy. 

Oonioa FboU (pt^ee). A uune 
populariy given to PaBquftle de FaoLi 
( I736-l»)7 ), a native of Corsica, and 
leader in the var which his eoontiy- 
men made against Genoaj and aabse- 
qnentlv uaiosC France, ui the elFbrt 
to gain their independents. After 

. . sived with mueh 

reepect, and pused tnan^ yean in 
honorable fneadahip with Bnrke, 
Johnson, and otber dielingnisbed 
men of the time. 

Oortano. See CfSTAHA. 

06r'7-bant«i. [Gr. Kopiifl»>Tft.l 
Priest* of Cybele whose religious 
aervicea conBUted in n<risy mnsic and 
wild aimed dances. 

06r^-(l^ A shepherd in one of the 
Idyls of TheocriMs, and one i^ the 
Eclogaes of Tirgil; — hence nsed to 
deai^uia aov rustic, mora especially 

fthinwTsck- lU If h* dcHTTvL ' 

luT. uS3|Z^ ■IV oUht «v 

CorjpluBTU of OraiiiiiMrlBiu. [Gr. 

A xopv^alot Tmtw Tpd^ijiarbwV-] Ad 

appellation givea to Aristarchus, a 
native of Samothrace, the most cele- 
brated grammariaQ and critic in all 
antiqaitf. His life wu devoted to 
the correction of the te:xt of the an- 
cient poets of Greece, — Homer, ^Es- 
chyloB, Sophocles, &c. 

display of vit, point, and sententious 
observation affected bj the conrtiera 
of Queen Eliiabeth's time, and who 
~'-ipplies, ID the most ridiculous 
,ner, th« phraaea and modes of 

then in vogue. 
Oo-tTttO. [Gr. K<>TVTT.i.] (Gr. f 
Rom. Myth.) The jtoddeas of licen- 
dousneas, oiiginally worshiped in 
Thrace, later in Athens also. Her 
riles were celebrated with great jndo- 
cency in privato and at midnight. 
Diu'kj'EUedaHiilfii / Is wbDm Uw •«nl flma 

Ooontrr Faraon. A pseudonym, or 
rather a sobriquet, of the Rev. A. K. 
U. Boyd, a popular English essayist 
of the present time. 

OoartaeyHeliaotli. SeeUzLHOTH, 


Oonsln Uiohael. [Ger. VtUtr Mi- 
diel."] A sportive and disparaging 
designation of the German people, 
intended to indicate the weaknesses 
aod follies of the national character, 
and especially the proverbial nation- 
al slowness, heaviness, and credulity. 
In Germany, the name Stiditl is 
often used as a contemptuous desig- 
nation of any simple,, coarse rustic, 
and has probably acquired this sig- 
nification Ihroagh a mingling of the 
Hebrew with (he Old Germaa mtdtcJ^ 

Odv'er-let. Sir Bokot de. The 

name of one of the members of the 
imaginary club under whose direc- 
tion the "Spectator " was professedly 
edited ; a genuine Enghsh gentleman 
of the time of Queen Anne. 




amUble weaknesies, — to hto modeetj, 
generosity, hospitality, and eccentric 
iiiiimfl, — to the respect of liis neighbors 
and the aifection of liis domestics, — to 
his w&jward, hopeless, secret passion for 
his fitir enemy, the widow, in which there 
is more of real romance and true delicacy 
than in a thousand tales of knight-er- 
rantry, (we perceive the hectic flush of 
his cheek, the fiJtering of his tongue in 
speaking of her bewitching airs and the 
* whiteness of her hand,') — to the havoc 
he makes among the game in his neigh- 
borhood, — to hfai speech from the bench, 
to show the ^ Spectator * what is thought 
of him in the country, — to his unwill- 
ingness to be put up as a sign-poet, and 
his having hia own likeness tamed into 
the Saracen's head, — to his gentle xe- 

g roof of the baggage of a gypsy that tells 
im * he has a widow in his line of life,' — 
to his doubts as to the existence <tf witch- 
craft, and protection (tf reputed witches, 
— to his account of the flunily pictures, 
and his choice of a chaplain, — to his fltU- 
ing asleep at church, and ms reproof of 
John Williams, as soon as he recovered 
from his nap, for talking in sermon- 
time ? " Hcuditt. 

** What would Sir Roger ds Cover- 
ley be without his follies and his charm- 
ing little brain-cracks? If the good knight 
did not call out to the people sleeping in 
church, and say ' Amen ' with such a 
deUghtfhl pomposity ; if he did not make 
a speech in the assise court apropos des 
bottes. and merely to show his dignity to 
Mr. Spectator; if he did not mistake 
Madam DoU Tearsheet for a lady of quality 
in Temple Garden ; if he were wiser than 
he is ; if he had not his humor to salt 
his life, and were but a mere English 
gentleman and game-preserver, — of what 
worth were he to us? We love him for 
his vanities as much as his virtues. 
What Is ridiculous is delightfcd in him ; 
we are 80 fond ct him because we laugh 
at him so." Tkaekeray. 

The ereateBt risk which he seems to have 
incurreo, in hia military capacity, was one 
somewhat resembling the escape of Sir Roger 
de Coverlets ancestor at Worcester, who was 
mved flrom the slanehter of that action by 
having been absent from the field. 

Sir W. Seon. 

OovieUo (ko-ve-el'lo, 102). A CaU- 
brian clown who figures in the " comr- 
media deW arte^^^ or Italian popular 

Crabshaw, Timothy. The name of 
Sir Launcelot Greaves's squire, in 
Smollett's "Adventures'* of that 
redoubted and quixotic knight. 

Orabtree. A character in SmoUett'a 
novel, " The Adventures of Peregrine 

Cradle of Idberly. A popular name 
given toFaneuil (fnn'llj HaU, a lai^ 
public edifice in Boston, Massachu- 
setts, celebrated as being the place 
where the orators of the Revolution 
ronsed the people to resistance to 
British oppression. 

Orane, lohabod. The name of 
a credulous Yankee schoolmaster, 
whose adventures are related in the 
"Legend of Sleepy Hollow," in 
Irving's "Sketch-book." 

49» " The cognomen of Oranie was not 
inapplicable to his person. He was tiJl, 
but exceedingly lank, with narrow shoul> 
ders, long arms and legs, hands that dan- 
gled a mile out of his sleeves, feet that 
might have served for shovels, and his 
whole frame most loosed hung together. 
His head was small, and flat at top, with 
huge ears, large, green, glassy eyes, and 
a long, snipe nose, so that it looked Uke 
a weatiier-oock perched upon his spindle 
neck, to tell which way the wind blew. 
To see him striding along the profile of a 
hUl on a windy day, with his dotiies bag- 
ging and fluttering about him, one might 
have mistaken him for the genius of fiun- 
ine descending upon the earth, or some 
scarecrow eloped from a com-fieid." 

W. Irving, 

Crapand, Jean, cr Johnny (zh5a 
knt'po', 62). [Sometimes incor- 
rectifv written Crapeau.l A sport- 
ive designation of a Frenchma£;or 
of the French nation collectively con- 
sidered. The following account has 
been given of the origin of this 
name: — 

49" ** When the French took the d^ 
of Aras firom the Spaniards, under Louis 
XIV., after a long and most desperate 
siege, it was remembered tliat Nostrada* 
mus had said, — 

* Les anciens crapanda prendront Sara * 
(The ancient toads shall Sara take). 

This line was then applied td this event 
in a very roundabout manner. Sasu is 
Aras backward. By the aneieiU toads 
were meant the French ; as that nation 
formerly had for its armorial bearings 
three of those odious reptiles instead of 
the three flowers-de-luce which it now 
bears." Seward's Anecdotes. 

49» In EIliott*s " Horn Apocalyp- 
ticsB " (vol. iv. p. 64, ed. 1847), may be 

For the **Key to the ■Scheme of Fronimelaflon,'* with tiie accompanying Ezplanationa, 




ttnmd A -vwy tall ptesentaikm of the 
reasons for beUeTiog that tiuee toads, 
or thiee frogs, were the old anna of 

Cifiyon, <StSof iSroy, Esq. A pseu- 
donym under which Washington Ir- 
ving published "The Sketch-book." 

Orasy Poet. See Mad Pobt. 

Creakle, Mr. A tyrannons school- 
master in Dickens's novel of " David 
Copperfield;" represented as bully- 
ing the little David's incipient man- 
liness out of him. 

Creole State. A name sometimes 
given to the State of Louisiana^ in 
which the descendants of the origmal 
French and Spanish settlers consti- 
tute a large proportion of the popu- 

Cresdent City. A popular name for 
the city of New Orleans, the older 
portion of which is built around the 
convex side of a bend of the Missis- 
sippi Kiver. In the progress of its 
growth up-fltream, however, the citv 
has now so extended itself as to fill 
the hollow of a curve in the oppo- 
site direction, so that the river-n^nt 
presents an outline resembling the 
character $• 

Gres'flS-dft. The heroine of Shake- 
speare's play, " Troilus and Cressida," 
founded upon Chaucer's "Troilus 
and Cresseide ; " represented as beau- 
tiful, witty, and accomplished, but 

JlSr " It Is well known that there is no 
traee of the particular story of *■ Troilus. 
and Crcflsida ' among the ancients. I find 
not so much as tiie name Cressida once 
mentioned." Knight. 

Cre-u'8$. [Gr. Kp^«w<ra.] {Gr.^Rom, 
Myth,) A daughter of Priam and 
Hecuba, and the wife of -tineas, who 
became by her the father of Ascanius. 
When JSneas made his escape from 
the flames of Troy, with his father 
Anchises and his son Ascanius, she 
followed him, but was unable to keep 
him in sight, and became lost in the 
streets of the dty . 

So when JEnmB fhroogh the flames of Traj 
Bore Ms pole dre, and tod his lovely boy ; 
With loitering step the flur Creuta stayed. 
And death inrolTed her in eternal shade. 


Oi^'Um, Fatil (-tn). A pseudonym 
of J. T. Trowbridge, a popular Ameri- 
can novelist of the present day. 

Oriohton, The Admirable (krt'tn). 
James Crichton, a Scottish gentieman 
of the sixteenth century, who, at the 
early age of fourteen, took his degree 
of Master of Arts, and was considered 
a prodisy, not only in abilities, but 
in actuaiattainments. [Written also 

The editor of the translation befiire na has 
collected some anecdotes, one of which is truly 
singular, and calls to mind the msnreloua 
stones which are told of the Adtmirdble Oreigh- 
ton. JSdin. Rev. 

He [Keyserlingl eanied oiF all manner of 
college pnzes, and was the AdmircMe Crich- 
ton &t Konigsberg XTniyeiaity and the sradu- 
atea there. Oarivle. 

GriBp. One of the names of Puck, or 
Bobm Goodfellow. 

Orifl'pin. 1. The patron of shoe-mak- 
ers, represented as such in the cere- 
monial processions of the craft. He -is 
also worshiped as a saint and martyr 
by the Catholic church. About tne 
middle of the third century, under the 
reign of Diocletian, Crispin, with his 
brother Crispian, accompanied St. 
Quentin when he preached the gospel 
in France. The two brothers settled 
at Soissons, and, whfle pursuing their 
mission, supported themselves by 
making shoes, until their martyr- 
dom, A. D. 287. 

2. The name of a valet in French 
comedy ; — popularly used to desig- 
nate a wag or jester. 

OriB't>in-Cat'i-llne. A nickname 
fastened by Mirabeau upon D'£s- 
pr^m^nil, in ridicule of his conspira- 
cies. He seems to have thought the 
name of Catiline alone too respect- 
able, and therefore prefixed that of 
Crispin, which probaoly alludes to a 
comedy in one act, published in 1707 
by Le Sage, and called " Crispin the 
Rival of his Master." The story 
turns on the tricks of Crispin to gain 
the affections of his master's mistress. 

Note Airther our old Fariementaiy friend 
CKqpm-GottKne d'Espi^menil. Ckxrljfle. 

CMs8 Kringle. See Kbiss Eringle. 

Croaker. A character in Goldsmith's 
comedy, " The Good-natured Man; " 

and flxr the Bcmuka and Balei te which the numhen after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 




' intended as a caricatare on men who 
are always filled with groundless 
and ladicrous apprehensions. 

The yonng trnveler expected a bunt of in- 
dignation t bnt whether, as OodUtersays, . . . 
our hero had exhausted himself in fretting 
away his misfortunes beforehand, so that he 
did not feel them when they actually arrived, 
or whether he found the company m wliich 
he was placed too congenial to lead liim to re- 

{»ine at any thing which delayed his journey, 
t is certain that he submitted to his lot with 
much reugnation. Sir W. Scott, 

Cro'eiu. [Gr. Kpoicof.] ( Gr, ^ Rom, 
Myth.) A young man who was en- 
amored of the nymph Smilax, and 
was chaz^^d by me gods into a saf- 
fron-plan^ because he loved without 
being loved again. 

Croe'suB. [Gr. Kpoiavf.] The last 
king of Lydia, and the richest man 
of ms time. 

Crortaa-fipry, Chrys't^l. A pseudo- 
nym of Sir Walter Scott ; the name of 
the imaginaiy editor of his " Chroni- 
cles of tiie Canongate.'* 

Cro'nos. [Gr. Kpovo?.] {Gr, Myth.) 
The youngest of the Titans; iden- 
tified by the Romans with Saturn, 
See Saturn. 

Orow-de'ro (9). [From crtrwi an 

ancient kind of violin.] A fiddler 

who figures in Butler's "** Hudibras." 

To confirm him in this fkroiable ofdnion, I 
be^n to execute such a complicated flourish 
. as I thought must have turned Crouxiero into 
a pillar of stone with envy and wonder. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Crdwe, Captain. A celebrated nauti- 
' cal personage in Smollett's " Adven- 
tures of Sir Launcelot Greaves." 

49" " Captain Crowe had commanded 
' a merchant ship in the Mediterranean 
trade for many years, and sayed some 
monej by dint of fntgality and traffic. 
He was an excellent seaman, — brave, ac- 
tive, firiendly in his way, and scrnpulously 
honest ; but as little acquainted with the 
world as a suckiog child ; whimsical, im- 
patient, and so impetnons that he could 
not help breaking in upon the conversa- 
tion, whatever it might be, with repeated 
interruptions, that seemed to burst from 
him by involuntary impulse. When he 
himself attempted to speak, he never 
finished his period, but made such a 
number of abrupt transitions that his 
discourse seemed to be an unconnected 
series of unfinished sentences, the mean- 
ing of wliich it was not easy to decipher.'* 


Orowfield, Christopher. A pseudo- 
nym of Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe. 

Crowquill, A. A pseudonym adopt- 
ed by Alfred Henry Forrester (b. 
18Q5), a popular English humorist 
of the present day. 

Craznxnles, Mr. (kriim'lz). The ec- 
centric manager of a theatrical com- 
panv in Dickens's novel of " Nicho- 
las Nickleby." 

Orii'sde, Bob'in-8on (-sn). The hero 
of De Foe's great novel; a ship- 
wrecked sailor who for many years 
leads a solitary existence on an unin- 
habited island of the tropics, and 
who alleviates his lon^ reclusion by 
an inexhaustible prodigality of con- 

De Foe founded this story upon 
the adventures of Alexander Selkiik (b.' 
1676), a Scottish sailor who was left on 
the uninhabited island of Juan Femandes 
in 1704, by his captain, one Straddling, 
to whom he had given some cause of of- 
fense. Here he resided for four years and 
four months, when he was rescued by 
Captain Woods Rogers, and taken to 
England. De Foe has oiten been charged 
vrith having surreptitiously taken the 
story of Crusoe from the papers of Selkirk, 
but he can have borrowed little beyond 
the mere idea of a man being left alone 
on a desert isle, there being scarcely any> 
thiog common to the adventures of the 
real and the fictitious solitary. 

There are Robiiuon Cnuoe* in the moral as 
well as physical world . . . ; men cast on 
desert islands of thought and speculation t 
without companionship; without worldly re> 
sources; forced to arm and clothe themselves 
out of the remains of shipwrecked hopes, and 
* to make a home for fheir solitary hearts in 
the noolu and comers of imagination and 
reading. Leigh Hunt. 

What man does not remember with regret 
the first time that he read Robmaon Crusoe f 

It soon became evident to me. that, like 
RoMtaon Cnuoe with his boat, I had begun 
on too large a scale, and that, to launch my 
histoiy successfliUy, I must reduce its propor- 
tions. W. Jrvvng. 

Crystal Hilla. An old name for the 
White Mountains, in New Hamp- 
shire, sometimes used by modem 


We had passed 
The hifi^ source of the Saco; and, bewildered 
In the dwarf spruce-belts of the CryaUU ffiUs, 
Had heard above us, like a voice in the cloud. 
The horn of Faby an sounding. Whittier. 

Cu^bit-op'o-lis. See Mesopotamia. 

For the ** Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




Ooddie, Headrisg. See Hbadbigo, 


OofTee, or OuTfefy, A fkmiliar or 
contemptuous name applied to ne- 
groes. The word is said to be of 
African origin, and it has been borne 
as a surname. See Sambo. 

Aftica alone, of all natUma, — though Turkey 
has a leaning that way. — sets np fatntea as a 
atendard of oeauty. But Cn^ey Is not ae- 
knowledged by the rest of the world as the 
winter eusffantiartan. Futnani*$ Mag. 

CofLO-ta'tdr. [Lat., the dela^^er.] A 
surname given to the illustrious Ro- 
man general, Quintus Fabius Maxi- 
mus Verrucosus (d. b. c. 203), on ac- 
count of his cautious but salutary 
measures in opposing the progress of 
Hannibal. He avoided all direct 
engagements, tantalized the enemy 
with marches and counter-mardies, 
watched his movements with unre- 
mitting vigilance, cut off his strag- 
fflers and fora|gers, and compelled 
Dim to weary his allies by necessaiv 
exactions, and to dishearten his sol- 
diers by fruitless maneuvers, while 
Borne Kftined by the delay, and as- 
sembled her forces in greater strength. 

IfWellington fimnd It jndieions to play th« 
Ounciator in Portugal and Spain, he would 
hardly have fbOowea the Fabian tactics, if he 
had met the French in England. Szdbad, 

Candgonde, Mmle. (kii'nft'^$nd', 

34, 62). The mistress of Candide in 

Voltaire's novel of this name. 

Bright goddess [the moon], if thou art not 
too busy with Candid and Miu OtmeguncTs 
ailMrs,take Tristram Shandy's under tlur pro- 
tecttomalao. Sterne, 

CvL'pid. PLat. Cigndo.'] ( Gr. & Rom, 
Myth.) The son of Mars and Venus; 
the god of love. He was the con- 
stant companion of his mother, and, 
armed with bow and arrows, he shot 
the darts of desire into the bosoms 
of both gods and men. He was rep- 
resented as a winged child or youtn, 
and often with a bandage covering 
his eyes. 

Ca'rftn. A courtier, in Shakespeare's 
tragedy of "Lear." 

Curate of Meudon (mo'dt>^ 43, 62). 
[Fr. Lt Cure de Meudon.'] A name 
W which Rabelais (1483-1553), the 
French satirist, is often referred to. 
He was, during the latter part of his 
life, the parish priest of Meudon. 

OuM-ft'tt-t (9,23). Three Albuiiui 
brothers, who, according to an old 
Roman legend, fought, m the time 
of Tullus Hostilius^ with three Ro- 
man brothers, the Horatii, and were 
conquered b^ the cunning and brav- 
ery of one ot them. 

Cu'ri-o. A gentleman attending on 
the Duke of Illyria in Shakespeare's 
»» Twelfth Night." 

Ourions Inipeztinent» The. [3p. 

' £1 Curioao Impertinente.'] The title 
of a "novel" or tale introduced bv 
Cervantes into his " Don Quixote " 
bv way of episode, and a designation 
or one of the characters in it, an 
Italian gentleman who is foolish 
enough to make trial c^ his wife's 
virtue — of which he is finnly con- 
vinced — by persuading a trusted 
friend to seem to lay siege to it. He 
suffers the deserved penalty of his 
impertinent curiositv in the treach- 
ery of his friend ana the infideli^ of 
his wife. 

Cur-ta'n^ |lt., the shortener; — so 
called from its being used to cut off 
heads.] 1. The sword of Ogier the 

2. The sword of Edward the Con- 
fessor, which is borne before the 
kings of England at their coronation. 
It Imls a blunted edge as being em- 
blematical of mercy, and is carried 
between the swords of justice tempo- 
ral and justice spiritual. 

Cur'ti-o (kur'shl-o). A servant to 
Petruchio, in Shakespeare's " Tam- 
ing of the Shrew." 

Cu^urse, Moll, or M&U. A pseudo- 
nym of Mary Frith, a notorious char- 
acter frequently mentioned or allud- 
ed to by the older English writers. 
She is the heroine of Middleton's 
comedy entitled " The Roaring Girl," 
and is introduced hyr Nat. Field, a 
contemporary dramatist, in his piece 
called "Amends for Ladies." 

Cattle, Oaptain. A character in 
Dickens's " Dombey and Son," com- 
bining great humor, eccentricihr, and 
pathos. He is distinguished for his 
simplicity, credulity, and generous 
trustfulness. One of his famous ex- 

and tar the RemaiiLS and Boles to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. ziT-xxxiL 




IHrenions is, *' When found, make a 
note of." 

Are there any of 700,107 readmv, who hare 
not raul the*' Life of Robert HaU**? IfM>,in 
tike words of the great Oamtain Cuttle^ ** When 
foand, make a note of it/* Never mind wltat 
your theological opinion is, . . . aend for 
ItobertHalL Sir B. Bvboer Lytton. 

Gyb'e-le. {Rom^Mvth,) The daugh- 
ter of Coelus and T'erra, and the wife 
of Saturn ; the same as the Shea 
and Opt of the Greeks. ^ She is rep- 
resented as wearing a moral crown,, 
and riding in a chariot drawn by 
lions, or seated on a throne with lions 
at her side. [Called also Bona Dea 
and Mother of the Gods,"] 

Might ahe the wiae Latona be, 

Orthe towered CMele, 

Mother of a hundred gods ? 

Juno dares not gire her odds. MOtxm. 

She looks a se»-CVbe2e, fresh from ocean, 
Biaing with her tiara of proud towers. 

At aiiy distance, with nugestic motion, 
A ruler of the waters And their powers. 

Byron (jon Venice). 

Cy'olOIMi* [Lat. Cyckpes^ 6r. k^kAm- 
wcf , the round-eyed. J ( Gr, ^ Bom. 
Myth,) A gigantic one-eyed race of 
men inhabiting the sea-coasts of Si- 
cily, sons of Coelus and Terra. Ac- 
cording to Hesiod, they were three in 
number, and their names were Arges, 
Steropes, and Brontes. Homer de- 
scribes them as wild, insolent, law- 
less shepherds, who devoured human 
beings. A later tradition represents 
them as Yulcan^s assistants m fabri- 
catiiLf the thunderbolts of Jupiter. 
See Polyphemus. 

Cyl-Ie'ni-U8. [Gr. KvAAi$viof.] {Gr, 
4" Bom. Myth.) A surname of Mer- 
cury, derived from Mount Cyllene, in 
Arcadia, where he was bom. 

Cym'be-llne, or G^7In'be-llne. A 
legendaiy or mjrthical king of Brit- 
ain, and the hero of Shakespeare's 
play of the same name. 

Oyn'o^Bure. [Lat. Ctfuotura, Gr 
Kvvoo-oupd.] {Gr. 4" Bom. Myth.) An 
Idaean nymph, and one of tiie nurses 

. of Jupiter, who placed her in the 
constellation Ursa Minor , as the pole- 

Towers and battlements It 
Bosomed high in tufted trees. 
Where perhaps some beauty lies. 
Hie Qfttonare of neighboring C7es. 


Oyn'thi-I. [Gr. Kvv9ia.] \{Gr. 4 
Cynthi-ns. [Gr. Kvi^io«.] ] Bom. 
My(h.) Surnames respectively of Di- 
ana and Apollo, — hence applied to the 
sun and moon, — derived from Mount 
Gynthns, in the island of Delos. their 
birthplace. See Apollo, Diaka. 

Even QfivOna looks haggard of an after- 
noon, as we may see her sometimes in Uie 
Kwnt winter season, with Phoebus staring 
oat of eoontenanoe from the opnortte side 
of the heavens. Znodberoy- 

Cyp^jk-iis'sus. [Gr. KvwapMTotis.] {Gr. 
& Bom. Myth.) A beautiful youth, 
beloved by Apollo, whose favorite 
stag he inadvertently killed, In, con- 
sequence of which immoderate grief 
seized upon him, and he was meta- 
morphosed into a cypress. 

O^-re'ne. [Gr. Kvpi^n).] ( Gr. 4 Bom. 
Myth.) A water-nymph, the mother 
of Aristsus. Her residence under the 
Peneus, and the visit of her son to her, 
are described in a beautiful episode in 
the fourth book of Vugil's "Geor- 

Ot-the'r$. [Gr. KiJ^ijpo.] { ( GV. ^ 

Oyth'e-re^. [Gr. Kv^cpcia.] ) Bom^ 

Myth. ) Different forms of a surname 

of Venusj derived firom the town of 

Cythera, m Crete, or the isle of Cy- 

Ihera, where the goddess was said to 

have first landed, and where she had 

a celebrated temple. 

Violets dim. 
But sweeter flum the Uds of Juno*s ^ea. 
OrCV<A^«a'«breatii. Skak. 

Y<u the **Zxj to fhe Sdienie of FKmunciation,** with the accompanying Ezplanationa, 





D8Bd'&-ltUI (17). [Gr. A«u'aaAo9.] (O. 
(f Jiom, Mifth,) A most ingenioas 
artist of Athens, who fonned the 
famous Cretan labyrinth^ and who, 
by the help of wings which he con- 
stmcted, ned from Crete across the 
^gean Sea, to escape the resentment 
of Minos. He was thought to be the 
inventor of carpentry and of most of 
its tools, sach as the saw, the ax, the 
gimlet, and the like. See Icarus. 

Da'g5n. [A diminutiTe of the Heb. 
dag\ a fish.] (Myth,) A Phoenician 
or Syrian divinity, who, according 
to the Bible, had richlv adorned tem- 
ples in several of the rhilistine cities. 
in profane history, the name by which 
he IS known is Derc^. He is repre- 
sented as having the face and hands 
cf a man and the tail of a fish ; and 
he seems to have been generally re- 
garded as a symbol of fertility and 
reprodaction. See Judges xvi. 23; 1 
Sam. V. 4. 

Next came one 
"Wlio mourned in eameet, when tihe eafttvt 

Mainied Ub brute image, head and handa 

lopped off 
In hia own temple, on the grunsel edge, 
Where he fell mit, and shamed his wonhip- 

DaooH hia name; lea-monster. upward man 
And downward llah: yet had hia temirie high 
Beared in Axotns, dreaded through the coaat 
Of Paleatine, in Oath and Aacalon, 
And Aocaron and Gasa'a frontier bounda. 


Dae'o-net, Sir. The attendant fool 

of King Arthur. [Written also 


Iwaatlien«S!ri>iigone<in Aitihnr'a show. 


Dal'gox'no, Iiord. A prominent 
character in Sir Walter Scott's " For- 
tunes of Nigel ; " a profligate young 
Scottish lord, thoroughly heartless 
and shameless, who carried *^the 
craft of gray hairs under his curled 

Dal-&eVty, BittmaBter Dtl'gpd. 
A mercenary soldier of fortune in Sir 
Walter Scott's ** Legend of Mont- 
rose,^ distinguished for his pedantry, 
conceit, cool intrepidity, vulgar as- 

surance, knowledge of the worid, 
greediness, and a hundred other 
qualities, making him one of the 
most amusing, admirable, and nat- 
ural characters ever drawn by the 
hand of genius. 

49* " The general idea at the diame- 
ter is flunUiar to our comic dramatists 
after the Restoration, and may be said in 
some measure to be compounded of Cap- 
tain Fluellen and Bobadil ; but the ludU- 
crous combination of the sddado with 
the diyinity student of Mareschal College 
is entirely original." Jfff^^' 

Our second remark ia of the circumstance 
that no Historian or Karrator, neither fiehil- 
ler, Strada, Thuanus, Monroe, nor I>»gaUL 
JMqettfiy makes any mention of Ahasner'a 
havmg been present at tlie battle of I^fitcen. 

He [a hack anthorj-lets out his pen to the 
highest biddor, as OifXam BoIq^Um let out hia 
sword. E. F, Wh^>ple. 

Damis (dft'me'). A character in 
Moli^re's comedy of "Tartuffe," dis- 
tinguished by his self-willed impetu- 

Dam'o-olds. [Gr. AofUMcAi}^.] A 
courtier of the elder Dionysius, the 
tyrant of Syracuse. Having extolled 
the happiness caused by the posses- 
sion of wealth and power, Dionysius 
gave him a striking illustration of the 
real nature of such seeming happiness, 
by placing him at a table loaded with 
delicacies, and surrounded by all the 
insignia of royalty, but, in me midst 
of nis ma^ficent banquet, Damo- 
cles, chancing to look upward, saw 
a sharp and naked sword suspended 
over his head by a single horse-hair. 
A sight so alarming instantly changed 
his views of the felicity of kings. 

Like Iksmoeles at his celebrated banquet, 
Rebecca perpetually beheld, amid the gor- 
geous display, the sword which was suspended 
07er the heads of her people by a single hair. 

Sir W.Scott. 

On what i>amocIes- hairs must the judg- 
ment-sword hang over tills diatracted earth. 


B^-moB'-t^. A herdsman in Theoc- 
ritus and Yirgil; hence, any herds- 
man or rustic. 
Bouah satyrs danced, and fttuns with cloven 

and for the Bemarka and Butos to which the numbers after certain woids refer, see pp. xiv-zz^. 




From ttw glad wnnd wonld not be alMent 

And olAliamcBtaa lored to hear our long. 


Da'm^. [6r. Aa/uuav.] 1. A noble 
Pythagorean of Syracuse, memorable 
for his friendship for Pythias, or 
Phintias, a member of the same sect 
The latter, having been condemned 
to death by Dionysins I., the trrant 
of Syracuse, begged leave to go home 
for ue purpose of arranging his af- 
fairs, Damon pledging his own life 
for the return of his friend. Dio- 
nysius consented, and Pythias came 
back iust in season to save Damon 
from death. Struck by so rare and 
noble an example of mutual friend- 
ship, the tyrant pardoned Pythias, 
ana entreated to be admitted as a 
third into their sacred fellowship. 

2. A goat-herd in the third Eclogue 
of y iigu ; hence, any rustic or swain. 

Damsel of Brittany. A name given 
to £leanora, daughter of Geoi&ey, 
third son of Heniy II. of England, 
and Duke of Brittany by marriage 
with Constance, the daughter and 
heiress of Duke Conan lY . 

Richard, the successor of Henry, 
dying without issue, the English crown 
rightfully devolTed upon Arthur, the son 
of Oeoffirey; bat John, the brother of 
Bichard, and the youngest &t the sons of 
Henry, detennined to secure it to him- 
self. He, therefore, managed to capture 
the young prince, his nephew, and con- 
signed him to close custody, first in the 
castle of Falaise, and aft«*?rard at Rouen, 
where he is supposed to have murdered 
him by his own hand. Arthur beii^ 
dead, the next in the order of succession 
was Eleanor, his sister. John, however, 
obtained posaession of her person, carried 
her to England, and confined her in the 
castle of Bristol, in which prison she re- 
mained till her death, in 1241. 

Ban'ft-e. [Gr. Aamij.] ( Gr, 4- Rom, 
Myth.) The daughter of Acrisius, 
and the mother of Perseus by Jupi- 
ter, who visited her in the form of a 
shower of gold when she was shut 
up in a tower by her father. 

Bft-nal-ddf. [Lat; Gr. Aoyatfief.] 
(Gr. 4' Rom, Mtfth,) The fifty 
daughters of Danaus, king of Argos, 
betrothed to the fifty sons of Mgyp^ 
tus, all of whom they killed on the 

first nij^ht after marriage, in fnlfill- 
ment ofa promise exacted by Danaus, 
Lynceus alone excepted, who was 
spared by his wife Hypermnestra. 
Her guilty sisters were punished for 
their crime, in Hades, by being com- 
pelled everlastingly to draw water 
out of a deep well, and pour it into a 
vessel full of holes. 

Bandie Binmont. See Dinmont, 

Dandin, Oeorse (zhofzh ddn'd&n' 58, 
62, 64). The title of a comedy by Mo- 
li^re, and the name of its hero, a 
wealthy French dtizen, who has had 
the impudence to many a sprig of 
quality, daughter of an old noble 
called Monsieur de Sotenville, and 
his no less noble spouse, Madame de 
la Prudoterie, and who, in conse- 
quence, is exposed at once to the 
coquetiy of a light-headed wife, and 
to the n^rous sway of her parents, 
who, cjJled upon to interpose with 
their authori^, place their daughter 
in the ri^ht, and the unhappy ro^ti- 
rier, theur son-in-law, in the wrong, 
on every appeal which is made to 
them. FaUmg, in consequence of 
this meaoMiance, into many disagree- 
able situations, he constantly ex- 
claims, ^* Tu Pas voulu^ George Dan- 
flftn," You would have it so, Greorge 
Dandin. The expression has hence 
become proverbial to denote self-in- 
flicted pain, and the name is common- 
hr apphed to any silly, simple-minded 

If yon have really been fool enough to fldl 
In love there, and hare a mind to play Oeorpe 
Domdui, I'll find you aome money for the 
pazt. C. Beade, 

Dandin, Ferrin (pfef'r&n' d6n'd&n', 
62.) 1. The name or an ignorant rustic 
ju^^ in Rabelais, who heard causes 
sitting on the first trunk of a tree 
which he met, instead of seatmg him- 
self, like other judges, on the fleurs- 

2. The name of a ridiculous judge, 
in Kacine's comedy, " Les Plaideurs/* 
and in La Fontaine^s ^* Fables." 

Dangle* A prominent character in 
Sheridan's farce, " The Critic ; " one 
of those theatrical amateurs who be- 
siege a manager with impertinent 

For the ** Key to the Scheme of Fftmunciation,** with the accompanying Ezplanationa, 




fl&ttery and grataitoiis advice. He 
is said to have been intended for a 
• Mr. Thomas . Yau^han, author of 
"The Hotel," an indifferently suc- 
cessful play. 

Daniel, The "Well-langii aged. A 
name given by William Browne 
(1590-1645), in his "Britannia's 
Pastorals," to the £nglish poet 
Samuel Daniel (1562-1619), whose 
writings are remarkable for their 
modem style and pervading puiity 
of taste and ^race of language. 

Daph'ne. [6r. Aai^io).] ( Gr, 4" ^^om. 
Myth,) A beautiful maiden beloved 
by Apiollo, and metamorphosed into 
a laurel-tree while attempting to es- 
cape ^m him. 

Nay, lady, sit} if I but wave this wand, 
Your nerves are all chained up in alabaster. 
And you a statue, or, as Dmhne was. 
Boot-bound, that fled Apollo. MUton. 

D*ph'Bi8. [Gr. Aa<^vi$.] {Gr.&Rom, 
Myth.) A beautiful young Sicilian 
Bhe]>herd, a son of Mercury. He was 
the inventor of bucolic poetry, and a 
fovorite of Pan and Apollo. 

Papper. A clerk m " The Alchemist," 
a play by Ben Jonson. 

This reminds us of the extreme doting at- 
tachment whieh the queen of the fiiiries is rep- 
resented to hare taken for Dcapper. 

Sir W. Seoft. 

Papple. The name of Sancho^s ass, 
in Cervantes^s romance of "Don 

Daarptiy and Joan. A married couple 
said to have lived, more than a cen- 
tury a^, in the village of Healaugh, 
in the West Riding of Yorkshire, and 
celebrated for their long life and con- 
jugal felicity. Thev are the hero 
and heroine of a ballad called " The 
Happy Old Couple," which has been 
attributed to Pnor, but is of uncer- 
tain authorship. Timperley says that 
Darby was a printer in Bartholomew 
Close, who died in 1730, and that 
the ballad was written by one of his 
apprentices by the name of Henry 

Tou might have sat, like JDar&tr and Joan, 
and flattered each other; and billed and cooed 
like a pair of pigeons on a perch. TTiackeray. 

Indeed now, if you would but condescend 
to Ibigive and foiget, perliaps some day or 
o^er we may be JOarbyandJocm,^ only, you 
•ee. Just at this moment I am really not worthy 
of such a Joan. Sir E. Bmwer LytUm. 

Dar'd^nua. [Gr. Aop&Evof .] ( Gr, ^ 
Rom. Myth.) The son of Jupiter and 
£lectra of Arcadia, and ancestor of 
the royal race of Troy. 

Da'r^S ( 9 ). One of the competitors ai 
the funeral games of Anchises in 
Sicily, described in the fifth book of 
Virgil's "-ffineid." He was over- 
come at the combat of the cestus by 

A Trojan combat would be something new: 
Let Dares beat EnteUus Uack andblue. 


Bark and Bloody Ground, The. 
An expression often used in allusion 
to Kentucky, of which name it is 
said to be the translation. The 
phrase is an epitome of the early 
h^stoiy of the State, of the dark and 
bloody conflicts of the first white 
settlers with their savage foes; but 
the name originated in me fact that 
this was the grand battle-ground 
between the northern and southern 

Dark Day, The. May 19, 1780; — 
so called on account of a remarkable 
darkness on that day extending over 
all New England. In some places, 
persons could not see to read common 
print in the open air for several hours 
together. Birds sang their evening 
song, disappeared, and became silent; 
fowls went to roost; cattle sought the 
barn-yard ; and candles were lighted 
in the houses. The obscuration be- 
gan about ten o'clock in the mom- 
mg, and continued till the middle of 
the next night, but with diflerences 
of degree and duration in different 
places. For several days previous, 
the wind had been variable, but 
chiefly from the southwest and the 
northeast The true cause of this re- 
markable phenomenon is not known. 

David. See Jonathan. 
Da'vua. The name commonly given 
to slaves in Latin comedies. The 

froverb, "i)aw« «*m, non (Edipus^^^ 
am Davus, not CEdipus, (that is, a 
simple servant, not a resolver of rid- 
dles,) occurs in Terence. 

Da'vy. Servant to Shallow, in the 
Second Part of Shakespeare's " King 
Heniy IV." 

and finr the Bemarks and Bulea to which the numbers after eertrin words refer, see pp. xiT-zxxU' 




OM Gndylll anodsted himieirwitli a poty 
•o much to hU taste, pietty much as D<wy in 
file revels of his master, Justice Shallow. 

Sir W. SeoU, 

Davy Jones. See Jones, Davt. 

Daw'son, Bully (-sn). A noted Lon- 
don sharper, swaggerer, and de- 
bauchee, especially m Blackfriars and 
its infamous purlieus. He lived in 
the seventeenui century, and was a 
contemporaiy of Rochester and Eth- 
erege. An allusion to him occurs in 
the " Spectator," No. 2. 

Tom Brown had a shrewder inidehC into 
this land of character than either of nis pred- 
ecessors. He divides the palm m<Nre equably^ 
and allows his hero a sort of dimidiate pre- 
eminence:— ** BullifDaw9on kicked by half 
the town, and half the town kicked by Bully 
Dawtonr This was trae retributive Justice. 

Chanes Lamb. 

When, in our cooler moments, we reflect om 
his [Homer's] Jove-protected wMriors, his in- 
vulnerable Achilles, they dwindle into insig- 
niflcanoe, and we are ready to excldm, in the 
quidnt language of another, ** Bvllff Daioson 
would have fought the DevU with such ad- 
vantages." Jcmea Very. 

Day of Barrioades. [Fr. Joumee des 
Bivrricades.'] {Fr, Hist.) 1. May 
12, 1588, on which day the Duke of 
Guise entered Paris, when Henry HI., 
at his instigation,- consented to take 
severe measures against the Hugue- 
nots, on the i>romise that the duke 
would assist him in purging Paris of 
strangers and obnoxious persons. No 
sooner, however, was an attempt 
made to carry out this plan, than the 
populace arose, erected barricades, 
and attacked the king's troops with 
irresistible fury. HemrHI., naving 
requested the Duke of Guise to put a 
stop to the conflict, fled from Paris, 
and the moment tne duke showed 
himself to the people, they pulled 
down the barricades. 

2. August 26j 1648 ; — so called on 
account of a not, instigated by the 
leaders of the Fronde, which took 
place in Paris on that day. 

Day of Com-saoks. [Fr. Joumie 
des Farines.'l {Fr. Bist.) A name 
given to the 3d of January, 1591, 
from an attempt made by Henry IV. 
to surprise Pans on that day. Some 
of his oflicers, disguised as corn- 
dealers, with sacks on their shoul- 
ders, endeavored to get possession of 
the gate St. Honore; but they were 

Teoognised, and obliged to make a 
hasty retreat. 
Day of Dupes. [Fr. Joumee dei 
Dupei.'\ {Fr, Htst.) 1. A name 
given to the 11th of November, 1630, 
m allusion to a celebrated imbroglio 
by which the opponents of the pnme 
minister Richelieu — at the he^d of 
whom were Maria de' Medici and 
Anne of Austria — were completely 
worsted in an attempt to efiect his 
renioval from offlce, and the power 
of the cardinal was established upon 
a firmer basis than ever. 

Richelieu himself could not have taken a 

Sloomier view of things, when his levees were 
eseited, and his power seemed annihilated 
before the Day (tf Dupes. 

5£r E. Buboer LiftUm. 

2. August 4th, 1789;^ so called 
on account of the renunciation by the 
nobles and qler^ in the French 
National Convention of their peculiar 
immunities and feudal rights. 

Day ^ Gold Spurs. [Fr. Joumee 
des fyerons (f (>r,'\ See Battle op 

Day of the Beotions. [Fr. Joumde 
des Sections.^ {Fr. BisL) The name 
commonly given to an afl&ay which 
occurred on the 4th of October, 1793, 
between the troops under the control 
of the Convention and the National 
Guard acting in the interest of the 
sections of Paris. The contest re- 
sulted in the success of the Conven- 

Dean of St. Patrick's. A title of 
Jonathan Swift (1667-1746), the cele- 
brated English satirist, by which he 
is often referred to. The deanenr of 
St Patrick^s is in Dublin. Swift 
was appointed to the place in 1713, 
and retained it until his death. 

Deans, Douce Da'vie. A poor cow- 
feeder at Edinburgh, and tne father 
of Effie and Jeanie Deans, in Sir 
Walter Scott's novel, " The Heart 
of Mid-Lothian." He is remarkable 
for his religious peculiarities, for his 
magnanimity in affliction, and his 
amusing absurdities in prosperity. 

Deans, Sffie. A character in Scott*s 
" Heart of Mid-Lothian," whose lover 
abandons her after effecting her ruin. 

For the *'Kej to the Scheme of Pronunciation*** with the aficompanying Explanations, 




Beans, Jeaale. The heroine of 
Scott's "Heart of Mid -Lothian/' 
The circumstances of her history are 
based upon facts communicated to 
the aothor by a correspondent. 

49* " She is a perfect model of sober 
heroism ; of the union of good sense witti 
strong afidctUms, firm piindples, and 
pexfect disinterestedness ; and of the 
calm superiority to misfortune, danger, 
and difficulty, wiiich such a union must 
create/' Senior. 

We liaQow the trmTdeis On tfie ** FDgrim'i 
r rogr e— '*] tliiou|di thoir allflgorlcal inogreM 
with interest notmferior to fiiat with ^^ch 
we ftdlow Elizabeth from Siberia to Momow, 
or Jetmie Deam from Edinbuigh to London. 


Debatable Iiand, The. A tract of 
land on the western border of Eng- 
land and Scotland, between the Esk 
and Sark, which was at one time 
claimed by both kingdoms, and was 
afterward divided between them. It 
was long the residence of thieves and 
banditti, to whom its dubious state 
afforded a refuge. 

Decree of Fontainebleau (fon'tftn- 
bio'). (Fr. HUU) An edict of the 
Emperor Napoleon I., dated at Fon- 
taiuebleau, October 18, 1810, ordering 
the burning of all English g(X)ds. 

Dedlock, Sir IiSioe8't$r (les't^r). 
A character in Dickens's novel of 
^ Bleak House." ** He is an honor- 
able, obstinate, truthful, hi^-spirit- 
ed, intensely prejudiced, perfectly un- 
reasonable man.'' 

Deenlayer. The hcono of Cooper's 
novel of the same name. 

49* *' This character ... is the au* 
ttior's ideal of a chivalresque numhood, 
of the grace which is the natural flower 
of purity and virtue ; not the Stoic, but 
fhe Chxistian of the woods, the man of 
. honorable act and sentiment, of comrage 
and truth." Duyekinek. 

DefiBiider Of the Faiih. [lAt,Fidei 
DeferuorJ] A title conferred, in 
1521, by Tope Leo X. up<>n King 
Henry Yin. of England, in conse- 
quence of a Latin treatise " On the 
Seven Sacraments" which the lat- 
ter had published in confutation of 
Luther, and had dedicated to that 

gontiff. The title was not made 
eritable by his heirs, and Pope Paul 
in., |n 1536, upon the king's apostasy 

in tuning suppressor of religious 
houses, formally revoked and with- 
drew it. Heniy, however, continued 
to use it as a part of the royal stvle, 
and, in 1543, parliament annexd it 
for ever to the crown by stat. 35 Hen. 
VHL c. 3. 

49* It has been shown that the same 
title was popularly applied to, or was as- 
sumed by, some <xr ttie kings ci Bn^tend 
who preceded UauryTin., as Biehard 
II. and Henxy TU. 

Des^o-re', Sir. [A corruption of 
Degare. or Vegare^ meaning a per- 
son ** almost lost"] The heio of a 
romance of high antiquity, and for- 
merlv veiy popuhu-, an abstract of 
which mav be seen in Ellis's " Speci- 
mens of the Early English Poets." 

De-id'ft-mi'$. [Gr. Ai^iW/xeia.] ( Gr. 
4 Rom. Myth.) The daughter of 
Lycomedes. king of Scyros, and the 
mother of Pyrrhus by Achilles. 

De-iph'o-bu8. [Gr. Ai)i^o^.] {Gr, 
d Rom. Myth.) A son of Priam and 
llecuba. After the death of Paris, 
he married Helen, but was betrayed 
by her to the Greeks. Next to Hec- 
tor, he was the bravest among the 

Dej^ni'rf (9). [Gr. Ai)Mvctpa.] {Gr. 
4" Rom. Myth.) A daughter of 
CEneus, and the wife of Hercules, 
whose death she involuntarily caused 
by sending him a shirt which had 
been steeped in the poisoned blood of 
Nessus, who falselv told her that his 
blood would enable her to preserve 
her husband's love. On hearing that 
Hercules had burnt himself to death to 
escape the torment it occasioned, she 
killed herself in remorse and despair. 

Delaunax, lie Vioomte (lu ve'k6i>t' 
d'15^ndA 62). A nom de 'plume of 
Mme. Delphine de Girardin (1804- 
1855), under which she published her 
best-known work, the " jParisian Let- 
ters " {'^Leitrei Parisiennet''), which 
originally appeared in "La Presse," 
a newspaper edited by her husband, 
fimUe de Girardin. 

Delectable Mountains. InBunyan's 
allegory of" The Pilgrim's Progress," 
a range of hills from whose summit 
might be seen the Celestial City. 

and Ibr the Bemarki and Bnlet to which the numben after certain words relbr, iee pp. xIt-: 





^^When the monung was up, they 
had him to the top of the house, and 
bid him look south. So he did, and 
behold, at a great distance he saw a 
most pleasant mountainous country, 
beautified with woods, vineyards, 
fruits of all sorts, flowers also, with 
springs and fountains, very delectable 
to behold. /«a. xxxiii. 16,17. . . . 
They then. went till they came to the 
Delectable Mountains. . . .Now there 
were on the tops of these mountains 
shepherds feedmg their flocks. The 
pilgrims, therefore, went to them, and, 
leaning on their staffs (as is common 
with weaiy pilgrims when they stand 
to talk with any by the way), they 
asked, *■ Whose delectable mountains 
are these, and whose be the sheep 
that feed upon them? ' '* The shep- 
herds answered, "These mountains 
are EmmanuePs land, and they are 
within sight of his cit^, and the 
sheep are his, and he laid down his 
life K)r them." 

On the MuBes' hill he Is happy and good as 
one of the shepherds on the JJeteetcMe Moun- 
tauM. Charles Lamb. 

Delia. A poetical name given by 
the Roman poet Tibullus (d. about 
B. c. 18) to his lady-love, whose real 
name is not certainly known, but is 
thought to have been Plania (from 
planus)^ of which the Greek Delia 
(from £^Aof, clear, manifest, plain) is 
a translation. 

DeOi-f. [Gr. Ai^Xia.] J ( Gr. ^ Rom, 

Deli-US. [Gr. a^Auk.] ) Myth.) Sur- 
names respectively of Diana and 
Apollo, as bom in Delos. See 

Delight of Manldiid. A name given 
by his subjects to Titus, emperor of 
Kome (40-81), whose liberality, af- 
fability, mildness, and virtuous con- 
duct were the subject of general ad- 

Dell^ OrtUi'oi^nfi, or Delia Grusoa 
School (del4& krdbs'kft). A col- 
lective appellation applied to a class 
of sentimentd poetasters of both 
sexes, which fuxMO in England toward 
the close of the last century, and who 
were conspicuous for their affectation 
and bad taste, and for their high- 
flown panegyrics on one another. 

Their productions consisted of odes^ 
elegies, epigrams, songs, sonnets, 
epistles, plays, &c. 

Some of these persons had, by 
chance, been jumbled together for a while 
at Florence, where they put forth a vol- 
ume of rhymes, under Uie title of '' The 
Florence Miscellany," the insipidity and 
fantastic sUliness of which transcend all 
belief. Afterward, they and a number 
of other persons, their admirers and imi- 
tators, bc^n to publish their efiFusions in 
England^hiefiy in two daily newspapers 
called " The World " and " The Oracle ; " 
firom which they were soon collected, and, 
with yast laudation, recommended to the 
public attention In a volume entitled 
'^ The Album," by Bell, the printer. An 
end was at length put to these inanities 
by the appearance, in 1794, of GifiFord's 
'^ Baviad," which, in 1796, was followed 
.by its continuation, the ^^Mteviad," — 
both powerful and extremely popular 
satires, which lashed the Delia Crusca au- 
thors with merciless but deserved sever- 
ity. One of t^e founders of this school 
of poetry, Mr. Robert Merry, wrote under 
the signature of Delia Crusea, and this 
name was given to the whole brood of 
rhymsters to which he belonged, prob- 
ably because he became the most noted 
of them. Merry had traveled for some 
years on the Continent, and had made a 
long residence in Florence, where he was 
elected a member of the celebrated Acad- 
emy DeUa Crusca. '— that is, Academy of 
the Sieve, — whicn was founded for the 
purpose of purifying and refining the 
Italian language and style. In adopting 
the name of this Academy as a nom dt 
plutne^ Merry may not only have alluded 
to the fact of his membership, but very 
possibly intended to intimate that what 
he should write would be quite exquisite, 
and free finom chaff. It would appear that 
Merry was not the first of these writers 
whose lucubrations came out in **llie 
Oracle " and " The World ; " for. says 
Giflbrd, " While the epidemic malaay was 
spreading fh)m fool to fool, Delia Crusca 
came over [from Italy], and immediately 
announced himself by a sonnet to Love. 
Anna Matilda wrote an incomparable 
piece of nonsense in praise of it ; and the 
two ' great luminaries of the age,' as Mr. 
Bell calls them, IfeU desperately in love 
with each other. From that period, not 
a day passed without an amatory epistle, 
Draught with lightning and thunder, et 
quicquid habent telorunt armamentaria 
eali. The fever turned to frenzy : Laura, 
Maria, Carlos, Orlando, Adelaide, and a 
thousand other nameless names, caught 

For the " Key to the Scheme of FronuneiatioB,*' with the aocompaaying Explanatitfot, 




the infection ; and from one end of the 
kingdom to the other, all was nonaenra 
and Delia Gruaca." Other writers of thia 
school, besides Merry, whose names have 
been preseryed, are Mr. Bertie Oreathead, 
a man of property and good family ; Mr. 
William Parsons, another gentleman of 
fortune ; Mr. Edward Jernlngham {'■'■ The 
Bard "), author of numerous plays and 
poems ; liOles Peter Andrews, a writer of 
prologues and epilogues ; Mr. Edward 
Topham, the proprietor of '^ The World ; '' 
the Rev. Charles Este (^^ Morosoph Este," 
as Qifford calls him), principal editor of 
that paper ; Mr. Joseph Weston, a small 
magaaine-critic of the day ; James Ck>bbe, 
a now-forgotten fkroe-wxiter ; Frederick 
Pilon, said to have been a player by pro* 
fession ; a Mr. Timothy, or Thomas, Ad- 
ney (who wrote under the anagram of 
»*Mit Yenda," or "Mot Yenda"); Mr. 
Thomas Vaughan (" Edwin '') ; Mr. John 
Williams ("Tony— or Anthony — Pas- 
quin"); the celebrated James Boswell, 
who had not' yet established his reputa- 
tion as the prince of biographers; and 
the dramatists O'Keefe, Morton, Rey- 
nolds, Holcroft, Sheridan, and the Youn- 
ger Colman, who surriyed and recovered 
from their discreditable connection with 
the Bella Cruscan folly. Of the female 
writers of this school, the principal names 
are those of Mrs. Piosii, the widow of 
Johnson's friend Thrale, but at that time 
the wife of her daughter's music-master ; 
Mrs. H. Cowley ("Anna Matilda"), the 
dever authoress of the " Belle's Strata- 
gem ; " and the somewhat notorious Mrs. 
Kobinson, who, with all her levity, in- 
tellectual as well as moral, was not alto- 
gether without literary talent and poeti- 
cal feeling. In the prefitce to the " Msb- 
Tiad," Giffi>rd intimates that he had been 
charged with breaking butterflies upon 
a wheel ; but " many a man," he adds, 
*^ who now affects to pity me for wasting 
my strength upon imreslsting imbecility, 
would, not long since, have heard these 
poems with applause, and their praises 
with delight." On the other hand, the 
great patron, Bell, the printer, accused 
him of " bespattering nearly all the po- 
etical eminence of the day." " But, on 
the whole," says Gifford, "the clamor 
against me was not loud, and was lost by 
insensible degrees in the applause of such 
as I was truly ambitious to please. Thus 
supported, the good effi^its of the satire 
{gloriose loqvor) were not long in mani- 
festing themselves. Bella Crusca ap- 
peared no more in ^ The Oracle,* and, if 
any of his followers ventured to treat the 
town with a soft sonnet, it was not, as 
before, introduced by a pompous prefiice. 

Pope and Milton resumed thtilr mperlor* 
ity, and Este and his coadjutors i^ioittj 
acquiesced in the growing opinion of theur 
incompetency, and showed some sense of 

Del58. [Gr. a^iAov.] A small island 
in the Mgeaa Sea. one of the Cyclades. 
Here Apollo ana Diana were bom, 
and here the former had a famous 
oracle. Delos was at first a floating 
island, but Neptune fixed it to the 
bottom of the sea, that it might be a 
secure resting-place for Latona. See 

Del'phl. [Gr. AcA^^oi.] A famoua 

oracle of Apollo in Phods. at the foot 

of Mount Parnassus. [Enoneouslv 

written Delphos by early English 


Apollo from his Bhilne 
Can no more divine. 
With hollow shriek the steep of Deipho9 
No nightly trance, or breathM W^ 
Inspires the pale-eyed priest from the pro- 
phetic celL MiUim. 

Delphine (dePfen^. The title of a 
novel by Mme. de Stael (1766-1817), 
and the name of its heroine, whose 
character is full of charm, and is said 
to have been an idealized picture of 
the authoress herself. Delphine has 
a faithless lover, and dies broken- 

DePl4[. The signature under which 
David Macbeth Moir, a distinguished 
Scottish writer (1778-1851), contrib- 
uted a series of poems to ** Black- 
wood^s Magazine." 

Del'ville, Mr. One of the guardians 
of CecUia, in Miss Bumey's novel of 
this name; a gentleman of wealth, 
magnificent and ostentatious in his 
style of living, and distinguished for 
an air of haughty afiability in his in- 
tercourse with his inferiors. 

Eren old DelviBe received Cecilia, though 
the dans^ter of a man of low birth. 

SirW. ScoU, 

De-me't$r. [Gr. Ai)juii}ri}P;!| i^yth,) 
One of the great divinities of the 
Greeks, corresponding to the Cere$ 
of the Romans. See Cebes. 

De-mooM-tua, Junior. A psen- 
donjrm under which Robert Burton 
(1576-1640) nublished his *^ Anatomy 
of Melancholy," a work which pre- 

and for the Bemarki and Boles to which the nnmbers after certain words reftr, see pp. xiv-jooii. 





gents, in qiuunt langna^, and wifh 
many shrewd and amnsing remarks, 
a yiew of all the modifications of 
that disease, and the manner of cur- 
ing it. Tne name of Democritus, 
Junior, is introduced in the inscrip- 
tion on his monument in Christ- 
Church Cathedral. It alludes to 
Democritus of Abdera, the celebrated 
** Laiighing Philosopher " of antiqui- 
ty. See Laughing Philosopher. 
De-mod'o-ons. [Gr. AthxoSoko^.'] A 
famous bard mentioned in Homer's 
"Odyssej^ ** as delighting the guests of 
Kin^ Alcinous, during their repast, by 
singing the loves of Mars and Venus, 
and the stratagem of the Wooden 
Horse, by means of which the Greeks 
gained entrance into Troy. 

Then sine of secret things that came to pass 
When beldam Nature in her cradle was; 
And last (tf Icings, and queens, and heroes old. 
Such as the wise Demoaocus once told 
In solemn songs at King Alcinous' feast 


De'mo-gor'g5n. [Gr., from Bainxavj a 

ffod, and yopy6i, fearful.] {Myth.) 

A formidable and mysterious deity, 

superior to all others, mentioned by 

Lutatius, or Lactantius, Placidus, the 

scholiast on Statins, and made kno\7n 

to modem readers by the account of 

Boccaccio, in his ^'Genealogia Deo- 

rum." According to Ariosto, the 

fairies were all subject to Demogor- 

gon, who inhabited a splendid palatial 

temple on the Himalaya Mountains, 

where every fifth year he summoned 

them to appear before him, and give 

account of their deeds. The very 

mention of this deity's liame was said 

to be tremendous; wherefore Lucan 

and Statins only allude to it. 

Thou wast begot in DemogorgotCa hall. 
And saw'st the secrets of the world unmade. 


The dreaded name 
OS Demogorgon, liUton. 

Derrydown Triangle. A sobriquet 

fiven to Lord Castlereagh (1769- 
822), afterwards Marquess of Lon- 
d(mderry, in a parody on the Athana- 
sian Creed by WiUiam Hone; the 
triangle referring, according to him, 
to ** a thing having three sides ; the 
meanest and most tinkling of all mu^ 
sical instrumerUs ; machinery used in 
military torture. Dictionaky." See 

the " Third Trial of William Hone 
before Lord EUenborough," 3d edi- 
tion, p. 9, London, 1818. 

De§'de-ino'n$. The heroine of Shake- 
speare's tragedv of" Othello," daugh- 
ter of Brabantio, a Venetian senator, 
and wife of Othello, a Moorish gen- 
eral, who kills her in a groundless 
belief of her infidelity. See Othello. 

She was never tired of inquiring if sorrow 
had his young days fluied; and was ready to 
listen ana weep, like Deademonot ^ ^^ stories 
of his dangers and campaigns. Thackeroif. 

Deu-oali-&n. [Gr. AevxaAiui^J Gr, 
^ Bom. Myth.) A son of Prome- 
theus, king of Phthia, in Thessaly. 
With his wife Pyrrha, he was pre- 
served from a deluge sent upon the 
earth by Jupiter; and he became the 
progemtor of a new race of men, by 
throwing stones behind him, as di- 
rected by an oracle. From stones 
thrown by Pyrrha there sprang up 
women, and thus the world was re- 

Nor important less 
Seemed their petition than when the ancient 

es old, — less ancient yet than these, — 
DevcaJion and chaste Pyrrha, to restore 
The race of mankind drowned, before the 

Of Themis stood devout MUon. 

Devil, The. In the Bible, and in 
Jewish and Christian theolo^, the 
sovereign spirit of evil, who is ever 
in active opposition to God. A ma- 
jority of the early Christians, literal- 
Iv interpreting certain passages of 
Scripture, regarded him as an apos- 
tate angd, the instigator of a reoel- 
lion among the heavenly host, and, 
their ruler in a kingdom of dark- 
ness opposed to Christ's kingdom of 
light. To his agency was ascribed 
aU evil, physical as well as moral; 
and it was believed, that, for his 
crimes, he was doomed to suffer end- 
less torment in a material hell. Al- 
though his power was supreme over 
all not guarded by Christian faith and 
rites, over those who were thus guard- 
ed, it was so weak tiiat they could 
easily rise superior to his influence. 
As prince of the demons, and as the 
ideal of evil, vice, heresy, subtlet^r, 
and knavery, he has figured promi- 
nently in literature, especially that 

For the ** Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation,'* with the aocompaDying Ezphmations, 




oftlie Middle Aees. In the old myB- 
teries and miTacTe-plays, ^e was often 
represented on the sta^ as a sort of 
satyr or faun, with naming saucer 
eyes, sooty complexion, horns, tail, 
hooked nails, the cloven hoof of a 
goat or horse, and a strong sulphurous 
odor. At the present day, tne doc- 
trine of the existence of a personal 
Devil, the chief of evil spirits, and 
directly or indirectly the author of 
at least all moral evUy is maintained 
by most Christians, but rejected by 
many. See Abaddon, Beelzebub, 
Satan, &c. 

Devils' Parliament. [Lat ParUa^ 
mentum DiaboUcum,'] {Eng. Hist,) 
A name given to the Parliament as- 
sembled by Henry VI. at Coventry, 
1459, because it passed attainders 
against the Duke of York and his 
chief supporters. 

Devil's Wall. A name given by 
the inhabitants of the neighborhood 
to the old Ropian wall separating 
England from Scotland, because they 
supposed, that, from the strength of 
the cement and the durabilitr of the 
stone, the Devil must have built it. 
The superstitious peasantry are said 
to be in the habit of gathering up 
the firagments of this wall to put in 
The foundation of their own tene- 
ments to insure an equal solidity. 

Devonshire Poet. A sobriquet or 
pdeudonym of O. Jones, an unedu- 
cated journeyman wool-comber, au- 
thor of ** Poetic Attempts," London, 

Diable, lie (la de^'U, 61). [Fr., the 
Devil.] A surname given to Robert 
L, Duke of Normandy. See Bobert 
THE Devil. 

]>iabolical Parliament. See Dev- 
n^* Pabliament. 

Biafoimsy Thomas (to'mft' de^ft'fnro'- 
rdss', 34, 102). A young and pe- 
dantic medical student, about to be 
dabbed doctor, who figures in Mo- 
li^re's ^'Malade Imaginaire '* as the 
lover of Ang^lique. 

The nadonbliiig fUtb of a political Dic/otrus. 


Diamond State. A name sometimes 
given to the State of Delaware, from 

its small size and its great worth, or 
supposed importance. 
Dt-a'nft, or Dl-an'l. (Gr. ^ Jtotn, 
Myth,) Originally, an Italian divin- 
ity, afterward regarded ay identical 
with the Greek Artemis, the daugh- 
ter of Jupiter and Latona, and the 
twin sister of Apollo. She was the 
gpddess of hunting, chastity, mar- 
riage, and nocturalmcantations. She 
was also regarded as the goddess of 
the moon. See Luna. Her temple 
at Ephesus was one of the Seven 
Wonders of the Worid. [Written 
also, poetically, D i a n.] 

Hence [from chastity] had tb» hnntma DIam 

her dread bow, 
Fair Bilver-shaited queen, for ever chaste. 
Wherewith she tamed the blinded Uoneie 
And spotted mountain pard, but iet at nought 
The mvoloue bow of Cupid ; soda and men 
Feared her stem frown, and ane was queen of 

the woods. MOton, 

DiaTolo, Fra. See Fra Diayolo. 

Dioky Sam. A cant name applied to 
the inhabitants of Liverpool. 

Diddler, Jeremy. A character in 
Kenny's farce of " Raising the Wind,' * 
where he is represented as a needy 
and seedy individual, always contriv- 
ing, b^ his songs, bon'4nots, or o^er 
expedients, to borrow money or ob- 
tain credit. 

Di'do. [Gr. At&Sj The daughter of 
Belus, king of lyre, and the wife of 
Sichseus, whom iier brother Pygma- 
lion murdered for his riches. Escap- 
ing to Africa, she purchased as much 
land as could be encompassed with a 
bullock's hide, which — after the bar- 
gain was completed — she craftily cut 
mto small shreds, and thus secured a 
large piece of territory. Here, not 
far from the Phcenician colony of 
Utica, she built the city of Carthage. 
According to Yirgil, when Mneaa 
was shipwrecked upon her coast, in 
his vo3rage to Italv, she hospitably 
entertained him, fell in love with him, 
and, because he did not requite her 

ftassion, stabbed herself in despaur. 
Called also EUsa, or EUssa.] 
Difi/go-ry. A talkative, awkward ser- 
vant in Goldsmith's comedy, ^^She 
Stoops to Conquer," — "taken from 
the bam to make a show at the side- 

and tor tibe Bemaria aad Bulea to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. sdv-zzxU. 




Ton might u well make Hamlet (or Dig- 

Sry) "act mad" in a strait -waistcoat, as 
unmel my buffooneiy, if I am to be a buf- 
foon. Byron. 

Dimanolie, M. (mos'e^' de'mSi^sh', 
43, 62). [Fr., Mr. Sunday.] A sobri- 
quet popularly ^ven, in France, to a 
creditor or dun. m allusion to an hon- 
est merchant or this name, introduced 
by Moli^re into his ^^Don Juan,*' (a. 
iv., sc. 3). He is so called, doubtless, 
because merchants and working-men, 
having no other day in the week to 
themselves, take Sunday for present- 
ing their bills and collecting the 
money which is due to them. 

Dinali, Aont. Mr. Walter Shandy's 
aunt, in Sterne's novel of " Tristram 
Shandy." She bequeathed to him a 
thousand pounds, which he had as 
many sdiemes for expending. 

Din'mont, Dan'dXe {or Andrew). 
A humorous and eccentric store- 
farmer in Sir Walter Scott's novel 
of " QtVLj Mannering ; " one of the best 
of rustic portraits. , 

Di'o-med, or Di'o-m&de. [Lat. 
BiomedeSf Gr. Aio/4i|6ij9.] ( Gr, ^ Itom. 
Myth.) A son of Tydeus, king of 
^tolia. He was one of the most re- 
nowned of the Grecian chiefs at the 
siege of Troy, where he performed 
many heroic deeds. He vanquished 
in fight Hector and ^neas, the most 
valiant of the Trojans, and, along 
with Ulysses, carried off the Palla- 
dium, on which the safety of Troy 
depended. [Called also TydidesJ] 

Dl-o'ne. [Gr. Atciw?.] ( Gr. ^ Bom. 
Myth.) A nymph who was, accord- 
ing to some accounts, the mother of 

Di/Q-ny'stu. [Gr. Ai<Sw<ro?, or Auaw- 
<ro«.] {Gr. Myth.) The youthful, 
beautiful, and effeminate god of wine ; 
the same as Bacchus. See Bac- 

DI'os-cu'pI. [Gr. AK^o-xovpot, sons of 
Zeus, or Jupiter.] {Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth. ) The well-known heroes Cas- 
tor and Pollux, or Polydeuces. See 

PrrsB (9). {Horn. Myth.) A name or 

title of the Furies, given to them &om 
their dreadful appearance. 

Dir'ce (4). [Gr. Atp«ij.] Wife of 
the Theban prince Lycus. For cruel 
treatment of Antiope, she was tied to 
a mad bull, and dragged about till 
dead. See Antiope and Lycus. 

Dis. [Lat^ kindred with divuSj god."} 

{Rom. Ulyth.) A name sometimes 

^ven to rluto, and hence also to the 

mfemal world. 

Quick is the movement here I And then 
BO confused, unsubstantial, you might call it 
almost spectral, pallid, dim, inane, like tlie 
kingdoms of Du7 Vco-lyle. 

Di8-cor'di-$. {Rom. Myth.) A ma- 
levolent deity corresponding with the 
Greek Eris, the goddess of conten- 
tion. See Paris. 

Di'vftg. A Latin word meaning rich^ 
or a rich man. It is a common or 
appellative noun, or, more strictiy, an 
adjective used suostantively ; but it ia 
often erroneously regarded as a prop- 
er name, when allusion is made to 
our Lord's parable of the rich man 
and Lazarus. (See lAdce xvi.) It 
has been suggested that the mistake 
originally arose from the fact, that, 
in old pictures upon this subject, 
the inscnption, or title, was in Latin, 
^^ Dives et Lazarus^^'' and that unedu- 
cated persons probably supposed that 
the first word was the name of the 
rich man, as the last unquestionably 
was that of the beggar. 

Lazar and Bivea liveden diTersely, 

And divers gueidon hadden th^ thereby. 


Not have you, O poor parasite, and humble 

hanger-on, mubn reason to compkun I Your 

fkiendship for Dwu is about as sincere as the 

return which it usually gets.. Thai^ceray. 

Divine Doctor. An appellation given 
to Jean Ruysbroek (1294-1381), a 
celebrated mystic. 

Dixie. An imaginary place some- 
where in the Southern States of 
America, celebrated in a popular ne- 
gro melody as a perfect paradise of 
luxurious ease ana enjoyment. The 
term is often used as a collective des- 
ignation of the Southern States. A 
correspondent of the " New Orleans 
Delta" has given the following ac- 
count of tJie original and early appli- 
cation of the name : — 

Tor the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




" I do not wish to spoil s pretty 
illiuaon, but the real truth is, that Dixie 
is an indigenous Northern negro refirain, 
a« common to the writer as the lamp-poets 
in New York city seventy or scTenty-flve 
years ago. It was one of the every-day 
allusions of boys at that time in all theb 
out-door sports. And no one ever heard 
of Dixie's land being other than Manhat- 
tan Island until recently, when it has 
been erroneously supposed to refer to the 
Soutii firom its connection with pathetic 
negro all^ory. When slavery existed in 
New York, one * Dixy ' owned a large 
tract of land on Manhattan Island, and a 
large number of slaves. The increase of 
the slaves, and the increase of the aboli- 
tion sentiment, caused an emigration of 
the slaves to more thorough and secure 
slave sections ; and the negroes who were 
thus sent off (many being bora there) 
natuislly looked back to their old homes, 
where they had lived in clover, with feel- 
ings of regret, as they could not imagine 
any place like Dixy's. Hence, it became 
synonymous with an ideal locality, com- 
bining ease, comfort, and material hap- 
piness of every description. In those 
days, negro singing and minstrelsy were 
in tneir in&ncy, and any subject that 
could be wrought into a ballad was eagerly 
picked up. This was the case with 
*■ Dixie.' It originated in New York, and 
assumed the proportions of a song there. 
In its travels, it has been enlarged, and 
lias ^ gathered moss.' It has picked up a 

* note ' here and there. A ^ chorus ' has 
be^i added to it ; and, firom an indistinct 

* chant' of two or three notes, it has 
become an elaborate melody. But the 
fiict that it is not a Southern song * can- 
not be rubbed out.' The fellacy is so 
popular to the contrary, that I have thus 
been at pains to state the real origin of 

Diz'zy. A nickname given to Ben- 
jamin Disraeli (b. 1805), an eminent 
living English statesman. 

Djinnestan ( jin'nes-tin' ). The name 
of the ideal region in which djinfis, 
or genii, of Oriental superstition re- 
side. [Written also Jinnestan.] 

Doctor, The. A nickname often given 
to the first Lord Yiscouht Sidmouth 
(1757-1844), on account of his being 
the son ofDoctor Anthony Addington 
of Reading. 

Doctor, The Admirable. See Ad- 
mirable Doctor; and for Angelic 
Doctor, Authentic Doctor, Di- 

vine Doctor, Dulcifluous Doc- 
tor, Ecstatic Doctor, Eloqueivt 
Doctor, Evangelical or Gtospel 
Doctor, Illuminated Doctor, In- 
vincible Doctor, Irrefragable 
Doctor, Mellifluous Doctor, 
Most Christian Doctor, Most 
Methodical Doctor, Most Reso- 
lute Doctor, Plain and Perspic- 
uous Doctor, Profound Doctor, 
Scholastic Doctor, Seraphic 
Doctor, Singular Doctor, Sol- 
emn Doctor, Solid Doctor, Sub- 
tle Doctor, Thorough Doctor, 
Universal Doctor, Venerable 
Doctor, Well-founded Doctor, 
and Wonderful Doctor, see the 
respective adjectives. 

Doctor Ddre. The hero of Southey's 

Doctor Dulcamara (ddol-kft-mi'rft). 
An itinerantphysician in Donizetti's 
opera, "L'EIisir d'Amore" ("The 
Elixir of Love " ) ; noted for his char- 
latanry, boastftdness, and pomposity. 

Doctor My-book. A sobriquet very 
generallv bestowed upon John Aber- 
nethy (1765-1830), the eminent Eng- 
lish surgeon. " I am christened Doc- 
tor My-6ookj and satirized under that 
name all over England." The cele- 
brated "My-book," to which he was 
so fond of referring his patients, was 
his " Surgical Observations." 

Doctor of the Incarnation. A title 

fiven to St. Cyril of Alexandria (d. 
44), on account of his long and 
tumultuous dispute with Nestorius, 
bishop of Constantinople, who denied 
the mystery of the hypostatic union, 
and contended that the Deity could 
not have been bom of a woman ; that 
the divine nature was not incarnate 
in, but only attendant on, Jesus as a 
man ; and therefore that Mary was 
not entitled to the appellation then 
commonly used of Momer of Grod. 

Doctor Slop. 1. The name of a 
choleric and uncharitable physician 
in Sterne's novel, "The Life and 
Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gent." 
He breaks down Tristram's nose, and 
crushes Uncle Toby's fingers to a 
jelly, in attempting to demonstrate 
the use and virtues of a newly in- 

and for tiie Bemarka and Boles to which the nombers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-zxxU. 




vented pair of obstetrical forc^. 
Under this name Sterne ridiculed 
one Doctor Buiicm, a mannaaidwife 
at York, against whom he had some 

49* " The annals of satire can Aimish 
nothing more cutting and lucUcrous tluun 
this consummate portrait, so &rcical, and 
yet so apparently fiee firom satire." 


2. The name was applied to Doc- 
tor (afterwaitls Sir John) Stoddart 
(1778 - 1866) on account of his vio- 
lent prejudices, and the rancorous 
doDunciations with which he as- 
sailed the first Napoleon and his 
policy in the London ** Times *' 
newspaper, of which he was edi- 
tor from 1812 to 1816. Under this 
name he was caricatured by Cruik- 
shank in the parodies and satires of 
Doctor Bquintom. A name under 
which the celebrated George White- 
field (1714-1770) was ri(Mculed in 
Footers farce of "The Minor.", It 
was afterwards applied by Theodore 
Hook to the Rev. Edward Irving 
'(1792-1834), who had a strong cast 
in his eyes. 

Doctor Syntax. The hero of a work 
by William Combe (1741-1823), en- 
titled " The Tour of Dr. Syntax in 
Search ofttie Picturesque," formedy 
very popular. 

Do-do'nft. [Gr. Au&dn}.] A veiy fa- 
mous oracle of Jupiter in Epirus, sit- 
uated in an oak grove ; said to have 
been founded in obedience to the 
command of a black dove witii a hu- 
man voice, which came from the city 
of Thebes in Egypt. 

And I will work in prose and rhyme. 

And praise thee more in both 
Than twrd has honored beech or lime. 

Or that Thessalian growth 
In which the swarthy ringdove sat 

And mystic Bentence spoke. Tennv»on. 

Dods, Meg. 1. An old landlady in 
Scott's novel of " St. Ronan's Well ; " 
one of his best low comic characters. 

4S* " Meg Dods, one of those happy 
creations, approaching eztarayagance but 
not reaching it, formed of the most dis- 
similar materials without inconsistency, 
. . . excites in the reader not the mere 
pleasure of admiring a skillfitl copy, but 

the interest and onriMity of an origfaial, 
^ and reeuxB to his recollection among the 
real beings whose acquaintance has en- 
larged his knowledge of human nature." 


2. An aUaSjOT pseudonym, under 

which Mrs. Johnstone, a Scottish 

authoress, published a well-known 

work on cookery. 

Dod'son and Fogs: (-sn). Pettifog- 
ging lawyers in partnership, who fig- 
ure m the famous case of ** Bardell vs. 
Pickwick," in Dickens's " Pi(^wick 

Doe, John. A merely nominal plain- 
tiff in actions of ejectment at com- 
mon law; usually associated with 
the name of JRichard Roe. 

. _ ■ The action of q}ectment is a species 
of mixed action, which lies fin* the re- 
covery of posseBsion of real estate, and 
damages and costs for the detention of 
it. It was invented either in the t«igii 
of Edward 11^ or in the b^;inning of 
the reign of Edward m., in order to 
enable suitors to escape from " the 
thousand niceties with which," in the 
language of Lord Mansfield, ''real ac- 
tions [that is, actions for the recovery <rf' 
real estate] were embamu»ed and en- 
tangled." In order to foster this form 
of action, the court early determined 
(eirdier a. n. 1446-1499) that the plain- 
tiff was entitled to recover not merely the 
damages claimed by the action, but also, 
by way of collateral and additional relict; . 
the land itself. This form of action -is 
based entirely upon a l^al fiction, in- 
troduced in ovder to make the trial (tf the 
lessor's title, which would otherwise be 
only incidentally brought up for examina- 
tion, the direct and main object of the 
action. A sham plaintiff — John Doe — 
pretends to be the lessee of the real claim- 
ant, and alleges that he has been ousted 
by a sham defendant, — Richard Roe. — 
who is called the "casual ^tor." No- 
tice of this action is then given to the 
actual tenant of the lands, together with 
a letter from the imaginary Richard Ro^ 
stating that he shall make no appearance 
to the action, and warning the tenant to 
defend his own interest, or, if he be only 
the tenant of the real defendant, to give 
the latter due notice of the proceeding. 
If no appearance is made, judgment is 
given in &vor of the plaintiff, who there- 
upon becomes entitled to turn out the 
party in possession. But if the lattor 
makes appearance, the first step in the 
action, is a formal acknowledgment by 
hhn of his possession of the lands, of the 

ror the «« Key to the Scheme of Fionanciation,'' with the* aecompanyfaig Explanation!, 

Itua In ftTW of Doe, of Dcn'i mtiT, "^ 
tt tin omter V «*» tuBaat hinMilf. Tbli 
. . . ^. ^f flctloiia luTing *■"- 

inttodoBM to cornp^ wllta the Uctanlcal 
rul« o(lgg^ llUe, *hm tlu 


•- itHlf, John -Doe «nd 

wax, ttu nuiiH of (he 
(ton prooaMB m loe onilmrj "•? " *™" 
totrnl. Tbeuaonor^Mtaunl lg ebU 
nulaed, -wlUi ill II* emloiu Sctioiu, tn 
nnml ot (he Uidted StutsBJ In New York, 
PEonaylnJiU, uid otber BtatH, the Sc- 
titiooi put of thB ■eaoo bu been ihol- 
tshed, 11 hu also heen kboUAad, la 
burlind, bi the GeounoD lAW FiAndnn 
Mf 1* 1863 (1§ UKl IB Tlctorto, oj^ 

J9-" ThoM mjEtalnl putlu to » nunj 
Iw^ proceetoia*, John Do« and Blctiud 

and ^nt lo theiiiijTIWhm fcrest tawj 

^ ukd vown miB fe b 


(liB nclfhthxilBC c Da 

Sidutii ftw. '«- 

howltnf, la pnnln Muk ««. Md In 

D&'SK- [From Doej, chief of Saol'e 
herdamen, " haying charge of the 
mulea." 1 Sam. ixi. 7.1 A niek- 
■■■'■' ■ Ihe 


7.1 A D 
Drrdan, in Ihi 
"Abealom ant 


Acbitophel," aadiiEed Elkanah Set- 
tle {le&lTIS), a conteraptiblB poet- 
aster, who was for a Ome Dryden'B 
BuGceesfui rival- 

And. la one vord, beit^ullj OM, DrifdtTW 

D^'attokH, Q- K. Fht-lan'dSr. A 
m^eudonym adopted by Mordmer 

er of Uie preseDt day. 

Dog'bfir-iT- An innnionely abaurd, 

Mlf-estiefied, and loquadatia ^\At- 
couEtable, in Shakeebeare'B "Much 
Ado about Nothing. 

DSmlMy. Plonnoe. Tho heroine 
of Dickens's novel of " Dombey and 
Son; " a motherle^B uhild, of angelic 
purity and loveliness of charactcTK 

Dfim'beT, Mr. A prominent charao 
ter in Dickens's novel of " Dombey 
and Son ; " a prond, self-«afficient, and 
wealthy men^iant, who is discijjined 
. and made b«ttar by s Eucceasion of 
' disuten. 

Som-dBil^-al. A cave in the region 
adjoioin^'BBbylon, the abode of evil 
flpnit^ by some traditions said lo 
have been originally the spot where 
the prophet Daniel rnipartiAi instruc- 
tion to his disciples. In another form, 
the Domdanie^ was a purely imagi- 
nary region, subterranean, or eubma- 

Domiola, Triar- See Fbiab Don- 

tajnta by those who are willing to 

for acquiringGreek and Latin." EUs 
Dsoal ejaciiialioa when a-ttonished 
was, " I'TO-di-iji-ous 1 " [Called also 

FaoT_ Jnuj [SHIUd^i lort of 2™"" - 

Don .&.'dTi.4'iio de ix-mi'do. A 




pompous, fantastical Spaniard, in 
Shakespeare's "Love's Labor 's 
Lost ; " represented as a lover and 
a retainer of the coQrt, and said to 
have been designed as a portrait of 
John Florio, sumamed "The Reso- 
lute." See Resolute, The. 

49~"Annado, the military braggart, 
in the state of peace, as Parolles is in war, 
appears in the ridiculoas exaggeration 
and affectation of a child of hot Span- 
ish fancy, assuming a contempt toward 
every ^ing common, boastful but poor, 
a coiner of words, out most ignorant, 
solemnly grave and laughably awlcward, 
a hector and a coward, of gait majestical 
and of the lowest propensities." 

Gervinus^ IVans. 

Don BeUanis of Greece (bft^ie-i'- 
ness). The hero of an old romance 
of chivalry founded upon the model 
of the " Amadis," but with much infe- 
rior art, and on a coarser plan. An 
English abridgment of this romance 
was published in 1673. It is often 
referred to in " Don Quixote." 

He called you ** le nand s^rieux," Don Be- 
Kania of Greece^ and Idon't know what names, 
mimicking your manner. Thackerajf. 

Don ChSr'ii-bim. The " Bachelor 
of Salamanca," in Le Sage's novel 
of this name; a man placed in dif- 
ferent situations of life, and made to 
associate with all classes of society, 
in order to give the author the great- 
est possible scope for satire. 

Don Cle'o-f^. The hero of Le 
Sage's novel*, " Le Diable Boiteux " 
(commonly called in English " The 
Devil on Two Sticks"); a fiery 
young Spaniard, proud, high-spirited, 
and revengeful, but interesting from 
his gallantry and generous senti- 
ments. See AsHODEUS. [Written 
also Cleophas.] 

Farewell, old Oranta'a Bpirea; 
No more, like CleqfiaSf I fly. Byron. 

Come away though, now, I)on Cleophas; 
we must go further afield. Saia. 

Don Jii'&n {8p. pron. ddn hoo-in'). 
A mvt^ical personage who figures 
largely in drama, melodrama, and 
romance, as the type of refined lib- 

. _ There are two legends connected 
with the name, hoth of Spanish origin, 
but in course of time these have hecome so 

blended together tiiat they canoot easily 
be separated. Don Joan Tenorio of Se- 
ville, whose life has been placed in the 
fourteenth century, is the supposed orig- 
inal of the story. The traditions concern- 
ing him were long current in Seville, in an 
oral form, and were afterward dramatized 
by Gabriel Tellez (Tirso de MoUna). Ue 
is said to have attempted the seduction of 
the daughter of the governor of Seville, or 
of a nobleman of thefiuuily of the Ulloa«. 
Her father detects the design, and is 
killed in a duel which ensues. A statue 
of the murdered man having been erected 
in the family tomb, Don Juan forces his 
way into the vault, and invites the statue 
■to a feast which he has caused to be pre- 
pared. The stony guest makes his ap- 
pearance at table, as invited, to the great 
amazement of Don Juan, whom he com- 
pels to follow him, and delivers over to 
hell. The l^;end, in its earliest known 
form, involv^ the same supernatural 
features, the ghostly apparition, the final 
reprobation and consignment to hell, 
which have, in gene^l, cluuructerized the 
modem treatment of the subject. From 
the Spanish the story was translated by 
the Italian playwrights ; thence it passed 
into franco, where it was adopted and 
brought upon the stage by MoU^re and 
ComeiUe. In Italy, Goldoni made it the 
basis of a play. The first instance of a 
musical treatment of tiie suliiject was by 
Gluck, in his ballet of " Don Juan," about 
the year 1765. Afterward Mozart im- 
mortalized the tradition in his great ope- 
ra, " Don Giovanni," which first appeared 
at Prague in 1787. The niune has been 
rendered most fiimiliar to English readers 
by the use which Byron has made of it 
in his poem entitled " Don Juan." But 
the distinguishing features of the old 
legend, those which separate Don Juan 
from the multitude of vulgar libertines, 
Byron has omitted, and he can hardly be 
said to have done more than borrow the 
name of the hero. 

"As Goethe has expressed the 
eternal significance of the German legend 
of Faust, so has Mozart best interpreted 
the deep mystery of the Spanish legend ; 
the one by language, the other by music. 
Language is the interpreter of thought, 
music of feeling. The Faust-stige, belongs 
to the former domain; the legends of 
Don Juan to the latter." 

SeheiJble^ Trans. 

We could, like Don Juan, ask them nOante's 
(rhosts and demons] to supper, and eat neartlly 
m their company. MacaxAay. 

Don't break her heart, Jo«, you rascal, said 
another. Don't trifle with her a£Ebctions, you 
Don Juan ! Thackeray. 

For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanation •<, 




©on Pedro. A Prince of Arragon 

who figures in Shakespeare's *' Much 

Ado about Nothmg.'* 

The author of '* Hdji Baba "* returned an 
answer of a kmd mosriikely to have weight 
with a Persian, and which we can all observe 
is, like Doti Pedro's answer to Doebeny, 
** rightly reasoned; and in his own division. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Don Qmz'dte. [Sp. Don Qtnjote. or 
Don Quixote, dbn ke-feo'tA]. The 
hero of a celebrated Spanish romance 
of the same name, by Cervantes. 

. Don Quixote is represented as *^ a 
gaunt country gentleman of La Man- 
cha, full of genuine Castilian hoi\or 
and enthusiasm, gentle and dignified 
in his character, trusted by his 
jfriends, and loved by his depend- 
ents," but ^* so completely crazed by 
long reading the most famous books 
of chivalry, that he believes them to 
be true, and feels himself called on 
to become the impossible knight-er- 
rant they describe, and actuallv goes 
forth into the world to defend the op- 
pressed and avenge the injured, like 
the heroes of his romances. " 

49* ** To complete his chiyalrous equip- 
ment, — which he had began by fittlDg 
up for himself a suit of armor Btrange to 
h^ century, — he took an esquire out of 
his neighborhood; a middle-i^ed peasant, 
ignorant and credulous to excess, but of 
great good-nature ; a glutton and a liar ; 
selfish and gross, yet attached to his mas- 
ter; shrewd enough occasionally to see 
the foUy of thefar position, but always 
amusing, and sometimes inischieToas, in 
hia interpretations of it. These two sally 
forth firom their native village in search 
of adventures, of which the excited imag- 
ination of the knight, turning windmills 
into giants, solitary inns into castles, and 
galley-slaves into oppresseid gentlemen, 
finds abundance wherever he goes; while 
the esquire translates them all into the 
plain prose of truth with an admirable 
simplicity, quite unconscious of its own 
humor, and rendered the more striking 
by its contrast with the lofty and courte- 
ous dignity and ma^gniflcent illusions of 
the superior personage. There could, of 
course, be but one consistent termination 
of adventures like these. The knight and 
his esquire suffer a series of ridiculous dis- 
comfitures, and are at last brought home, 
like madmen, to their native village, 
where Cervantes leaves them, with an In- 
timation that the story of their adven- 
tures is by no means ended. In a con- 
tinuation, or Second Part, published in 

1616, the Bon Is exhibited in another 
series of adventares, equally amusing 
with those in the First Part, and is 
finally restored, ' through a severe illness, 
to his right mind^ made to renounce all 
the follies of knight-errantry, and die, 
like a peaceful Christian, in his own 
bed.' » - TUhnor. 

49* " Some say his surname was 
Quixada, or Quisada (for authors differ 
in this particular). However, we may 
reasonably conjecture he was called Quix- 
ada, that is. Lantern-jaws. . . . Having 
seriously pondered the matter eight whole 
days, he at length determined to ca^ 
himself Don Quixote. Whence the au- 
thor of this most authentic history draws 
the inference that his right name was 
Quixada, and not Quisada, as others ob- 
stinately pretend." Quixote means liter- 
ally a cuish, or piece of armor for the 
thj^h. Cervantes calls his hero by the 
name of this piece ci armor, because the 
termination ote^ with which it ends, gen- 
erally gives a ridiculous meaning to words 
in the Spanish language. 

Be this law and this reasoning right or 
wrong, our interftiiDg to anange It would not 
be a whit more wise or rational than Don 
Quixote's campaign against the windmills. 

Jfoctes Ambrowxnce. 

Don'sel del Fhe'bo. [It., donzello, a 
squire, a young man.] A celebrated 
hero of roipance, in the " Mirror of 
Knighthood, " &e. He is usually 
associated with Rosiclear. 

Defend thee powerftilly, many thee sump- 
tuously, and keep thee in spite of Rosiclear or 
Dotuel del Phd)o. Malwntent^ Old Play. 

Doolin of Mily-enoe' {Fr. pron. 
do'l&tt'). The hero of an old French 
romance of chivalry which relates 
hia ex^its and wonderful adven- 
tures. He is chiefiy remarkable as the 
ancestor of a long race of paladins, 
particularly Ogier le Danois. 

Dora. The "child-wife" of David 
Copperfield, in Dickens's novel of 
that name. 

Doralice (/^ ;9ron. do-ri-le'chft). A 
female chkracter in Ariosto's " Or- 
lando Furioso." She is loved by 
Rodomont, but marries Mandricardo. 

Dorante (do'rSnf, 62.) 1. A count in 
Moli^re's comedy, "Le Bourgeois 

2. A courtier devoted to the chase, 
who figures in Moli^re's comedy, 
" Les rlcheux." 

and for the Remarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words reftr, see pp. ziv-xzxil. 


106 DOU 

S. Achaiacter inMoli%re*s "L'^ 
cole des Femmes.*' 

I tm «Aiur to make it known bluntly to 
that . . . olODeau, to that Dorante become a 
Oironte. Victor Hugo^ TroM, 

Do-ras'tuB. The hero of an old 
popular " history '* or romance, upon 
which Shakespeare founded his 
" Winter's Tale." It was written by 
Robert Greene, and was first pub- 
lished in 1588, under the title of 
"Pandosto, the Triumph of Time," 
an example, according to Hallam, 
of " quaint, aflTected, and empty eu- 

Do'raz (9). A character in Dryden's 
play of "Don Sebastian;" repre- 
sented as a noble Portuguese turned 

j|9* "Doras Is the duf-d^awLvre of 
Dxyden's tra^c chunctens, and pertiaps 
the only one in ^idiloh he has applied his 
great knowledge of human kind to actual 
delineation." Edin. Review^ 1808. 

But flome ftiend or otiier alwars advised me 
to put my verMs in the fiie, ana, like Borax 
in me play« I submitted, ** though with a 
swemng heart." Sir W. Scott. 

Dorchester, Patriarch df. See 
Patbiarch op Dorchester. 

Doria D'latria (do're-ft d^s'tre-ft). 
A pseudonym of Princess Koltzoff- 
Massalsky (nee Helena Ghika, b. 
1829), a distinguished Wallachian 

Ddrl-oourt. A character in Con- 
greve's " Way of the World." 

Ddrl-m^nt. A character in Etherege^s 

play entitled '* The Man of Mo&;" 

a genteel witty rake, designed as a 

portrait of the'Earl of Rochester. 

I shall beliere it when Dorunant hands a 
flsh-wife across the kennel. CharleB Loukb. 

Borine (do'ren'). A hasty and petu- 
lant female in Moli^re's *^Tartuffe; " 
represented as ridiculing the family 
that she y&t serves witn sincere af- 

l>o'ri8 (9). [Gr. AwptV] ( Gr, # Rom, 
MythJ) The daughter of Oceanus 
and Tethys, and the wife of her 
brother Nereus, by whom she became 
the mother of the Nereids. 

Ddr'o-the'& (G«r. prm, do-ro-ta'A). 
1. The heroine of Goethe's celebrat- 

ed poem of '* Hermann nnd Doro- 

2. [Sp. DoroUa^ do-ro-^S^ft.] A 
beautiful and unfortunate young 
woQian whose adventures form an 
episode in the romance of '^Pon 

Do'ry, John (9). 1. The tide and hero 
of an old ballad, formerly a great 
favorite, and continuallv alluded to 
in works of the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries. 

2. A character in " .WHd Oats, of 
The Strolling Gentleman," a comedy 
by John O'Kerfe. 

Do what I might he interfaced wiOi the 
resolute vigor of Jbikn Dory. Hood. 

Dd'fhe-boyf Hall. [That is, the hall 
where boys are taken in and ** done 
for."] A modd educational establish- 
ment described in Dickens's " Nich- 
olas Nickleby," kept by a villain 
named Squeers, whose systenr of 
tuition consisted of alternate beating 
and starving. 

Oliver Twist in the parish work -house,' 
Smike at DothOtov HaU, wece petted children 
when compared with this wretched heir-ap- 
parent of a crown [Frederick tlie Great]. 


Dotted Bible. A name ^en among 
bibliographers to an edition of the 
Bible published in London, in folio, 
1578, by assignment of Chr. Barker. 
It is pnnted page for page with that 
of 1574. 

Doubting Oastle. In Banyan's spirit- 
ual romance of " The Pilgrim's Prog- 
ress, " a castle belonging to Giant 
Despair, in which Christian and 
Hopeful were confined, and from 
which at last they made their escape 
by means of the Key called Promise, 
which was able to open any lock in 
the castle. 

Conodve the giant Mirabeau locked fkat. 
then, in Ikniiting Castle of Vlncennes ; hia hot 
soul sunAng up, wildly breaking itself aninst 
cold obecruction, the voice of hiB despair re- 
verberated on him by dead itone-walls. 


Douloureuse Garde, Iia (U doo'loo'- 
roz' gafd, 43). [Fr.] The name of a 
castle at Berwick-upon-Tweed, won 
by Lancelot of the Lake in one of 
^the most terrific adventures related 
in romance, and thenoeforth called 

For the «*K«7 to the Scheme of Pkenunoiation,** with 13m aocompcnyiag EzpianatioM, 




La Joyefue Garde. ~ See Joteuse 
Gakdb, La. 

I^dos'ter-swiT'el (-ewiv'l). 1. (Her- 
man.) A GenQan schemer, in Sir 
Walter Scott's novel of " The Anti- 



2. A nickname given by the 
Scotch reviewers to Dr. John Gaspar 
Spurzheun (1766-1832), a native of 
Germany, a distingaished craniolo- 
gist, and an active promul^tor of 
the doctrines of phrenology m Great 

I>ove, Doctor. See Doctob Dove. 

Dd^, Jr. A pseudonym adopted by 
Eldridge F. Paige (d. 1859), an Eng- 
lish humorist, author of "Patent 
Sermons," &c. 

Downing, Jack. A pseudonym 
under wMch Seba Smith, an Ameri- 
can writer, wrote a series of humor- 
ous and popular letters (first published 
collectively in 1833), in Uie Yankee 
dialect, on the politiciil affairs of the 
United States. 

Dra'oo. [Gr. ApdK»vJ] An Athenian 
lawgiver, whose code punished 
ahnost all crimes with death; whence 
it was said to be not that of a man 
bat of a dragon (Spdiaov), and to have 
been written not in ink but in blood. 

Draeon of "Wintley. The subject 
of an old comic ballad, — a frightful 
and devouring monster, kill^ by 
More of More-Hall, who procured a 
suit of armor studded all over with 
long sharp spikes, and, concealing 
himself in a well resorted to by the 
dragon, kicked him in the moutii, 
where alone he was mortal. This 
legend has been made the founda- 
tion of a burlesque opera by Henry 
Carey. Wantley is a vulgar pro- 
nunciation of Wamcliff, the name 
of a lod^ and a wood in the parish 
of Penniston, in Yorkshire. 

Dr&'pl-er, M. B.,. A pseudonym 
under which Swift addressed a series 
of celebrated and remarkable letters 
to the people of Ireland, relative to a 
patent light granted by George I., in 
1723, to one William Wood, allow- 
ing him, in consideration of the great 
want of copper money existing in 
Ireland at that time, to coin half- 

pence and farthings to the amount of 
X108,000, to pass current m that 
kingdom. As the patent had been 
obtained in what may be termed a 
surreptitious manner, through the 
influence of the Duchess of Kendal, 
the mistress of George I., to whom 
Wood had promised a share of the 
profits; as it was passed without 
consulting either the lord lieutenant 
or the pnyy council of Ireland; and 
as it devolved upon an obscure indi- 
vidual the right of exercising one of 
the highest privilee^es of the crown, 
thereby disgracefiuly compromising 
. ^ the dignity of the kingdom, — Swift, 
under the assumed diaracter of a 
draper (which for some reason he 
chose to write drapier). warned the 
people not to receive tne coin that 
was sent over to them. Such was 
the nnequaled adroitness of his 
letters, such their strengtii of aign- 
ment and brilliancy of numor, that, 
in the end, they were completely 
successful: Wood was compelled to 
withdraw his obnoxious patent, and 
his copper coinage was totally sup- 
pressed, while the Drapier — for 
whose discovery a reward of £300 
had been ofiered in vain — was re- 

farded as the liberator of Ireland; 
is health became a perpetual toast, 
his head was adopted as a sign, a 
club was formed in nonor of him, and 
his portrait was displayed in every 

Draw'oan-sir. The name of a blus- 
tering, bullying fellow in the cele- 
brated mock-heroic play of "The 
Rehearsal,'* written by Cieorge Vil- 
hers. Duke of Buckingham, assisted 
by Sprat and others. He is repre- 
sented as taking part in a battle, 
where, after killmg all the combat- 
ants on both sides, he makes an ex- 
travagantly boastftil speech. From 
the popularity of the character, the 
name became a synonym for a brag- 

9Sf " Johnson. Pray, Ur. Bajret, who 
is that Drawcansir? 

Bayes. Why, sir, a great hero, that 
frights his mistress, snubs up kings, 
baffles armies, and does what he wul, 
without regard to numbers, good sense, 
or justice." , The Rehearsal. 

«nd ftr the Bemaxfts and Boks to whieh the numben after octoiQ woida nfbr, see pp. xir-xxxU. 




The tatdor wa» of an uslr look and gigantie 
ttatiiMt he acted like a JJrauKcatuir^ sparing 
neither friend nor foe. Addiaon, 

In defiance of the youns lhrawcansir^» 
threats, with a stout heart and dauntless ac- 
cent, he again uplifted the stave, — 

** The Pone, tiiat pagan fhll of pride, 
Hath blLided -— ?* Sv- W. ScotL 

How they [the actors in the French Berolu- 
tion] bellowed, stalked, and flourished about, 
counterfeiting Jove's thunder to an amazing 
degree! terrific Drawcoiutr-figures, of enor^ 
mous whiskerage, unlimited command of 
gunpowder; not without fbrocit^, and even a 
certain heroism, stage heroism, m them. 


Drisli-eeii' Cily. A name popularly 
given to the city of Cork, from a dish 
peculiar to the place, and formerljr a 
veiy fashionable one among the in- 
habitants. Drisheens are made of 
the serum of the blood of sheep mixed 
with milk and seasoned with pepper, 
salt, and tansy. They are usually 
served hot for breakfast, and are 
eaten with drawn butter and pepper. 

Dro'gl-o. The name given, by Anto- 
nio Zeno, a Venetian voyager of the 
fourteenth century, to a country of 
vast extentj equivalent to a new 
world. It 18 represented as lying 
to the south and we'sVbf Estotiland, 
and, by those who confided in the 
- narrative, was identified with Nova 
Scotia and New England. The whole 
story is thought to be fabulous. 

Dro'mi-o of Eph'e-sus. ) Twin 

Dro'mi-o of S^'ft-cuse. ) brothers, 

attendants on the' two Antipholuses 

in Shakespeare's "Comedy of Er- 



Drugger, Abel. A character in Ben 
Jonson's "Alchemist." 

Drain, John. A name used in the 
phrase, " John Drum's entertain- 
ment," which seems to have been 
formerly a proverbial expression for 
ill treatment, probably alluding orig- 
inally to some particular anecdote. 
Most of the allusions seem to point 
to the dismissing of some unwelcome 
guest, with more or less of ignominy 
and insult. [Written also, though 
rarely, Tom Drum.] 

Oh, for the love of laughter, let him fotch his 
drumt he savs he has a stratagem for it: when 
jrour lordship sees the bottom of his success 
in t, and to what metal this counterfeit lump 
OTore will be melted, if you pve him not John 
pnan*» entertainment, your inclining cannot 
be removed. ^ak. 

Tom Drvm his entertainment, which is to 
hale a man in by the head, and thrust him out 
by both the shoulders. Stanihwst. 

Drunken Parliament. {Scot. Hist.) 
A name given to the Parliament 
which assembled at Edinburgh, Jan. 
1, 1661, soon after the restoration of 
the Stuarts. Burnet savs, " It was a 
mad, warring time, full of extrava- 
gance ; and no wonaer it was so when 
the men of afiairs were almost per- 
petually drunk." 

Dry'^df. [Lat. DrmdeSj Gr. ApvaJe?.] 
{Gr. ^ Rom, Mym.) Nymphs who 
presided over the woods, and were 
thought to perish with the trees 
which were their abode. 

Dry'a§-dast, The Ber. Dr. An 

imaginary personage who serves as 
a sort of introducer of some of Scott's 
novels to the public, through the 
medium of prefatory letters, purport- 
ing to be written either to him or by 
him, in relation to their origin and 
history. The name is sometimes 
used to stiginatize a dull, plodding 
author, particularly an historian or a 
writer upon antiquities. 

Nobody, he must have felt, was ever likely 
to study this great work of his, not even Dr. 
Dryasdust. De Qvdacey. 

There was a Shandean library at Skelton 
that would have captivated the moet ascetic 
of Dryasdusts. Percy FUzffercdd. 

Truth ifl» the Prussian Dryasdust^ otherwise 
Ml honest fellow, excels all other Dryasdusts 

Set known. I have often sorrowAiUy felt ar 
' there were not in Nature, for darkness, 
dreariness, immethodic platitude, any thing 
comparable to him. CarlyU. 

Dry'o-pe. [Gr. Apvom;.] ( Gr. ^ Rom, 
Myth. ) A daughter of King Dryops, 
and the wife of Andrsemon, — turned 
into a poplar or a lotus by the Ham- 
adryads. She had a son Amphis- 
sos by Apollo. 

•T was a lay 
More snbtie-cadencM, more forest-wild 
Than Dryope*8 lone lulling of her child. 


Da-es'8$. [That is, double-minded.] 
A foul* witch, in Spenser's " Faery 
Queen," who, imder the assumed 
name of Fidessa, and the assumed 
character of a distressed and lovely 
woman, entices the Red-cross Knight 
into the House of Pride, where, ener- 
vated by self-indulgence, he is at- 
tacked, defeated, and imprisoned by 

¥m the ** Key to, tbe Scheme of Fronnnoiation,** with tiie accompanying ExplaoalioBa, 





the giant Orgoglio. Duessa becomes 
the paramour of Orgoglio, who decks 
her out in gorseous ornaments, gives 
her a gold ana purple robe to wear, 
pat» a triple crown on her head, and 
sets her upon a monstrous beast with 
sev^n heads, — from which circum- 
stances the poet is supposed to typify 
the Roman Catholic church. Una, 
having heard of the Red -cross 
Knight's misfortune, sends Prince 
Authur to his rescue, who slays the 
^ant, wounds the beast, releases the 
lighl^ and strips Duessa of her 

3[>lendid trappings, upon which she 
ees into the wilderness to hide her 
shame from the world. 

« flunurh her eres [those of** pop- 
J are DiindfolaecL her hands are 
ler, like the fidae 2>ues8a*«. 


The peoj^e had now to lee tjnamj naked. 
That foul IXieaM was stripped of her eorgeoas 
ornaments. Macakdap. 

Compassion and romantic honor, theprq- 
ndioes of chUdhoodf and the yeneraole names 
of history, tiirew over them a spell as potent 
as that of Duessa; and, like the Bed-cross 
Knight, fhey tbooght they were doing battle 
for an umized beauly, wlule they defended a 
fUse and loathsome sorceress. ^ Maeaukty' 

Duke Humphresr. l. A name used 
in an old expression, ^' To dine with 
Duke Humpnrey," that is, to have no 
dinner at all. This phrase is said to 
have arisen from the circumstance 
that a part of the public walks in 
old Saint Paul's, London, was called 
Duke Humphrey's Walk, and that 
those who were without the means 
of defraying their expenses at a 
tavern were formerly accustomed to 
walk here in hope of procuring an 

" Id the Ibrm Hum/reyj it [Hnni- 
fred] was much used by the great ifbuse 
of Bohun, and through his mother, their 
heiress, descended to the ill-fltted son of 
Henry lY., who has left it an open ques- 
tion whether * dining with Duke Hum- 
phrey ' alludes to the report that he was 
starred to death, or to the Elizabethan 
habit for poor gentility to beguile the 
dinner-hour by a promenade near his 
tomb in old St. Paul's." Yonge. 

It distinctly appears . . . that one Diggory 
Chnzzlewit was in the habit of perpetually 
dining with Dvie Bumphrof. So constantly 
was he a guest at that nobleman's table, in- 
deed, and so unceasingly were his Grace's 
hospitaUty and companionship forced, as it 

wcro, upon him, that we find him aneasy, and 
Aill of constraint and reluctance ; writing his 
friends to the effect, that, if they ikll to ao so 
and so by bearer, he will have no choice but 
to dine again with J)uhe Hwn^trey. IHekens. 

2. Duke Humphrey, the Good. 
See Good Duke Humphsey. 

Duloamara, Doctor. See Doctob 

Dulcifluoua Doctor. |Xat. Doctor 
Xhddjluus.] A name given to An- 
tony Andreas (d. 1320), a Spanish 
Minorite, and a theologian of the 
school 01 Duns Scotus. 

Duldnea del Toboso (dul-sin'e-A 
del to-bo^zo; Sp, pron, dool-the- 
na'ft del to-bo^zo). In Cervantes's ro- 
mance, the mistress of Don Quixote. 
** Her name was Aldonza Lorenzo, 
and her he pitched upon to be the 
lady of his thoughts; then casting 
about for a name which should have 
some affinity with her own, and yet 
incline towurd that of a great lady 
and princess, he resolved to call her 
Dulcmea del Toboso (for she was 
bom at that place), a name, to his 
thinking^ harmonious, uncommon, 
and sigmficant." The name Dtt/ctnea 
is often used as synonymous with 
mistress or sweetheart. 

I must ever hare some Dtdeinta in my 
head, — it harmonizes the souL Sterne. 

If thou ezpectest a fine description of this 
young woman, in order to entitle thee-to taunt 
me with having found a Duieinea in the in- 
habltuit of a flshermaa's cottage on the Sol- 
way Frith, thou shalt be disappointed. 

Sir W. Scott. 

"BHa moodiness must have made him per- 
fectly odious to his friends under the tents, 
wholike a JoUy iUlow. and laugh at a melan- 
choly warnor always ngfaing after DvHcinta at 
home. Thacheray. 

Du-InSine^ A lord attending on the 
king of Navarre, in Shakespeare's 
" Love's Labor 's Lost." 

Diixnnble-dikes. A young and bash- 
ful Scotch laird, in love with Jeanie 
Deans, in Sir Walter Scott's novel, 
" The Heart of Mid-Lothian." 

Dumb Ox. [Lat Bos Muttu."] St. 
Thomas Aquinas ; — said to have 
been so named by his fellow-pupils 
at Cologne, on account of his silence 
and apparent stupidity. His teacher, 
however, detected the genius that 
was wrapped up under his taciturnity. 

and for the Bemarks and Boles to which the numben a^er certain wocds re^, see pp. sdv-xxziL 




and remarked, that, if that ox should 
once begin to b^ow, the world would 
be filled with the noise. He was 
afterwards known as the " Angel of 
the Schools" and the " Angelic Doc- 

''He was the Axistotle of Chris- 
tianity, whose l^islation he drew up, en- 
deaTonng to reconcile logic with fidth for 
the suppression of all heresy. . . . His 
OTerpowering task utterly absorbed this 
extraordiuary man, and occupied his 
whole life, to the exclusion of aU else, — a 
life that was entirely one of abstractioo, 
and whose events are ideas. From fiye 
▼ears of age he took the Scriptures in his 
hand, and henceforward neyer ceased 
from meditation. In the schools, he was 
called by his cqmpftQions the great dumb 
ox of Sicily. He only broke this silence 
to dictate; and when sleep closed the 
eyes of his body, those of his soul re- 
mained open, and he went on still dic- 
tating. One day, at sea, he was not con- 
scious of a feanhil tonpest ; another, so 
deep was his abstraction, he did not let 
ihll a lighted candle which was burning 
his fingers." MUhelet^ IVans. Miche- 
let. in a note, says of this surname, that 
it is ''ftdl of meaning to edl who have 
noticed tiie dreamy and monumental ap- 
pearance of the ox of Southern Italy." 
St. Thomas is described as a large-bodied 
man, &t and upright, of a brown com- 
plexion, and with a large head, somewhat 

Of a tnith it almost makes me laugh. 

To see men leaving the golden grun. 

To gather in piles the pififtd chaff 

That old Peter liombard thrashed with his 

To haye it canght up and tossed agidn 
On the hoins of the Jhimb Ox of Colognel 


^ufL'o^n (dungk'&n). A king of Scot- 
land immortalized in Shakespeare^s 
tragedy of " Macbeth." Shakespeare 
represents him as murdered by Mac- 
beth, who succeeds to the Scottish 
tiirone; but, according to veritable 
histoty, he fell in battle. 

BunoeB' Farliainent. See Pabua- 
MENT OF Dunces. 

Dundas. Starvatioa. See Stabya- 


Dun-drear'y, I«ord. A ffrotesque 
character in Taylor's comedy, " Our 
American Cousm ; " noted for his 
aristocratic hau£;htine88 of manner, 
his weakness and excessive indolence 

of mind, his habit of discontinuity 
in expression, his great adnuration 
of *' Brother Sam," and his suspi- 
cion of insanity in his friends, if, 
from any motive which he does not 
understand, they constantly cross his 
convenience. The name is used al- 
lusively to characterize any empty 

Dun Xjd'in. A Celtic assimilation of 

the name Edinburgh (t. e., Edwin's 

biu*gh), serving at me same time as a 

descriptive designation of its site, the 

words meaning"' the face of a rock." 

In Scottish poetry, the name is often 

used as a synonym for Edinburgh. 

[Written also Dunedin, asa sm- 

gle word.] 

When the streets ofhigh Dimedin 
Saw lances gleam, and fUchions redden. 
And heard uie slqnn's deadly yell,— 
Then the Chief ofBranksome ML 

on* Pr . cKJOCS. 
No, not yet, thou high Dun JEdm, 

Shalt thou totter to thy frU; 
Though thy bravest and thy strongest 

Are not there to man the walL lAtftotm. 

Dtm-Bh,mi'n$r, Auerastos. A fumi 
de plume of Professor William Ed- 
monstoune Aytoun (1813-1865), in 
*^ Blackwood's Magazine." 

Burandal (doo'rSn'dftl')- [Of uncer- 
tain etymology. The root is probably 
the Fr. dur^ hard, durer^ to resist! 
The name of a marvelous sword of 
Orlando, the renowned hero of ro- 
mance. It is said to have been the 
workmanship of the fairies, who en- 
dued it with such wonderM properties 
that its owner was able to cleave the 
Pyrenees with it at a blow. See Or- 
lando. [ Written also Dur an dart, 
Durindane, Durindale, Du- 
rindana, Durenda,Durendal, 
and Durlindana.] 

Durandarte (doo-rftn-daf 'tft). A fiib- 
ulous hero of Spain, celebrated in the 
ancient ballads of that country, and 
in the romances of chivalry. Cer- 
vantes has introduced him, in " Don 
Quixote," in the celebrated adven- 
ture of the knight in the Cave of 
Montesinos. He is represented as a 
cousin of Montesinos, and, like him. 
a peer ii( France. At the battle or 
Boncesvalles, he expires in the arms 
of Montesinos. Bom of these char- 

For flie **Kej to flie Scheme of FtonnndMion,** with the aocompanyhig Explanations, 




acters are regarded by Ticknor as 

imaginary personages. 

In the mean Hme^uBurandarlem^B in the 
Cave of Monteainot, ** Patience, and shuffle 
ihecaxda." Byron. 

T>va'den, Dame (dur'dn). 1. The 
lieroine of a popular English song. 
She is described as a notable house- 
wifej and the mistress of numerous 
serving-girls and laboring men. 
2. A sobriquet applied to Esther 

SummerBon, the heroine of Dickens** 
" Bleak House." 

Burga (dQor<^). {Hindu Mtfth.) The 
consort of Siva, represented as having 
ten arms. 

Dur'w^rd, Quen'tin. The hero of 
Scott^s novel of the same name; 4 
^oung archer of the Scottish guar^ 
m the service of Louis XL of 

and fiir lh« lUmarlri and BoIm to irbieh the niunlien altar euMa mida ntUt aea pp. ziT-aadl 





Eagle of Brittany. [Fr. VAigU de 
Bretagne.'] A title bestowed upon 
Bertrand du Guesclin (d. 1380), a 
native of Brittany, and constable of 
France, renowned for his gallantly 
and military skill. 

Eagle of Divines. A title bestowed 
upon Thomas Aquinas, the famous 
theologian of the thirteenth century. 

• See Dumb Ox. 

Eagle of Frencli Doctors. [Fr. 
VAigle des Docteura de France,'] A 
surname given to Pierre d' Ailly (1360- 
1425), a celebrated French cardinal 
and theological disputant. 

Eagle of Meauz (mo). [Fr. DAigle 
de Meaux.] A name popularly given 
• to Jacques B^nigne jBossuet (1627- 
1704), a French mvine celebrated for 
his extraordinary powers of pulpit 
eloquence, and for many ^'^ears bishop 
of Meaux. 

Eastern States. A name popularly 

given, in America, to the six New 
ngland States, — Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode 
Island, and Connecticut. 

EbOis {Arab. pron. ib-lees'). The 
name given by the Arabians to the 
prince of ^e apostate angels, whom 
they represent as exiled to the in- 
fernal regions for refusing to worship 
Adam at the command of the Su- 
preme. Eblis alleged, in justification 
of his refusal, that he himself had 
been formed of ethereal fire, while 
Adam was only a creature of clay. 
To gratify his revenge, Eblis tempted 
Adam and Eve, and succeeded in 
leading them to their fall from inno- 
cence, m consequence of which they 
were separated. The Mohammedans 
say, that, at the moment of the birth 
of their prophet, the throne of Eblis 
was precipitated to the bottom of hell, 
and the idols of the Gentiles were 
overturned. According to some, he 
is the same as the Azazel of the 
Hebrews. [Written also Iblis.] 

Ebony. [That is. Black wood.] A 
humorous appellation given to Mr. 

William Blackwood (1777-1834), the 
original publisher of " Blackwood^s 
Magazine." He was so called hjr 
James Hogg, the "Ettrick Shep- 
. herd," in a famous jeu d esprit, en- 
titled "The Chaldee Manuscript," 
which appeared in the number for 
October, 1817, but was immediately 
suppressed on account of its perso- 
nalities and alleged immorality. The 
name is sometimes used as a synonym 
for the magazine itself. 

JSiqhfo {Lot, pron. e'ko). [Gr. 'Hxw.] 
( Gr. ^ Rom. Mifk.) An oread, who 
fell desperatelv in love with Narcis- 
sus. As her love was not returned, 
she pined away in grief, until at last 
there remained of ner nothing but 
her voice. 

Eckhardt, The Faithfiil (ek'haft, 
64). [Ger. Der treue Eckhardt.'] A 
legendary hero of Germany, repre- 
sented as an old man with a wnite 
staff, who, in Eisleben, appears on 
the evening of Maundy - Tnursday, 
and drives all the people into their 
houses, to save them ftom. b^g 
harmed by a terrible procession of 
dead men, headless bodies, and two* 
legged horses, which immediately 
after passes by. Other traditions 
represent him as the companion of 
the knight Tannhauser, and as warn- 
ing travelers from the Venusberg, the 
mountain of fatal delights in the old 
mythology of Germany. Tieck has 
founded a story upon this legend, 
which has been translated into Eng- 
lish by Carlyle, in which Eckharat 
is described as the good servant who 
perishes to save his master's children 
firom the seducing fiends of the moun- 
tain. The German proverb, " Thou 
art the faithful Eckhardt; thou warn- 
est every one," is founded upon this 
tradition. See Tannhauseb, Sib. 

Eostatio Doctor. [Lat. Doctor Ecstat- 
icus.] An honorarv appellation con- 
ferred upon Jean 'feuysbroek (1294- 
1381), one of the old schoolmen. He 
was prior of the Canons Regular of 

For the •• Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accomiMuiTing ExpIanationB, 




St. Augustine at Giiinthal in Brabant, 
and a mystic. 

Xidgar. Son to Gloster, in Shake- 
speare's tragedy of " Lear." 

Edict, Perpetual. See Psrpetual 

Bdiot of Nantes (nants, or n5nt, 62). 
{Fr. Bist.) A celebrated decree, 
dated at Nantes, in 1698, by which 
Henry IV. of Fnmce granted tolera- 
tion to his Protestant subjects. It was 
revoked by Louis XIV., on the 18th 
of October, 1685. The result of this 
despotic act was, that, rather than 
conform to the established religion, 
400,000 Protestants — among the 
most industrious, intelligent, and re- 
ligious of the nation — quitted France, 
and took refu^ in Great Britain, 
Holland, Prussia, Switzerland, and 

Edict of Bestitution. (Ger, Hist.) 
A decree issued, in 1629, by tiie Em- 
peror Frederick H. of Germany, re- 
quiring the relinquishment of many 
church lands. 

SSd'in, or E-di'n&. A poetical name 
for Edinburgh, skid to nave been in- 
troduced by Buchanan, the Scottish 

JSdmaf Scotia's darling seatl 
All hail thy palaces and towers. 

Where once, beneath a monarch's ftet, 
Sat legislation's sovereign powers. 


SSdxnonton, ^^itoh of. See Witch 
OP Edmonton. 

Sdznund. A bastard son of Gloster,^ 
in Shakespeare's tragedy of " Lear." 

Sdwin. 1. The hero of Goldsmi&'s 
ballad entitled " The Hermit." 

2. The hero of; Mallet's ballad of 
" Edwin and Emma." • ' = 

3. Theh^jr^of Seattle's " Minstrel." 

iSsali^ Wgi'l^fta'). [Fr., equality.] 
A name assumed, in'!l792, by Louis 
Philippe Joseph, Duke of Orleans 
(bom 1747,^guillotined 1793), in place 
of his hereq^ry/^title, in order to 
courfr the favor of the populace. 

E-ge'ri-^ (9). {Rom. Myth.) A nymph 
from whom King Numa Pompilius 
was fabled to have received his in- 
structions respecting the forms of pub- 
lic worship which be established in 

Rome. Their interviews took place in 
a grove near Aricia, or, according to 
some versions of the stoiy, near Rome. 

S-ge'us. Father to Hermia^ in 
Shakespeare's ** Midsummer-Night's 

Bgl^-xndur. 1. A character in Shake- 
speare's " Two Gentlemen of Vero- 
na," who is an agent of Silvia in 
her escape. 

2. (Sir.) A valiant knight of the 
Round Table, celebrated in the ro- 
mances of chivalrv, and in an old 
ballad. [Written also E g 1 a m o r e.] 

Bglan-ttney Madame. The name 
of the prioress, in Chaucer's " Can- 
terbury Tales." She is distinguished 
for the mixture, in her manners and 
costume, of gentle worldly vanities 
and ignorance of the world ; for her 
gayety, and the ever-visible difficulty 
she feels in putting on an air of 
courtly hauteur; for the lady-like 
delicacy of her manners at table ; and 
for her pardalily to lap-dogs. 

"Sif^ypt, A cant popular designation 
of the southern portion of the State 
of Illinois, — bem^ a figurative al- 
lusion to the "thick darkness" in 
which ancient Egypt was involved 
for three days, in the time of Moses ; 
or, as some say, to the extraordinary 
fertility of that country. The inhab- 
itants of Southern Illinois have had 
the reputation of being, in general, 
extremely ignorant. In its agricult- 
ural capabiiftdes, and in actual iruit- 
fiilness, this region is unsurpassed, if 
no't unequaled, by any other in the 

• United States. 

Sgsrpt, Idttle. See Lords of Lit- 
tle Egypt. 

Egyptian Thief. A personage al- 
luded to by the Duke in Shake- 
speare's " Twelfth Night" (a. v., sc. 
1 ). The reference is to the story of 
Thyamis, a robber-chief and native 
of Menmhis, who, knowing he must 
diej.HJv^omd have stabbed his captive 
CharTclea, a woman whom he loved. 

E-laine'. A mythic lady connected 
^ with the romances of King Arthur's 
court. Her stoiy is treated by Ten- 
nyson in his " Idylls of the Kmg." 

and for the Remarks and Roles to which the nnmbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxU. 

8 . 




Xlbow. A constable, in Shakespeare's 
**■ Measure for Measnre," — ignorant 
and feeble-minded, but modest and 

Za Do-ra'do, or ZHDo-rft'do. [Sp., 
the golden land.] A name given oy 
the Spaniards to an imaginary coun- 
tiy, supposed, in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, to be situated in the interior of 
South America, between the rivers 
Orinoco and Ainazon, and to abound 
in gold and all manner of precious 
stones. Expeditions were fitted out 
for the purpose of discovering this 
fabulous region ; and, though aU such 
attempts proved abortive, the rumors 
of its existence continued to be be- 
lieved down to the beginning of the 
eighteenth century. 

jfS* It is said that the name was at 
first applied not to a ooontry, but to a 
man, ** el rey dorado." Sir Wfdter Ra- 
I^h, in his " Diflcoveiy of the Laige. 
Bich, and Beautiful Empire of Guiana," 
I^Tes a description ct the rising of this 
gilded king, whose chamberlains, every 
morning, after haying rubbed his naked ^ 
body with aromatic oils, blew powdered 
gold over it through long canes. After 
the name be used as the designa- 
tion of a country, it seems to have been 
▼aiioosly applied, and the expeditions in 
search of tlie golden land had different 
destinations. The whole of Guiana was 
sometimes included in the term. Hum- 
boldt, while exploring the countries upon 
the Upper Orinoco, was informed that the 
portion of Eastern Guiana lying between 
the riTers Essequibo and Branco was **■ the 
classical bM of the Dorado of Parima." 
Francis Orellana, a companion of Pizarro, 
first spread in Europe the account of this 
fabulous region. 

In Bhort,the whole comedy is a tottafEl 
Dorado of wit, where the precious metal is 
thrown about by all classes as carelessly as if 
thiy had not the least idea of its yalue. 


There stoodest thou, in deep mountain am- 
phitheater, on umbrageous lawns, in the 
serene solitude; stately, massive, all of granite, 
glittering in the western sunbeams, like a 
palace of El Dorado^ overlaid with precious 
metal. Oarlylt. 

E-leo'tr$. [Gr. 'HA^xrpa.] {Gr. ^ 
Bom, Myth.) A daughter of Aga- 
niemnon ' and Clytemnestra, and me 
sister of Iphigenia. She became the 
accomplice of Orestes in the murder 
of their mother. See Clytemi7BSTra 
and Orestes. 

Meven Thousand Virsina, The. 
Celebrated characters in Roman 
CathoUc histoiy. The legend con- 
cerning them — which underwent 
some enlargements in the course of 
time — can be traced back as far as 
the ninth century, and is substan- 
tially as follows: Ursula, a saint of 
the Catholic church, being demanded 
in marriage by a pagan prince, and 
fearing to rerase him, apparently con- 
sented, but obtained a respite ot three 
years, and a grant of ten trireq^es and 
ten noble companions, each, as well 
as herself, attended by one thousand 
virgins. She passed the three years 
with her virgins in nautiocd exercises; 
and when the marriage-day arrived, a 
sudden wind arose, and wafted them 
to liie mouth of the Rhine, and thence 
to Basel. Here the^ left their vessels, 
and made a pilgrunage on foot to 
Rome. On their return, they encoun- 
tered at Cologne an army of Huns, by 
whom the^ were massacred, Ursula 
having refused an offer of marriage 
from me prince. Their corpses were 
buried by the people of Cologne, and 
a church was erected to their honor: 
in which bones, said to be those or 
Ursula and her companions, are ex- 
hibited to this day. 

US* ^* TUs extramgant number of 
martyred Tiigins, which is not specified 
in the earlier leigends, is said [Maury, 
^L^gendes Pieuses,' p. 214] to have 
arisen fh)m the name of one of the com- 
panions of Ursula being UndeeimeUa, — 
an expIanatioD yeiy plausible, though I 
must conf^ that I haye not been able to 
find any authority Ibr the name Vhdeci- 
nuUa." Max MiUlet. 

IS1i-$« A pseudonym under which 
Charles Lamb wrote a series of cel- 
ebrated essays, which were begun in 
the '' London Magazine," and were 
afterward collected and published by 

j^* " The establishment of the ' Lon- 
don Magazine,' under the auspices of Mr. 
John S«>tt, occanioned Lamb's introduc- 
tion to the public by the name under 
color of which he acquired his most bril- 
liant reputation, — * Ella.' The adoption 
of this signature was purely accidental. 
EUs first contribution to the magasine 
was a description of the old South -Sea 
House, where Lamb had passed a &w 

For the "Key to the Scheme «f Prommdation,'' with tiie acoompanyhig Krplanations, 




months* nofifciate as a eknk, iliirtf yean 
before, and of its inmates who had long 
passed a-way; and, remembering the 
name of a gay, light-hearted foreigner, 
who fluttered there at that time, he snb- 
scribed his name to the essay." Tal/ourd. 
Lamb's second paper was unsigned, and 
the printer repeated the dgnatore which 
had been affixed to the first paper. This 
led to its bekkg attached to subsequent 
contributions ; and Lamb used it until, 
in his " Last Letters of Elia," he bade it 
a reioetant foiew^. 

He is alao the trne JSKo, whoee eeujn are 
extNDt in a little volnme pnbliihed a year or 
two ifaice. and rather better known from tlut 
name wimont a meaning than from any thing 
be has done, or can hope to do, in his own. 

Charles Lasmby AtUob&grapMoal Sketch, Wff, 

GomfiHrt thee, O thon momner, yet a whBe; 

Again shall EUa's smile 
Befiesh thy heart, where heart can ache no 

"What is it we deplore T landor. 

£l'i-dftre. A legendaiy king of Brit- 
ain, ihbled to have been advaaoed to 
the throne in place of his brother Ar- 
tegal, or Artbgallo, who was deposed 
b^ powerfnl nobles to whom he had 

Sven great offense. Betuming to 
e countiy after a long exile, Artegal 
accidentaUy encountered his broth- 
er, who received him with open arms, 
took lum home to the palace, and 
reinstated him in his old position, 
abdicating the throne himself, after 
feigning a dangerous iUness, b^ which 
he sucgeeded m inducing his peers 
once more to swear allegiance to his 
brother. Arteg^ reigned for ten 
years, wisely and well, and, after his 
death, was succeeded by Elidure. 
Wordsworth has taken the story of 
these two brothers for the subject of 
a poem. See Abtegal. 

M^-6t, Qeorge. A pseudonym a- 
dopted by Mrs. Maiy A. (Evans) 
Lewes, a popular and very able nov- 
elist ik the present day, author of 
''Adam Bede," '"The Hill oa the 
Floss," and other works. 

£-li'8|^ or S-liB'8^ Another name 
of J)tdo, See Dmo. 

miv^ftsar (ft-le-v4'gaf ). [Old Norse 
df, stream, and vaga, to wander.] 
( Scand. Myih. ) The name of a great 
chaotic river flowing from a fountain 
in Niflheim. [Written also Eli v a- 
ga and Elivagor.] 

and Ibr the BemailEs and Bnkc to which the nnmbera after certafai words refer, sec pp. xiv-xxxU. 

Elm Oity, The same as City of Elmt. 
See City of Elms. 

Mooution "Walker. A name popu- 
larly given, in his lifetime, to John 
Walker, the English ortJioepist and 
lexicographer (1732-1807), who was 
for a lon^ time a distinguished teacher 
of elocution among the higher classes 
in London. 

Eloquent Dootor. [Lat. Doctot Fa- 
cimdm.'] An honorary appellation 
given to Peter Aureolus, Ardibishop 
of Aix in the fourteenth century. 

Ul'ahen-d^r the Be<duse. The 
" Black Dwai^" in Scott's novel of 
this name. [Called also Catmif M- 

Sa'Bpeth. 1. A cfaancter in Sir Wal- 
ter Scott^s "Antiquary." 

2. An old servant to Dandle Din- 
mont, in Scott's " Guy Mannering.'* 

XS-ij^Bl-mn (e-lizh'I-um). [Or. 'hai;- 
irior.] {Gr, ^ Rom. Mtfth.) The 
bliosful abode of the virtuous dead, 
placed by Homer in the west, on 
the border of the Ocean stream ; by 
Hesiod and Pindar in the Fortunate 
Islands, or Isles of the Blest, in the 
Western Ocean; by Yiigil in the 
under-world, with an entrance fix)m 
a cave on the shore of Lake Avemus, 
in Campania. [Called also Elytian 

Exnlbro. A common Scottish corrup- 
tion of Edinburgh. 

Emerald Isle. A name sometimes 
given to Ireland, on account of the 
peculiar bright green look of the sur- 
mce of the countiy. It was first 
used by Dr. William Drennan (1754- 
1820), author of " GlendaUoch, and 
other Poems." It occurs in his poem 
entiUed " Erin." 

** When Erin first rose ftom thedark-cweObig 
Gkid blessed the green island; he saw it was 

The mMTdld of Europe, it sparkled, it 

Jn the ring of this world the most precious 

*• Arm of Erin, prove strong; but be genOe as 

And, uplifted to strike, still be ready to save ; 
Nor one feeling of vengeance presume to 

The cause or the men of the Emerald Me." 


116 EXG 

iSmHeJ^t^vq^.' The subject of Jean ^ 
Jacques K(msse^a*8 novel of tiie sam^ 
ajajme, a^>hi6 ideal of a perfei^;^ 
OTQcated^young man. . '^ 

E-mil'i-i 1. The lady - love 'J'of 
Palamon and Arcite in ChttH^r's 
" Knight's Tale." See PalaWn. 

2. A lady attending Hermione, in 
Shakespeare's |' Winter's -Tale'." 

3. Wife to lago, and w4i|iiig-wom- 
an to Desdemona, in JSjka^espeare's 
tragedy of " Othello-; " %' woman of 
thorough vul^ari^, loose principles, 
and low cunnmg, united to a high de- 
gree of spirit, energetic feeling, and 
strong sense. 

4. The sweetheart of Peregrine 
Pickle, in Smollett's novel entitled 
" The Adventures of Peregrine 

Sm-ped'o-oldg. [Gr. 'E/uirefioKA^?.] 
A famous Sicilian philosopher who 
flourished about the year 450 b. c, 
and was the reputed possessor of mi- 
raculous powers. There was a tradi- 
tion that he secretly threw himself into 
tlie crater of Mount J£tna,in order that 
his mysterious disapptearance might 
be taken as a proof of his divine origin. 
Lucian says that the volcano threw 
out his sandals, and thus destroyed 
the popular belief in his divinity. 

OfhoiB came singfle; he who, to he deemed 
A god, leaped fondly into Etna flames, 
Empeaocles; . . . and many more too long. 


Emperor of Believers. A title of 
Omar I. (634), father-in-law of Mo- 
hammed, and second caliph of the 
Mussulmans. He was one of the most 
zealous apostles of Islamism. 

Emperor of the 'West. A sobriquet 
given to John Murray (1778-1843), 
an eminent London publisher, who 
changed his place of business from 
Fleet Street, in " the City," to Albe- 
marle Street, at the West End. 

Empire City. The city of New 
York, the chief city of the western 
world, and the metropolis of the Em- 
pire State. 

Empire State. A popular name of 
the State of New York, the most 
populous and the wealthiest State in 
the Union. 

Lol the En^ftire State is shaking 

The shackles from her handi 
"With the rugged North is vaking 

The level sunset land I Jrhittier, 

Bn-oel'$-dUs. [Gr. 'EvKcAftaos.] (Gr. 

(f E(m. Myth.) A son of Titan and 

Terra, and the most powerful of all the 

giants who conspired against Jupiter, 

and attempted to scale heaven. He 

was struck bv Jupiter's thunderbolts, 

and overwhelmed under Mount ^tna. 

According to the poets, the flames of 

^tna proceeded from the breath of 

Enceladus, and, as often as he turned 

his weary side, the whole island of 

Sicily felt the motion, and shook from 

its very foundations. 

She holds her adversaiy as if snnihihited: 
such adversaiy being, all {he while, like soma 
buned Enceladusj who. to gain the smallest 
freedom, must stir a whole Trinacria [SicUyl 
with its Etnas. Carlvle. 

Endor, "Witch of! See Witch op 

En-dym'i-6n. [Gr. 'EvSv/uttW.] (Gr. 
4- Bom. Mkh. ) A beautiful shepherd- 
youth of Caria, who spent his life in 
perpetual sleep, for which the old 
legends assign various causes. Diana 
is fabled to have come down to him 
nightly, as he lay in a cave of Mount 
Latmus, that she might kiss him 

He stood, 
Fine as those shapely spirits, heaven-de- 
Eiermes, or young Apollo, or whom she, 
The moon-lit Dian, on the Latmian hill. 
When all the woods and all the winds were 
Kissed with the kiss of immortaUty. 

JB. W. Procter. 

ED^and, Boast of. See Tom-a-lin. 
England, Clothier of. See Jack 
OP Neavburt. 

England's Pride and "Westmin- 
ster's Glory. An honorary title or 
sobriquet given for a long time to 
Sir Francis Burdett (1770-1844), the 
most popular English politician of 
his time, and in particular the idol 
of Westminster, which he represented 
in Parliament for nearly thirty years. 

English Ar'is-t6pli'&.n69. A tiUe 
assumed by Samuel Foote (1722- 
1777), the comic dramatist. [Called 
also The Modem Aristcphanes.'] 

English Bas-ttlle'. A nickname 
given, about the first of the present 

For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanationa, 






century^ to the jail of Cold-Bath 
Fields, in London, from the number 
of state-prisoners in it. 

Tingliwh Hob'be-m$. A designation 
popularly given to Patrick (or Peter) 
Nasmytt (d. 1831), a Scottish land- 
scape-painter whose style was thought 
to resemble that of the great Flemish 
master Minderhout Hobbema (1611- 
1699), though it really had little in 
common with it except minuteness of 

"Rnglish Ju8-tin'i-$n. A name often 
given to Edward I., whose reign is 
remarkable for the progress which 
was made in it toward the settlement 
of the laws and constitution of Eng- 
land. Sir Matthew Uale remarks, 
that more was done in the first thir- 
teen years of this reign to settle and 
establish the distributive justice of 
the kingdom than in all tiie next 
four centuries. And similarly Black- 
Btone says, " Upon the whole, we may 
observe that the veiy scheme and 
model of the administration of com- 
mon justice between party and party 
was entirely settled by this king." 

Snglisli Ju've-n^. An appellation 
given to John Oldham (1653-1683), 
a distinguished poet, on account of the 
severity of his satires, and his spirited 
delineation of contemporary life and 

EnglJHli Mereenne (mSf'sen')* John 
Collins, an English mathematician 
and physicist (1624-1683) ; — so called 
from Marin Mersenne, a contempo- 
rary French philosopher and matne- 
matician, who was celebrated for the 
wonderfxil extent of his erudition. 

*' In short, Mr. CoUins was like the 
raster of all the new acquisitioDS made 
in the mathematical sciences ; the maga- 
djie to which the curious had firequent 
recourse ; which acquired him the appel- 
lation of the BnglJsh Mexsenne." 

BngliHli Opjum-eater. A name often 
given to Thomas De Quincev, one of 
the most remarkable English writers 
of the present centuiy, celebrated 
for his eccentricities, induced — at 
least in part — by the habit of eating 
opium, and proclaimed by himself to 

the world in a well-known volume of 

BngUsh Pale. See Pale, The. 

Snglisli Fallodio (p&l-liMe-o, 102). 
A surname given to Inigo Jones 
(1573-1653), who introduced into 
England the Italian or "classic" 
style of architecture as exemplified in 
the works of Andrea Palladio (1518- 
1580) and his school. [Galled also 
The English VUruvius.'] 

XhigliBta. Fe'traroli. A name given 
by Sir Walter Raleigh to Sir Philip 
Sidney (1554-1586), who, like Pe- 
trarch (1304-1374), was one of the 
earliest cultivators and refiners of 
his native language. His writings, 
as well as those of his Italian prede- 
cessor, are characterized by a rare 
delicacy of poetical feeling, and great 
brilliancy of imagination. 

EngliBli Babelais (dtb'lft'). 1. A 
name often given to Jonathan Swift 
(1667-1745), whose writii^ resem- 
ble in some points those of the great 
French satirist. 

2. A name sometimes given to 
Lawrence Sterne (1713-1768), the 
author of " Tristram Shandy " and 
" The Sentimental Journey," and the 
most airy and graceful of fjiglish 
humorists. "The cast of the whole 
Sh andean history," says Fitzgerald, 
" its tone and manner and thought, is 
such as would come from one satu- 
rated, as it were, with Rabelais, and 
the school that imitated Rabelais." 

3. The same name has been giv- 
en to Thomas Amory (1691-1789), 
author of " The Life and Opinions of 
John Buncle, Esq." See Buncxe, 

j^- " The soul of Francis Rabelais 
passed into John Amory. . . . Both were 
physicians, and enemies of too mnch 
gravity. Their great business was to en- 
^y Ufe." Hazlin. " In point of ani- 
mal spirits, lore of good cheer, and some- 
thing of a mixture of scholarship, the- 
ology, and pro&ne reading, he may be 
held to deserve the title ; but he has no 
claim to the Frenchman's greatness of 
genius, freedom ftom bigoti^, and pro- 
foundiiess of ^t and humor. He might 
haye done yery well for a clerk to B8a>e- 

aad for the Benuurkg and Bnlea to which the nomben after certain words mSu, lee pp. ziv-xzzii. 




]ais ; and tiis master woald hare laughed 
quite as much at, as with, him." 

Leigh Hunt. 

Snfflish Bos'oi-iu (rosh^-us). An 
honoranr name or title giyen to 
David Garrick (1716-1779), the most 
eminent actor of his day upon the 
English stage. 

BngiiBh Sap'pho (saf fo). A title 
given to Mrs. Maiy Darby Robinson 
(1768-1800), mistress of George IV. 
She acquired a brilliant reputation for 
beauty and wit, and was the author 
of some well -esteemed lyric poems. 
See Della Cbuscans, Pebdita. 

"Kngliah Sen'e-c&. A name ^ven to 
Joseph Hall (1574-1656), an English 
bishop remarkable for his scholar- 
ship, piety, and misfortunes. [Called 
also The Uhristian Seneca,'] 

4^ " He was oommonly called our 
English Seneca, for the pureneas, plain- 
ness, and fiiUness of his style." Thomas 
Fuller. ** It is much to our present pur> 
pose to ohserre that the style of his prose 
U strongly tinctured with the manner of 
Seneca. The writer of the Satires is per- 
ceptible in some of his gravest polemical 
or scriptural treatises, which are per- 

{»etually interspersed with excursiTe il- 
ustrations, &miliar allusions, and ob- 
serrations in lifo." T%omas Warton. 

English Soloxuon. See Solomon of 

EngUah TSr'enoe. A title some- 
times given to Richard Cumberland 
(1732-1811), an English dramatist 
and miscellaneous writer. 

The Termee of En^^d, ttie mender of hearts. 


English Tin'to^ret. A name given 
by Charles I. to William Dobson 
(1610-1646), a distinguished Eng- 
lish portrait and historical painter. 
[Called also The English Vandyck.] 

E'nid. A mythical lady mentioned 
in a Welsh triad as one of the three 
celebrated ladies of Arthur's court; a 
beautiful picture of conjugal patience 
and affection. Her stoiy — which is 
not included in the general cycle of 
romances — has late^ been rescued 
from obscurity by Tennyson, in-4iis 
" Idylls of the Kmg." 

Enlightened Bootor. See Illumi- 
nated DOCTOB. 

Ent616ohie (^n^tft^ft'she^ 62). The 
name given by Rabelais to an im- 
aginary kingdom, which he repre- 
sents as governed by Queen Quintes- 
sence, and as visited by Pantagruel 
and his companions in their search 
to find the oracle of the Holy Bottle. 
This country symbolizes the taste 
for speculative science, and is, with- 
out doubt, the foundation of me isl- 
and of Laputa, in Swift's fictitious 
" Travels " of Lemuel Gulliver. In 
the Peripatetic philosophy, entelechy 
signified an actualitv, or an object 
completely actualized, in conteadia- 
tinction to mere potential existence. 

En-tellus. See Dares. 

B'6s. [Gr.'Hcis.] {Gr, Myth.) The 
goddess of the dawn; the same as 
Aurora, See Aurora. 

Eph'I-al'tdg. [Gr. *£0iaAn|9.] (Gr. 
4" Rom. Myth.) One of the giants 
who made war upon the gods. He 
was deprived of his left eye by Apollo, 
and of the right by Hercules. 

E-pi^^'o-nl IGr. 'Emyovoi^ the after- 
born.] A name given to the sons of 
the seven Grecian heroes who laid 
siege to Thebes. See Seven against 

Ep'I-menl-dds. [Gr. *EvtfMvt«i)«.] A 
phildsopher and poet of Crete, who 
lived in the sixth or seventh centuiy 
B. c. His histoty has reached us only 
in a mythical form. He is said to have 
fkllen asleep in a cave, when a boy, 
and to have remained in that state 
for fifiy-seven years. On waking and 

foing out into the broad daylight, 
e was greatly perplexed and aston- 
ished to find every thing around him 
altered. But what was more wonder- 
ful still, dming his long period of 
slumber, his soul, released from its 
fleshlv prison, had been busily en- 
gaged in the study of medicine and 
natural philosophy ; and when it again 
became incarnated, Epimenides found 
himself a man of great knowledge and 
wisdom. Goethe has written a poem 
on the subject, " Des Epimenides Er- 
wachen." See Klaus, Peter, and 
Winkle, Rip Van. 

like EpimenideSf I hsre been deepine in a 
care; and, wakin^^, I aee thoae whom I left 

^r^the •• Key to the Scheme of Fkonundation," with ^e accompanying Ezplanationa, 




ehfldren are bearded men; and towns here 
Bprung up in the landacapes which I left as 
solitcuy wastes. Sir E. Bvhoer Litton. 

E^pl-mB'theHls. [Gr. *E7rt/Aij«eus.] {Gr. 
^ Rom. Myth. ) A brother of Prome- 
tiieus, and the hasband of Pandora. 

iferaste {t'tk&t'). The heroine in Mo- 
li^re's comedy entitled *^Les F^ 

£r^to. [Gr. 'E^tv^.] {Gr. ^ Bom. 
M^fih.) One of the nine Muses. She 
presided over lyric, tender and ama- 
toiy poetry. 

JSr^$^to8'tr$-tii8. See Herostra- 


SSr'e-bus. [6r. *Ep€/3<K, darkness.] 
( Gr. 4' Rom. Mvth.) A son of Chaos, 
and a god of hell. The name is used 
by the poets to denote the dark and 
gloonw cavern under the earth, 
passed through by the shades in go- 
mg to Hades. 

lC-re'tri-$n Bull. An appellation of 
Menedemus of £retria, m £uboea, a 
Greek philosopher of the fourth cen- 
tury B. c, and founder of the Ere- 
trian school, which was a branch of 
the Socratic. He was so called on 
account of the gravity of his coun- 

S-riQiitho. [Gr. 'Epix^to.] A famous 
Thessalian witch consulted by Pom- 

Such a snlgect even the powetfhl BrichOio 
was compelled to select, as alone capable of 
being re-animated even by her poteht mu^c 

Sit Wt Scott, 

S'rin (9). An earl^r name of Ireland, 
now used as a poetic appellative. See 
EMBBAiiD Isle. 

li-rin'nyB ipL X!-*rin'n7-dff). [Gr. 
*Ep4Kvv«; pL 'Eptyvves, 'Epivin)$.) yGr. 
Myth.) An avenging deily, one of 
the Eumenides, or Furies. See Fu- 


Wria (9). [Gr. 'Epw.) {Gr. Myth.) 
The goddess of discord; a sister of 
Mars, and a daughter of Night; the 
same as the Boman DisconHa, 

Erl-kins. [Ger. ErUe&nig, Erlenhd- 
fdoy derived by some from the root 
erfe, alder; by others supposed to be 
identical with Elfen Kdnig. King of 
the Elves.] A 'name applied to a 

personified natural power or elem^i« 
tary spirit, which, according to Ger- 
man poetical authorities, prepares 
mischief and ruin for men, and espe- 
ciallyfor children, through delusive 
seductions. It is fabled to appear as 
a goblin, haunting the Black Forest in 
Thurin^. The existence of such 
elementary ^rits, and their connec- 
tion with mankind, have, in the ear- 
liest times, occupied the imagination 
of the most widely different races. 
The Erl-king was introduced into 
German poe^ fronrthe sagas of the 
North, through Herder^s translation 
of the Danish ballad of '' Sir Olaf 
and the Eri-king's Daughter;" and 
it has become Universally known 
through Goethe's ballad of the " Eri- 

Xinniuia (Sf-me'ne-ft). The heroine of 
Tasso's epic poem, ^^ Jerusalem De- 
livered," m love with Tancred. 

She read of fbir Erminia's flight. 
Which Venice once might near 

Sung on her glittering seas at night 
By many a gondoher. J6v. Heauau. 

E'roa (9). [Gr. 'Epw«.] (Gr. Myth.) 
The Greek name of tne deitv called 
Oipido, or Cupid, by the Romans. 
See^ Cupid. 

£ir'r$ Fa'tSr. The name of some old 
astrologer; but who was meant by it 
has not been det«rmined. Some of 
the old almanacs say an eminent 
Jewish astrologer. William Lilly 
was so called by Butler. 


fir'i^-oi'nt. [Gr: 'Epvictia,.] (Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) A surname of Venus, 
derived from Mount Eryx, in Sicily, 
where she had a famous temple. 

fir^i^-man'thi-|]i Boar. See Her- 

fir^jf'-siQli'th^. [Gr. 'Eputrtx^wv.] 
{Gr. 4" Rom. Myth.) A profane per- 
son who cut down trees in a grove 
sacred to Ceres, for which he was 
punished by the goddess with raging 
and unappeasable hunger. 

B'ryx(9). [Gr.'EpvfJ {Gr. 4 Rom. 
Myth.) A king of Sicilv who chal- 
lenged Hercules to fight with the 
gauntlet, and lost both his life and 

In mathematics he was 
Than Tycho Brahe or 

■id ftr the Bemaiks Mid Roles to whl<di the nnmbem after oertain w<»ds refer, see pp. ziT-zzxIi. 




his crown, which he staked on the 
issue of the contest. 

Xi8'o$-lu8. 1. An ancient and kind- 
hearted lord, in Shakespeare's ** Meas- 
ure for Measure," whom Yincentio, 
the Duke of Vienna, joins with An- 
eelo, but in an inferior rank, as his 
depufy during a pretended absence 
on a cListant joumej. 

We do not blame him [Leigh Hunt] for not 
bringing to the judgment-seat the merciless 
rigor of Lord Angelo, but we really think that 
such flagitious and impudent offenders as 
those now at the bar, desenred, at the least, 
the gentle rebuke of £acahu. Macaulay. 

2. Prince of Verona, in Shake- 
speare's " Romeo and Juliet." 

XjS'cf-nds. A lord of Tyre, in Shake- 
speare's "Pericles." ^ 

Eg'mdnd, Henry- The title of a 
novel by Thackeray, and the name 
of its hero, a chivalrous cavalier and 
Jacobite or the time of Queen Anne. 

EsplandlaTi (es-plin-de-dnO- In the 
old romances or chivalry, the son of 
Amadis and Oriana. Montalvo has 
made him the subject of an original 
work, which is a continuation of his 
translation of the "Amadis," and 
which, in the preface, he announces 
to be the fifth Dook of the same. 

Xispriella (es-jpre-ePyft). The name 
of an imagmary Spaniard, whose 
" Letters " m>m Engird, about the 
year 1810, were written by Southey. 

Xj8-tell&. The heroine of Dickens's 
novel of " Great Expectations." 

Bstermere, Kins. See Kmo Ester- 

Sst-a-poasible (ft't^l' pos'se^l, 61). 
[Fr., Is it possible ?] A name given 
by King James IT. of England to 
Prince €reorge of Denmark, the hus- 
band of James's daughter, the Prin- 
cess Anne, afterwards Queen Anne. 
These words had been a common 
phrase with the prince at the time of 
the Revolution of 1688, as reports of 
one desertion of the king after an- 
other came to his ears. When he 
also went over to William and Mary, 
James is reported to have said, 
"What! EgtM-poasible gone too?'' 

Efl-tot'i-iand, or Es-tot'i-laxid'i-ft. 

According to the " Geographical Dic- 

tionary " of Edmund Bohun (1695), 
" a great tract of land in the north 
of America, toward the arctic circle 
and Hudson's Bay, having New 
France on the south, andJames's 
Bay on the west, the first of Ameri- 
can shores disisovered, being found 
by some Frieshind fishers, that were 
driven hither by a tempest, almost 
two hundred years before Columbus." 
Alcedo savs of it, "An imaginary 
country which some authors suppose 
to have been discovered in 1477 by a 
native of Poland named John Scalve, 
and that the same was part of the 
land of Labrador. The tact is, that 
this country never had any existence 
but in the imaginations of the two 
brothers of the name of Zeno, Vene- 
tian noblemen, who had no particu- 
lar information whatever respecting 
the expedition of this Polish adven^ 
turer; and that, in 1497, John Cabot, 
or Gabot, left England with thi«e 
of his sons, under the commisaon 
of Henry VII., wheil he discovered 
Newfoundland and part of the imme- 
diate continent where this country is 
supposed to exist." 

Else . . . the low ran . . . 
Had rounded still the horizon, and not known 
Or east or west: which had fbrbid the snow 
From cold EttotxUmd^ and south as fu 
Beneath Magellan. MUon, 

The learned Orotius marches his Nor- 
wegians by a pleasant route across frozen 
rivers and arms of the sea. through Iceland* 
Greenland. £stotikmd. and Nommbcga. 

E-te^o-ddg. [Gr. 'EwoitA^v.] (^. # 

Bom. Myth,) A son of (Edipus, king 

of Thebes. He and his brother 

Polvnices agreed to reign alternately, 

each holding the power a year at a 

time. Eteodes did not adhere to his 

engagement, and hence arose the 

Theban war. The brothers at last 

agreed to finish the war by a duel: 

in this they both fell. 

like fitted fteoclM-PoIyniees Brothers, em- 
bracing, though in vain i weeping that they 
must not love, that they must nate only, ana 
die by each other's hands I Ckarkrlt. 

Eternal City. A popular and very 
ancient designation of Rome, which 
was fabled to have been built under 
the favor and immediate direction 
of the gods. The expression, or 
its equivalent, frequently occurs in 

For the '* Key to the Scheme of Ptonunci^tfon,** with the Mcompuiying EzpUuiatioas, 




classic authors, as Livyj Tibullos, 
Quintilian^ &c. In the "JBneid/' Vir- 
gil, following the received tradition, 
represents Jupiter as holding the fol- 
lowing language to Venus, in refer- 
ence to the Romans, who were sup- 
posed to be the descendants of her 
son ^neas: — 

** His ego nee metas remm, nee tempora pono : 
Imperium line fine dedk" Bk. I., v. 78, 79. 

** To them no bounds of empire I assini. 
Nor term of years to their unmortal une.** 

Drjfden's Ihcmt. 

XSttriolc Shepherd. A name com- 
monly given to James Hogg (1772- 
1835)^ the Scottish poet, -vmo was 
bom m the forest of Ettrick. in Sel- 
kirkshire, and in early life lollowed 
the occupation of a shepherd. 

When first, deseending firom the moorlands, 
I saw tlie stream of Yarrow glide 

Along a bare and open Talley, 
The Ettritk Sftt^jiherd was my g^e. 


XSa'oli-o. A character in Plautus^s 
comedy of ^' Aulularia," celebrated 
for his penuiiousness. 

Now 70a must explain all this to me, vnless 
▼on would haye me use you as Ul as EvcUo 
doea Staphyla, in the ^^Anlularia." 

iSStr W. Scott, 

XSu-se'ni-us. An .amiable monitor 
and counselor of Yorick, in Sterne's 
''Life and Opinions of Tristram 
Shandy." He is said to have been 
intended as aportrait of the author's 
friend, John Hall Stevenson. 

Sulenspiegel (oi-len-spe^gel, 43, 58). 
See OwLE-OLAss. 

Xju-msB^us. [Gr. Ev/uuuo«.l {Gr. 4" 

Rom. Myth.) A swine-herd and slave 

of Ulysses, filmed for his fidelity to 

his master. 

This seeond Swneaa strode hastily down 
flie finrest^lade, driying before him, with the 
aasistanee of Fangs, the whole herd of his in- 
haimoniouB ehaige. Sir W. Scott. 

SSu-menfi-cMf . [Gr. EvjMM^f, «. e., 
the gracious or benign goddesses.] 
{Gr. M^.) A eupnemistic name 
given by the Greeks to the Furies, 
whose true name of Erinnyea ihey 
were afraid to utter. See Furies. 

They lie always, those subterranean Evr 
maUdes, — ihbulous, and yet so true, — in the 
dullest existence of man 1 and can dance, 
brandishing their dusky torches, shaking 
their serpent hair. Carlifle. 

Sa-mol'piui. [Gr. EvfM^wof.] {Gr. 

4 Rom* Myth.) A son of Neptone 
and Chione, celebrated as a sin^ or 
bard, and as the founder of the £leu- 
sinian mysteries. 

Eu-phor^ufl. [Gr. Ev^op/iof.] {Gr. 
4" Rom. Mvth.) A Trojan, son of 
Panthous, slain by Menelaus in the 
Trojan war. 

Eu-phros'y-ne. [Gr. Eu^pocrvnf, 
cheerfulness, mirth.] {Gr. 4 Rom, 
Myth.) One of the three Graces. 

Come, thou goddess fidr and ftee. 
In heayen y-cupt Jl^iipArMMie, 
And by men, heart-easing IfirCh. 

Eu'phu-^. [Gr. Eu^tnjv, of good fig- 
ure, comelj, clever.] The principal 
character m Lvly 's two famous works 
entitled ** Euphues, or The Anatomy 
of Wit,** and ''Euphues and his 
England." These works are re- 
markable for their pedantic and fan- 
tastical stylCj and for the monstrous 
and overstramed conceits with which 
they abound. Euphues is represent- 
ed as an Athenian gentleman, distin- 
guished for the elegance of his per- 
son and the beauty of his wit, and 
for his amorous temperament and 
roving disposition. 

£u-ro'p$. [Gr. Evpwin}.] {Gr. 4- Rom, 
Myth.) A beautiful daughter of 
Phcenix, or of Aeenor, earned off by 
Jupiter, under the form of a white 
bull, from Phoenicia to Crete. By 
him she became the mother of Minos 
and Sarpedon. 

Surope, The Nightmare of. See 


Eu-ry^le. [Gr. EvpuoAiy.] {Gr. f 
Rom. Myth.) 1. One of the three 
Goigons. See Gorgons. 

2. A queen of the Amazons. 

3. A daughter of Minos, and the 
mother of Orion. 

Su-ry'$-liui. [Gr. Evp^oAo?.] A Tro- 
jan youth, immortalized by Yirgil as 
the faithfU firiend of Nisus. See 

We haye been Nisus and StiryahUt Theseus 
and Ptrithous. Orestes and F^udes, and— to 
sum up the whole with a puritanic touch — 
I>aYid and JoniUhan, all in one breath. 

Sir W.Scott. 

Eu-ryd'i-oe. [Gr. Evpwa^Kij.] ( Gr. f 
Rom. Myth.) The wife of Orpheus, 

«id for Am Remarks and Bnlea to which the numbers after certain ▼ordszvfer, see pp. ziT^zapdL 




killed by a serpent on her bridal 
day. See Obpheus. 

Orpheus' adf may he&ve his head 
From golden slumber on a bed 
Of heaped ElysUn flowers, and hear 
Such 8bidnB,as would have won the ear 


or Pluto, to haye quite let ikee 
Bia hatf-regtined Eunfdiee. 

Bu-ryi'o-ghufl. [Gr. EwpwAox©?.] {Gr. 
& Bom, Muth.) One of the compan- 
ions of Ulysses in his wanderings, 
and the only one of them who was 
not changed by Circe into a hog. 

XSu-ryn'o-me. [Gr. £vpvvofii|.] ( Gr, 
^ Mom, Mtfh,) A daughter of Oce- 
anoB and Tethjrs, and mother of the 

Zhi-rys'thefis. [Gr. Ev/n/o-^n^.] ( Gr, 
^ Rom, Myth,) A son of Sthenelus. 
and gp-andson bf Perseus, king of 
Mycenae. At Juno's instigation, he 
imposed upon his cousin Hercules 
twelve difficult labors, which he had 
a right to do on account of his prior- 
ity of birth. See Hebcules. 

Xhi-tei^!pe. [Gr. Evrepmi.] (Gr. ^ 
Eom* Myth,) The Muse of music; 
yepresented in ancient works of art 
W1& a flute in her hand. See Muses. 

XS-vad'ne. [Gr. EitdSvriA 1, (Gr. ^ 
Rom, Myth, ) Wife of Capaneus, and 
mothw of Sthenelus. Her husband 
having been killed at the siege of 
Thebes, she threw herself upon the 
ftmeral pile, and was consuqiied with 

2. A female character in Beau- 
mont and Fletcher's play, ^^The 
Maid's Tragedy." 

B-vaiL'd$r. [Gr. E^^oyapo?.] (Gr, ^ 
Rom, Myth,) A son of Mercury by 
an Arcadian nymph. He is fabled 
to have led a Pelasgian colony from 
Arcadia into Italy, about sixtyyears 
before the Trojan war. Maeas, 
when he arrived in Italy, found him 
ttill alive, and formed an alliance 
with him against the Latins. 

Brangelioal Doctor. [Lat. Doctor 
EvangeUcusJ] See Gospel Doctor. 

E- van'&e-line. The heroine of Long- 
fellow' s poem of the same name, 
founded upon the historical incident 
of the expulsion of the inhabitants 

of Acadia firom their homes in the 
year 1755. See Acadia. 

Ctv'ftng, Sir Hush. A pedantic 

Welsh parson and schoolmaster, in 

Shakespeare's " Merry Wives of 

Windsor," of chUdish simplicity and 


The reader may well cry out, with honest 
Sir Hugh Evoau. ^ I like not when a 'ooman 
has a great peard: I spy a great peard under 
her muffler.* Macaulaif, 

Ev^e-li^ The title of a novel by 
Miss Bumey (Madame D'Arblay), 
and the name of its heroine, after- 
ward Lady Orville. 

Sver - memorable John Hales* 
The. See Hales, The Eyeb- 


Evil May-day. {Eng, Bist.) A name 
given to the 1st of May, 1517, on ac- 
count of the dreadful excesses com- 
mitted on that da^ by the apprentices 
and populace against foreigners, par- 
ticularly the French. 

Evil One, The. A name often ap- 
plied to the Devil. See Devil, Tbs. 

£iz-cal'i-bar. The name of Arthur^s 
famous sword, which he pulled out 
of a miraculous stone, in which it 
was inserted as in a sheath, though 
previously two hundred and one of 
the most puissant barons in the realm 
had singly been unable to withdraw 
it. An inscription on the stone 
around the sword stated that who- 
ever should be able to draw it out 
was rightful heir to the throne of 
Britain; and Arthur, in consequence 
(^ his remarkable success, was^ im- 
mediately chosen and proclaimed 
ki^ by general acclamation. When 
about to die, he sent an attendant to 
throw the weapon into a lake hard 
by. Twice eluding the request, the 
knight at last complied. A hand 
and arm arose from the water, and 
caught tiie sword by the hilt, flour' 
ished it thrice, and then sank into 
the lid^e, and was seen no more. 
Tennyson has admirably versified 
this incident in his poem entitled 
"Morte d' Arthur." [Written also 
Kxcalibor, Excalibur, Es^ 
calibar, Escalibor, and Cali^ 

For fhe ** Key to the Scheme of Fronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




" According to fhe English metrl< 
cal romance of * Merlin,' this celebrated 
■word bore the following insciiptlon : — 

*Ich Mn y-hote Eacaliboret 
Unto a king a fUr tresore.' 

XoA it is added, in escplanatioa, —" 

*OnInglisli this writing ^ \ 

** Kerve steel and yren and al thing.*** 

When Arthur first used this sword in 
battle, 4t cast forth a great light fUll 
splendant, with such force tliat all those 
who beheld it thought tliat they wnre 
bnming torches which issued fkom the 
sword; but they were ttw golden letters 
on the sword wliich shone so mig^tiiy.' " 

** No, surely,** replied the kingi ** no sword 
on earth, were it the ExeaUbar of Khig Ar- 
thur, can cut that which opposea no neady 
msiabncetotheblDW. airW,aeoU. 

Ezoekdor State. The State of New 
York, tometixnes so called fipom the 
motto "• ExoeUior " upon its coat of 

Expounder at the Oonstitation. 
A title populariv given to Daniel 
Webster (1782-1852}, on account of 
his elaborate expositions of the Oon- 
stitation of the United States. 

Besolalion. {Amer. 
MtL) A resolution introduced in 
the senate of the United States, on 
the asth of December, 1836, by the 
Hon. Thonoas H. Benton, of Mis- 
souri, by which a resolution adopted 
hv the senate on the 28th of March, 
1834, chaiging ** that the president 
[Jackson], in the late execothre pro- 

ceedings in relation to the public 
revenue, [had] assumed autnority 
and power not conferred by the Con- 
stitution and laws, but in derogation 
of both/' was ordered to be expunged 
from the journal of the senate by 
drawing black lines round the re- 
solve, and writing across the face of 
it, in strong letters, the following 
words: " E^unged, by order of the 

senate, this day of •. a. d. 

1837." Mr. Benton^s resolution was 
adopted on the 16th of March, 1837. 

IBxtermiXkAtor, The. [Fr. VExter- 
nUnatew, Sp. El ExtemUnador.'] A 
name given by the Spaniards to 
Montbars (b. 1645), a notorious 
French adventurer, who signalized 
himself by his intense hatred of that 
people, and by the atrocities he com- 
mitted in the Antilles and other 
Spanish colonies. 

Eyes of Greece, The Two. See 
Two £tes of Greece, The. 

iSyre, Jane (§r, 3). The heroine of 
Miss Charlotte Bronte's novel of the 
same name, a governess, coping 
bravely with adverse circumstances, 
and finally proving her genuine force 
of character by winning the respect 
and love of a man in whom, though 
he had exhausted the world, and 
been exhausted by it, the instincts 
and promptings of a noble nature 
were not dead, but only suppressed. 

Baks to vhleh tte numbeni after dertidii werda refer, tee pp. zlT.-zzziL 





Vao»to'tam» Jo-han'ndf. One who 

18 good at any thin^, who can turn 

his hand to any kind of work; — 

the Latm equivalent of Jach-atroU- 


There Is m npttazi crow rShakespeerel, 
beaufiAil with our feathers, that, with his 
tiger's heart wrapped in a plsrer's hide, sup- 
poses he is as well able to bombast out a blank 
verse as the best of you. and, being an absolute 
Johannes Factotum^ is, in his own eoneeit, the 

only Shake-scene in a oountiy. 

areene*$ Oroatnporth qf WU, UBS. 

Fad^lifc-deexi'. The grand chamber- 
lain of the harem in Moore's " Lalla 
Bookh/'— magnificent, infallible, sen- 
tentious, andSirewd. 

Faff. A subordinate character, in 
Sheridan's comedy of '' The Rivals." 
JEJe is a lying servant to Captain 
Absolute, and *^ wears his master's 
wit as he does his lace, at second- 

I am quite eonseions of my own immuni* 
ties as a Isle-teller. But even the mendacious 
Jfi*. Fctg . . . assures us, that, though he 
never scruples to tell a lie at his master's com- 
mand, yet It hurts his conscience to be found 
out. Sir W. ScotU 

Fa'gin. An old Jew in Dickens's 
" Oliver Twist." who employs young 
persons of both sexes to carry on a 
systematic trade of robbery. 

Vainall, Mr. and Mrs. Noted char- 
acters in Congreve's comedy, " The 
"Way of the World." 

Vaindant, lie 19'oir (lu nw5f tk'nt'- 
5n', 62). [Fr., the Black Sluggard.] 
In Sir "Walter Scott's " Ivanhoe," a 
name applied to the disguised Richard 
Coeur de Lion by the spectators of a 
tournament, on account of his indif- 
ference during a great part of the ac- 
tion, in which, however, he was finally 

Fain6ants, lies Bois (1ft rw5 fft^nft'- 
6n', 62). [Ft., the Do-nothing 
Kings.] A sarcastic designation ap- 
plied to monarchs who delegate their 
authoritv to their ministers, or fi*om 
whom, Dy reason of incapacity and 
weakness, the power has been wrest- 
ed, while they are still permitted 

nomhmUy to leign. The osoal ap^ 

SUcation of the term is to the later 
[erovingian sovereigns of France, 
under whose name uie *' Mayors or 
the Palace" reallv governed the 
country. The epithet Faineant was 
also given in contempt to Louis Y., 
the last of the Carlovingian dynasty. 

X*adr Oity. A name popularly gi\nen 
in Scotland to the town or Perth, 
which is remarkable for the beauty 
of its situation, and for its elegant 

Fair Odr^-dlne. A supposed mis> 
tress of the £arl of Surrey (Henry 
Howard, 1516-1547), whose praises 
he celebrates in a famous sonnet, and 
in other poems, and who has been 
the occasion of much controversy 
among his biographers and critics. 
There is no dom)t, however, that the 
lady called Creraldine in the sonnet 
was an Irish ladv named Elizabeth 
Fitzgerald, the daughter of Glerald 
Fitzgerald, ninth Earl of Kildare, 
and afterward the wife of the Earl of 

Fair Im'o-glae'. The heroine of a 
popular ballad by Matthew Gregory 
Lewis, entitled ^Alonzo the Brave 
and the Fair Imogine." 

Fair Mag^ue-lone^. The heroine of 
an old chivalric romance, entitled 
^^ The History of the Fair Magalona. 
daughter of the King of Naples, ana 
Peter, son of the Count of Provence." 
This romance was originally written 
in French, but was translated into 
Spanish before the middle of the six- 
teenth century. Cervantes alludes to 
Magalona, or Maguelone, in ^*Don 
Quixote." In Gennany, her history 
has been reproduced by Tieck. 

Fair Maid of An'Joii. A name given 
to the Lady Edith Plantagenet, a 
kinswoman of Richard Coeur de Lion, 
and an attendant of his queen JBeren- 

firia. She married David, Earl of 
untingdon, prince royal of Scot- 

For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," vrith the accompanying Explanations, 




^air Maid of (Hllo-wfty. A name 
popularly given to Margaret, the only 
daugbter pf Archibald V., Earl of 
Douglas. She became the wife of 
her cousin, William, to -whom the 

. earldom had passed in the year 1443 ; 

and, after his death, in reluctant obe- 

, dience to the royal command, married 

his brother and successor, James, the 

last £arl of Douglas. 

Fair Maid of Kent. A name given 
to Joan, only daughter of Edmond 
Plantagenet,'Earl of Kent, on account 
of her great beautjr. She was mar- 
ried three times : nrst, to WiUiam de 
Montacute, Earl of Salisbury'-, firom 
whom she was divorced; secondly, 
to Sir Thomas Holland ; thirdly, after 
his death, to her second cousm, Ed- 
ward, the Black Prince, under a dis- 
pensation from the pope, rendered 
necessary bv reason of their consan- 
guinity. By the prince she was 
mother of Richard II., in whose reign 
she died. 

Fair Maid of N'orway. See Maid 
OF Norway. 

Fair Maid of PSrfih (4). The title 
of a novel by Sir Walter Scott, and 
a sobriquet given to the heroine, 
Catherine, or Katie, Glover, **who 
was universally acknowledgea to be 
the most beautifril young woman of 
the city or its vicinity." 

Fair Bo§^m$nd. The name pop- 
ularly £^ven to a daughter of Lord 
Oiffordlfamous in the legendary his- 
toiy of England as the mistress of 
Henry 11. shortly before his acces- 
sion to the throne, and the subject of 
an old baUad. The facts of her his- 
tory are not well ascertained ; but she 
is said to have been kept by her royal 
lover in a secret bower at Woodstock, 
the approaches to which formed a 
lab3nnnth so intricate that it could 
only be discovered by the clew of a 
silken thread, which the king used 
for that purpose. Here Queen El- 
eanor discovered and poisoned her, 
about 1173. 

Fairsenrloe, Andrew. A shrewd 
and humorous Scotch gardener at 
Osbaldistone Hall, in Sir Walter 
Scott's novel of " Rob Roy." 

Fair-Star, Frinoess. See Pbincbss 

Faith, Defender of the. See Db- 


Faithftd. One of the allegorical per- 
sonages in Bunyan's **Pilgnm*8 
Progress," who dies a martyr before 
completing his journey. 

Faithftd, Jacob. The hero of a pop- 
ular novel, by Marryatt, having this 
name for its title. 

F&lkll^nd (fawk'Und). 1. A charac- 
ter in Sheridan's comedy of " The 
Rivals," noted for his wayward, cap- 
tious jealousy. 

2. The true hero of William God- 
win's novel of "Caleb Williams," 
and an impersonation of honor, intel- 
lect, benevolence, and a passionate 
love of fame; but a man driven in a 
moment of ungovernable passion, and 
imder the provocation of the most 
cruel, persevering, and tyrannical 
insult, to commit a murder. His 
fanatical love of reputation urges him 
to conceal the crime; and, in order 
to do this more effectually, he allows 
an innocent man to be executed, and 
his family ruined. Williams, an in- 
telligent peasant-lad taken into the 
service or Falkland, obtains, by an 
accident, a clew to the guilt of his 
master; when the latter, extorting 
from him an oath that he will keep 
his secret, communicates to his de- 
pendent the whole stoiv' of his double 
crime, his remorse, and misery. Tlie 
youth, finding his life insupportable 
from the perpetual suspicion to which 
he^ is exposed, and the restless sur- 
veillance of his master, escapes, and 
is pursued through the greater part 
of the tale bv the unrelenting perse- 
cution of Falkland, who is led, by 
his frantic and unnatural devotion to 
fame, to annihilate, in Williams, the 
evidence of his accumulated guilt. 
At last Williams is formally accused 
by Falkland of robbery, and natural- 
ly discloses before the tribunal the 
dreadful secret which had caused his 
long persecution, and Falkland dies 
<^ shame and a broken heart. 

Fall City. Louisville, Kentucky; — 

and for fhe Remarlu and Bales to which the numbers after certidn words refer, see pp. xiv-xxzii. 




popularly so called from the falls 
which, at this place impede the navi- 
gation of the Ohio Kiver. 

ir&l'stftfl; sir John (2). A fiunous 
character in Shakespeare's comedy 
of the "Merrjr Wives of Wmdsor/* 
and in the First and Second Parts 
of his historical drama of ^^ Henry 
rv. ; " the most perfect comic por- 
trait that was ever drawn by the 
pen of genius. In the former play, 
ne is represented as in love with Mrs. 
Ford and Mrs. Pa^e, who make a 
butt and a dupe of him : in the latter, 
he figures as a soldier and a wit: in 
both he is exhibited as a mcMister of 
fat, sensual, mendacious, boastful, 
and cowardly. See Brook, Mas- 

In tibJs character, Shakespeare is 
tboaght to haTB ridienled Sir John Fcts- 
tdfe., an BngUidi general of the time of 
Henry YI., who had part of the oGmmaad 
before Orleans, in France, and, at the 
Tillage of Patay, set the example of an 
inglorious flight before Joan of Arc, caus- 
ing great destruction of his men, £» which 
cowardice he was d^raded ftom his rank 
as a Knight of the Garter. The opinion 
that Shakespeare intended to caricature 
this personage has been yery generally re- 
oeiyed. Fuller, the church historian, 
■ays, " Nor is our comedian excusable by 
some alteration of his name, writing him 
Sir John FcUstafe, and making him the 
property and pleasure of King Henry V. 
to abuse, seeing the yidnity of sounds 
[doth] intrench on the memory of that 
wor^ykm^t." Shakespeare introduces 
the historical Fastolfe in *'Tbe First 
Part of Henry YI.," and represents his 
conduct at Patay, and his subsequent 
degradation, with historical accuracy. 
But recent commentators deny that he 
was the original of tbe " yaliant Jack 
Falsta£F" of Shakespeare^s other plays, 
and treat the supposition as a gross ab- 
surdity. In the first draught of ** Kfaa« 
Henry lY.," Sir John Falstaff was called 
Sir John Oldcastle^ a name borne by a 
distinguished Wyclifllte who was bom 
under Xdward III., and put to death in 
the fourth year of Henry Y. The change 
in the surname is attributed to rdnon- 
Btranoes on the part of Oldcastle's de- 
scendants. That Shakespeare was derirous 
to do away with any impression that Fal- 
staff andOldcastle were one and the same 
persont^e under difierent names, appears 
from the Epilogue to " The Second PaTt 
of King Henry lY.," in which, after prom- 

ising that the play shall be continued 
*'with Sir John hi it," he says, '<For 
any thing I know, Falstaff shall die of a 
sweat, unless already he be killed with 
your hard opinions ; for Oldeastle died a 
martyr, and this is not the mam,^* 

All BoreHsts hare had oeearion. at some 
time or other, to wish, with Fabtqfff that they 
knew where a commodiiiy of good names was 
to be had. Sir W. Scott. 

Fang;. A sheriff's officer, hi the Second 
Part of Shakespeare^s " King Henry 

Farlnata (desli tJberti) (fft-re-ni^tik 

del'^yee oo-bSFtee). A Ghibelline 

noble of Florence (d. 1624)^ idaced 

by Dante in hell, as a pumshment 

for his infidelity and epicurism. He 

is represented as occupying a red-hot 

tomb, the lid of which is suspended 

over him till the day of iudgm^tL 

vet looking as lofty as if ne scorned 

hell Itself. 

They rthe ItaUanfl of the fonrteenth eentnxy] 
said Uttle of those awfhl and lovely creations 
on which bier criticB delight to dwell, — Fsari- 
fioto, lifting his hanghty and trsBqull brow 
from his couch of eyerla8tanrfire,thelion-Uke 
jepote of Bordello, or tixe I^^ht which shona 
from the celesthl smile of Beatrice. 

Farmer Qearge, A name popularly 
given to George HI. of England, on 
account of his parsimonions disposi- 
tion, plain dress, fkmiliar manners, 
and hear^ and homely good-nature. 
He is said to have ke|^ a £urra at 
Windsor, not for amusement, but be- 
cause he derived a small profit fi:t>m 

Fata SCorgana (fft't& mof-gi'nft). 
The name of a potent faiiy , celebrated 
in the tales of chivalry, and in the 
romantic poems of Italy. She was a 
pupil of the enchanter Merlin, and 
the sister of Arthur, to whom she 
discovered the intrigue of his que«a, 
Geneura, or Guinever. with Lancelot 
of the Lake. In the " Orlando Inna- 
morato " of Bojardo, she appears at 
first as a personification of Fortune, 
inhabiting a splendid residence at 
the bottom of a lake, and dispensing 
all the treasures of the earth ; out she 
is afterward found in her propfer sta- 
tion, subject, with the omer fairies 
and the witches, to the all -potent 
. Demogorgon. [Called also Mcrgaine 
la Fee and Morgtte tiie Fay,"] 

For the *' Key to the Scheme of Fronnnciationft" with the accompanying ibcpliiuUions» 




At flie pvetent day, the appellation 
of Fftta Morgana Is giren to a strange 
meteoric phenomenon, nearly allied to the 
mirage, witnessed, in certain states of the 
tide and weather, in the Straits of Mes- 
sina, between Calabria and Sicily, and 
occasionally, thongh rarely, on otiier 
coasts. It consists in the appearance, in 
the air OTsr the sarfiK» of the sea, of 
multiplied inTerted images of objects on 
the surxonnding coasts, — grores, hills, 
towers, houses, and people, — all rep- 
resented as in a moTing i^ctnre. The 
spectacle Is popularly supposed to be pro- 
duced by the ftiry whose name is given 
to it. 

Not a stream did he mention Irat flowed over 
■ands otgdA, and not a palace tliat waa in- 
fieiior to thoee of ^ celebiated ftUa Morocma. 

Sr W. SeoU, 

Fat Boy, Tlie. A langfaable character 
in Dickens's ** Pickwick Papers;" 
a youtli of astonishing obesity, whose 
emplovment consists in alternate eat- 
ing and sleeping. 

Fates. [Lat Faia.'\ See PABCiS. 

Father of Angling, A title some- 
times given to Izaak Walton (1593- 
1683), the celebrated author of " The 
Complete Angler/* 

Father of British Xnland 19'aTiga- 
tion. A name often given to Francis 
Egerton, Duke of Bridgewater (1736- 
1803), the originator of the first 
navig^able canal constructed in Great 
Britam in modem times, and a zeal- 
ous promoter of other schemes of 
artificial water conmiunication. 

"' By that title he wiU erer be 
known/' H. Martineau. 

Father of Gomedy. A name given 
to Aristophanes (444-^80 b. c.)t one 
of the most celebrated of the Greek 
dramatists, and the only writer of 
the old Greek comedy of whom any 
entire works have been preserved. 
He is remarkable for the richness of 
his fancy, the exuberance of his wit 
and humor, and the Attic purity and 
great simplicity of his style. 

FaUier of Dntch Poetry. A title be- 
stowed upon Jakob Maerlant (1235- 
1300), an early Belgic poet, [Called 
also Pother of FlemUh Poets. J 

Father of ISoolesiastical Bistory. 
A name commonlv given to Eusebius 
of Csesarea (264-340), a very learned 

patristic divine, author of " Historia 
Ecclesiastica,*' an important and valur 
able record of the Cfhristian Church, 
in ten books, reaching from the birth 
of our Saviour to the defeat of Lidn- 
ius by C!onstantine in 324. 

Father of Bngllsh Geology. An 
honorary appellation given to William 
Smith (1769-1840), author of the first 
geological map of England, and the 
original discoverer and teacher, in that 
countnr. of the identification of strata, 
and of tne determination of their suc- 
cession by means of their imbedded 

Father of Ihiglish Poetry. A title 
given by Dryden to Chaucer (four- 
teenth century), as the first great 
English poet 

Father of English Prose. An ap- 
pellation bestowed on Roger Ascham 
(1515-1568), one of our earliest mis- 
cellaneous writers. His style is le- 
firded as a fine example of genuine 

Father of X^plo Poetry. A name 
applied to Homer, the reputed author 
or the " Iliad " and the **0dy8sey," the 
earliest national heroic poems extant. 

The fbrmor compares him [Samuel Rich- 
ankon] to Ilonier, and predieti for his memoiy 

the Mune hononi whfei 
Father qf 1^^ Poetnh 

are rendered to the 
Sir W.SeotU 

Father of Equity. A surname 
conferred on Heneage Finch, Lord 
Nottingham (1621-1682), an English 
lawyer and statesman of the time of 
the KestorationI who had a veiy hieh 
reputation for eio4}uence, sound juc^- 
ment, and int^gnty. His character 
is drawn by Diyden, in his ** Absa- 
lom and Achitopnel,*' mider the name 
of Amri : — 

** To whom the double bleMing doea bdoag, 
With Moaea* faiapiralion, Aaron*a tongue?* 

Father of French History. PFr. 
Le Pkre de PHUioire de France. j A 
title given to Andr^ Duchesne (1584- 
1640), an early and celebrated French 

Father of German Iiiteratore. A 
name frequently given to Crotthold 
Ephraim Lessing (1729-1781), an il- 
lustrious author, and the admitted 
reviver of the national character of 

and for the Bemarka and Rules to whkh the nombezs after certain woxda reliar, see pp. ziv^zzziL 




G^nnan literature, which before his 
time was corrupted and enslaYed by 
French influences. 

_ "Leasing was the Frederick [the 
Great] of thought. By nature wholly 
Teutooie, he too sounded a trumpet<all ; 
and, with a restless energy in no wise in- 
fcrior to Frederick's, am activity and plen- 
itude of resources that orerkMked no 
oppovtnnity, he dashed, now into this 
rei^n of dormant literature, now into 
that unpenetrated department of philoso- 
phy, until he had laid the foundation of 
almost efvery conquest that has illustrated 
the recent erer-memorable career of his 
kindred." J. P. NiekU. 

Father Of Greek Miudo. Anappella^ 
tion ffiyen to Terpander, of Lesbos, 
who fived about the year 676 B.C. He 
first reduced to rules the different 
modes of singing which prevailed in 
different countries, and formed out of 
these rude strains a connected sys- 
tem, from which the Greek music 
never departed throughout all the im- 
provements and refinements of later 

Father of his Ck>untr7. \laX.Paier 
Patriae or Parens PatriiB,'] A title 
given by the Roman senate and forum 
to Cicero, on account of the zeal, 
courage, and prudence he displaced 
in unmaskmg the famous Catilhiarian 
conspiracy, and bringring the leaders 
to punishment- This title was offered 
to Marius, but was refused by him. 
It was subsequently bestowed upon 
several of the Csesars. and was borne 
hy Andronicus Palseologus ( Androni- 
cus n.), by Cosmo de* Medici, and 
by some other European princes. 
The same appellation has been pop- 

. ularlv conferred in America upon 
Washington, of whom Jefferson said, 
"His was the singular destiny and 
merit of leading the armies of his 
country successfully tJirough an ardu- 
ous war for the establishment of its 
independence,*' and *' of conducting 
its councils through Uie birth of a 
government new in its forms and 
principles, until it had settled down 
mto a quiet and orderly train.'' 

Father of his People. [Fr. Le Pert 
de la Pci^e.] 1. A title given by 

.. courtly historians to Louis XIL of 
France (1462-1515), who has the 

reputation of having been a kind- 
hearted and generous king. 

2. A title conferred upon Chris- 
tian lU. of Denmark (1502-1559). 

Father of History. [Lat. PaierHi&^ 
toricB.1 A name given by Cicero 
{Leg. I, i. v.) to Herodotus (484-408, 
B. c). because he was, if not the first 
historian, the first who brought his- 
tory to any great degree of penection. 

Father of Jests. A sobriquet be- 
stowed UTOU Joseph Miller (1684- 
1738), an English comic actor, whose 
name has become widely knovm fh>m 
its connection with a celebrated jest- 
book, the authorship of which was 
ascribed to him, though it was not 
published, pr even comfuled, until af- 
ter his death. 

49* Miller was himself proverbial Ibr 
dullness ; and it is said, that, when any 
risible saying was recounted, his neigh- 
hors would derisively apply it to him on 
account of his taeitumlty and impertux«- 
bable gravity. When he died, his Ihniily 
were left entirely unprovided for ; and a 
Mr. Motley, a well-koown dramatist of 
that day, was employed to collect all the 
stray jests current ahout town, and to 

gublish them for their benefit. Joe Mil- 
>r's name was prefixed, and, fircMn that 
time to this, the man who never uttered 
a jest has oeen the reputed author of 
every jest, past, present, and to come. 

Father of Iietters. [Fr. Le Pert 
dee LeUree.'] 1. An appellation some- 
times given to Francis I. (1494-1547), 
king of France, a distinguished pa- 
tron of literature and literary men. 

2. A title conferred upon Lorenzo 
de' Medici (d. 1492), the ruler of 
Florence, and a munificent patron of 
learning and art. 

Father of Ides. 1. A popular name 
for Satan, or the Devil, the supposed 
instigator of all falsehood. See Dev- 
il, The. 

2. A name sometimes given to 
Herodotus (484-408 b. c), the Greek 
historian, on account of the wonderful 
stories he relates. But the title is not 
merited, and has been given by ^ the 
half-learned, who measure his experi- 
ence by their own ignorance." Inci- 
dental confirmations of his veraci^ 
have been accumulating of late years 
on all sides. 

For the ** Ktj to the Scheme of Fronundation," with Uie sccompanTing Ezplanctiona, 




Father of Medicine. A title often 
applied to Hippocrates (b. b. c. 460), 
tne most famous among the Greek 
physicians, and author of the first 
attempt at a scientific treatment of 

Father of Moivlcs. A title conferred 
npon Ethelwold of Whichester (d.. 
984) by his contemporaries. He is 
celebrated as a reformer of the monas- 
tic orders in England. 

Father of Moral Fliilosophy. An 
appellation bestowed upon Thomas 
Aquinas (1227-1274), the famous 
•scholastic theologian, on account of 
his original, clear, and comprehensive 
treatment of Chnatian ethics. 

Father of Musio. A title bestowed 
upon Giambattista Pietro Aloisio da 
Palestrina (1529-1594), a celebrated 
Italian composer of diurcb music. 
"By his fine taste and admirable 
skifl in harmony," says Bumej, he 
" brought choral music to a degree of 
perfection that has never been ex- 

Father of Omithdlogiflts. A name 
sometimes given to Geoxge Edwards 
(1693-1773), an emhient English 
naturalist, whose works, according to 
Swamson, *'are assurediv the most 
valuable on general omitnology that 
have ever appeared in England." 

Father of Or^odozy. A name often 
given to Atbanasius (296-373), arch- 
bishop of Alexandria, one of the 
brightest ornaments of the early 
Church, and the g^reat defender of 
"orthodoxy" against all heretics, 
especially the Anans. 

Father of Peace. A title conferred 
by the Genoese senate upon Andrea 
Doria (1468-1560), the celebrated 
ruler and admiral. He entered the 
service of Charles Y. against Francis 
I., and became the deliverer of his 
country by expelling the French 
from Genoa. Arter the conclusion of 
peace, Doria was invested with su- 

Ereme jwwer, and the senate awarded 
im the title above named. 
Father of Poetry. 1. A title some- 
times ^ven to Orpheus, of Thrace, 
an ancient Greek poet wno is said to 
• have flourished before Homer, and 

before the siege of Troy, but whose 
existence has been callea in question, 
besides others by Aristotle. 

2. The same tiUe is sometimes 
given to Homer. See Father of 
Epic Poetry. 

Re whom all dTtlimd nationt now ao- 
knowledge as ihe Father qfPoelry^ mtut have 
himself looked back to aa anceatiT oTpoetitid 
predecesion. and is only held original Mcanse 
we know not from whom he copied. 

Sir W.Scott, 

Father of Bidioule. A name some- 
times given to Francois Rabelais 
(1483-1553), the first noteworthy 
comic romancer of modem times, and 
the most original and remarkable of 
all humorists. 

Father of Bong, A title sometimea 
bestowed upon Homer, the supposed 
author of tne earliest Greek heroic 
poems extant, and of some hymns in 
praise of different gods. 

Father of the FaithAil. A name 
often given to Abraham, the pro- 
genitor of the Jewish nation, and the 
hrst depositanr of the divine promises 
in favor of the chosen people. See 
Rom. iv.; GeiL iii. 6-0. 

Father of the Poor. An appellation 
given to Bernard Gilpin (1517-1583), 
a celebrated English reformer, on 
account of his pious and unwearied 
exertions among the poorer classes. 

Father of the Bondo. [Fr. Le Pere 
aux lUmdtaiux.'] A title sometimes 
given to J. B. Davaux (d. 1822), a 
celebrated French musical composer. 

Father of the Vandeville. [Fr. Le 
Fire Joyeuxdu Vatiderille.] A name 
given to Oliver Basselin, a Norman 
poet and artisan, who flourished in 
the fifteenth century, and gave to his 
convivial songs the name of his native 
valley, the Vol -de- Ftre, orj in Old 
French. Vau-de- Fire. This name 
was anerward^ corrupted into the 
modem vaudeville. 

Father of Tragedy. A title bestowed 
by the Athenians upon the poet 
^schylus (B. o. 525-426). The al- 
terations made by him in the com- 
position and representation of tragedy 
were so great, that he was justly 
considered the originator of it. 

Father of Waters. A popular name 

And <br the Bemaxlcs and Bnlcs to whleh the niunben after certain word* xefert 


pp. zir-xxadi. 




ffiren to the river Miseissiimi on ac- 
count of its great length (3160 miles), 
and the very lar^ number of its 
tributaries, of which the Red, the 
Arkansas, the Ohio, the Missouri, the 
Illinois, the Des Moines, the Wiscon- 
sin, and the St. Peter's or Minnesota, 
are the most important. The literal 
signification of the name, which is 
of Indian origm, is said to be " great 

49* The name of tlie ffnat rirer of 
Farther India, tit» Imwaddy, la said to 
mean " Father of Waters." The couise 
of this river is estimated at 1200 miles la 

Father Paul. The name usually 
given to Peter Sarpi (1552-1628), a 
native of Venice, and a celebrated 
ecclesiastic, historian, anatomist, and 
asto^nomer. He is best known by 
his work entitled "A History of the 
Council of Trent" He was a father 
of the order of Servites in Venice, 
and, on assuming the religious habit, 
changed his baptismal name of Peter 
for that of Paul. 

X*ather Frd&t. A pseudonym adopted 
by Francis Mahonv, a popular Eng- 
lish journalist and author of the 
present day. 

Father ThoagbtftiL [Fr. Pere de 
la PeneeeJ] A title given to Nicho- 
las Gatinat (1637-1712), marshal of 
France, by his soldiers, on account 
of his caution and judgment 

Father Violet. [Fr. Le Phre la 
VioktteJ] A nickname ffiv^i by the 
Parisian populace to the Emperor 
Napoleon I. See Violet, Corpo- 

Fathom, Fl»rdlnand, Oount. The 
title of a novel by Smollett, and the 
name of its principal character, a 
c(»nplete villain, wno proceeds step 
by step to rob his benefactors and 
pillage mankind, and who finally 
dies m misery and deepaln 

The atuidy genin* ef modem philoaophy 
ha* got her in much the Mune ritoation that 
Oouni Fatliam has the woman that he lashes 
before him from the robbera'cavein deforest. 

Ouuiet lamb. 

Fatl-n^. 1. A female miracle-work- 
er, m the stoiy of "Aladdin," in the 
''Ara^aa Nights* Entertainments." 

2. The last of the wives of Blue- 
beard, and the only one who escaped 
being murdered by him. See Blub- 


« WeU, gnaidian," said I, "irithont thfaik- 
ing mjBelF a FcOima, or you a Blue-beard, I 
am a little curious about ft" Didbau. 

F4iin, or Fdu'nxis. {Rom, Myth.) A 
king of Italy, said to have flourished 
about 1900 years b. c.^ and regarded 
as the promoter of agriculture among 
his subjects, and as one of the great 
Sunders of the religion of the coun- 
try. After his death, he was wor- 
shiped as the protecting god of woods, 
fields, and shepherds, and as an 
mracular and prophetic divinity. As 
a rural deity, he coiresponded in 
many of his attributes to the Greek 
Pan ; and hence arose the idea of a 

{dundity of Fauns, or Fauni, assimi- 
ated to die Greek Panes or sat^, 
and rej^resented as monster deities, 
with tails, short homs, pointed ears, 
and ffoats' legs and feet, with the 
rest <n the body human, to whom all 
terrifying sounds and appearances 
were ascribed. 

In shadier bower, 
Hore sacred and aeqiuestered, thou^ hut 

Fan or ^tvanns nerer depti nor nymwh 
Nor Fommu haunted. JEUon. 

F4u'n$. (Rom. Myth.) The jHxyphesy- 
ing wife or sister of Faunus. 

Faust ( Ger. pron, fff^st; AnpHdzed 
fawst.) The hero and title of a cele- 
brated drama of Goethe, the materials 
of whidh are drawn in part from 
the popidar legends of Dr. Faustus. 
Faust IS a student who is toiling after 
knowledge bevond his reach, and 
who afterward deserts his studies, 
and makes a pact with the Devil 
(Mephistopheles), in pursuance of 
which he gives himself up to the full 
ei^oyment of Ihe senses, until the 
hour of his doom arrives, when 
Mephistopheles re-appears u])on the 
scene, and carries off his victim as a 
condemned soul. On one occasion, 
Mephisto^d^eles porovided him with 
a mantle by which he was wafted 
through the air whithersoever he 
desired. See Margaret, Mbphis- 
TOPHBLES, and Wagher. 

l%e mytbioallaiurt cbrtes ftom the 

For «li»««Key to Hw Sefaeme of Fnmi 





period of the Reformation. The iinmer- 
ous legends connected with the name ail 
xeier to a certain Dr. FaostQB, reputed to 
be a celebrated magidan and necroman- 
cer, who flonzicihed dozing the latter half 
of tiie fifteenth and the b^^inning of the 
aixteenth centuriee, and who is often con- 
fi>anded with Johann Faust, or Fust, the 
aasociate of Qutenberg in the inTention 
of the ait of printing. It has been by 
many strenuously maintained that no 
■uch person erar existed, and that the 
name has been fluieiftiUy imputed to some 
ma^idaii ob feaistwnt m rebui peraetu 
dijS^ciiUinis tuece^sum. As long ago as 
the seyenteenth century, two books were 
written with the purpose of proving the 
historical nonentity of Dr. Faustus. Mod- 
em criticism, however, leaves little room 
for doubting that there was a real person 
of this name. Faustus occupies the same 
place in reference to the popular super- 
stitions of Germany that the enchanter 
Merlin does to those of England, that Don 
Joan holds in Spain, Robert of Normandy 
in France, and Virgil in Italy. The Goe- 
thean Fbust is tiie highest farm which 
the txadition has attained. See iiifirii. 

jQS* " As in Germany all popular wit 
elnsters about Bnleuspiegri, so all that is 
weird, mysterious, and magical, — all that 
foretokens the terrible abyss of hell, — 
groups itself about the storv of Faost." 

Sckeiidie^ Trans. 

He sajB, la eo numy words, . . . ** Socie^ 
■alls through the inflnitude on cloth, as on a 
FauutB mantle . . . t and, without such . . . 
mantle, would sfaik to endless depths, or 
mount to hiane limbos, and in either case be 
BO m<Mre.** Oor^rle. 

VkoMtoB, The hero of Marlowe's 
tragedy of the same name ; repre- 
sented as a vulgar sorcerer tempted 
to sell his soul to the Devil (Mepnos- 
tophilis) on condition of having a 
familiar spirit at his command, the 
possession of earthly power and ^lory, 
and nnlimited gratification of his sen- 
flmal appetites, for twenty-four years, 
at the end of which time, when the 
forfeit comes to be exacted, he shrinks 
and shudders in agony and remorse, 
imploring yet deqiairing of the mercy 
of Heaven. 

The tnditton of thu maj^dan 
Faustus was early transplanted to Eng- 
land ftom Germany. In the same year 
(1587-6) In which the first history of 
Faust appeared in Germany, one ap- 
peared in Bng^nd written by Bishop 
Aylmer. The transition ftom history to 
the drama was soon made, Bfarlowe's 

*' Faustus" having been oompoaed not 
later, probably, than 1589 or 1680, and 
having been entered in the Stationem* 
books in 1600-1. See Faust. 

F$-vo'ni-U8. [Lat., from /avere, to 
' &vor.] {Rom. Myth.) A personifi- 
cation of the . west wind, r^oparded 
as the harbinger and attendant of 
spring, and a promoter g£ vegetation ; 
tne same as Zq>kynu, See Zbthy- 


Te delicatel ... for whom 
The winter rose must blow, . . . and aOky 

Favomitig breathe still softer or be chid. 

Faw'ni-$. The mistress or lady-love 
of'Dorastos, in the old romance of 
this name. See Dor^stus. 

FeeUe. A recruit, in the Second Part 
of Shakespeare's " King Henry IV." 
Falstaff calls him ''most forcible 
Feeble ;" and this expression is some- 
times used to stigmatize writers 
whose productions are characterized 
bv great apparent vigor, though re- 
ally tame or jejune. 

He fAytoun] would pnige his book of much 
ofltensive matter, if be struck oat epithefes 
which are in the bad taste of HheforcUfU- 
feOte schooL Jfbrth Brit. Sev, 

Felioianfl, The (fe-lish'&nz). An im- 
aginaiy people described by Mercier 
de la Riviere (1720-1794), the French 
economist, in his work entitled '' L* 
Heureuse Nation ; " represented as 
free and sovereign, and living under 
the absolute empire of laws. 

Feniz-mar'teofHjhNoa'ni-ft. The 
hero of an old romance of cnivaliy, 
written by Melchior de Orteza Cabal- 
lero de Ubeda, and printed at Yalla- 
dolid in the year 1566. His father's 
name being Florisan, and his moth- 
er's Martedifta^ it was sujergested that 
he should be called Fhnsmarte, after 
both of his parents. ^ His mother, 
however, preferred Felixmarte. 

The curate, in " Don Quixote," 
condemned- this work to the fliunes, and 
Lockhart speaks of it as a "dull and 
affected folio :" but Dr. Johnson was of a 
different opinion, according to Boswell, 
who relates the following anecdote of him, 
on the authority of Bishop Percy : " The 
bishop said the doctor, when a boy, was 
immoderately fond of romamces of chiv- 
alry, and he had retained his fondness 
for them through life ; so that, spending 

and ftr the Wtnni''T and Badee to whiidi the muabnra after certain words refer, see pp. ziv-zzzU. 




port of a summer at my panpnage-hoiue 
tothe country, he chose for his regular 
leading the old Spanish romance of 
*■ Felixmarte of Hyrcania/ in folio, which 
he read quite through." 

Female Hd^'lrd. A title often 

fiven to Mrs. Elizabeth Fry (1780- 
844), an Englishwoman celebrated 
for her benevolent exertions to im- 
prove the condition of lunatics and 
Fe-nell$. A fairy-like creature — a 
deaf and dumb attendant on the 
Countess of Derby — in Sir Walter 
. Scott's " Peveril of the Peak " taken 
^ from the sketch of Mignon in Goethe's 
" Wilhehn Meister." See Mignon. 

Fenrir (fen'rSf). {ScaneL Mifih.) A 
frightful demon wolf, the offspring of 
Loki, chained by the gods, and cast 
down into Niflheim, where he is to 
remain until Ragnarok. ^Written 
also, but erroneously, F e n r i s .] 

Fen'ton (4n). A character in Shake- 
speare's " Merry Wives of Windsor," 
who wooes the rich Anne Page for 
her money, but soon discovers inward 
treasures in her which quite trans- 
form him. 

Ferdinand. 1. A character in Shake- 
speare's "Tempest." He is son of 
the kinjg of Naples, and falls in love 
with Miranda, the daughter of Pros- 

Firo, a banished Duke of Milan. See 
BOSFEBo and Miranda. 

Yet oft to fimcy's chapel she would go 
r To pay her vows, and coont the xosaiy o*er 
Of her love's promised graces : — haply so 
IGnnda's hope had pictured Ferdintma 
Lmg ere the gaunt wave tossed him on the 
shore. LotoeO. 

2. King of Navarre, a character in 
"Love's Labor 's Lost." 

FSr'gOB (4). The same as Ferracule, 
See Ferracute. 

Fern, Fanny. A pseudonym adopt- 
ed by Mrs. Sarah Pay son (Willis) 
Parton (b. 1811), a popular American 

Feman CabaUero. See Cabai/- 
LERo, Fernan. 

Fe-ro'ni-|. {Bom. Myth.) An an- 
cient Itidian deity, the patroness of 
plants and of freedmen. 

Ffir'r^-otLte, or F6p'r$-ou'tu8. [It., 
sharp-iron.] The name of a giant 

in Turpin's "Chronicle of Charle- 
magne," the prototype of Pulci's 
Morgante, and a very famous char- 
acter in all the old chivalric romances. 
He was of the race of Goliath, had 
the strength of forty men, and was 
twenty cuoits high, ^is skin was so 
thick that no lance or sword could 
pierce it. During the suspension oi a 
mortal combat with Orlando, the two 
antagonists discussed the masteries 
of me Christian faith, wmch its 
champion exnlalned bv a variety of 
similes and tne most oeautiful oeg- 
gings of the question; after which 
me giant staked the credit of their 
respective beliefs on the event of their 
encounter, which was, that he was dis- 
armed ana put to death bv Orlando, 
who was divinely endowed with irre- 
sistible strength for this express pur- 
FSr'r$-stui. A giant who flourished 
in romantic fable ; the same as Fer- 
racute. See Ferracute. 

My siie's tall finrm night grace thepait 
(XFerraaw or Ascapart .Sir W. Scott. 

FerraiL (f^-rft-6oO* The same as 
Ferracute. See Ferracute. 

Fdr'rez. A son of a fabulous king 
of Britain, Gorbogudo or Gorbodego, 
and brother of Porrex, by whom be 
was driven out of the country, and, 
on attempting to return, with a laige 
army, was defeated and slain. But 
Porrex himself was shortly after put 
to death by his mother, with the as- 
sistance of some of her women. The 
two brothers figure in an old tragedy, 
commonly called after them " Ferrex 
and Porrex," but sometimes named 
" Gorboduc," after their father. Hal- 
liwell says that it was " the first reg- 
ular historical play in the English 
language." Tne first three acts 
were written by Thomas Norton ; the 
last two by Thomas SackvUle, after- 
wards Lord Buckhurst. 

FSr'um-brfts, Sir. The hero of an 
old Englisn metrical romance of the 
same name, professedly translated 
from a French original, probably 
"Fierabras." (See Fierabras.) An 
analysis of the stoxy may be found in 
Ellis's '' Specimens of Early English 
Metrical Romances," vol. ii. 

For the *'&«y to the Scheme of Fionuiieiation," with the eooomiMmyiiig EzplanatfoiM, 




Flammetta (fe-ftm-met'tl 102). [It, 
little flame, from^omma, Lat^/Iomma, 
flame.] A name given by Boccaccio 
to a lady whom he loved, and who 
is generally believed to have been 
Maria, a natural dao^hter of Robert, 
king of Nimles. It is used by him 
in many or his works. 

Ti-defLe. A feigned name assumed 
by Imogen, in Shakespeare's ** Cym- 
beUne." See Imogen. 

Field of Blood. 1. A translation of 
the Hebrew word Aceldama, the 
name given to the piece of land pur- 
chased by the chief priests with the 
thirtv pieces of silver for which Ju- 
das Detrayed his Master, and which 
he afterward, in remorse, carried 
back and cast down in the temple 
before those who had bribed lum. 
(Matt. xxviL 5.) 

2. [It Pezzo ai Sangue,"] A name 
— not of classical origin — given to 
the battle-fleld of Cann», on which 
Hannibal, in the year 216 b. c, 
defeated the Bomans with great 

Field of MoumiiiA;. A name given 
to the place of a battle, near the ci^ 
of Aragon, between the Christians 
and the Moors, July 17, 1134. 

Field of Peterloo. SeePETBBLOo, 


Field of the Oloth of Gk>ld. A 
name given to an open plain, between 
Ardres and Guisnes, where Henry 
. Yin. of England had an interview, 
' in 1520, with Francis I. of France, in 
a pavilion of golden doth. The no- 
bility of both kingdoms embraced 
tiie opportunity to £splay their mag- 
niflcenoe with the utmost emulation 
and piofuseness of expense. 

I BnmxMed jon miut have aerred m a yeo- 
num or the goaid since Bluff Kins Henry's 
time, and expected to hear sometaing. from 
yon about the .ReJii t/tke Chtk q? Go& 

Sir W.Scott. 

Thev [Petaareh's beet eompoeitionel diflhr 
ftom them niii bad onee] aa a M^y-day pro- 
eeaaion of enimn^Hiweepen diffloa ftom the 
Field qf the Cloth of CmST MaccaOav. 

Fierabraa (fe^ft'ri'brft'). The hero 
of various old romantic poems that 
relate the conquest of Spain by 
Charlemagne and his Twelve Peers. 
Fierabras, who was a Saracen, made 

himself master of Rome, and carried 
away fit)m it various sacred relics, 
especially the crown of thorns, and 
the balsam which was used in em- 
balming the body of the Saviour, 
and which possessed medicinal prop- 
erties of sovereign virtue, a smgle 
drop, taken internally, being suffi- 
cient to restore the continuity of ^e 
most cruelly mangled skin. 

GonTerancee m<ne rapid than the hippogrlff 
of Rugriero, arms more Ibimidable than th« 
lance <^ Astolfo, remedies more efficacioua 
than the balsam of HieroibroN. Mhrowiny. 

Fifth Doctor of the Ghnrdh. A 
title bestowed upon Thomas Aqui- 
nas, the most celebrated schoolman 
of the Middle Ages. See Angeljo 

Fifth Monarchy. A universal mon- 
archy, which, in the belief of a 
Strang religious sect of inland, in 
the tune of the Civil War and the 
Protectorate, was to succeed the fall 
of the Roman Empire, the fourth of 
the four great monuchies of Anti- 
christ marked out by the prophet 
Daniel. This monarchy, it was be- 
lieved, was to be given into the hands 
of the saints of the Most High ; and, 
under it, all the forms of violoice 
and suflering hitherto attendant on 
the governments of this world were 
to cease. In other words, it was to 
be the kingdom of Christ on earth. 
But it was to be set up with the 
sword, and the usual worldly expe- 
dients were to be employed for me 
purpose of securing partisans. In 
pohtics, the Fifth Monarchy men 
were republicans of the extremest' 
views, and conspired to murder tilie 
Protector and revolutionize the gov- 
ernment. It is said that they actual- 
l}r proceeded to elect Jesus Christ 
king at London! Cromwell dis- 
persed them in 1653. 

Figaro (fe'gft^ro'). The hero of Beau- 
marchais* celebrated comedies, ^*La 
Barbier de Seville '* and " Le Mari- 
age de Figaro." In the first of these 
plavs, Figaro is a barber; in the sec- 
ond, a valet-de-diambre. In both 
characters, he coolly outwits every 
one with whom he has any dealings. 
The name has passed into common 

«Bd ftr file Benaxka and Bolaa to irhlch the munben after certain woxda refttr* see pp. xIt-xzxU. 




speech, and is used to derignate an 
intriguer, a go-between; in general, 
any adroit and unscnipulous person. 
MoxarL Paesiello. and Rossini have 
made Figaro the kero of operas. 

" In ngiio, BcaTunmnhiils has 
penonified ttie tiers^tai, superior in i»it, 
mdustry. and activity to birth, rank, or 
fortune, in whose hand lies the political 
power ; so that the idea of the piece is 
not only a satirical allegory upon the 
ooramment and nobility of that epoch, 
but a liying manil^to upon the inequal- 
ity, just or no^ust, of society." Aose. 

frighlaiig Prelate. A sobriouet gireo 
to Heniy Spenser^ bii^op of Norwich, 
in the reign of Bichard II. During 
the rebellion of Wat Tyler, he dis- 
tinguished himself by his decisive 
style of dealing with uie insurgents : 
first meeting mem in the fiela, and 
then, when he had routed them, ex- 
changing his sword and armor for a 
crucmx and sacerdotal robes, and, 
thus arra3red, confessing and absolv- 
ing his prisoners as he hurried them 
to the gibbet. In 1383, he went over 
to the Continent to assist the bui*gher8 
of Ghent in their contest with the 
Count of Flanders and the French 
king, and in support of the cause of 
Uiban YI.T in the general European 
war excited by the struggle between 
that pope and his rival, Clement YII. 

The BiBhop of Norwich, the fiunona Fight- 
ing Prelate, nad led an annj into Flanaen. 
B&na obliged to return, with dlacomfltnre, he 
had Been changed with breach ot the condi- 
tfons on which a sum of money was granted 
to him, and ttM temporalitieB of his aee were 
■equMtered. Lord OamipbeU. 

Pilommxa, St» See St. Filomena. 

Finality Jolin. A sobriquet given 
to Lord John Russell (b. 1792), a dis- 
tinguished English statesman, and an 
earnest advocate of the Reform Bill 
of 1831, which he regarded as a ** fi- 

Fifi'g^I, or Fin-g4l'. A mythicia 
hero,* whose name occurs in Gaelic 
ballads and traditions, and in Mac- 
pherson's " Poems of Ossian." 

First (Jenflenuui of Burope (9). A 
title given by many, during his life- 
time, to King George IV . of England 
(1762-1830), on account of his posi- 
tion and pex^nal attractions. 

Fint Booteh Beformer. A title 
conferred upon Patrick Hamilton 
(1503-1527)^ who waa burnt at the 
stake for hu dissemination of Lu- 
theran doctrines. 

Fita-Boo^dle, Gtoorge. A pseudo- 
nym under which Thackeray (1811- 
1863) contributed to ** Eraser's Mag- 
aaine " a variety of tales, criticisms, 
descriptive sketches, and verses, all of 
which were characterized by a deli- 
cate irony, a profound knowled^ of 
the woria, and a playful bat vigor- 
ous and trenchant style. 

Flam'b^r-oiwha, The Hist (fl&m'- 
biir-^). Snobbish female charac- 
ters in (loldsmitfa's novel, ^ The Vic- 
ar of Wakefield." 

FUn'd^»MoU. The sabjeet of De 
Foe's novel of the same name, a tale 
of low vice. 

Fte^n9e. A son of Bangno, in Shake-< 
speare's tragedy of " Macbeth.'* 

Fle't^. A Latinized name of the Fleet 
prison in London, and the title of an 
ancient law-book written by an uik 
known author who waa for a time 
confined in this prison. 

FlibOier-ti-gibnMt. 1. The name 
of a 'fiend mentioned by Rdgar, in 
Shakespeare's tragedy of "£mff 

About the tfaae of the attempted 
Spanish inyasion of Bnglaud, some Jes- 
uits, for the sake of making oonyerts, 
pretended to cast out a large numbw of 
eyil spirits flrom the ftmily of Mr. ISA- 
mund Peckham, a Bodian Catholic. By 
(Oder of ttie privy oounoil, Bishop Han- 
net wrote and pubUdied a tall account 
of the impoatuve. Most ot the fiends 
mentioned by Edgar are to be found in 
that work. 

Frateretto, FKberdiaibetf Hoberdidance. To- 
oobatto, were ftmr aerila of the round, or 
morioe; tiicae fbnr had tartr asditenti under . 
them, 88 themBelvee do cosuMse. 

Bartnet, DwlarttHen t)f Egngiem FopUk 

This Ib the Aral flend FHaertigibbet; he 
l>^in8 at euiftw, and walks till the first cock; 
he eives the web and the idn, squints the eye, 
ana makes the harelip, mildews the white 
wheat, and huxte the poor creature of eartii. 


FBSherHffSUiet, [flie fiendl of mopping and 
mowinr. who smee poasesMs dauuMr-'maida 
and watong^women. Skak. 

2. A name given to Dickon Sludge, 

Fer the **KKr te the Bchan* of Paaanndatton," with the araioamanyiiig 




a bef who figures in Sir Walter 
Scott's novel of '' Kenilworth/* and 
acts thfi part of an imp at the enter- 
tainments given to Queen Elizabeth 
by the Earl of Leicester* 

ino'r$ (9). (Born. My^) The goddess 

of flowers and spring-time. 

Then, witti Toiee 
WML M whm Zephynu on Flora UhiwIIim, 
Her aand soft toaoluiig, whiq^end thiu. 


Flor'de-llQe. The mistress of Bran- 
dimart, in Ariosto's ^ Oriando Fori- 
oso." See Biuhdimabt. 

morde^pina (flof-des-pe^nft), or 
FlQr'deB-pine. A female charac- 
ter in Ariosto's ** Orlando Forioso," 
daughter of MarsigUo. 

Flo-ren'ti-us. A knight whose stonr 
18 related in the first book of Gower^s 
'^Confessio Amantifc" He bound 
himself to many a deformed hag, 
provided she taught him the solution 
of a riddle on wfaieh his life de- 

•taacef not altogether ocnudstent irith 
feminine delicai^, as haTing left the eonrt 
of the fidry queen in punuit of a knight 
who did not vna return her passion." 

€ho. A SROard. 

Vlo^roB, The lover of Blandiefleur 
in Boccaccio's *^ Philopoco," and in 
other old tales and poems. See 


mdr'i-xneL A female character in 
Spenser's " Faeiy Queen." A ma- 
fignant witch is represented as hav- 
ing fikbricated, out of snow, tempei^d 
** with fine mercury and vii^in wax/' 
a counterfeit Florimel so like the true 
one that it was next to impossible to 
perceive any difference between them ; 
bat, on being traced side by side, — 

** The enchanted dameelTaniriied intonanghtt 
Her snowy sabsteaoe melted as with heat; 
Ne of that goodly hue remainM anght 
Bat th» empty |dM]a which abont lier waiat 
was wrogghi." 

49" " Her name is compounded of 
two Latin words L/K7«, genitire floris^ 
and mel] mammbng kmuy and fhnoers^ 
thus betokening the sweet and delioate 
elements of which her natnie is molded. 
She seems to exprass the gentle delieacj 
and timid sensitiTCoess of woman ; and 
her adve ntmes , the perils and rude en- 
counters to which those qualities axe ex- 
posed in a worid of passion and Tiolence. 
She flees alike ftom friend and fbe, and 
finds treaebefy in flioee upon whom she 
had thrown hersetf foe protection ; and 
yet she is introduced to us under cireum- 


I'ldr'ia-inairt. The name of one of 
Charlemagne's Twelve Peers, and 
the feithful fiiend of Oriando, or 

Fldrl-aeL A prince of Bohemia, in 
Shakespeare's "Winter's Tale," in 
love with Perdita. See Pebdita. 

Flour Gity- A popular designation, 
in the United States, for die dty of 
Rochester, New York, a place re- 
markable for its extensive manu&c- 
tories of floor. 

Flower City. A name fandHariy 
given to Springfield, minois, the 
capital of the State, it is distin- 
guiBhed fer the beauty of its en- 

Flower of Chivalry. A name dven 
by his contemporaries to Wuliam 
of Douglas, lordof Liddesdale, in the 
fourteenth century. 

Flower of Kings. FLat. FJob Rtr- 
gvm.'\ A name applied to Arthur, 
the renowned and half-fabulous king 
of ancient Britain; — first given to 
him by Joseph of Exeter, a Latin 
poet of the twelfth century. 

Flower of Poets. A tide conferred 
upon Chaucer by hia contemporaries. 

Flowery Kingdom. A translation 
of the words Bwa iTiooA, a name often 
given to China by the inhabitants, 
who consider themselves to be the 
most polished and civilised of all 
niUions, as the epithet hwa intimates. 

FltL-ellen. A Welsh captain who is 
an amusing pedant, in Snakespeare's 
historical ^y of " Henry V.'^ 

Lofd Mabon will And, we think, that hie 
peiallel it, in all eflaential drctunnancee, as 
mcorrect aa that which FlneUen drew between 
liacedoa and Monmoatii. Jfocaalay. 

The ardiiteet worked fund fat weeks 
In Tenting all hia jnriTate pedu 
Upon the roofiWhose crop of lealoi 
Had saliafled FhuOau LowetL 

Flying Dutotaman. The name given 
by sailors to a spectral ship, which 

aad iartteBenuBfca and Bales to irtiich thaanmhexa after certain worda reftt, aee pp. zir-zzziL 




is 8npi>osed to cruise in storms off the 
Cape of Good Hope, and the sight of 
which is considered the worst of all 
possible omens. She is distinguished 
m>m earthly vessels by bearing a 
press of sail when all others are un- 
able, ftom stress of weather, to show 
an inch of canvas. The cause of her 
wandering is variously explained: 
according to one account, a Dutch 
captain, bound home from the Indies, 
met with long-continued head-winds 
and heavy weather off the Cape of 
Good Hope, and refused to put back 
as he was advised to do, swearing a 
very profane oath that he would beat 
rouna the Cape, if he had to beat 
there untU the Day of Judgment. He 
was taken at his word, and doomed 
to beat against head-winds all his 
days. His sails are believed to have 
become thin and sere, his ship's sides 
white witih age, and himself and crew 
reduced almost to shadows. He can- 
not heave to, or lower a boat, but 
sometimes hails vessels through his 
trumpet, and requests them to take 
letters home for him. Dr. John 
Leyden, who introduces the stoi^ 
of the Flying Dutchman into his 
^* Scenes of &ancy,'' imputes, with 
I>oetical ingenuity, the doom of the 
ship to its having been the first to 
engage in the slave-trade. But the 
common tradition is, as stated by 
Sir Walter Scott, *^that she was 
originally a vessel loaded with great 
wealth, on board of which some 
horrid act of murder and piracy had 
been committed; that tne plague 
broke out among the wicked crew, 
who had perpetrated the crime, and 
that they sailed in vain from port to 
port, offering, as the price of snelter, 
tiie whole of their ill-gotten wealth; 
that th^ were exclucted fix)m evenr 
harbor, for fear of the contagion which 
was devouring them ; and that, as a 
punishment of their crimes, the ap- 
parition of the ship still continues to 
naunt those seas in which the catas- 
trophe took place." The superstition 
has its origin, probably, in the loom- 
ing, or apparent suspension in the 
air, of some ship out of sight, — a 
phenomenon sometimes witnessed at 

sea, and caused by unequal refrac- 
tion in the lower strata of the at- 
mosphere. Manyatt's novel entitied 
''The Phantom Ship" is founded 
upon this legend. 

That Phantom Ship, whoM form 
Shoots like a meteor through the storm; 
When the dark scud comes drivixig haio, ■ 
And towered is every top-sail yard. 
And caavas. wove in earthly looms, 
No more to brave the storm presumesi 
Then, *mid the wmr of sea and sky. 
Top and top-gallant hoisted higli, 
Fnll-«preaa and crowded eveiy saQ, 
The Demon Frigate braves the gale; 
And well the doomed spectators know 
The harbinger of wreck and woe. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Let this simple word [No, in answer to a 
claim for ** recognition " on the part of the 
**Conftderate Slates ^ be uttered, and the 
audacious Slave-Power will \» no better than 
the FtymgDutehmaiL, that flunous craft, which, 
darkened by piracy and murder, was doomed 
to ft perpetual cruise, unable to entera port. 

Chariet Smnner. 

Flying Hi^^liwayiiiaii. A sobriquet 
given to William Harrow, a noted 
highway robber, executed at Hertford 
(Eng.). March 28, 1763. He was so 
call^ from his practice of leaping his 
horse over the turnpikes, wEdch en- 
abled him for a time to escape detec- 

Foible. An intri^ng lady Vmaid in 
Congreve's "Way of the World," 
who plays her mistress false. 

Foi'gard. A mendacious and hypo- 
critical priest, in Farquhar's " Beaux* 
Stratagem," who acts the part of a 

We remember no Friar Dominie, no Father 
Foigard, among the duuracters drawn by fhoee 
great poets [the dramatists of the £Uzabethaa 
age]. Maeamlav^ 

Fondlewife. An uxorious banker in 
Congreve's " Old Bachelor." 

Fontainebleau, Decree of. See 
Decree of Fontainebleau. 

Fool, Tom. A popular nickname for 
a fool, or foolish person. 

" Englishmen bestowed upon Kent 
the reproach that the tails cut firom 
Becket'a mules by his enemies had been 
transferred to themselTes, and fixrdgners 
extended the imputation to the whole 
nation, insomuch that, as Jcnnyille tells 
us, the stout Barl of Salisbury and his 
men were goaded on to perish in their 
last fatal charge on the banks of the Nile 
by the French scoff that they would not 
take the front lest their tails should be 
detected. It is just i>os8ible that Tom 

For the ** Key to the Scheme of Frononciation,*' with the accompanying Explanations, 




Fool may be eonnectod vith thb story, 
ihongh more probably with some jester 
of fo^otten &me/ ' Yonge. 

The ancient and noble flunily of Tmn FooL 
which has obtained such pre-eminence and 
^gnity in Church and State throughout all 
<^iistendom. Qu. Bev. 

Fods' Paradise. See Limbo. 

Foot-breadth. The sword of Thoralf 
Skolinson the Strong, a companion of 
of Hako I. of Norway, distinguished 
for his strength and braveiy. See 


Fop'pins-ton, Iiord. An emphr cox- 
comb^ intent only on dress and fash- 
ion, in Yanbrugh's comedy, ^^The 

The shoe-maker in " The Relapse " tells 
Lord FoppmgUm that his lordship is mistaken 
in supposmg that hia shoe pinches. 


Ford, Master. A jealous gentleman 
dweUing at Windsor, in Shake- 
speare's comedy of " The Merry 
Wives of Windsor." 

Ford, Mrs. One of the *' Merry 
Wives of Windsor," in Shakespeare's 
play of that name. Sir John I* <dstaff 
IS in love with her, and she encourages 
his attentions for a time, in order to be- 
tray and disgrace him. See Bbook, 

Forest City. 1. A name popularly 
given to Cleveland, Ohio, from the 
many ornamental trees with which 
the streets are bordered. 

2. A name ^ven to Portland, 
Maine, a city distinguished for its 
many elms and other beautiful shade- 

3. A name given to Savannah, 
Georgia, the streets of which are 
dos^ shaded with pride -of- India 
{Margosa Azedftrak) trees. 

Forester, Fanny. A nom de phtme 
of Miss EmUy Chubbuck (1817-1854), 
a popular American authoress^ after- 
ward the wife of Adoniram Judson, 
the missionary. 

Forester, Frank. Apseudonym un- 
der which Henry William Herbert 
(1807-1858), a versatile English 
author, long resident in America, 
published a number of works on 
mwling,* fishing, and field-sports in 

For'naz. {Bom, Myth,) A goddess 
of com, and the patroness of bakers. 

Forseti (fof'sft-tee). [Old Norse, j)re8- 
ident, from for, before, and titja, to 
sit.] (Scand. Myth,) The god of 
justice, a son of Baldur. [Written 
abo Forsete.] 

For'tin-br^s. Prince of Norway, in 
Shakespeare's tragedy of *^ Hamlet.'* ' 

For-ta'n$. {Rom, Myth,) The god" 
dess of chance or luck, particularly 
of good luck, success, and prosperity ; 
said to be blind. 

Fortunate Islands. See Islands of 
THE Blest. 

For'ta-na'tus. The hero of a (German 
popular romance of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, based upon legends of an earlier 

The story leeounts how, when he 
had been exposed to great dangers from 
wild beasts, and was m a state of stanra- 
tion, he suddenly beheld a beautiful lady 
standing by his side, with a bandage over 
her eyes, leaning upon a wheel, and look- 
ing as if she were g^ing to speak. The 
la^y did not wait long before she ad- 
dressed him in these words: "Know, 
Soung man, that my name is Fortime. I 
ave power to bestow wisdom, strength, 
riches, health, beauty, and long lilb. One 
of these I am willing to bestow on you. 
Choose for yourself which it shall be." 
Fortunatus immediately answered, "Good 
lady, I wish to have riches in such plenty 
that I may never again know what it is 
to be so hungry as I now find myself.'* 
The lady then gave him a purse, and told 
him, that, in aJl the countries where he 
might happen to be, he need only put his 
hand into the purse, as often as he 
pleased, and he would be sure to find in 
it pieces of gold ; that the purse should 
never fidl of yielding the same sum as 
long as it should be kept by himself and 
children. It is Aurther related, that a 
certain sultan led Fortunatus to a room 
almost filled with jewels, opened a large 
closet, and took out a cap, which he said 
was of greater value than all the rest. 
Fortunatus thought the sultan was jok- 
ing, and told him he had seen many a 
better cap than that. "Ah," said the 
sultAn, " that is because you do not know 
its value. Whoever puts this cap on his 
head, and wishes to be in any part of the 
world, will find himself there in a mo- 
ment." The story has a moral ending, 
inasmuch as the possession of tiiis inex- 
haustible purse uid wishing-cap are the 

and for the Bemarks and Bnles to which the nnmbem after certain words xefbr, see pp. xiv-zxzii. 




eaoBe of ndn to FortniMtiig, and to 
bis ionB after him. The sulgeet wad 
dnmatiaed hj Haas Sachs In 1558, and 
by Thomafl Dekker in his ** Pleasant Com- 
edle of Old Fortonatus " (1600); and in 
modem times it has been poeticallj treat- 
ed by Lodwig TIeck in his " Phantasns" 

With a mincnloQS Fortunatvif$ pnne in Ua 
trsMuiy, it mifl^ hare bated knifer. 


7or-ta'ni-o (6). The hero of a pop- 
ular tale, closely allied to that of For- 
tonatus, — with whom he is pertiaps 
identical, — but which has generally 
been treated as an independent stoiy. 
He is famous for his adYOiture with 
a dragon, in the pursuit of which he 
made use of those manrelous servitors, 
Fine-ear, who, ^'putting his ear to 
tbe ground, informed his master that 
the dragon was seven leagues off; " 
Tippler, who " druok up allthe rivers 
which were between;" Strong-back, 
who ^* carried wine enough to fill 
them all ; " Light-foot, Boisteier, and 

Fort7 Thieves. Characters of a cele- 
brated tale in the ^ Arabian Nights* 
Entertainments," represented as in- 
habiting a secret cave in a forest, the 
door ofwhich would open and shut 
only at the sound of ihe magic word 
" Sesame," — the name of a kind of 
grain. See Baba, Ali. 

AU Baba, when he entered the care of the 
Forty Thmvea^ could not have been more 
amaied by the wealCh of its contents than 
some people will be when they first read the 
title of thu book. PubtanC$ Mag. 

Forwards, Iffarshal. See Habshal 


Foul-weather Jack. A name given 
to Commodore Byron (1728-1786), 
bv the men who suled under him, in 
allusion to his ill fortune at sea. 

Fountain of Idfe. A title given to 
Alexander Hales, an JBnglish firiar of 
the thirteenth century, and a distin- 
guished schoolman. He was more 
commonly styled Tke brtfragti^ 

Fountain of Youth. A miraculous 
fountain, whose waters were fabled to 
have the property of renewing youth. 
See BiMiNi. 

Four Masters, The. pLat. QuaJtuor 
Magitfyri,'^ A name given to the 

authon of an ancient Irish history 
called **The Annals of Donegal.'' 
Their names were Michael O'Clerigh, 
or Clerk, Maurice and Fearfeafa 
Conry, and Cucoirighe, or Peregrine, 

DiaToIo. (frft de4'vo-lo). [It, 
Brother Devil.] A sobriquet of 
Michele Pezza (1760-1806), a native 
of Calabria. According to some ac- 
counts, he was in early life a goat- 
herd, afterward a monk, under the 
name of Fra Angela, Others say that 
he was apprenticed to a stockmger. 
Escaping nrom the workshop or the 
monastery, he joined himself to a 
band of robbers, of which he soon 
became the leader. On the arrival 
of the French, he declared for the 
kinK of Naples, and in 1799 received 
pardon and office from Cardinal Buffo, 
organized his band, and made an 
incursion into the Boman territory. 
Subseauently he rej^abred to Palermo, 
where ne took part m an insurrection 
under the leadership of Commodore 
Sidney Smith. Being taken prisoner 
by treachery at San Severino, he was 
hanged at Naples, Nov. 1806, not- 
withstanding toe mtercession of tiie 
English on nis behalf, prompted by 
respect for his military prowess. B[e 
has been made the suoject of various 
traditions and songs, and of an opera 
by Aubcr, entitled " Fra Diavolo,^' in 
which, however, nothing of the char^ 
actor but the name has been retained. 

Fran-oes'c$ of Bim'i-nt (It. pron. 
frftn-ches^kft). A daughter of Guido 
da Polenta, lord of Ravenna in the 
latter part of the thirteenth century. 
She was married to Lanciotto, son 
of Malatesta da Rimini, a brave but 
deformed and hateful person, who, 
having discovered a criminal in- 
timacy between her and his own 
brother, revenged himself by putting 
them both to death. The story of 
Francesca forms one of the most ad- 
mired episodes in Dante^s " Inferno," 
and has also been made the subject 
of a poem by Leigh Sunt. 

Frank'en-stein. A monster, in Mrs. 
Shelley's romance of the same name, 
constructed by a young student or 

fof ttw **K^ to flMr 8dMS»of Pranoaciatton*" with tbe accompuiTfaig ExplKaaXbana, 




physiology ont of the horrid rem- 
nants of tne chnrch-vard and dissect- 
ing-room, and enduedi apparently 
through the agency of galvanismi 
with a sort of spectral and convulsive 
life. This existence, rendered insup- 
portable to the monster by his vain 
craving after human svmpathy, and 
by his consciousness of his own de- 
formity, is employed in inflicting the 
most dreadful retribution upon the 
guilty philosopher. 

It [theaouthen ** Ooii*denH7*l wffl be the 
•oaltaM monster of .FWinfawleM,— the wretch- 
ed ereatUm of mortal acience without Oodi 
endowed with lift and notiiin^ elw; for erer 
rasing madly* the acandal to humanity i jpow- 
«ml only tot evUt whoie destruction will be 
emeaiialto the peace of the world. 

C9karle$ Sttnmtr. 

jTraVSr-et'to. The name of a fiend 
mentioned by Edgar, in Shake- 
speare's tragedy or " King Lear." 


jPree-bom John. John Lilbume 
(1613-1657), a &mous English repub- 
lican; — popularly so cafied on ac- 
ooont of his intrepid defense, before 
the tribunal of the Star Chamber, of 
his rij^its as a free-born Englishman. 

Treoman, ICrs. An assumed name 
under which the Duchess of Marl- 
borough corresponded with Queen 
Anne. See Morlbt, Mrs. 

Freeport, Sir Andrew. The name 
of one of the members of the imagi- 
nary club under whose auspices tue 
** Spectator *' was professedly is- 
Ba&d, He is represented as a Lon- 
don merchant of great eminence and 
experience, industrious, sensible, and 

Freestone State. The State of Con- 
nectieut; — sometimes so called from 
the quarries of freestone which it con- 

FreisohatB (frl'shiits. 51). [Ger., the 
free-shooter ; Fr. JCcinn da BoUJ] 
The name of a k^^endaiy hunter, or 
marksman, who, by entering into a 
compact with the Devil, procures 
balls, six of which infaUioly hit, 
however great the distance, while the 
asrenthyor, according to some of the 
Teisions, one of the seven, belong 
to the Devil, who cUrects it at his 
{Measure. Legends of this nature 

were life among the troopers of Qer- 
many of the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries, and during the Thirty 
Years' war. The stoiy first ap- 
peared in a poetic form in 1810, m 
ApePs *' Gespensterbuch " ("Ghost- 
book ' ' ), and F. Kind adapted the stoiy 
to the opera composed oy Weber in 
1821, which has made it known in 

all civilized countries. 


French DeviL An opprobrious title 
given by the Englisn, Dutch, and 
Spanish to Jean Bwth, or Bart (1651- 
1702), a French naval hero cele- 
bratea for his boldness and success 
in battle. 

French Fa'bi-us. A surname be- 
stowed um>n Anne (1499-1567), first 
Duke of Montmorency, grand con- 
stable of France, on account of his 
success in nearly destroying the im- 
perial army which had inviMed Pro- 
vence, by the'pohcT of laying waste 
the counby and skillfuUv prolong- 
ing the campaign. See Aioebican 

FrendhFury. {HitL) A name given 
to the attempt made by the DuKe of 
Anjou to carry Antwerp by storm, 
Jan. 17. 1583. The whole of his force 
was either killed or taken captive in 
less than an hour. 

French Fhid'i-^ 1. A title be- 
stowed upon Jean Goiyon (d. 1572). 
a celebrated Parisian sculptor ana 
architect, in the reigns of Fraads I. 
and Henry II. 

2. A title conferred upon Jean 
Baptiste Pigalle (1714r-1785), an emi- 
nent French sculptor; but not hap- 
pily, as his taste cannot be said to 
DC classical. 

French Fin'd^r. A title bestowed 
upon Jean Dorat, a French poet of 
the sixteenth century. Chanes IX. 
created expressly for him the ofiice 
ofPodte RouaL He died at Paris in 
1582, aged 80 years. 

French BSph'lUeL A title conferred 
upon Eustace Le Sueur (1617-1655), 
a distinguished French painter. 

French Bos'ci-us (rosh^-us). Mi- 
chael Baron (1653-1727), a celebrated 
French actor. 

aad fot the Bemarka and Rules to which the namben after oertaln words refer, see pp. zlv-xxxlt. 




frendh Solomon. See Solomon of 

Frenoh Tl-biillus. [Fr. Le Tibtdle 

FrangaisJ] A surname given to 

. !^variste D^sir^ Desforges, Chevalier 

de Pamy (1753-1814), a French 

elegiac and erotic poet. 

Fres'tdn. An enchanter or necro- 

' manoer who figures in many terrible 

scenes of the old romance of " Don 

Belianis of Greece.^' 

Not Muniaton. but JVeston, ycm should 
have saidf cried iJon Quixote. Truly, quoth 
the niece, I can't tell whether it was I^restotit 
or Friston, but sure I am that his name 
ended with a " ton." CervcaUeSt lYaiu. 

Frey (ftl. 42). {Scand. Myth.) The 
god of tne sun and of rain, and hence 
of fertility and peace. He was one 
of the most popular of the Northern 
divinities. [Written also F r e y r.] 

Freyja (fil'yft). {Scand. Myth.) The 
goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and 
fecundity. She was the sister of 
Frey, and the wife of Odur, who aban- 
doned her on her loss of youth and 
beauty, and was changed into a statue 
by Odin, as a punishment. [Writ- 
ten also Freyia and Frey a.] 

Friar Dom'i-nio. The chief person- 
age in Dryden's play^ *^ The Spanish 
Friar,'* designed to ndicule the vices 
of the priesmood. It is the best of 
his comic characters. 

Friar (jl^dr'uiid. The hero of a cele- 
brated Spanish satirical romance by 
Padre Isla (1703-1781), designed to 
ridicule the style of pulpit oratory in 
vogue in his day, — oratory degraded 
hy bad taste, by conceits, puns, and 
tricks of composition, and even by 

' low buffoonery, indmged in merely 
to win the applause and increase the 
contributions of vulgar audiences. 
"The famous preacher. Friar Ger- 

. nnd," is one of tiiese popular orators; 
and Isla describes his life from his 
birth in an obscure village, through 
his education in a £E»hionable con- 
vent, and his adventures as a mission- 
ary about the country, the fiction 
ending abruptly with his preparation 
to deliver a course of sermons in a 
city that seems intended to represent 

Friar John. The name of one of the 

most celebrated characters in Rabe- 
lais' romance of " Pantagruel." 

4^ " Throughout the book, he dashes 
on, regardless of every thing In this world 
or the next. If there is a shipwreck or a 
skirmish, Friar John is foremost in the 
bustle; fear is imknown to him; if a 
joke more than usually profiuie is to be 
uttered. Friar John is the spokesman. 
The swearing, bullying phrases are all 

Eat in the moutii of Friar John. Babe- 
kis loyed this lusty firiar, this mass of 
lewdness, debauchery, profanity, and 
valor. He is the *flne fellow' of the 
book ; and the author always seems in a 
good humor when he makes him talk." 

For. Qtt. Rev. 

And as to a dinner, fh^ can no more do 
without Um than they could without Friar 
John at the roiBteiing revels of the renowned 
FantagrueL W. JSrving. 

Then came the Rebellion, and, presto ! » 
flaw in our titles was discorered, . . . «nd we 
were ... no relations of theirs after all, but a 
dreggy hybrid of the basest bloods of Europe. 
Pan urge was not quicker to call fHarJohn 
his ** former " friend. LoweU. 

Friar Ij&a'rence. A Franciscan who 
undertakes to many Romeo and 
Juliet, in Shakespeare's tragedy of 
that name. 

Friar Bush. [Lat. Frater Mawckuu, 
Ger. Bruder Bauschy Dan. Brod&r 
Euw. His name signines either noisej 
as Grimm thinks, or, as Wolf deems. 
drunkenness. Comp. Old £ng. rouse.} 
A house-spirit, celebrated in the mar- 
velous legends of old times. His 
historv was printed in 1620, and had 
probably been often printed before. 
The whole tale is designed as a severe 
satire upon the monks, the pretended 
friar bemg sent firom hell m conse- 
quence of news, brought to the prince 
of devils, " of the great misrule and 
vile living of these religious men ; to 
keep them still in that state, and worse 
if it might be." 

Quis non legit q.uid JPHOer Baxuchivs erit? 

Bruno Sdcklhu. 

Friar Tuok. One of the constant 
associates of Robin Hood, to whom 
Ben Jonson (in his *^Sad Shep- 
herd") makes him chaplain and 
steward. According to some, he was 
a real monk. Sir Walter Scott has 
introduced him in " Ivanhoe," with 
^at success, as the Holy Clerk of 

Frib'ble (-bl). A feeble-minded cox- 

09^ For the ** Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation,** with the accompanying Explanations, 




comb in Garrick's farce entitled " Miss 
in her Teens; " much given to cod- 
dling himself, and "sadlj troubled 
with weak nerves." 

Could this sad, thonghtfkil eonntenanoe be 
the same . . . that had looked out ... so 
blankly divested of all meaning, or resolutely 
expreuiiTe of none, in Acres, in /Wbble, and a 
thousand agreeable impertinences? 


The ihshionable FrUibXea ot the day, the 
chat, scandal, and amusements of those at- 
tending the wells, and the canting hypocrisy 
of some sectarians, are depicted, sometimes 
witii indelicacy, but always with force and 
Uvcdiness. R. Cftdmbers. 

Friday, llCan. The name of a young 

IndiiUD whom Robinson Crusoe saved 

from death on a Friday, and kept for 

a companion and servant. 

Even before they wne acquainted, he had 
admired Osborne in secret. Now he was his 
valet, his dog, his Matn Friday. Thadceraj/. 

Friend of Man. [Fr. L'Ami des 
Hommes.] A name popularly given 
to Victor Riquetti, Marquis de Mira- 
beau (1715-1789), from the title of 
one of his works. He was a distin- 
guished political economist, and was 
uither of the great tribune, Mirabeau. 

Fris'g^ (Scand. Myth.) The wife 
of Odin, the queen of the gods, and 
the mother of Baldur, Thor, &c. 
She sometimes typifies the earth, as 
Odin does the heavens. The An^o- 
Saxons worshiped her as Frea. The 
name survives in Friday, 

Fria^co-bSl'do. A character in Dek- 
ker's " Honest Whore." Hazlitt pro- 
nounces it perfect, in its way, as a 
picture of a broken-hearted fiither 
with a sneer on his lips and a tear- 
drop in his eye. 

Frithiof(frith'3f-Cf,orfrith'y5f). Peel. 
Fridhthjqfry peace-destroyer.] The 
hero of an ancient Icelandic ^ saga," 
which records his love for the beauti- 
ful Ingeboig, the dau^ter of a petty 
Norwegian King. After being reject- 
ed by the brothers of Ingeborg, and 
having committed various acts of re- 
venge on his enemies, he comes to 
the court of the old Hring, to 
whom Ingeborg has been married, 
and is received with kindness. At the 
death of her husband, Ingeborg is 
married to her lover^ who acquires 
with her hand the dommions of Hring, 

over which he rules prosperously 
to the end of his days. The dia- 
tinguished Swedish poet, Bishop 
Tegn^r, has made use of this mytn 
as the groundwork of a poem of his 
own (" Frithjof s Saga "), which has 
obtained a wide reputation, and has 
beed translated into various modem 
languages. [Written also Frith- 
Fritz, Der Alte (dSf &l'tft frits). [Ger., 
Old Fritz, Old Fred.] A sobnquet 

f'ven by the Germans to Frederick 
(1712-1786) kmg of Prussia, com- 
monly called Frederick the Great. 

Fros, TSlio. A sportive collective 
name applied to the Dutch, in Arbuth- 
not's "History of John Bull." 

I back your IRe I^rog aninst MoQier Fluv 
tlngiton. MocUb Jmbrotianct. 

TPrdlo, Archdeacon GUude (Fr. 
pron. klod frol'lo'). A noted charac- 
ter in Victor Hugo's "Notre-Dame 
de Paris," absorbed in a bewildering 
search after the philosophers' stone. 
He has a great reputation for sanc- 
tity, but laUs in love with a gypsy 
gin, and pursues her with unrelent- 
mg persecution, because she will not 
yield to his desires. 

Front de BoBufl See Bosuf, Fbost 


Frontino (fron-te^no). The name 
given, in the old romances of chivalry, 
to the horse of Ruggiero, or Rogero. 

Go, Bozinante, ... go rear thy awAil flont 
wherever thon pleasest, secure that neither 
the hippogiifTon of Astolpho. norths renowned 
Ihmtmot which Bradamanie porehased at so 
high a pnoe, ooold erer be thought thy ea uaL 
CervaiUe$, Don Quvcote. 

Frost, Jack. A popular personifica- 
tion of frost. 

4^ Frost is the name of a dwarf in the 
Scandinavian mythology, and Ferguson 
suggests that our nursery hero, Jack 
Frost, may be derived ftom that source. 

Froth. 1. (Master.) A foolish gentle- 
man, in Shakespeare's- ** Measure for 
Measure." His name explains his 
character, which is without solidity 
enou^ tor deep crime, and £u: too 
light for virtue. 

We hare dealt with the tale Teiymucb ao- 
eording to the clown's aignment in fkvor of 
JfoslerJ'VvlA;** Look upon his ikoe. Ill be 

and ftr the Bemaiks and Sules to which the nnmbers after certain words reftr, see pp. ziy-xzxil. 




•worn upon abook {hat his fliee te the wont 
piiit about him; and if hb ftce be the wont 
nut about htm, how could Matter Froih do 
the ccmatable'swifb any harm ?" Sir W.Scott. 

2. (IfOrd.) A solemn coxcomb, 
in Congreve'g oomed.7 <rf "The 
Doable Dealer." 

Vudse* Mr. A contemptaous desig- 
nation bestowed upon any absurd or 
lying writer or talker. See Bub- 

" There was, sir, in our time, one 
Oaptain Fudge, commander of a mer- 
ehantman, who, upon his return ftom a 
Toyage, how ill fraught soeyer his ship 
was, always brought home to his owners 
a good cargo of Ues^ hisomuoh that now 
alxiard ship the sailon, when they hear a 
great lie told, cry out, ♦ Tou fudge it.» " 
Remarks upon Vu Navy (London, 1700). 
** In the year 1664, we were sentenced for 
banishment to Jamaica by Judges Hyde 
and Twisden, and our number was 65. 
We were put on board the ship Black 
Bagle ; the master's name was Fudge, by 
some called Lying Fudge." A Collection 
of some Papers of WilHam Crouch (8to, 

45^ " With a due respect to their an- 
tiquity, and the unchanged reputation 
always attached to the name, we have 
long held in high consideration the an- 
cient &mily of Fudges. Some of them, 
as we know, have long resided in England, 
md hate been eyer ready to aaslit in her 
domestic squabbles and political changes. 
But their favorite place of residence we 
understand to be in Ireland. Their usual 
modes of expresdon, indeed, are akin to 
the flguratiTe talk ox the Bmerald island- 
ers." Brit. ^ For. Rev. 

Vudge Family. A name under which 
the poet Moore, in a series of metrical 
epistles, purporting to be written by 
the memaers of a family of English 
tourists visiting Paris, satirized the 
absurdities of his traveling countiy- 
men, who, having been long confined 
ftt home by the wars waged by Na- 
poleon, flocked to the continent in 
swarms, after his defeat at Waterloo. 
The family is composed of a hack 
writer and spy, devoted to legitimacy, 
the Bourbona, and Lord Castlerea^h ; 
his son, a young dandy of the first 
water: and his daughter, a senti- 
mental dfunsel, rapturously fond of 
"romance, and high bonnete, and 
Madame Le Roy," in love with a 
Parisian linen-draper, whom she has 

mistaken fbr one of the Bourbons in 

disguise. There is also a tutor and 

" poor relation " of this egregious 

famihr^ who is an ardent Bonapartist 

and insh patriot. 

No sooner are we seated at flie gwy saloon 
hi Dessin'Bjihan ire call, Uke Biddy Fudge, 
fbr *' French pens and French ink." 

Jfiv. Jomeaoi^ 

Funk, Peter. A person emi>loyed at 
petty auctions to Did on articles put 
up for sale, in order to raise their 
price ; — probably so called fix>m such 
a name having frequenUy been given 
when articles were bought in. To 
Junk J or funk outy is a vulgar expres- 
sion, meaning to slink away, to take 
one's self off. In some localities, it 
conveys the added notion of great 

"By thus running up goods, Ftoter 
is of great service to the auctioneers, 
though he never pays tiiem a cent of 
money. Indeed, it is not his intention to 
purchase, nor is it that of the auctioneer 
that he should. Goods, nerertheless, are 
frequently struck off to him ; and tiien 
the salesman cries out ibo name of Ifr. 
Smith, Mr. Johnson, or some other among 
the hundred aliases of Peter Funk, as the 
purchaser. But the goods, on such oc- 
caidons, are always taken back by the 
anctioQeer, agreeably to a secret under- 
standing between him and Peter.'* 

Asa Greene. 

Furies. HLat FuriaJ] (Gr, 4 ^^^' 
Myth.) The three goddessesof ven- 
geance, daughters of Acheron and 
JN ox. They were armed with lighted 
torches, their heads were wreathed 
witili snakes, and their whole ap- 
pearance was terrific and appalling. 
Their names were Alecto, Me^sera, 
and Tisiphone. [Called also Er%mnyt» 
and Buimemdes.'i 

Furioflo, Bombastes. SeeBoHBAs- 


Furloso, Orlttado. See Oblajipo. 

Fuabertft (f($6s-b«f'tft.) The name of 
tiie sword of Rinaldo. See Batard, 
2. and Rinaldo. [Written also 
Frusberta, Fnshoerta, and 

This ** airftil sword," as flie eomraen people 
term it, was as dear to him as Dtuindana or 
FtuNberia to their respectire masters, and was 
nearly as formidable to his enemies as those 
renowned fU«Alona pcoTed to tte foea of 
Cauistendom. Sir W. SeotL 

For the "Key to the Scheme <tf Sronondation," with the acoompanyisg Explanations, 





Gftlni-el. [Heb., migh^ one of God.] 
The name of an angel described in 
the Scri^tmes as charged with the 
ministration of comfort and symjuUhy 
to man. He was sent to Daniel to 
interpret in plain words the vision of 
tiie ram and the he-goat, and to com- 
fort him, after his prayer, with the 
prophecy of the "seventy weeks.'* 
(See Dan. vili. and ix.) In the 
New Testament {Luke i.), he is the 
herald of good tidings, declaring as 
he does the coming of the predicted 
Messiah, and of his forenmner, John 
the Baptist. In the ordinary tradi- 
tions, Jewish and Christian, Gabriel 
is spoken of as one of the seven arch- 
an^ls. According to the Rabbins, 
he IS the angel of death for the people 
of Israel, whose souls are intrusted to 
his care. The Talmud describes him 
as the prince of fire, and as the spirit 
who presides over thunder, and the 
ripemn^ of fruits. Gabriel has the 
reputation, among the Rabbins, of 
being a distinguished linguist, hav- 
ing taught Joseph the seventy lan- 
l^oages spoken at Babel, and being, 
in addition, the only an^el who could 
speak Chaldee and Syriae. The 
Mohammedans hold Eun in even 
greater reverence than the Jews. He 
18 called the spirit of truth, and is 
believed to have dictated the Koran 
to Mohammed. Milton posts him at 
*'the eastern gate of Paradise,*' as 
** chief of the angelic guards," keep- 
ing watch there. 

GadsliiU. A companion of Sir John 
Falstoff, in the First Part of Shake- 
speare's " King Hemy IV.'* 

Ga1i9r-i8, Sir. A brother of Sir 
Gawain, and a knight of the Round 
Table, celebrated in old romances of 

GSl'ft-h^ Sir. The son of Lancelot 
of the Lake, and a knight of the 
Bound Table, remarkabfe for the 
purity of his lii^. His successful ad- 
ventures in search of the sangieal 

were celebrated by the old romancen, 
and have been made the subject, in 
modem times, of one of the most ex- 
qmsite of Tennyson's minor poems. 
^Written also G a 1 a a d.] 

GhUalon. See Gajs. 

(Hl'ft-dr. A brother of Amadis de 
Gaul! His explmts are recounted in 
the romance oi that name. 

Oft-laph'ro-ne, or Gal'|-fr(n. A 

king of Cathay, and father of An- 
gelica, in BqJMxlo's " Orlando Inna- 
morato," Anosto's "Orlando Furi- 
oso," and other romantic poems and 
tales of the Carlovingian cycle. 

OXL'%-W%. [Gr. PoAareta.] ( Gr. ^ Bom. 
Myth.) A sea-nymph, the daugh- 
ter of Nereus and -Doris. She was 
passionately loved by Polyphemus, 
out her own affections were oestowea 
upon Acis. See Acis. 

Qe^WUBJi. A character in the Christ- 
mas gambols of the olden time. 

Gttlli-f. The ancient Latin name of 
France, often used in modem poetry. 

For gold let Gdaic^ legions fight, 

Or plunder's bloody gain; 
TJnhnbed, unbonght, our swords w« di«ir» 
To enard our king, to fence our lair, 

Kor shall their edge be vun. 

air W. SeoU. 

GflUopin£f Diok. A name popularly 

fiven to Richard Ferguson, a cele- 
rated highway robber, — executed 
at Aylesbury (England), April 4, 
1800, — on account of his oola riding 
when pursued. 

Galloway, Fair Maid of. See Faib 
Maid of Gaixoway. 

Gtammer Ghirton. See Gubton, 

Gamp, Mrs. Sarah. A monthly nnrse 
who is a prominent chimuster in 
Didcens's novel of *^ Martin Chuz- 
zlewit." She is celebrated for her 
constant reference to a certain Mrs. 
Harris, a purely imi^inaiy person, 
for whose feigned opmions and ut- 
terances she professes the greatest 
respect, iu oraer to give the more 

and ftr the Bemarks and Roles to which the niunbers after certain words refer, see pp.xiT-xniI. 




weight to her own. See Harris, 
Oan (gftn), Gkinelone (gft-nft-lo^nft), 
GKmelon {giin'\t^% 62), or Gkino 
(gi'no). A count of Mayence, and 
one of the paladins of Charlemagnei 
by whom he is perpetually trusted, 
and whom he perpetually betrays; 
always represented as engaged in 
machinations for the destruction of 
Christianity. Spite, patience, obsti- 
nacy, dissimulation, affected humility, 
and inexhaustible powers of intrigue 
are the chief elements of his charac- 
ter. He figures in the romantic 
poems of Italy, and is placed by 
t)ante in his Inferno. See Mar- 
siOLio. [Written also G a 1 a 1 o n.] 

Have you not, all of you, held me at such a 
dbtance from your oounaek. as if I were the 
most ftithless spy aince the days of Oanelon t 

Sir W. ScoU. 

Hehner the fleree, who was the GoMcIcm of 
ttie locie^, lat upon the left. S. Weber. 

Oan'ddr-oleu^ (-klook). [That is, 
gander-cliff, or grander-ravine.^ An 
imaginary town situated on the imag- 
inary river Grander, in ** the central 
part, the navel of Scotland." It was 
the residence of Jedediah Cleish- 
botham (see Cleishbotham, Jede- 
diah), who speaks of it as *^ a place 
frequented by most at one time or 
other in their lives.*' 

Ga'nem. The name of a young 
merchant who is the hero of one of 
the tales in the ** Arabian Nights' 
Entertainments." He incurs the 
vengeance of Caliph Haroun-Al-Ba- 
schid, and has his house leveled to 
the gix)und in consequence, but es- 
capes being made a prisoner by dis- 
guising himself like a slave belonging 
to an eating-house, and putting on 
his head the dishes from whi<£ he 
had just eaten dinnw, — a trick 
which effectually deceives the guards, 
who permit him to pass without ex- 

Gan'e-sft. (Sindtt Mifih,) The god 
of ]>olicy and prudence, or wisdom. 
He is represented with tne head of an 
elephant, and with four arms; some- 
times with three arms. 

The tentti Avalar corneal at UeaTen^ com- 
Shall Seriiiwattee ware her hallowed wand, 

And Camdeo bjrisht and Otaieea siiUime 
I bless 
clime 1 

_ _ irig] 

Shall bless with joy their own proidHoiM 

Come, Heavenly Fowersl primeval peace re- 
Love,— Mercy,— "Wisdom, — rule for ever- 
more 1 CStnapbeU. 

Gfln'j^-mede. [6r. Fowftifdi}?, Lat. 
Ganipnedes,! {Gr, ^ Rom. Myth.) 
A son of Xros, king of Troy, b^ 
Callirrhoe. He was me most beauti* 
ful of mortals ; and Jupiter, charmed 
with his appearance, assumed the 
form of an eagle, snatched him away 
ftova. his playmates on Mount Ida, 
and carried him up to heaven, where 
he became the cup-bearer of thesods 
m the place of Juno^s daughter l^be. 
See Hebe. [Written also, poetically, 

Tall stripling youths rich dad, of fldrer hue 
Than Oiavgmed or Hylas. JHSIton. 

Four forth heaven's wine, Idaan Qawifmede, 
And let itflU the Dssdal cups like fire. 



?here, too. flushed Ganvmede^ his rosy thigh 
Half buried in the eagle's down, 

lole as a flying star shm through the sky 
Alwve the pulaied town. Temnfeon, 

Ghuroias, Pedro (pa^dro gaf-the^ftss). 
A mythical personage, of whom men- 
tion is made in the preface to ** Gil 
Bias." in which it is related how two 
scholars of Salamanca discovered 
a tombstone with the inscription, 
''Here lies interred the toul of the 
licentiate Pedro Garcias," and how, 
on digging beneath the stone, they 
found a leathern purse containing u 
hundred ducats. 

Then it was like the soul of the lioentiaie 
Pedro Oorcuis, which lay among the ducats 
in his leathern pune. Sir W. Scott, 

On the other hand, does not his soul lia 
Inclosed in tills remarkable volume much 
more truly than Pedro Oareicuf did In the 
buried bag of doubloons? OaHifle. 

Garden Oltj. A popular name for 
Chicago, a city in Illinois which is 
remarkaole for the number and 
beauty of its private gardens. 

Oarden of England. A name gen- 
erally applied to the coun^ of Wor- 
cester, on account of its beauty and 

If the county of Worcester, which has 
hitherto been accounted the Oordm qfJ£tuf- 
landt is now (as the Beport of the Home Mis- 
idonary assures us) become, for want of 
preachers, *' a wuteand howling wndemess," 
what must the mountains of Maegillicnddy 
be? T. Moore, 

Tor the ** Key to the Scheme of Fronunclation,** with the Moamptsyiiif E»yl>nati<wis, 




Qarden of Europe. An appellation 
sometimes given to Italy, a country 
remarkable for the extreme fertility 
of its soil, the variety of its vegetable 
productions, the general salubrity of 
Its climate, and the unsurpassed love- 
liness and magnificence of its scenery. 

Ghurden of France. [Fr. Jardin de 
la France,"] A name given to the 
department of Indre-et- Loire, in- 
cluding Tourraine, part of Anjou, 
Poitou, and the Orleanais, a r^ion 
celebrated for its beauty and fertility . 

Ghffden of Italy. A name sometimes 
^iven to the island of Sicily, which 
18 distinguished for the romantic 
beau^ of its scenery, and the luxuri- 
ance of its crops. 

Ghtrden of the West. A name 
usually given to Kansas, but some- 
times applied to Illinois and otibiers 
of the Western States, which are all 
noted for their productiveness. 

Qarden of the World. A name fre- 
quently given to the vast countrv, 
comprising more than 1,200,000 
sauare nrnes, which is drainea by the 
Mississippi and its tributaries, — a re- 
gion of almost unexampled fertility. 

Gareamelle (gaf^gft^mel')* [Fr., 
threat.] The mother of Gargantua. 
in Rabelais' celebrated romance or 
this name. 

Qargantaa (gar-gant'yoo-ft; Fr.pron, 
gaf'g6n-tiQt', 34, 62). [Fr., from 
Sp. gargaiUa, throat, gullet] The 
hero of Rabelais' celebrated ro- 
mance of the same name, a royal 
giant, about whom many wonderful 
stories are related.^ He lived for 
several centuries, and at last begot 
a son, Pantagruel, as wonderAil as 

Babdais borrowed this character 
from an old Celtic giant story. The wa- 
ter-giants were all great gualers. Qar- 
gantua, In the legend, when a child, sacks 
the milk firom ten narses. He stands 
with each fbot upon a high mountain, 
and bending down, drinks up the river 
which flows between. 

Tou mtut borrow me 0€arg€iMtua*$ mouth 
fint; tis A word too great tot any month of 
this age's sixe. Shak. 

Oer'i^r-y, Joe. An illiterate bhick^ 
smith, in Dickens's ^ Great Expecta- 

tions,'' remarkable for his simplicity, 
generosity, and kindness of heart. 

Gar'ger-7, Mrs. Joe. A virago, who 
figures in Dickens's novel of " Great 

Gate City. I. Keokuk, Iowa; — pop- 
ularly so called. It is situated at the 
foot of the lower rapids of the-Kis- 
sissippi (which extend twelve miles, 
with a fall of twenty-four feet), and 
is the natural head of navigation. A 
portion of the city is built on a bluff 
*one hundred and fifty feet high. 

2. Atlanta, a city in Georgia, and 
the terminus of four of the principal 
railroads of the State ; — so called dv 
Jefferson DaviSj as being, in a mili- 
tary point of view, the most impor- 
tant inland position in the lower part 
of the South. 

Gate of Tears. A literal translation 
of the word Babehumdeb, the straits 
of which name were so called on ac- 
count of the number of shipwrecks 
which occur in them. 

like some ill-destined bark that steen 
In silence through the QcOe €(fTean. 


Gaudentio di Iiucca (gd'v^-dent^se-o 
dee Id&k^kft). The name of a cele- 
brated romance,— r written by Simon 
Berington, — and also of its hero, 
who is represented as makmg a jour- 
ney to Mezzoramia, an imaginary 
coimtry in the interior of Africa. 

Gautier et Garicuille (gd'te^i' ft gaF- 
g^I', 82). Two proper names having 
a signification eauivalent to tout fe 
numae^ or every body, found in the 
French proverbial expression, "/Se 
momier ae Gautier et GarguiUe,^ to 
make game of Gautier and Gargoille, 
that is, to make game of every body. 

For the rest, spare neither Cfautier nor Oar- 
gviUe. JSegniert TVtm*. 

Gaw'aXn, Sir. [Written also Gau- 
V a i n.] A nephew of King Arthur, 
and one of the most celebrated 
knights of the Round Table, noted 
for his sagacity, his habitual court- 
esy^ and his wonderful strength, 
which is said to have been greater at 
certain hours of the day than at oth- 
ers. Chaucer, in his " squire's Tale," 

■nd tm the Remarks and Bule« to which the nnmbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-zzziL 

10 _ - 




describing the entrance of ft stnmge 
knight, says that he 

** Salaeth king: and lordte aUe, 
By Older uttiey smt in the hall, 
with BO high reverence and obsenraneei 
As well in Bpeech as in hia countenance. 
That OcMOm with hia oldi curteaie. 
Though he were come asain out of mBrie. 
Ne coude him not amenaen with a word. 

Oawkey,Ijord. See Lord Gawks y. 

OKWrej. A name ^ven, in the ro- 
mance of "Peter Wilkins," to the 
flying women among whom the hero 
or the work was thrown. See WiLr- 
KIN8, Peter. 


Oeflon (gft'fe-on), j {Scand. Myth.) 
GeQon (gftf'yon). ( The goddess of 
viiginity, to whom all maidens re- 
pair after death. 

Gel'firt. The name of a favorite grey- 
hound of Llewellyn, son-in-law to 
King John of England. On one oc- 
casion, during the absence of his 
master in the chase, he destroyed a 
ferocious wolf,^who attacked Liewel- 
Ivn^s infant son. Returning from the 
neld| and not finding the child, — 
who was sound asleep under a con- 
Aised heap of bedclothes,— Llewellyn 
rashly concluded that the dog, whose 
lips were bloody from his struggle 
witili the wolf, bad killed him; and, 
without waiting to examine or in- 
quire, plunged his sword to the hilt 
in Gekrt*s side. With the dying 
yell of the dog, the infant awoke, 
and Llewellyn, smitten with remorse 
for his ra£^ and frantic deed, erected 
an elegant monument over the re- 
mains of the faithfhl animal; whence 
the place was called Bethgelert, or 
''the grave <^ the greyhound,'* a 
name which it bears to the present 
day. It is in aparish of the same 
name in North Wales. This legend 
has been versified by William Robert 

Llewellyn's greyhound has a second grare 
Teiy distant from that of Bethgelert. It sleeps 
MUX polnti a moral in Persia. WiUmoU. 

del^l^t-ley, Ba'yie. The name of an 
idiot servant of the Baron of Brad- 

. wardine, in Scott's novel of " Wa- 

GFem of Normandy. A name given 
to Emma, daughter of Kichanl I., 
duke of Normandy, married to Eth- 
elred IL, king of England. She 
died in 1052. 

General Undertaker, The. [Fr. Le 
General Entrepreneur.'^ A nickname 
given by the populace of Paris to the 
Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, on ac- 
count of the immense public works 
which he entered upon, but did not 
always complete. 

de-neu'rf. The same as (rtitnever, 
Kin^ Arthur's queen, notorious for 
her infidelity to him. See Guine- 


<3ton'e-vieTe'. 1. The heroine of a 
ballad by Coleridge. 

2. Under the form Genoveva, or 
Genovefa^ the name occurs in a 
German myth as that of the wife of 
the Count Palatine Siegfiied of 
Mayenfeld, in the time of Charles 
Martel. According to the tradition, 
she was left behind by her husband 
while on a march against the Sara- 
cens. Upon false accusations made 
to him, he gave orders to put her to 
death ; bat tne servant intrusted with 
the commission suffered her to escape 
into tile forest of Ardennes, where 
she lay concealed a long time, until 
by accident her husband discovered 
her retreat, and recognized her inno- 
cence. This legend furnished the 
material of one ofthe earliest " Volks- 
biicher,*' or popular tales. In modem 
times, Tieck and Miiller have redacted 
the tradition, and Raupach has made 
it the subject of a drama. 

Jl^- ** Sfc. Genevieve is the patron saint 
of Paris, and the name has always been 
held in high esteem in France. Tfaeare is 
a German fimn ofthe name bwne by the 
apocryphal saint Genovefo, of Brabant, 
to whom has attached the story, of sus- 
picious universalify, of the wife who was 
driven by malicious accusations to the 
woods, there to give birth to an infknt. 
and to be nourished by a white doe untli 
the final discovery of her innocence." 


6e']il-t. <^. # Bom. MyOi.) Pro- 
tecting spirits or tutelar deities anal- 
agous to the guardian angels of the 
Christian faith. 

Y6t the **Key to the Scheme of Pronundatfon," with the accompanying ExplanatioBf, 




Ctentle Sheptaerd. A niekBame, de- 
rived from a line of a urell-known 
song, fastened upon George Grenville 
(1712-1770), by William Pitt, Earl 
of Chatham, in a celebrated debate 
in parliament. 

George a-Green. The subject of an 
English prose romance entiUed ** The 
Histoiy of Geoige a-Green, Pindar 
of the town of Wakefield." In its 
MS. ibrm, it is supposed to be as old 
as the dap of Queen Elizabeth. 
" Pindar" is a corruptioH of pifiner, 
or penner^ that is, keeper of the pub- 
lic pen or pound for the confinement 
of estrays. 

• Look before yon leap, 

For M yon sow, y oa *re like to reasj 
And were y'aa jrpod m George QrOremt 
I eliall make boia to ttun agiuni 
Nor am I doubtfUl of Uie issue 
In a just quarrel, and mine is so. .fiudArcu. 

I win presoitly order you a mndlet of 
Rhenish, -with a corresponding qnanli^ of 
neats* tongues and pieUed hemngs, to make 
yon aH aa g^Mioas as OeorgiRti^-Oreen. 

Sir W.Scott. 

(Ie-Taint% Sir. A legendaiy hero, 
connected with the romances of the 
Sound Table. His stonr is treated 
in Tennyson's "Idylls of the King." 

^r'ftl-dlne. A name of frequent oc- 
cniirence in romantic poetiy. Lady 
Btizabeth Fitz^rald was the lady 
who was made by Surrey the heroine 
of his poetry, under the title of the 
"Fair Geraldine." thus leading to 
the adoption of tnis latter as one of 
the class ci romantic names. See 
Faib GBRALJ>raE. ' 

Q«r'd$<4). iSeand. MyA.) Thewifaof 
Frey. She was accounted the most 
beaot^ul of ail the *goddesse8, and 
was renowned for her piety and vir- 

See Achilles 

OF Gbbmaitt. 

German C^oero. See Gkjebo of 

German Hector. See Hbctor of 


German Uil'ton (-ta). A tide be- 
atowed upon Friedrich Gottlieb Klop- 
stock (1724-1803), author of "The 
ICesaiah," an epic poem. 'Coleridge 
said of him, that he was "a very 
German Hilton, indeed ! '* 

T^hile Klopstoek was called onr Hnton, 
wieland our voMslra, and others in Ote same 
way, Ooethe and Schiller were never other 
thui themselves. C/enrfnus, Dfxou, 

German Fla'to. Friedrich Heinrfch 
Jacobi (1743-1819), a distinguished 
German philosopher, so called on ac- 
count <^ the high religious tone of 
his metaphysic^ writings. 

C^erman Vol-tftire' (3). l. A title 
often given to Christoph Martin Wie- 
land (1733-1813), one of the great 
poets who are the pride of Grermany. 

He [Wieland] had imUbed so rau<A of tiie 
teste of the French along with their ^iktso- 
phy, that he bore the name of the G&mum 
vwttare, in Germany and out of Germany. 

jBoMEertpel;, 2WDM. 

2. A title sometimee applied to 

" Goefiie hu been called the Qw- 
man Voltaire; bat it is a name which 
does him wrong, and describes him ill. 
Excepting in the corresponding variety 
of thefarporsuiti and Icnowledge, in which, 
perhaps, it does Yoltaize wrongi the two 
oaonot be compared. Goethe is all, or 
the best of all, that Voltaire was, and he 
was much that Voltaire did not dream 
of." CaHyU. 

G<6ronte (zhft^r^Qf, 62). [Fr., from 
the Gr. y^*') yepoiTOf. an old man.] 
A character in Moliere's comedies, 
"Le H^decin malgr^ Lui" and 
"Les Fourberies de Scapin.*' The 
name is commonly used in French 
comedies to designate any old man, 
particularly one who for any reason 
makes himself ridiculous. 

Ghenind, Friar. See Fbiab Gebuih). 

6e'ry-6n (9). [Gr. rijpv<JiaT?0 ( ^- # 
i2om. 'Jfytk.) A king of Hesperia, 
son of dhrysaor and Oallixrhoe, de- 
scribed as a being with three bodies 
and three heads. He possessed mag- 
nificent oxen, but, as he fed them 
with human nesh, he was killed by 

Ghyent, Faoification of. See Paci- 
fication OF GHEirr. 

Giant Cor'mo-r^. A Cornish giant, 
slain by Jack the Giant-killer. See 
Jack thb Giant-kilueb. 

Giant Despair. In Bunyan^s "Pil- 
grim's Progress," a giant who is the 
owner of Doubting Castle, and who, 
finding Christian and Hopeful asleep 

and finr the Bemarks and Bules to which the numben after certain words reftr, lee pp. xiy-zxxii. 




upon his grounds, takes them pris- 
oners, and thrusts them into a dun- 

Since the time of John Hilton, no brayer 
heart had beat in any English bosom than 
Samnel Johnson now bore. . . . No OiatU 
Detpair . . . appalls this pilgrim; he works 
zesolately for deliverance, m still defiance 

steps resolutely along. 


The monotonous desolation of the scene 
incieaMd to that d^ree. that, for any redeem- 
ing feature it presented to their eyes, they 
m&ht have entered in the body on the mm 
domains of GUcaU Despair. Jhdbens, 

Giant GtIiii. In the " Pilgrim's Prog- 
ress '' of John Bunyan, a giant who 
seeks to stop the march of the pil- 
grims to tiie Celestial City, but is 
slain in a duel by Mr. Great-heart, 
their guide. 

Oiant-Uller, The. See Jack the 

Giants. [Gr. TCyam-n, Lat GigarUes.] 
1. (Gr.^- Bom, MyOi, ) Sons of Tar- 
tarus and Terra, l>eing8 of monstrous 
size, with dragons' tails and fearful 
countenances. They attempted to 
storm heaven, being armed with 
huge rocks and the trunks of trees, 
but were killed by the. gods with the 
assistance of Hercules, and were 
buried under Mount ^tna and other 

2. {Scand, Myth,) Evil genii of 
various forms and races, enemies of 
the ^ds. They dwelt in a territory 

' of meir own, called Jdtunheim, or 
Giant-land. They had the power of 
assuming divers shapes, and of in- 
creasing or diminishing their stature 
at will. See Jotumheim. 

Giant Slay-good. In Bunyan's " Pil- 
grim's Progress," a giant slain in a 
duel by Mr. Great-heart. 

dib'bet. A foot-pad m the " Beaux' 
Stratagem," a comedy by George 

L&e Omet. . . [they] piqued fhemaelTes 
on being the best-behaved men on the road, 
and on conducting themselves with all ap- 
propriate civilily in the exercise of their voca- 
tion. Sir W. Scott. 

dib'ble. Goose. A half-witted lad 
in Lady Bellenden's service, in 
Scott's novel of "Old Mortality." 

_^ P^t companion of n^ younger days 
was Johnny Stykes, who, like Oowe GiOie 
of fiunouB memory, first kept the turkeys, 

and then, as his years advanced, was pro> 
moted to the more Important ofliee of minding 
the cows. Keigktley. 

Gibraltar of America. A name 
often given to the city of Quebec, 
which, from its position, and natural 
and artiticial means of defenscj is. 
perhaps, the most strongly fortifiea 
city in America. 

Gil Bias (zh^l bl&ss). The title of a 
famous romance by Le Sage (1668- 
1747), and the name of its hero, by 
whom, and with whose commentaries, 
the story is professedly told. 

" Oil Bias ... is natundly dis- 
posed toward honesty, though with a 
mind unfortunately too ductile to resist 
the temptations of opportunity or ex- 
ample. He is constitutionally timid, and 
yet occasionallj capable of d<dng brave 
actions ; shrewd and intelligent, but apt 
to be deceived by \a& own vanity ; with 
idt enough to make us laugh with him 
at others, and follies enough to turn the 
jest frequently against himself. Oener- 
ons, good-natured, and humane, he has 
virtues sufllcient to make us loye hina, 
and, as to respect, it is the last thing 
which he asks at his reader's hand." 

Sir W. Scott. 

Qm, Harry. A character in Words- 
worth's ballad entitled " Goodv 
Blake and Harry Gill," smitten with 
perpetual cold for his hardheart- 
edness toward an old dame. See 
Goody Blake. 

dlllf, dol. A warm-hearted, simple- 
minded ships'-instmments maker in 
Dickens's " Dombey and Son." 

Gil Morrice. See Morrice, Gil. 

Qil'pin, John. A citizen of London, 
and '^ a train-band captain," whose 
adventures are related in Gowper's 
humorous poem entitled "The Di- 
verting History of John Gilpin, 
shoMnng how he went further than 
he intended, and came safe home 
again." The story was related to 
C^wper by a Mrs. Austen, who re- 
menu)ered to have heard it in her 
childhood. The poem first appeared 
anonymously In the " Public Adver- 
tiser," in 1782, and was first pub- 
lished as Gowper's avowed produc- 
tion in the second volume of his 



John Oilpin is said to have been 

For the ** Key to the Scheme of Franondation,'* with the acoompanyinff Explanations, 




Hr. Bayer, an. eminent linen - drspeTf 
anperlatlTely polite, who figaTed, in the 
Tiflible order of tilings, at the top of 
Paternoster Bow, or latner at the comer 
of Cheapeide. Quoth Mr. Jofain Gilpin, — 

* I am a Unen-dimper bold. 
As all the world doth know.*** 

Note* ctnd QueHea. 

Qines de Passamonte (J^e-nes' dft 
pSs-flft-mon^tft, 58). The name of a 
gallej-slave and pappet-ehow man in 
^ Don Quixote." 

In that caw, replied L paintiDe exoela the 
ape of the renowned Omea deTamunonte, 
which only meddled with the past and the 
present. 3fe- W. Scott. 

He manages his delightAil puppet-show 
without thrusting hb hmd beyond the cur- 
tain, like Omea de Faaaamonte, to explain 
what he la doing. Sir W. Scott. 

^l-nev'T^ 1. A lady whose story- 
has been interwoven with the adven- 
tures of Rinaldo, in Ariosto's chiv- 
ahous romance, the ^* Orlando Furi- 
080.*' Ginevia, falsely accused, is 
doomed to die, unless a true knight 
comes within a month to do battle for 
her honor. Her lover, Ariodantes, 
has fled, and is reported to have per- 
ished. The wicked duke who has 
brought the accusation appears secure 
in his treachery; but the woman who 
has been his instrument, meeting 
with Rinaldo, discloses the truth ; 
then comes a combat, in which the 
guilty duke is slain bv the champion 
of innocence, and the lover re-a'ppears 
and recovers his lady. This Incident 
was derived by Arimto from the popu- 
lar traditions of the South of Europe. 
Spenser has a similar story in the 
"Faenr Queen," and Shakespeare 
availed himself of the main incident 
in his comedy of " Much Ado about 

2. The title and subject of a 
metrical tale by Samuel Rogers, 
which relates how a young Ituian 
lady, upon her weddlng-dav, secreted 
herself, from motives of frolic, in a 
self-locking oaken chest, the lid of 
which shut down and buried her 

Phoebus, sitting one day in a lanrel-tree*8 

Was reminded of Daphne, of whom it was 

For the god being one day too warm In his 

She took to the tree, to escape his pursuing; 

Be the cause what it might, ftom his oflbn iha 

And, O^vra-llke, shut herself up In a trunk. 


3. See GuiNBVEB. 

Gingerbread, (jhileg. The hero of an 
old and celebrated English nurseiy 

" Th« world is probably not aware 
of the ingenuity, humor, good eense, 
ahd sly satire contained in many of the 
old English nursery tales. They have 
evidently been the sportive productions 
of able writers, who would not trust their 
names to productions tliat might be 
considered beneath their dignity. The 
ponderous woriu on which they relied for 
immortality have perhaps sunk into ob- 
livion, and carried their names down with 
them; while their unacknowledged oflT- 
spring, *Jack the Giant-kUler,^ 'Giles 
Gingerbread,' and ' Tom Thumb,' flouridi 
in wide^preadiog and never-ceMing pop- 
uUuity.»» W. ^ing, 

Ginnunga-gap (^-noon'^k-gip). 
[Old Norse ginn^ wide, expanded 
(used only in composition), and g<^j 
to gape, yawn, open.] (Scandi 
Myth.) The vast chaotic abyss 
which existed before the present 
world, and separated Niflheim, or the 
region of fog, from Muspelheim, or 
the region of heat 

Gjallar (gyftl'Uf ). [Old Norse gala 
to sing, call out. Comp. Eng. caHL\ 
(Scand. Myth.) The horn ofHeim- 
dall, which he blows to give notice to 
the gods of those who arrive at the 
bridge Bifrost, and attempt to cross 
it. [Written also G i a 1 1 a r.] 

GlftasOyMn. (2). The real or fictitious 
author of a cookery-book, formerly 
very famous. It is said by some to 
have been written by one Hannah 
Glasse, a habit maker and seller in 
the early part of the last century. 
Others attribute it to the scribatious 
Dr. Hill (Sir John Hill, 1716-1775), 
considering the name a pseudoirfm. 
The first edition was published in 
1747, and, very appropriately, in what 
is termed " pot " folio. Mrs. Glasse 
is popularly thought to begin a re- 
ceipt for cooking a hare with the pithy 
advice, " First catch your hare ; '* but 
this expression is not found in any 
known edition of her book. 

They [the Crim-Tartars] have bo flur reUn- 

•nd for the Bemarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. ziv-xxxU. 




aalihM fheir aadent food «f bon»*fl««h ttutt 
icT will only foed npon eoltat And to fhis 
diet iB added . . . m great variety of learned 
dainties, which JKH. Cflaete herself would not 
disdain to add to her high-llMrored caUdorue. 

SdxH. Itev, 

femmes took a pineh of snuil^ and replied, 
on remember jfiv. Ola$ae*$ well-worn re- 
ecipC for cooking a luure,— ilrst catch your 
hare." £pea SarganU 

Gliu'oiiB. [Gr. rAa»K09.1 {Gr, ^ Rom, 
Myth,) 1. A son of oisyphns, torn 
to jpieces by his own horses. 

S. A nsherman of Anthedon, in 
Kuboea, who was changed into a sea- 

3. A son of MinoSi king of Crete, 
by Pasiphae. He met his death by 
falling into a cask of hon^, but was 
miraculously restored to lire. 

Olen-ooe'. A name commonly given 
to Macdonald of Glencoe, wno was 
the chief of a Scottish clan, and 
known among the mountains by the 
hereditaiy name of Mac Ian.' He 
was one of the most impracticable 
rebel chiefs in the time of William 
and Mary, and met with a disastrous 

Glen'do-Teer. (Hindu Myth.) The 
most beautiful of the good spirits. 

Glen-sSr^. The name under which 
Macdonald of Glengarry — one of the 
. great Scottish chieftains who ulti- 
mately gave in his adhesion to the 
government of William UI. — is gen- 
erally mentioned in history. 

Glen-varlooh, Iiord. See Ou- 
FAUNT, Nigel. 

Glo'ri-a'nft (9). In Spenser's " Faeiy 
Queen/' the " greatest glorious queen 
of Faery-lond." 

45^ " In that Fa^ Queen, I mean 
Glory in my general intention, but in my 
particular, I conceive the moet exoellent 
and glorions person of our soTerelgn, the 
Queen [Eliiabeth], and her kingdom in 

introductory ^^Letter of the Author.^^ 

Glorious Preacher. A title popu- 
larly given to St John Chrysostom, 
or the "Golden-mouth" (354-407), 
the most renowned of the Greek 
fikthers, and a very eloquent Church 

. _ He preached several times a week 
to crowded audiences, and his sermons 
were received by the people with such 

shouts and aodamstions of applause, that 
his church became a sort of theater, 
whie^ attracted great numbers who had 
hitherto attended only the circus and 
other places of amusement. 

Glos'sin, Gilbert. A villainous law- 
yer in Scott's " Guy Mannering." 

Glover, Oathecine. See Faib Maid 
OF Pebth. 

Glub-dnb'drib. An imaginaiy island 
fabled to have been visited bv Gulli- 
ver in his famoud^ " Travels.*' It is 
represented to have been peopled bv 
sorcerers or magicians, who evoked, 
for Gulliver's amusement, the sinrits 
of many great men of antiqui^. 

Gluxn-dal'olitcli. A little girl only 
nine years old, and barely forty feet 
high, who had charge of Gulliver 
while he was in Brobdingnag. See 
Brobdingkag, and Guu^ivsb, 

Boon as ObandaldUdk niiwed her pkadag 

She wept, she blubbered, and she tore her 

hair. Pope. 

He took it [a letter! up wonderlngly end 
suspieloiudy, as Qhmiaa &Vu h took up Oul- 
Uver. SirE. Bulwer . 

Glyn'd^n, Hdi^'^rd. A pseudonym 
of Laura C Redden, an American 
authoress of the present day. 

(Hi&'tho (na^tho, 26). [Gr. IWAmv, 
puff-cheek, from yvafof, jaw, mouth.] 
A celebrated parasite in Terence's 
comedy entitled ^^ Eunuchus." The 
name "is used proverbially in the 
Boman and the later Greek comedy 
to designate a parasite. 

Gobni>o, Iiftuii'^e-lot. A down^in 
Shakespeare's ^* Merchant of Ven- 

Gob'bo, Old. A subordinate charac- 
ter in Shakespeare's "Merchant of 
Venice; " father to Launcelot Gobbo. 

Goddess of Beason. See Reason, 
Goddess of. 

Gk>-di'v4^ Ijady. See Peepino Tom 
op Coventby. 

Godon (go'dfttt', 62), or Godam (go'- 
dam')- A nickname (with some varia- 
tions of spelling and pronunciation) 
applied by the French to the English, 
who are thus characterized by their 

For the **Key to the Scheme of FtonimeiatioB,'* with the aocompaaTiag Ezpluiaikma, 




natUxnal oath. The name haa heen 
long in use. ' 

4^ "At the txtel of Joaa of Arc, a 
'Breach, witness named Colette, haying 
used the name Godon, was asked who 
Godon was, and replied that it was not 
the deaiffnation of any partiealar person, 
but a sobriquet applied generallj to the 
Soglish, on account of their continual 
use of the exclamation, God damn it." 

JSkaron Turner, 

Gk>etB of the Iron Hand (gots, 46). 
See Ibon HAin>. 

Qog and Ma'gos:. Popuhur names 
for two colossal wooden statues in 
the Guildhall, London. It is thought 
that these lenowned figures are con- 
nected with the Corin^us and Gotma- 
got of the Armorican chronicle quot- 
ed by Geoflfrey of Monmouth. The 
former name has gradually sunk into 
oblivion, and the latter has been split 
by popular corruption to do duty for 

" Our Guildhall giants boast of 
almost as high an antiquity as the Gog 
and Magog of the Scriptures, as they, or 
tiielr liTing prototypes, are said to liave 
been found in Britem by Brute, a youn- 
ger son of Anthenor of Troy, who invaded 
Albion, and founded the oitv of London 
(at first called Troy-novant), 9000 years 
ago. However the &ct may have been, 
the two giants have been the pride of 
. IiQiidon firom time immemorial. The old 
giants were bomed in the great fire, and 
the new ones were constructed in 1708. 
They are Iburteen feet high, and occupy 
suitable pedestals in Guildhall. There 
can be little doabt that these civio giants 
are exaggerated representatives of real 
persons and events." Ckambers. 

Gh>ldemar, King (gdlt'ft-maf). A 
famous German kobold, or domestic 
iairy servant, iabled to be the inti- 
mate firiend of Neveling von Harden- 

Oolden Age: [Lat. Aurea oBttu.'] 
(Gr, 4" ^^*>^ MyOi,) One of the 
four ages into which the IhTe of the 
human race was divided; the simj^e 
and patriaichal reign of Saturn, a 
period of peri>etual spring, when the 
land flowed with milk and hone v, and 
all things needed to make life happy 
were produced spontaneouslv; wnen 
beasts of prey lived peaceably with 
other animals, and man had not yet, 

by mdulging his vices and pasdoiis, 
lapsed from a state of innocence. 
It was succeeded by the ages of 
silver^ brass, and iron; but aoelief 
prevailed, that, when the stars and 
planets had performed a complete 
revolution around the heavens, the 
Golden Age would return. 

Gtolden BuU. [Lat BuUa Aurea, 
Ger, Goldene BtuU.] 1. {Ger.Eitt.) 
An edict issued by the Emperor 
Charles lY. in the year 1336, mainly 
for the purpose of settling the law 
of imperial elections. 

2. (Hung. Hitt.) A constitutional 
edict issued by Andrew U. in the early 
part of the thirteenth centuiy. It 
changed the ^venunent of Hungaiy 
from absolutism to an aristocratic 
monarchy, and, imtil recent times, 
was the charter of the liberties of the 
Hungarians. It remained in force 
until the dissolution of the German 
empire in 1806. 

Oolden Fleeoe. ( Gr. ^ Horn. Myth.) 
The fleece of the ram Chiysomallus, 
the acquisition of which was the 
object of the Axgonantic expedition. 
See Argonauts. 

Oolden State. A popular name for 
the State of Califomia, which is one 
of the most important gold-jNToducing 
regions m the worid. 

Oolden, or TeUow, Water. See 

Ool'dy. An affectionate nickname 
sometimes given to Oliver Goldsmith 
by his friends. It originated with Dr. 

Gk>-li'$th. A famous Philistine giant, 
a native of Gath, and a formidable 
opponent of the armies of Israel. He 
was slain by the stripling David 
with pebbles hurled from a sling. 
[Written also, but less properly, 

Oon'^r-fl. A daughter of Lear, in 
Shakespeare*8 tragedy of this name. 
See Lear. 

The edicts of each raeeeedingMt of magia- 
trates have, like thoae of OonerU and Bcfpui, 
diminished this renerable band with the 
simiUr qnestton, '* What need we five and 
twen^?— ten?— orllve ?" Sir W. Scott. 

Oonnella (gon-nel'lft, 102.) An Ital- 

and for tlie Bemarks and Boles to which the numheit after certain word« refer, see pp. ziT-zzxii. 




ian buffoon of great celebrity, who 
was domestic jester to the Margrave 
Kicolaus of Este, and to his son Borso, 
the Duke of Ferrara. He was accus- 
tomed to ride upon a miserable horse, 
to which the Duke upon one occasion 
applied a line from Plautus, " Ossa 
cUquepelUs totua est." ('* Aulularia/' 
a.iii.,sc.6.) "The Jests of Gonnella" 
was published in 1506, at Bologna. 
See KoziNAitTE. 

Gon-zftlo. An honest old counselor, 
in Shakespeare's *' Tempest" 

Good Duke Humphrey. A name 
popularly given, by his contempora- 
ries, to Humphrey Flantagenet, Duke 
of Gloucester, and yoimgest son of 
Henry IV. 

He wroueht his miiaclea like s aeeond 
Duibe Ibtmpiurey ; and by the influence of the 
beadle'B rod, caused the lame to vrallc, the 
hUnd to lee, and the palued to labor. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Oood Earl. A name commonly mven 
to Archibald, the eighth Earl of An- 
gus (d. 1588), who was distinguished 
ror his virtues. 

Gk>odfellow, Bobin. A kind of 
merry domestic spirit, whose charac- 
ter and achievements are recorded in 
the well - known ballad beginning 
" From Oberon in Fairy - land." 
Wright, in his *^ Essays on the Lit- 
erature, Superstitions, and History 
of England in the Middle Ages," 
suspects Robin Goodfellow to have 
been the Robin Hood of the old pop- 
ular morrls-dance. See Hobgoblin. 

'^ The constant attendant upon 
the English fairy court was the celebrated 
Puck, or Robin Qoodfellow, who, to the 
«lTes, acted in some measure as the jester 
or clown of the company, — a character 
then to be found in the establishment of 
every person of quality, — or, to use a 
more modem comparison, resembled the 
Pierrot of the pantomime . His jests were 
of the most simple, and, at the same time, 
the broadest comic character ; to mis- 
lead a clown on his path homeward, to 
di^n>iw himself like a stool. In order to 
induce an old gossip to commit the egre- 
gious mistake of sitting down on the floor 
when she expected to repose on a chair, 
were his special employments." 

Sir W. Scott. 

„ „ That shrewd and knavish sprite 
Called Bobin Goodfellow. Shak. 

She was pbiched and palled, she aidd ; 

And he, by friar's lantern led, 

Tells how the drudgine goblin sweat. 

To cam his cream-bowl, duly set, 

When in one nis^t, ere glimpse of mom. 

His shadowy flail had threshed the com 

That ten day-laborers could not end: 

Then lies him down the lubber fiend. 

And, stretched out all the chimney's lengni. 

Basks at the fire his hairy strength; 

And crop full oat of doors he flings. 

Ere the first cock his matin rings. JfiUon. 

Gkxxi King Ben6 (nj-niVor ra'nft). 
[Fr. Le Bon Boi IUn4.\ The desig- 
nation by which Ren6 d'Anjou (140^ 
1480) is commonly known m history. 

Gk>od Knight, without Fear and 
without Beproaoh, The. [Fr. Le 
Bon CkevcUier, sans Peur et sans Re- 
proche.'X An appellation conferred 
upon Pierre de Terrail Bavard (1470- 
1524), a French knight celebrated for 
his valor and loyalty. 

Goodman of Ballengeigh (baMen- 
gik). [That is, tenant of Ballen- 

§eigh, which is a steep pass leading 
own behind the castle of Stirling- J 
A nom de ffuerre employed by the 
Scottish king, James V., who' was 
accustomed to make disguised expe- 
ditions through the midnight streets 
of Edinburgh, as Haroun-Al-Raschid 
did through those of Bagdad. 

Gtoodman Palsgrave. \ Contempt- 
GK>ody Palsgrave. ( nous nick- 

names given respectively to Freder- 
ick v., elector palatine (Ger. p/alz- 
(Tfo/*, Eng. paisffrave)j and to his 
wire Elizabeth, daughter of James I. 
of England. See Winter Kino 
and Vm^TER Queen. 

Gkxxi Physician. A title applied to 
Christ, doubtless in allusion to the 
passage in Mark ii. 17, — " They 
that are whole have no need of the 
physician, but they that are sick: I 
came not to call the righteous, but 
sinners, to repentance." 

GK>od Queen Bess. See Bess, Good 

Gk>od Begent. A name given to 
James Stewart, Eari of Murray, or 
Moray (1531-1570), appointed regent 
of Scotland in 1567, after the impris- 
onment of his sister, Mary Queen of 
Scots, in Lochleven castle. He was 
distinguished for his zeal and pru- 
dence, and for the prompt and vigor- 

For Um ** Key to the Scheme of Frononciation,*' with the accompanying Explanations, 




ons measures he adopted to secure 
the peace of the kingoom. 

Gk>od Samaritan. The principal char- 
acter in a well-known parable of our 
Lord. See Luke x. 30-37. 

Oood Shieplierd. A title often ap- 
plied to Christ. 

I am the good thepherd^ and Imoir my 
sheep, and am known of mine. . . . and I 
lay down my life for the riiera. And other 
sheep I have, which are not of this fbldi them 
abo I must brine, and they shall hear my 
voice; and there Sudl be one fold, and one 
shepherd. Jokn x. 14-16. 

Goody Blake. A character in Words- 
worth^s poem entitled ** Goody Blake 
and Hany Gill," which purports to 
be "A True Story." She is repre- 
sented as a poor old dame, who, 
driven by necessity to pilfer a few 
sticks of wood from her neighbor's 
ground, in the winter-cold, is detect- 
ed by him in the acL and forced to 
relinquish what she had taken. In 
requital, she invokes upon him the 
curse that he may " never more be 
warm;" and ever after, "his teeth 
they chatter, chatter stiU." 

Goody TwoHihoes. The name of a 
well-known character in the litera- 
ture of the nursery. Her " History " 
was first published by Newbery, a 
bookseller in St., Paul's Church-yard, 
renowned throughout the latter half 
ik tiie last centuiy for his picture- 
books for children ; and it is thought 
to have been written by Goldsmith. 

ItGf' " The fltmoufl nnrsery story of 
* Goody Two-shoes ' . . . appeared in 
1765, at a moment when Goldsmith was 
scribbling for Newbery, and much pressed 
Jbr AiDds. Several quaint little tales in- 
troduced in his Essays show that he had 
a turn for this species of mock history ; 
and the advertisement and title-page b«ur 
the stamp of his sly and playful humor. 

*** We are desired to give notice that 
there is in the press, and speedily will be 
published, eitiier by subscription or 
otherwise, as the public shall please to 
determine, the History of Little Goody 
Two Shoes, otherwise Mrs. Bfargery Two 
Shoes; with the means by which die 
acquired learning and wisdom, and, in 
conseqaence thereof, her estate ; set Ibrth 
at lurge for the benefit of those 

** Who from a state of nun and care. 
And having shoes bufhalf a pair. 
Their fortune and their fiune shoald flz« 
And gidlop in a coach and siz."' ** 

and for flie Bemarksaad Boles to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. ziv^xxzU. 

Tnj don*t go on in that Goody l\oo-Aoe$ 
sort of way. A. TroUape. 

Oooaey Oo'de-rioh. A popular nick- 
name given by Cobbett to Frederick 
Robinson (created Viscount Goderich 
in 1827, and Earl of Bipon in 1833), 
on accoimt of his incapacity as a 
statesman. He was premier for a 
short time in 1827-28. See Pbos- 
FEBiTY Robinson. 

Oor'di-ua. [Gr. r<{p5to«.l A peasant 
who became king of Phry^a, and 
father of Midas. He tied an inextri- 
cable knot on the voke of his charibt, 
and an oracle declared that whoever 
should untie it would reign over all 
Asia. Alexander the Great cut the 
knot with his sword, and applied the 
prophecy to himself. 

Oorsibus (goFzhe-biiss^ 34). The 
name of an honest, simple-minded 
burgess, in Molidre's comedy, ^ Les 

' Fr^cieuses Ridicules.'* His distress, 
perplexi^, and resentment are rep- 
resented as being extreme, and as 
all occasioned by the perverse affec- 
tation of elegance of his daughter 
and niece. 

Gor'gong. [Gr. Po/t^^i^ef, Lat. Gw- 
ffones.] (Or. 4' Rom, Mjfth,) Three 
daughters of Phorcns and Ceto, 
named Stheno, Euryale, and Medusa. 
Their hair was entwined with hissing 
serpents, and their bodies were cov- 
ered witn impenetrable scales ; they 
had wings, and brazen claws, and 
enormous teeth, and whoever looked 
upon them was turned to stone. The 
name Gorgon was given more espe- 
cially to Medusa, the only one of the 
sisters who was mortal. She was 
killed by Perseus, and her head was 
fixed til the shield of Minerva. 
From ner blood sprang the winged 
horse Pegasus. 

Qoalinff, Giles. Landlord of the 
"Black Bear" inn at Cumnor, in 
Scott's novel of " Kenilworth." 

GK>8pel Doctor. [Lat. Doctor Evan- 
gekcus.] A title given to Wycliffe 
(d. 1384), the celebrated reformer, on 
account of his ardent attachment to 
the Holy Scriptures. 

Oo'th^. A popular name for the 




city of New York ; — first given to it 
in ^* Salmagundi " (a humorous work 
by Washington Irvine, William Ir- 
vmg, and James K. Paulding), be- 
cause the inhabitants were such wise- 

49- The alluaioii to the *^ thxee wise 
men of Gotham " who " went to sea in a 
bowl" Ib rerf obrioiu. The Gottiam 
here referred to is a {Muriah In Notting- 
hamshire, England, which liaa long been 
oelebrated — Uke the Phrygia of the Asi- 
atlea, the Abdera of the Thraetans, the 

. BoEotia of the Greeks, and the Swabia of 
the modem Germans — for the remark- 

.' able stupidity of its inhabitants. Tbey 
are said to have heard the cuckoo upon a 

' certain occasion, but, neyer having seen 

' her, hedged the bush from which the note 

' proeeeded. A bosh is sttU shown there 
called the " cuckoo-bush." Fuller says, 
" The proverb of * as wise as a man of 

' <}otham * passeth publicly Ibr the periph- 
nuris of a fool ; and a hundred fopper- 
ies are fo^ed and Ihthered on the towns- 
folk of Gotliam.** Wharton, speaking of 

. *^ the idle pranks of the men of Gottumi," 
observes, that ^* such pranks bore a ref- 
erence to some customary law tenures 
belonging to that place or its neighbor- 

- hood, now grown obsolete." Heame, in 
allusion to this sul^eot, also remarics, 
*^ Nor is there more reason to esteem 

• * The Merry Tales of the liad Men of 
' Gotham ' (which were much valued and 
< cried up in the time of Henry Yin., 

• though now aoid at bailadHringers' stalls) 

- as altogether romanoe ; a certain skillftil 
. pecsoa having told me, more than once, 
. that they formerly held lands there by 

such customs as are touched upon in this 
book." The book ia that noticed by Wal- 

G>le, — " * The Merry Tales of the Mad 
en of €h>tham,' a book extremely ad- 

• mired, and often reprinted in that a^, 
written by Lucas <te Heere, a Flemish 
planter, who resided in England at the 
time of Elisabeth." Wood, however, teUs 
us that the tales were written by one 
Andrew Borde (or Andreas Pe^S^atus, as 

- he calls himself), a sort of traveling 
quack, from whom the name and occu- 
pation of the '^ Merry-andrew " are said 
to be derived. There isan ancient black- 

• letter ectiticm of the work in the Bodleian 
libracy at Oxford, called " Oerteine Merry 
Tales of the Mad Men of Gothain, com- 
plied in the reign of Henry VIu., by 
Dr. Andrew Borde, an eminent physician 
of that period." Another derivation 

> of the phrase " wise men of €k>tham," 
given in Thoroton's " Nottingham- 
shire," is, that when King John, in one 
of his <' progresses," was about to pass 

through Chatham tenrard Nottingham^ ha 
was prevented by the inhabitants, who 
thought that the ground over which a 
king passed became for ever after a public 
road. The king was naturally inoensed 
at this incivility, and sent some persons 
to punish the inhabitants, who bethought 
themselves of an expedient for avtndhig 
the king's wrath. Tlie meesengers, on 
ttieir anival, found all the pe(q>le en- 
gaged in some foolish occupation or other, 
so that they returned to the court, and 
reported tliat .Gtotham was a viUage of 

The Germans have an old tale 
caUed the *' Schildb'drger," which cof- 
responds to our " Wise Men of Gotham," 
and which first appeared in 1596. 

Gotf helf, Jeremlas. A poor villager 
who is the hero of a touching story 
entitled '* The Mirror of Peasants/* 
written by Albert Bitzius (1797- 
1854), a very popular Swiss anthor, 
who afterwsirda used the name as a 

(Governor of TfLbtuy. See Tiii- 


Qt^'^9 The Moral. A name given 
by Chaucer, in the dedicati<ni of his 
"• Troilus and Cresseide," and subse- 
quently by Lydgate and others, to 
John Gower. a celebrated English 
poet of the Fourteenth century, who 
wrote a poem called ** Confemo Amant' 
tiiy^ which discusses, in a solemn and 
sententious style, the morals and met- 
aphysics of love. 

O Moral Gower I this book I direct 

To thee and to the phnooophical Strood, 
To TOuchBauf there need la to eonect 
Of your benignitiee and zeaUa good. 


Gk>wk-thrap'j4e> Maister. A cove- 
nanting preacher referred to as a 
"chosen vessel," in Sir Walter 
Scott's novel of *^ Waverley." 

JNalgeon, antfaor of a illb of Dtderot] a man 
or eoafte, meehanieal, perhaps nHhiar intrin- 
sically flwble Intellect; and then with the 
vehemence of some pulplt-drummine Oowk- 
thrcm>!e. or predons Mr. Jaberii Bentowel,-^ 
only that kii Urk is of the other complexion. 


Ghraal. See St. Graal. 

Qraees. {Xat Graiia.'] (Gr, ^ 
Bom. Myth,) Three 8ister;^eoddes8es, 
daughters of Jupiter and Enrynome, 
represented as beautiful and modest 
virgins attendant upon Venus. They 

av For the "jKe^ to the Scheme of Fronunoiation,*' with the seeompanjinc ttcplanattons. 




i^re the source of all favor, Ibveli- 
nesS) and grace. Their names were 
Aglaia, £uphrosjme, and Thalia. 

QTa^ci-o'8& (gra'shl-o'sS). A lovely 
' princess in an old and 'popular fairy- 
tale, — the object of the implacable 
ill-will of a step-mother named Gro- 
gnon, whose malicious designs are 
perpetually thwarted by Percinet, a 
faiiy prince, who is m love with 

Gracioso (gri-the-o^zo). A panto- 
mimic character in the popular com- 
edy of Spain, noted for his drollery, 
and corresponding with the Italian 
Harlequin and English clown. 

49* Amid all these, and more accepta- 
ble tib^n almost the whole pat together, 
was tile all-liceQsed fool, the Gracioso of 
the Spanish drama, who, with his cap 
fiiflhioned into the resemblance of a cox- 
comb, and his bauble, a truncheon ter- 
minated by a carved figure wearing a 
fool's-cap, in his hand, went, came, and 
returned, mingling in every scene of the 
piece, and intermpling the business, 
without having any share himself in the 
action, and ever and anon transfezring his 
gibes from the actors on the stage to the 
audience who sat around, prompt to ap- 
« pland the whole. Sir W. Scott. 

Oradasso (grd-d&s'so, 102). The name 
of a king of Sericana, who figures in 
Bojardo^s " Orlando Innamorato" 
and Ario8to*s " Orlando Furioso " as 
a wonder of martial prowess. Insti- 
gated by a desire of winning the 
sword and courser of Rinaldo, he in- 
vades France, followed by his vassals, 
** crowned kings," who never dare to 
address him but on their knees. The 
name is popularly used by the Ital- 
ians to designate a bully. 

Gtrad'grlnd, Thomas. A practical, 
utilitarian character in Dickens^s 
novel of "Hard Times." ** 
of realities. A man of facts and cal- 
culations. A man who proceeds 
upon the principle that two and two 
are four, and nothing over, and who 
is not to be talked into allowing for 
any thing -over. . . . With a rule 
and a pair of scales and title multipli- 
cation-table always in his pocket, 
sir, ready to weigh and measure any 
parcel of human nature, and tell you 
exacdy what it comes to." 

The Oradffrinds undervalue and disponm 
it, and the Jesuits and their sympathizers are 
enraged atit OiurchJSeview. 

Grail, The Holy. See St, Graal. 

Gram (grim). A sword of trenchant 
sharpness owned by Siegfried. See 

Granary of Europe. A name an- 
ciently given to the island of Sicily, 
on account of it9 fertility. 

Grand AUianoe. (SisL) A treaty 
between England, Leopold I., em- 
peror of Germany, and the States 
General, signed at Vienna, May 12, 
1689. To this treaty the king of 
Spain (Charles II.) and the Duke of 
Savoy (Victor Amadeus 11.) acceded 
in 1690. Its objects were **to pro- 
cure satis&ction to his imperial maj- 
esty in re^d to the Spaush succes- 
sion, obtain security to the English 
and Dutch for their dominions and 
commerce, prevent a union of the 
monarcliies of France and Spain, and 
hinder the French from possessing 
the Spanish dominions in America." 

Grand Corrupter. A name given,to 
Sir Robert Walpole (1676-1745) in 
the libels of his time, and by his 
political opponents. 

Grand Elector. See Grbat Euhtt- 


Grand Gousier, or Grangousier 

(gr6n'goo'se3l')' [Fr., great gullet] 
The father of Gargantua, in Rabe- 
lais' romance of this name ; thought 
by some to have been designed to 
represent Louis XII. of France^by 
otners, John d'Albret, king of Na- 

Ghran'di-son, Sir Oharles (-sn). The 
hero of Richardson's novel entitled 
** The Histoiy of Sir Charles Grandi- 
son." In this character, Richardson 
designed to represent his ideal of a 

gsrfecthero, — a union of the good 
hristian and the perfect English 

Jtef " All this does well enough in a 
Aineral sermon or monumental inscrip- 
tion, where, by privilege of suppressing 
the worst qualities and exaggerating the 
better, such images of perfection are 
sometbnes present»l. But, in the living 
world, a state of trial and a vaUey of teais. 

and ftr ttM BeniRte aad Bale* to wUkh the numben after certaiii wnds refer, see pp. zivocoeU. 




raeb imspo^ted worth, such tmyarylng 
perfection, is not to be met with ; it coald 
not, if we suppose it to have existeDce, 
be attended with all those fiivors of for- 
tune which are accumulated upon Rich- 
ardson's hero; and hence the &tal ob- 
jection of Sir Charles Orandison being the 

*fkultieM monster that the world ne'ersaw.' " 

Sir W. Scott. 

If we we by accident alone, I become as 
silent as a Turk, as fonnal as Sir Charles 
GrxmdiBon. Sir E. Bultoer Lytton. 

Qran'di-son C?r6in'well (nsn). A 
nickname given by Mirabeau to 
Lafayette, whom he looked upon as 
an ambitions man without power, 
and one who would coquet with the 
supreme authority without daring to 
seize it, or, indeed, possessing the 
means of doing so. 

4S^ " There are nicknames of Mira- 
beau's worth whole treatises. * Grandi- 
son Cromwell * Lafayette, — write a vol- 
ume on the man, as many Yolnmes have 
been written, and try to say more. It is 
the best likeness yet drawn of him." 


Orand Monarque, lie (li^gro&mo^- 
nafk', 62). [Fr. , the great monarch.] 
A title often applied to Louis XIV. 
(1638-1715), one of the most remark- 
able rulers that ever sat on the throne 
of France. In his long reign of sev- 
enty-two years, he reared the fabric 
of the absolute monarchy which con- 
tinued for more than seventy-two 
years after his death, when it was 
shaken to pieces in the storms of the 
Revolution ; yet the ruling principles 
of his administration — uniformity 
and centrfdization — survived tiie 
wreck, and France is still governed 
by them. 

When it came to courtship, and your field 
of preferment was the VerBailks <Ell-de-BoBufc 
and a Orand Monargve walking endrcled 
with scarlet women and adulators there, the 
course of the Mirabeaus grew still more com- 
plicated. Carlyle. 

Ghrandmother's Beview, My. A 

nickname given to the " British Re- 
view," a quarterly periodical ovmed 
and edited by a Mr. Roberts, whom 
Byron jocosely accused of having re- 
ceived a bribe from him. Mr. Rob- 
erts was foolish enough to take the 
matter quite seriously, declared that 
the charge was an absolute falsehood, 
and challenged Byron to name how 

and when the bribe was given. By- 
ron responded in an amusing letter, 
and turned the laugh agamst his op- 
ponent. , 

" I bribed My ChrandnuimmcCt Revvsw, the 
British." 2>m Jtum. 

Am I flat,— I tip Jfir Oranidnu>ther a Ut of 
prose. Am I dunnea into sourness,— I cut 
up some deistical fUlow fbr the Quarterly. 

Ifdcte$ Ambrosumce, 

Gtrane (gii'na). A horse of marvel- 
ous swiftness owned by Siegfried. 
See Siegfried. 

Granite State. A popular name for 
the State of New Hampshire, tlie 
mountainous portions of which are 
largely composed of granite. 

Gteatiano. 1. (gra'she-&'no.) A Ariend 
to Antonio and Bassanio, in Shake- 
speare's " Merchant of Venice." 

2. Brother to Brabantio, in Shake- 
speare's tragedy of " Othello." 

3. (gr&-tse-i'no.) A character in 
the Italian popular dramatic enter- 
tainment called " commedia dt^ 
at'<e." He is represented as a Bo- 
lognese doctor, and has a mask with 
a Dlack nose and forehead and red 
cheeks; his character is that of a 
pedantic and tedious prober. 

Gray. 1. (AuldBobin.) The title of 
an ancient and celebrated ballad by 
Lady Anne Lindsay (afterward Lady 
Barnard), and the name of its hero, 
a good old man married to a poor 
young girl whose lover was thought 
to have been lost at sea, but who 
returns to claim her hand a month 
after her marriage. 

2. (Barry.) A pseudonym of 
Robert Barry CoflSn, an American 
writer whose sketches first appeared 
in the " Home Journal." 

3. (Duncan.) The hero of a ballad 
of the same name by Bums. 

4. (Mary.) See Bell, Besst. 

Greal. See St. Graal. 

Great Bastard. [Fr. Le Grand JBdr- 
tard.] A sobriquet or surname given 
toAntoinedeBourgogne (1421-1504), 
a natural son of jPhilip the Good, 
Duke of Bourgogne. He was cele- 
brated for his bravery. 

Great Captain. [Sp. El Gran Cajn- 
ton.] 1. Gonsalvoae Cordova (1463- 
1515), a distinguished general of 

For tliA ''Key to Che Scheme of PronanclatioB," with the acoompanying Ezpkmattonsb 




Sxnm. He was sent by FerdinAnd 
aad Isabella to assist their kinsman, 
Ferdinand IJ. of Naples, in recover- 
ing his kingdom from the French. 
It was in the campaign of 1496, in 
which he drove tlie l^rench (who.a 
year before had possessed the whole 
kingdom) entirely out of Sicily, that 
he was hailed by his soldiers as the 
Great Captain, a name- by which he 
was ever afterward familiarly known 
thronghout Europe. 

They [the people of India] could shotr 
bankers richer tiian the richest firms of Bar- 
celona and CadiZf Ticerovs whose splendor 
txr surpassed that of Ferdinand the Catholic, 

my rtaas ci cavalry , and long trains of artilleiy 
which would have astonished the Oreat Cc^ 
tain. Macauloif, 

The great Castilian heroes, such as the Cid, 
Bemanlo del Carpio, and Pebnro, are even 
now an essential portion of the fldtii and 
poetry of the common people of Spain, and 
are still in some degree honored, as they were 
honored in the age of the Oreat Oc^ptam. 


2. A surname of Manuel I. ( 1120- 
1180), emperor of Trebizond. 

Gtreat Qham of Iiiteraturd. A name 

given to Dr. Johnson by Smollett, in 

a letter to John Wilkes. See Bos- 

weirs "Life of Johnson," vol. ii. 

chap. iii. 

TbiB [a prologue for the comedy of *' The 
Good-natured l£iih "1 immediately became au 
object of great solicitude with Goldsmith, 
knowing tne weight an introduction from the 
Oreat Cham qf XAierature would have with 
the public W. Irving, 

Ghreat Ck>innLoner. William Pitt 
(Earl of ChiUJiam), a famous parlia- 
mentary orator, and for more than 
thirty years (1735-1766) a leader in 
the House of Commons. 

We leave the Qrtat Commoner in the zenith 
ofhisgloiy. Macmday. 

Great Dauphin. [Fr. Le Grand Dau- 
jo&m.] A name given by French his- 
torians to the son of Louis XrV. He 
was bom in 1661, and died in 1711. 
See Little Dauphin. 

Oreat Duke. A title by which the 
Duke of Wellington (1769-1852) is 
often distinguished. 

Burr the Oreat Dtike 

With an empire's lamentation, 
Let us bury the Oreat JhAe 

To the noise of the monmlng of a mighty 
nation. Tennjfaon. 

Great Sari. A surname sometimes 
given to Archibald Douglas (d. 1614), 

Earl of Angus. I^e is better known 
as Archibald BeU-thC' Cat. See Bell- 

Great Earl of Cork. A title be- 
stowed upon Richard Boyle (1566" 
1643), Earl of Cork, a nobleman who, 

g>S8essing the largest estate of any 
n^lish subject at that period, devot- 
ed it, in the most generous manner, 
• to promoting public improvements. 

Ghreat Elector. [Grer. Grosse Kur- 
f&rtt.'\ A surname given to Fred- 
erick William, elector of Branden- 
burg (1620-1688)^ a sovereign dis- 
tinguished for his military genius 
and his private virtues, for the pru- 
dence and wisdom with which he 
administered the civil government, 
and for the zeal and success with 
which he labored to augment ^e 
prosperity of his dominions, and to 
promote the welfare of his people. 
He is regarded as the founder of the 
Prussian greatness, and his reign 
gave to the country tiie military 
character which it still bears. 

Ghreat-heart, Mr. A character in the 
" Pilgrim's Progress " of Bnn^an, 
represented as the guide of Christian's 
wife and children upon their journey 
to the Celestial City. 

Great Magioian. An appellation of 
Sir Walter Scottj given to him on 
account of the sm^ular fascination 
he exercises over his readers by his 
remarkable power of description and 
his charming sMe. The designation 
was originated by Professor John 
Wilson in a poem cialled ^^ The Magic 
Mirror," addressed to Scott, and 
published, in the Edinburgh /^.^^ual 
Register " for 1812. 

And when once more the gradons yision 

I Mi the voice fiunOiar to mine ear; 
While many a ftded dream of earth awoke. 
Connected strangely with that unknown 

Who now stretched forth his arm, and on the 

A circle round me traced, as witii magician's 

wand. Frtif. J.WUaon. 

See Wizard of the North. 

Then spake the man clothed in pUUn ap- 
parel to the Oreat Magician who dwelleth in 
&e old fiutness, hard by the river Jordan 
[Tweed], which is by the Border. 

ChcMee MS.y Blackroood'a Mag. (1817). 

Ghreat Marquis. 1. A title given to 

a|id for tha Bcmarka and Bnka to which the numbers after certsin words .refer, see pp. zir-xxxii. 




■ JamM Gnham, Marquis of Montrose 
(161d-1650), on account of his heroic 
deeds in the cause of Chailes I. 

IVe told thee how we swept Dundee* 
And tamed the Lindsay's pride. 

Bat never have I told thee yet 
How the G^rewrtJfarffiM died. Atftomi. 

3. A name given by the Portu- 

fnese peasantiy to Dom SebastiSo 
ose de Carvalho, Marquis de Pom- 
bal (1699-1782), the greatest of al> 
Portuguese statesmen, and one of the 
ablest men of his time. 

Groat Mogrol. The title by which 
the chief of the Moguls, or of the 
empire founded in Uindostan by 
Baber in the fifteenth century, was 
known in Europe. The last person 
to whom this title of right belonged 
was Shah Allum, at whose death, in 
1806, the Mogul empire came to an 

€h*eat Moraliat. A title often applied 
to Dr. Samuel Johnson (1709-1784), 
in allusion to the ethical character 
of his writings, particularly his es- 
says, trom which GoldsmiUi said a 
complete system of morals might be 

Dr. Johnson fhonght life had ftw things 
better than the excitation produced by being 
whirled rapidly along in a post-chaise; but he 
who has in youth experienced the confident 
and independent feeling of a stout pedestrian 
in an interesting country, and during fine 
weather, will hold the taste of the OreeuMor- 
aliit cheap in comparison. Sir W. £k»tt. 

Great Unknown. A name given to 
the author of the " Warerley Novels," 
whidi, on their first appearance, were 
published anonymousfy^, and which 
unmediately acquired an extraordi- 
nary degree of popularity. The epi- 
thet was originated by James Bal- 

jfgf " The cbeumstanoeof Scott's hav- 
ing pablished a poem in the same year in 
wUch ' Waverley ' appeared, and his en- 
gagement in other literary undertakings 
being known, combined, with the com- 
mon prejudice that a poet cannot excel as 
a proee-^tM*^ to avert firam him for a 
time the mupicion of the authorship of 
the ' WaTerley ' norels. The taciturnity 
of the few intrusted with the secret de- 
feated all attemps to obtain direct vri- 
denoe as to who was the author. From 
the first, however, suspicion pointed 
strongly toward Scott ; and so many cir- 
cttmstanoee tended to starengtfaen it, that 

the dtaelosuies from Ckmstable's and Bal- 
lantyne's books, and his own confession, 
scarcely increased the moral conviction 
which had long prevailed, that he was 
the ' Great Unknown.* " Eng. Oyc. 

Great "Witoh of Bal-wdr^. A name 
popularly given to one Maxgaret 
Aiken, a Scotchwoman of the uttter 
part of the sixteenth century, who, 
on being accused of witchcrait, and 
subjected to torture, made a pretended 
confession of ^uilt, and, in order to 
save her life, mformed upon others, 
asserting that they had a secret mark 
in their eyes by which she knew 
them for witches. She was carried 
about the country for the sake of de- 
tecting such emissaries of the Devil. 

Greaves, Sir Iiftun'ce-l^t. The title 
of a novel by Smollett (a sort of 
travesty of ^* Don Quixote " ), and the 
name of its hero, a well-bom young 
English squire or the time of Geoxge 
II., handsome, virtuous, and enlight- 
ened, but crack-brained, who sets 
out, attended bv an old sea-captain 
for his Sancho l^anza, to act " as co- 
adjutor to the law, and even to rem- 
edy evils which the law cannot leadi ; 
to detect fraud and treason, abase 
insolence, mortify pride, discoun^e 
slander, disgrace immodesty, and stig- 
matize ingratitude.'* 

Ghreeoe, The Two Eyes of. See 
Two Eyes of Greece, The. 

Greek Commentator. A title given 
to Feman Nunez de Guzman (1488- 
1552), on account of his philological 
lectures, delivered in the University 
of Salamanca. 

(3reen, George i^. See Geoboe a- 

Ghreen-Bae Xaquiry. {Eng. Higt,) A 
name given to an investigation into 
the nature of a green bag containing 
Reports on the state of the country 
(alleged to be papers of seditious im- 
port), which was laid before parlia- 
ment by the prince regent, Feb. 3, 
1817. These Keports were referred 
to secret committees, and in acc^^rd- 
ance with their recommendations the 
Habeas Corpus Act was suspended 
(March 3), and other coercive meas- 
ures adopted. 

For the «*K»7 to the Sohemeof Fraamiciation," with the aoeompaayliig WirptoMtiffint. 




Qgetftt oyo d Mdnster. A oommon 

penonification of jealouv^. The ex- 

' pression originated with Shakespeare. 



Green Isle. Same as the Emerald 
Ide. See Emkrat^p Islb. 

If the Irish elTM are aajrwise distinsiilBfaed 
. from those of Britain, it seems to be by their 
diapoaition to divide into fiustiona, and flg^ht 
among themselves, — a pngnacily characteris- 
tic of the Qreen Me. Sir W. Scott, 

Green-Mountain State. A popular 
name of Vermont, the Green Moun- 
tains being the prindiMd mountain- 
range in the State. 

Greenwood, Gnuie. Anomdepltme 
adopted by Mrs. Sara Jane (Clarke.) 
Lippincott, a popular American au- 
thoress (^the present day. 

Gre'mi-o. A suitor to Bianca, in 
Shakespeare's "Taming of the 
. Shi«w.f' 

Qretohjeaa. (gret'ken). See Maroa- 

- BBT. 

Grethel, Ghunxner (gr6th/el; Ger. 
pron. gra'tel). The imaginary nar- 
rator of a series of German nursety 
tales, said to hare been taken down 
by the brodiers Grimm, from the lips 
- of Fran Viehmanin, wire of a peasant 
in the neighborhood of Hesse Cassel. 
' They have been translated into Eng- 
Gride, Arthur. An old usurer in 
Dickens's " Nicholas Nickleby." 

Grimes* Old. See Old Grimes. 

Gri&'go, Harrj. A nom de plume of 

Henry Augustus Wise (b. 1819), an 

American writer, author of " Los 

Gringos,'* "Captain Brand," and 

other works. Gringo is a Spanish 

word meaning tmifaeBigible. 
Grl-serd$, The Patient. A lady 

in Chaucer's " Clerk of Oxenford's 

Tale," immortalized by her virtue 

and her patience. The model of 

womanly and wifely ooedience, die 

comes victoriously out of the most 

emel and repeated ordeals to which 

her conjugal and maternal affections 

are subjected. [Written also Gri- 

eeld, Grissell, Grizzell, Gri- 


•md IbrllMBeaMzkt and BttlestowUeh Hbmvmabm tflw owtaitt word* refer, see pp. xiv-aoadL 

The sUny of Oriaelda was flnt 
told in the "Decameron." Bocoaodo 
derived the incidents from Petiarch, 
who seems to have communicated them 
also to Ohauoer. About the middle of 
the sixteenth century (1565), a song of 
" Patient Giissel" appeared, and a prote 
history the same year. The theme has 
subsequently been treated in a great va- 
riety of ways. 

For patience she wHI prove « second GHnel^ 
And Bonuta Luerece Ibr her cluuitity. 


He might cut 
My body into coins to give away 
Among iiis oliier paupers; change my Hma* 
While I stood dumb •• Qriteldt for black 

Or piteous foundlings. ^, 

Orosnon (gi^ki^y^', 62). See Gba- 


Ghrub Street. The former name of a 
street near Moorfields^ in London, 
much inhabited by literary hacks 
(among whom Dr. Johnson includes 
"the writers of Dictionaries"), 
whence it was proverbially used to 
characterize any worthless author, or 
any mean production. Foxe, the 
martyrologist, and Speed, the his- 
torian, resided in this street. In 
1830, the name was changed to 
Milton Street. 
Let BudgeU change low Orvb Street on Us 


And write whate'er he please— except his 
wiU. i*<>P«. 

I'd sooner ballads write, and Oni>-/^reet 
lays. GOF- 

Qnun^le-to'ni-^nf. A nickname 
sometimes given to those who were 
not of the Court party in the time 
of William and Mary. They were 
at times honored witn the name of 
** Country party." 

GrCl'ini-o. A servant to Petmchio, 
in Shakespeare's "Tammg of the 

Orun, AnastasiuB (&-nft-stft'se-d6s 
griin, 34.) A nom deplume of Anton 
Siexander von Auersperg (b. 1806), 
a (xerman poet. * 

Orun'dy, Mm. A person frequent- 
Iv referred to in Miorton's comedy, 
*^ Speed the Plough," but not intro- 
duced as one of the dramatis persona. 
The solicitude of Dame Ashfield, in 
this play, as to what will Mrs. Grundy 




sny, has given the latter preat celeh- 
rity, the interrogatory having ac- 
quired a proverbuu currency. 

Ton will b« pleased to hear that I have hit 
upon a mude of aatisfying the curiosity of our 
fHend, Mn. Ghttndy, - that is ** the worid,"— 
without injunr to any one. 

ak- E. Bvhoer Id/iiOH. 

Oudron (goo-droon^). 1. A famous 
mythical ^male character in the £dda 
of Samund, married, by the magic arts 
of her mother, to Signrd, who was be- 
trothed to Brynhild. After the death 
of Sigurd, she married King Atli FAt- 
tila], at the instance of her motner. 
She did not love him, however; and 
soon coming to hate him for his 
cruelty, she took his Ufe, having first 
caused him to drink out of the skulls, 
and eat the wasted hearts, of their 
two children, whom she had mur- 
dered. She then sought to put an end 
to her own wretche4 existence by 
throwing herself into the sea; but the 
waves TOre her to the castle of King 
Jonakur, whom she married. 

2. The heroine of a celebrated 
North-Saxon noem supposed to have 
been composea in the thirteenth cen- 
tuiT, and still extant at Vienna in a 
MS. of the fifteenth century. It was 
translated into the modem High Ger- 
man in 1838. Gudrun is the daugh- 
ter of King Hettel [Attlla], and is 
betrothed to Herwig, King of Heligo- 
land; but her rejected suitor. Hart- 
muth, king of Norwav, invades the 
dominions of Hettel, kills him, and 
carries ofi^ Gudrun. As she still treats 
Hartmuth with contempt, and refuses 
to marry him, she is put to menial ser- 
vice, and is treated with great indig- 
nity by his mother, Gerlinda, or Gir- 
lint. As she is one day washing linen 
by the sea, she learns that a fleet is 
bringing her brother and her l^over to 
her rescue. She flings the linen into 
the sea, and, in order to escape pun- 
ishment for doing so, feigns that 
she is willing to marry Hartmuth. 
But Herwig now appears on the scene, 
guns a decisive victory, puts Gerlinda 
to death, marries Gudrun, and, at 
her intercession, pardons Hartmuth. 
Gudrun is distinguished as a perfect 
model of angelic mercy, heroic forti- 
tude, and pious resignation. 

Guen'do-len (gwen'-). A div<msed 
wife of Locrine. See Sabrxna. 

Oni-de'ri-UB (gwt-, 9). A son -of 
C^^mbeline, in Shakespeare's play of 
this name, passing under the assumed 
name of rolydore, and supposed to 
be a son of Belarius. Guiderius, as 
well as Cymbeline, was a legendaiy 
or fabulous king of Britain. 

GKul'den-stgm (gil^-). The name of 
. a courtier, in Shakespeare's tragedy 
of " Hamlet." 

^' Rosencranti and Guildenstem 
are &YorabIe samples of the thorough- 
paced, time - serving court - knaye ; serv- 
ants of all work, ticketed, and to be hired 
finr any hard or dirty job." 

Cowden Qarhe. 

GKiinart, Boque. See Roque Gui- 


Ghiin'e-ver (gwin'-). Queen to King 
Arthur, celebrated for her amours 
with Lancelot du Lac, and others. 
Hence the name was frequently ap- 
plied to any wanton woman. Geof- 
irey of Monmouth says that she was 
of a noble Roman family, and the 
most beautiful woman in all Britain. 
[Written also Guenever, Guin- 
evere (gwin'e-veer'), Gnanha- 
m a r a (gwan'hu-ma'i^), G e n e u r a 
(ge-nu'ra), Ganora (^%-tlo'tX, 9), 
Gen lev re (ge'nl-e'ver), and Gi- 
n e V r a (gl-nev'rft).] 

Gulli-ver, Iiemuel. The imaginary 
hero of Swift's celebrated satiricfd 
romance entitled " Travels into sev- 
eral Remote Nations of the "World, by 
Lemuel Gulliver." He is represented 
as being first a surgeon in London, 
and then a captain of several ships. 
After having followed the sea for 
some years, he makes in succession 
four extraordinary voyages, in the 
first of which he gets wreckeid on the 
coast of Lilliput, a country inhabited 
by pygmies; in the second, he is 
thrown among the people of Brobding- 
nag, who are giants of a tremendous 
size; in the third, he is driven to 
Laputa, an empire of quack pretend- 
ersto science, luiavish projectors, and 
sorcerers ; and in the fourth, he visits 
the Houyhnhnms, a race of horses 
endowed with reason. 

For the ** Key to the Scheme of Pironunciatioii,** with the aceompaoyliig Ezpbuuitfona, 




Chil-nftre'. 1. A female character in 
Byron's poem of "The Corsair." 
She is rescued fh>m a burning harem 
by Conrad, and, becoming passion- 
ately enamored of him, repays the 
service he has done her by taking 
the life of the pasha, Sey d, into whose 
hands Conrad falls. 

2. A character in one of the tales 
of the "Arabian Nights' Entertain- 

Gmn'mer's Ore. A marvelous island, 
fabled to float in the northern seas, — 
a fiction probably based upon the 
existence of some partly submeived 
reef or shoal. The geographer fiu- 
rseus placed this island on his map 
in view of Stockholm. 

'" There is a tradition in the north* 
em seas, and upon the coast of Norway, 
that floating ifllands may often be seen ^ 
rising out of the bosom of the wayes, with 
trees fully formed, haTmg branches from 
which hang shells instead of fruits, but 
which disappear after some hours. Tor- 
fieuR, in his history of Norway, alludes to 
these. The sailors and inhabitants of 
the coast regard ^hese places as the sub- 
marine habitations of CTil spirits, who 
cause these islands to rise to taunt nayi- 
icators, conftise their reckcmlngs, and em- 
barrass their Toyages.-" Piehot. 

Gmi«nip(gd&n5'n«f). {Scand. M^.) 
The name of Odin's spear or lance. 

Gunpowder Plot. (Eng, Hitt.) A 
memorable conspiracy for overthrow- 
ing the government by blowing up 
tiie king, lords, and commons, at the 
opening of parliament on the 5th of 
Kovember, 1605. This diabolical 
scheme was projected by Robert 
Catesby, a . Koman Catholic, who 
leagued with himself Guy Fawkes 
and several other persons, of the same 
faith, who were exasperated b^ the 
intolerant and persecuting spirit of 
James I. and his ministers. It was 
discovered, however, on the evening 
before it was to have been carried into 
execution, and the principal conspira- 
tors were pat to death. 

Ounther, Bins (giin'tgf , 34). A hero 
whose adventures are related in the 
ancient German epic, the *' Nibelun- 
gen Lied ; " brother to Chriemhild. 

Gurth. A Saxon swine-herd, the thrall 

of Cedric of Rotherwood, in Sir 
Walter Scott's " Ivanhoe." 

Ghir^n, Oammer (-tn). The hero- 
ine of an old English comedy, long 
supposed to be the earliest' in the 
language, but now ranked as the 
second in point of time. It was 
written about 1561, by John Still, 
afterward Bishop of Bath and Wells. 
The plot turns upon the loss of a 
needle by Gammer Gurton, — a seri- 
ous event at that period, especiallv in 
a remote village, — and me subse- 
quent discovery of it sticking in the 
breeches of her man Hodge. 

OuEman de Alfaraohe (gooth- 
min' dft ftl-fft-r&^ch&). The hero of 
a celebrated Spanish novel written 
by Mateo Aleman, and flrst printed 
at Madrid, in 1599. He begms bis 
career as a dupe, but imerward 
becomes a consummate knave, and 
exhibits a rich variety of gifts in the 
various characters he is compeUed by 
circumstances to assume, such as 
stable-boy, beggar, thief, coxcomb, 
mercenary, valet, pander, merchant, 
and the like. 

Ouy, Sir, Earl of 'Warwick. The 
hero of a famous English legend, 
which celebrates his surpassing prow- 
ess and the wonderful achievements 
by which he obtained the hand of his 
lady-love, the Fair Felice, as well as 
the adventures he subsequently met 
with in a pilgrimage to the Holv 
Land, and on his return home. He 
is reputed to have lived in the reign 
of the Saxon King Athelstan. The 
romance of Sir Guy, mentioned by 
Chaucer in the " Canterbury Tales," 
cannot be traced further back than 
the earlier part of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. His existence at any period is 
very doubtful. 

4S^ Among the romances of the Anglo- 
Banish cycle, by no means the least 
celebrated is that of Guy of Warwick. 
It is one of the few which have been pre- 
served in (he Anglo-Norman form ; and 
it has gone through an extraordinary 
number of versions. Chaucer enumerat- 
ed it among the romances of pris, or 
those which in the fourteenth century 
were held in the highest estimation. 


The Lord-keeper was scared by r dun cow. 

•ad for the Remarks and Rules to which the niunben after certain words lefbr, see pp. xir-xxzIL 





tad h« tokw th« yonaf MDow who UUed her 
for Ovv ^f Warunek. Sbr W. ScoU. 

The conduct of the expedition was Intrusted 
to a TaUant Dutchman, who for lize and 
weight might have matched with Colbrand, 
tiie Danish champion slain hy OnuofWar' 
wickm W» Itviing. 

Gii7'$n» Sir(^^dn). A knight whose 
adventures are related in me second 
hook of Spenser's "Faery Queen." 
To him was assigned the task of 
bringing into subjection a witch, 
Acrasia, and of destroying her resi- 
dence, the Bower of Bliss. Sir Guyon 
represents the quality of Temperance 
in its lareest sense; meaning that 
▼irtuous self-goyemment which holds 
m check not only the inferior sensnal 
appetites, but also the impulses of 

passion and the movements of re- 

Gy'&s. A mythical personage in Vir- 
nrs "^neid;" a companion of 
2£neas, noted for his bravery. At 
the naval games exhibited byiEneas 
in honor of his father Anchises, Gyas 
commanded the ship *^ Chimffiia," of 
which Menoetei^ was the pilot See 

<jly'«*9. [Gr. IVyi^.] ((?r. rf Rota, 
Myth,) A son of Coelus and Terra, 
a monstronjB hnndred-handed giant, 
who, with hiB brokers, made war 
upon the gods, and was slain by 
Hercules, and subjected to everlast- 
ing punishment in Tartarus. 

7«v ti» ** Key toti» Sehems of Fwmundrtiqni'* wtth ti» aceompugring SxvIuuUUma, 





B2'd^. [Gf.*Ai^,'Atti|$.] {Gr. # 
Bom. Mm.) The god of tbe nether 
world, the son of Satom and Rhea, 
and liie brother of Jupiter and Nep- 
tune. He is the same as Pi**^' The 
name is lUso applied to his kingdom, 
the abode of the departed spints, or 
shades. See Plitto. 

H»'in5xi. [Gr. Ai/*«v.] ( Gr. dj -Btwn. 
M^\) A son of Creon of Thebes, 
and a lover of Antigone. He is said 
to have destxoyed himself on hearing 
that Antigone was condemned by her 
fiUher to be entombed alive. 

Hagen (hft'gen). The murderer of 
Siegfried in the German epic, the 
" Nibelimgen Lied;" represented as 
a pale-&ced and one-eyed dwarf, of 
demon origm, who knows evei^r thing, 
and whose sole desire is mischief. 
He is at last kiUed by Chriemhild, 
Siegfried's wife, i/dio strikes off his 
he«d with SiegfHed's own sword. 

Haidee (hl-deO* A beautiful young 
Greek girl, in Byron's poem of " Don 

Hi^i Baba. See Baba, Hajjl 

'Saloyone. See Alctom^ 

Hales, TheErei^memorable John. 
A name often given to John Hales 
(1584-1656), an able scholar and di- 
vine of the church of England. The 
epithet of "ever-memorable" was 
first applied to him ^er his decease, 
in the title prefixed to a collection 
of his writinffs^ called his " Golden 
Remains," published in 1659. 

Hani'(-dry'$d9. [Gr. 'A^^d^cv, 
Lat. ffamadryadesJ\ (Gr. ^ Bom. 
Myth.) Nymnhs of the woods who 
were bom ana died wiUi particular 

Ham'fl-t^n, QiSL A pseudonym 
adopted by Miss Mary Abi^ot^ 
Dodge, of Hamilton^ Mdsssachusetts, 
a popular American writer of the 
present day. 

Hamlet. In Shakespeare's tragedy 

of the same name, son to the former, 
and nephew to the reigning, king 
of Denmark. 

4^ "This Is that Hamlet the Dane 
-whom we read of in our youth, and whom 
we seem almost to remember in our after- 
years; he who made that flunous 80lilo> 
quy on life, who gave the adTloe to the 
playen, who thought * this goodly frame, 
the eaitii, a sterile pvcHnontory, and this 
hraye, overhanging firmamient, the air, 
this nuO^tical roof, fretted with golden 
fire, a foul and pestilent eoi]fpr^;ation of 
vapors ; * whom * man delighted not, nor 
woman neither ; ' he who talked with the 
graTenliggen, and moralised on Yorick's 
skull; the schoolfellow of RosenontDti and 
Guildenstem at Wittenberg; the Mead 
of Horatio ; the lover of Ophelia ; he that 
was mad and sent to England ; the slow 
avenger of his Ihther's death ; who lived 
at the court of Horwendillns fire hun- 
dred years before we were bom, but all 
whose thoughts we seem to know as well 
as we do our own, because we haTc read 
them hi Shakespeare." Hdzlitt, 

The critics have been greatly di- 
Tlded in regard to Shakespeare's intent 
in this tragedy and character. Coleridge 
thinks that Shakespeare's purpose was 
" to eidiibit a ohaxmoter flying from the 
sense of reality, and seekhig a reprieve 
from the pressure of its duties in that 
ideal actiVity, the overbalance of which, 
with the consequent indisporition to ac- 
tion, is Hamlet's disease." HasUtt says, 
** It is not a chameter marked 1^ strength 
of passion or will, but by refinement of 
thought and fceling. . . . His ruling 
passion is to think, not to act : and any 
vague pretense that flatters this propen- 
sity instantly dlTerts him from his pre- 
vious purposes." In Mr. R. O. White's 
view, " Hamlet is a man of contemplation, 
who is ever diverted from his purposed 
deeds by speculation upon th^ proba- 
ble consequences or their past causes, 
unless he acts too quickly, and under too 
much excitement, for any reflection to 
mresent itself." Goethe thought that 
Shakespeare designed to exhibit " a love- 
ly, pure, noble, and most moral nature, 
without the strength of nerve which 
forms a hero, sinUng beneath a burden 
which it cannot bear, and must not cast 
away." According to Schlegel, " the 
whole [play] is intended to show that a 

■ad Ibr the Remarki and Rules to which the numben aAor certain words refer, lee pp. xiv-xjtziL 




calculating oonidderation. which exhausts 
all the relations and possible consequences 
of a deed, must cripple the power of ac- 

Hammer of Heretios. [Fr. Le 
Marteau des ffereUques.'] 1. A 
sobriquet given to Fierre d'Ailly 
(1350-1425), a noted French cardinal 
and polemic. He was president of 
the council of Constance, by which 
John Huss was condemned. 

2. A surname applied to John 
Faber (d. 1541), from the title of 
one of his works. He was a native 
of Swabiaj and an eminent Roman 
Catholic divine. 

Hammon. See Ammon. 

Handsome iflTigiiahTWATi - [Fr. Le 
Bel AnglaisJ] A name given by the 
French troops under Turenne to John 
ChuichUl (1650-1722), afterward the 
celebrated Duke of Marlborough, who 
was no less distin^shed for the sin- 
gular graces of his person, than for 
his brilliant courage and his consum- 
mate ability both as a soldier and a 

Handsome Swordsman. [Fr. Le 
Beau Sabreur.] A title popularlv 
given to Joachim Murat (1767-1815), 
who was highly distinguished for 
his handsome person, accomplished 
horsemanship, and daring bravery as 
a cavalry officer. 

Hanging Judge. A surname fastened 
upon the Earl of Norbuiy (d. 1831), 
wno was Chief Justice of the Com- 
mon Pleas in Ireland, from 1820 to 
1827. He is said to have been in the 
habit of jesting with criminals, on 
whom he was pronouncing sentence 
of death. 

Hans von Bippacli (hftnss fon rip'- 
pft^, 67, 71). A fictitious personage, 
to ask for whom was an old joke 
among the German students. Hans 
is the German Jack, and Rippach is 
a village near Leipsic. 

Hanswurst (hftnss'^oofst, 68). [(Jer., 
Jack Pudding.] A pantomimic char- 
acter formerfy introduced into Ger- 
man comedies, and originally in- 
tended as a caricature of the Italian 
ffarleqtdn, but corresponding more 
particularly with the Italian Ifacarow, 

the French Jean Potage, the English 
Jack Pudding, and the Dutch PtdceU 
herringe, — all favorite characters 
with the lower classes of the popula- 
tion, and called after favorite national 
dishes. Hanswurst was noted for 
his clumsiness, his gormandizing ap- 

Eitite, and his Falstaffian dimensions, 
e was driven finom the German 
stage bjr Grottsched, about the middle 
of uoe eighteenth century. 

Happy Valley. In Johnson's " Ras- 
selas." a delightful valley, situated 
in Aoyssinia. 

To his recollection, this retired spot was 
unparalleled in beauty by the richest scenes 
he nsd yisited in his wanderinn. Eren the 
Happy Valley of Basselas wonkl Ikave sank 
into nothing upon the comparison. 

Sir W.SeotL 

Hard'cafr-tle, Mr. (hard^k&s-sl). A 
character in Goldsmith's comedy of 
**She Stoops to Conquer;" repre- 
sented as prosy and hospitable. 

Har^e-quXn (har'le-kin or har'le- 
kwin). [Fr. Harlequin^ Arleqtdn^ Sp. 
Arlequin, It. Arleccktno; probabfy 
from Old Fr. kierUkin, hellequin, 

goblin, elf. Low Lat. harlequimts. kel- 
i^intM, from D. and Old Ger. helley 
hell. — Mahn.] 1. The name of a 
well-known duiracter in the popular 
extemporized Italian comedy, in 
which he originally figured as a 
servant of Pantaleone, the comic 
representative of Venetian foibles, 
and as the lover of Columbina, or 
the Arlechinetta, He appeared before 
the public with a shaven head, a 
masked face, unshod feet, and a coat 
of many colors. He also carried a 
light sword of lath, and his hat was 
in a deplorable condition. He was 
noted for his agility, and for being a 
great gourmand, though his gluttony 
had no effect upon the size of his 
person. In this character were sat- 
irized the roguery and drollery of 
the Bergamasks, who were proverbial 
for their intriguing knaveiy. Har- 
lequin is accordingly represented as 
a simple, ignorant person, who tries 
very hard to be wittjr, even at the 
expense of being malicious. He is a 
parasite, cowardly, yet faithful and 
active, but easily induced, by fear 

Tor tlM "Key to tkie Scheme of FronuncUtion,'* with the accompanying Explanations, 




or interest, to conunit all sorts of 
tricks and knaveries. From the Ital- 
ian stage he was transferred to that 
of other countries. In England, he 
was first introduced on the stage by 
Rich, in the eighteenth century. The 
harlequin, in its original conception, 
has almost ceased to possess a le^t- 
imate existence in comedy, bemg 
confined, at the present day, to the 
sphere of Christmas pantonumes and 
puppet-shows, and to the improvised 
plays of the Italians. 

2. A punning nickname conferred 
upon Robert iTorfey (1661-1724), Earl 
of Oxford and Mortimer, an English 
statesman of the time of Queen Anne, 
noted for his restless, intriguing dis- 

Harley. "The Man of Feeling," in 
Mackenzie's novel of that name. 
He is remarkable for his fine sensi- 
bility and benevolence, and his bash- 
iiilness resulting from excessive deli- 
cacy. See Man of Feeling. 

49* " The priodpal olgeot of Macken- 
de, in an his novels, has been to reach 
and sustain a tone of moral pathos, by 
representing the effect of incidents, wheth- 
er important or trifling, upon the^nman 
mind, and especially those which were not 
only inst, honorable, and intelligent, but 
fio fktuned as to be responsive to those 
liner feelings to which ordinary hearts 
are callous. This is the direct and pro- 
fSes^ object of Mackenzie's first work, 
which is in ftct no narrative, but a series 
of snccesslve incidents, each rendered 
interesting by the mode in which they 
operate on the iSaelings of Harley." 

Sir W. Seott. 

Sarlot, The InfEunoos Northern. 
See NoBTHEBN HABiiOT, The In- 

J, Glarisaa. The heroine 

of Richardson's novel entitled *' The 
History of Clarissa Harlowe;" a 
young lady, who, to avoid a mat- 
rimonial union to which, her heart 
cannot consent, and to which she is 
urged l^ her parents, casts herself 
on the protection of a loven who 
scandidously abuses the confidence 
she reposes in him, and finally suc- 
ceeds in gratifying his passion, 
though he fails in insnaring her 
virtue. She rejects the reparation of 

marriage, which is at length ten- 
dered, and retires to a solitary abode, 
where she expires^ overwhelmed with 
grief and shame. 

JtSf '^ It was reserred to Biehaidson to 
show there is a chastity of the soul, 
which can beam out spotiess and unsul- 
lied even after that of the person has 
been violated; and the dignity of Cla- 
rissa, under her disgrace and her misfor- 
tunes, reminds us of the saying of the 
ancient poet, that a good man, struggling 
with the tide of adversity, and surmoimt- 
ing it, was a sight upon which the immor- 
tal gods might look down with pleasure." 

Sir W. Scott. 

Har-mo'ni-t. [6r. 'Ap^vuu] (Gr. 
^ Bom, Myth,) A daughter of Mars 
and Venus, and the wi^ of Cadmus. 
She is renowned in ancient stoiy on 
account of a necklace which she 
received from her husband on her 
wading -day, and which wrought 
misdiief to all who came into pos- 
session of it. 

Hftr'^d.Childe (child, or child). The 
hero of Lord Byron's poem, " Childe 
Harold's Pilgrimage ; " represented as 
a man of gentle birth, lofty bearing, 
and. peerless intellect, who, having 
exhausted all the pleasures of youth 
and early manhood, and feeling the 
fullness of satiety, loathes his fellow- 
bacchanals, and the " laughing dames 
in whom he did delight." To banish 
his disgust and melancholv, he de- 
termines to travel; but, t&ongh he 
traverses some of the fairest portions 
of ^e earth, the feelings of bitterness 
and desolation still prey upon him, 
without for one moment lightening 
the weight upon his heart, or ena- 
bling him to lose his own wretched 

*< Childe Harold may not be, nor 
do we believe he is, Lord Byron's very 
self; but he is Lord Byron's picture, 
sketched by Lord Byron himself, arranged 
in a &ncy dress, and disguised perhaps 
by some extrinsic attributes, but still 
bearing a sufficient resemblance to the 
oric^nal to warrant the conclusion that 
we have drawn." Sir W. Seott. 

The fleellngs ■riBing from so rich • Itnd- 
■eape m is aisplayed by the yalley of the 
Rhine, must have been the aame ]n eveiy 
boaom, from the period when our EneiiBhrnMi 
took hb lolitarTiouniey throueh it, in donbt 
and duager, till tnat in which u heard the in- 

sad Ibr the Bemarks and Rales to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. ziy-xxzil. 




digmmt CSmde Harold Md a pnmd fkrewell to 
hii nfttiTe coontiT, in tiw Tain tearch pf a 
Und in which liu heart might tibTob less 
fler^iy. ^ W. SeoU, 

Harpa^n (ar'pft'g6»»', 62). The hero 
of Moli6re'8 comedj of " L' Avare ; " 
represented as a wretched miser, 
whose avarice has reached that pomt 
where it is without pride, and whose 
dread of losing his wealth has over- 
powered the desue of being thought 
to possess it. 

Some [part of the treasure] went to stop for 
a time the mouths of such claimants, who. 
beinx weary of ftir promises, liad become of 
opinion wife Harpagon, thi^ it was necessajy 
to touch something substanoaL Sur W. Scoa, 

Harpagon is not more unlike to Jourdain 
. . . than ererr one of Hiss Austen's young 
divines to all hb reverend brethren. 


Har'pi-^r, or Har'jpSr. Some mys- 
terious i>ersonage referred to by the 
witches, in Shakespeare's tragedy of 
" Macbeth," a. iv., sc. 1. Corner sug- 
gests that the word may be a cor- 
ruption of harpy. The orthography 
of the first fouo, and of the best 
modern editions, is Harpier, 

Harpies. [Gr.'Apirvuu, swift robbers; 
Lat. Harpyia.'] {Gr. ^ Horn, Myth.) 
Three daughters of Neptune and 
Terra, considered as ministers of the 
vengeance of the gods. They were 
disgusting winged monsters, of fierce 
and loathsome aspect, with the bodies 
of vultures, the hea[ds of maidens, 
hands armed with long claws, and 
faces pale with hunger. They lived 
in an atmosphere of filth and stench, 
and nollutetd every thing they ap- 
proacned. Their names are com- 
monly given as Aello, Celteno, and 

Har-poo'r$-tds. [Gr. 'ApmHcpAniS'} 
(Myth,) The Greek name of ^e 
Egyptian Hortu, the god of the sun 
ana of silence, represented with his 
finger on his mouth. 

is, Mn. An imaginary person- 
age to whom Mrs. Gamp — a month- 
ly nurse who figures m Dickens's 
novel of "Martm Chuzzlewit" — 
constantly refers as an authority for 
her own fabrications and fancies. 
See Gamp, Mbs. Sabah. 

^9" " Mrs. Harris was a glorious cre- 
ation, or, rather, conception. Only, the 

numerous and xMpeeftabto persons who 
beu that name must feel themselves ag- 
grieved ; for their very existence is now 
made a matter of doubt. By one breath 
of the magician, the solid flesh-^uid-blood 
of all the Harrises has been volatiliied 
into a hypothetical phantom." 

Fhiser's Mof;. 

Now, hitherto, though the bandit was the 
nominal hero or the pleoe; though yon wei« 
always hearing of him, — his wrongs, virtues, 
hair -breadth escapes, — he had never been 
seen. Not Mn. MarrUt in the immortal nar- 
rative, was more quoted and more mythicaL 


Hatoh'way, Ijieutenant Jack. The 
name of a retired naval officer, on 
half-pay, in Smollett's novel, *^ The 
Adventures of Peregrine Fickle." 
He is represented as living with 
Commodore Trunnion as a compan- 

He who can read the ealamities of Trunnion 
and Hatehwtw, when run away with by their 
mettled steeds. . . . without a good near^ 
burst of honest laughter, must be well quali- 
fied to look sad and gentieman-Hlce with Ixnd. 
Cheaterfleld or Master Stephen. Sir W. Soott. 

Hats and Gaps. {Suxd. JERst.) Pop- 
ular names given to two political 
factions by imich Sweden was dis- 
tracted in the middle of the eighteenth 
century. The former party was fa- 
vorable to France, the latter was in 
the interest of Russia. They were 
both broken up, and their names 
prohibited, in 1771, by Gustavus III., 
who desired to exclude foreign influ- 

<t < Faction of Hate,' * Faction of 
Gaps ' (that is. n^At-caps, as being som- 
nolent and disinclined to France and 
War): seldom did a once TiUiant. fw 
shining nation sink to such depths ! " 


Hatt9r*ftiok, 2M[rk. A Dutch smug- 

tler captain, and a thorough and 
operate villain, in Soott's novel of 
**(ivLy Mannering." His character 
is redeemed from utter sordidness 
and depravity only by his one vir- 
tue of integrity to his employers. 
" I was idways fiuthful to my i^p- 
owners, always accounted for cargo 
to the last stiver." 

Hav'e-l$k the Dane. [Fr. ffawhh 
le DanoU."] The hero of an early 
French romance, the original of an 
ancient English romance of the same 
name, founded upon a story of the 

For the *' Key to the Scheme of Fronnnclation,*' with the accompanying Explanations, 




Saxcm era relatine to tiie town of 
Grimsbj, in Lincomshire. 

Hawk'S-bites. The same as Tityre 
Tw. ' See Tityke Tus. 

Httwk'eye State. The State of Iowa ; 
— said to be so named after an In- 
dian chief,- who was once a terror 
to voycigeun to its borders. 

Head of Afirioa. A name formerly 
given to the Cape of Grood Hope. 

HSad'riss* Cud'dXe (or Cuthbert). 
A plowman in Lady Belienden's 
service, in Scott*s novel of ^*01d 

Heart of Mld-Iiothi-^ A poetical 
and popular name of the old jail in 
Edinburgh, the capital of the county 
of Mid-Lothian. It was taJ^en down 
in 1817. One of Scott^s novels bears 
this name as its title. 

He'be. [Gr. 'npij.] (Gr, 4- Rom, 
Myth,) The goddess of youth, a 
daughter of Jupiter and Juno, and 
the cup-bearer of the gods. She was 
banished from heaven on account of 
unlucky fisdl. 

Wreatbid tmileB, 

Such u hajur on Hebei't cheek. 
And lore to ure in I 


dimple sleek. 

Heo'f-te (fomeiimea Anglicized hek^- 
tl). [Gr. 'Ek«£ti».] (Gr. f Mam, 
Mifth,) The daughter of Jupiter and 
Latona; a mysterious divimty called 
lAtna in heaven, Diana on earth, and 
ffecaity or Proserpina^ in hell. In 
the latter character, she is described 
as a powerful and cruel goddess, of 
hideous appearance, havme all the 
magical powers of the umverse at 
her command, and sending upon the 
earth all kinds of demons imd terrible 

Hieo't^r. [Gr. •Eiwwp.] ( Gr, ^ Bom. 
Myth,) The son of Priam, king of 
Troy, by Hecuba, and the bravest 
and ablest of all the Trojan chiefs 
who fought agamst the Greeks. For 
a louK time ne gloriously defended 
Troy, out was at last slain in single 
comoat by Achilles, who dragged his 
body in insulting triumph three times 
around the tomb of Patroclus and 
the walls of the beleaguered city. 
His exploits are sung by Homer m 

the ^ niad.'* One of the most beau- 
tiful and affecting as well as cele- 
brated episodes in this poem is that 
in which Hector takes leave of his 
wife and child at the Scnan gate 
before going into battle. 

Heo'tpr de Ma'rys» Sir. A knight 
of the Round Table, brother of Lan- 
celot du Lac. 

Heo'tor of (Germany. A title given 
bvtHe old chroniclers to Joachim H., 
elector of Brandenburg (d. 1571). 

Heo^tdrQ. See Tittbb Tus. 

Hec'u-b$. [Gr. *£Jca^1).] ( Gr, ^ Rom. 
Myth.) The second wife of Priam, 
king of Troy, and the mother of Paris 
and Hector. After the fall of Troy, 
she fell into the hands of the Greeks 
as a slave, and, according to one 
account, threw heraelf ih despair into 
the sea. 

Heep» XJriali. A detestable char- 
acter in Dickens's novel of " David 
Copperfield,*' who. under the garb 
of the most abject numility, conceals 
a diabolic hatred and mali^ity. " I 
am well aware," quoth he, "that I am 
the umblest person goin^, let the 
other be who ne may. My mother 
is likewise a very umble person. We 
live in a numble abode. Master Cop- 

' perfield, but have mu(^ to be thank- 
ful for. My father's former calling 
was umble; he was a sexton." 

Heimdall (him'dil). (Scand. Mydi.) 
A god who stands as sentinel at the 
briage of Bifrost, to prevent the 

fiants from forcing then: way into 
eaven. It is said of him. that he 
requires less sleep than a bird, that 
he can see to a distance of one hun- 
dred leagues, as well bv night as by 
day, and that he can hear the grass 
grow and also the wool on sheep's 
backs. See Gjallab. [Written also 

Heir of the Bepublio. A name 
given to Napoleon Bonaparte, "the 
plebeian child of the Revolution," 
who, in 1799, by a bold coiq) d'etat, 
overthrew the Directory, and made 
himself Furst Consul of France with 
sovereign powers ; and who, in 1804, 

■Bd Ibr tin B«madci sad BoIm to which the numlMn after eertafai words reftr, fee pp. zi-r-zzzii. 




assumed the title of emperor, and 
destroyed the last vestiges of democ- 
racy and freedom. 

Hel, or Hel&. {Scand, Myth.) The 
queen of the dead, daughter of the 
evil -hearted Loki and a giantess 
named Angurboda. She was fright- 
ful to behold, her aspect being fero- 
cious, and the upper part of her 
body black or livid from congealed 
blood. Her abode (Helheim) was a 
vast castle in Niflheim, in the midst 
of eternal damp, snow, ice, and dark- 
ness. Here she received all who died 
of old age or disease. She was an 
inexorable divinity, and would re- 
lease no one who had once entered 
her domain. 

Upro8e the king of men with speed, 

And saddled straight his coal-black steed; 

Down the yawning steep he rode. 

That leads tp HeWs drear abode, 

Till fUll before his fearless eyes, 

The portals nine of hell arise. Qr<ty. 

Helen. [Gr. 'ea^io}, Lat. ffelena."] 
(Gr. ^ Earn. Myth.) A daughter oi 
Jupiter and Leda, and the wife of 
Menelaus, kin^ of Sparta. She was 
the most beautiful woman of her age.. 
In the absence of her husband, Paris, 
son of King Priam, carried her off to 
Troy, which was the cause of the ten 
years' war against that city, and of 
its final destruction. 

Helen, Burd. See Burd Helen. 

Hel'e-n$. 1. See Helen. 

2. A lady in Shakespeare's "Mid- 
summer-Night's Dream," in love 
with Demetnus. 

3. The heroine of Shakespeare's 
" AU 's WeU that Ends Well," dis- 
tinguished for her romantic passion 
for Bertram, and her patient endur- 
ance of the mo8t adverse fortune. 

4^ " There was never, perhaps, a more 
beautifiil picture of a woman's love, 
cherished in secret; not self-consuming 
in silent languishment ; not pining in 
thought; not passive and 'desponding 
over its idol ; ' but patient and hopeAil ; 
strong in its own intensity, and sustained 
byitsownfondfidth. . . . The situation 
of Helena is the most painful and de- 
grading in which a woman can be placed. 
She is poor and lowly ; she loves a man 
[Bertram] who is &r her superior in rank, 
who repays her love with indifiference, 
and rejects her hand with scorn. She 

marries him against liis will ; he kavM 
her, with contumely, on the day of their 
marriage, and makes his return to her 
arms depend on conditions apparently 
impossible. All the circumstances and 
details with which Helena is surrounded 
are shocking to our feelings, and wound* 
ing to our delicacy ; and yet the beauty 
of the character is made to triumph over 
all''* Mrs. Jameson. 

Hel'e-n$, The Patient. A character 
in an old popular tale, reproduced in 
Germany oy Tieck. 

Hel'e-nu8. [Gr. 'EAew?.] (Or. 4 
Rom. Myth. ) A son of Priam and 
Hecuba, and a celebrated soothsayer. 

He-li'&-ddS. [Gr. 'HAuLae? .1 ( Gr. 4 
Jtom. Myth. ) Daughters of Helios or 
Sol (the sun), changed into poplars 
on account of their grief at the death 
of their brother Phaethon. Theii 
names were Lampethusa, Lampetia, 
and Phsethusa. 

Hel1-c5n. [Gr. 'EAuccaf.] A moun« 
tain of Bceotia, in Greece, sacred to 
Apollo and the Muses. 

From HeUcoifa harmonious springs 
A thousand rills their mazy progress take. 


Heli-08. [Gr. 'HAmk.] {Gr. Myth.) 
The sun-god; identified in later tunes 
with Apollo or Phoebus. He corre^ 
sponds to the Eoman /So/. 

Heiae. [Gr. 'eaAij.] ( Gr. ^ Hoiji. 
Myth.) A daughter of Athamas a^d 
Nephele. With her brother Phrixus, 
she fled, on a golden-fleeced ram, firom 
her step-mother Ino to Calchas, but 
fell into the strait called after her the 

Hel-ve'ti-$ (23). The Latin name of 

Switzerlfuid; sometimes used in mod^ 

em poetry. 

See from the ashes otBelvetia*8 vSIb 
The whitened skull of old Servetus nnilel 


Henriette {Fr. pron. 6a're-et', 62). 
A daughter of Chrysale in Moli^re's 
comedy, "Les Femmes Savantes." 
Her name has become proverbial in 
the French language as a type of a 
perfect woman. , 

He-pli898'tu8. [Gr.*H^<u<rro?.] {Myth.) 
The Greek name of the god called 
Vulcan by the Romans. See Vul- 

For the ** Key to the Scheme of Fzonmiciatton,'* with the ac c om p anying Bxplanalions, 




The Greek name of the wife of Japi- 
ter, called Junohy the Romans. See 

HSr'$-61ei'd». [Gr. 'HpojcAcZSat.] (Gr. 
^ Nam, Myth). The descendants of 
Hercules. See Hbrculbs. 

Heraoles. See Hercules. 

Her'ou-l^. [Gr. 'HpoKASit.] ( Gr. 4- 
Jiom. M^,) A son of Jupiter and 
Alcmena, the most famous hero of 
fabulous histoiy, remarkable for his 
great strength, and for his many 
wonderful achievements, particularly 
his performance of twelve labors im- 
posed upon him by his kinsman 
Kurysthens. These were, 1. To 
destroy a lion which haunted the 
mountain valley of Nemea. 2. To kill 
a formidable hydra which infested the 
forest and marsh of Lerna. (See 
H YDBA. ) 3. To capture a swift stag, 
with golden antlers and brazen feet, 
which belonged to Diana. 4. To 
take alive a wild boar which ravaged 
the neighborhood of £rymanthus. 
5. To cleanse the Augean stables. 
(See AuGEAS.) 6. To slay certain 
frightful carnivorous birds that deso- 
lated the country near Lake Stym- 
phalis, in Arcadia. 7. To bring uive 
to Eur^sthens a remarkable mad bull 
belonging to Minos, king of Crete. 8. 
To obtain the mares of Diomedes, king 
of the Bistones in Thrace, which fed 
on human fledi. 9. To procum the 

frdle of Hippolyta, queen of the 
mazons. 10. To kill the monster 
Geryon, and bring his herds to Ar- 
gos. (See Gebton.) 11. To obtain 
certain golden apples which were 
concealed in the gardens of the Hes- 
perides. (See Hespbbides.) 12. 
To bring from the infernal regions 
the three-headed dog Cerberus. (See 
Cbbberus.) To these " twelve 
labors" must be added manj other 
exploits, such as his stranglmg two 
8e]i>ents sent by Juno to destroy him 
while yet an infant; his battles with 
the Centaurs and with the Giants; bis 
participation in the Argonautic ex- 
pedition ; his liberation of Prometheus 
and Theseus ; and the like. It is re- 
lated by the sophist Prodicus, that 

Hercoles in his youth met the god- 
desses of Pleasure and Virtue at the 
cross-ways, and that each endeavored 
to persuade him to become her vo- 
tarj'; but he reiected the charms of 
Pleasure, and chose Virtue to be the 
constant companion of his life. (See 
Dejanira and Hylas.) [Called 
. also Alddetf after his grandfiMher Al- 


Th« old worid knew noChing of GoiiTvraloB t 
instead of «n ** £ooe Homo " [Behold the BfanI 
See John xix. 0], they had only lome Choice 
of JSerCHMf. Cktri^e. 

Heretios, Hammer ot See Ham- 
mer OF Heretics. 

Hermann (hSf^man). The hero of 
Goethe's poem entitled ** Hermann 
und Dorothea." 

jt^rThe afan of the "Jbrmann and 
Dorothea " is " in an epic crucible to firee 
from its dross the pure human ezistenoa 
of a small Qerman town, and at the same 
time mirror in a small glass the great 
moTements and changes of the world's 
stage." Goethe^ IVans. 

HSr^m^Q. [Gr. 'Ep^^.] (Myih.) The 
Greek name of Mercury. See Mer- 

Her'mi-^. A lad^ in Shakespeare's 
^* Midsummer - Night's Dream," in 
love with Lysander. 

HSr-mi'o-ne. [Gr. 'Rpfu<$v«|.] {Gr.^ 
mm. Myth.) 1. The only daughter 
of Menelaus and Helen, celebrated 
for her beauty. She became the wife 
of Pyrrhus (Neoptolemus), the son 
of Achilles; but, naving been previ- 
ously promised to Orestes, whom she 
loved, the latter procured the assas- 
sination of P^yrrhus, and carried her 
off and married her. 

2. The heroine of the first three 
acts of Shakespeare's ** Winter's 

" She is the wift of Leontes, king 
of Sioilia, and, though in the prime of 
beauty and womanhood, is not repre- 
sented in the first bloom of yonth. Her 
husband, on slight grounds, suspects her 
of infidelity with his firiend Polizenes, 
king of Bohemia. The suspicion once 
admitted, and working on a jealous, pas- 
sionate, and TindictiTe mind, becomes a 
settled and confirmed opinion. Hermlone 
is thrown into a dungeon ; her new-bom 
infant is taken from her, and, by the order 
of hw husband, flnnlde with jealousy. 

and fbr the Aemarks and Aolei to which the nnmben after certain words refer, see pp. ziv^xzzil. 




•zposed to death on a desert ahore ; she 
is herself brought to a public trial for 
trea»oii and incontinency, defends her- 
self nobly, and is pronounced innocent 
by the oracle. But, at the very moment 
that she is acquitted, she learns the death 
of the prince, her son, who, 

' Conceiving the dishonor of his mother, 
Had BtmiKnt declined, drooped, took it deep- 
ly ^ 

Futeneh and fixed the shame on *t in himself, 
Threw off his spirit, appetite, and sleep, 
And downright laneuished.* 

ghe swoons away with grief, and her sup- 
posed death concludes the tnird act. The 
two last acts are occupied with the adyen- 
tures of lier daughter Perdita ; and with 
the restoration of Perdita to the arms of 
her mother, and the reconciliation of Her- 
mione and Leontes, the piece concludes. 
Such, in few words, is the dramatic situ- 
ation. The character of Hermione exhib- 
its what is never found in the other sex, 
but rarely in our own, — yet sometimes, 
— dignity without pride, love without 
passion, and tenderness without weak- 
ness." Jilrs. Jamtson. 

Herxnod (her'mod, or h6f'm6d). 
(Scand. Myth.) A son of Odin, and 
the messenger of the gods. 

He'ro (9). [Gr. 'Hpci.] 1. ( Gr. cf 
Eom. Myth.) A beautiful priestess 
of Venus at Sestos, in Thrace, be- 
loved by Leander of Abydos, who 
repeatedly swam across the Helles- 

I)ont to visit her; but, he being at 
ength unfortunately drowned, she 
threw herself, in despair, into the sea. 
2. Daughter of Leonato, and a 
friend of Beatrice, in Shakespeare's 
"Much Ado about Nothing." 

" The character of Hero is well con- 
trasted with that of Beatrice, and their 
mutual attachment is very beautiful and 
natural. When they are both on the 
scene together. Hero has but little to say 
for herself; Beatrice asserts the rule of a 
master-spirit, eclipses her by her mental 
superiority, abashes her by her raillery, 
dictates to her, answers for her, and 
would fain inspire her gentle-hearted 
cousin with some of her own assurance. 
. . . But Shakespeare knew well how to 
make one character subordinate to anoth- 
er, vrithout sacrificing the slightest por- 
tion of its efiect ; and Hero, added to her 
grace and softness, and all the interest 
which attaches to her as the sentimental 
heroine of the play, possesses an intel- 
lectual beauty of her own. When she 
has Beatrice at an advantage, she repays 
her, with interest, in the severe, but most 

animated and elegant picture she draws 
of her cousin's imperious character and 
unbridled levity of tongue." 

Mrs. Jameson. 

H6p'6n, Robert. A pseudonym under 
which John Pinkerton (1758-1826) 
published a work, entitled "Letters 
on Literature," distinguished for its 
strange system of spelling, as well as 
for the singular opinions advanced in 
it on the value of the Greek and 
Roman writers. 

Hero of tlie Wile. A surname often 
given to Horatio Nelson (1758-1805), 
the illustrious naval commander of 
England, who, on the first of August, 
1798, with a greatly inferior force, 
attacked, and nearly destroyed, a 
French fleet under the command of 
Brueys, in Aboukir Bay. 

He-ros'trft-tu8. [Gr. 'HpooTparo?.] 
An Ephesian, who, to acquire im- 
perishable fame, set fire to the mag- 
nificent temple of Diana, at Ephesus, 
B. c. 356. He was tortured to death 
for the deed, and a decree was passed 
that no one should mention his name 
under pain of capital punishment; 
but the effect produced was exactly" 
the opposite of that which was intend- 
ed. [Called also Eraiostrattts.] 

Her'thft. {Teutonic Myth.) A per- 
sonification of the earth*. Hertha was 
worshiped by the ancient Germans 
and the Anglo-Saxons, as well as by 
the Norsemen. The name is some- 
times used as a synonym of Frigga. 
See Fkigqa. 

Her Trippa (§r trep'p^'). The name 
of one of the characters in Rabelais' 
" Pantagruel." 

J8®* " Her Trippa is undoubtedly Hen- 
ricus Cornelius Agrippa burlesqued. Her 
is HenricuSy or Heir iciis,' or perhaps al- 
ludes to Herr, because he was a Oerman, 
and Agrippa is turned into Trippa^ to 
play upon the word tripe.'*'' Motteux. 

He-si'o-ne. [Gr. 'H<r«Siaj.] {Gr. ^ 
Rom. Myth.) A daughter qf Laom- 
edon, king of Troy, rescued from a 
sea-monster by Hercules, and given 
in marriage to Telamon, to whom 
she bore Teucer. 

Hes-p3r1-dd§. [Gr. •E<rirept6cs.] {Gr. 
(f Jiom. Myth.) Three n^nnphs, 

For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanyuig Explanations, 




dAaghten of Hesperus, — or, as some 
say, of £reba8 and Nox, — and guard- 
ians of the golden apples which Juno, 
on her marriage with Jupiter, received 
from Terra, and which were kept in 
a ^urden on an island beyond Mount 
Atlas, in Africa. The tree which bore 
them was watched by a huge dragon. 

Hes'pe-rus. [Gr. "E<nrcpo*.] ( Gr. 4" 
JUmi. Myth.) A personification of the 
evening star, worshiped with divine 
honors. According to one form of 
the legend, he was the scm of Cepha- 
lus and Aurora ; according to another 
form, the son of lapetus and Asia. 
Diodorus calls him a son of Atlas, 
and says that he was fond of astron- 
omy, and that once, after having 
ascended Mount Atlas to observe the 
stars, he disappeared, and was seen 
on earth no more. 

Hieronyino. See Jbbonimo. 

Higli-lieela. A faction or party in 
Liliiput opposed to the Low-heels. 
These parties were so called from the 
high and low heels of their shoes, by 
Which they respectively distinguished 
themselves. The High-heels, it was 
alle^d,' were most agreeable to the 
ancient constitution of the tempire, 
but the emperor made use only of 
Low-heels in the administration of 
the government. Under these desig- 
nations. Swift satirized the High- 
church and Low-church parties of 
his time, or the Whigs and Tories. 
See GuixiVER and Lillifut. 

ifi^hland Mary. Mary Campbell. 
Bums's first love, the subject or 
some of his most beautiful songs, 
and of the elegy, "To Maiy in 

Hin'doos. A cant name given to the 
"Know-nothing" or Native- Ameri- 
can party in the United States, Dan- 
iel Ullman, their candidate for the 
Presidency, having been charged 
with being a native of Calcutta. 

Hip'pO'Ore'ne {the English poets some- 
times pronounce it in three syllables^ 
hip^po4i:reen). [Gr. 'linroKp^vTj.] A 
fountain near Mount Helicon, sacred 
to the Muses, and fabled to have been 

Eroduced by a stroke of Pegasus's 
oof. Longfellow has made use of 
this myth in his " Pegasus in Pound." 
See Pegasus. 

Oh for a beaker^II of the waim South, 
Full of the true, the blushAil IBppocrtne^ 
With beaded bubbles winking at the brim I 


Hip'pO-d$-mi'$. [Gr. 'IiriroSofieia.] 
( Gr, f ^(»n. Myth.) The real name 
of Briseis, the beloved slave of Achil- 
les. See Briseis. 

Hip-pol'j^-tft. [Gr. 'IniroXvrri.] 1. 
{Or. ^ Jiom. Mvth.) A que^n of 
the Amazons, and daughter of Mars, 
slain by Hercules, according to one 
account, but, according to another, 
conquered by Theseus, who married 
her, and had by her his son Hippolv- 
tus. [Written also H i p p o 1 y t e.^ 

The worthy Doctor . . . magnanimously 
fuppresBed his own inclination to become the 
Theseus to this H^ppolyta, in deference to the 

and fiv the RrmwW and Bulea to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 

i'ti-$. [Gr. •E<ma.] [Gr. Myth.) 
The Greek name of the goddess 
worshiped by the Romans as Vesta. 
See Vesta. 
Hi'$-wft'th$. A mythical personage 
of miraculous birth, believed by the 
North American Indians to have been 
sent among them to clear their rivers, 
forests, and fishing-grounds, and to 
teach them the arts of peace. The 
Btorpr of Hiawatha has been made the 
subject of a poem by Longfellow. 

Ht-ber'iii-$. The Latin name of 
Ireland, often used in modem poetr}'. 

Hlok'^thrift, Thomas, or Jack. 
The name of a famous character in 
an old legendary tale of the same 
name, doubtless a popular corrup- 
tion <k an ancioit Northern romance. 
He is described as a poor laborer 
of the time of William the Con- 
queror, and the possessor of super- 
human strength, which enabled him 
to accomplish achievements so won- 
derful, ana of such public importance 
and benefit, that he was knighted by 
his grateful king, and made governor 
of East Anglia, or Thanet. See 
"Qu, Rev.," No. XLL art. V. 

When a man sits down to write a history, 
though it be but the histoiy of Jack Hicka- 
iJuHjl or Tom Thumb, he Vnows no more 
than his heels what lets and confoimded 
Undianees he is to meet with in his way. 





xigliti of honrftuBty, which enJ^iiM him to 
forbear interrerence with the puMwamblepur- 
■uits of his young ftiend. Sir W. Scott. 

2. Qaeen of the Amazons, in 
ShidEespeare's "Midsummer-Night's 
Hip-pol't-tas. [Gr. *lvinSAvrof .] {Gr, 

LRom. Mytk,) A son of Theseus, 
g of Athens, by Antiope or Hip- 
polvta. His step-mother, Phedra, — 
the second wife of Theseus,— fell in 
loye with him, but, finding that her 
passion was not responded to, she ac- 
cused him to her husband of attempts 
upon her chastity; the kii^ in his 
rage cursed him, and prayed for his 
destruction, whereupon he was thrown 
from his chariot and dragged to death 
by his horses. JSsculapius, however, 
restored him to life, ana Diana placed 
him, under the name of Yirbius, and 
under the protection of the nymph 
Egeria, in the grove of Aricia, where 
he afterward received divine honors. 

Sip-pom'e-don. [Gr. 'innotiiButv.] 
{Gr. 4' Rom, Mytk.) One of the 
seven Grecian chiefs who engaged in 
the siege of Thebes. 

Hip-pom'^-n^s. [Gr. 'imrofiii^.'^ 
(Gr, 4" Rom. Myth.) A Grecian 
prince who conquered Atalanta in a 
race, and thus obtained her as his 
wife. See Atalanta." 

Even here, in tUs region ofwonden, I And 
Thai lUhi-footed Fancy leaves Truth &r be- 

Or, at leai^ like Hippomenes. turns her astray 
By the golden illuttons he fluigB in her way. 

T. Moore. 

Hip-pofl-d^Q. [Gr. 'iinroTaSi^.] {Gr. 
4" Rom, Myth.) A name given to 
2Bo1us, as the grandson of Hippotes. 
See ^OLus. 

He . . . questioned every gust of rugged 

That blows from off each beakid promon- 

loiy 1. . . 
And sage Htopotadea their answer brings, 
That nota bust was from his dungeon sl^yed. 


/ren (9). [A corruption of Irene."] 
The heroine of an old play by George 
Peele, entitled " The Turkish Ma- 
homet, and Hiren, the fair Greek; " 
referred to by Pistol, in Shakespeare's 
"King Henry IV.," Part H., a. ii., 
sc. 4. The name is proverbially 
used by the writers of that day to 
designate a strumpet 

** Come, oome," eiiciMwwKl Oldhnek ; ** what 
is the meauing of all this? Have we got 
Wren here ? We *U have no swaggering here, 
youngsters." Wr W. ScoU. 

Hifl-pa'ni-^. The ancient Latin name 
of Spain; sometimes used in modem 

Hob'bi-did'^9e. The name of one 
of the fiends mentioned by Shake- 
speare in " Lear " (a. iv., sc. 1), and 
taken from Harsnet's *^ Declaration 
of £gr6gious Popish Impostures." 
See Flibbertigibbbt, 1. [Written 
Hopdance in a. iii., sc 6.] 

HotbididaHcet prince of dumbness. Shak, 

Hob'gob^lin. A name formerly given 
to the merry spirit usually called 
Puck, or Rotfin GcodfMno, 

49- *^ GobHn ia the Freneh gobelin, 
German hobold ; Hob is Rob, Robin, Bob ; 
just as Hodge is Roger, ^"^ Keightley. 

Those that BbbffobUn call yon, and sweet 

You do their work, and they shall have good 

luck. JSutk, 

Hobf-nol. A name given bv Spen- 
ser, in his *^ Shepherd's Cafendar," 
to Gabriel Harvey (1646-1630), a per- 
sonal friend, a respectable poet and 
I >rose - writer, and one of the most 
earned persons of his age. [Writ- 
ten also Hob bin ol.] 

Hob'o-mok'ko. The name of an 
evil spirit among the North American 

Hob'son, Tobias (-sn). A carrier 
who lived at Cambridge (£ng.) in 
the seventeenth century. He kept a 
stable, and let out horses, but obliged 
each customer to take the one which 
stood next to the door. Hence the 
proverbial expression, ** Hobson'a 
choice," used to denote a choice 
without an alternative. 

Hoous, Hmnphrey. A nickname 
used to designate the Duke of Marl- 
borough, in Arbuthnot*s *' History of 
John Bull." 

Hddeken (hoMft-ken, 46). [Ger., lit- 
tle hat] A famous German kobold, 
or domestic f&iry servant ; — so called 
because he always wore a little felt 
hat pulled down over his face. 

Hodge. The goodman of Gammer 
Gurton, in the old play of ^^ Gammer 

For the "Key to the Scheme of FMnunciation,'* with the aeooropanyiDg Ezplanattona, 




Gorton's Needle." 

See GURT017, 

Hodur (ho'ddor, 46). {Scand, Myth,) 
A blind god who destroyed his broth- 
er Baldur, at the instigatioii of Loki, 
without meaning to do so. He is the 
tjp& of night and darkness, as^Bal- 
dur is of light and day. [Written 
also Hod, Hoder.] 

Hol'o-fer'nds. 1. See Juihth. 

2. [Fr. ( I'hvbal) Boh/erne.] The 
name of a pedant living in Paris, 
under whose care Gar^antua, in 
Kabelais' romance of this name, is 
placed for instruction. 

3. [An imperfect anagram of Jo^. 
nes FioreQy or Johannes Florio.] A 
pedantic schoolmaster, in Shake- 
speare's '^Love's Labor's Lost," fan- 
tastically vain of his empty knowl- 
edge. See EuPHUES. 

" Under the natee. of Hoiqfemes, 
Shakespeare ridicules John Fk>rio (d. 
lS2B)t the philologist and lexicographer, 
called by himself ' The Resolute.' . . . 
The character of Holoferncs, however, 
while it caricatures the peculiar folly and 
ostentation of Florio, holds up to ridicule, 
at the same time, the general pedantry 
and literary affectations of the age ; and 
amongst these, very particularly, the ab- 
surd faanovatioiis wUch Lyly liad intro- 
duced. Drake. 

Soly AUlanoe. [Fr. La SmrUe AlU- 
etnce-l (Eigt.) A league of the sov- 
ereigns of Europe, proposed by the 
Emperor Alexander of Kussia, Sept. 
26, 1816, after the defeat of Napoleon 
At Waterioo, and founded upon the 
idea that religion should be made the 
basis- of internation^ politics. The 
act establishing this alliance was 
signed by Alexander, Francis of 
Austria, and Frederick William of 
Prussia, and consisted of a declara- 
tion that the principles of Christian- 
ity should be the basis of internal 
administration and of pubUc policy. 
Prindples so indefinite led in time to 
violations of justice, and the league 
soon became a conspiracy of the gov- 
ernments against tne peoples. The 
kings of EngUind and France acced- 
ed to the dliance, and, in 1818, a 
congress was held at Aix-la^hapelle, 
in which a Declaration of the five 
monarchs was issued, stating that 

the object of the alliance was peace 
and Uffiiimate ttabilUy, England 
and France afterward withdrew from 
this union, as its views became more 
pronounced, and France at the pres- 
ent time occupies a position hostOe to 
it. A special article of the treaty of 
alliance excluded for ever the mem- 
bers of the Bonaparte family from 
any European throne! 

Holy Bottle, Oracle of the. An 
imaginazy oracle in search of which 
Pantagruel, in Kabelais' romance <^ 
this name, visits various islands, ac- 
companied by his triend Panurge. 
See Panuroe. 

M^ The last place at which they aaerive 
is Lantern-land (see IsLAiri) of Lamtkrns), 
where the oracular bottle is kept in an 
alabaster fount in a magnificent temple. 
Bemg conducted 'hither, the attendant 
priestess throws something into the fount, 
on which the water begins to bubble, and 
the word JHne ! (I>rink) is heaxd to pro- 
ceed from the bottle, which the priestess 
declares to be the most auspicious xe- 
sponse pronounced while she has offi- 
ciated in the temple. They accordingly 
aU partake of Falernian wine ; and with 
their ravings and prophesyings under the 
inspiration of Bacct&analiaii enthusiasm 
the romance ends. 

They were left in aU the dl atic es cB of desire 
nnsatiiBfled, — aaw their doctoTs, the Parch- 
mentariaas, the Bnaaarians, the Tuipentar 
nans, on one side, the Fopish doctors on the 
other, like Pantagrnel ana liis comrNuiions in 
quest of the Oracle qftheJSottlet aUembarked 
oat of right /Sterne. 

Holy City. A designation bestowed 
by various nations upon the city 
which is regarded as the center of 
their religious worship and traditions. 
By the Jews and Chxistians, Jerusa- 
lem is so called. By the Mohamme- 
dan nations, the name is applied to 
Mecca and Medina. By the Hindus, 
Benares is regarded as the Holy City. 
By the Indian Mohammedans, Alla- 
habad is so called. In the time of 
the Incas, the name was given to 
Cuzco, where there was a great tem- 
ple of the Sim, to which pilgrims re- 
sorted from the furthest borders of 
the empire. 

Holy OraaL See St. Graal. 

Holy Island. 1. A name formerly 
^ven to Ireland, on account of its 
mnumerable multitude of saints. 

and fiMT tbm Bemarks and Bidea to which the ntunbera after certain words refer, see pp. zir-xxxil. 




2. Guernsey was so called, in the 
tenth century, on account of its 
many monks. 

3." Kiigen was so called by the 
Slavonic Yarini. 

4. A synonym of Lindisfame, a 
peninsula on the north-east coast of 
England, remarkable as having been 
the seat of a Saxon abbey over 
which the famous St. Cuthbert pre- 
sided as bishop. 

Holy Xiaad. 1. A name commonly 
applied to Palestine; — first given to 
it m Zech. ii. 12. 

2. A name given to Elis, in an- 
cient Greece. " 

Holy Xieagae. [Fr. La Sainte Liffue.'] 
(Hist.) 1. A celebrated combination 
agamst the republic of Venice, formed 
in 1508 by Pope Julius II., — whence 
the epithet of " Holy," — and in- 
cluding the emperor of Grermany 
(Maximilian), the king of France 
(Louis XH.), the king of Spain (Fer- 
dinand III-), and various Italian 
princes. By this league, Venice was 
forced to cede to Spain her posses- 
sions in the kingdom of Naples. 

2. A treaty concluded, in 1533, be- 
tween Pope Clement VII., the Ve- 
netiai^, the Duke of Milan (Fran- 
cesco Maria Sforza), and Francis I. 
of France, to compel the Emperor 
Charles V. to release the French 
king's sons on the payment of a rea- 
sonable ransom, and to re-establish 
Sforza in the possession of Milan. 
It was so called because the Pope 
was at the head of it. 

3. A politico-religious association 
formed by the Roman Catholic party 
in France, in the reign of Henry III., 
the object of which was to overthrow 
the Protestants, prevent the accession 
of Henry IV., and place the Duke of 
Guise on the throne. [Called also 
The League, by way of eminence.] 

Holy Maid of Kent. Elizabeth Bar- 
ton, a woman once popularly believed 
to possess miraculous endowments, 
And to be an instrument of divine 
revelation. She was beheaded at Ty- 
burn, on the 21st of April, 1534, for 
high treason in having predicted that 
direful calamities would befall the 

English nation, and that Henry VIIL 
would die a speedy and violent death 
if he should divorce Queen Catharine 
and marry Anne Boleyn. Her im- 
posture was for a time so successful 
that even Sir Thomas More was dis- 
posed to be a believer. 
Honeycomb, "Will. One of the 
members of the imaginary club by 
whom the " Spectator " was profess- 
edly edited. He is distinguisned for 
his ^aceful affectation, courtly pre- 
tension, and knowledge of the gay 

Honeyed Teacher. An appellation 
bestowed upon St. Bemara (1091- 
1153), one of the most eloquent and 
distinguished ecclesiastics of tiie Mid- 
dle A^s. See Mellifluous Dog- 


H6n'ey-ni$n, Charles. A free-and- 
easv cler^pnan in Thackeray's novel 
of " The Newcomes.'* 

In the Soneyman of the pariah, even where 
that person is of ordinary qualificivtiona, a 
more familiar tone both of speech and writing 
is tolerated. JPercy FUzgertm. 

Hon'ey-wdbd. A character in Gold- 
smith's comedy of "The Good-na- 
tured Man;" distin^shed for his 
exaggerated generosity and self-ab- 

Honor, Mrs. The waiting-maid of 
Sophia Western, in Fielding's novel, 
" The History of a Foundling." 

Stop, stop; fold up the bedclothes agidn, if 

Sou please. Upon my word, this is worse 
lan Sophy Western and Jmk Honor about 
Tom Jones\ broken arm. Fr<tf. J. WiUon, 

Hood, Bobin. See Robin Hood. 

Hdbk'er, The Judicious. Richard 
Hooker, an eminent English divine 
(1553-1600), to whom me surname 
of" The Judicious " has been given on 
account of his wisdom and judgment. 
Of his " Ecclesiastical Polity " Pope 
Clement VIII. said, " There are in it 
such seeds of etemitv as will con- 
tinue till the last fire snail devour all 

Hookey Walker. The popular name 
of an out -door clerk at Longman, 
Clementi, & Co.'s, in Ofaeapside, Lon- 
don, where a great number of per- 
sons were employed. His real name 
was John Walker, and the epithet 

For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanationif 




Ho-ra'ti-i (-shi-i). See CuBiAxn. 

Ho-ra'ti-o (ho-ra'sM-o). A friend to 
Hamlet, in Shakespeare's tragedy of 
this name. 

Hor'i-cdn. A fanciful name sometimes 
given to Lake George, and conmionly 
supposed to be the original Indian 
name, but really an invention of the 
American novelist, James Fenimore 
Cooper. The ancient Iroquois name 
of this lake was AncUalaroctef which 
is said to mean, '' there the lake shuts 
itself." The French missionary, Fa- 
ther Jogues, called it Saint Sacre- 
ment, because he discovered it on the 
eve of that festival. 

Horn, "King. See King Horn. 

Hop'ner, Jack. The name of a cele- 
brated personage in the literature of 
the nursery. The full history of his 
" witty tricks and pleasant pranks'* 
is given in Halliwell's "Nursery 
Rhymes of England." 

4^ According to a writer in " Notes 
and Queries " (xvi. 156), " There is a tra- 
4itioa in Somersetshire that the Abbot 
of Glastonbury, hearing that Henry Vin. 
had spoken with indignation of his build- 
ing such a kitehen as the king could not 
burn down, — it being domed over with 
stone, — sent up his steward. Jack Hor- 
ner, to present the king with an accept- 
able dish ; namely, a dish, which, when 
the crust was lifted up, was found to con- 
tain deeds transferring twelve manors to 
his sovereign ; and that, as Jack Horner 
traveled up to town in the Abbot's wagon, 
he lifted up the crust, and stole out the 
gift of the manor of Wells, still possessed 
by his descendants, and, when he re- 
turned, told the Abbot that the king had 
given it to him, but was found, or sus- 
pected, to have imposed upon his patron. 
Hence the satire vested under the nursery 
lines, — 

* Little Jack Homer 

Sat in a corner [namely, that of the wagon], 
Eying his Christmas pie; 
Ete put in his thumb, 
Ana pulled out a plum [the deed of the 

manor of Wells], 
And said, " What a brave boy am II " '" 

Another correspondent of the same work 
(xvii. 83) gives a different version of this 
story. '' Wben the monasteries and their 
property were seized, orders were given 
that the title-deeds of the abbey estates 
at Mells [Wells ?], which were very exten- 
sive and valuable, and partly consisted 
of a sumptuous grange built by Abbot 
John Sellwood, should be given up to the 

and for the Bemarks and Bales to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxii. 

*^ffookey " was given him on account 
of his hooked or crooked nose. He 
occupied- the post of a spy upon the 
other workmen, whose misdemean- 
ors were numerous. Of course it 
was for their interest to throw dis- 
credit upon aU Jack's reports to the 
head of the firm ; and numbers could 
attest that those reports were fabri- 
cations, howevef true. Jack, some- 
how or other, was constantly outvot- 
ed, his evidence superseded, and of 
course disbelieved; and thus his oc- 
cupation ceased, but not the fame of 
^''Hookey Walker, '' who often forms 
a subject of allusion when the tes- 
timony of a person of tried and well- 
known veracity is impeached. The 
name is also often used as an ejacu- 
lation, to express incredulity. 

IfSf According to the London " Satur- 
day Review," the expression is derived 
from an aquiline - nosed Jew, named 
Walkcf, an out-door astronomical lect- 
nvec of some local notoriety in his day. 
Another authority refers it to " a magis- 
trate of dr(»ded acutcness and incredu- 
lity," whose hooked nose gave the title of 
<* l)eak" to all judges, constables, and po- 

Hoosier State (hoo'zhur). The State 
of Indiana, the inhabitants of which 
axe often caUed Hoosiers. This word 
is said to be a corruption of husker, 
formerly a common term for a bully, 
throughout the West. 

Hopeful. A pilgrim in Bunyan's 
** Pilgrim's Progress," who, after the 
death of Faithfiu, accompanies Chris- 
tian to the end of his journey. 

Hop-o'-my-Thumb. A character in 
the tales of the nurserv, often con- 
founded with Tom Thumb. See 
Thumb, Tom. 

Ho'r89 (9). [Gr.'Opat.] {Gr. 4' Rom. 
Myth.) The Hours, daughters of 
Jupiter ind Themis, goddesses that 
presided over the changes of the 
seasons and the works of man, and 
kept watch at the gates of heaven ; 
represented in art as blooming niaid- 
ens canyjng flowers, fruits, &c. 
Their names are usually given as 
Eunomia, Dice, and Irene. 

Ix>! where the rosy-bosomed HourSy 
Fair Venus' train, appear. 





commlnioneTB. After some delay, it was 
determined by the Abbot of Qlastonbury 
to give them up ; and, for want of a salfe 
mode of conyeying them, it was decided 
that the most likely to avoid their being 
seiwd by any bat thora for wbom they 
w«m intended, was to send them in a 
pasty, which should be forwarded as a 

E resent to one of the commisaioners in 
ondon. The safest meMsenger, and leqst 
likely to excite suspicion, was considered 
to be a lad named Jack Homer, who was 
a son of poor parents living in the neigh- 
borhood of the granga. The lad set out 
on liis journey on foot, laden with the 
pasty. It was a weaiy road, and England 
not being so thickly inhabited as now. he 
sat down to rest in as snug a comer as he 
could find by the way-side. Hunger, too, 
OTercame him, and he was at a loss wtiat to 
do, when he bethought himself that there 
would be no harm in tasting ever so little 
of the pasty which he was carrying. He 
therefore inserted his thumb under the 
crust, when, lo ! ^lere was nothing but 
parchments. Whether that allayed his 
hunger then or not, I cannot say ; but, 
although he could not read or under- 
stand these parchments, yet he thought 
they might be valuable. He therefoae 
took one of the parchments and pocketed 
it, and pursued his journey with the rest 
ox his pasty. Upon his delivering his 
parcel, it was perceived that one of the 
chief deeds (the deed of the Mells [Wells t.] 
Abbey estates) was missing ; and, as it was 
thought that the Abbot had withheld it, 
an order was straightway sent for his ex- 
ecution. But the sequel was, that, af- 
ter the monasteries were despoiled, there 
was found in the possession of the family 
of Jack Horner a piece of parchment 
which was, in ftot, the title-deed of Mells 
rWells ? ] Abbey and lands ; and that was 
* the plum ' which little Jack Homer had 
unwittingly become possesoed of. The 
Abbot Whiting was executed for with- 
holding the deeds. This is the tale as 
told to me.'' 

"No, I a-n't, sir,- repUed the At boy, start- 
Inat upflrom a remote comer, where, like the 
patron saint of fkt boya, — the immortel^or^ 
*er, — he had been devouring a Christmas pie, 
thooffh not with the coolness and dellberanon 
which characterized that young gentleman's 
proceeding. Dideaa. 

Horn Onto. One of '^two gates of 
sleep " in the under-world, spoken 
of by Virgil in the "iEneid," Book 
VI., one of which is made of horn,, 
the other of shining white ivory. 
Through that of horn, true visions or 
dreams are sent up to men. 
So too the Necklace, though wo aaw it ran- 

Ish through the Bbm Gfate of Dreama, and In 
my opinion man shall never more behold it, 
yet its activity ceases not, nor will. Cctrlyle. 

Homie, Auld. See Auld Horni£. 

Horse Iiatitades. A name given by 
seamen to a bank or region of calms 
in the Atlantic Ocean, between the 
parallels of 30'' and 35'' N. The 
name is said to be derived from the 
circumstance that vessels formerly 
bound from New £n^Iand to the 
West Indies, with a aeck-load of 
horses, were often delayed in this 
calm belt, and, for want of water, 
were obliged to throw the animals 

Hor^ten'si-o. A suitor to Bianca, 
in Shakespeare's *^ Taming of the 

Ho'rasO). [6r. *Opo9.] {MyQi.) The 
Egyptian god of the sun, correspond- 
ing to the Grecian JpoUo, He was a 
son of Osiris and Isis, and along with 
his mother avenged his father^ death 
by vanquishing Typhon in a great 
battle (see Osiris), and taking his 
place as king of the gods. He is 
often represented as a child seated 
on a lotos-flower, with his finger on 
his lips, and hence has been re^uxl- 
ed as the god of silence. His wor- 
ship extended to Greece, and even to 

Hot'spur. An appellation for a.person 
of a warm or vehement disposition, 
and therefore given to the famous 
Harry Percy. The allusion is to one 
who rides in hot haste, or spurs 

It is probable that he . . . forgot, amid the 
hundieda of thousands which Fans contains, 
wliat smaU relation the number of Iiis own 
lUthftal and devoted ibllowera bore, not onlj 
' to thoae who were perilously engaged in flus- 
tions hostile to htm, but to tiie great masa, 
who, in Hottpur'i phrase, loved their own 
shops or bama better flum hte house. 

, Su-W. SeoU. 

Hot'spur of Debate. A sobriquet 

Sven by Macaulay to the Earl of 
erby (b. 1799), on account of his 
fiery invective and vehemence of 
Hours. See Hoit& 
House of Fame. The title of a cele- 
brated poem of Chaucer's, and the 
name of a magnificent palace de- 
scribed in it as built upon a mountain 

For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the aceompanyhig Cxplanatlona, 




ci ice, and supported by rows of 
pillars, on which are inscribed the 
names of the most illustrions poets. 
Here the goddess Fame, seated on 
her throne, dispenses her capricious 
and unjust judgments to the crowds 
who come to solicit her favors. 
Housaain, Prinoe. See pRniCE 


Souyhnlinxns. A name given by 
Swift, in his ' imaginary "" Travels 
into several Remote Nations of the 
World, by Lemuel Gulliver,'* to a 
race of horses endowed with reason. 
The word seems intended to be sug- 
gestive of the whuMying of a horse. 
It is a dissyllable, and may be pro- 
nounced hoo-inmz', or hoo'mmz, but 
the voice should properly be qua- 
vered in -sounding the n. 

Nay. tronld Idnd Joto mr mrnms wo dlspoM 
To hymn harmonioiiB Hofu^^mhrnms through 

I*d call thee BtM^hithm^ fliat higfa-floimding 

Thy childten'i noees all dionld twanx the 

Mune. Tope. 

** Trae, true, — nr, too traet** replied the 
Dominie, his BotnmMmm laugh sinking into 
aa hysterical gig^e. Sir W. Scott, 

If- the BovghnhmM should ever catch me, 
and,^-^' o 1— . s-« ^ 

take, and how he would have to use them. 


Hd^e, Miss. A personage who figures 
in Richardson's novel of "Clwissa 

"MiM Howe is an admirably 
sketched chanMjter drawn in strong con- 
trast to that of Clarissa, yet worthy of 
being her firiend, with more of worldly per- 
spioudty, UkOQgh less of abstracted prin- 
ciple, and who, when they argue upon 
points of doubt and delicacy, is often 
able, by going directly to the question at 
issue, to start the game, while her more 
gifted correspondent does but beat the 
bnsh. Her high spirit and disinterested 
devotion Ibr her Mend, acknowledging, 
as she does on all occasions, her own in- 
feriority, show her in a noble point of 
Tiew." air W. Scott. 

Hubbard, mtd Hubberd, Mother. 
See MotherHubbabd, and Mother 


Hub of the XTnirene. A jocular 
designation of the state -house in 
Boston, Massachusetts, originating 
with the American humorist Oliver 

Wendell Holmes ; sometimes ex- 
tended, in its application, to the city 

Ha'di-br$8. The title and hero of a 
celebrated satirical poem by Samuel 
Butler (1600-1680). Hudibras is a 
Presbyterian iustice, of the time of the 
Commonwealth, who, fired with the 
same species of madness as the Don 
Quixote of Cervantes, sets out (in 
company with his s<}uire, Ralph, an 
Independent clerk, with whom he is 
almost always engaged in contro- 
versy) to correct abuses, and to en- 
foroe the obeervance of the strict 
laws enacted bv pariliament for the 
suppression of the sports and amuse- 
ments of the people. 

HSf Butler is said to have taken ttie 
name of his hero from the old romances 
of chivalry. Sir Hugh de Bras being the 
appellation of one of the knights of Ar- 
thur's fiibulouB Round Table. A **Sir 
Huddibras " figures In Spenser's " FaSiy 
Queen," and is described as " an hardy 
man," but " more huge fai strength than 
wise in works." " Huddibras " was aho 
the name of a fltbulous king of Bneland, 
who is said to have founded Cantenmry, 
Winchester, and Shaftesbury. 

He became wretched enough. As wm natu- 
ral, with haggard scaicltv threatening him in 
the distance, and so Tenement a soul lan- 
guishing in restless inaction, and forced thCT»> 
By, Hke Sir HudSbraf» sword by rust, 

" To eat into itself, for Uck 
Of something else to hew and hack! " 

Hus'ginS and Mng'SinQ. A jocular 
embodiment of vulgar pretension. 

$Sf It has been suggested that these 
names are a corruption of Hooge en Mo- 
gende (high and mighty), words occur- 
ring iu the'style of the States General of 
Holland, much ridiculed by English writ- 
ers of the latter part of the seyenteenth 
oentuxy, as, Ibr example, in the following 
couplet : — 

But I hare sent him for a token 

To your I^ow-Country Hogen Mogen. 


49* " Although we have never felt the 
least inclination to indulge in coi^tnral 
etymology, ... we cannot refMn, for 
once, ftom noticing the curious coin- 
cidence between the names of Odiums 
ravens, Hngln and Munin, — Mind and 
Memory, — and those of two personages 
who figure so often in our comic literature 
as Messrs. Hug^ins and Muggins. . . . 
Should this eonjectwe^ tat it is nothing 
else, be well founded, one of the most 

and for the Remarks and Bules to which the numbers after certain words refor, see pp. ziv-xxzii. 





poetical idflu in the whole range of my- 
thology would, in thia ploddis^, practi- 
cal, apinning-jenny age of ours, have thus 
undergone a moat siugular metamor- 
phosia." BlacieweU. 

Whitford and Mitford Joined the tndn, 
Huggms and Muagint from Chick Lane, 
And Clutterbuck, who got a sprain 
Befbre the ping was fonnd. 

Reeled Addreates, 

Hugh of litnooln. A legendary per- 
sonage who formsr the subject of 
Chaucer's ** Prioress's Tale," and 
also of an ancient English ballad. 
The story has its origin m the chron- 
icle of Matthew Paris, who, in his 
accoant of the reign of Henry III., 
relates, that, in the year 1255, the 
Jews of Lincoln stole a boy nam^d 
Hugh, of the age of eight years, 
whom, after torturing for ten days, 
they crucified before a large number 
of their people, in contempt of the 
death of the Founder of Christianity. 
Eighteen of the richest and most 
distinguished Jews of Lincoln were 
hanged for participation in this mur- 
der, while the body of the child was 
buried with the honors of a martyr, 
in Lincoln Cathedral. The story lias 
^**!j^ been generally discredited by modern 
histonans. Wordsworth has given a 
modernized version of Chaucer's tale. 

Hugh Boe. [That is, Red Hugh.] 
The eldest son of Sir Hugh O'Don- 
nell, of Ireland, who flourished at the 
time of the intestine wars of that 
country, in the reign of Elizabeth. 
He was a man of great abilities and 

Hugin (hoo'gin ). [Old Norse, thought, 
intellect] {8cam. Myth.) One of 
Odin's two ravens, who carried him 
news from earth, and who, when not 
thus employed, perched upon his 
shoulders. See Hcjogws and Mug- 

Hugon (ii'gdn', 34, 62). A kind of 
evil spirit, in the popular superstition 
of France, a sort of ogre made use 
of to frighten children. It has been 
said that from him the French Prot- 
estants were called " Huguenots," on 
account of the desolation resulting 
from the religious wars which were 
imputed to them; but the assertion 
is an incorrect one. 

Hugaenot Pope. [Fr. Le Pape des 
BuffuenoU.] A title bestowed upon 
Philippe de Momay (1549-1623), a 
distinguished French nobleman, and 
an able supporter of the Protestant 
cause. He was so called on account 
of the ability of his arguments and 
the weight of his personal influence 
in behau' of the reformed religion. 

Humphrey, Duke. See Dukje 

Humphrey^ Master. See Master 

Humphrey, Old. See Old Hum- 

Hundred Days. [Fr. Les Cent 
Jours^] A name given to the period 
which intervened between the en- 
trance of Napoleon Bonaparte into 
Paris (March 20, 1815), after his 
escape from the island of Elba, and 
his abdication in favor of his son 
(June 22). 

Hunkers. See Old Hunkers. 

Hunter, Mr. and Mrs. Iieo. Char- 
acters in Dickens's " Pickwick Pa- 
pers," distinguished, as the name in- 
dicates, for ueir desire to make the 
acquaintance of all the " lions " of the 

Mr. Dickens was the erand olgect of inter- 
est to the whole tribe of £eo wHiorters, male and 

female, of the meteopolis. 


Huon of Bordeaux, Sir (boFdo')- 
The hero of one of the romances of 
chivalry bearing his name. He is 
represented as having been a j^^eat 
favorite of Oberon, the fairy king. 
An abstract of this romance may be 
found in Dunlop's "History of Fic- 
tion^" or in Keightley's " Fairy My- 
thology." The adventures of Sir 
Huon form the subject of Wieland's 
beautiful poem of " Oberon," known 
to the English reader by Sotheby's 

I will cany him ofTfirom the verylbot of the 
eallowB into the land of fheiy, like King Ar- 
uior, or Sir Huon o/Bordeaux, or Ugero the 
Dane. iSiir W. Scott. 

Hurlo-thrum'bo. The chief char- 

acter in a 

entitled "Hurio- 

thrumbo, or The Supernatural," by 
Samuel Johnson (d. 1773), an Eng- 
lish actor and dramatic writer. The 
whimsicalness and originality of this 

For the " Key to the Scheme of Ftonondation,'* with the accompanying Ezplanatioiu, 




play, which is an absurd compound 
of extravagant incidents and uncon- 
nected dialogues, gave it great suc- 

CoBsider, then, before, like Hurlothnmbo. 
You atm your club at any creed on earth. 
That, by the Bimple accident of birth. 

You mignt have been high-priest to Mumbo 
Jumbo. Mood. 

Hy'i-oiii'thus. [Gr. 'YelKtydos.] {Gr. 
^ Rom. Myth.) A Spartan boy of 
extraordinary .beauty, beloved by 
Apollo, who unintentionally killed 
him in a game of quoits. Another 
form of the myth is that he was 
beloved also by Zephyrus or Boreas, 
who, from jealousy of Apollo, drove 
the quoit of the god against the head 
of me boy, and thus killed him. 
Apollo changed the blood that was 
spilt into a flower called the hyacinth, 
on the leaves of which there appeared 
the exclamation of woe, AI, Al (alas, 
alas), or th^ letter Y, the initio of 


B:y'$-d$9. [Gr. 'YcWes, the rainy.] 
{Gr. ^ Rom. Myth.) A class of 
nymplis commonly said to be seven 
in number, and their names to be 
Ambrosia, Eudora, Pedile, Coronis, 
Polyxo, Phyto, and Thyene or Dione. 
They were placed among the stars 
(forming the constellation Taurus), 
and were thought to threaten rain 
when they rose with the sun. 

Hy'drft. [Gr. "YSpa.]. {Gr. 4- Ron^. 
Myth.) A many-headed water-ser- 
pent which inhabited the marshes of 
Lema, in Argolis, near the sea-coast. 
As fast as one of its heads was cut 
ofl', two sprang up in its place. Her- 
cules, however, killed it with the 
assistance of his friend lolaus. 

Hy-Ke'i-$ (20). [Gr. 'Yyi'cia, 'Yv«ia.] 
{Gr. 4" Rom. Myth.) The goddess 

of health, a daughter of ^sculapius. 
In works of art, she is usually repre- 
sented as a blooming virgin, with a 
stiake, the symbol of health, drinking 
from a cup held in her hand. [Writ- 
ten aboHygea and Hygia.] 

Hyias. [Gr. 'YAay.] {Gr. 4 Rom. 
Myth.) A beautiful youth passion- 
ately loved by Hercules, whom he 

«<. accompanied on the Argonautic ex- 
pedition. He was carried off by the 
nymphs on the coast of Mj'sia, as 
he was drawing water from a foun- 
tain. Hercules long sought for him 
in vain. 

The Belf-same lay 
Which melted in music, the night before. 
From lips as the lips of Hylaa sweet. 
And moved like twin roses which zephyrs 
meet. WMmer. 

Hy'men, or Hym'e-nsd'us. [Gr. 
•Yf*i7v, 'YfAcraio?.] ( Gr. 4 Rom. Mm,) 
The god of marriage, a son of fiac- 
chus and Venus, or, according to 
some, of Apollo and one of the Muses. 
He is represented as a winged boy 
crowned with a garland, and hav- 
ing a bridal torch and a veil in his 

There let J^/men oft appear 
In safiron robe, with taper clear. 


Hyperboreans. [Gr. 'Yn-ep^dpeoi, t. e. 
dwellers beyond Boreas, or the north 
wind ; Lat. Hyperborei.'] { Gr. <f Rom, 
Myth.) A fabulous people living at 
the farthest north, supposed by the 
Greeks to be the fevorites of Apollo, 
and therefore in the enjoyment 01 
a terrestrial paradise and everlastiag 
youth and health. 

Ht'-pe'ri-ftn (9) {classical pron. hip'e- 
rtYrn). [(Jr. 'YTrept'wi/]. {Gr.^Rom, 
Myth.) One of the Titans, a son of 
Coelus and Terra, and the father of 
Sol, Luna, and Aurora. 

and for tbe Bemarks and Bitlea to which the numben after certidn words refer, tee pp. xiv-zzxiL 





t-ao'ghoB. [Gmojcxos]. (Gr.^Rom, 
Myth.) A poetic surname of Bacchus. 

IftQh'i-mo (y&kl-mo). The name of 

an Italian villain, in Shakespeare's 

*» Cymbeline," celebrated for the art^ 

address, audacity, and ill success, 

with which he attempts the chastity 

of Imogen, the wife of Posthumus, 

and for tne daring imposture b^ 

which he conceals me defeat of his 


I know where elie kept that Mcket she had, 

and can steal in and out <x her chamber 

Wnlachmo. Tkacberoy. 

Ittgo (e4'go). The " ancient," or en- 
sign, of Othello, in Shakespeare's 
tragedy of this name ; " a bemg of 
motiveless mali^tr, pAssionless, self- 
possessed, skeptical of all truth and 
purity, — the abstract of the reasoning 
power in ^e highest state of activity, 
out without love, without veneration, 
a being next to devil, and only not 
quite devil, and yet a character which 
Shakespeare has attempted and exe- 
cuted without scandal." 

lUchaid Plantagcnet was one of those, who, 
In logo's words, would not nerve God because 
it was the Devil who bade him. Sir W. Scott. 

l-Bp'e-ttt8. [Gr. •Ittwrros.] (Gr. 4' 
Bom. Myth.) A Titan or a giant, 
the father of Atlas, Prometheus, and 
Epimetheus, regarded by the Greeks 
as the ancestor of the human race. 

t'he'Ti'i (9). [Gr. *ipy,f>ia.] The 

Greek name of Spain; sometimes 

used by ancient Latin authors, and 

also in modem poetry. 

Art thou too fltUen.iberidf Do we see 
The tobber and the murderer weak as we ? 


lo'ft-nui. [Gr. 'Iicopo?.! ( Gr. # Bom. 

Myth.) A son of Dnedalus, who, 

flJ^ng with his father out of Crete, 

soared so high that the sun melted 

his wings, and he fell into the sea, 

— which was called after him the 

Icarian Sea. 

BelleiBle is an imaginaiy sun-god; but the 
poor Icarus^ tempted aloft in that manner into 
the earnest' elements, and melting at once 
Into quills and rags, is a tragic reality t 


t-doxn'e-nefts. [Gr. ISoftevo^.] ( Gr. 
^ Bom. Myih.) A king of Crete, 
celebrated for his beauty, and for his 
braver^' at the siege of Troy, whither 
he led the Cretans. He was banished 
from his dominions by his own sub- 
jects for bringing a plague upon them 
m consequence of sacrificing his son 
on account of a vow which he had 
made to Neptune in a tempest. 

Iduna (e-doo'nft.) (Scand. Myth.) The 

foddess of youth, and the wife of 
(ragi. She was the guardian of the 
sppTes of immortality, the juice of 
'vdiich gave the gods perpetual youth, 
health, and beauty. [Written also 
Idun, Idunna*.J 

l-eSr^(4). The beautiful wife of Gor- 
loi8.Duke of Tintadiel, or Tintagel, 
in Cornwall, and mother of the illus- 
trious Arthur, by Uther, a legendary 
king of Britain, whom Merlin, the 
rfenownedmi^cian, changed into the 
semblance or Gorlois, thus enabling 
him to impose upon the duke's wifia, 
for whom he had conceived a violent 
passion. [W ritten also I g e r n e and 

X-li'o-net!Ui. [Gr. TAwyev?.] {Gr. ^ 
Bom. Myth.) 1. A son of Niobe, 
imintentionaliy killed, while praying, 
%y Apollo. 

2. A Trojan, distinguished for his 

n'l-thy'i-i (20). [Gr. BUet'tfwui.] (Gr. 
Myth.) The goddess of birth, who 
came to women in travail, and short- 
ened or protracted the labor, accord- 
ing as she happened to Jje kindly 
disposed or the reverse. She cor- 
responds with the Roman Luctna. 
Homer mentions more than one, and 
calls them daughters of Hera, or 

n'i-um, or II'i-6n. [Gr. •Utov.] A 
poetical name for Troy, which was 
founded by Ilus. 

Hi-grounded Peace. (Fr. JRti.) 
The name commoidy given to a 
treaty between the Huguenots and 

For the "K^ to the Scheme of Pronunciation,- with the aeoompanying Ezplanatkma, 




the Roman Catholics, concluded 
March 23, 1568. It was a mere 
stratagem on the part of the latter to 
weaken their opponents, and was soon 
broken. [Called also Lame and Un- 
gtabU Peace and Patched-up Peace.'] 

Ultuninated Doctor. [Lat. Doctor 
JUuminatus.] 1. A title bestowed 
upon Raymond LuUe, or LuUy (lOdd* 
1315), a distinguished scholastic, and 
author of the system called "Ars 
Lulliana,'' which was taught through- 
out Europe for several centuries, and 
the purpose of which was to prove 
that the mysteries of faith are not 
contrarv to ceason. 

2. A title conferred upon John 
Tauler (1294-1361), a celebrated 
€rerman mystic, on account of the 
visions he professed to have seen. 
and the spiritual voices he professed 
to have heard. 

8. An honoranr appellation given 
to Francois de Makrone (d. 1327), a 
French religious writer. 

Ulruninator, The. A surname com- 
monly given to St Gregory of Arme- 
nia, a celebrated bishop of the primi- 
tive church, whose memory is held in 
^reat reverence by the Greek, Coptic, 
Abyssinian, Armenian, and Roman 
Catholic churches. 

Imlao. A character in Dr. Johnson^s 
'' Rasselas." 

Irn'o-gen. The wife of Posthnmus, 
and the daughter of Cymbeline bv a 
deceased wife, in Shi^espeare's play 
of this name. She is distinguished 
for her unalterable and magnanimous 
fidelity to her mistaken husband, Inr 
wh<Mn she is unjustly persecuted. 
** Of all Shakespeare's women,!' says 
Hazlitt, "she is, perhaps, the most 
tender and the most artless." 

Jxno§paie, The Fair. See Fair Imo- 


Ijnperial Oity. One of the names by 
which Rome — for many ages the 
seat of empire — is familiarly known. 

Impertixient, The Curious. See 
Curious Impebtineut, The. 

Ind. A poetical contraction of India, 

High on a throne of royal state, -which fiur 
Omshone the wealth of Ormus and o(S^d. . . . 
Satu exalted sat MiUon. 

In'drft. [Sansk., the discoverer, sdl, 
of the doings of the world.! ( Hindu 
Myth.) The ever youthful ^d of 
the firmament, and the ommpotent 
ruler of the elements. He is a most 
important persona^^ in Indian fable. 
In the Vedic period of the Hindu 
religion, he occupied a foremost j«nk, 
and, though degraded to an inferior 
position in the Epic and Pur^ic pe- 
Tiods, he long eivjoyed a great legend- 
ary popularity. In works of art, he 
is represented as riding on a gigantic 

*' Then." as tndra saya of Kehama, ** then 
was the time to strike." Macaxdaiy. 

In'sdldsf-bj^, Thomas. A pseudonym 
adopted by the Rev. Richud Barbiam 
(1788-1846), author of a series of hu- 
morous tales in verse entitled ** The 
Ingoldsby Legends," — wild and 
wondrous stories of chivalry, witch- 
craft, and diablerie^ related in singu- 
larly rich and flexible meter, and in 
language in which the intermixture 
of Sie modem cant phrases of soci- 
ety with antiquarian pedantry pro- 
duces a truly comic effect. 

Xniquity-y The. A personage who 
figured in the old English moralities, 
mysteries, and other dramas; the 
same as The Vice. See Vice, The. 

InOde, Mr. Thomas (ingk^l). The 
hero of a story by Sir Richard Steele 
in the " Spectator " (No. 11 ) ; a joung 
Englishman who got lost m the 
Spanish Main, where he fell in love 
with a young Indian maiden named 
Yarico, with whom he lived for many 
montiis; but, having discovered a 
vessel on the coast, he went with her 
to Barbadoes, and there sold her into 
slavery. The stoiy of Inkle and 
Yarico has been made the subject of 
an opera by George Colman. 

Tn-naniorato, Orlando. See Orlan- 

Iji'nis-fail. An ancient name^ of 
Ireland, signifying the isle of destiny. 

Oh I once the harp of £m£s/'at7 

Was strung fliu high to notes of j^iadness; 
But yet it often told a tale 

Ofmore preTailing sadness. Com^pbeU. 

Innooents, The. A name given, from 
early times, to the infants whom 

and fiv the Bemaika and Bulee to which the numbers after cerbdn words refer, see pp. zlT-zxxii. 




Herod massacred at Bethlehem. They 
were termed in Latin innocerUeSjfrom. 
in, not, and nocere, to hurt. These 
harmless ones were revered by the 
Church from the first, and honored, 
on the third day after Christmas, as 
mart^rrs; and with them were con- 
nected many strange observances, 
such as the festival of the boy-bishop, 
and, in opposition to this, the whip- 
ping children out of their beds on that 
morning. In the modem Church, the 
feast of the Holy Innocents is cele- 
brated as a special holiday by the 
voung, and many curious and sport- 
iv€ customs connected with it prevail 
in Catholic countries. The relics of 
the Holy Innocents were great fa- 
vorites in the Middle A^es. The 
Massacre of the Innocents is the sub- 
ject of a poem bv John Baptist Ma- 
rino (1569-1625), 'the Italian poet. 

t'no. [Gr. 'iwd.] (Gr. ^ Rom. Myth.) 
A daughter of Cadmus and Hermione, 
sister of Semele, and wife of Athamas, 
king of Thebes. Being pursued by 
her nusband, — who had become rav- 
ing mad, — she threw herself into the 
sea with her son Melicertes, where- 
upon they were both changed into 

Inspired Idiot. A sobriquet applied 
bv Horace Walpole to Oliver Gold- 
smith (1728-1774), on account of his 
exquisite genius, his ungainly per- 
son, his awkward manners, and his 
frequent blunders and absurdities. 

Interpreter, The. A personage in 
Bunyan's allegorical romance, " The 
Pil^im's Progress," designed to sym- 
bolize the Holy Spirit. Christian, on 
his way to the Celestial City, called 
at the Interpreter's house, where he 
was shown many wonderful sights, 
the remembrance of which was " as 
a goad in his sides to prick him for- 
ward " in his journey. 

Invincible Armada. See Armada, 
The Invincible. 

Invincible Doctor. [Lat. Doctor 
InvinciMlis.'l An appellation con- 
ferred upon William of Occam, a 
celebrated English scholastic of the 
fourteenth century, on account of his 
rigorously logical and rational treat- 

ment of Nominalism, of which he 
was a zealous advocate. 

To. [Gr. 'Iu>.] {Gr, 4- Rom. Myth.) 
A daughter of Inachus, king of Argos. 
She was beloved by Jupiter, who 
turned her into a cow, fearing the 
jealousy of Juno. Juno, however, 
set the hundred-eyed Argus to watch 
her, and Jupiter in return had him 
killed by Mercury. Thereupon lo 
was smitten with madness by Juno, 
and, wandering about, came at last to 
Egypt, where she was restored to her 
own form, married King Osiris, and, 
after death, was worshiped by the 
Egpytians under the name of iks. 

I'o-la'us. [Gr. *ioAao9«] ( Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth.) A son of Iphicles, and a 
-faithful friend and servant of Her- 
cules. He assisted his master in 
destroying the Lemsean hydra. See 
Hebcules and Hydra. 

Iphl-ge-ni'ft. [Gr. l<^tyei.eta.] (Gr.f 
Rom. Myth.) A daughter of Agamem- 
non and Clytemnestra. Her father 
having killed in Aulis a favorite deer 
belonging to Diana, the soothsayer 
Calchas declared that Iphigenia must 
be sacrificed to appease the wrath of 
the goddess. But when she was on 
the point of being slain, Diana carried 
her m a cloud to Tauris, and made 
her a priestess in her temple. 

rpMs. [Gr. 'ij^iv.] (Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth. ) A Cyprian youth who banged 
himself because his love for the high- 
bom Anaxarete was not reciprocated, 
and whose fate the gods avenged by 
changing Anaxarete to stone. 

I'r&8 (9). An attendant on Cleopatra, 
in Shakespeare's tragedy of " Antony 
and Cleopatra." 

I-re'ne. [Gr. Eipiji^.] (Myth.) The 
goddess of peace among the Greeks. 

I'riB (9). [Gr. *ipis.] (Gr. 4- Rom. 
Myth.) The daughter of Thaumas 
and Electra, and sister of the Harpies. 
She was one of the Oceanides, and 
messenger of the gods, more partic- 
ularly of Juno. She is generally 
regarded as a personification of tlie 
rainbow; but the prevalent notion 
among the ancients seems to have 

i»- For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanation*. 




been that the rainbow was only the 

Eath on which Iris trayeled between 
eayen and earth, and that it there- 
- tore api)eared whenever the goddess 
wanted it, and vanished when it was 
T no longer needed. 

Ixisli Agitator. An epithet applied 
to Daniel O'Connell (1775-1847), the 
leader of the political movements in 
Ireland for the emancipation of Komah 
Catholics from civil disabilities, and 
: for the Tepeat of the Act of Union 

• between Great Britain and Ireland, 
' which was passed on the 2d of Julr, 

Irislt. Kighit. • ' ( Eng. Btsi, ) A' night 

. , di agitation and terror in London, 

^idtfr /the>i^ht of James II., occa- 

jinm^/^vi unfonnded report that 

, ^ba j(risa^ Catholics of Feversham's 

• «rmF haii been let loose to murder 
the Protestant population, men, wom- 
en, and children. 

£roldo (e-r^Pdo). A character in 
Bojardo's ** Orlando Innamorato, '* 
distinguished for his friendship for 
Prasildo. See Prasildo. 

Iron Age. [Lat. Ferrea cBtas.'] ( Gr. 
4' Bom, Myth.) The last of the four 
ages into which the ancients divided 
the history of the human race; the 
age of Pluto, characterized by the 

. prevalence of crime, fraud, cunning, 
and avarice, and the absence of honor, 
truth, justice, and piety. 

Iron Arm. ■ [Fr. Bras de Fer.^ A 
samame or sobriquet given to Fran- 

g>is de Lanoue (1531-ld91)j a famous 
alvinistic captain, who died at the 
siege of Lamballe, in the service of 
Henry IV. 

Iron City. A name popularly given, 
in the United States, to Pittsbin-g, 
Pennsylvania, a city distinguished 
for its numerous and immense iron 

Iron Duke. A familiar title given to 
the Duke of Wellington. According 
to his biographer, the Rev. George 
Robert Gleig, this sobriquet arose out 
of Ihe building of an iron steamboat, 
which plied between Liverpool and 
Dublin, and which its owners called 
the ** Duke of Wellington." The term 
** Iron Duke " was first applied to the 

vessel ; and by and by, rather in fest 
than in eiurnest, it was transferred to 
the Duke himself. It had no reference 
whatever, at the outset, to any peculi- 
aritiesj or assumed peculiarities, in his 
disposition; though, from the popu- 
lar belief that he never entertained a 
single' generous feeling toward the 
masses, it is sometimes understood as 
. a figugative allusion to his supposed 
hostility to the interests of the lower 

[Iron Hand. A surname of Gottfried, 
or Goetz, von Berlichingen, a famous 
predatory burgrave of the sixteenth 
century, who, at the siege of Land- 
shut, lost his right hand, which was 
replaced by one of iron, yet shown 
at Jaxthausen. Goethe has made 
him the subject of an historic drama. 

Iron Mask. See Mask, Iron. 

Ironside. 1. A surname conferred 
upon Edmund II. (989-1016), kiug 
ot the An^lo- Saxons, on account 
either of his great strength, or else 
of the armor which he wore. [Writ- 
ten also Ironsides.] 

2. (IVes'tor.) A name under 
which Sir Richard Steele edited the 

3. (Sir.) One of the principal 
knights of King Arthur^ s Bound Ta- 
ble. See Round Table. 

Ironsides. 1. A name given to the 
£ngli$ih soldiers who served imder 
Cromwell at Marston Moor, on ac- 
count of the great victory they there 
gained over the royalist forces, a vic- 
tory which gave them a world-wide 
renown for invincible courage and 

2. An appellation popularly con- 
ferred upon the Unitea States frigate 
"Constitution." See Old Iron- 

Irrefiraeable Doctor. [Lat. Doctor 
IrrefragoMUs.'] An honorary title 
bestowed upon Alexander Hales, an 
English friar of the thirteenth cen- 
tury, distinguished as a scholastic 

- divine and philosopher. 

Isabella. 1. Sister to Claudio, in 
Shakespeare^s "Measure for Meas- 
ure," and the heroine of the drama. 
See Angelo. 

and toi the Bemarks aad Bolea to which the number* after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-zzxii. 




2. Tlie lady -love of Zerbino, in 
Ario6to*8 poem of*' Orlando Furioso.'* 

laaie le Triste. See Tsaie lb 

Isengrin (e'zen-^^n' ). The name of 
the wolf in the ancient and famous 
animal-epos of Gennany, " Keinhard, 
or Reinecke, Fuchs." See Kenard. 

I'sia. [Gr.n<rw.] (Bfyth.) An Egyp- 
tian divinity, regarded as the god- 
dess of the moon, and the queen of 
heaven. She was the mother of Ho- 
ru0, and the wife of Osiris. She was 
sometimes represented with the head 
veiled, a symbol of mystery. Her 
worship spread from Egypt to Greece, 
Rome, and other parts of ancient 
Europie. The Greeks identified her 
with lo. See lo, Osiris. 

ThA drift of thA makv b dark* m bi» hid by 
thareiL Tetmymm, 

Island, Tlie KiTiging. See Ringing 


Island Oity. A popular synonym for 
Montreal, the largest city of British 
America, built on an island of the 
same name. 

Island of Iiantems. [Fr. Dfle dts 
Lantemes.^ In the celebrated satire 
of Rabelais, an imaginary country 
inhabited by false pretenders to 
knowledge, called LarUemois, The 
name was probably suggested by the 
"City of Lanterns," in the Greek 
romance of Lucian. See City of 

Island of St. Bran'd^. A marvel- 
ous flying island, the subject of an 
old and widely spread legend of the 
Middle Ages, which exercised an in- 
fluence on geographical science down 
to a late period, it is represented as 
about ninety leagues in len^, Iving 
west of the Canaries. This island 
appears on most of the maps of the 
time of Columbus, and is laid down 
in a French geographical chart of as 
late a date as 1755, in which it is 
placed 5° W. of the island of Ferro, 
m lat. 29° N. The name St. Bran- 
dan, or Borandan^ given to this im- 
aginary island, is said to be derived 
from an Irish abbot who flourished in 
the sixth century, and concerning 

whose voyage in search of the Isl- 
ands of Paradise many legends azB 
related. Many expeditions were sent 
forth in quest of this mysterious isl- 
and, the last being from Spain in 
1721 ; but it always eluded the search, 
though it was sometimes seen by ac- 
cident. A king of Portugal is said 
to have made a conditional cession 
of it to another person, "when it 
should be found." The Spaniards 
believe this lost island to have been 
the retreat of their King Rodrigo; 
the Portuguese assign it to their Don 
Sebastian. "Its reality," says Ir- 
ving, " was for a long tune a matter 
of lirm belief. The public, after try- 
ing all kinds of sophistry, took refli^ 
in the supernatural to defend their 
favorite chimera. They maintained 
tiiat it was rendered inaccessible to 
mortals by divine Providence, or bv 
diabolical magic. Poetry, it is said, 
owes to this popular belief one of 
its beautiful fictions; and the garden 
of Armida, where Rinaldo was de- 
tained enchanted, and which Tasso 
E laces in one of the Canary Isles, has 
een identified with the imaginaiy 
San Borandan." The origin of this 
illusion has been ascribed to certain 
atmospherical deceptions, like that 
of the Fata Morgana. 

Island of the Seven Cities. An 
imaginary island, the subject of one 
of the popular traditions concerning 
the ocean, which were current in the 
time of Columbus. It is represented 
as abounding in gold, with magnifi- 
cent houses and temples, and nigh 
towers that shone at a distance. The 
legend relates, that, at the time of the 
conouest of Spain and Portugal by 
the Moors, when the inhabitants fled 
in every direction to escape from 
slavery, seven bishops, fbUowed by a 
great number of people, took ship- 
ping, and abandoned themselves to 
their fate upon the high seas. After 
tossing about for a time, they landed 
upon an unknown island in me midst 
of the ocean. Here the bishops 
burned the ships to prevent the de- 
sertion of their followers, and found- 
ed seven cities. This mysterious isl- 
and is said to have been visited at 

For tht ** Key to Um Seheme of Fhmimciatkm,'* with the aceomp«n jing EzplwMttonB. 




diflferent times by navigiBtors, who, 
howeyer, were never permitted to re- 

Islands of the Blest. [Gr. t&v Ma- 
Ka.p»v Ni^ffot, Lat. FortuncOcB InatUtB.] 
( Gr. 4" Jiom. Myth.) Imaginary isl- 
ands in the west, abomiding with the 
choicest prodacts of nature. They 
were supposed to be situated on the 
confines of the eartiiL in an ocean 
warmed by the rays of the near set- 
ting sun. Hither the favorites of the 
goo^ were conveyed without dying, 
and dwelt in never ending joy. The 
name first occurs in Hesiod's ** Works 
and Days." Herodotus applies the 
name to an oasis in the desert of Af- 
rica. It is also of common occur- 
rence in modem literature. 

Their place of birth alone is mute 
To sounds that echo fUrther west 
Than y onr sireB* Maat»d» qf the Slek. 


Isle of Saints, or Island of Saints. 
[Lat. Insula Sanctorum.^ A name 
By which Ireland was designated in 
ue Middle Ages, on account of the 
rapid progress which Christianity 
made in that country, and the num- 
ber of learned ecclesiastics which it 
furnished. See Holy Islaiid, 1. 

** My lord,** uttered with a Temacnlar rich- 
neH8 of intonation, gave him an assurance that 
we were from ** the Mand ofSatntSf and on 
tiie light road to heaven." SheiL 

Ismeno ($z-ma^no). The name of a 
sorcerer in Tasso's "Jerusalem De- 

IS'ttlde. The wife of Kmg Mark of 
Cornwall, and the mistress of her 
nephew. Sir Tristram, of whom she 
became passionately^ enamored from 
having arunk a philter by mistake. 
Their illicit love is celebrated in 
many an ancient romance, and be- 
came proverbial during the Middle 
Ages. References to it are innumer- 
able. She is often called Isolde the 
Fairy to distii^^uish her from Isolde 
qf the White Hands, a Breton prin- 
cess whom Tristram married after he 
undertook the conquest of the Hojy 
Grail. See Tristram, Sir. [Wnt- 
tenalsolseult, Isoude,Tseult, 
Tsolde, Ysolt, Ysoude, and, 
very erroneously, Ysonde.] 

No art the poison migfaft witbttandi 

No medicine coul<rt)e found 
TiU lovely Jaolde'a lily hand 

Had probed the rankling wound. 

Sir W.Scott. 

19'r^feel. (Mohammedan Myth.) The 
name of the angel whose office it 
will be to sound the trumpet at the 
resurrection. He is said to have the 
most melodious voice of any of God's 
creatures. [Written also Israfil.] . 

IS'iun-br^, Sir. The hero of an old 
romance of chivalry, whidi cele- 
brates the painfiil labors and misfor- 
tunes visited upon him as a punish- 
ment for his pride and presumption, 
and the happmess and blessings with 
which his penitence was finuly re- 

ItaHan MoUdre (mo'le^P). A title 
given to Carlo Goldoni (1707-1793), 
a distinguished Italian dramatist. 

Italian Fin^d^r. A name given to 
Gabriello Chiabrera (1552-1637), a 
celebrated Itfdian lyric poet, and one 
of the best modem imitators of Pin- 

1-thu'pi-el (6 ). [Heb., the discovery of 

God.] In Milton's " Paradise Lost," 

an angel commissioned by Gabriel to 

search through Paradise, in company 

with Zephon, to find Satan, who had 

eluded the vigilance of the angelic 

guard, and effected an entrance into 

the garden. 

Him . . . they found. 
Squat like a toad, close at the ear of Kre, 
Assaying by his devilish art to reach 
The organs of her fancy, and with them fbige 
Illusions as he list, phantasms and dreams; 
Or if, inspirinii^ venom, he might taint 
The animal spirits ; . . . thence raise. 
At least, distempered, discontented thoughts. 
Vain hopes, vain aims, inordinate desires. 
Blown up with high conceits engendering 

Him thus intent, Hhttriel with his spear 
Touched lightlr; for no fidsehood can endure 
Touch of cSlesBal temper, but returns. 
Of Ibroe, to its own likeness; up he staxta. 
Discovered and surprised. 

Par. Zogt, Bk. IV. 

Such sjdrits have nothing to do with the 
detec^g spear of RkurieL Macaulay. 

He who argues against it [Christianity], or 
for it, in thu manner, may be renrded as 
mistaking its nature; the Ithvrielt though to 
our eyes ne wears a body and the flnhion of 
annor, cannot be wounded by material aid. 


I'v^n-lide. The hero of Sir Walter 
Scott's novel of the same name. He 

and for the Bemarks and Bolea to which the nombers after oertidn words refer, leo pp.xiv-xxzii. 




fifores as Cedric of Rotberwood's dis- 
ionerited son, the favorite of King 
Kichard I., and the lover of the Lady 
Rowena, whom, in the end, he mar- 

Ivanovitcli, Ivan (e-vftn' e-vin'o- 
vitch). An imaginary personage, 
who is the embodiment or the pecu- 
liarities of the Russian people, in the 
same way as John Bull represents 
the English, and Jean Crapaud the 
French character. He is described as 
a lazy, good-natured person. 

Ivory Gate. According to Vir^l, a 
gate of sleep in the under -world, 
wrought of shining white ivoiy, 
through which the internal gods send 
up fa£e dreams to earth. See Horn 

Ix-i'fin. [Gr. 'I^'wi/.] (Gr, 4' Rom. 
Myth.) A king of the Lapithse 
in Thessaly, and father of the Cen- 
taurs. For his presumptuous impiety 
he was sent to nell, and there bound 
to a perpetually revolving fiery 

For fhe " K«y to Che Scheme of Fronandctton,'* with the Mcompuiyiiig Exphuutioiu, 

Jaok. [An Anglicued form of the Fr. 

JacqiHt (fknn LM. Jacabia, Junee), 
the commonert Christian name in 
France, tatd hence a coatemptaous 
expression for a p«i3ant or common 
niAn; introduced in the same seji^ 
into Ejigland, vhere it ^ot into use 
as > dimiDutiie or nickname of John, 
the comiDoaeat of all Kngiiah Chris- 
tian nameB.] A genttnd term or rid- 
icule or contenifi for a saucy or a 
paltry fellow, or for one who puts 
himself forward in some office or em- 
ployment i hence, any .mechanical 
trivance that supplies the place 


lor, the " 

has Ijeen applied; — 

tor IVeH^rwTi I win aot ifttMi, 
Aet-oJ^*atkrti(iu, nor acSitJi 

or or Stacijaci: ftl nrth butury bui. 

Jvik, Colonel. The hero oT De Foe'e 
novel entitled "The HiBloir of the 
MoBt Remarkable Life and uCraor- 
dinary Adventures of the truly Hon. 
Colonel Jacqae, vulgarly called Col- 
onel Jack;" a thief, whi»e portrait is 
drawn wiUi great power. He goes to 
Virginia, and passes through all the 
.gradations of lolonial life, fhim the 

state of a iemuit to tbat of in owner 

of slaves and plantations. 
Jack, Sixteen- itrinK- See SiX- 

Jaok and dill. 


Jack: and tlie Bean-stalk. A le- 
gend of fhe nurseij',whiiji, like Jack 
the Giant-killer, is of ancient, and 
probably of Teutonic, origin. A boy 
was SFDt bf his mother to sell a cow, 
and met with a butcher, to whom be 

Grted with her for a few colored 
ans. His mother waa very angry, 
and threw them away. One of tnem 
fell into the garden, and grew so 
rapidly in one night, that by morning 
the top reached the bcavenn. JacE 

extensive country. After divers ad- 
ventures, a fairy met him, and di- 
rected him to the honse of a giant, 
from whom he acqmred great wealth. 
He descended the vine, and as tba 
giant attempted to follow him, he 
seized his hatchet and cut away the 
vine, when the Riant fell and was 
killed. Jack and his mother lived 
aflcrward in comfort. 

a puppet — in the Mav-day games i 
England. Dr. Owen'Pueh says thi 
Jacli-in-the-Green, on Majf-dav, wa 
once a pageant representing Stelvi 





to steal King Arthur^s wife, as she 
went out hunting. 

Yesterday, being May -day, the more se- 
cluded parts of the metropolis were visited by 
Jtack-virtke-Oreen^ and the usual group of 
grotesque attendants. London 2\Ate«,i844. 

Jack of Newbury. A title given to 
John Winchcomb, the greatest cloth- 
ier in Eoglandf in the time of Heniy 
YIII. He kept one hundred looms 
in his own house at Newbury, and 
armed and clothed at his own ex- 
pense one hundred of his men, to 
march in the expedition against the 
Scots at Flodden Field. 

Jftok Pudding. See Hanswurstt. 

Jaokson, StonewalL See Stone- 
wall Jackson. 

Jack the Giant-killer. The name 
of a famous hero in the literature of 
the nurseiy, the subject of one of the 
Teutonic or Indo-European legends, 
which have become nationalized in 
England. Jack was *' a valiant Cor- 
nishman." His first exploit was the 
killing of a huge giant named Cor- 
moran, which he accomplished, when 
a mere child, hy artfully contriving 
to make him fall into a deep pit, and 
then knocking him on the nead with 
a pick-ax. He afterward destroyed 
a great many Welsh monsters of the 
same sort, hemg greatly aided in his 
task by a coat of invisibility, a cap 
of knowledge, an irresistible sworo, 
and shoes of incredible swiftness, — 
treasures which he tricked a foolish 
giant into giving him. For his inval- 
uable services in ridding the country 
of such undesirable inhabitants, he 
was made a knight of Arthur's Round 
Table, married to a duke*s daughter, 
and presented with a large estate. 

4^ " Before we dismiss the giganti- 
cide, we mast remaik that most of his 
giants rest upon good romance author- 
ity ; or, to speak more correctly, Jack's 
history is a popular and degraded version 
of the traditions upon which our ear- 
liest romances are founded." Qu. Rev. 
" Not only single words come to attest our 
common iuioestry ; but many a nursery 
legend or terse foble crops out in one 
country after another, either in lofty my- 
thology or homely household tale. For 
instance, the Persian trick of Ameen and 
the Ohool recurs in the Scandinavian visit 

of Thor to Loki, which has come down to 
Germany in * The Brave Little Tailor,' and 
to us in ' Jack the Oiant-kiUer.' " Yonge. 
" Our < Jack the Oiant-killer' . . . is clear- 
ly the last modern transmutation of the 
old British legend, told in Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth, of CoQcineas the T^jan, the com- 
panion of the Trojan Brutus when he first 
settles in Britain ; which Corineus, h^ng 
a vary strong man, and particularly good- 
humored, is satisfied with being king of 
Cornwall, and killing out the aboriginal 
giants there, leaving to Brutus all the rest 
of the island, and only stipulating, that, 
whenever there is a peculiarly difficult 
giant in any part of Brutus's dominions, 
he shall be sent for to finish the fellow.'' 


While he (Jnuiusl walk^ like Jack the 
Oiamt-kiUer^ in a coat of darknen, he may do 
much mischief with little strength. Joktuon. 

They sajf she^Meg Menilies] . 

y «te ^.m^^^.Ja^ikeG^SS^S 
in the boUant, with hia coato' darkness and 

his shoon o* swiftness. 

/Sir W. Scott. 

He made np for this turnspit constmction 
by striding to such an extent, that you would 
hare sworn he had on the seven-leacned boots 
of Jack the Oiant-kiUer; and so high did he 
tread on parade, that his soldiers were some- 
times alanned lest he ahonld trample himself 
under foot. W. Irvrng. 

Jaok-witb-the-Iiantem. In the 
superstition of former times, an evil 
spirit who delighted in leading be- 
nighted and imwary travelers astray 
from their path, bv assuming the 
appearance of a lignt like that of a 
candle. This superstition, as is well 
known, had its origin in the igms- 
fatuMs, a luminous meteor seen in 
summer nights over morasses, grave- 
yards, and other spots where there is 
a great accumulation of fmimal or 
vegetable substances, and caused, as 
is supposed, by the spontaneous ig- 
nition of a gaseous compound of 
phosphorus and hydrogen, resulting 
nt)m their decomposition. [Written 
also Jack o* Lantern.] 

Jaoob'8 Iiadder. A ladder seen in a 
vision by Jacob, the Jewish patriarch. 
" And he dreamed, and behold, a lad- 
der set upon the earth, and the top 
of it reached to heaven : and behold, 
the angels of God ascending and de- 
scending on it." ( G&^ xxviii. 12.) 

All of air they were, all sonl and form, so 
lovely, like mysterions priestesses, in whose 
hand was the invisible Jacobus Ladder ^ where- 
by man might mount into very heaven. 

For the **Ksy to the Scheme of Frmmneiation," with the aeoompaDying EzphnaAoiu, 




thinkB, and doe§— nothing. His whole 
occupation is to amuM his mind ; and be 
is totally regardless of his body and his 
fortUDes. lie is tiie prince of philofloph* 
ical idlers ; his only passion 'is thou^t ; 
he sets no Talne on any thini^^ but as it 
serres as food for reflection. He can ' suck 
melancholy out of a song, as a weasel 
sucks eggs ; ' the motley fool, * who mor- 
als on the time,' is the greatest prise he 
meets with in the forest. He resents Or- 
lando's passion for Rosalind as some ^tts- 
paragement of his own passion for ab- 
stract truth ; and leaves the duke, as 
soon as he is restored to his sovereignty, 
to seek his brother, who has quitted it 
and turned hermit." Hazlitt. ^'Jaques 
is a morose, cynical, querulous old fel- 
low, who has been a bad young one. He 
does not have sad moments, but '■ sullen 
fits,' as the duke says. His melancholy 
is morbid, and is but the Aruit of that 
utter loss of mental tone which results 
from years of riot and debauchery. He 
has not a tender spot in his heart. There 
is not a gentle act attributed to him, or 
a generous sentiment, or a kind word 
put into his moutii by Shakespeare." 

JR. G. White, 

Indeed, my lord, 
The melancholy Jdqme* grieres at thai. 

Jaf^dr. A prominent character in 
Otway's "Venice Preserved." He 
joins with Pierre and others in a con- 
spiracy against the Venetian senate, 
but commnnicates the secret to his 
wife, Belvidera, and she, anxious to 
save the life of her father, a senator, 
prevails on Jaffier to disclose the 
plot. This he does upon the solemn 
assurance of pardon for himself and 
friends ; bat, on discovering the per- 
fidy of the senate, who condemn the 
conspirators to death, he stabs his 
ftiend Pierre, to prevent his being 
broken on the wheel, and then stabs 

**IhaTe it! "Mid Bunee, *<I have it!" and 
on he went in the vein c^Jqffier. 

Sir W. SBott. 

Jaxiotf or Jeannot (zh&^no')* A 
French proper name, the diminutive 
of Jean (John), used proverbially to 
designate a simpleton, a quiddler, 
one who exercises a silly ingenuity. 

Without being a Jcanot, who has not some- 
ttmes, in eonvenation, committed a Janot- 
Lun? Ourry, 2VOIM. 

January Searle. See Seasle, Jan- 

Ja'nus. {Bm^,M^,) A veiy ancient 
Italian deity who presided ovef the 
beginning of the year, and of each 
month and day, and over the com- 
mencement of all enterprises. He 
was originally worshiped as the sun- 
god. He was represented with two 
faces, one on the front, the other on 
the back of his head, one youthfiil, 
and the other aged. A gatewav — 
often erroneously called a temple — 
which stood close by the Forum in 
Rome, and had two doors op^site 
to eacn other, which, in time ot war, 
were always open, and* in time of 
peace were dosed, was dedicated to 
Janns bv Numa. The myth makes 
him to have been the most ancient 
king of Latium or Etruria, where he 
hospitably received Saturn when ex- 
pelled from Crete by Jupiter. 

Jaques (ja^kwes cr jaks; Fr, pron, 
zhak). A lord attending upon the 
exiled duke, in Shakespeare's "As 
You Like It" 

j|9- " Jaques is the only purely con- 
templative character In Shakespeare. He 

and fat the Remarks and Bales to which the nmnbera after certahi words reftr, see pp. xiv-xxzii. 

Tliat motlej clown in Arden wood. 
Whom hnmoronB Jaqttea with envy viewed. 
Not even that clown could ampli^ 
On this trite text ho long at I. SirW, Scott. 

The Ibrest-walks of Arden*B iUr domain. 
Where Jaauet fed hia aolitaiy vein, 
No pencil^ aid as yet had dared supply, 
Seen only by the intellectual eye. 

Charles Lamb. 

Jam'dj^9e. A prominent figure in 
Dickens's ** Bleak House," distin- 
guished for his philanthropy, easy 
good-nature, and good sense, and for 
always saying, '^ The wind is in the 
east," when any thing went wrong 
with him. The mmous suit of " Jam- 
dyce vs. Jamdyce," in this novel, is a 
satire upon the Court of Chancexy. 

Jar'wie, Baillie TSfio'fjL A prominent 
and admirable character in Sir Walter 
Scott's novel of " Rob Roy." He is 
a m9gistrate of Glasgow, and a kins- 
man of Rob Roy. 

4^ " Nothing can promise lees origi- 
nality and interest than the portrait of a 
concdted, petulant, purse-proud trades- 
man, full of his own and his &ther's lo- 
cal dignity and importance, and of mer- 
cantile and Presbyterian formalities, and 
totally without tact or dinretion, who 
does nothing in the story but give hail, 




a JTtftos ix. aO-87. The name is 
proverbiaUy used to desi^ate a 
showily dressed woman of frail morals 
or suspected respectability. It has 
been applied in this sense fiom the 
time of^the Puritans. 

FhiloMH^-Sentfmentelisin, what haat 
thott to do with peace when thy mother's 
name b Jaebel f Carlylt. 

JiagkOf Mr. Alfred. An impudent, 
swindling stroller, in Dickens^s 
"Pickwick Papers." He is repre- 
sented as never speaking a connected 
sentence, but stringing together mere 
disjointed phrases, genenOly without 

Jinnestan. See Djinnestan. 

J. J. Initials used, particularlv by 
writers of the last centuiy, to desig- 
nate Rousseau, the celebrated author 
of the " Confessions^" whose Chris- 
tian names were Jean Jacques, or 
John James. 

Joan. The name sometimes given to 
the wife of Punch. She is common- 
ly called Judy, 

1 confess, tha£ were it laftio cherish such 
dreams at all, I should more enjoy the thought 
of remaining behind the curtain unseen, lllce 
the ingenious manager of Punch and Iiis wife 
Joatit and enjoying the astonishment and 
coi^ectures ofmy audience. Sir W. Scott. 

Jdan, Pope. A supposed individual 
of the female sex, who is placed by 
several chroniclers in the series of 
popes between Leo lY. fmd Benedict 
III., about 853-855, under the name 
of Jo/in. The subject of this scan- 
dalous story is said to have been a 
young woman of English parentage, 
educated at Colonic, who left her 
home in man^s aisguise, with her 
lover, a very learned man, and went 
to Athens, where she made great 
progress in profane law ; afterward 
she went to Kome, where she became 
equally proficient in sacred learning, 
for wHich her reputation became so 
great, that, at the death of Leo, she 
was. unanimously elected as his suc- 
cessor, under the general belief of her 
male sex. She, however, became 
pregnant, and one day, as she was 
proceeding to the Lateran Basilica, 
she was seized with the pains of 
child-labor, on the road between the 
Colosseum and the church of St. 

Clement ; and there she died, and was 
buried without any honors, after a 
pontificate of two years, five months, 
and four days. 

49" The first to mmtion this delecta* 
bie piece of scandal was Sfarianiu Sootus, 
a monk of the abbey of Fulda, who died 
at Mains in 1086 ; but the anthenticitj of 
the MS. attributed to him is vexy doubt< 
ftil. The story is given more drcnmstao- 
tlaUy by Martlnus Poloniu, a Cistercian 
monk, and confessor to Gregory X. It is 
also men^ned by Stephen de Bourbon, 
who wrote about 1225. " Until the Bef- 
ormation," says Gibbon. '* the tale was 
repeats! and believed without offense." 
The learned Calrinist divine, David Blon* 
del, demonstrated its historical ground* 
lessness ; yet attempts have oceadonally 
been made, since Us time, to maintiUn 
the tmth of the tradition. Panrinius 
and other writers find the orii^n of the 
flible in the effeminacy or Ucentioufl. 
ness of Pope John XII., who was killed 
hi 964, while prosecuting an unlawful 
intrigue. There is an ancient miracle^ 
play upon this sulgect, in German, en< 
titled *' The Canonization of Pope Joan. 
1480,'^ which was widely diffused, ana 
did much to shake the popular rever< 
ence for tiie Papal See. 

Jo-oas'tft. [Gr. loicotm}.] {Gr. 4 
Horn. Myth. ) The mother of CEdipus, 
whom she married unknowingly, and 
to whom she bore Eteodes and Poly- 

Jockey of Norfolk. A sobriqaet ool- 
ferred upon Sir John, son of Sir Rob- 
ert Howard, a close adherent to the 
house of York, and remarkable alike 
for the magnificence of his estate 
and for the high offices which be 

. held. In 1485, he accompanied his 
master, Richard III., to the field of 
Bosworth, and, notwithstanding the 
celebrated and friendly warning, 

** Jockey of Norfolk, he not too hold. 
For IMckon, thy master, Ib bought and aoid," 

which was posted on his tent during 
the night before the battle, he entered 
into the fight, and paid the penalty of 
his fidelity with his life, bemg one of 
the slain on that well-contested day. 

John. 1. A bastard brother of Don 
Pedro, in Shakespeare's " Much Ado 
about Nothing." 

2. A Franciscan ftiar, in Shake- 
speare's " Romeo and Juliet." 

For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronnnciation," with the accompanying Sxplaaatioai, 




John, Friar. See Fbla^r John. 

John-fkKlreazns. A name apparently 

coined to suit a dreamin&f,' stupid 

character, a " dreaming John/' as it 


Yet I, 
A dun and mnddy-metiled rascal, peak, 
■" ' ■ ofniy cauM, 


IJke John-ordreamBt unpregnant 
And can ny nothing. 

John Gompany. See Company, 

Johnny Bebs. A sobriquet given by 
the soldiers of the United States 
army, in the time of the late Rebel- 
lion, to the ^* Confederate " soldiers. 
It is said to have originated in a 
taunting remark addressed to a rebel 
picket, to the effect that the Southern 
States relied on " John Bull " to help 
tiiem gain their independence, and 
that the picket himseli was no better 
than a "John Bull;" an accusation 
which he indignantly denied, saying 
that he would " as soon be called a 
* nigger ' as a ^ Johnny Bull.' " 

Jonathan. A son of Saul, kin^ of 
Israel, famous for his tender friend* 
ship — " passing the love of women " 
— K>r David, whom Saul hated and 
persecuted. " The soul of Jonathan 
was knit with the soul of David, and 
Jonathan loved him as his own soul." 
(1 Sam, xviii. 1.) 

Jonathan, Brother. See Bbothbb 

Jones, Da'vy. A fiuniliar name 
among[ sailors for Death, formerly for 
the evil spirit who was supposed to^ 

f reside over the demons of^ the sea. 
[e was thought to be in all storms, 
and was sometimes seen of gigantic 
height^ showing three rows of sharp 
teem m his enormous mouUi, open- 
ing great frightM eyes, and nostrils 
which ^ emitted blue names. The 
ocean is still termed by siUlors, Z>avy 
Jone8*8 Locker, 

The heads of Opposidon, the Htts and 
othen of that counby [England] . . . wish 
dear Hanover safe enough (aaft in 2>avy 
J(met9 locker, if that would do); but are tired 
of snbiddizing, and flghttng, and tumulting 
all the world over, for that Ugh end. (kaiau. 

Jones, Tom. The hero of Fielding's 
novel entitled " The History of Tom 
Jones, a Foundling; " represented as 
a model of generosity, openness, and 

manly spirit, mingled with thought- 
less dissipation. 

49" *' Our immortal Fielding was of 
the younger branch of the Earls of Den- 
bigh, who drew their origin from the 
Counts of Hapsbuig. . . . Far difforeot 
have been the fortunes of the English and 
German divisions of the fiunily. . . . The 
successors of Charles Y. may disdahi their 
brethren of England ; bat the romance 
of * Tom Jones,' that exquisite picture of 
human manners, will outlive the paJace 
of the Escuiial and the imperial eagle of 
Austria." GtMon. 

4^ '^ I cannot say that I tfahik Mr. 
Jones a virtuous character ; I cannot say 
but that I think Fielding's evident liking 
and admiration for Mr. Jones show that 
the great humorist's moral sense was 
blunted by his life, and that here in art 
and ethics there is a great error. ... A 
hero with a flawed reputation, a hero 
•sponging for a guinea, a hero who cannot 

Eay his landlady, and is obliged to let his 
onor out to hire, is absurd, and his 
claim to heroic rank untenable." 

Jdrmungand (yof'md&n-j^dO. [Old 
Norse, jormun^ great, universal, and 
gandr, serpent.] (Scand. MyQi.) A 
fearful serpent, the ofispring of Loki, 
hurled down by the gods into the 
ocean that surrounds Imdgard, where 
he is to remain until Ragn&rok. He 
is represented by the poets as hold- 
ing nis tail in his mouUi. 

Josse, M. (mos'e-o' zhos). A jeweler 
in Moli^re's comedy, " L' Amour M^ 
decin," whose advice to a friend who 
consults him is that of a man who 
wishes to dispose of his merchandise. 
The expression, ^^Vcms Stes orfevre, 
M, Joue^^^ Ton are a jeweler, Mr. 
Josse, is proverbially applied, in 
France, to any one who seeks to ad- 
vance his own interests at the ex- 
pense of another. 

Jdtnnlieini (yd'td6n-hlm0> {Scand. 
Myth,) The abode of the Jotun, or 
Giants. See Giants, 2. 

Jourdain, M. (mos'e^' zhoor'd&>^', 
62). The hero of Moli^re's comedy, 
'* Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme ; " repre- 
sented as an elderly tradesman, who, 
having suddenly acquired immense 
riches, becomes desirous to emulate 
such as have been educated in the 
front ranks of society, in those aocom- 

and flar the Semarks and Rules to which the nnmben after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-zzsdi. 





plishments, whether mental or per- 
sonal, which cannot be gracefully ac- 
quired after the early part of life is 

The Arabs, under great emotional excite- 
ment, give their language a recognizable me- 
ter, and talk poetir aa M. Jourdam talked 
imwe [t. e., without knowing it]. Levpes, 

Joum6e des Duiws (zhoor'nft' dft 

diip, 34). See Day of Dupes. 
Jove. See Jupiter. 

Joyeuse, Ia (U zhwo'yoz', 43). [Lat. 
Gaudiosa.] The sword of Cluurle- 
magne ; — so called in the romances 
of chivalry. It bore the inscription, 
" Decern prcBceptorum cuttos Carokny 

Joyeuae Gharde, Ta (li zhwo^yoz' 
gafd). The residence of the famous 
Lancelot du Lac, commonly said to 
have been at Berwick-upon-Tweed. 
He having successfully defended the 
honor of Queen Guinever against Sir 
Mador (who had accused her of pois- 
oninjy^ his brother), Kin^ Arthur, in 

Satitude to her champion, gave him 
e castle which had oeen the scene 
of the queen's vindication, and named 
it " La Joyeuse Garde " in memory of 
the happy event. See Mador, Sir. 
[Written also Joyous Gard and 
Garde Joyesse.] 

The Oarde Joyetse, amid the tale, 
High reared its elittering head; 

And Avalon'8 enchanted vale 
In all its wonders spread. Sir W. Scott. 

Juan, Don. See Don Juan. 
Judge Ijynoh. See Lynch, Judge. 

Judicious Hooker, The. See Hook- 
er, The Judicious. 

Judith. The heroine of a well-known 
book of the same name in the Apoc- 
rypha; a beautiful Jewess of Bethu- 
La, who, to save her native town, 
undertook to assassinate Holofemes, 

general of Nebuchadnezzar, putting 
oth her life and her chastity m jeop- 
ardy by venturing alone into his tent 
for this purpose. But she accom- 
plished her object, and escaped with 
the head of Aolofemes to Bethulia; 
whereupon her fellow-townsmen, in- 
spired with a sudden enthusiasm, 
rushed out upon the enemy, and 
completely defeated them. The 
story, if not altogether fictitious, as 
many think it to be, is a legend 

founded upon some fact not men- 
tioned by any historian. 

Ju'dy (6). The wife of Punch, in the 
modem puppet-show of ^* Punch and 
Judy." See Punch. 

Jug'£fr-n4ut. [Sansk. Jaganndtha^ 
lord of the world.] {Hindu Myth.) 
A name of Vishnu, of whom an idol 
is kept in a temple at Jaggemaut, or 
Ja^gemaut Pun, a town in Orissa. 
This idol is one of the chief objects 
of pilgrimage in India, and has ac- 
quired great notoriety in consequence 
of the fanatical practice, formerly 
very prevalent among Hindu believ- 
ers, of throwing themselves under 
the wheels of the lofty chariot — sixty 
feet high — in which it is carried in 
procession, in the hope of attaining 
eternal bliss by such a sacrifice of 
their lives. [Written idso J a g g e r- 

Julia. The name of a lady beloved 
by Proteus, in Shakespeare's " Two 
Gentlemen of Verona." 

Julie (zhu'le', 34). The herome of 
Moliere's comedy, "Monsieur de 

Juli-et (6). 1. A lady, in Shake- 
speare's " Measure for Measure," be- 
loved bv Claudio. 

2. The heroine of Shakespeare's 
tragedy of " Romeo and Juliet." 

" Juliet is a child whose intoxicar 
tion in loving and being loved whirls away 
the little reason she may have possessed. 
It is impossible, in my opinion, to place 
her among the great female characters of 
Shakespeare's creation." HcUlam. " All 
Shakespeare's women, being essentially 
women, either lore, or have J/oved, or are 
capable of loviilg ; but Juliet is love it- 
self. The passion is her 6tate of being, 
and out of it she has no existence. It is 
the soul within her soul ; the pulse within 
her heart ; the life-blood along her veins, 
*■ blending with every atom of her frame.' 
The love that is so chaste and dignified in 
Portia; so airy-delicate and fearless In 
Miranda; so sweetly confiding in Per- 
dita; so playfkiUy fond in Rosalind; so 
constant in Imogen ; so devoted in Bes- 
demona ; so fervent in Helen ; so tender 
in Yiola, — is each and all of these in Ju- 
liet." Mrs. Jameson. 

The hyperbole of Jidiet seemed to be veri- 
fied with respect to them. ** tlpon their brows 
shame was ashamed to rit." Jfacaiday. 

For the " Key to the Scheme of Pronunciadon," with the accompanying Explanations, 




June, Jennie. A pseudonym of Mrs. 
J. C. Croly, an American authoress 
of the present day. 

Jnfjii-ua {or jtin'yus, 6). A celebrat- 
ed pseudonym, under which a series 
of lemarkaole political letters were 
published at intervals from 1769 to 
1772, in the "Public Advertiser," 
then the most popular newspaper in 
Great Britain. 

MSf In these letters, the writer who 
oonceftled himself under this Bignature 
attacked all the public characters of the 
day connficted with the government, and 
did not spare even royalty itself. Every 
effort that could be deyised by the gov- 
ernment, or prompted by private indig- 
nation, was made to discover their au- 
thor, but in vain. '' It is not in the na- 
ture of things,'^ he writes to his publisher, 
" that you or any body else should know 
me unless I make myself known : all arts, 
or inquiries, or rewards, would be inef- 
fectual." In another place he remarks, 
" I am the sole depositary of my secret, 
and it shall die with me." Many con- 
jectures, however, have been started on 
the sutgect of this great puzzle; and 
Buxke, William Gerard Hamilton (com- 
monly called " Single - speech Hamil- 
ton "), John Wilkes, Lord Chatham, Mr. 
I>unnhig (afterward Lord Ashburton), 
Lord Oeorge Sackville (afterward Lord 
Germain), &Bijeant Adair, the Rev. J. Ro- 
senhi^n, John Roberts, Charles Lloyd, 
Samuel Dyer, General Charles Lee, Hugh 
Boyd, Colonellsaac Barre, Sir Philip Fran- 
cis, and many other eminent names, have 
all been identified by different inquirers 
with Junius. The evidence which has 
heen presented to prove that Sir Philip 
Vrancis was the author of these memo- 
rable philippics, though entirely circum- 
stantial, is very strong. Macaulay thinks 
it sufficient '*to support a verdict in a 
civil, nay, in a criminal proceeding. ** The 
Inquirer will do well to consult the articles 
that have appeared on the subjrat of ^* Ju- 
nius " in "^ Notes and Queries," and in the 
** Atheneeum " since 1848. See also Jonitts 
in AUibone's " Dictionary of Authors " and 
in Bohn^s edition of Lowndes's ^^fiibli- 
ographw's Manual." 

This arch intrigtier, whom, to use an ex- 
prefleion of Jumta, treachery itself could not 
trust, was at one moment nearly caught in 
his own toils. Sir W. Scott. 

Ju'no. {Gr. ^ Rom. Myth.) The 
daughter of Saturn and Ops, the sis- 
ter and wife of Jupiter, the queen of 
heaven, and the guardian deity of 
women, especially married women. 

He^ in delight . . . 
Smiled with superior love; as Jupiter 
On Juno smiles, when he impregns the clouds 
That shed May flowers. MUton, 

Junto. {£ng. Hist.) A small knot of 
distinguished men in the time of Wil> 
liam III. (1690), who, under this name, 
exercised over the Whig body, by 
their counsel during twenty troubled 
years, an authority of which, says Ma- 
caulay, there is perhaps no parallel in 
histor)', ancient or modem. Russell, 
Lord -keeper Somers, and Charies 
Montague were prominent members 
of it. 

Ju'pl-tfr. [Lat.^ a contraction ofXHo-' 
vis or .Dies (= dtvum, heaven) joafer ; 
f . 6., the father of heaven, or heavenly 
father.] {Gr. 4" Rom. Myth.) A. 
son of Saturn and Ops, brother and 
husband of Juno, the father and 
king -of gods and men, and the su- 
preme nuer of the universe. As the 
god of heaven, he had all power of 
the phenomena of the skies; hence 
his numerous epithets, such as Pht- 
vius (the rain -giver), Tonans (the 
thunderer), Fulminator (the ligfat- 
ning-wielder), and the like. [CiQled 
also Jove and Zeus."] 

Ju'pl-t^r Carl^le. A sobriquet giv- 
en to the Rev. Alexander Carlyle 
(1722-1805), minister of Inveresk, in 
Scotland, remarkable for his magnif- 
icent head, which was considered 
worthy of being a model for a Jupi- 
ter Tonans. 

<*' The grandest demigod I ever saw 
was Dr. Carlyle, minister of Musselburgh, 
commonly called Jupiter Carlyle, for hav- 
ing sat more than once for the king of 
gods and men to Gavin Hamilton." 

Sir W. Scott. 

Ju'p!(-t§r Sca'pin. A nickname given 
by the' Abb6 de Pradt to Napoleon 
Bonaparte, on account of the mix- 
ture in his character of greatness and 
goodness with irregularity of imag- 
mation and a disposition to artifice 
which sometimes, as in his Egyptian 
campaign, led to conduct half impi- 
ous, half childish. See Scapin. 

Jft-trur'nft. The sister of King Tur- 
nus ; changed into a fountain of the 
same name, the waters of which were 
used in the sacrifices of Yesta. See 


and for the Bemarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-xxxU. 





Kai^ Mount. See Moukt Caf. 

Sail^^. The heroine of Southey's 
poem, ^ The Corse of Kehama." 

Kfana (kft'iii&), or Kftmadeva (kft- 
mftHlft/yft). {Hindu Myth,) The god 
of love.* He is a favorite theme of 
descriptioii and allusion in Sanskrit 
poetiy. His power is so much ex- 
alted that even the ^od BnUima is 
said to succumb to it. He is de- 
scribed or represented as riding on a 
parrot or a sparrow, — the symbol of 
voluptuousness, — and holding in his 
hauos a bow of sugar-cane strung 
with bees, besides five arrows, each 
tipped with the bloom of a flower 
supposed to conquer one of the senses. 

Katherine. A lady attending on 
the princess of France, in Snake- 
speare^s " Love's Labor 's Lost." 

r. Sir. A foster-brother of King 
Arthur, and a rude and boastful 
knight of the Round Table. He was 
the butt of Arthur's court. He is 
merally made by the romancers the 
)t to attempt an offered adventure, 
in which he never succeeds, and his 
fiulore in which acts as a foU to the 
brilliant achievement of some more 
' fortunate and deservui^, and less 
. boastM,' knight [Written also 
Q u e u X.] 

Ee-bA'xn$. A Hindu rajah, who ob- 
tains and sports with supernatural 
power. His adventures are related 
m Southey's poem entitled *^The 
Curse of Kehama.'* 

Keith, Wise Wife of. See Wise 
Wife of Keith. 

Kemp^fer-hin'sen (-zn). A name as- 
sumed by Robert Pearce Gillies, a con- 
tributor to ** Blackwood's Magazine," 
and one of the interlocutors in the 
" Noctes Ambrosianss " of that work. 

Ken'i4.qiihair (-kwar). [Scot., 
Don't-know-where. Comp. Ger. 
WeismichtwoJ] A Scottish name 
for any imaginary locality. 

It would be a misapprehension to suppose, 
because Melrose may in general pass for 
Kamaquhair, or because it agrees wita scene* 
of the '' Monastery " in the circumstances of 
the drawbridge, the mill-dam, and other pointa 
of resemblance, that tfaerrfore an accurate or 
perftet local similitude is to belbund in all the 
paiiiculan of the idcture. Sir W. Scott, 

Kent, Holy Maid of, or TSxnx of. 
See Holt Maid of Kent. 

KSrr, Or'pliefLs C. (4). [That is. Of- 
fice-seeker.] The nom de plume of 
Robert H. Newell, a humorous and 
popular American writer of the pres- 
ent day. 

Ketch, Jack. A hangman or execu- 
tioner; — so called in "England, firozn 
one John Ketch, a wretch who lived 
in the time of James II., and made 
himself universally odious by the 
butchery of many brave and noble 
victims, particularly those sentenced 
to deati^ by the mfamous Jeffreys 
during the " Bloody Assizes." The 
name is thought by some to be de- 
rived from Richard Jacqnett, who 
held the manor of Tvbum, near Lon- 
don, where criminals were formerly 

Ket'tle-drum/mle, Gabriel (-drum'- 
ml). A covenanting preacher in Sir 
Walter Scott's " Old Mortality." 

Key of Christendom. A name 
formeriy given to Buda, the capital 
of Hungary, on account of its political 
importance, its situation on the Dan- 
ube, and its proximity to the Ottoman 
empire. It was twice taken by the 
Turks in the sixteenth century, but 
was finally wrested from them in 
the year 1686. 

Key of Bussia. An appellation popu- 
larly given to Smolensk, a fortined 
city of Russia, on the Dnieper, cele- 
brated for its resistance to the French- 
in 1812. 

Key of the Ghilf. A name often given 
to the island of Cuba, from its com- 
manding position at the entrance of 
the Guu of Mexico. 

Key of the Mediterranean. A name 

For the •* Key to the Scheme of F)ronunciation," with the aeeompanTing Ezplanatlona, 

numda Itie entrance to the Mediterra- 
nean Sea frum the Atlantic. 
Kaj-atoas State. The State of 
Pennsylvania; — BO called from ila 
having been the central State of the 

thirteen original Slates are ansngei 
in the Tonn of an aieh, Feaneylva 
nia will occupy the (Jace of the key' 
Hone, tt in the above cut 

KUtnan-BegK, Miaa. The heroini 
of "AGolden Legend" by Thomaa 
Hood; an heiress with great expecta- 
tions and ao artificial leg of b~''' 

Xine and Oobbler. King Henry 
VUI. and a certain menr Lorn' 
cobbler, who form (he Bubjecl of < 
of the many popuhir talcs in which 

ing the humble Butlject in dieguiw. 
Elns Artliar. A famous king c 
Britain, supposed to have flourished 
at the time of the Saxon mvasioD, 
and to have died at Glast<>nbury, in 

on the fatal 'battle-field of Camlan, 
«hich_ is thought to be Camelford, 


near Tmtagel,iQ Cornwall. Hi 
history has been overlaid with 
many absurd " ' 
chroniclers and medieval poets 

onsly- regarded him as altogether a 
mythical personage. The usual resi- 
dence of King Arthur was said to be 
at Caerleon, on the Usk, in Wales, 
where, with his beautiful wife Guin- 
ever, he lived in splendid state, sur- 
rounded by hnndreds of knighta and 
beautifid ladies, who served as 
patterns of valor, breeding, and grace 
to all the world. From his court. 

it out to all conntriet, to 

other chivalrous adventures. A popu- 
lar Iraditioaal belief was long enter- 
tained among the Britons that Arthur 
was not dead, but had been earned 
off to be healed of his wonnds in 
fairy-land, and that he would re- 
appearto avenge his countrymen, and 
resume the sovereignty of Britain. 
This" legend was proverbially referred 
to in the Middle Ages, in speaJcing 
of those who indulged vain hopes 
or cherished absuM expectatioDs. 
According to another account, Arthur 
was buried by his sister, the fai™ 
Morgana, in the vale of Avalon, fif- 
teen feet deep, and bis tomb bore this 
inscription, — 

GLraldus Cambrensis states, that, in 
the reign of Henry II., a leaden cn>» 
bearing the inscription, " Hie jaat 
tpuUuM inclybu Sex ArUmrut in 
i'rwZeI Asailimii," Here in the island 
of Avalon the illustrious King Arthur 
is buried, was found in the cemeteiy 
of Glastonbury Abbey, under a stone 
seven fbet below the soijaca; and 
that, nine feet bdow this, was found 
an oaken coffin containmg bones and 
dust. See ExcAUBAH, GtTiHBVBn, 

Tabij^ UmEB. 

Bang Oam-by'atf. The hero of " A 

contemporary of ShakespearB ; a 

nake mine eyes look red; for I must 
peak in passion, and I will do it in 
ling Camhyses' vein," 
"HdwI-i>M tlM Jiiiw QindyH^ 




▼da; ** ue we commanded to Btaad and de- 
liYer <m the king's highway ? " Sir W. SeoU. 

Sing Oambtftetf "rem is, after all, but a worth- 
less one; no vein for a wise man- Cartjfle, 

Cole. A legendary king o£ 
Britain, who reigned, as the old 
chronicles inform us, in the third 
century after Christ. According to 
Robert of Gloucester, he was the 
father of the celebrated St. Helena, 
and the successor of Asclepiad. He 
is Airther relegated to the realms of 
fable by the rhyme ^at sings, — 

*' 0]& King Coie 
Was a merry old sonl, 
And a merry old soul was he." 

See Halliwell's " Nursery Rhymes of 
England,*' where much cunous in- 
formation in regard to this celebrated 
personage may be found. 

The venerable Eing Cole would find few 
■ubjects here to acloiowledge his monarchy 
of mirth. IS.F. Whippli. 

King Cotton. A popular personifica- 
tion of the great staple production of 
the Southern States of the American 
Union. The supremacy of cotton 
seems to have been jSrst asserted by 
Mr. James H. Hammond, of South 
Carolina, in a speech delivered by 
him in the senate of the United 
States, on the' 4th of March, 1858, 
from which the following is an ex- 

" No : you dare not make war upon cot- 
ton. No power on earth dares to make war 
upon it. Cotton is kirifr. Until lately, the 
Bank of England was king ; but she tried 
to put her screws, as usual, the &11 be- 
fore the last, on the cotton crop, and was 
utterly yanquished. The last power has 
been conquered. Who can doubt, that 
has looked at recent eyents, that cotton 
is supreme ? " 

When ... the pedigree of King Cotton is 
traced, he is fbund to be the lineal child of the 
Tariff; called into being by a specific duty; 
reared by a tax laid upon the manufitcturing 
industry of the North, to create the culture of 
the raw material in the South. E. Everett. 

Ejng Es'ter-mdre. The hero of an 
ancient and beautiful legend, which, 
according to Bishop Percy, would 
seem to nave been written while a 
great part of Spain was in the hands 
of the Saracens or Moors, whose em- 
pire was not fully extinguished be- 
fore the year 1491. Sir Walter Scott 
suggests that an old romance, entitled 

*^ How the King of £stm.nie]aiid 
married the daughter of the King of 
Westmureland," may have been the 
origin of the legend. 

King Franconi (fro^^'ko'ne', 62). A 
nickname given to Joachim Murat 
(1767-1815), a famous French gen- 
eral, from a celebrated mountebank 
of that name, on account of his fan- 
tastic love of finery in dress. See 
Handsome Swordsman. 

Kins Goldemar. See Goldemab, 

King GKxnther. See Gunthbb, 

King Horn. The hero and title of a 
French metric^ romance, the work 
of a poet who calls himself " Mestre 
Thomas," held by some to be a 
composition of the latter part* of the 
twelfth century, and the originid of 
the English "Home Childe," or 
" Geste of Kyng Horn." By others, 
the English "^poem is regarded as the 
earlier of the two. Bishop Percy 
ascribed the English " King: Horn " 
to so early a date as " within a cen- 
tuiy after the Conquest," although, 
in Its present form, it is probably not 
older than the latter part of the thir- 
teenth century. 

King IjOg. A character in a cele- 
brated fable of ^sop, which relates 
that the frogs, grown weary of living 
without government, petitioned Jupi- 
ter for a king, and that, in response 

2 to their reauest, he threw down a 
loff among tnem for their ruler. Tlie 
fable adds that the frogs, though at 
first terrified by the sudden appear- 
ance of their king, on becoming 
familiarized to his presence, and 
learning his true character, expe- 
rienced a complete change of feeling, 
their dread being turned into the 
utmost contempt. They therefore 
entreated Jupiter for another king; 
whereupon he sent them a stork, — 
or, as some say, a serpent, — who 
immediately began to devour them 
with unappeasable voracity. Find- 
ing that neither their liberty, prop- 
erty, nor lives were secure under such 
a ruler, they sent yet once more to 
Jupiter for another king; but instead 

For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation,*' with the accompanying ExplanatiouB, 




of giving ihem one, he retained this 
answer merely : " They that will not 
be contented when tney are well, 
most be patient when things go 

So, whea lore's block deaeended from on 

high, . . . 
liOtid thunder to its bottom shook the bog, 
And the hoane nation croaked, "Ood save 

King Log!" Pope. 

I do not find thronshout the whole of it 
(Wouter Van Twillers reign] a single in- 
stance of any offender beinff Drought to pun- 
ishment, — a most indubitable sign of a mer^ 
ciftil governor, and a casa unparalleled,^x- 
eepting in the reign of the illustrious Atno 
£09, fh>m whom, it is hinted, the renowned 
Van TwiUer was a lineal descendant. 

W. h-ving. 

Kins-maker, The. ^ A title popularly 
conferred upon Richard Nevil, Earl 
of Warwick (d. 1471), who was 
Chiefly instrumental in deposing 
King Henry VI., and raising ti^e 
Duke of York to the throne as Ed- 
ward IV., and who afterward put 
Edward to flight, and restored the 
crown to Henry. 

Thus, centuries after feudal times are past. 
we And warriors still gathering under llie old 
caatle-waUs, and commanded by a ftudal lord, 
jtut as in the days of the Exng-maker, who, no 
oonbt, often mustered his retainers in the 
aame market-place where I beheld this mod- 
em regiment Hawthorne. 

Nibeltmg (ne^bft-ldSng). A 
king of the Nibelungen, a mythical 
Borgimdian tribe, who give name to 
the great mediaeval epic of Germany, 
the " Nibelungen Lied." He be- 
queathed to his two sons a hoard or 
treasure beyond all price or compu- 
tation, and incapable of diminution, 
which was won by Siegfried, who 
made war upon the Nibelungen and 
conquered them. See Siegfried. 

Here Is learning t an irr^nlar treasury, £f 
you w£Q. but inexhaustible as the hoaitl of 
JEiMa Nwtung, which twelve wagons in 
twelve da^s, at the rate of three journeys a 
day, could not cany off. CanyJe. 

Kins 19'o'del. The name of the lion 
in the old German animal-epos enti- 
tled "Reinecke Fuchs." See Re- 


Eing of Bark. A sobriquet given by 
the Swedish peasants of his day to 
Christopher III. (d. 1448), kmg of 
Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, on 
account of their having had to use 
birch-bark mixed with meal, in a 
time of scarcity. Michelet says that 

Christopher himself was obliged to 
subsist temporarily on the bark of a 
tree, and derived the nickname from 
this circumstance. 

Sing of Bftth (2). A title bestowed 
upon Richard Nash (1674-1761), com- 
monly called " Beau Nash,** a cele- 
brated master of the ceremonies, or 
president over amusements, at Bath, 
England. His reign continued, with 
undiminished splendor, for fifteen 

Eing of Beggars. A sobriquet given 
to Bampfylde Moore Carew, a noted 
English vagabond, who died in 1758. 
An " Apology " for his life was writ- 
ten by Robert Goadby (8vo, London, 

King of Brave Men. [Fr. Roi des 
Braves,'] A surname or title given 
by the troops under his command to 
Henry IV. (1553-1610), a valiant and 
successful general. 

King of Cots'wduld. GreyBrydges, 
Lord Chandos (d. 1621);-^so'caiIed 
from his magnificent style of living, 
and his numerous attendants. Cota- 
vxnUd, or Cotstoold, is the name of a 
range of hills in Gloucestershire, in 
the neighborhood of Sudley Castle, 
his lordship's residence. 

King of IhigLand's Viceroy. A 
name given by the French, in de- 
rision, to Louis XVIII. (1765-1824). 
on account of his manifestations or 

gratitude to the government of Great 
ritain for the assistance he had 
received firom it in recovering the 
throne of his ancestors. 

King of Peuilletons (f63^*'t6»', 43. 
62). [Fr. Le Roi des FewOetonsA 
A sobriquet given to Jules Gabriel 
Janin (b. 1804), a clever and ex- 
tremely popular French journalist, 
who for many years was connected 
with the " Journal des D^bats " as 
a writer for the "/etti&ton," or that 

{)art of the paper devoted to light 
iterature and criticism, it being the 
foot of the pa^e, and separated from 
the upper portion by a heavy line. 

King of Kings. [Gr. Boo-iAcv? Ba- 
o-iA^wv.] 1. A title given to Chriat 
in Rev, xvii. 14. 

and for tiie Bemarki and Boles to which tha numben after certein worda refer, lee pp. zty-xzxiL 




2. A title given to Artaxerxes, or 

Ardishir (d. 241), the first Sassanide 
king of Persia. 

Kins of Men. 1. A title given by 
Homer, in the ^' Iliad/* to Agamem- 
non, king of Mycensd. 

She, too. [Electra,] though • Grecian wom- 
an, and tke daughter of the Kbuf of Jfen, 
yet wept sometiinea, and hid her mce in her 

Dt Qumce!/. 

2. The same title is given to 
Jupiter and to Odin. See Jupiteb 
and Odin. 

Kins of Painters. A title assumed 
by Parrhasius of Ephesus, a cele- 
brated painter of ai^tiquity, and the 
contemporary of Zeuxis. According 
to Plutarch, he was accustomed to 
dress himself in a purple robe, and 
wear a crown of gold. 

King of Freaobers. [Fr. Lt Roi det 
PrecHcaievrs/] A name conferred 
upon Louis iSourdaloue (1632-1704), 
a noted French preacher. 

King of BeptUes. [Fr. Le Roi des 
Rq>Hle8J] A nickname given to 
Bernard Germain l^tienne de la Ville, 
Count Lac^p^de (1758-1825), on ac- 
count of his researches in natural 
history, and also on account of the 
ready eloquence with which he justi- 
fied the arbitrary measures of the 
Emperor Napoleon. He was the 
author of a work entitled " Histoire 
des Reptiles" 

King of Tars. The subject and title 
of an ancient English metrical ro- 
mance. Tars is Thrace, or, accord- 
ing to some commentators, Tarsus. 

King of Terrors. A common person- 
ification or death. 

His confidence sliall be rooted out of his 
tal>ema£le, and it shall hring Ixim to the Kista 
i^Terrora. " Jobxrm.U. 

King of the Border. A name given 
to Adam Scott of Tushielaw, a noted 
robber who infested the border terri- 
tory of England and Scotland. 

King of the Courts. [Lat. Rex 
JudieiorumJ] A name conferred 
by Cicero upon Quintus Hortensius 
(a. B. c. 60), a distinguished Roman 
forensic orator. 

King of the French. [Fr. Le Roi des 
Frangais,] The original style or ti- 

tle of the French kings, which was 
changed into that of _" King of 
France" by PhiUp Augustus (1179- 
1223). On the 16th of Oct., 1789, the 
National Assembly decreed that the 
old style should be resumed by Louis 
XVI. In 1792, the monarchy was 
abolished, and the republic declared ; 
but in 1814 the house of Bourboa 
was restored, and both Louis XVIII. 
and Charles X. assumed the title of 
" King of France." In 1830, the 
Revolution o# Julv occurred, and soon 
after Louis Philippe was called to 
the throne as constitutional *^ King 
of the French," a title which he 
formally accepted on the 9th of 

King of the Markets. [Fr. Le Roi 
des ffaUes.'] A sobriquet conferred 
upon Fran9ois de Vendome Beaufort 
(1616-1669), grandson of Henry IV. 
He. acquired tnis liame from his pop- 
ularity with the Parisians, his familiar 
manners, and the pleasure he took 
in using their language and slang. 

King of the Bomans. [Lat. Rex 
Romafwrum.] A title assumed by 
the Emperor Henrv II., previous to 
his coronation in 1014. He was the 
first reigning prince of Italy or Ger- 
many who bore it. In 1066, it was 
conferred upon tiie eldest son of 
Henry III., and afterward, for many 
years, was borne by the heirs of the 
emperors of Germany. Napoleon I. 
conferred the title of " King of 
Rome" upon his son, March 20, 

King of Waters. A name given to 
the river Amazon. 

King of Yvetot (ev'to'). [Fr. Xe 
Roi <r TvetotJ] A title assumed by 
the lord of a little principally in 
France, named Yvetot, some time in 
the latter part of the eleventh cen- 
tury. In the sixteenth century, the 
title of king was changed to that of 
prince souverain, and, at a later day, 
the idea of sovereignty attached to 
this seignioiy disappeared. B^ran- 
ger has made of the King of Yvetot 
a model of a potentate, a good little 
king, not known in history, but hap- 
pier than any monarch, having taken 

For tbe " Key to the Scheme of Fronunci«tion," with the accompanying Explanations, 




' pleasure for his code. ^ Under this 
apdogue," says Tissot. "B^ran^r 
has satirized toe Great Lmperor him- 
self." The title is metaphorically 
applied to a mler of large pretensions, 
bat insignificant authority. 

There was a Kmg qf Yvetot once 

Bat little kiiow€ In stoiy ; 
To bed betimefl, and riaing late, 

Sound sleeper without ^ory; 
Witii cotton nirhi-cap, too, instead 
Of crown, would Jenny deck his head, 

rris said. 
Bat tat, xat tat, rat tat, rat tat. 
Oh, what a good Uttie king was that! 

Bat tat. Sdrangert IWnw. 

They would exchange Casar for Frusias, 
and Napoleon for the Amv of Yvetot. 

Victor Hugo^ Trana. 

Klnff Pe-oheur'. [Fr. pecheur^ a sin- 
ner.] Uncle of Perceval, and keeper 
of the sangreal and sacred lance, the 
guardianship of which was intrusted 
only to a aescendant of Joseph of 
Arunathea, utd on the sole condi- 
tion of his leading a life of perfect 
purity in thought, word, and deed. 
Having one day so far forgotten the 
obligations of his sacred office as to 
look with unhallowed eye upon a 
young female "pilgrim, whose robe 
was accidentally loosened as she knelt 
before him, his' frailty was instantly 
punished by the sacred lance spon- 
taneously falling upon him, ana in- 
flicting a deep and mcurable wound. 

King PeUenore. See Pellenobe. 

Einfi; F^tand (pft'ty). A French name 
occurring only in the phrase, "X^e cour 
de Roi Petaud:' The court of Kmg 
P^taud. It derives its origin from 
an assembly of beggars, who formerly 
held meetings under the presidency 
of the most adroit, or the poorest 
among; them, who took the tide of 
King P^taud (from the Latin petere. 
to beg). The phrase " the court or 
King P^taud** denotes a place of 
confosion, where every thing is out 
of order, where every body is master. 

Kins Pym. A sobriquet given, on 
account of his great popularity and 
his political influence, to John Pym 
(1584^1643), leader of the English 
house of commons during the strug- 

fle preceding the parliamentary wars, 
[e was originally so called by the 
royalists, in derision. 

Kini; Byenoe. See Rtence, Kiko. 

Kings, The Do -nothing. See 
Faik£ants, Les Rois. 

King Saoripant. See Sacbifast, 

Kins Serpent. See King Loo. 

It might haye been as well expected that the 
frogs in the Ihble would, in case of inrasion, 
have risen in a mass to defend King Serpent. 

Su- W. Scott. 

Ejngs of Brentford, Tlie Two. 
See Brentfobd, The Two Kings 


Kings of Cologne, The Three. 
See Cologne, The Three Kings 


King Stork. See Kino Log. 

Kifik'el, Mme. A pseudonym adopt- 
ed by Miss Elizabeth Sara Sheppard, 
an English ijovelist (d. 1862), author 
of " Charles Auchester," ** Counter- 
parts," &c. 

Kin'mont "Willie. William Arm- 
strong, of Kinmonth, a notorious free- 
booter of the latter part of the six- 
teenth century, and the hero of a 
spirited and famous Scottish ballad. 

Kirke, Edmund (4). The literary 
name of James Roberts Gilmore, an 
American writer, author of " Among 
the Pines," " My Southern Friends," 

Kirke's Iiambs. A name given to 
the soldiers of Colonel Percy Kirke, 
an officer in the English army in the 
time of James II., on account of their 
ferocity and the barbarities which 

' they committed. 

Kiss of Iiamourette. See Lamou- 

Eltchen Oabinet. A name sportively 
^ven, in the United States, to Francis 
P. Blair and Amos Kendall, by the 
opponents of President Jackson's ad- 
ministration. Blair was the editor 
of " The Globe," the organ of the 
president, and Kendall was one of the 
principal contributors to the paper. 
As it was necessary for Jackson to 
consult frequently with these gentle- 
men, and as, to avoid observation, 
they were accustomed, when thev 
caued upon him, to go in by a back 
door, the Whig party styled them, in 

«ad for «h« Benuttks «ad Boles to which the nnmbers after certain words refer, see pp. xlr-xxxii. 




derision, the " Kitchen Cabinet/' al- 
leging that it was by their advice 
that the president removed 80 many- 
Whigs from office and put Democrats 
in their place. 

Elte» Sergeant. A prominent char- 
acter in Farquhar's comedy of " The 
Recruiting Officer." He is an origi- 
nal and admirable picture of low life 
and humor. 

Kitely. The name of a rich citjr 
merchant, extremely jealous of his 
wife, in Ben Jonson's comedy of 
*' Every Man in his Humor." 

Klabotermanii (klft-bo'tSf-m&n). A 
ship kobold of the Baltic, who is some- 
times heard, but rarely seen. He 
helps sailors at their work, and beats 
them with a rope's-end, when needful. 
He appears only to doomed vessels, 
sitting on the bowsprit'of a phantom- 
ship called " Carmilhan," smoking 
a uiort pipe, dressed in yellow sajl- 
»r's clothes, and wearing a night-cap. 
[Written also Klabautermann.] 

Klaus, Peter (kl6^s). The hero of 
an old popular tradition of Germany, 

— the prototype of Rip Van Winkle, 

— represented as a goat -herd from 
Sittendorf, who, one day leading his 
herd to pasture on the Kyffhauser, 
was accosted by a young man, who 
silently beckoned him to follow. The / 
goat-herd, obeying the direction, was 
led into a deep dell inclosed by crag- 

fy precipices, where he found twelve 
nightly personages playing at skit- 
tles, no one of whom uttered a word. 
Gazing around him, he observed a 
can of wine which exhaled a delicious 
fragrance. Drinking from it, he felt 
inspired with new hfe, but at length 
was overpowered by sleep. When 
he awoke, he found himself again on 
the plain where his goats were accus- 
tomed to rest. But, rubbing his eyes, 
he could see neither dog nor goats ; 
he was astonished at the height of 
the grass, and at trees which he had 
never before observed. Descending 
the mountain and entering the village, 
he found, to his consternation, that 
every thing in the place wore an 
altered look ; most of the people were 
strangers to him; the few acquaint- 

ances he met seemed to have grown 
suddenly old ; and only at- last by 
mutual mquiries was the truth elicited 
that he had been asleep for twenty 
years. The story is related in Otmar's 
" Volcks-Sagen " (Traditions of the 
Harz), Bremen, 1800. See Epimen- 
iDEs, Sleeping Beauty in the 
Wood, and Winkle, Rip Van. 

Your Epimenides, your somnolent Peter 
KUnu, dnce named ** Bip Vaa Winkle." 


Kniok'er-bock'er, Die'drioh (de^- 
drik nik'^r-bok'er). The imaginary 
author of a humorous fictitious ^ His- 
tory of New York," written by Wash- 
ington Irving. 

Knight of I<a Manoha. See Don 

Knigfatof the Sorrowftil Counte- 
nance. [Also Kniffht of the WqfiU 
Countenance^ or Knight of the Ruefvl 
CowUenance,] An appellation given 
to Don Qiuxote. See Don Quix- 

Know-nothings. A name popular- 
ly ^'^en, in the United States, to a 
short-lived party of " Native Amer- 
icans," a secret political order, which 
sprung up in 1853, and into which 
no members were admitted whose 
grandfathers were not natives of the 
country. To all questions regarding 
the movements of the organization, 
the prescribed reply was, "I don't 
know;" hence the nickname. The 
cardinal principles of the party were, 
the repeal or radical modification of 
the naturalization laws ; the ineligi- 
bility to public ofiice of any but na- 
tive Americans; a pure American 
common-school system; and opposi- 
tion to Catholicism. The party split 
on the slavery question, and tiecame 
divided into '* North Americans " and 
" South Americans." See Hindoos 
and Sam. 

Kriemhilt. See Chriemhild. 

Kri88 Kringle (kring'gl), or Christ 
Kinkle (kingk'l). [From Ger. 
Kristkindiein, Christ-child.] A term 
somewhat vaguelv used in the 
United States, — where German and 
Dutch customs prevail, — both for 
Christ in his boyhood and for St. 

Fcr the ** Koj to th« Scheme of Fxonuncittlion,'* with the McompesTing EaEplanatioiu, 




Nicholas. It generally means the 
latter, who, under the influence of 
the former, is presumed to issue his 
rewards to good children, on the vigil 
of his festival, " Christ Elinkle eve," 
disguised in a fur cap and strange 
apparel, with a capacious bag before 
him fix>m which to distribute his 
gifts. Under the name Pelznichel 
{peh, fur), in Germany, he is the 
terror of the young at that season, as 
he is presumed to have heard all 
about them from the omniscient 
Christ-child. He is the Mwmbo Jumbo 
of Teutonic nations. By the little 
children he is often propitiated as 
follows : — 

** ChxiBdcindcheii komm; 
Mach mich fromm; 
Das ich zu dir in Hlmmel komm.** 

Christ-child come; make me devout; 
that I may come to thee in heaven. 
On Christmas eve, the young folks 
hang up their stockings in their 
chambers in expectation of being 
held in remembrance by the same 
mysterious stranger. [Written also 
Criss Kringle and Or is 8 

Euvera (koo-va^ri). [Sansk., having 
a wretched bodv.] {Hindu Muth.) 
The god of riches, represented as 
frightfully deformed, ana as riding in 
a car drawn by hobgoblins. 

and fyt the Bemarks and Boles to whieh tiie nomlMri after Mrtain words refer, we pp.3dT-zS3dL 





Iittbe, Queen. See Queen Labs. 

Iiaoh'e-siB. [Gr. AdxwitJ] {Gr. ^ 
Bom.MyOi,) One of the three Fates ; 
the one that spun the thread of life. 
See Pabcje. 

Ii$-oo'ni-$. A name originally given 
to a tract of country bounded by the 
Merrimack, the Kennebec, the ocean, 
and the "River of Canada," included 
in a royal srant to Ferdinando Gorges 
and John Mason. 

Iiadies' Feaoe. [Fr. La Paix des 
Dames.] {Fr. Hist.) The treaty of 
peace concluded at Cambrai, in 1529, 
between Francis I. of France, and 
Charles V., emperor of Germany. 
It was so called because it was chief- 
ly negotiated by Louise of Savoy, 
mother to Francis, and Margaret, 
duchess-dowager of Savoy, the em- 
peror's aunt. 

Iiady Bountiftil. A character in 

Farquhar's "Beaux' Stratagem; " a 

benevolent old country gentlewoman 

who goes about curmg all sorts of 


To snm up the whole, the dame . . . hdng 
%watiotLaay Bountifvl'va. her way, . . . was 

Sroud of the sldU by which she had averted 
le probable attacks of hereditary malady, so 
inTMerate in the fiunily of Btidgenorth. 

Sir W. Scott. 

He [Southeyl oonceiyes that ... he [the 
maffisfrate] ouent to be a perfect Jack-of-ftll- 
trades, — arclutect. engineer, schoolmaster, 
merchant, theologuui. a. Lady Bountifkd in 
every parish, a Paul nv in every house, spy- 
ing, eavesdropping, relieving, admonishing, 
spending our money for us, choosing our 
opinions for us. Jfoeoulay. 

Iiady of Avenel» The "White. See 
Whitk Lady of Avenel.. 

Ijady of Enftland. A title conferred 
upon Matilda, daughter of Heniy I. 
of England, and wife of Geoffrey 
Plantagenet, by a council held at 
Winchester, April 7; 1141. 

Iiady of Sh&-lotf . A maiden of 
gentle, birth and exquisite beauty, 
who fell in love with Lancelot du 
Lac, and died on finding her passion 
unrequited and altogether hopeless. 
Tennyson has made her story the 

su^ect of one of the most beantiftd 
of nis minor poems. 

Iiady of the Iiake. 1. A name given 
to Vivian, mistress of the enchanter 
Merlin. She had a palace situated 
in the midst of an imaginary lake, — 
like that often seen by the traveler 
across tropical deserts, — whose de- 
luding semblance served as a barrier 
to her residence. Here she dwelt, 
surrounded by a splendid court of 
knights and damsels, and attended 
by a numerous retinue. 

2. The title of a poem~by Sir 
Walter Scott, and a name given to 
its heroine, Ellen, the daughter of 
Douglas, the former favorite of King 
James, but now banished, disgraced, 
and living in a secret retreat near 
Loch Katrine. 

Xiady of the Sun. A name given to 
Alice Ferrers (or Pierce), a mistress 
of Edward HI. of England, and a 
married woman of great beauty, who 
had been lady of the bed-chamoer to 
Queen Philippa. Although Edward 
lavished upon her both honors and 
riches, yet at his death she stole his 
jewels, taking even the rings from 
nis fingers. 

Iiady of Threadneedle Street. See 
Old Lady op Thkeadneeduc 

Iiady Touchwood. See Touch- 
wood, Lady. 

Iift-er'tds (4). Son to Polonins, and 
brother to Ophelia, in Shakespeare*s - 
tragedy of " Hamlet" 

Iift-feu'. An old lord, in Shakespeare's 
^* All 's Well that Ends WeU." 

Ii^ga'do. The name of the capital 
city of Balnibarbi, a continent subject 
to the king of Laputa. (See Gulli- 
ver, Lemuel.) Lagado is celebrated 
for its grand academy of projectors, 
who try to extract sunbeams from 
cucumbers, to calcine ice into gun- 
powder, &c. In the description of 
this fancied academy. Swift ridicules 

For the ''Key to the Scheme of Fh>nimeU«ion;' with the accomimnyiiic Eavluwtkms, 




tke speculative philosophers and the 
false and chimerical pretenders to 
science who were so common in his 

'i-u8(20). [Gr.A<Cb«.] {Gr.fRom. 
Mulh.) A king of Thebes, and the 
fatner of CEdipus, by whom he was 
unwittingly kiUed. 
lA-ke'di-^n, Isaac. See Jew, The 

Isake Poets, Iiake School, Iiakers, 
or Iiakists. A nickname given by 
the British critics, near the beginning 
of the present century, to ** a certain 
brotheihood of poets" — to use the 
language of the "Edinbureh Review," 
vol. xi., p* 214 — who '^haunted for 
some years about the lakes of Cum- 
berland," and who were erroneously 
thought to have united on some 
settled theorv or principles of com- 
position ana sttrie. Wordsworth, 
Bouthey, and Coleridge were re- 
garded as the chief representatives 
of this so-called school, but Lamb. 
Llovd,and Wilson were also includea 
under the same designation. 

JtS^ ^* The author who is now before us 
[Sonthey] belongs to a uet of poets tiiat 
has established itself in this country 
within these ten or twelTe years, and is 
looked upon, we beliere, as one of its 
chief champions and apostles. The pecu- 
liar doctrines of this sect it would not. 
perhaps, be yei^ easy to explain; but 
that they are dissenters from the estab- 
Ushed systems in poetry and criticiom is 
admitted, and proved, indeed, by the 
whole tenor of their compositions." . . . 
** The productions of this school . . . can- 
not be better ohaneterised than by an 
emumeration of the sources from which 
their materials hare been derived. The 
greatest part of tiiem, we apprehend, will 
be found to be composed of the following 
elements : 1. The anti • social principles 
and distempered sensibility of ELousseau ; 
his discontent with the present constitu- 
tion of society ; his paradoxical morality ; 
and his perpetual hankerings after some 
unattainable state of voluptuous yirtne 
and peribetion. 2. The shnplicity and en- 
ergy {horreseo referens) of Kotoebue and 
Schiller. 8. The homeliness and harsh- 
ness of sane of Cowper's language and 
versification, interchanged occasionally 
with the innocence of Ambrose Philips, 
or the quaintness of Quarles and Dr. 
Donne. From the diligent study of these 
few originals, we liare no doubt that an 

entire art of poetry may be collected, by 
the assistance of which the very gentlest 
of our readers may soon be qualified to 
compose a poem as correctly rersified as 
' Thalaba,' and to deal out sentiment and 
description with all the sweetness of 
Lamb, and aU the magniflcwioe of Cole- 
ridge." Edinburgh Rev,y vol. i. 

JtST *^ When, some years ago, a gentle- 
man [Mr. Jeffrey], the chief writer and 
conductor of a celebrated reriew [the 
* Edinburgh Review'] distinguished by 
its hostility to Mr. Southey, spent a day 
or two at Keswick [BIr. Southey 's place 
of residence], he was circumstantiaUy 
informed by wliat sories of accidents it 
had happened tliat Mr. Wordsworth, Mr. 
Southey, and I had become neighbors; 
and how utteriy groundless was Uie sup- 
position that we considered ourselves as 
belonging to any common school but that 
of good sense, confirmed by the long- 
established models of the best times of 
Greece, Bome, Italy, and England, and 
still more groundless the notion that Mr. 
Southey (for, as to myself, I have pub- 
lished so little, and that little of so little 
importance, as to make it almost ludi- 
crous to mention my name at aU) could 
have been concerned in the formation of 
a poetic sect with Mr. Wordsworth, ^dien 
so many of his works had been published, 
not only previously to any acquaintance 
between them, hut before Mr. Words- 
worth himself had written any thing but 
in a diction ornate and uniformly sus- 
tained ; when, too, the slightest exami- 
nation will nu^e it evident that between 
those and the after-writings of Mr. South- 
ey there exists no other dlQerence than 
that of a progpiessive degree of excellence, 
from progressive development of power, 
and progressive foctlity from liabit and 
increase of experience. Tet, among the 
first articles which this man wrote after 
his return from Keswick, we were char- 
acterised as ^ the school of whining and 
hypochondriacal poets that haunt the 
liiikes.' " Coleridge. 

lOLke State. A name popularly given 
to the State of J^fichigan, which bor- 
ders upon the four Takes, Superior, 
IkCichigan, Huron, and Erie. 

liaks'mi. (Hindu Mytk.) The con- 
sort of Vishnu, and the goddess of 
beauty, grace, riches, and pleasure. 
She is a favorite subject or Indian 
paintin^^ and poetry, and is pictured 
as a bemg of transcendent loveliness, 
yet of a dark blue color. 

Ij&llft Bdbkh. The title of a poem 
by Moore, and the name of its nero- 

lad for tiie Bemazks and Boles to whieh the nmmben after certain words refbr, see pp. zlv-xxxiL 




ine, the daughter of the great Au- 
rengzebe. Sne is betrothed to the 
young king of Bucharia, and sets 
forth with a splendid train of attend- 
ants, to meet him in the delightful 
valley of Cashmere. To amuse the 
languor, or divert the impatience, of 
the royal bride, in the noontide and 
night halts of her luxurious progress, 
a young Cashmerian poet bad been 
sent by the gallantry of the bride- 
groom, and, on these occasions, he 
recites the several tales that make up 
the bulk of the poem. With him 
she falls desperately in love, and by 
the time she enters the lovely vale of 
Cashmere, and sees the glittering 
palaces and towers prepared for her 
reception, she feels that she would 
joyfully forego all this pomp and 
splendor, and fly to the desert with 
the youthful bard whom she adores. 
He, however, has now disappeared 
from her side, and she is supported, 
with fainting heart and downcast 
eye, into the presence of her tyrant; 
when a well-known voice bids ner be 
of good cheer, and, looking up, she 
sees her beloved poet in the prince 
himself, who had assumed this gal- 
lant disguise, and won her affections, 
without any aid from his rank or her 

Xiamnbro. The piratical father of 
Haidee, in Byron's "Don Juan;" 
considered by Coleridge to be the 
finest of all Byron's characters. 

Iiame and Unstable Peace. [Fr. 
Paix Boiieuse et Mal-assise.'] {Fr. 
Hist.) A name given to a treaty of 
peace, of short duration, concluded 
with the Calviniste^ in 3568, in the 
name of Charles IX., by Biron, who 
was lame. [Called also lU-grounded 
Peace and PcUched-vp Peace.'] 

Ija'mi-$. [Gr. Aajtit'a.] ( Gr. ^ Rom. 
Myth.) A female phantom, whose 
name was used as a bugbear to 
frighten children. According to tra- 
dition, she was a Libyan queen, a 
daughter of Belus, of great beauty, 
and beloved by Jupiter, for which 
reason the jealous Juno robbed her 
of her children. Lamia, filled with 
revenge and despair, and unable to 

injure Juno, robbed others of their 
cmldren, whom she afterward mur- 
dered. Her face became fearfully 
distorted and ugly by indulgence in 
such savage cruelty, and Jupiter in- 
vested her with still greater terror by 
giving her the power of taking out 
her eyes and putting them in again 
at will. Lamia is the subject and ti- 
tle of an admired poem by Keats. 

JQ^ In a later age, a belief sprang up 
in a plurality of Lamlse, handsome spec- 
ters, who, by yoluptuous artifices, enticed 
young men to them, in ord^ to feast 
upon their flesh and blood. 

Iiam'mi-kin. The subject of a well- 
known Scottish ballad. 

" The hero, if such a term is appli- 
cable to the blood-thirsty mason, has been 
celebrated under the names of Lammikin, 
Lamkin, Linkin, Belinkin, Bold Rankin, 
and Balcanqual, and has become, through 
the medium of ii\judicious servants, the 
prime terror of the Scottish nuiseiy. 
Like most such ogres, he is a myth ; at 
least, I have never seen any satis&ctory 
attempt at his identification, nor has any 
one discovered the locality of the castle 
which he built and baptized with blood." 


Iiamonrette's Kiss (llt^moo'ret^). 
FFr. Le Baiser de Lamourette.'] (Fr. 
Mist.) A name derisively given to a 
sudden reconciliation of the different 
factions of the Legislative Assembly, 
which had previously been bitterly 
hostile to each other. It was brouffht 
about, on the 7th of July, 1792, by 
an eloquent appeal of the Abb^ La- 
mourette, constitutional bishop of 
Lyons, — whose name signifies tA« 
sweetiieart, — but was of very brief 
duration. [Called also La Kecond- 
liation Normande, or The Norman 
EeconciUation, firom the country of 
the bishop.] 

"The deputies of every ftction, 
Royalist, Oonstitutionalist, Qirondist, 
Jacobin, and Orleanist, rushed into each 
other's arms, and mixed tears with the 
solemn oaths by which they renounced 
the innovations supposed to be imputed 
to them. The king was sent for to enjoy 
this spectacle of concord, so strangely 
and so unexpectedly renewed. But the 
feeling, though strong, — and it might 
be with many overpowering for the mo- 
ment, — was but like oil spilt on the rag- 
ing sea, or rather like a shot fired across 

For the **Key to the Scheme of Fionundation," with the aeoompaajlng EzplnuitiaM* 


207 LAK 

the wares of a torrent, which, though it 
ooonteracts them by its momentary im- 
pulse, cannot for a second alter their 
course. The factions, like Le Sage's de- 
mons, detested each other the more for 
TuKving been compelled to embrace." 
^ Sir W. Scott. 

Xi&n'ce-ldt du L&o, or Iiancelot of 
tlie liftke. The son of King Ban 
of Brittany, and one of the most 
famous knights of the Round Table ; 
equally remarkable for his gallantry 
and good-nature. He was the hero 
of a celebrated romance of chivalry, 
written in Latin by an unknown au- 
thor, and translated by Walter Mapes, 
in the twelfth century. He received 
the appellation of" du Lac ' ' from hav- 
ing been educated at the court of Viv- 
ian, mistress of the enchanter Merlin, 
and better known as the Lady of the 
Lake. Lancelot was celebrated for 
his amours with Guinever, the wife 
of his friend and sovereign, King 
Arthur, and for the exploits he im- 
dertook for her sake, which involved 
him in a long and cruel war with Ar- 
thur. Toward the close of his life, 
he became a hermit. 

jjgj* " Thou . . . wert never matched 
of none earthly knight's hands ; and thou 
wert the curtiest knight that everbare 
shield ; and thon wert the truest IMend 
to thy lorer that ever bestrode horse ; and 
thoa wert the truest lover, of a sinful 
man, that ever loTed woman ; and thou 
wert the kindest man that ever struck 
^th sword ; and thou wert the goodhest 
person that ever came among press of 
knights ; and thou wert the meekest man 
and ttie gentlest that ever ate in hall 
among ladies ; and thou wert the stern- 
est knight to thy mortal foe that ever put 
gpear in the rest." Morte d' Arthur. 

jMad of Beulfth. In Bunyan's alle- 
gory, " The Pilgrim's Progress," a 
land of rest and quiet (symbolizing 
the Christian's peace of mind), rep- 
resented as lying upon the hither 
side of the river of Death. In it the 
pilgrims tarry till their summons 
comes to cross the stream, and enter 
the Celestial City. The name occurs 
in /sa. Ixii. 4. 

DSf " After this, I beheld until they 
came unto the land of Beulah, where the 
Bun shlneth night and day. Here, be- 
canse they were weary, they betook them- 

selves awhile to rest. But a little whila 
soon refreshed them here ; for the bells 
did so ring, and the trumpets continu- 
ally sounded so melodiously, that they 
could not sleep, and yet they received 
as much refreshing as if they had slept 
their sleep ever so soundly. Here also 
all the noise of them that walked the 
streets was, More pilgrims are come to 
town ! And another would answer, say- 
ing, And so many went over the water, 
and were let in at the golden gates to-day ! 
In this land they heard nothing, saw noth- 
ing, smelt nothing, tasted nothing, that 
was offensive to their stomach or mind ; 
only when they tasted of the water of the 
river over which they were to go, they 
thought that it tasted a little bitterish to 
the palate ; but it proved sweet when it 
was down." 
Land of Bondage. A name some- 
times given to Egypt. The Israel- 
ites, during the first part of their so- 
journ in uiat country, were treated 
with great kindness, and increased 
in numbers and prosperity; but at 
length " there arose up a new king 
over Egypt, which knew not Joseph," 
and who adopted a subtle system to 
afflict and reduce them by making 
them perform forced labor, and soon 
afterward by killing their male chil- 
dren. This oppression led to the ex- 
odus, the forty years' wandering in 
the wilderness, and the subsequent 
conquest and occupation of the land 
of Canaan. 
Iiand of Cakes. A name sometimes 
given to Scotland, because oatmeal 
cakes are a common national article 
of food, particularly among the poorer 

Hear, Land o' Cakes And brither Scots, 
Frae Haidenkirk to John o' Oroats, 
If there *» a hole in a' your coats, 

I rede ye tent it: 
A chiel 's amang you takin' notes. 

And, &th, he 11 prent it Btams. 

The lady loves, and admires, and worships 
every thine Scottish? the gentleman looks 
do^ on &e Land of Cakes like a superior 
hitelligence. Blackwood's Mag. 

Iiand of MTod. The state or condition 
of sleep, conceived of as a country 
which people visit in their dreams. 

as^ This figure is evidently borrowed 
from the use of the English word nod, as 
denoting the motion of the head m drow- 
siness. But it was also, most probably, 
at first employed as containing a ludi- 
crous allusion to the language of Scripture 

,id for the EemaxTtt «id Bule. tp which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. riv-xxxii. 




in ngard to the conduct of the first mur- 
derer : *' And Gain went out from the 
presence of the Lord, and dwelt in the 
land of Nod." ( Gen. ir. 16.) 

"And d'ye ken, laas,"8aid Madge, "there 's 

aneer things chanced since ye hae been in 
le Land <^Nod t" Sir W. Scott. 

Iiand of Promise. See Promised 
Land. ' 

Iiand of Steady Habits. A name 
by which the State of Connecticut 
is sometimes designated, In allusion 
to the settled usages and staid de- 
portment of its inhabitants. 

Iiand of Wisdom. [Fr. La Pays de 
Sapience^] A name given to Nor- 
mandy, in France, because of the 
wise customs which have prevailed 
there^ and also because of the skill 
and judgment of the people in mat- 
ters of jurisprudence. 

Iiane, "Wyoliffo. A pseudonym of 
Mrs. £. Jenings, a writer of the 
present day. 

Iiang'staS; Iift\m'ce-l<^t (2). A 
pseudonym under which "Salma- 
gundi " was jointl y p ublished by 
Washington Irving, "William Irving, 
and James K. Paulding. 

Iianguish, Miss Ijydia. The hero- 
ine of Sheridan's comedy of " The 
Rivals;" distingoished for the ex- 
travagance of her romantic notions. 

Let not thoee^ however, who enter into a 
union for lift without thoee embanraBsments 
which delight a . . . Lydia Languish, and 
which are perliaps necessary to excite an en- 
thusiastic passion in breasts more firm than 
theirs, aueur worse of their future happiness, 
because ueir own alliance is formed under 
calmer auspices. Sir W. Scott. 

Iiantemois, Ii'ile des (lei d& Id^^'- 
tSr'ni', 62). See Island op Lan- 

Ii&-oo'd-$xi. [Gr. AaoK6o»v.'] ( Gr. ^ 
Horn. Myth.) A son of Priam and 
Hecuba, and a priest of Apollo, or, 
as some say, of Neptune. He op- 
posed the reception of the Wooden 
Horse into Troy, thinking it some 
artifice of the deceitful Greeks. He 
and his two sons were killed by two 
monstrous serpents which came from 
the sea; but the reason of their be- 
ing made to suffer tliis horrible fate 
is differently slated. The serpents 
first entwined tie boys, and, when 

their father attempted to rescue ihem, 
they involved and crushed him also 
in their coils. The death of Laocoon 
is the subject of one of the most 
ma^ificent and celebrated works of 
ancient sculpture still in existence; 
it was discovered in 1506 at Rome, 
and is now preserved in the Vatican. 

Ij&-od^$-mi'$. [Gr. Aeu>^eia.] ( Gr, 
f Rom. Myth.) The wife of Protes- 
ilaus, whom she followed to the un- 
der-world, after his death air Hie 
bands of Hector. Wordsworth has 
made this myth the subject of his 
exquisite poem entitled *^ Laodamia." 
See Pbotesilaus. 

Ij&-om'e-d5n. [Gr. Aoo/xc&ai'.] ( Gr, 
4" Rom* Myth.) A king of Troy, 
son of llus and Eurydice, and the 
father of Priam, Ganymede, and Ti- 
thonus. With the assistance of Apol- 
lo and Neptune, he built the walls of 
Troy ; but, when the work was done, 
he refused to pav the reward «.which 
he had promised for the labor, and 
expelled them from his dominions. 
Hereupon Neptune sent a sea-mon- 
ster to ravage the country; and in 
compliance with the command of an 
oracle, a maiden, chosen by lot, was 
ftom. time to time sacrificed to pro- 

Sitiate it. On one occasion, Laome- 
on's own daughter Hesione was the 
victim selected ; but Hercules saved 
her on receiving a certain solemn 
promise from her father, which not 
being fulfilled, Hercules killed him. 

Iiapl-thSB. [Gr. Aan-itfai.] {Gr. i' 
Rom. Myth.) Monstrous ^nts in- 
habiting the mountains of Thessalv. 
At the marriage of their king, Pirith- 
ous, they fought with the Centaurs 
and vanquish^ then}, but were after- 
ward themselves overcome by Her- 

Ii&-pu't$. The name of a flying isl- 
and described by Swift in his imagi- 
nary ** Travels " of Lemuel Gulliver. 
It is said to be ^* exactly circular, its 
diameter 7837 yards, or about four 
miles and a half, and [it] consequently 
contains ten thousand acres." The 
inhabitants are chiefly speculative 
philosophers, devoted to mathemat- 
ics and music ; and such is their ha- 

For the ** Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation,'* with the accompanying Ezplanationa, 




bitnal abeent-mindedness, that they 
are compelled to employ attendants 
— called ** flappers " — to roose them 
from their profound meditations, 
when necessary, by striking them 
gently on the mouth and ears with a 
pecubar instrument consisting of a 
olown bladder with a few pebbles in 
it, fastened on the end of a stick, like 
the swiple of a flail. See Laoaix>. 

Thou art an unforttmate philosopher of 

Leumta, who haa lost his flapper in the throng. 

/ Sir W. ScoU. 

Strange it is, that, whilst all biographers haye 
workedT with so much zeal upon the most 
banen dales or most baaelees traditions in the 
great poet's life, realizing in a manner the 
oreams of Xoputo, and endeavoring to extract 
suntieams ftom cncnmben, snch a stoiy witii 
r^ard to such an event . . . should formerly 
hare been dismiwsed without notice of any 
kind. De Qum ee y. 

So materializine is the si^t of the age. that 
fhe extended stuoTir of phyaical and mechani- 
cal science seems fikely, one of these days, to 
convert our island into a Legputa. Ktii^uey. 

Ii&'xf. The hero of Byron^s poem of 
the same name; represented as a 
chief long absent from his own do- 
main, who returns at length, attended 
by a single page. Dant nints and 
surmises are tnrown out against him 
by a noble whom he encounters at a 
banquet, and who seems to be pos- 
sessed of some knowledge of the 
manner in which Lara's time has 
been occupied during his prolonged 
abscmce. This kmght disappears 
most opportunely for the reputation 
of Lara, when he should have come 
fbrward to substantiate the charges 
against him, and is never heard of 
after. A peasant, however, is witness 
to the concealment of ^a corpse on the 
same night, and the reader is left to 
draw his own conclusions. 

fr^. [Lat., pi. of lar, a word of 
Etruscan origin, signifying hrd, king^ 
or hero.] (liom. Myth.) Tutelary 
deities of particular localities. Thej 
were of two classes : 1. The domestic 
lares,, or household gods, whose im- 
ages were kept qn the hearth in a 
little shrine, or in a small chapel, and 
who were regarded as disembodied 
and guardian spirits of vutuous an- 
cestors ; 2. The public laresy protect- 
ors of streets, highways, cross-roads, 
Sec* [Written also, in an Anglicized 
form, Lars.] 

IiftB59he. A Protestant deigyman, 
whose story — written by Henry 
Mackenzie— is told in "The Mir- 

Iiar'vfls. (Jiom. Myth.) The same 
as Lemwes. See Lemubes. 

Iiast Man. An appellation given, bv 

the parliamentary party in England, 

to Charles I. (1600-1649), he being, 

in their expectation^ the last monarch 

who would ever sit on Uie British 


He did not consider himself as tr«% In con- 
science to join with any party which might be 
likely ultimately to acknowledge the interest 
of Charles Stuart, the son of the ** Latt Man,** 
as Charles I. was fiuniliarly and irreverently 
termed by them in their common discourse, 
as well as in their more elaborate predications 
and harangues. ^ W. Soott, 

Iiast Of the Fathers. A title ^ven 
by some Roman Catholic writers to 
St. Bernard (1091-1153), one of the 
most influential theologians and vo- 
luminous writers of the Middle Ages. 

Irfist of the Goths. Roderick, the 
thirty-fourth and last of the Visi- 
gothic line of kings, who filled the 
throne of Spain ftom 414 to 711. 

Irfist of the Greeks. [Lat. UUimus 

GrCBCOrum^ Gr. •Yoraro? 'EW^vutv.] 
An appellation conferred upon Phil- 
opcemen (b. c. 253-183), a native of 
Arcadia, and the last really CTeat and 
successful military leader or the an- 
cient Greeks. 

4^ "One of the RomaDs, to pndiw 
him, called him the Last of the Qieeks, 
as if after him Greece had produced no 
great man, nor one who deserved the 
name of Qreek.'* Flutareh^ Trans. 

Iiast of the Knights. A title be- 
stowed upon Maximilian I. (1469- 
1519), emperor of Germany. 

** The Last of the HMghts," with his wUd 
eflfrontery and spirited chamois - hunting, 
might be despised by the Italians as *' Mas- 
siniilianoPochi Danari [Maximilian the Pen- 
nilesB];" but he was beloved by th^Austri- 
ans as ** Our Max." Tonge. 

Irfist of the Mo-hl'oan$. The hero 
of Cooper's novel of the same name, 
by which title the Indian chief Uncas 
is designated. 

loot of the Bomans. [Lat. UlU- 
mu8 Romanorum.] 1. A name ap- 

Elied to the Roman general Aetius, 
y Procopius. When the invasion 

and for the Bemarks and Bales to which tiie numberB after certain words refer, see pp. ziy-xxxlL 

> 14 




* of Attila took place in A. D. 460, 
Aetios, with the help of Theodoric, 
arrested it first bv the relief of Or- 
leans, and then by the victory of 
Chalons. With his death, which oc- 
curred in 454, the last support of the 
empire fell. 

2. A name given by Marcus Ju- 
nius Brutus to his fellow-conspirator, 
Caius Cassius Longinus (d. b. c. 42), 
one of the murderers of Julius Caesar, 
and one of the best generals of his 

3. [Fr. Lt Dernier des Romains.] 
A title bestowed upon Francois Jo- 
seph Terasse Desbillons (1751-1789), 
a celebrated Jesuit, on account of 
the elegance and purity of his Latin 

Last of the Troubadours. A name 

fiven by his admirers to Jacques 
asmin (1798-1864), a native of 6as- 
cony, and the most eminent modem 
patois poet of France. 

L&-ti'nus. A son of Faunus, and 
king of the Laurentians. a people of 
Latium, in Itahr. Wnen ^neas 
first arrived in Latium, Latinus op- 
posed him ; but he afterward formed 
an alliance with him, and gave hun 
his daughter Lavinia in marriage. 

Latin "War. {Ger. Hist.) An insur- 
rection of the peasantry in Salzburg, 
in 1523, occasioned by the unpop- 
ularity of an archbishop. It was 
quicUy suppressed. 

t4-to'n$. [Gr. Anrci, Doric, Aarw, 
^olic, \aiwv.'] ( Gr, ^ Rom, Myth.) 
Daughter of Cceus, a Titan, and 
Phoebe, and by Jupiter the mother 
of Apollo and Diana, to whom she 
gave birth on the island of Delos. 
(See Delos.) Ovid("Met. " vi.,fab. 
jv.) relates a stoiy of some clowns of 
Lycia who insulted Latona as she 
knelt with the infant deities in arms 
to quench her thirst at a small lake, 
and who were in consequence changed 
into frogs. 

I did but prompt the age to quit their clogs 
By the known rules of ancient liberty, 
When straight a barbarous noise enyirons 
Of owls and cuckoos, asses, apes, and dogs: 
As when those hinds that were transformed to 

Bailed at LaUma's twin-bom pi 
Which after held the sun and moon ui fee. 


Iiaughing: Philosopher. Democri- 
tus of Abdera, a celebrated philoso- 
pher of antiquity, contemporary with 
Socrates ; — so called because he al- 
wavs made a jest of man's follies 
ana sorrows, his feeble struggles and 
evanescent works. He is usually 
contrasted with Heraclitus, " The 
Weeping Philosopher." See Weep- 
ing Philosopher. 

Uun9e. An awkward and silly serv- 
ant of Proteus, in Shakespeare's 
" Two Gentlemen of Verona." 

lAxmffSX, Sir. One of the knights 
of the* Bound Table, the subject of 
- a metrical romance composed by 
Thomas Chestre, in the reign of 
Henry YI. The name has also been 
adopted as the title of a poem by 
James Russell Lowell, entitled ^* The 
Vision of Sir Launfal." 

Iiaura (/i^.j^ron. Id^'rft). The Chris- 
tian name of an Avignonese lady, 
young, but already married, for 
whom, in the year 1327, the poet 
Petrarch conceived a strong though 
Platonic affection, which exercised a 
powerful influence over his life, and 
ended only wi^ his death. He sung 
her praises in " rime," or sonnets 
and canzoni, which have immortal- 
ized not only her name, but his own. 

Iiaurence, Friar. See Friar Lau- 

Ij^vin'i-^. 1. A daughter of Latinos, 
and the second wife of JEneas. She 
had previouslv been betrothed to 
Tumus. See Latinus and Creusa. 

Bad task! yet argument 
Not less but more heroic than the . . . rage 
Of Turnus for Lavinia disespoused. Muton. 

2. The heroine of a tale introduced 
by Thomson, in his ** Seasons," into 
the poem on " Autumn." See Pale- 


Law's Bubble. A name ^ven to a 
delusive speculation piojected by 
John Law (1671-1729), a celebrated 
financier, and a native of Edinburgh. 
In 1716, he established a bank in 
France, by roysl authority, composed 
of 1200 shares of 3000 livres each, 


For the "Kegr to the Scheme of Fronnnoiaiioii," with the accompanying £xplan*tioiU( 





whu^ soon bore a preraitun. This 
bank became the office for all public 
receiptSf and there was annexed to it 
a Mississippi company, which had 
grants of land in Louisiana, and was 
expected to realize immense sums hy 
planting and commerce. In 1718, it 
was declared a royal bank, and its 
shares rose to twenty times their 
original value, so that, in 1719, they 
were worth more than eighty times 
the amount of all the current specie 
in France. In 1720, the shares sunk 
as rapidly as they had risen, nearly 
overthrowing the French govern- 
ment, and occasioning great and 
wide - spread financial distress and 

Xiaz'&*ru8. A poor leper, who, in the 
parable of our Lord {Luke xvi.), im- 

Slored in vain the pity of a rich man ; 
ut after the death of both, Lazarus 
went to heaven, and the rich man to 
hell, where he in turn vainly implored 
help from Lazarus. 

4G^ This IB the only case in the New Tes- 
tament where a proper name occora in a 
paxable. The uite of the word lazzaro ap- 
plied to a leper, and of the words lazareUo 
and lazar-house for leper hospitals, and 
of lazzaroni for beggars, shows the influ- 
ence which this parable has had upon the 
mind of Christendom. 

Ijazy, Lawrence. The hero of a 
popular "history," or romance, of 
ancient date, " containing his Birth 
and slothful breeding; how he served 
the Schoolmaster, his Wife, the 
Squire's Cook, and the Farmer, 
which, by the laws of Lubberland, 
was accounted High Treason ; his 
Arraignment and Trial, and happy 
deliverance fV*om the many treasons 
laid to his charge." 

League, Tlie. \Yt. La Ligue."] {Fr. 
Hist.) A political coalition organized 
in 1576 by the Roman Catholics of 
France, to prevent the accession of 
Henry IV., who was then of the re- 
ibrmed religion. [Called also The 
Holy League (Fr. La Sainte Ligue), 
and' The Holy Urdon (Fr. La Sainte 

Leaeae and Covenant, Solemn. 
See Solemn League and Cove- 

Iieaeae of Gkxl's House. [Fr. Lif/ue 
de la Maison de Dieu.'] {SwisB HttL) 
A celebrated combination formed by 
the Grisons in 1400, for the pur- 
pose of resisting domestic tyranny. 
[Called also CtKWee.] 

Iieafirue of the FubUo Oood. JFr. 
Ligtie du Bien PttA/ic] {Fr. Hist.) 
An alliance, in 1464, between the 
dukes of Burgundy, Brittany, and 
Bourgo^e, and other French jHrinces, 
against Louis XI. 

Iioander. [Gr. Acux^fipo?.] A youth 
of Abydos, famous for his love for 
Hero, a priestess of Sestos, to visit 
whom he nightly swam across the 
Hellespont. See Hero. 

L^andre (Ift'o^'dr, 62, 64, 103). A 
lover in Moli^re's "L*Etourdi." 

Ijoar. A fabulous or legendarv king 
of Britain, and the hero of Shake- 
speare's tragedy of the same name. 
He is represented as a fond father, 
duped, in his old age, bv hypocritical 
professions of love and duty on the 
part of two daughters (Goneril and 
Ke^an), to disinherit the third (Cor- 
delia), who had before been deserv- 
edly more dear to him, and to divide 
hiskin^dom between her sisters, who, 
by their perfidious and cruel con- 
duct, soon drive the poor old king 
mad. After his misery has reached 
its highest pitch, he is found by the 
daughter whom he has so deeply in- 
jured; and, through her tender care, 
he revives and recollects her. She 
endeavors to reinstate him upon his 
throne, but fails in her attempt, and 
is hanged in prison, where her broken- 
hearted fadier dies lamenting over 

Zjeamed Blacksmith. A ^name 
sometimes applied to Elihu Burritt 
(b. 1811), who began life as a black- 
smith, and afterward distinguished 
himself as a linguist. 

Iieamed Tailor. A title sometimes 
bestowed upon Henry Wild, a native 
of Norwich, England, where he was 
bom about the year 1684. He was 
in early life a tailor, and, while 
working at his trade, mastered the 
Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Chaldaic, Syr- 

and for the Bemarks and Bales to which the nnmben after certain word* refer, see pp. xiv-zzziL 




iae, Arabic, and Persian languages. 
[Called also Th€ Arabian Tailor^ 

Iieathentocldiifc. A sobriqnet given 
to Natty, or Nathaniel, Bumppo, a 
celebrated character in Cooper's nov- 
els of" The Deerslaver," " The Last 
of the Mohicans," "The Pathfinder," 
1* The Pioneers," and " The Prairie." 

'' Le&therstocking stands half-way 
between sarage and civilized life ; he has 
the freshness of natnre, and the first- 
fruits of Christianity, the seed dropped 
into vigorous soil. These are the elements 
of one of the most original characters in 
^ fiction, in whom Cooper has transplanted 
all the chivalry, ever feigned or practiced 
in the Biiddle Ages, to the rivers, woods, 
and forests of the unbroken New World." 


One Natty LeoihtntocJcmg, one melodious 
vynopsis of man and nature m the West. 


lie Bean. A courtier, in Shakespeare's 
" As You Like It" 

Iie'd$. [Gr. Ai}£a.] {Gr, d Rom. 
Myth.) The daughter of Thestius, 
and the wife of Tyndarens. Jupiter 
falling in love with her, and visiting 
her in the form of a swan, she bore 
two eegs, from one of which came 
forth Pollux and Helen, and from 
the other Castor and Clytemnestra. 

Iied'dy Ghnp'ipy. The name of the 

heroine in " The Entail," a novel by 


A decreet o* court, Jamie, m Leddie Ormpy 
would hare said. Frqf.J. Wiuon. 

lie Fevre (lu fev'r, 64). The name 
of a poor lieutenant, whose story is 
related in Sterne's " Life and Opin- 
ions of Tristram Shandy." 

IiesEion. The name assumed by the 
demoniac, or th^ unclean spirit, 
spoken of in Mark v. : " My name 
is Le^on; for we are many." The 

' term implies the presence of a supe- 
rior power, in addition to suboixli- 
nate ones. 

Iiegion, The Thundering. See 
Thundering Legion. 

Iieg-of-Matton SohooL A name 
given to those poetasters, who, at- 
tachins^ themselves as parasites and 
dependents to persons of wealth and 
station, endeavor to pay for good 

dinners and sumptuous entertumnent 
by servile flattery of their patron, 
and profuse laudation of him and his, 
the ^* \tg of mutton " being supposed 
to typir^ the source of their inspira- 
tion, wluch is chiefly gustatory. The 
phrase was first used hy Locldiart, in 
a review of a ridiculous poem entitled 
" Fleurs, a Poem in Four Books," 
the author of which is not named. 
Fleurs Castle was the seat of the 
Duke of Roxburghe, whose mutton 
and hospitality the rhvmster appears 
to have shared, greatiy to his delec- 

" The chief constellations in this 
poetical firmament conaist of led captains 
and clerical hangers-on, whoee pleasure 
and whose business it is to celebrate in 
tuneftil verse tlie virtues of some augeHo 

IAtron, who keeps a good table, and has 
nterest with the archbishop, or the In- 
dia House. Verily, they have their re- 
ward. The anticipated living fitlls vacant 
in due time, the son gets a pair of colors, 
or is sent out as a cadet, or the happy 
author succeeds in dining five times a 
week on hock and venisou, at the small 
expense of acting as toad-eater to the 
whole family, from my lord to the butler 
inclusive. It is owing to the modesty, 
certainly not to the numerical deficiency, 
of this class of writers, that they have 
hitherto obtained no specific distinction 
among the authors of the present day. 
We think it incumbent on us to remedy 
this defect: and, in the baptismal font of 
this our magasine, we declare, that in 
the poetical nomenclature they shall in 
future be known by the style and titie 
of The Leg ' of ' Mutton School.^^ . . , 
" He [the terd of Fleurs abovementionedl 
is marked by a more than usual portion 
of the qualities characteristic of the Leg- 
of'Mutton School; by all their vulgar ig- 
norance, by more than all thdr clumsy 
servility, their fiiwning adulation of 
wealth and titie, their hankering aft^ 
the flesh-pots, and by all tiie symptoms 
of an utter incapacity to stand straight 
in the presence of a great man." 
Z. {J. G. Lodehart), BlackwooeTs BSag. 
vol. ix. 

Ile-gree^ A slave -dealer, in Mrs. 
Stowe's novel, " Uncle Tom's Cab- 
in; " a hideous exhibition of the bru- 
talizing influence of slavery. 

Iieish, Au-ro'^ (lee). The heroine 
of Mrs. Browning's poem of the same 
name ; " the representative of the 

For the " Key to the Scheme of Fronaneiatioa,** with the accompanying Explanations, 




spiritual and esthetic spirit of the 
age, throngh whom are exemplified 
the noble ends and the high office of 
true art" 
Xeilft. The name of the heroine in 
Byron's poem of "The Giaour;'* 
a beautiful slave -girl who suffers 
dea^ for love of her paramour, a 
young "infidel." 

Ijeilali. See Mejnoun. 

Ij. Xj. Ii. The initials and litenuy 
signature of Letitia Elizabeth Lan- 
don (afterward Mrs. Maclean, 1802- 
1838), a well-known Elnglish poetess. 

Jj^lie (Ul'le'). An inconsequential, 
light-headed, gentleman -like cox- 
comb, in Moli^re's " L'^tourdi." 

Item^-rds. {Rom. Myth,) Spirits of 
the dead thought to wander about 
at night, like ^osts, and to torment 
and nighten the living. 

4S* Milton Anglicizes the word in its 
pronunciation, making it consist of two 
syllables instead of three. 

M Jn. conceenited earth, 
And on the holy hearth, 

The Lata ana Lemturea moan with mid- 
night plaint." Ode on the Nativity, 

Iie-nore'. 1. The heroine of a popular 
ballad, composed by Gottfried August 
Biirger (1748-1794), the German 
lyric poet. The subj ect of this ballad 
is an old tradition, which recounts 
the ride of a spectral lover, who re- 
appears to his mistress after death, 
and carries her on horseback behind 
him, "a fiction not less remarkable 
for its extensive geographical dis- 
semination, than for its bold imagi- 
native character.** 

Biirger is said to have borrowed 
the subject of his poem ftom an old Eng- 
Uflh ballad entitled " The Suffolk Miracle, 
cr a Relation of a Toung Man, who. a 
month after his death, appeared to nis 
sweetheart, and carried her on horseback 
behind him forty miles in two hours, and 
was never seen afterward 'but in her 
grave." Biirger, however, contradicted 
this assertion, and declared that an old 
Low Dutoh ballad furnished him with 
the idea of Lenore. The traditions prob- 
ably both have a common origin. 

2. The angelic name of " a rare 
and radiant maiden" mentioned in 
Poe's mystical ballad entitled " The 

Iie^o-li&'to. Grovemor of Messina, in 
Shakespeare's " Much Ado about 

Iie-on1-d$8 of Modem Ghreeoe. A 
title given to Marco Bozzarisj a (^reek 
patriot, and an heroic soldier, who 
distinguished himself in ^e early 
part of the modem Grecian War of 
independence, particularly by a suc- 
cessful attack with 1200 men upon 
the van of the Turco-AIbanian army, 
4000 strong, at Kerpenisi, on the 
20th of August, 1823. In this en- 
gagement, Bozzaris lost his life. 

Iio-onl-d^s "We'dell (^ft'del, 68). A 
name given by Frederick the Great 
to General C. H. Wedell ( 1712-1782), 
an officer in the Prussian service, on 
account of his heroic defense of the 
Elbe at Teinitz, on the 19th of Novem- 
ber, 1744. 

IiO'o-nlne. A servant to Dionyza, in 
Shakespeare's "Pericles." 

Iie'on-noys'. A fabulous country, 
formerl^r contiguous to Cornwall, 
though it has long since disappeared, 
and IS said to be now more than 
forty fathoms under water. It is oft- 
en mentioned in the old romances of 
chivalry. [Written also Leonais, 
Lionesse, Lyonnesse.] 

49^ The Lyones or Leonnoys, where Sir 
Tristram was bom (see TaiSTaAM, Sm), is 
L^nnois in Brittany. 

For Arthur, when none knew from whence 

he came, 
Lone ere the people ehoae him for their king, 
BoTing the trackless reahns of XyoimesK, 
Had found.a glen, gray bowlder, and black 

tarn. Tamvmm. 

Iio-on'tdf. King of Sicilia, in Shake- 
speare's " Winter's Tale.'* 

4^ " Jealousy is a riee of tiie mind, 
a eulpable tendency of the temper, hav- 
ing certain well-known and well-defined 
eflfects and concomitants, all of which are 
visible in Leontes, . . . such as, first, 
an excitability by the most inadequate 
causes, and an eagerness to snatch at 
proofi) ; secondly, a grossness of concep- 
tion, and a disposition to degrade the 
object of the passion by sensual fancies 
and images ; thirdly, a sense of shame of 
his own feelings, exhibited in a solitary 
moodiness of humor, and yet, from the 
violence of the passion, forced te utter 
itself, and therefore catching occasions 
^ ease the mind by amb^tdties, equi- 
voques, by talking to those who cannot, 

■ad ifar the Bemarki and Bnles to which the numbers aitttr certain words refer, lee pp. ziy-zxzii. 




and who are known not to be able to, un- 
derstand what is said to them, — in short, 
by solUoquj in the form of dialogue, and 
hence, a confused, broken, and firag- 
mentarj manner; fourthly, a dread of 
yulgar ridicule, as distinct from a high 
sense of honor, or a mistaken sense of 
duty ; and lastly, and immediately con- 
sequent on this, a spirit of selfish vindic- 
tiyeness." Coleridge. 

IiefHl}!-!. A name given by Catullus 
(b. B. c. 87) to his favonte Clodia, 
whose praises he celebrates in a num- 
ber of amatory poems. 

Iie'the. [Gr. A^0i), forgetfulness.] {Gr. 

^ Bom. Myth.) A river in Hades, 

the waters of which caused those who 

drank it entirely to forget the past. 

Far off from these, a slow and silent stream, 
Lethe, the river of oblivion, rolls 
Her watery labyrinth: whereof whoso drinks 
Straightway hia former sense and l>eing for- 

gets, — 
I both joy and grief, pleasure and jpaln. 

Iie'to. [Gr.AijTui.] {Mylh.) The Greek 
name of Latona. See Latona. 

Iiou-oo'the-ft. [Gr. AtvKoBrn.] {Gr. 

& Rom. Myth.) 1. A name given to 

ino, after she was received among 

the sea-gods. See Ino. 

2. One of the Sirens. See Sibens. 

Iie-va'ii$. [Lat., from hvare^ to raise.] 
{Rom. Myth.) The name of the 
goddess that protected new-bom in- 
fants when they were taken up from 
the ground. Richter used the name 
as the title of an educational work 
which he wrote, and which has been 
translated into English. 

i^viathan of Idteratare. An 
appellation very generally conferred 
upon Dr. Samuel Johnson (1709- 
1784), the eminent writer and critic. 

Iiewis, Monk. See Monk Lewis. 

Iiil^fr. {Rom. Myth.) An old Italian 
deity, who presided over the cultiva- 
tion of the vine, and fertility of the 
fields. By the later Latin writers, 
the name is used as a synonym of 

Iiiberation, "War of. See War op 

liberator. The. 1. [Sp. ElLiberta- 
dor.J A surname given by the Pfe- 
ruvians, in 1823, to Simon Bolivar 

(1785-1831), who established the in- 
dependence of Pern, and also of the 
other Spanish colonies- of South 

2. A surname given to Daniel 
O'Connell (1775-1847), a celebmted 
Irish political agitator, on account of 
his endeavors — which were, after 
all, unsuccessful — to brinc^ about a 
repeal of the Articles of Union be- 
tween Great Britain and Ireland. 

JA-ge% I (20). [Gr. Atyeia.] (Gr. 
lit-sel-t, ) 4- Ram. M^h,) One of the 
Sirens ; also, a nymph. 

By . . . &ir Iaq^» golden cmnb, 
Wherewith she sits on diamond rocks. 
Sleeking her strft alluring locks. Jnttots. 

Iii£;ht-horse Harry. A sobriquet 
popularly conferred upon General 
Henrj^ Lee (1756-1818), a gallant 
American cavalry officer in the war 
of the Revolution, in aUusion to his 
rapid and daring movements in battle, 
particularly during the campaign in 
the Carolinas. 

Iiilith, or Idlis. In the popular be- 
lief of the HebreMTS, a female specter 
in the shape of a finely dressed woman, 
who lies in wait for, and kills, chil- 
dren. The old Babbins turned Lilith 
into a wife of Adam, on whom he 
begot demons, and who still has power 
to lie with men, and to kill children, 
who are not protected by amulets, 
with which the Jews of a yet later 
period supply themselves as a pro- 
tection against her. Burton, in his 
" Anatomy of Melancholy,'* tells us, 
*' The Talmudists say that Adwn had 
a wife called Lilis before he married 
Eve, and of her he b^at nothing but 
devils." Heber savs, " To revenge 
his deserting her for an earthly rival, 
she is supposed to hover round the 
habitation of new -married persons, 
showerinjg down imprecations on their 
heads. The attendants on the bride 
spend the night in going round the 
house and uttering loud screams to 
frighten her away." A conmientator 
on Skinner's " Etymologicon Linguas 
Anglicanse," quoted in the " Encyclo- 
paedia Metropolitana," says that the 
English word luHaby is derived from 
Lwa^ abi! (Begone, Lilith!) In tiie 
demonology of the Middle Ages, Lilis 

For the "Key to the Scheme of Fronnnciation,** with the accompanying Explanationi, 




a famous witch, and is introduced 
as such in the Walpurgis-night scene 
in Goethe's ** Faust." 

Itliil^-put. An imaginary country 
described as peopled by a very dimin- 
utive race of men, in Swift's satirical 
Tomance entitled " Travels into sev- 
eral £emote Nations of the World, by 
Lemuel Gulliver." The voyage to 
Ullipnt is for the most part a satire 
on the manners and usages of the 
court of George I. 

There is no end to the variety of these small 
mismles of malice with which tne GuUiven of 
the world of literature are assailed by the Lil- 
Uptfttana around them. T. Moore. 

Idmnbo, or Iiim'bus. [Lat, limbus^ 
a border.] A region supposed by 
some of the old scholastic tneologians 
to lie on the edge or confines of hell. 
Here, it was thought, the souls of 
just men, not admitted into heaven 
or into Purgatory, remained to await 
the general resurrection. Such were 
the patriarchs and other pious an- 
cients who died before the birth of 
Christ. Hence, the limbo was called 
lAtnbui Patrwn, According to some 
of the schoolmen, there was also a 
ZAmbtu Puerorum, or Infantum, a 
similar place allotted to the souls of 
infants dying unbaptized. To these 
•were added, in the popular opinion, a 
JLimbw Fatitorum, or Fools' Paradise, 
the receptacle of all vanity and non- 
sense. Of this superstitious belief 
Hilton has made use in his " Paradise 
Lo«t.'» (See Book III. v. 440-497.) 
Dante has placed his limbo, in which 
the distinguished spirits of antiquity 
are confined, in the outermost ot the 
circles of his hell. 

Idmonadi^e, Iia Muse. See Muse 


Iiiinp. A Jacobite sign in the time of 
William III., which consisted in the 
zealots for hereditary right limping 
about at night and drinking. Those in 
the secret knew that the word " Limp'* 
was formed from the initials of august 
names, and that the loyalist, when he 
drank his wine and punch, was taking 
off his bumper to Xouis, James, -Wary, 
and the Pnnce. 

Zim-dab'rl-dd§. A celebrated heroine 
in the romance called " The Mirror of 

Knighthood." From the great celeb- 
rity of this lady, occasioned by the 
popularity of the romance, her name 
was commonly used for a mistress. 

I value Tony Foster's wrath no more than 
a shelled pea-cod; and I will visit his Ziti- 
cfo&rtdefl, by Saint GeoiKe, be he willing or 
nol Sir W. SEott. 

lon'dSr. A poetical name formerly in 

use for a swain or gallant. 

A truce, dear FereusI spare us those most 
tedious and insipid persons of all Arcadia. 
Do not, for heaven's sake, bring down Cory- 
don and Lindor upon us. Sir W. Scott. 

I have listened to you when you spoke en 
fterg^rc, — nay, my complaisance has been so 
great as to answer you en bergire,— for I do 
not think any thing except ridicule can come 
of dialogues betwixt Lindor and Jeanneton. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Iii'nus. [Gr. Atvof.] (Gr. ^ Mom. 
Myth.) 1. The son of Apollo and 
an Argive princess ; torn to pieces by 

2. The son of Apollo and Terp- 
sichore, and the instructor of Orpheus 
and Hercules, the latter of whom 
killed him by a blow with a lyre. 

Idonesse. See Leonnoys. 

Xiion of God. A title conferred upon 
Ali (597-660), son of Abu Taleb, the 
uncle of Mahomet. He was distin- 
guished for his eloquence and valor 
in defense of Islamism. 

Iiion of the North. A title bestowed 
upon Gustavus Adolphus (1594- 
1632), king of Sweden, and the bul- 
wark of the Protestant faith diuing 
the Thirty Years' War. 

That great leader, captain, and king, the 
Lion of me North, . . . had a way of winning 
battles, taking towns, overrunning countries, 
and levying contributions, which made his 
service irresistibly delectable to all true-bred 
cavaliers who follow the noble profession of 
arms. Sir W. Scott. 

Ifis task at this battle of Lutzen seems to 
have been a very easy one, simply to see the 
Lion of the North brought down, not by a 
cannon-shot, as is generally believed, but by 
a traitorous pistol-bullet. Carlyle. 

Iiion of the Sea. [Port. Leao do 
Mar.] A name formerly given to 
the Cape of Good Hope. 

Ids^mft-ha'go, Captain. A superan- 
nuated officer on halfT)ay, who fig- 
ures in Smollett's '' Expedition of 
Humphry Clinker " as the favored 
suitor of Miss Tabitha Bramble. He 
is described as a hard-featured and 
forbidding Scotchman, of the most 

and for the Remarks and Bales to which the numbers after certain words refer( see pp. ziy-zxxil. 




•ingnUr dicss and manners, self-con- 
ceited, pedantic, rude, and dlsputa- 
tioos, with a jealous sense of honor, 
and strong national pride. 

4^ <• Ltwnahago is the flower of the 
flock. His teoacioufiDess in argument is 
not 80 delightful as the relaxation of his 
logical sererity when he finds his fortune 
mellowing in the wintry smiles of Mrs. 
Tabitba Bramble. This is the best-pre- 
senred and most serere of all SmoUett's 
characters. The resemblance to *Don 
Quixote ' is only just enough to make it 
interesting to the critical rnder without 
giving offense to any body else." 


In qnotiiig these ancient anthoritiea. I muat 
not forget the more modem sketch ox a Scot- 
tish soMier of the old flAahion, by a master- 
handf in the character of LismahaaOt since 
the existence of that doughty captnn alone 
must deprive the present author or all claim to 
originali^. Sir W. Scott. 

Idttle, Thomas. A pseudonym — in- 
tended as a playful allusion to his 
diminutive stature — under which 
TJiomas Moore, in 1808, published a 
volume of amatory poems. 

Iiittle Comedy. A name familiarly 
given to Miss Catharine Homeck, — 
afterward Mrs. Bunburv, — an ac- 
quaintance and friend of Goldsmith. 
The sobriquet was probably thought 
to be indicative oi her disposition. 
She is described as being intelligent, 
sprightly, and agreeable, as w^ as 
very beautiful. 

Xattle Cori>oral. [Fr. Le Petit Capo- 
ral.] A familiar appellation jocose- 
ly conferred upon General Bonaparte^ 
immediately after the battle of Lodi 
(1796), by the soldiers under his 
command, on account of his juvenile 
appearance and surpassing bravery. 
Ever afterward, even as First Consul 
and as emperor, he was popularly 
known by this honorary and aflec- 
tionate title. 

Idttle Dauphin. [Fr. Le Petit Dau- 
phin.'] {Fr, £Rst.) A name given 
to the Duke de Boulogne, eldest 
son of Louis the Dauphin (commonly 
called the Great Dauphin), who was 
the son of Louis XI v. 

Ijittle-endians. See Big-endians, 
• The. 

Iiittle Bngland. A name popularly 
given to Barbadoes by the inhabitants. 

Iiittle Giant. A popular sobriquet 
conferred upon Stephen A. Dou^as, 
' a distinguisned American statesman 
(18ia-1861), in allusion to the dispar- 
ity between his physical and his in- 
tellectual proportions. 

Idttle John. A celebrated follower 
of the still more celebrated English, 
outlaw, Kobin Hood. BUs surname 
is traditionally said to have been 
Nailor. See Robin Hood. 

" It is certain that another of the 
Sherwood heroes has hnprinted his name 
upon our fiunily nomenclature in the 
shape of litt^john." Lower. 

In this oxir spacious isle, I think there is not 

Bat he hath iteard some tfelk of him and 

Little Ji^in. DravUm. 

A squat, broad, LttUe-Jbhn sort of fignic, 
leaning on a quarternrtair, and weailne a 
jerldn, which . . . had once been of the iJn- 
coin green. Sir W. Scott, 

Iiittle-John, Hush. The designa- 
tion given by Sir Walter Scott to tda 
grandson, John Hugh Lockhart, to 
whom he addressed the " Tales of a 

Idttle Magi dan. A sobriquet con- 
ferred upon Martin Van Buren (1782- 
1862), President of the United States 
from 1837 to 1841, in allusion to his 
supposed political sagacity and tal- 

Iiittle Marlborou^ (mawl^biir-o). 

A sobriquet given to Count von 

Schwerin (1684-1757), a Prussian 

field-marshal, and a companion-in« 

arms of the Duke 9f Marlborough. 

The Little MarBMrovgh—tto they call him 
(for he was at Blenheim, and has abrunL hot 
ways)— will not narticipate in Prince Karra 
consolatory visit, then I Caarlifle. 

Idttle ICaster. A title given to Hans 
Sebald Beham, a very celebrated 
painter and engraver of the sixteenth 
centuxy, on account of the extreme 
smallness of his prints. The name 
was also given to other artists of the 
same century. 

Iiittle 19'ell. A child, in Dickens's 
novel of " The Old Curiosity Shop; " 
distinguished for the celestial purity 
of her character, though living amid 
scenes of selfishness and shame, of 
passion and crime. 

Idttle Paris. A name given to the 
city of Milan, in Italy, fiom its re- 

For the ** Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation,** with the accompanying Explaaatioiis, 




semblance, in point of gayety, to the 
French capital. 

Tattle Parliament. The same as 
Barebone'8 ParHament, See Bare- 
bone's Pabliambmt. 

Idttle Ped'dliii£;-t5n. An imagina- 
ry locality in which humbug, quack- 
ery, cant, puffery, affectation, unmit- 
igated selfishness, at^d other social 
vices abound. It is described in a 
-vrork of the same name, written by 
John Poole, — a good-natured and 
amusing satire on me present condi- 
tion of literature, art, criticism, and 
social intercourse. 

The would-be founder of a great slave em- 
pire [Jefferson Dayislconld now hardly lead 
the debates otLitUe PeddUngton. 

Boston Evening lyanacHpt^ May 1, 1865. 

XdtUe Queen. A sobriquet given to 
Isabella of Valois (1387-1410), who 
married Richard II., king of Eng- 
land, when but eight years old, and 
was left a widow imen but thirteen. 

liittle Bed Bidins-liood. [Fr. Cha~ 
ogiw* Rouge, Ger. Rotkkiippchen,'] 
The heroine of a well-known nursery 
tale, which relates her encounter with 
a wolf in a. forest, the arts by which 
he deceived her^ and her tra^cal 
end. Grimm denves the story from 
a tradition current in the region bor- 
dering upon the river Main, in Ger- 
many. The legend is, however, 
widely disseminated. In the Swed- 
ish variation of the story. Little Rid- 
ing^ood takes refuge m a tree, the 
wolf meanwhile gnawing away at 
the roots, when her lover, alarmed 
by her cries, comes up just in time 
to see the tree fall and his mistress 
crushed beneath it. 

No man, whaterer his sensibill^ may be* 
ia ever affected by " Hamlet " or " Lear ' as a 
little gill is affected \fj the stoiy of poor Red 
JUdi^hood. Macatday. 

laittle Bbody. See Rhody, Little. 

Ijittle "Whig, A sobriquet given to 
Anne, Countess of Sunderland, sec- 
ond daughter of the great Duke of 
Marlborough. She is described as 
" rather />e/»Ve in person;" and it is 
said that she ^^did not disdain the 
appellation conferred upon her, at a 
time when every thing bore the en- 
signs of party of one kind or other.'' 
She died April 15,, 1716. 

Iioathly Iiady. A hideous creature 
whom Sir Gawain takes to be his 
wife, when no one else would have 
her, and who becomes a beautifhl 
woman on the moment of being mar- 
ried to him, having previously been 
under the power ot a malignant en- 
chanter. The storv forms the sub- 
ject of an old ballad entitled " The 
Marriage of Sir Gawain," and occurs 
under other forms in our early litera- 
ture. See Gawain, Sir. 

'■lae widls of the apartment were partly 
clothed with grim old tapestry representing 
the memorable stoiy of Sir Qawain's weddinZ 
in which fUll justice was done to the uxlineia 
of the Loathly Lady ; although, to judge ftom 
his own looks, the gentle anight had lesa 
reaaon to be diantstecTwith the match on ac- 
count of disparity of outward &vor than the 
romancer haiB given us to understand. 

Sir W.Scott, 

IiO-ohi'eL Sir Evan Cameron (d. 

1719), of Lochiel, sumamed **The 

Black," the ruler of the Camerons, 

who in personal qualities has been 

describea as unrivaled among the 

Celtic princes; "a gracious master, 

a trusty ally, a terrible enemy." He 

figured largely in the wars of the 

Highlands, but ultimately took the 

oaths to the government of Wilham 

III. His grandson, Donald Cameron 

(d. 1748), was sometimes called **The 

Gentle Lochiel." 

LodiieLLodtiel, beware of the day 
When the Lowlands shall meet wee In battle- 
array. Cam^plbeU. 

IiGQli'in-var'. The hero of a ballad 
by Sir Walter Scott, sung by the fair 
Lady Heron, in " Marmion." Ap- 
pearing suddenly at Netherby Hall, 
where nis sweetheart is to be sacri- 
ficed in marriage to 
** a laggard in love, and a daatud in war,** 

he persuades her to join with him in 
one last dance, and, on reaching the 
hall-door, where his horse is standing, 
whispers in her ear, swings her to 
the croup, and, sprin^n? into the 
saddle, carries her on before the 
eyes of the astonished bridegroom 
and his friends, who pursue them 
without success. 

And so I come,— like ZocAtntKir, to tread a 

single measure. 
To purchase with a loaf of bread a ragar-plnm 

of pleasure. JSMines. 

Iiock'it. A character in Gay^s " Beg- 

and fot the Bemarks and Rules to which the numbers after certain words refer* see pp. zLt^zjocU. 




flu's Opera." The <|[UA]Tel between 
Feachum and Lockit was an allu- 
sion to a personal collision between 
Walpole and his colleague, Lord 
Townshend. See Peachum. 

When you peered at the mis^ priaoner in 
the dock, you were always reminded of Cap- 
tain Bfacheath in his cell, when the inhuman 
Mr. Lockit wouldn't allow him any more 
eandlea. and threatened to dap on extra fet- 
ters in de&ult of an immediate aupply on the 
captein's part of ** garnish," or jail4eea. Saia. 

Iiooksley. An outlawed archer, in 
Sir Walter Scott's novel of " Ivan- 
hoe." Under this name the author 
has represented Robin Hood, who, 
according to ballad authority, some- 
times assumed it when in disguise. 
It is said to have been the name of 
the village where he was bom. 

Iio'co-Fo'cdg. A nickname formerly 
given to adherents of the Democratic 
party in the United States. It origi- 
nated in 1834, from an incident that 
occurred at a meeting in Tammany 
Hall, New York. There being a 
great diversity of sentiment among 
those who were present, a scene of 
confusion and tumult took place, 
during which the chairman leit his 
seat, and the gas-lights were extin- 
guished, with a view to break up the 
meeting. But the opposite faction 

Sroduced loco-foco matches and can- 
les, relighted the hall^ continued the 
meeting, and accomplished their ob- 

IiO-orine'. A son of Brutus, a fabu- 
lous king of ancient Britiun. By his 
fiifher's death, he became king of 
Loegria, or England. See Sabrina. 

Iiod'o-vl'oo. A Venetian, kinsman 
to Brabantio, in Shakespeare's trag- 
edy of " Othello." 

}^gA'% (Ie'gi!-ft). In the romances 
of chivalry, and' among the fabulous 
historians, an old name for the part 
of Britain occupied by the Saxons. 
It is said to be of Welsh origin. 

Iio'gis-tilllb. A fairy in Ariosto's 
^ Orlando l^urioso ; " a sister of Alcina 
and Morgana. She teaches Ruggiero 
how to master the hippogriff, and 
gives Astolpho a book and a horn of 
wonderful power. 

Xio'grea. Another form of Lagria, an 

old name for England, in the romances 
of chivalry. [Written also L o g r i s.] 

Fairer than feigned of old, or ikbled since. 

Of faiiy damselSf met in forest vride 

By kntghts of Logre* or of Ly ones. Milton. 

Iioki (lo'kee). [Old Norse locka, to 
tempt.] {Scana, Myth.) A sort of 
Eddaic Satan ; a demigod descended 
from the Giants, but admitted among 
the gods, mingling freely with them 
as an associate and equal, yet essen- 
tially opposed to them, being full of 
all manner of guile and artifice, and 
often bringing them into perilous 
plights, from which however, he 
a^ain extricates them by his cun- 
nmg. He treacherously contrived the 
death of Baldur (see Baldur), and 
was, in con^quence, made' to suffer 
the most terriole punishment, being 
bound with the intestines of his sons 
to a sharp subterranean rock, where 
two enormous serpents continually 
drop torturing venom on his limbs. 
His personal M)pearance is described 
as very beautifiii. He is often called 
Asor-ixM^ to distin^ish him from his 
kinsman, Utgard-Loki ; but the two 
are gometimes confounded. See Ut- 
gard-Loki. [Written also Lok, 
L o k e.] 

Iiol1i-u8. A mysterious author oflen 
referred to by the writers of the Mid- 
dle Ages ; but so vain have been the 
attempts to discover and identify him, 
that he must be regarded as the ignu- 
faliaa of antiquaries. " Of Lollius," 
says one of these unhappy and baffled 
investigators, " it will become every 
one to speak with deference." Ac- 
cording to Coleridge, *^ Lollius, if 
a writer of that name existed at all, 
was a somewhat somewhere." Dry- 
den calls him " a Lombard." 

Iione-Star State. The State of 
Texas; — so called from the device 
on its coat of arms. 

Iiongy Tom. The hero of an old 
popular tale entitied " The Meny 
Conceits of Tom Long, the Carrier, 
being many pleasant Jrassages and 
mad Pranks which he observed in 
his travels. " 

Iioii'g&-ville. A lord attending on 
the king of Navarre, in Sluke- 
speare's *' Love's Labor 's Lost*" 

For the ** Key to the Scheme of Fronunciation/' with the aocompasyins Ezplaaationf, 




Zion'6X-u8. A name eiven In the 
Middle Ages to the knieht, or soldier, 
who pierced the side of the Saviour 
with his sword, to ascertain if he were 

ZiOBS Mee of Weatminster. A 
'^losty, bouncing romp" and pro- 
curess of the sixteenth century, wnose 
'* Life and Pranks " were '^ imprinted 
at London," in 1582, and subse- 

auently. She is often alluded to by 
le older English writers. 

Tjong Parliament. (Eng. Bist,) 
The name which is commonly used 
by historians to desi^rnate the cele- 
brated parliament which assembled 
Kovember 3. 1640, and was dissolved 
by Cromwell, April 20, 1653. 

Iicms Peter. \p. Lange PeUr, It. 
Pieiro Lunpo, Fr. Long PierreA^ A 
sobriquet given to the eminent Flem- 
idi painter, Peter Aartsen (1507- 
1578), on account of his tallness. 

Xons Scribe. A sobriquet given to 
Vincent Dowling (d. 1852), an em- 
inent British sportsman, and an in- 
faUible authoriftr on all matters con- 
nected with field or other sports. He 
was remarkable for his great height 

Zions Tom Ckiffln. A character in 
Cooper's novel, ** The Pilot ; " " prob- 
ably the most widely known sailor 
chiuracter in existence. He is an 
example of the heroic in action, like 
Leatherstocking, losing not a whit of 
his individuali^ in his nobleness of 

Lono Tbm Qnfin btanMir will be Ibr fttehing 
me, with a ahroud In one hand, and a dead- 
Ugnt in the others Jbpd. 

Iior-bral'gmdL The metropolis of 
the ima^ary coun^ of Brobding- 
nag, visited by Gulliver. The word 
is humorously said to mean, "" Pride 
of the Universe.** 

I>ord BSi'sb&xi. The title of an old 
ballad of which thero are many 
Tendons, Scottish and English, and 
the name given to the hero, who is 
said to have been Gilbert Becket, 
fitther of the renowned St. Thomas 
of Canterbury. [Called also Lord 

XMtd Burleisli (bur'lX). The name 
of a character in Mr. Puffs tragedy 

of the ** Spanish Armada,*' in Sheri* 
dan*s farce of "The Critic.'* He 
says nothing, bein? a minister " with 
the whole anairs of the nation on his 
head," and therefore having no time 
to talk ; but he comes forward upon 
the stage, and shakes his head, ex- 
travagantly, — an action which is 
thus explained by Mr. Puff: " By 
that shake of the head, he gave voa 
to understand, that, even though ttiey 
had more justice in their cause, and 
wisdom in their measures, yet, if 
there was not a greater spirit diown 
on the part of the people, me country 
would at last fall a sacrifice to the 
hostile ambition of the Spanish mon- 

If her looks ezpreos all this, mj dear Tlnto, 
replied I, interruptinfl; him, your pendl riyals 
the dramatic art of Mr. Puff, who crammed a 
▼hole complicated sentence into Ute expres- 
sive shake of Lord JSurleigVa head. 

Sir W. Scott. 

There are no snch soUloqaies in natare, it 
Is true; but. unless they were received as a 
conventional medium of communication b^ 
twizt the poet and the audience, we should 
reduce dramatic authors to the recipe of Hai^ 
ter Puff, who makes Lord Burleigh mtimate a 
long train of political reasoning to the audi- 
ence, by one comprehensive shue of his nod- 


Sir W. Scott. 

The Provost answered with another saga- 
cious shake of the head, that would have donu 
honor to Lord BuHeiffh. Sir W. ScoUj 

Iiord Fanny. A sobriquet conferred 
upon Lord Hervey, a foppish and 
effeminate English nobleman of the 
eighteenth centuir. He was in the 
haoit of painting his face to conceal 
its ghastly paleness. See Sporus. 

" The modem Fanny is apparently 
of the days of Anne, coming into notice 
with the beantiftil Lady Fanny Shirley, 
who made it a great &Torite, and almost 
a proverb for prettiness and slmplieitj, 
so that the wita of Geoi|^ n.*8 time called 
John, Lord Hervey, 'Lord Fanny,* for 
his effiBminacy.'* Yonge. 

Bake fh>m each ancient dnns^iHl every pearl, 
Cmisnlt Lord Fanny and connde in Curu. 


Lord Foppin^rton. See Foppington, 


Iiord Gawkey. A nickname given 
to Richard Grenville, Lord Temple 
(1711-1770), in the pasquinades of 
his time. 

Iiord Harry. A vulgar name for the 
Devil. See Old Harry. 

•ad fn the Bemuks and Boka to which the nnmbera after certain words reftr, see pp. xiv-sDoii. 


220 LOV 

By tba Lord Hanv, be wu% truei fighting 
It niMt, ddnk* tad cloth to mm. Oonifnve. 

Iiord LdT'el. The hero of an ancient 
and well-known Scottish ballad. 

Iiord of Orasy Castle. A sobriquet 
of John Hall Stevenson (1718-1785), 
author of some clever, but Ucentious 
poems, called " Crazy Tales." ffis 

' residence was at Skelton Castle,— 
nicknamed " Crazy Castle, " — an 
ancient and ruinous mansion near 

Rb rSterne's] oonTenatlon ww animated 
■ad wlt^, but Johmon complained that k 
waa marked by ItcenM better suiting the 
tompany of the Lord of Craxy Ocutle than of 
the Great Monlist Sir W. Seott. 

Iiord of the Isles. A title assumed 
by Donald, a chief of Islay, who, in 
1846, reduced the whole of the Hebri- 
des or Western Isles under his author- 
ity. It was also borne by his succes- 
sors, the last of whom died in 1686. 

Lord Osleby. See Ooleby, Lobd. 

Iiord Peter. A humorous desiG:nation 
of the Pope in Arbuthnot's *^ History 
of John BuU." 

Iiords of Iiittle Egypt. A title 
assumed by the leaders or chiefs of 
a horde of gypsies, who entered Hun- 
^r^ and JBohemia from the East, 
giving themselves out as Christian 

Of the kinglv demeanor and personal 
aehierements of old Will Fow [a gypsy chief 
in Scotland], many curious paracnlars are 
related. He never forgot his high descent 
ftom the LordM qfLUUe EgmL 

Biaekwood't Mag. 

Iiord Stmtt Charles II. of Spain ; 
— so called in Arbuthnot*s satire en- 
titled " The History of John Bull." 

Ihrery body must remember ... the par- 
ozTsm of rage into which poor old Lord Sirutt 
ftll, on hearing that his runaway servant 
Nick Frog, his clothier John Bull, and his old 
enemy Lewis Baboon, had come with quad- 
rants, polca, and ink-horns to survey his 
estate, and to draw his will fbr him. 


XiO-ren'zo. 1. A young man in love 
with Jessica, Shylock's daughter, in 
Shakespeare*s " Merchant of Venice." 
2. The name of a character in 
Young's " Night Thoughts," repre- 
sentea as a person of a thoroughly 
debauched and reprobate life, and by 
some supposed to be the portrait of 
the poet's own son, but probably 

nothing more than an embodiment 
of imaginary atheism and unavailing* 
remorse and despair. 

Iidr're>quer, Harry. The hero of a 
novel of the same name by Charles 
James Lever (b. 1806); also, a pseu- 
donym of the author. 

IiO-san'ti-viUe. [That is, Z, the river 
Licking, os (Lat.), the mouth, anUj 
opposite to, vUlej a town or city : the 
town opposite the mouth of the Lick- 
ing.] The orinnal name of the city 
of Cmcinnati, Ohio. 

IiO-tiha'ri-o (9). One of the dramatis 

personcB in Rowe's tragedy, "The 

Fair Penitent." His character is 

that of a libertine and a seducer, and 

has served as the prototype of that 

of many dramatic and romance he^ 


Is this that hangh^ gaUaat, gay Lothario f 


Shorn of their plumes, our moon-stmek son- 

Would seem but jackdaws croaUng to the 

Our gay Lothcarioa, with thdr Byron curia. 

Would pine like oystcn cheated of. their 
pearls. Holmes. 

Iiorel, IiorcL See Lord Lovel. 

Ii6Te1&oe. The hero of Richardson's 
novel, "The Histonr of Clarissa 
Harlowe," represented as an unscru- 

Eulous voluptuary, who has devoted 
is life and nis talents to the subver- 
sion of female virtue. He is, perhaps, 
the most finished picture or a self- 
possessed and insinuating libertine 
ever drawn. The character is an 
expansion of that of Lothario in 
Rowe's " Fair Penitent." See Har- 
lowe, Clarissa. 

The eternal laws of poetiy regained fheir 
power, and the temporary ftuiions whieh had 
superseded those laws went after the wig of 
Lovelace and the hoop of Clarissa. 


Lover's Ii^ap. The promontory from. 
which Sappho is said to have thrown 
herself into the sea; Leucate, on the 
south-western extremity of Leucas, 
now Santa Mama. 

IiOTom' War. [Fr. Guerre desAmou- 
reuxJ^ ^ {Fr. aUU) A name given 
to a civil war in the year 1580, during 
the reign of Henry V. It was so 
called because it arose from the jeal- 

For the *< Key to ih» Scheme of Pronunciation,** with the accompanying Explanations, 




- ousies and riyalries of the leaders, 
who were invited to meet at the palace 
of tiie queen-mother. 

Xiow-heels. See High-heels. 
Ijoys. lie Capitaine. See Captain 


Iireux (Iroo). King Arthur's seneschal, 
introduced in. romances of the Round 
Table, and always represented as a 
detractor, a coward, and a boaster. 

IiubberlAiid. The same as Cockagne, 
for which name it was substituted by 
the English poets of the sixteenth 
century. Hence, also, a burlesque 
name anciently applied to London. 
See CocKAONE. 

But the idea which Si^yes entertained of 
lodging the executive government in a Grand 
' Elector, vho was to be a veiy model of a king 
Ot lAAberUmd. was the ndu of his plan. 

5&- W. SeotL 

Black Forests and the glories of JAitberlttncL 
■ensuality and horror, lae speeter^non and 
channed moonshine, shall not be wanting. 


Z«a-oa8'l4* A poetical name under 
which Richard Lovelace (1618-1658) 
celebrated the praises of ** the lady 
of his love," whom he usually called 
Lux Catta, Antony Wood savs that 
she was '*a gentlewoman of great 
beauty and fortune, named Lucy 

. Sacheverell ; " but W. C. Hazlitt, the 
latest editor of Lovdace's works 
(London, 1864), thinks the statement 
" may reasonably be doubted." 

Iiuoe. Servant to Adriana, in Shake- 
speare's " Comedy of Errors." 

Iju-cen'ti-o. Son to Yincentio, in 
Shakespeare's ^* Taming of the 

XiU-cet't$. The name of a waiting- 
' woman to Julia, in Shakespeare's 
" Two Gentlemen of Verona." 

Xiu'oi-a'nft. Sister-in-law to Antiph- 
olus of Ephesus, in Shakespeare's 
" Comedy of Errors." 

Xiu^oi-f|r. One of the names of the 
Devil, being applied to him from 
an allegorical interpretation by the 
Church fathers of a passage in isaiah 
(xiv. 12), in which the king of Baby- 
lon is likened to the morning star. 
Wiems makes him the highest officer 
of justice in the infernal court or 

9^ *' Lucifer is. In ftet, no prafluM or 
Satanic title. It ib the Latin Luetferus^ 
the light - bringer, the morning itar, 
equiyalent to the Qreek ^(r^pof, and 
was a Chriatian name in earlj times, borne 
even by one of the popes. It only ac- 
quired its present association from the 
apostrophe of the ruined king of Bab- 
ylon, in Isaiah, as a fitllen star : ' How 
art thou &Uen from heaven, Lucifer, 
son of the morning ! ' Thence, as this 
destruction was assuredly a type of the 
&11 of Satan, Milton took Lucifer as the 
title of his demon of pride, and this niume 
of the pure, pale herald of daylight has 
become hat^Ul to Christian ears." 

Lu-oi'nft. [Lat., from hoc, light, be- 
cause she brings to light.] {Rmn, 
Mifth.) The goddess ofchildbirth, a 
daughter of Jupiter and Juno. - 

IiU'ci-o. A fantastic, in Shakespeare's 
tragedy, "Measure for Measure," 
who, without being absolutely de- 
praved or intentionally bad, has be- 
come, through want of consideration, 
both vicious and dissolute. 

The Introductory Epistle is written, in 
Lvcio's phrase, " according to the tripk," and 
would never nave appetued had the writer 
meditated making ms avowal of the work. 

Sir W. Scott. 

Mr. Hunt treats the whole matter a littie too 
much in the easy style of Lucio. MacatJay, 

Iiud. A mythic king of Britain, said 
to have given his name to London. 

The fionous Cassibelan, who was once at point 
(O giglot Fortune) to Master Cssar's sword. 
Made LucTa town with rejoicing bright, 
And Britons strut with courage. i^ak. . 

Iiud» Gleneral. A name of great 
terror given to the feigned leader of 
bands of distressed and riotous arti- 
sans in the manufacturing districts of 
England, who, in 1811, endeavored 
to prevent the introduction of power- 
looms, — that is, looms worked by 
machinery, — which tiiey thouglit 
would lessen the amount of manual 
labor. In 1816, they re-appeared, but 
were put down, after a short and 
sharp riot in London, by the police 
and military. The real leaders ap- 
peared in women's clothes, and were 
called " Lud's wives." 

49" " Above thirty years before this 
time [1811], an imbecile named Ned Lud, 
living in a Tillage in Leicestershire, was 
tormented by the boys in the streets, to. 

and finr the Remarks and Bnles to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiv-zxxii. 




hit perpetcuJ irritation. One day, in a 
great paoeion, he pursued one of the boys 
uito a house, and, beinc unable to find 
him, he hnke two stoddng-flrames. His 
name was now either taken by those who 
broke frames, or was giren to tfiem. When 
frames were broken, Lud had been there ; 
and the abett4>n were called Luddites.'' 

H Jldartineau. 

iMdwig der Sprinser (Idbt'^k d^t 
spring'&r). [Ger., Louis the leaper.] 
A name popularly given in Gennany 
to a margrave or Thuringia, bom 
in 1042. There is a tradition of his 
having become attached to the Pals- 
ffravine Adelheid of Saxony, -whose 
nosband, Frederick III., he lulled, and 
then married her. For this he was 
imprisoned in the castle of Giebich- 
enstein, near Halle, and escaped by 
a bold leap into the Saale. 

One of their sistera, too, [risters of the mar- 

moos in the German world, over whom my 
readexB and I must not pause at this time. 


Iingg'nSgg. The name of an imagi- 
nary island about a hundred leagues 
south-east of Japan, mentioned in 
Swift's fictitious *^ Travels" of Lem- 
uel Gulliver. In the account of this 
country and its inhabitants, we are 
shown how miserable would be the 
consequence of human beings' re- 
ceiving a {>rivilege of eternal life, 
unaccompanied by corresponding 
health, strength, and intellect. 

Iiumber State. A popular designa- 
tion for the State of Mame, the inhab- 
itants of which are largely engaged 
in the business of cuttmg and raft- 
ing lumber, or of converting it into 
boards, shingles, scantlings, and the 

t'^uunpldn, Tony. A young, clown- 
ish country squire, the foolish son of 
a foolish mother, in Goldsmith's com- 
edy, " She Stoops to Conquer." 

" He is in his own sex what a hoi- 
den is in the other. He is that vulgar 
nickname, a hobbetyhoy^ dnunatlBed; 
forward and sheepish, misehieyous and 
Idle, cunning and stupid, with the vices 
of the man and the follies of the boy; 
fond of low company, and giving him- 
self all the airs of consequence of the 
young squire." HazlUt. 

You ask me for the plan. I have no plan. 
I had no plant hut I had, or have, matmalsi 
thouKh, u; like Tbny Zumpfctl^ ** I am to be 
■nuboed so when I am in sprnts," tiie poem 
will be naught, and the poet turn seikma 
again. ^ Bifnm, 

Nature had formed honest Meg fbr such en- 
counters; and as her noble soul delighted fai 
them, BO her outward properties were in what 
Tonv Lun^pkm calls ** a concatenation acoord- 
Ingly." Sbr W. Scott. 

I feel as Touif Lumpkm felt, who never had 
the least dilBculty in reading the outside of 
his letters, but who found it very hard work 
to decipher the inside. A.K.H. BojftL 

Iitm. A feigned name of John Rich 
(d. 1761), ft celebrated English act- 
or. When young, he attracted gen- 
eral admiration by his performance 
of Harlequin, and received frequent 
tributes of applause from contempo- 
rary critics. 

When Ltm qipeared, wifli matchless art and 
whim. Oarriek. 

Iiu'i4- (^'^om. Myth,) The goddess 
of the moon ; a name of Diana. 

Iiu-pSr'oas (4). [Lat, from It^nu, a 
wolf.] {Rom. Myth.) A god of the 
old Komans, sometimes identified 
with the Grecian Pan. He was 
worshiped by shepherds as the pro- 
tector of flocks against wolves. His 
priests were called "Luperci," and 
nis festivals " Lupercalia.^' 

Iiu'aifls-nfn. A prominent character 
in Aaron Hill's tragedy of " Zara; " 
the " last of the blood of the Christian 
kings of Jerusalem." 

His head, which was a fine one, bore tome 
resemblance to that of Qarrick in the charac- 
ter of iM^^rnan. Sir W. Scott. 

Iiu'si-ta'ni-ft. The ancient Latin 
name of Portugal ; often used in 
modem poetry. 
Woe to the conquering, not the conquered. 

Since baffled Triumph droops on lMnUmia^$ 
coast Byron. 

Iiu'saa. A mythical hero, fabled to 
have visited Portugal in company 
with Ulysses, and to have founded 
Lisbon under the name of Ulyssop- 

Iiu-te'ti-a (-te'shl-ft). The ancient 
Latin name of Paris. 

Iiuz. A name given b^ the old Jewish 
Babbins to an imaginary little bone 
which they believed to exist at the 
base of the spinal column, and to bo 

For the "Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying Explanations, 




incapable of destmction. To its ever- 
living power, fermented by a kind of 
dew from heaven, they ascribed the 
resurrection of the dead. 

49> " Hadrian (whose bones may they 
be ground, and his name blotted out ! ) 
asked R. Joshua Ben Hananiah, * How 
doth a man reviTe again in the world 
to come ? * He an^wexvd and said, ' From 
LuK, in the backbone.' Saith he to him, 
< Demonstrate this to me.* Then he took 
Luz, a little bone out of the backbone, 
and put it in water, and it was not 
steeped ; he put it in the fire, and it was 
not burned ; he brought it to the mill, 
and that could not grind it ; he laid it 
on the anvil, and knocked it with a ham- 
mer, but the anvil was cleft, and the 
haomier broken." LigfUfoot. 

Ii7-oa'6n. [Gr. AvK<b>r.] ( Gr, ^ Rom. 
Myth!) A king of Arcadia whom 
Juno tamed into a wolf because he 
defiled his altar with human sacri- 
fices. He was the father of Callisto. 

Xijf--gli6r1-d&. A nurse, in Shake- 
speare's " Pericles." 

Xiy9l>(l&s. 1. A shepherd in the third 
Ekjlogue of Virgil. 

2. A poetical name under which 
Milton, in a celebrated monody, be- 
wails the death of his friend Edward 
King, fellow of Christ College, Cam- 
bridge, who was drowned on his pas- 
sage iindm Chester to Ireland, August 
10, 1637. 

Lyo'o-me'dftg. [Gr. AvKo/xifdif?.] ( Gr. 
^ Mom. Myth.) A king of the island 
of Scvros, with whom Achilles con- 
cealea himself for some time, dis- 
guised in female apparel, to avoid 
going to the Trojan war. 

Xiy'ous. [Gr. Avko«.] {Gr. 4" -BW' 
Myth. ) A king of ThebBs, in Bceotia, 
and the husband of Antiope, whom 
he divorced because she was pre^ant 
by Jupiter. He then married Dirce, 
who treated Antiope with great cru- 
elty; but the children of me latter. 
when they were grown up, avenged 
their mother on both Dirce and 
Lycus. See Dirce. 

Ikying Dick. See Talbot, Lying 

Iiyn'oefts. [Gr. AvyKev«.] {Gr.^Rom. 

MyOi.) I. One of the Ai^^nants, 
famed for the sharjpness of his sight. 
2. A son of ^gyptus, and the 
husband of Hypermnestra. See 

Ijynoh, Judge. In America, a per- 
sonification of violent and illegal 
justice, or of mob-law. The name is 
usually alleged to be derived fix>m 
one Lynch, who lived in wh^t is now 
the Piedmont district of Virginia at 
the time when that district was the 
western frontier of the State, and 
when, on account of the distance from 
the courts of law, it was customary 
to refer the adjustment of disputes to 
men of known character and judg- 
ment in the neighborhood. This man 
became so prominent by reason of 
the wisdom and impartiality of his 
decisions that he was known through- 
out the country as " Judge Lynch." 
Criminals were brought before him 
to receive their sentence, which was 
perhaps administered with some se- 
verity. At present, the term Lynch- 
law IS synonymous with mobocracy. 
By some, the term is said to be 
derived from one James L3aich Fitz- 
Stephen, a merchant of Galway, and 
in 1526 its mayor. His son having 
been convicted of murder, he, Brutus- 
like, sentenced him to death, and, 
fearing a rescue, caused him to be 
brougnt home and hanged before his 
own door. These explanations can- 
not be regarded as conclusive, or 
even tolerably well authenticated. A 
more probable solution is to be found, 
perhaps, in the Provincial English 
word Uiichy to beat or maltreat. If 
this were admitted, Lynch-law would 
then be simply equivalent to ^ club- 

Ily^oxl-lle88e^ Another form of Zeon- 
noys. See Leonnoys. 

Iiyrio Muse. A title awarded to 
Corinna, a poetess of Tanagra, in 
Boeotia, contemporanr with Pindar, 
whom she is said to have conquered 
five times in musical contests. 

I<^-san'ddr. A character in love with 
Hermia,*in Shakespeare's "Midsum- 
mer-Night's Dream." 

and for the Remarks and Bulea to which the numbers after certain words refer, see pp. xiy-zzzil. 






ICab. [Ene Meabhdh, said to have 
been originally the name of a great 
Irish princess.] The name given by 
the English poets of the fifteentn 
and succeeding centuries to the imag- 
inaiy queen of the fairies. Shake- 
speare nas given a famous descrip- 
tion of Queen Mab in "• Romeo and 
Jnliet,'' a. i., sc. 4. 

Jfob, the mlBtrem fkinr. 
That doth niKhtlT rob the daliy. 
And can hart Or help the churning 
Am she pleaae. without diBcemingt 
She that pinches country wenches 
If thev rub not clean their benches. 
But if so they chance to feast her. 
In a shoe she drops a tester. Ben Jonaon. 

tf ye will with Mab find grace. 

Set each platter in its place; 

Bake the fire up and get 

Water in ere sun be set; 

Sweep your house; who doth not mK 

Mab will pinch her by the toe. Haride. 

Ma-otire', Bobert (Fr.pron, ro^bdP 
mft'kSf', 64). The name of a char- 
acter in a large number of French 
plavs, particularly two, entitled 
'^ Cnien de Montargis " and " Chien 
d^Aubry ;" applied to any audacious 
criminal. Macaire was a real per- 
son, a French knight of the time of 
Charles V., but his Christian name 
was Richard, not Robert He is tra- 
ditionally said to have assassinated 
Aubry de Montdidier, one of his 
companions-in-arms, in the forest of 
Bondy, in tiie year 1371. As the dog 
of the murdered man displayed the 
most unappeasable enmity towards 
Macaire, the latter was arrested on 
suspicion, and required to fight a 
judicial combat with the animal. 
The result was fatal to the murderer, 
and he died confessing his guilt. 
The character of Macaire has been a 
favorite one upon the Parisian stage, 
and hence the name is sometimes 
used as a sportive designation of the 
French people generally. 

Mac-beth'. An ancient king of Scot- 
land, immortalized by being the hero 
of Shakespeare's tragedy of the same 
name. See Duncan. 

Mao-beth% Iiady. The chief female 

character in Shake8peai«*8 tragedy 
of "Macbeth." 

" In the mind of Ladj Macbeth, 
ambition is represented as the ruling mo- 
tive, — an intense, overmastering pasdon, 
which is gratified at the expense of every 
just and generoos principle, and every 
feminine feeling. In the pursuit of her 
object, she is cruel, treacherous, and 
daring. She is doubly, trebly dyed in 
guilt and blood ; for the murder she in- 
stigates is rendered more frightful by dis- 
loyalty and ii^;ratitude, and by the vio- 
lation of all the most sacred claims of 
kindred and hospitality. When her hus- 
band's more kindly nature shrinks fhxn 
the perpetration of the deed of horror, 
she, like an eril genius, whispers him on 
to his damnation. . . . Lady Macbeth's 
amasing power of intellect, her inexora- 
ble determination of purpose, her super- 
human strength of nerve, render her aa 
fearAil in herself as her deeds are hate- 
fhl ; yet she is not a mere monster of de- 
pravity, with whom we have nothing in 
common, nor a meteor, whose destroying 
path we watch in ignorant affright anci 
amaae. She is a terrible impersonation 
of evil passions and mighty powers, nerer 
so fe.r removed from our own nature as 
to be cast beyond the pale of our sympa- 
thies ; Ibr the woman herself remains a 
woman to the last, still linked with her 
sex and with humanity." Mrs. Jameson. 

Maontirl-^r, Ephraim. An enthusiast 
preacher in Scott's ** Old Mortality." 

MoBride, Miss. A proud heiress 
with great expectations, whose his- 
tory is relatea in a humorous and 
popular poem by John G. Saxe. 

Mao-dufCT. A Scottish thane, in 
Shakespeare's tragedy of "Mac- 

MoFiii'g^l. The hero of Trumbull's 
Hudibrastic political poem of the 
same name; represented as a burly- 
New England squire enlisted on the 
side of the Tory, or royalist, party of 
the American Revolution, and con- 
stantljr engaged in controversy with 
Honorius, the champion of the Whigs, 
or rebels. 

Mao Fleck']i6e. [That is, Flecknoe's 
son.] The title of a poem by Dryden, 

For the ** Key to the Scheme of Pronunciation," with the accompanying ExplanaOone, 




' in which he lampoons Thomas Shad- 
well, a wortiiless contemporary poet 
and dramatist, who had repeatedly 
intimated his saperiority to Diyden 
as a writer of pla^s. By ^*'Mac 
Flecknoe/^ Shad well is meant, though 
he is called, in the ppem itself, by his 
real name only. The Flecknoe to 
whom the title alludes was a wretched 
poet, so distinguished for his bad 
verses that his name had become 
almost proverbial. Dryden describes 
him as an aged prince, who, for many 
years, had reigned 

Through all the reftlms of Nonaenae, aibao- 

Shadwell is represented as the adopted 
son of this venerable monarch, and 
is solemnly inaugurated as his succes- 
sor on the throne of dullness. 

MoFlimaeyy Flora. The heroine of 
*' Nothing to Wear," a popular satir- 
ical poem by William Allen Butler 
(b. 1825), an American author. 

Mao-sreg'pr. See Rob Rot. 

Mi^Sha'^n. [Gr. Max<i«»vJ {Gr. f 
Jitm. Myth.) A son of jfisculapius, 
and a sui^geon of the Greeks before 
Troy, where he died. 

Mao-heath', Captain. A highway- 
man who is the hero of Gay's *^ Beg- 
gar's Opera." 

I communicated thia purpoae, and recom- 
mended the old hag to poor Effle, by a letter, 
in which I recollecfthat I endesTored to sup- 

Sort the character of Macheath under con- 
emnation,— & fine, gay, bold-ikoed rafllan, 
who is game to the last. Sir W. Scott. 

He hears the sound of coaches and dx, 
takes the road like ifocAeotA, and makes so- 
ciety stand and deliver. Tkafcherav. 

Mao-I'v^lr, Fer^flrua (4). The chief 
of Glennaquoich, a prominent charac- 
ter in Scott's novel of " Waverley." 
[Called also Vich Ian Vdkr.^ 

Mao-I'T^, Flora. The heroine of 
Scott's " Waverley ; " sister to Fergus 

Ma'odn, or MSo'^n. [It Maeone, 
** Evidently a corruption of Mahomet 
[or Mahoun] ; for the Italians do not 
aspirate the A, thev pronounce it like 
a «." Uffo FoiccM. See Mahoun.] 
An old EAglish form of MahxmtL 

FraisM, quoth he, be Macony whom we serve. 


ICao-rab'in, Mark. A psendonvm 
under which , a series of interesting 
^ Recollections " by a Cameronian 
were contributed to ^* Blackwood's 
Magazine." The writer is belkved 
to nave been Allan Cunningham. 

Mac-rab'in, Peter. An imaginary 
interlocutor in the *^ Noctes Ambro- 
sianse"'of Wilson, Lockhart, and 

MacSyoQphant, Qir Fdr'tl-naz (4). 
A noted character in Macklin's com- 
edy of " The Way of the World." 

MoTab, The Honorable Miss. 
Iiuoretia. A stiff maiden aunt in 
Colman's comedy, "The PoorGen- 
tieman; " sister of one of the oldest 
barons in Scotland, and extremely 
proud of her noble birth, but reduced 
to dependence upon the husband of 
a deceased niece. 

Mao-Turk% Captain Hec'tdr. One 
of the Managing Committee at the 
Spa, in Scott's novel of " St. Ronan's 
Well;" characterized aa "the man 
of Peace." 

Mad Anthony. A sobriquet of Major- 
General Anthony Wayne (1746- 
1796), distinguished for his military 
skill and impetuous braveiy in the 
war of the American Revolution. 

Mad Cavalier. A sobriquet given to 
Prince Rupert of Bavaria ( 1619-1682 ), 
nephew of Charles I. of England, 
and a leader of that king's forces dar- 
ing the civil wars. He was remarka- 
ble for his rash courage and impetu- 
osity, and his impatience of control 
and advice. 

MadlLava(mi-thft'vi). {Btndu Mylh.) 
A name often given to FmAhk. See 

Madman of Macedonia. A name 
sometimes applied to Alexander the 
Great (356-323 b. c), king of Mace- 
donia, whose extraordinary and unin- 
terrupted military success created in 
him a thirst for universal dominion so 
insatiable that he is said to have 
wept because there were no more 
worlds than this for him to conquer. 

Heroes are much the same, the Doint *s agreed. 
From Macedonians Madman to uie Swem. 


mad fbr the Bemarks and Bales to which the namben after certain words refer, see pp. ziy-zzzii. 





«*▲ NiMHon whieh em ilriit,** think th« 
G«Mtteei«« **. . . and U lea on Iqritiking, 
too, irh o ma y prove, in hli way, a very 
Chariea XIL, or small Macedonia's Madman^ 
for au^t one knows; " in which latter branch 
of theur prognostic the Gaxetteers were much 
out Carivte, 

XCadman of the North. Charles Xn. 
of Sweden; — so called on account 
of the rashness and impetuosity of 
his character. He was bom at Stock- 
holm in 1682, and killed at the siege 
of FrederickshaU, in 1718. His Ufe 
was full of exciting adventures in 
war. He formed great plans for the 
aggrandizement of his kingdom, 
which he did not live to execute, and 
at his death, Sweden fell from the 
rank of a leading power. 

Ma'd^r, Sir. A Scottish knight with 
whom Lancelot du Lac engaged in 
single combat, in order to prove the 
innocence of Queen Guinever, falsely 
accused by Sir Mador of having 
poisoned his brother. The contest 
tasted fh)m noon till evening, when 
Lancelot finallv achieved a complete 
victory over his antagonist. See 
JOYBUSB Garde, La. 

Mad Parliament. {Eno, Bist.) A 
name given by the old chroniclers to 
a parliament which assembled at 
Oxford on the 11th of June. 1258, 
and which, exasperated at the ex- 
orbitant demands for supplies made 
b^ the king, Heniy UL, to enable 
him to accomplish the conquest of 
Sicily, broke out into open revolt 
against the supremacy of the crown, 
which resulted in the appointment of 
twenty-four of their ntonber, with 
the famous Simon de Montfort as 
president, to administer the govern- 

Mad Poet. 1. A name sometimes 
given to Nathaniel Lee (1657-1690), 
an English dramatic poet, who, in 
1684, became insane, and was con- 
fined in Bedlam for four years. 

2. A sobriquet applied to McDon- 
ald Clark (1798-1842), author of va- 
rious fugitive poetical pieces in which 
there are some glimmerings of gen- 
ius. He died in the Insane Asylum 
at Bloomingdale, New York. 
Me-oe'ii^a (Oaiua CJilniuB). A 
- wealthy Roman nobleman (d. b. c. 

8), a friend of Audnutufl, and a liberal 
patron of Virgil, Horace, Propertins, 
and other men of genius. The name 
is proverbially used to denote any 
munificent friend of literature. 

Me-on1-dds. [Gr. MaMvifii}?.] A 
poetical designation of Homer, who 
was bom, according to some ac* 
counts, in M«onia, a district of East- 
em Lydia, in Asia Minor. 

Those other two equaled with me in fkte. 
So were I equaled with tiiem in renown,— 
Blind Thamyris and blind JfootMdet. 


Ma'g$. A popular sobriquet of " Black- 
wood's Magazine." the contributors 
to which have emoraced many of the 
most eminent writers of Great Brit- 
ain, including Wordsworth, Cole- 
ridge, Lamb, De Qnincey, Landor, 
and others. The name is a contrac- 
tion of the word Magazine, 

On other occasions he was similarly hon- 
ored, and was inyaxiably mentionea with 
5 raise by Wilson, the predding senius of 
(ago. K. Snetton MackaaU, 

Ma'gl, The Three. The " wise men 
from the East " who came to Jerusa- 
lem bringing gifts to the infant Je- 
sus. (AiaU. ii.) Magi (in the orig- 
inal (jreek, iJidyoi) is the Latin for 
"wise men," in the Vulgate transla- 
tion of the Bible. The traditional 
names of the three Magi are Melchior, 
represented as an old man with a long 
beard, offering gold, in acknowledg- 
ment of the sovereignty of Christ; 
Jaspar, a beardless youth, who offers 
frankincense, in recogniuon of our 
Lord's divinity; and Balthazar, a 
black, or Moor, with a laige spread- 
ing beard, who tenders myrrh, as a 
tribute to the Saviour's humanity. 
They are the patron saints of trav- 
elers. See CoLooNB, The Thbee 


"Eftrly did tradition fix the 
number at three, probably in allusion to 
the three races of men desoended from 
the sons of Noah ; and soon they were 
said to be descendants of the Hesopo- 
tamian prophet Balaam, ftom whom they 
derived the expectation of the star of 
Jacob. Their corpses wen supposed to 
be at that storehouse of relics, Constan- 
tinople, whence the Empress Helena 
caused them to be transported to Milan. 
Frederick Barbarossa carried them to 

For the ««K«7 to the Scheme of Fvonnaalatlon," with the aocompanylnc Ezplanationai 




€k>log]ie, the place of their eipeoial glory 
as tii^ Three Kings of Colt^^e." Yonge. 

Magioian, G^reat. See Great Ma- 

Magioian, IdtUe. See Little Ma- 

ICagioian of the North.. [Ger. M<i~ 
mis atu Norden^ A tide assumed by 
Johann Georg Hamann (1730-1788), 
a German writer of very original 

Maeraelone, The Fair. See Fair 

Mahadeva (mi^hA-da'y&). [Sanek., 
great god.] {Hindu Myth.) An ap- 
pellation by which Siva is usuwy 
designated. See Siva. 

Mahadevi (mft^h&-d3'vee). [Sansk., 
great goddess . 1 ( Hindu Myth. ) An- 
other name of Durga, the wife of 
Siva. See Durga. 

l^houn', or M&Oioun, ) [Old Fr. 

Ma-hound% or Mft'hotmd. ) Mahom.] 
Corrupted forms of the name Ma- 
homety used by our old writers 

And oftenthnes by TeTmagaunt and Mahound 
awore. Speiuer. 

Of Bnndnr fkith together In that town, . . . 
The greater, fkr, were votaries to Mahown. 

An antique flowered silk gown graced the 
extraordinary nerson to whom belonged thiai 
unparalleled (ete, which her brother was wont 
to aay waa fitter for a turban for Mahound or 
Termagant, than a head-gear fbr a reasonable 
creature, or Chriattan gentlewoman. 

Sir W.Scott. 

There waa crying in Granada when the ran 

was going down, 
8ome calling on the Trinity, some calling on 

JToAoun. LcxAJiart. 

SCaliu (m$-hoo', or m&^oo). A fiend 
mentioned by Shakespeare, in the 
tragedy of "Lear," as the instigator 
of theft. See Flibbertigibbet, 1. 

l£a'i-ft (20). [Gr. Mala.] ( Gr. (f- Horn. 
Myth.) A daughter of Atlas, and 
the mother of Mercury. 

Maiden Queen. A name popularly 
given to Queen Elizabeth or Eng- 
land, who began to reign in 1558, at 
the a^e of twenty-five, and died un- 
married in 1603, at the age of sev- 
enty. See Virgin Queen. 

He merely asks whether, at that period, the 
Maiden Queen was red-painted on the nose, 
and white-painted on the cheeks, as her tire- 
women—when, from spleen and wrinkles, 
she would no longer look in any glass — were 
wont to serve her. Carlvle. 

ICaiden Town. [Gael. Maahdmny 
Brit. Maidtfiy Lat. Castrum Puella- 
rum.^ A name popularly given to 
Edinburgh, from a moniiish fable or 
tradition that it was once the resi- 
dence of the daughters of Pictish 
kings, who were sent to this strong- 
hola for protection in times of war 
and trouble. 

Your hands are weak with age, he said. 
Your hearts are stout and cruet 

So bide ye in the Maiden Town^ 
While others fight for you. Jytotm. 

Maid IdA'ri-^n (9). A personage in 
the morris-dances, often dressed uke a 
woman, and sometimes like a strum- 
pet, and whose name is, therefore, 
used to describe women of an impu- 
dent or masculine character. Though 
the morris-dances were^ as their name 
denotes, of Moorish ongin, yet they 
were commonly adapted in England 
to the popular English story of Kobin 
Hood, whose fair Matilda, or Marian, 
was the very person here originally- 
represented. See Robin Hood. 

Maid Marian, as Queen of May, 
has a golden crown upon her head, and 
in her left hand a red pink as an emblem 
of summer. Percy and Steevens agree in 
making Marian the mistress of Robin 
Hood. Douce, howeyer, considers the 
character a dramatk: fiction. " None of 
the materials that constitute the more 
authentic history of RoUn Hood proye 
the existence of such a charaoter in the 
shape of his mistress." 

JIS- "Probably the addition of the 
German diminutiye ehen^ in French on, 
formed the name of 

* A bonny fine maid, of noble degree, 
Maid MttHan called by name.* 

Very soon had her fiuoe trayeled abroad, 
for in 1332 the play of ^ Robin et Marion' 
was performed by the students of Angers, 
one of them appearing as a fiUette di- 
guisie ; the origin of Marionettes, pup- 
pets disguised to play the part of Maid 
Marian, is thus explained." Yonge. 

Robin's mistress dear, his loved Marian^ 
Was sovereign of the woods, chief lady of the 

game ; 
Her clothes tucked to the knee, and dainty- 
braided hair, 
"With bow and quiver armed. Draifton. 

Maid of Anjoti, Fair. See Fair 
Maid op Anjou. 

Maid of Bftth (2). A name given to 
Miss Linley, a beautiful an^d accom- 
plished singer, who became the wife 

and finr the Remarks and Roles to which ihe nnmben after certain words refer, see yp* ziy-z^zU. 




of Richard Brinsley Sheridan, the 
celebrated dramatist and statesman. 

Maid of Kent, Fair. See Faib Maid 
or Kent. 

Maid of Elent, Holy. See Holt 
Maid of Kent. 

Maid of 19'orway. In Scottish his- 
toiy, a name given to Margaret, a 
grand-daughter of Alexander III., 
recognized as his successor b}' the 
states of Scotland, though a female, 
an infant, and a foreigner. She died, 
however, on her passage to Scotland, 
in 1290. Her father was Eric II., 
king of Norway, and her mother 
Margaret, only daughter of Alexan- 

Maid of Orle-ttng. A surname giv- 
en to Joan of Arc, from her heroic 
defense of the city of Orleans. Hav- 
ing been taken captive by the Eng- 
lish, she suffered mar^om, being 
burned alive by order of the Earl of 
Warwick, on the 24th of May, 1431. 

9^ " It was requisite that she Rhould 
suffer; for had she not passed through 
the supreme trial and purification, du- 
bious shadows would have remained 
among the ra3'S that beam fh>m her 
saintly head ; she would not hare dwelt 
in men's memory as the Maid of Or- 
leans." MicheUtf Trans. 

Mftid of Perth, Fair. See Fair 
Maid of Perth. 

Maid of Saragossa. An appella- 
tion bestowed upon Agustina Zara- 
^oza, a young Spanish woman dis- 
tinguished for her heroism during the 
defense of Saragossa in 1808-9. She 
first attracted notice by mounting a 
battery where her lover had fallen, 
and woricing a gun in his room. By- 
ron has celebrated her in the first 
canto of his " Childe Harold." 

Mftlagigi (mftl-4-je^jee). A celebrat- 
ed hero in the romances and poems 
based upon the fabulous adventures 
of Charlemagne and his paladins. 
He is said to have been a cousin to 
Rinaldo, and a son of Beuves, or Bu- 
ovo, of Aygremont. He was brought 
up by the fairy Orianda, and became 
a great enchanter. 

M»l'^grt'd4. A nickname given by 
contemporary political opponents to 

LordShelbume (1737-1805), a zeal- 
ous oppositionist during the adminis- 
tration of Lord North. Gabriel Mal- 
agrida (1689-1761) was an Italian 
Jesuit, and missionarv to Brazil, who 
was accused of conspiring against the 
king of Portugal. 

49- *' *Do you know,' said Gtoldsmlth 
to his lordship, in the course of conversa- 
tion, ' that I nerer could conceive why 
they call you Bfalagrida, for Malagrida 
was a Terv good sort of man.' This was too 
good a tirp of the tongue for Beauclerc 
to let pass : he senres it up in his next 
letter to Lord Gharlemont, as a specimen 
of a mode of turning a thought the 
wrong way, peculiar to the poet; he 
makes meny orer it with his witty and 
sarcastic compeer, Horace Walpole, who 
pronounces it ' a picture of 0<ddsmith'8 
whole life.' Dr. Johnson alone, when he 
hears it bandied about as Goldsmith's last 
blunder, growls forth a fiiendly defense : 
* Sir,' said he, ' it was a mere blunder in 
emphasiB. He meant to say, I wonder 
they should use Malagrida as a term of 
reproach.' Poor Goldsmith ! On such 
points he was ever doomed to be misin- 
terpreted." W. Irving, 

Mal'^grow^€B$r. 1. (Sir Mun'go.) 
An old courtier in Sir Walter Scott's 
novel J "The Fortunes of Nigel." 
" He IS a man of birth and talents, 
but naturally unamiable, and soured 
by misfortune, who' now, mutilated 
by accident, and grown old, and deaf, 
and peevish, endeavors by the un- 
sparing exercise of a malicious pene- 
tration and a caustic wit, under the 
protection of his bodily infirmities, 
to retaliate on an unfriendly world, 
and to reduce its happier inhabitants 
to a momentary level with himself." 

2. (Mal'$HBhl.) A nom de plume 
used by Sir Walter Scott as the sig- 
nature of several letters written by 
him to the Edinburgh "Weekly 
Journal" in 1826, in opposition to 
the proposition in the British parlia- 
ment to restrict the circulation of 
bank-notes of less than five pounds 
value in Scotland. 

MSr "These diatribes produced In 
Scotland a sensation not perhaps inferior 
to that of the Drapier's letters in Ire- 
land ; a greater one, certainly, than any 
political tract had excited in the British 
public at large since the appearance of 
Burice's * Reflections on the French Revo- 
lution.' " Loekhart. 

For the ** Kaj to the Scheme of Fnmimciation,** with the aceompaaying Eyplanationt, 





JCal't-prop, Mrs. A character in 
Sheridan's comedy of " The Rivals," 
noted for her blunders in the use of 
words. The name is obviously de- 
rived from the French malapropos, 
unapt, iU-timed. 

4G^ ** Mrs. Malaprop's mistakes In 
what she herself calls ' orfhodoiqr ' have 
been (rftea olijected to as improbable from 
a iromsn in her rank of life ; but though 
some of them, it must be owned, are ex- 
travagant and flueiokl, they are almost 
all amusing ; and the luckiness of her 
simile, * as headstrong as an aUegory on 
the banks of the Nile,^ wiU be acknowl- 
edged as long as there are writers to be 
run away with by the willfulness of this 
truly ' headstroQg ' speeies <tf composi- 
tion." T. Moore. 

The concltuion drawn wu. that ChUde 
Harold, Byron, and the Count in Beppo, are 
one and the lame penon, thereby makmK me 
tnm out to be, as Jfiv. Malaprup sayi, *<^like 
Cerberus, three gentlemen at once." Byron. 

Mal-beo'oo. A character in Spen- 
ser's " Faery Queen" (B. III., c 9, 
10), designed to represent the self- 
inMcted torments endured by him 

** Who dotes, yet donbtsi suspects, yet fondly 

The ridbt could jealous pangs begnUc* 
And charm Momeeco^a cares awhile. 

Sir W. SeoU. 

Malcolm (m&Pkum). A son of Dun- 
can, in Shakespeare's tragedy of 
" Macbeth." 

Malebolge (mtr^lft-boPji). A name 
^ven by Dante to the eighth circle 
m his " Inferno," from the ten " evil " 
" Mgi" or pits, which it contains. 

SCal-ToOi-o. Steward to Olivia, in 
Shakespeare's " Twelfth Night." 

Jt^ ** MalTolio is not essentially ludi- 
crous. He becomes comic but by accident. 
He is cold, austere, repelling, but dignified, 
consistent, and, for what appears, rather 
of an orerstretched morality. ... He is 
opposed to the proper levities of the piece, 
and falls in the unequal contest. Still his 
pride, or his grayity (call it which you 
will), ia inherent, and natire to the man, 
not mock or afEacted, wUch latter only 
are the fit ol^ects to excite laughter. His 
quality is, at the best, unlorely, but 
neither buflBoon nor contemptible. . . . 
His dialect, on all occasions, is that of a 
gentleman and a man of education. We 
must not conlbund him ^h the eternal, 
old, low steward of comedy. He is master 
of the household to a great princess, — a 
dignity, probably, conferred upon him 

for other respeets than age or length of ■ 

service." Chariet lamb. 

Four of the duke's friends, with the obedient 
start which poor Malvolio ascribes to his im- 
aginary retinue, made out to lead the Tictor to 
hu presence. Sir W. Scott, 

Clearing his voice with a preliminaxy hem, 
he addrened his kinsman, checking, as Mair' 
voHo proposed to do when -seated in nis state, 
his fkmiflar smile with an austere regard ot 
GontroL Sir W. Scott, 

We fools of flmcy, who suifer ourselves, Uke 
MaivoUOy to be cheated with our own visions, 
have, nevertheless, this advantage over the 
wise ones of the earth, that we have our whole 
stock of exuoyments under our own com mand, 
and can dish for ourselves an intellectual bui- 
guet with most moduate assistance from ex- 
ternal obgects. Sir W. ScoU, 

Mamamouohi (mft'mft/moo'she'). A 

knight of an ima^pnar}* order, of 

which M. Jourdain, in MoU^re'a 

comedy, " Le Bourgeois Gentil- 

homme," is persuaded that the grand 

seignior has made him a member, 

and into which he is inducted by the 

ceremony of a mock installation. 

All the women most devoutly swear. 
Each would be rather a poor actrera here. 
Than to be made a JfimomoMdUthere. 


Mambrino (mftm-bre'no). A Moor- 
ish king, in the romantic poems of 
Bojardo and Ariosto. who was the 

Possessor of an encnanted golden 
elmet, which rendered the wearer 
invulnerable, and which was the ob- 
ject of eager quest to the paladins 
of Charlemagne. This helmet was 
. borne away by the knight Rinaldo. 
It owes its celebrity, in a great meas- 
ure, to the mention which is made of 
it by Cervantes, in " Don Quixote,'* 
where the crazy knight of that name 
is represented as fully believing that 
he had found it in what was in real- 
ity nothing but a copper basin, high- 
ly polished, which a barber, on his 
way to bleed a patient, had put on 
his'head to protect a new hat during 
a shower. 

Like some enchanted J6*mtnino'$ helmet. 


But the 'War* [between diaries VI., em- 
peror of Germany, and Philip V., king of 
Spain, 1718-20], except that many men were 
killed in it, and much vain babble was uttered 
upon it, ranks otherwise with that of Don 

Suixote for conquest of the enchanted helmet 
' Mambrino, which, when looked into, proved 
to be a barber's badn. Carlyle. 

Ifift-xnaOi-us. A 


ui-inu'U-us. A young pnnce ot 
dicilia, in Slmkespeare's "Winter's 

and tn the Bemarks and Boles to which tiie nmnbezs after certain words .refer, see pp. xir-zzxii. 



230 MAK 

fm^. A Syriac word used in i 
the Scnptnies to signify either riches 
or the god of riches. 'By poetic li- 
cense, Milton makes Mammon one 
of the fallen angels, and portrays his 
character in the following lines : — 

Mammon^ the leaat erected spirit that fell 
From heaven; ibr even in neaven his looki 

and thoughts 
Were always downwaid bent; admiring more 
The riches of heaven's pavement, trodden 

Than audit divine or holy else enjoyed 
In vision Deatiflc: by him first 
Men, also, and by his suggestion taught, 
Bansacked the center, and with impious 

Bifled the bowels of their mother earth 
For treasures better hid. Far. Lost, Bk. L 

Wierus, in his account of the infernal 
court of Beelzebub, makes Mammon 
its ambassador in England. Other 
mediaeval demonographers placed 
him at the head of me ninth rank of 
demons, of which they reckoned nine 
Mammon, Gave of. See Cave of 

Mam'mdn, Sir lESpioure. A world- 
ly sensuidist, in Ben Jonson's play, 
^'^ The Alchemist." 

Sir E/ncure did not indulge in visions moro 
magnificent and gigantic [than Bacon]. 


Manoliester ICassaore. See Peter- 
loo, Field of. 

Manoliester Poet. An appellation 

given to Charles Swain (b. 1803), an 
nglish poet, and a native of Man- 

Mandane (mo^Mftn', 62). The heroine 
of Mme. Scudery^s romance entitled 
"Artamanes, ou Le Grand Cyrus." 

Mandricardo (m&n-dre-kafMo). A 
Saracen warrior in Bojardo's *' Or- 
lando Innamorato," son of Agricane, 
and emperor of Tartary. He figures 
also in Ariosto's " Orlando Furioso " 
and other romantic poems and tales 
of tile Carlovingian cycle. 

Ma'ndg. [Lat., the good or benevolent 
ones.] {Rom. Myth.) The deified 
souls of the departed, worshiped with 
divine honors. 

Man'fred. The hero of Byron's drama 
of the same name; represented as 
a being estranged from all human 
creatures, indifferent to all human 

sympathies, and dwelling in the 
magnificent solitude of tiie central 
Alps, where he holds communion 
only wit|i the spirits he invokes by 
his sorceries, and with the fearM 
memory of tiie being he has loved 
and destroyed. 

Man in Black. 1. A character in 
Goldsmith's ** Citizen of tiie World," 
supposed to be, in its main features, 
a portrait of Goldsmith's father. 

'^ A most delightful compound iA 
the ' Man in Black ; ' a rarity not to be 
met with often : a true oddity, with the 
tongpie of Timon and the heiurt of Uncle 
Toby. He proclaims war against pauper- 
ism, yet he cannot say ' No ' to a b^gar. 
He ridicules generosity, yet would he 
share with the poor whatever he pos- 
sessed." Henry Chiles. 

2. The subject of a tale by Wash- 
ington Irving. 

Man In the Moon. A name popu- 
lariy given to the dark lines and 
spots upon the surface of the moon 
which are visible to the naked eye, 
and which, when examined with a 
good telescope, are discovered to be 
the shadows of lunar mountains. It 
is one of the most popular, and 
perhaps one of the most ancient, 
superstitions in the world, that these 
lines and spots are the figure of a 
man leaning on a fork, on which he 
carries a bundle of thorns or brush- 
wood, for stealing which on a Sunday 
he was confined in the moon. (See 
Shakespeare's *' Midsummer-Night's 
Dream," a. iii., sc. 1, and ** Tempest," 
a. ii., sc. 2.) The accoimt given in 
Numbers xv. 32, et seq.^ of a man 
who was stoned to death for gathering 
sticks upon the Sabbath-day, is un- 
doubtedly the origin of this belief. 

To have a care "lest the chorle 
may &11 out of the moon " appears ftom 
Chaucer's ^'Troilns and Cresseide" to 
haye been a proyerbial expression in his 
time. In the ' ' Testament of Cresseide," 
describing the moon, he informs us that 
she had 

" On her brest a chorle painted fhl even 
Bearinr a biuh of thomefl on hia backe. 
Which for his theft might climb no ner uie 

With the Italians, Cain appears to have 
been the offender. Dante, in the twen- 
tieth canto of the " Inferno," describes 

09* For the *'Key to the Scheme of' Prononciation," with the aecompoiiTing ExpUaations, 




file moon by the periphruis, '* Oaino e le 
gpineJ*^ Th« Jews have some Talmadicid 
•toiy tiiat Jacob is in the moon, and they 
belioTe that his ihce is Tisible. For Ori- 
ental and other traditions, see Grimm, 
** Deutsche Bilythologie," p. 679. 

'^ As for the forme of those spots, 
some of the yulgar thinke they represent 
a man^ and the poets guess 't is the boy 
Xhtdymion^ whose company shee loves so 
well that she earrles him with her ; oth- 
ers will have it onelr to be the fitce of a 
man, as the moon is nsnally pictured ; 
but Albertus thinkes rather that it rep- 
resents a /yon, with his tail toward the 
east and his head to the west ; and some 
others hare thought it to be very much 
like a fox; and certainly it is as much 
like a lyon as that in the aodiske, or as 
Ursa Mqjor is like a beare." 

Bp. WUkifiSy Disc, of a New World. 

ICanly. One of the dramatis persona 
in Wycherley'8 "Plain-dealer," de- 
scribed by the author as " of an 
honest, surly, nice humor, supposed 
first in the time of the Dutch War to 
have procured the command of s 
ship, out of honor, not interest, and 
choosing a sea-life only to avoid the 
world." Leigh Hunt characterizes 
him as " a ferocious sensualist, who 
believed himself as great a rascal as 
be thought every body else." 

SQ-noll. A fabulous city of great 
size, wealth, and population, in £1 
Dorado, on the west shore of Lake 
Parime, and at the mouth of a great 
river which empties into this Take. 
The houses were said to be covered 
with plates of gold. 

49* ^* This &ble began to gain credit 
in 1534, and many were the stories in- 
vented by Juan Martinez, a Spaniard, 
who, among other things, asserted that 
he had lived a long time in the country, 
and that he left it by the permission of the 
chief who commanded it, and who was 
descended from the ancient Incas of Pe- 
ru ; that this same chief gave orders that 
he should be accompanied by Indians till 
he reached the Spanish frontiers ; that 
they took care to lead him blindfold, lest 
lie might observe the way by which to re- 
turn ; with several other things equally 
vague and foolish, but so as to induce, at 
first, many expeditions to this fiUr-repnted 
c\tj at the expense of large sums of money 
and many lives." Alcedo^ IVans. 

Uan of Blkth (2). A surname nven 
to Ralph Allen, the friend of Pope, 

Warboiton. and Fielding, celebrated 
in the well-known lines of the first : — 

** Let humble Allen, with ui awkward ahame. 
Do good by stealth, and blnah to find » 

Man of Blood. An expression whidi 
occurs in the Old Testament (2 Sam. 
xvi. 7), in a marginal note explana- 
tory of the context, and which refers 
in that place to King David. The 
application of the term to any man 
of violence is naturally suggested, 
and it would seem to have been em- 
ployed by the Puritans in reference 
to Charles I. It was also popularly 
given to Thomas Simmons, an Eng- 
lish murderer, executed at Hertfora, 
March 7, 1808. 

And the Man of BJood waa there, with hia 

lonff, esaenced hair. 
And ABtley. and 8ur Maxmadnke, and Bu- 

pert of the Bhhie. MacauUxif, 

Man of Destiny. An appellation con- 
ferred on Napoleon Bonaparte, who 
believed himself to be a chosen in- 
strument of Destiny, and that his 
actions were govemea by some occult 
and supernatural influence. 

The head tit the royal honiie of Savoj . . . 
was to have the melancholy experience that 
he had encountered with the Man ofDestiny^ 
. . . who, fbr a time, had power, in the em- 
phatic phraae of Scripture, "to bind kines 
with chahia, and noUea with fttters of iron. 

Sir W. Scott, 

Man of Feeling. The title of a novel, 
by Heniy Mackenzie (1745-1831), 
designed to characterize the hero, 
Harley, and often applied to him as a 
descriptive epithet. It is also fre- 
quently used as a sobriquet to desig- 
nate the author. See Harley. 

The wonder rather la, that the Man of Feel- 
ing should nerer have been moved to mirth, 
than that Uncle Toby should hare bruahed 
away hia tean with a langh. H. Martineaiu 

Man of Boss. John Kyrle, a private 
gentleman of small fortune (1664- 
1754), who resided in ^e parish of 
Ross, county of Hereford, England, 
and who was distlncpished for his 
benevolence and public spirit Pope 
has immortalized him in nis " Moral 
Essays," **EpisUe Third." " On the 
Use of Riches." The title " Man of 
Ross " was given to him in his life- 
time by a country friend; and Mr. 
Kyrlc is said to have been highly 
pleased with the appellation. 

ukd tbr the Renuuka and Rulea to which the nmnbera after certain worda refer, lee pp. ziv-: 





Kehw than mber o'er his eottntten honrds, 
Nobler than kings, or kinf-^Uuted lords, , 
Here dwelt the Man ctrHonl O traveler, 

Departed merit claims a reverent tear. 


Man of Sin. A designation occurring 
in the New Testament (2 Tkui. ii. 3), 
respecting the meaning of which com- 
mentators are at variance. Whitby 
says the Jewish nation is intended. 
Grotius affirms the reference to be to 
Cains Cftsarf or Caligula. Wetstein 
understands by it Titus and the 
Flavian house. Others, as Olshausen, 
suppose it to mean some one who 
has not yet appear^, in whom all 
the characteristics specified will be 
united. Roman Catnolics apply the 
term to Antichrist, while most Prot- 
estants apply it to the Pope of Rome. 
The Fifth - Monarchy men called 
Cromwell the " Man of Sin." 

The aeal of your Majesty toward the house 
of God doth not slack or go backward, but is 
more and more kindled, manifesting itself 
abroad in the fhrthest parts of Christendom, 
by writing in defense of the truth, which hath 
given such a blow unto that Man of Sin as 
will not be healed. TranOatora qfute Bible. 

Man of the People. A title popularlv 
given by his contemporaries and ad- 
mirers to Charles James Fox (1749- 
1806), a celebrated English states- 

Man of the Sea, Old. See Old Man 

OP THE Sea. 

Man't(-li'nt. A cockney fop of ex- 
travagant habits, maintained bv his 
wife, in Dickens's novel of ^' Nicholas 

Yet a gentleman of Mr. Chaiies Knight's 
tsste and sympathetic appreciation of Shake- 
speare, editine his works in the middle of 
the nineteenth century, em perpetuate the